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Sample records for short-arm crescentic shelf

  1. Cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia in a child with a partial monosomy for the short arm of chromosome 5 and partial trisomy for the short arm of chromosome 10

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, W F M; Hofstee, Y; Drejer, G F; Beverstock, G C; Oosterwijk, J C

    A child with hypoplasia of the cerebellum and brainstem in association with an unbalanced translocation, resulting in a partial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 5 and a partial trisomy of the short arm of chromosome 10, is described. A balanced translocation was present in his mother and

  2. A genetic linkage map of the chromosome 4 short arm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locke, P.A.; MacDonald, M.E.; Srinidhi, J.; Tanzi, R.E.; Haines, J.L. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States)); Gilliam, T.C. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States)); Conneally, P.M. (Indiana Univ. Medical Center, Indianapolis (United States)); Wexler, N.S. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States) Hereditary Disease Foundation, Santa Monica, CA (United States)); Gusella, J.F. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston (United States) Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The authors have generated an 18-interval contiguous genetic linkage map of human chromosome 4 spanning the entire short arm and proximal long arm. Fifty-seven polymorphisms, representing 42 loci, were analyzed in the Venezuelan reference pedigree. The markers included seven genes (ADRA2C, ALB, GABRB1, GC, HOX7, IDUA, QDPR), one pseudogene (RAF1P1), and 34 anonymous DNA loci. Four loci were represented by microsatellite polymorphisms and one (GC) was expressed as a protein polymorphism. The remainder were genotyped based on restriction fragment length polymorphism. The sex-averaged map covered 123 cM. Significant differences in sex-specific rates of recombination were observed only in the pericentromeric and proximal long arm regions, but these contributed to different overall map lengths of 115 cM in males and 138 cM in females. This map provides 19 reference points along chromosome 4 that will be particularly useful in anchoring and seeding physical mapping studies and in aiding in disease studies. 26 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  3. Cardio-postural interactions and short-arm centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, Andrew; Goswami, Nandu; Xu, Da; Laurin, Alexendre

    INTRODUCTION: We are interested in mechanisms associated with orthostatic tolerance. In previous studies we have shown that postural muscles in the calf contribute to both posture and blood pressure regulation during orthostatic stress. In this study we investigated the relationship between cardiovascular and postural muscle control before, during and after short arm human centrifuge (SAHC) up to 2.2 G. METHODS: Eleven healthy young subjects (6 m, 5 f), with no history of cardiovascular disease, falls or orthostatic hypotension, participated. All were familiarized with the SAHC with 10 minutes at 1-G at the feet. Each subject was instrumented in the supine position on the SAHC for beat-to-beat ECG and blood pressure (Portapres derived SBP). Bilateral lower leg EMG was collected from four leg postural muscles: tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, lateral gastrocnemius, and medial soleus. Transdermal differential recording of signals was performed using an 8-channel EMG system, (Myosystem 1200, Noraxon Inc., Arizona, USA). Postural sway data of the body COP was computed from the force and moment data collected with a force platform (Accusway, AMTI, MA, USA). Before and after SAHC, the subject stood on a force platform with their gaze fixed on a point at eye level, closed their eyes and stood quietly for 5 min. A final stand was conducted 30 min after centrifugation with supine rest in between. During clockwise centrifugation (10-min 1g and 10-min 2.2g at the foot) the subjects’ head was hooded and in the dark. The subject’s body was restrained into the rotation arm with a parachute harness and given additional body support with a foot-plate. ECG, EMG and BP data were collected throughout and centre of pressure trajectory (COP) collected during the stand test. Subjects were requested to relax and not to voluntarily contract the leg muscles; however, they were not to suppress contractions as they occurred involuntarily or by reflex. A Continuous Wavelet

  4. Chromosome 2 short arm translocations revealed by M-FISH analysis of neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Roy, N; Van Limbergen, H; Vandesompele, J; Van Gele, M; Poppe, B; Laureys, G; De Paepe, A; Speleman, F

    2000-12-01

    M-FISH analysis was performed on 18 neuroblastoma cell lines, which were previously studied with cytogenetic, standard FISH and CGH data. One of the most striking findings of this study was the detection of chromosome 2 short arm rearrangements in 61% of the investigated cell lines. These rearrangements resulted from translocations with various partner chromosomes. All translocations, except one were unbalanced, leading to the consistent gain of chromosome segment 2pter-p22. A cryptic balanced translocation t(2;4) was observed with a breakpoint located in the vicinity of MYCN in cell line NBL-S. Combination of M-FISH results together with cytogenetic, standard FISH and CGH data yielded the most comprehensive description of chromosome 2 short arm rearrangements, leading to a consistent gain of chromosome 2 short arm material. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training improves cardiovascular function and physical working capacity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Bin; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Bing; Yao, Yong-Jie; Wang, Yong-Chun; Wu, Yan-Hong; Liang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning occurring in long-term spaceflight gives rise to the needs to develop new strategies to counteract these adverse effects. Short-arm centrifuge combined with ergometer has been proposed as a strategy to counteract adverse effects of microgravity. This study sought to investigate whether the combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training have advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone. One week training was conducted by 24 healthy men. They were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) short-arm centrifuge training, (2) aerobic exercise training, 40 W, and (3) combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training. Before and after training, the cardiac pump function represented by stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular ejection time, and total peripheral resistance was evaluated. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure were determined by spectral analysis. Physical working capacity was surveyed by near maximal physical working capacity test. The 1-week combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training remarkably ameliorated the cardiac pump function and enhanced vasomotor sympathetic nerve modulation and improved physical working capacity by 10.9% (Pcentrifuge nor the aerobic exercise group showed improvements in these functions. These results demonstrate that combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training has advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone in influencing several physiologically important cardiovascular functions in humans. The combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise offers a promising countermeasure to microgravity.

  6. Deletion of short arm of chromosome 18, Del(18p syndrome

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    Prashant Babaji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deletion of the short arm of chromosome 18 is a rare syndrome clinically presenting with variable mental retardation, growth retardation, low height, pectus excavatum, craniofacial malformations including long ear, ptosis, microcephaly and short neck. This case report presents with characteristic features along with rare feature of single nostril.

  7. Feasibility of a Short-Arm Centrifuge for Mouse Hypergravity Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Hironobu; Obata, Koji; Abe, Chikara; Shiba, Dai; Shirakawa, Masaki; Kudo, Takashi; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the pure impact of microgravity on small mammals despite uncontrolled factors that exist in the International Space Station, it is necessary to construct a 1 g environment in space. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a novel mouse habitat cage unit that can be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility in the Kibo module of the International Space Station. The Cell Biology Experiment Facility has a short-arm centrifuge to produce artificial 1 g gravity in space for mouse experiments. However, the gravitational gradient formed inside the rearing cage is larger when the radius of gyration is shorter; this may have some impact on mice. Accordingly, biological responses to hypergravity induced by a short-arm centrifuge were examined and compared with those induced by a long-arm centrifuge. Hypergravity induced a significant Fos expression in the central nervous system, a suppression of body mass growth, an acute and transient reduction in food intake, and impaired vestibulomotor coordination. There was no difference in these responses between mice raised in a short-arm centrifuge and those in a long-arm centrifuge. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a short-arm centrifuge for mouse experiments.

  8. Feasibility of a Short-Arm Centrifuge for Mouse Hypergravity Experiments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironobu Morita

    Full Text Available To elucidate the pure impact of microgravity on small mammals despite uncontrolled factors that exist in the International Space Station, it is necessary to construct a 1 g environment in space. The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed a novel mouse habitat cage unit that can be installed in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility in the Kibo module of the International Space Station. The Cell Biology Experiment Facility has a short-arm centrifuge to produce artificial 1 g gravity in space for mouse experiments. However, the gravitational gradient formed inside the rearing cage is larger when the radius of gyration is shorter; this may have some impact on mice. Accordingly, biological responses to hypergravity induced by a short-arm centrifuge were examined and compared with those induced by a long-arm centrifuge. Hypergravity induced a significant Fos expression in the central nervous system, a suppression of body mass growth, an acute and transient reduction in food intake, and impaired vestibulomotor coordination. There was no difference in these responses between mice raised in a short-arm centrifuge and those in a long-arm centrifuge. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using a short-arm centrifuge for mouse experiments.

  9. An integrated physical map of 210 markers assigned to the short arm of human chromosome 11

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Redeker, E.; Hoovers, J. M.; Alders, M.; van Moorsel, C. J.; Ivens, A. C.; Gregory, S.; Kalikin, L.; Bliek, J.; de Galan, L.; van den Bogaard, R.; Visser, J.; van der Voort, R.; Feinberg, A. P.; Little, P. F. R.; Westerveld, A.; Mannens, M.

    1994-01-01

    Using a panel of patient cell lines with chromosomal breakpoints, we constructed a physical map for the short arm of human chromosome 11. We focused on 11p15, a chromosome band harboring at least 25 known genes and associated with the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, several childhood tumors, and

  10. Assignment of the Nance-Horan syndrome to the distal short arm of the X chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D; Alcorn, D M; Antonarakis, S E; Levin, L S; Huang, P C; Mitchell, T N; Warren, A C; Maumenee, I H

    1990-11-01

    There are three types of X-linked cataracts recorded in Mendelian Inheritance in Man (McKusick 1988): congenital total, with posterior sutural opacities in heterozygotes; congenital, with microcornea or slight microphthalmia; and the cataract-dental syndrome or Nance-Horan (NH) syndrome. To identify a DNA marker close to the gene responsible for the NH syndrome, linkage analysis on 36 members in a three-generation pedigree including seven affected males and nine carrier females was performed using 31 DNA markers. A LOD score of 1.662 at theta = 0.16 was obtained with probe 782 from locus DXS85 on Xp22.2-p22.3. Negative LOD scores were found at six loci on the short arm, one distal to DXS85, five proximal, and six probes spanning the long arm were highly negative. These results make the assignment of the locus for NH to the distal end of the short arm of the X chromosome likely.

  11. Sequence composition and gene content of the short arm of rye (Secale cereale chromosome 1.

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    Silvia Fluch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The purpose of the study is to elucidate the sequence composition of the short arm of rye chromosome 1 (Secale cereale with special focus on its gene content, because this portion of the rye genome is an integrated part of several hundreds of bread wheat varieties worldwide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multiple Displacement Amplification of 1RS DNA, obtained from flow sorted 1RS chromosomes, using 1RS ditelosomic wheat-rye addition line, and subsequent Roche 454FLX sequencing of this DNA yielded 195,313,589 bp sequence information. This quantity of sequence information resulted in 0.43× sequence coverage of the 1RS chromosome arm, permitting the identification of genes with estimated probability of 95%. A detailed analysis revealed that more than 5% of the 1RS sequence consisted of gene space, identifying at least 3,121 gene loci representing 1,882 different gene functions. Repetitive elements comprised about 72% of the 1RS sequence, Gypsy/Sabrina (13.3% being the most abundant. More than four thousand simple sequence repeat (SSR sites mostly located in gene related sequence reads were identified for possible marker development. The existence of chloroplast insertions in 1RS has been verified by identifying chimeric chloroplast-genomic sequence reads. Synteny analysis of 1RS to the full genomes of Oryza sativa and Brachypodium distachyon revealed that about half of the genes of 1RS correspond to the distal end of the short arm of rice chromosome 5 and the proximal region of the long arm of Brachypodium distachyon chromosome 2. Comparison of the gene content of 1RS to 1HS barley chromosome arm revealed high conservation of genes related to chromosome 5 of rice. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed the gene content and potential gene functions on this chromosome arm and demonstrated numerous sequence elements like SSRs and gene-related sequences, which can be utilised for future research as well as in breeding of wheat and rye.

  12. Allelic loss of the short arm of chromosome 4 in neuroblastoma suggests a novel tumour suppressor gene locus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caron, H.; van Sluis, P.; Buschman, R.; Pereira do Tanque, R.; Maes, P.; Beks, L.; de Kraker, J.; Voûte, P. A.; Vergnaud, G.; Westerveld, A.; Slater, R.; Versteeg, R.

    1996-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is a childhood neural crest tumour, genetically characterized by frequent deletions of the short arm of chromosome 1 and amplification of N-myc. Here we report the first evidence for a neuroblastoma tumour suppressor locus on 4pter. Cytogenetically we demonstrated rearrangements of 4p

  13. Regional localization of DNA probes on the short arm of chromosome 11 using aniridia-Wilms' tumor-associated deletions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mannens, M.; Slater, R. M.; Heyting, C.; Geurts van Kessel, A.; Goedde-Salz, E.; Frants, R. R.; van Ommen, G. J.; Pearson, P. L.

    1987-01-01

    We are interested in the precise localization of various DNA probes on the short arm of chromosome 11 for our research on the aniridia-Wilms' tumor association (AWTA), assigned to region 11p13 (Knudson and Strong 1972; Riccardi et al. 1978). For this purpose we have screened lymphocyte DNA and

  14. Dissection of QTLs for Hull Silicon Content on the Short Arm of Rice Chromosome 6

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    Ji-rong WU

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The QTL qHUS6 for hull silicon content in rice was previously located on the short arm of rice chromosome 6. By using an F2:3 population segregating in the RM587–RM19784 region harboring qHUS6 in an isogenic background, two QTLs for hull silicon content were detected, of which qHUS6-1 was located in the distal region and qHUS6-2 in the region proximal to the centromere. Three rice plants carrying small heterozygous segments in the target region were selected, of which two covered the qHUS6-1 region and the other covered the qHUS6-2 region. Three F2:3 populations were derived from the selfed seeds of the three plants, respectively. QTL mapping was performed using the two populations segregating in the qHUS6-1 region, and qHUS6-1 was delimited to a 147.0-kb region flanked by the markers RM510 and RM19417. Five groups of F3 lines with different genotypic compositions in the qHUS6-2 region were selected from the other F2:3 population. Two QTLs were separated with two-way ANOVA, of which qHUS6-2a was located in the interval defined by RM19706–RM19795 and qHUS6-2b in the interval RM314–RM19665.

  15. Hypertensive Cerebral Hemorrhage in a Patient with Turner Syndrome Caused by Deletion in the Short Arm of the X Chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Yusuke S; Ohkura, Takahiro; Ebisudani, Yuki; Umakoshi, Michiari; Ishi, Masato; Oda, Kazunori; Aoi, Mizuho; Inoue, Takushi; Furujo, Mahoko; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Fukuhara, Toru

    2018-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disorder usually caused by complete deletion of an X chromosome, with deletion in the short arm of the X chromosome being a rare cause of the condition. Patients with Turner syndrome commonly develop hypertension, and associated vascular complications such as aortic dissection or cerebral hemorrhage have been reported. Cerebral hemorrhage in Turner syndrome is a rare complication, and only a few reports have been published. In these reports, all patients have XO karyotypes or a mosaic type as the cause of Turner syndrome, while no other Turner syndrome types have been documented. In this report, we present for the first time a patient with Turner syndrome caused by deletion in the short arm of the X chromosome who experienced hypertensive hemorrhage as a late complication. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. 8A.03: CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF HEMODYNAMICS IN THE SHORT ARM HUMAN CENTRIFUGE: A FEASIBILITY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono, F; Uytterhaegen, B; Kassel, R; Vanraemdonck, R; Beck, A; Comet, B; Runge, A; Segers, P

    2015-06-01

    The aim was to test the technical feasibility of a set up combining tonometry and ultrasound, designated as Continuous Physiological and Medical Monitoring (CPMM), for cardiovascular assessment on humans and to evaluate the ability to assess physiological changes induced by artificial gravity in the short arm human centrifuge (SAHC, Verhaert, Belgium) for detecting and preventing potential disorders induced by weightlessness. The project was developed under an European Space Agency (ESA) contract (4000101988/10/NL/EM) and with its support, by the company Verhaert in consortium with the Institute for Space Medicine and Physiology (MEDES) and Ghent University. Measurements were performed at MEDES facilities in 4 young (presumably) healthy volunteers (3 males). For two volunteers, the protocol was divided in three periods: acceleration, steady rotation velocity and deceleration, obtaining carotid pulsed wave (PW)-Mode ultrasound sequences. For another volunteer (female), carotid PW-Mode ultrasound images and brachial and radial tonometry signals were acquired at baseline and during steady rotation. For the fourth volunteer, carotid and femoral PW-Mode ultrasound images and brachial, radial and carotid tonometry signals were acquired at baseline and during an initial (velocity1) and a following faster (velocity2) rotation velocity (see figure on the following page). Carotid PW-Mode ultrasound imaging was obtained in all 4 volunteers during different steps of the protocol. Femoral ultrasound imaging presented more difficulties related mainly to the placement of the probe after baseline, even if in one case results were feasible. Tonometry was, generally, a bigger challenge due to the intrinsic sensitivity of the method. Overall, radial artery tonometry provided the best results, while brachial artery results were acceptable only in one occasion. Carotid tonometry was measured only for one subject with suitable results for processing. Tonometry measurements were feasible

  17. 'Crescent'-shaped tokamak for compact ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Reiersen, W.T.

    1985-12-01

    A compact high-beta tokamak configuration with ''crescent''-shaped (or ''boomerang''-shaped) cross-section is proposed as a next-generation ignition machine. This configuration with a small indentation but a large triangularity is more compact than the normal dee-shaped design because of its high-beta characteristics in the first-second transition regime of stability. This may also be a more reliable next-generation compact device than the bean-shaped design with large indentation and small triangularity, because this design dose not rely on the second stability and is easily extendable from the present dee-shaped design. (author)

  18. 'Crescent'-shaped tokamak for compact ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Reiersen, W.T.

    1986-01-01

    A compact high-beta tokamak configuration with ''crescent''-shaped (or ''boomerang''-shaped) cross section is proposed as a next-generation ignition machine. This configuration with a small indentation but a large triangularity is more compact than the normal dee-shaped design because of its high-beta characteristics in the first-second transition regime of stability. This may also be a more reliable next-generation compact device than the bean-shaped design with large indentation and small triangularity, because this design does not rely on the second stability and is easily extendable from the present dee-shaped design. (author)

  19. Hypocomplementemic Urticarial Vasculitis Syndrome With Crescentic Glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, Sohail Abdul; Yousuf, Tauqeer; Patel, Asha; Fülöp, Tibor; Agarwal, Mohit

    2018-02-01

    Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome (HUVS) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by multiple organ system involvement, including renal disease, with low complement levels. We report the case of a 31-year-old woman who presented with nonspecific symptoms including fatigue, diarrhea, macular rash and abdominal pain with acute renal failure leading to end-stage kidney disease. Laboratory results showed hematuria, nephrotic range proteinuria, worsening creatinine and low C1q levels. Left kidney biopsy showed proliferative glomerulonephritis with crescent formation. She was treated with 6 months of intravenous cyclophosphamide, followed by 2 doses of intravenous rituximab (1g each), thereafter maintained on mycophenolate mofetil and glucocorticoid-based therapy. She experienced a full recovery of renal function after 12 months of dialysis dependence. Hypocomplementemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome with crescentic glomerulonephritis is a rare disease with only 5 other reported cases in literature. In our case, we document a delayed but excellent renal recovery during a 2-year follow-up. Copyright © 2018 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Cetuximab-Associated Crescentic Diffuse Proliferative Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukesh Manthri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cetuximab-induced nephrotoxicity is very rare, occurring in less than 1% of colorectal cancer patients and not defined in other populations. We report a rare case of crescentic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (GN that developed in close temporal association with cetuximab treatment. A 65-year-old female recently completed chemotherapy with cetuximab treatment for moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma. She was admitted with acute renal failure and nephrotic-range proteinuria. Laboratory data showed serum creatinine of 6.6 mg/dl and urinalysis showed proteinuria, moderate hemoglobinuria, hyaline casts (41/LPF, WBC (28/HPF, and RBC (81/HPF. Serologic studies were negative for ANA, anti-GBM, ANCA, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. Serum C3 and C4 level were normal. Renal biopsy showed crescentic diffuse proliferative GN with focal features of thrombotic microangiopathy. Patient was started on cyclophosphamide and steroids. Her renal function did not improve on day 8 and she was started on hemodialysis. Previous reports suggest that EGFR-targeting medications can possibly trigger or exacerbate an IgA-mediated glomerular process leading to renal failure. This case suggests that cetuximab therapy may have triggered or exacerbated a severe glomerular injury with an unfavorable outcome. Treating physicians should maintain a high degree of caution and monitor renal function in patients on EGFR inhibitors.

  1. Human cardiovascular and vestibular responses in long minutes and low +Gz loading by a short arm centrifuge

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    Yajima, K.; Miyamoto, A.; Ito, M.; Maru, R.; Maeda, T.; Sanada, E.; Nakazato, T.; Saiki, C.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Igarashi, M.; Matsumoto, S.

    1.4 G, 1.7 G, and 2.0 G of +Gz and 60 minutes centrifugation was adopted to 20 healthy male subjects using 1.8 m radius centrifuge equipped to Nihon University School of Medicine. G was applied from lower G, considering G training effect for the subjects. Effects on performance decline and side effects of such a short-arm centrifugation were especially observed in the experiments, because this size of centrifuge could be used in space station in future for a strong countermeasure of cardiovascular deconditioning, demineralization from bone, etc. G training effect was observed same as higher and rapid G acceleration in fighter pilot. Subjects suffered from many types of discomfort; such as sensation of heaviness of diaphragm, cold sweat, nausea, irritable feeling, arrhythmia, tachycardia, rapid decrease of blood pressure, which sometimes caused interruption of G load. As 2.0 G and 60 minutes centrifugation seemed very tough load to the subjects, there should be necessary some G suit or other countermeasure, if we apply a higher G and/or longer G duration. Performance decline due to the load commonly continued for 1 hour or so. Side effects were observed in relation to neuro-vestibular, cardio-vascular, and autonomic nervous system.

  2. Microvascular responses to (hyper-)gravitational stress by short-arm human centrifuge: arteriolar vasoconstriction and venous pooling.

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    Habazettl, H; Stahn, Alexander; Nitsche, Andrea; Nordine, Michael; Pries, A R; Gunga, H-C; Opatz, O

    2016-01-01

    We hypothesized that lower body microvessels are particularly challenged during exposure to gravity and hypergravity leading to failure of resistance vessels to withstand excessive transmural pressure during hypergravitation and gravitation-dependent microvascular blood pooling. Using a short-arm human centrifuge (SAHC), 12 subjects were exposed to +1Gz, +2Gz and +1Gz, all at foot level, for 4 min each. Laser Doppler imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy were used to measure skin perfusion and tissue haemoglobin concentrations, respectively. Pretibial skin perfusion decreased by 19% during +1Gz and remained at this level during +2Gz. In the dilated area, skin perfusion increased by 24 and 35% during +1Gz and +2Gz, respectively. In the upper arm, oxygenated haemoglobin (Hb) decreased, while deoxy Hb increased with little change in total Hb. In the calf muscle, O2Hb and deoxy Hb increased, resulting in total Hb increase by 7.5 ± 1.4 and 26.6 ± 2.6 µmol/L at +1Gz and +2Gz, respectively. The dynamics of Hb increase suggests a fast and a slow component. Despite transmural pressures well beyond the upper myogenic control limit, intact lower body resistance vessels withstand these pressures up to +2Gz, suggesting that myogenic control may contribute only little to increased vascular resistance. The fast component of increasing total Hb indicates microvascular blood pooling contributing to soft tissue capacitance. Future research will have to address possible alterations of these acute adaptations to gravity after deconditioning by exposure to micro-g.

  3. Induction of anchorage-independent growth of human embryonic fibroblasts with a deletion in the short arm of chromosome 11 by human papillomavirus type 16 DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smits, H.L.; Raadsheer, E.; Rood, I.; Mehendale, S.; Slater, R.M.; van der Noordaa, J.; Ter Schegget, J.

    1988-01-01

    Human embryonic fibroblasts with a large deletion (11p11.11p15.1) in the short arm of one chromosome 11 (del-11 cells) appeared to be susceptible to transformation by early human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) DNA, whereas diploid human embryonic fibroblasts were not. This difference in susceptibility might be explained by the absence of a tumor suppressor gene located within the deleted part on the short arm of chromosome 11. The presence of abundant viral early-gene transcripts in transformed cells suggests that transformation was induced by an elevated level of an HPV-16 early-gene product(s). The low transcriptional activity of HPV-16 in diploid cells may indicate that cellular genes affect viral transcription. Interruption of the HPV-16 E2 early open reading frame is probably required for high-level HPV-16 early-gene expression driven from the homologous enhancer-promoter region

  4. Crescent City, California Tsunami Forecast Grids for MOST Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Crescent City, California Forecast Model Grids provides bathymetric data strictly for tsunami inundation modeling with the Method of Splitting Tsunami (MOST)...

  5. Crescent City, California 1 arc-second DEM

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1-second Crescent City, California Elevation Grid provides bathymetric data in ASCII raster format of 1-second resolution in geographic coordinates. This grid is...

  6. Crescentic glomerulonephritis in a polar bear (Ursus maritimus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Hiroshi; Kudo, Tomoo; Makino, Yoshinori; Mochizuki, Yasumasa; Takagi, Takayo; Une, Yumi

    2013-11-01

    Spontaneous crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN) in animals has only been reported in dog and sheep. We report the pathological features of CrGN in a 17-year-old male polar bear that died due to renal failure. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by fibrocellular crescents, adhesion between Bowman's capsule and the glomerular capillary tuft and an increase in the mesangial matrix in glomeruli. The proliferating cells in the crescent were partly immunopositive for cytokeratin and intensely positive for vimentin, WT-1 and α-smooth muscle actin, suggesting they originated from parietal epithelial cells. Ultrastructually, thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and loss of epithelial cell foot processes were observed with electron-dense deposits.

  7. Crescentic Glomerulonephritis in a Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    BABA, Hiroshi; KUDO, Tomoo; MAKINO, Yoshinori; MOCHIZUKI, Yasumasa; TAKAGI, Takayo; UNE, Yumi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spontaneous crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN) in animals has only been reported in dog and sheep. We report the pathological features of CrGN in a 17-year-old male polar bear that died due to renal failure. Histologically, the lesions were characterized by fibrocellular crescents, adhesion between Bowman’s capsule and the glomerular capillary tuft and an increase in the mesangial matrix in glomeruli. The proliferating cells in the crescent were partly immunopositive for cytokeratin and intensely positive for vimentin, WT-1 and α-smooth muscle actin, suggesting they originated from parietal epithelial cells. Ultrastructually, thickening of the glomerular basement membrane and loss of epithelial cell foot processes were observed with electron-dense deposits. PMID:23856758

  8. Subtotal ablation of parietal epithelial cells induces crescent formation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sicking, E.M.; Fuss, A.; Uhlig, S.; Jirak, P.; Dijkman, H.; Wetzels, J.; Engel, D.R.; Urzynicok, T.; Heidenreich, S.; Kriz, W.; Kurts, C.; Ostendorf, T.; Floege, J.; Smeets, B.; Moeller, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) of the renal glomerulus contribute to the formation of both cellular crescents in rapidly progressive GN and sclerotic lesions in FSGS. Subtotal transgenic ablation of podocytes induces FSGS but the effect of specific ablation of PECs is unknown. Here, we established

  9. Short-arm human centrifugation with 0.4g at eye and 0.75g at heart level provides similar cerebrovascular and cardiovascular responses to standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Nandu; Bruner, Michelle; Xu, Da; Bareille, Marie-Pierre; Beck, Arnaud; Hinghofer-Szalkay, Helmut; Blaber, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Orthostatic intolerance continues to be a problem with astronauts upon return to Earth as a result of cerebral and cardiovascular adaptations to weightlessness. We tested the hypothesis that artificial gravity from a short-arm human centrifuge (SAHC) could provide cerebral and cardiovascular stimuli similar to upright posture and thereby serve as a suitable countermeasure. We compared cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses before, during, and after exposure to hyper-G with that of standing in healthy young participants. The head was positioned such that the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was 0.46 m from the center of rotation. Two levels of hyper-G that provided 1g and 2g at foot level were investigated. Continuous blood pressure, heart rate, calf blood volume, MCA mean blood flow velocity (MFV) and end-tidal CO2 were measured. Blood pressure at the level of the MCA (BP-MCA) and MFV was reduced during stand and at 2g. The relationship between MFV and BP-MCA at 2g was different from supine and similar to standing, while 1g centrifugation was not different from supine. The cardiovascular system was also not different from supine at 1g but was similarly challenged in 2g compared to stand. Our data suggest that short-arm centrifugation 2g at the feet, with the head offset 0.5 m from the center, provides similar cardiovascular and cerebral responses to standing. This supports the hypothesis that passive 2g SAHC exposure at the feet could be used as a countermeasure for in-flight cardiovascular and cerebrovascular deconditioning.

  10. Crescentic glomerulonephritis: A clinical and histomorphological analysis of 46 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN, defined as crescents involving more than 50% of the glomeruli, includes pauci-immune, immune complex-mediated and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease. Objectives: The present study was aimed at evaluating the various clinical, biochemical and histological parameters in CrGN with respect to these categories and clinical outcome. Materials and Methods: Renal biopsies diagnosed as CrGN between Jan 2008 and Feb 2010 were included. Clinical and laboratory parameters were retrieved along with the therapeutic approach and clinical outcome, wherever available. Renal biopsy slides were evaluated for various glomerular, tubulo-interstitial and arteriolar features. Appropriate statistical tests were applied for significance. Results: A total of 46 cases of CrGN were included; majority (71.7% of cases were pauci-immune (PI while 28.3% were immune complex-mediated (IC. Among clinical features, gender ratio was significantly different between PI and IC groups (P = 0.006. The various histological parameters, including proportion of cellular crescents, tuft necrosis and Bowman′s capsule rupture, were similar in both the groups. Four unusual associations, including idiopathic membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN, multibacillary leprosy, acute lymphoblastic leukemia and C1q nephropathy were detected. Adequate follow-up information was available in 21 (46% of the patients. Of these, 11 (52.4% were dialysis-dependent at the last follow-up. Adult patients required renal replacement therapy more frequently than pediatric cases (P = 0.05. Presence of arteriolar fibrinoid necrosis also showed association with poor clinical outcome (P = 0.05. Conclusions: Crescentic glomerulonephritis remains one of the main causes of acute renal failure with histological diagnosis. Immunohistologic examination is essential for accurate classification into one of the three categories. This condition should be considered

  11. Subtotal Ablation of Parietal Epithelial Cells Induces Crescent Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicking, Eva-Maria; Fuss, Astrid; Uhlig, Sandra; Jirak, Peggy; Dijkman, Henry; Wetzels, Jack; Engel, Daniel R.; Urzynicok, Torsten; Heidenreich, Stefan; Kriz, Wilhelm; Kurts, Christian; Ostendorf, Tammo; Floege, Jürgen; Smeets, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Parietal epithelial cells (PECs) of the renal glomerulus contribute to the formation of both cellular crescents in rapidly progressive GN and sclerotic lesions in FSGS. Subtotal transgenic ablation of podocytes induces FSGS but the effect of specific ablation of PECs is unknown. Here, we established an inducible transgenic mouse to allow subtotal ablation of PECs. Proteinuria developed during doxycycline-induced cellular ablation but fully reversed 26 days after termination of doxycycline administration. The ablation of PECs was focal, with only 30% of glomeruli exhibiting histologic changes; however, the number of PECs was reduced up to 90% within affected glomeruli. Ultrastructural analysis revealed disruption of PEC plasma membranes with cytoplasm shedding into Bowman’s space. Podocytes showed focal foot process effacement, which was the most likely cause for transient proteinuria. After >9 days of cellular ablation, the remaining PECs formed cellular extensions to cover the denuded Bowman’s capsule and expressed the activation marker CD44 de novo. The induced proliferation of PECs persisted throughout the observation period, resulting in the formation of typical cellular crescents with periglomerular infiltrate, albeit without accompanying proteinuria. In summary, subtotal ablation of PECs leads the remaining PECs to react with cellular activation and proliferation, which ultimately forms cellular crescents. PMID:22282596

  12. Effects of Harbor Modification on Crescent City, California's Tsunami Vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dengler, Lori; Uslu, Burak

    2011-06-01

    More damaging tsunamis have impacted Crescent City, California in historic times than any other location on the West Coast of the USA. Crescent City's harbor has undergone significant modification since the early 20th century, including construction of several breakwaters, dredging, and a 200 × 300 m2 small boat basin. In 2006, a M w 8.3 earthquake in the Kuril Islands generated a moderate Pacific-wide tsunami. Crescent City recorded the highest amplitudes of any tide gauge in the Pacific and was the only location to experience structural damage. Strong currents damaged docks and boats within the small boat basin, causing more than US 20 million in damage and replacement costs. We examine how modifications to Crescent City's harbor may have affected its vulnerability to moderate tsunamis such as the 2006 event. A bathymetric grid of the basin was constructed based on US Army Corps of Engineers soundings in 1964 and 1965 before the construction of the small boat basin. The method of splitting tsunamis was used to estimate tsunami water heights and current velocities at several locations in the harbor using both the 1964-1965 grid and the 2006 bathymetric grid for the 2006 Kuril event and a similar-sized source along the Sanriku coast of Japan. Model velocity outputs are compared for the two different bathymetries at the tide gauge location and at six additional computational sites in the harbor. The largest difference between the two grids is at the small boat basin entrance, where the 2006 bathymetry produces currents over three times the strength of the currents produced by the 1965 bathymetry. Peak currents from a Sanriku event are comparable to those produced by the 2006 event, and within the boat basin may have been higher. The modifications of the harbor, and in particular the addition of the small boat basin, appear to have contributed to the high current velocities and resulting damage in 2006 and help to explain why the 1933 M w 8.4-8.7 Sanriku tsunami

  13. Crescentic glomerular nephritis associated with rheumatoid arthritis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balendran, K; Senarathne, L D S U; Lanerolle, R D

    2017-07-21

    Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disorder where clinically significant renal involvement is relatively common. However, crescentic glomerular nephritis is a rarely described entity among the rheumatoid nephropathies. We report a case of a patient with rheumatoid arthritis presenting with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-negative crescentic glomerular nephritis. A 54-year-old Sri Lankan woman who had recently been diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis was being treated with methotrexate 10 mg weekly and infrequent nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. She presented to our hospital with worsening generalized body swelling and oliguria of 1 month's duration. Her physical examination revealed that she had bilateral pitting leg edema and periorbital edema. She was not pale or icteric. She had evidence of mild synovitis of the small joints of the hand bilaterally with no deformities. No evidence of systemic vasculitis was seen. Her blood pressure was 170/100 mmHg, and her jugular venous pressure was elevated to 7 cm with an undisplaced cardiac apex. Her urine full report revealed 2+ proteinuria with active sediment (dysmorphic red blood cells [17%] and granular casts). Her 24-hour urinary protein excretion was 2 g. Her serum creatinine level was 388 μmol/L. Abdominal ultrasound revealed normal-sized kidneys with acute parenchymal changes and mild ascites. Her renal biopsy showed renal parenchyma containing 20 glomeruli showing diffuse proliferative glomerular nephritis, with 14 of 20 glomeruli showing cellular crescents, and the result of Congo red staining was negative. Her rheumatoid factor was positive with a high titer (120 IU/ml), but results for antinuclear antibody, double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (perinuclear and cytoplasmic) were negative. Antistreptolysin O titer rheumatoid arthritis, awareness of which would facilitate early appropriate investigations and treatment.

  14. Interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3. Fetal pathology and exclusion of the gene for beta-galactosidase-1 (GLB-1) from 3(p11----p14.2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Jens Michael; Coerdt, W; Hahnemann, N

    1988-01-01

    A de novo interstitial deletion of the short arm of chromosome 3 was prenatally diagnosed in a male fetus, karyotype 46,XY,del(3)(pter----p14.2::p11----qter). The fetus had craniofacial dysmorphisms, a single transverse palmar crease, ulnar deviation in the wrists, cardiovascular anomalies...

  15. [Family paracentric inversion of the short arm of chromosome X (Xp21.2p11.23) and connection with autism spectrum disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milovančević, Milica Pejović; Vešić, Marija; Jelisavčić, Marko; Nikšić, Snežana; Pilić, Gordana Radivojević; Maravić, Vanja Mandić

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of complex pervasive developmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, social interaction and behavior. In most cases autism is caused by a combination of genetic factors and environmental risk factors. In 10% to 20% of cases it has been shown that the cause of ASD is genetic. We are describing a 2-year-old boy who was referred to genetic counseling because of speech delay and certain autism-like behavior. By cytogenetic analysis the karyotype 46, inv(X),Y was obtained. The boy was a carrier of a paracentric inversion of the short arm of the chromosome X. After cytogenetic analysis of parental blood, it was detected that mother was a carrier of identical aberration, but had no clinical signs. The method of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) yielded the precise breakpoint in the region (p21.2p11.23). Mother and son were carriers of identical X chromosome. Breakpoints are located in the regions that have already been linked to autism, which indicates that the positional effect of the gene could have been a possible cause of the patient's genotype. In addition to positional effects, in order to better understand the etiology of autism other genetic and environmental factors should be always taken into consideration.

  16. Family paracentric inversion of the short arm of chromosome X (Xp21.2p11.23 and connection with autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pejović-Milovančević Milica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are a group of complex pervasive developmental disorders characterized by impairments in communication, social interaction and behavior. In most cases autism is caused by a combination of genetic factors and environmental risk factors. In 10% to 20% of cases it has been shown that the cause of ASD is genetic. Case Outline. We are describing a 2-year-old boy who was referred to genetic counseling because of speech delay and certain autism-like behavior. By cytogenetic analysis the karyotype 46, inv(X,Y was obtained. The boy was a carrier of a paracentric inversion of the short arm of the chromosome X. After cytogenetic analysis of parental blood, it was detected that mother was a carrier of identical aberration, but had no clinical signs. The method of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH yielded the precise breakpoint in the region (p21.2p11.23. Mother and son were carriers of identical X chromosome. Conclusion. Breakpoints are located in the regions that have already been linked to autism, which indicates that the positional effect of the gene could have been a possible cause of the patient’s genotype. In addition to positional effects, in order to better understand the etiology of autism other genetic and environmental factors should be always taken into consideration. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON175013

  17. Crescentic glomerulonephritis in non-asthmatic Churg-Strauss syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupma Kaul

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 58-year-old male presented with sensory motor polyneuropathy and rapidly progressive renal failure. Investigations revealed marked peripheral eosinophilia and elevated perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titers. Renal biopsy showed pauci-immune cre-scentic glomerulonephritis with interstitial eosinophil infiltrates. He had no history of asthma. Computed tomography of the chest and X-ray of the paranasal sinuses were normal. On Day 1, the patient developed ileal perforation. Resected ileal segments showed small vessel vasculitis with extravascular eosinophils. A diagnosis of non-asthmatic variant of Churg-Strauss syndrome was made. Renal recovery was achieved in 12 weeks with a combination therapy of corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide. The patient has been relapse-free for 12 months on oral prednisolone therapy.

  18. Crescentic glomerulonephritis in non-asthmatic Churg-Strauss syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Anupma; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Jaisuresh, Krishna Swamy; Agrawal, Vinita

    2014-03-01

    A 58-year-old male presented with sensory motor polyneuropathy and rapidly progressive renal failure. Investigations revealed marked peripheral eosinophilia and elevated perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody titers. Renal biopsy showed pauci-immune cre-scentic glomerulonephritis with interstitial eosinophil infiltrates. He had no history of asthma. Computed tomography of the chest and X-ray of the paranasal sinuses were normal. On Day 1, the patient developed ileal perforation. Resected ileal segments showed small vessel vasculitis with extravascular eosinophils. A diagnosis of non-asthmatic variant of Churg-Strauss syndrome was made. Renal recovery was achieved in 12 weeks with a combination therapy of corticosteroid and cyclophosphamide. The patient has been relapse-free for 12 months on oral prednisolone therapy.

  19. [Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of six 46, XX males due to translocations between the short arms of X and Y chromosomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ya; Ji, Xing; Xiao, Bing; Jiang, Wen-ting; Hu, Qin; Hu, Juan; Cao, Ying; Tao, Jiong

    2012-08-01

    To characterize molecular and cytogenetic abnormalities in six 46, XX males, and to investigate the clinical manifestations and underlying mechanisms in such patients. Clinical data of six XX male patients were collected. Karyotyping, multiple polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were utilized to detect and locate the sex determining region (SRY) gene. PCR and FISH showed that all patients were SRY-positive XX males. All patients have their SRY gene located at the tip of derivative X chromosomes, which have resulted from translocation between short arms of X and Y chromosomes. High resolution karyotyping at 550-750 band level has revealed that the translocation breakpoints were at Xp22.33 and Yp11.2 in three patients. In the remaining patients, the breakpoints were either at Xp22.32 and Yp11.31 or Xp22.31 and Yp11.2. The breakpoints at Xp22.32, Xp22.31 and Yp11.31 were rarely reported. Genotype-phenotype correlation analysis indicated that the clinical manifestations were age-specific. Four adult patients have come to clinical attention due to infertility, with typical features including azoospermia and testis dysgenesis, whereas poorly developed secondary sexual characteristics and short stature were main complaints of adolescence patients, and short stature was the sole symptom in a child patient. Combined karyotyping, PCR and FISH are important for the analysis of XX males. Particularly, high resolution karyotyping is valuable for the refinement of chromosome breakpoints and detailed analysis of genotype-phenotype correlation.

  20. Traditional flat breads spread from the Fertile Crescent: Production process and history of baking systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Pasqualone

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The “flat” breads include a multitude of bread types different from each other but are always relatively thin, ranging from a few millimeters to a few centimeters in thickness. These breads, whose origin is very ancient, fit well into the context of a subsistence economy: i they can be obtained from cereals other than wheat, such as pseudocereals or legumes, allowing the use of sustainable local productions from marginal lands; ii they do not necessarily require an oven to be baked; iii they can serve as a dish and as a spoon/fork; iv they can be dehydrated by a second baking process, preventing the growth of molds and extending the shelf life; v they are transported with little encumbrance. These strong points make flat breads very popular, traditionally in Near East and Central Asia and also in some Mediterranean areas, in the Arabian Peninsula, and in the Indian subcontinent. By a multidisciplinary approach, this review gives an insight into the variety of traditional flat breads from the Fertile Crescent and related regions, classifying them on the basis of their production process. Moreover, the baking systems adopted to prepare flat breads are reviewed, such as vertical ovens (tannur and tabun and griddles (saj, whose structure, origin, history, and values are described in detail. This overview shows that these breads have survived until today because of their versatility. In fact, flat breads can be produced both in the same way as they were made thousands of years ago and in modern fully automatic industrial lines, allowing tradition to meet innovation. Keywords: Flat bread, Pancake-like bread, saj, tannur, Vertical oven

  1. The Myanmar continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    reveal a minimum of 18 m thick strata of modern muds (Fig. 2g). At the outer boundary of the Gulf of Myanmar Continental Shelf 8 Martaban (15oN Latitude), brown muds overlie coarse sands indicating that modern deltaic sediments... on the Myeik Bank (Rodolfo, 1969a). Modern sediments on the Ayeyarwady shelf General composition, Texture and Grain-size: The distribution and sediment texture on the Ayeyarwady shelf shows fine-grained sediments comprising silty-clay and clayey...

  2. Beta limit of crescent and bean shaped tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, H.; Yamazaki, K.

    1988-01-01

    The maximum attainable beta values which can be expected in tokamaks with crescent (BEAN 1) and rounded (BEAN 2) bean shaped cross-sections are obtained numerically by using the linear ideal MHD stability analysis code ERATO. The current profiles are optimized with a fixed pressure profile for high values of beta, keeping Mercier, high-n ballooning and n=1 kink modes stable. The poloidal plasma cross-sections are inscribed in a rectangle with an aspect ratio of three and an ellipticity of two. A confocal wall, the distance of which from the plasma surface is equal to the horizontal minor plasma radius, is present to stabilize against the kink mode. Depending on the shape and triangularity (indentation), a beta value of 10 to 17% is obtained. It is also shown that the coefficient of the Troyon-type beta scaling increases for an indented plasma. In the case of small indentation, the BEAN 1 type tokamaks show higher beta values than the BEAN 2 type. For strong indentation, the BEAN 2 type gives the highest beta value. (author). 29 refs, 15 figs

  3. Thermostable Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, M. H.; Antonini, D. K.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  4. Thermostabilized Shelf Life Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perchonok, Michele H.; Catauro, Patricia M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this project is to determine the shelf life end-point of various food items by means of actual measurement or mathematical projection. The primary goal of the Advanced Food Technology Project in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. The Mars missions could be as long as 2.5 years with the potential of the food being positioned prior to the crew arrival. Therefore, it is anticipated that foods that are used during the Mars missions will require a 5 year shelf life. Shelf life criteria are safety, nutrition, and acceptability. Any of these criteria can be the limiting factor in determining the food's shelf life. Due to the heat sterilization process used for the thermostabilized food items, safety will be preserved as long as the integrity of the package is maintained. Nutrition and acceptability will change over time. Since the food can be the sole source of nutrition to the crew, a significant loss in nutrition may determine when the shelf life endpoint has occurred. Shelf life can be defined when the food item is no longer acceptable. Acceptability can be defined in terms of appearance, flavor, texture, or aroma. Results from shelf life studies of the thermostabilized food items suggest that the shelf life of the foods range from 0 months to 8 years, depending on formulation.

  5. Expression of Tight Junction Protein Claudin-1 in Human Crescentic Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Koda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of crescent forming cells in human glomerulonephritis (GN remains unknown. Some animal studies demonstrated that parietal epithelial cells of Bowman’s capsule (PECs were the main component of proliferating cells and PEC-specific tight junction protein claudin-1 was expressed in crescentic lesions. We investigated the expression of claudin-1 in human GN. Immunohistochemistry for claudin-1 was performed on 17 kidney biopsy samples with crescent formation. Colocalization of claudin-1 with intracellular tight junction protein ZO-1 was also evaluated by immunofluorescence double staining. Claudin-1 is expressed mainly at the cell to cell contact site of proliferating cells in cellular crescentic lesions in patients with these forms of human GN. Small numbers of crescent forming cells showed extrajunctional localization of claudin-1. Colocalization of claudin-1 with ZO-1 was found at cell to cell contact sites of adjacent proliferating cells. In control samples, staining of claudin-1 was positive in PECs, but not in podocytes. Our findings suggest that claudin-1 contributes to crescent formation as a component of the tight junction protein complex that includes ZO-1. Co-localization of claudin-1 with ZO-1 implies the formation of functional tight junction complexes in crescentic lesions to prevent the interstitial damage caused by penetration of filtered molecules from Bowman’s space.

  6. Recent drying of the Fertile Crescent: natural or externally forced?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Colin

    2014-05-01

    There has been a reduction in observed precipitation over the greater Mediterranean region since the middle of the 20th Century. Recent studies suggest that while anthropogenic forcing has already begun to assert itself in recent decades, the preponderance of the winter drying trend is attributable to the large natural multidecadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), while over the eastern Mediterranean, the anthropogenic, or forced drying signal is more clearly evident. This forced drying is projected to increase during the 21st Century according to the newest global climate models and this aridification would present significant challenges for a region that is already water-stressed. Although the Fertile Crescent is historically known for its agricultural prosperity, the severity and persistence of the recent multiyear drought in Syria, directly prior to the 2011 uprising there, leads us to ask whether this is evidence of emerging global warming influence. This drought exacerbated existing water insecurity, resulting in an agricultural collapse and a mass migration of rural drought refugees to the urban areas in Syria's west. This migration followed the previous influx of Iragi refugees and combined with strong natural population growth to place a severe strain on resources. Here we examine observations of precipitation and temperature, both gridded and stations, along with simulations and projections from the newest global climate models, to estimate the forced contribution to the recent Syrian drought, and assess the uncertainty in future drying according to the models. We find that this region has experienced a long-term downward trend in precipitation, and a concomitant increase in temperature, serving to further dry the soil, and in surface pressure. We find that the shift in the distributions of three-year running means of surface pressure and precipitation due to the forcing make severe events such as the recent Syrian drought several

  7. Coexistence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies and myeloperoxidase-ANCAs in crescentic glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Slot, Marjan; van Paassen, Pieter; van Breda Vriesman, Peter; Heeringa, Peter; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    BACKGROUND: In a substantial proportion of patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), both anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) with specificity for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) are detected. In the present study, we questioned

  8. Renal progenitor cells contribute to hyperplastic lesions of podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, B.; Angelotti, M.L.; Rizzo, P.; Dijkman, H.; Lazzeri, E.; Mooren, F.; Ballerini, L.; Parente, E.; Sagrinati, C.; Mazzinghi, B.; Ronconi, E.; Becherucci, F.; Benigni, A.; Steenbergen, E.; Lasagni, L.; Remuzzi, G.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Romagnani, P.

    2009-01-01

    Glomerular injury can involve excessive proliferation of glomerular epithelial cells, resulting in crescent formation and obliteration of Bowman's space. The origin of these hyperplastic epithelial cells in different glomerular disorders is controversial. Renal progenitors localized to the inner

  9. Knowledge and Attitude of Iranian Red Crescent Society Volunteers in Dealing with Bioterrorist attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ali Bahreini Moghadam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Bioterrorism is a worldwide problem and has been the focus of attention during recent decades. There is no precise information on the knowledge, attitude, and preparedness of Iranian Red Crescent volunteers in dealing with bioterrorism. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the above-mentioned parameters in Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers. Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, the knowledge of 120 volunteers was evaluated and rated as poor, moderate, and good. In addition, attitude of the volunteers and preparedness of Mahabad Red Crescent Society was rated as inappropriate and appropriate using a questionnaire. Results: The mean age of volunteers was 32.0 ± 8.2 years (62.5% male. 2 (1.7% volunteers had good knowledge while 94 (78.3% had no knowledge regarding bioterrorist attack management. Only 1 (0.8%  volunteer had appropriate attitude and 6 (5.0% stated their preparedness for being sent out to the crisis zone. 116 volunteers (96.7% indicated that Mahabad Red Crescent Society has an inappropriate level of preparedness to encounter bioterrorist attacks. Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed poor knowledge and inappropriate attitude of Mahabad Red Crescent Society volunteers in encountering probable bioterrorist attacks. Furthermore, the Red Crescent Society of this town had an inappropriate level of preparedness in the field of bioterrorism from the viewpoint of the studied volunteers.

  10. Correction of Bowtie-Filter Normalization and Crescent Artifacts for a Clinical CBCT System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong; Kong, Vic; Huang, Ke; Jin, Jian-Yue

    2017-02-01

    To present our experiences in understanding and minimizing bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts in a clinical cone beam computed tomography system. Bowtie-filter position and profile variations during gantry rotation were studied. Two previously proposed strategies (A and B) were applied to the clinical cone beam computed tomography system to correct bowtie-filter crescent artifacts. Physical calibration and analytical approaches were used to minimize the norm phantom misalignment and to correct for bowtie-filter normalization artifacts. A combined procedure to reduce bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts was proposed and tested on a norm phantom, CatPhan, and a patient and evaluated using standard deviation of Hounsfield unit along a sampling line. The bowtie-filter exhibited not only a translational shift but also an amplitude variation in its projection profile during gantry rotation. Strategy B was better than strategy A slightly in minimizing bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, possibly because it corrected the amplitude variation, suggesting that the amplitude variation plays a role in bowtie-filter crescent artifacts. The physical calibration largely reduced the misalignment-induced bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, and the analytical approach further reduced bowtie-filter normalization artifacts. The combined procedure minimized both bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, with Hounsfield unit standard deviation being 63.2, 45.0, 35.0, and 18.8 Hounsfield unit for the best correction approaches of none, bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, bowtie-filter normalization artifacts, and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts + bowtie-filter crescent artifacts, respectively. The combined procedure also demonstrated reduction of bowtie-filter crescent artifacts and bowtie-filter normalization artifacts in a CatPhan and a patient. We have developed a step

  11. Better functional outcome provided by short-armed sigmoid colon-rectal side-to-end anastomosis after laparoscopic low anterior resection: a match-paired retrospective study from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuan-Chuan; Jin, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Yu-Ting; Wang, Zi-Qiang

    2012-04-01

    Side-to-end anastomosis using the descending colon has been proved to be as effective as J pouch in alleviating low anterior resection syndrome. However, using the sigmoid colon, which is less compliant for reconstruction after rectal cancer surgery, is common in China due to less prevalence of diverticulosis. The effectiveness of using the sigmoid colon for a side-to-end colorectal anastomosis in improving bowel dysfunction after laparoscopic low anterior resection of rectal cancer has not been investigated. This study was designed to compare the functional and surgical outcomes between the two anastomoses. From October 2007 to December 2008, 16 rectal cancer patients underwent laparoscopic low anterior resection with short-armed (length of side limb 2-4 cm) side-to-end sigmoidorectal anastomosis at our department. The bowel functional results of these patients at 6 months and 1 year postoperatively were recorded and compared with that of another 1:2 matched 30 patients undergoing straight anastomosis. Bowel movement frequency in the side-to-end group was obviously less than that in the straight group 6 months postoperatively. Patients in the side-to-end group also had an improved incontinence score, a better ability to defer defecation, and less repeated evacuation. No differences were found between two groups 1 year after surgery. The study shows that the short-armed side-to-end colorectal anastomosis using the sigmoid colon can also improve the short-term bowel function in patients undergoing laparoscopic low anterior resection.

  12. The Role of Angiotensin II in Parietal Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Crescent Formation in Glomerular Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Paola; Novelli, Rubina; Rota, Cinzia; Gagliardini, Elena; Ruggiero, Barbara; Rottoli, Daniela; Benigni, Ariela; Remuzzi, Giuseppe

    2017-11-01

    Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN) is a devastating disease with rapidly progressive deterioration in kidney function, which, histologically, manifests as crescent formation in most glomeruli. We previously found that crescents derive from the aberrant proliferation and migration of parietal epithelial cells (PECs)/progenitor cells, and that the angiotensin (ang) II/ang II type-1 (AT 1 ) receptor pathway may participate, together with the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1)/C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 axis, in the development of those lesions. Herein, we elucidated sequential events and cellular and molecular interactions occurring during crescentic lesion onset and evolution. By analyzing kidney biopsy specimens of patients with extracapillary GN, divided according to the grade of glomerular lesions, we found that the accumulation of macrophages expressing matrix metalloproteinase-12 started manifesting in glomeruli affected by early-stage lesions, whereas AT 1 receptor expression could not be detected. In glomeruli with advanced lesions, AT 1 receptor expression increased markedly, and the up-regulation of SDF-1, and its receptor C-X-C chemokine receptor 7, was documented on podocytes and PECs, respectively. In vitro studies were instrumental to demonstrating the role of ang II in inducing podocyte SDF-1 production, which ultimately activates PECs. The present findings support the possibility that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment might limit PEC activation and reduce the frequency and extension of crescents in extracapillary GN. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data represents geographic terms used within the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (OCSLA or Act). The Act defines the United States outer continental shelf...

  14. Sixty-five radiation hybrids for the short arm of human chromosome 6: their value as a mapping panel and as a source for rapid isolation of new probes using repeat element-mediated PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoghbi, H.Y.; McCall, A.E.; LeBorgne-Demarquoy, F.

    1991-01-01

    We have used an irradiation and fusion procedure to generate somatic cell hybrids that retain fragments of the short arm of human chromosome 6 (6p). To identify hybrids retaining human material, we performed repeat element-mediated PCR on crude lysates of cells from individual clones. Sixty-five hybrids were shown to contain human material and fifty of those contained one or more 6p-specific probes. Detailed characterization of these hybrids identified a subset that divides 6p into ten mapping intervals. Using repeat element-mediated PCR, we were able to isolate and map 61 new DNA fragments from specific regions of 6p. Fifteen of these fragments were used to screen for restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and nine identified RFLPs with one or more enzymes. The radiation hybrids described in this study provide a valuable resource for high-resolution mapping of 6p and for the rapid isolation of region-specific markers

  15. Ischemia-induced glomerular parietal epithelial cells hyperplasia: Commonly misdiagnosed cellular crescent in renal biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yeting; Wang, Xinrui; Xie, Feilai; Zheng, Zhiyong

    2017-08-01

    Ischemic pseudo-cellular crescent (IPCC) that is induced by ischemia and composed of hyperplastic glomerular parietal epithelial cells resembles cellular crescent. In this study, we aimed to assess the clinical and pathological features of IPCC in renal biopsy to avoid over-diagnosis and to determine the diagnostic basis. 4 IPCC cases diagnosed over a 4-year period (2012-2015) were evaluated for the study. Meanwhile, 5 cases of ANCA-associated glomerulonephritis and 5 cases of lupus nephritis (LN) were selected as control. Appropriate clinical data, morphology, and immunohistochemical features of all cases were retrieved. Results showed that the basement membrane of glomerulus with IPCC appeared as a concentric twisted ball, and glomerular cells of the lesion were reduced even entirely absent, and the adjacent afferent arterioles showed sclerosis or luminal stenosis. Furthermore, immune globulin deposition, vasculitis, and fibrinous exudate have not been observed in IPCC. While the cellular crescents showed diverse characteristics in both morphology and immunostaining in the control group. Therefore, these results indicated that IPCC is a sort of ischemic reactive hyperplasia and associated with sclerosis, stenosis, or obstruction of adjacent afferent arterioles, which is clearly different from cellular crescents result from glomerulonephritis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Patterns of glomerulonephritis with crescents: Experience at a tertiary medical center in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turki Al-Hussain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of 78 cases of glomerulonephritis (GN, in which renal biopsy revealed changes of GN associated with crescent formation, were reviewed. Renal pathology findings were correlated with clinical features including patient’s age, renal function, and serologic findings. In most of the cases (71.8%, the crescents were due to immune complex-mediated GN. This was followed by pauci-immune GN (20.5% and anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody (GBM GN (7.7%. The percentage of glomeruli with crescents was the highest in cases of anti-GBM disease (mean of 93.3%, followed by pauci-immune GBM (mean of 48.2% and immune complex GN (30.9%. In cases with the pauci- immune GN, there were additional features of glomerular injury including fibrinoid necrosis, disruption of the GBM, and rupture of Bowman’s capsule. These changes were generally more pronounced in a subset of pauci-immune GN associated with serum elevation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (c-ANCA. In biopsies from patient with immune complex disease, systemic lupus erythematosus was the most common cause of crescentic GN.

  17. Long-term statistics of extreme tsunami height at Crescent City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Sheng; Zhai, Jinjin; Tao, Shanshan

    2017-06-01

    Historically, Crescent City is one of the most vulnerable communities impacted by tsunamis along the west coast of the United States, largely attributed to its offshore geography. Trans-ocean tsunamis usually produce large wave runup at Crescent Harbor resulting in catastrophic damages, property loss and human death. How to determine the return values of tsunami height using relatively short-term observation data is of great significance to assess the tsunami hazards and improve engineering design along the coast of Crescent City. In the present study, the extreme tsunami heights observed along the coast of Crescent City from 1938 to 2015 are fitted using six different probabilistic distributions, namely, the Gumbel distribution, the Weibull distribution, the maximum entropy distribution, the lognormal distribution, the generalized extreme value distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution. The maximum likelihood method is applied to estimate the parameters of all above distributions. Both Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and root mean square error method are utilized for goodness-of-fit test and the better fitting distribution is selected. Assuming that the occurrence frequency of tsunami in each year follows the Poisson distribution, the Poisson compound extreme value distribution can be used to fit the annual maximum tsunami amplitude, and then the point and interval estimations of return tsunami heights are calculated for structural design. The results show that the Poisson compound extreme value distribution fits tsunami heights very well and is suitable to determine the return tsunami heights for coastal disaster prevention.

  18. Renal progenitor cells contribute to hyperplastic lesions of podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Bart; Angelotti, Maria Lucia; Rizzo, Paola; Dijkman, Henry; Lazzeri, Elena; Mooren, Fieke; Ballerini, Lara; Parente, Eliana; Sagrinati, Costanza; Mazzinghi, Benedetta; Ronconi, Elisa; Becherucci, Francesca; Benigni, Ariela; Steenbergen, Eric; Lasagni, Laura; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Wetzels, Jack; Romagnani, Paola

    2009-12-01

    Glomerular injury can involve excessive proliferation of glomerular epithelial cells, resulting in crescent formation and obliteration of Bowman's space. The origin of these hyperplastic epithelial cells in different glomerular disorders is controversial. Renal progenitors localized to the inner surface of Bowman's capsule can regenerate podocytes, but whether dysregulated proliferation of these progenitors contributes to crescent formation is unknown. In this study, we used confocal microscopy, laser capture microdissection, and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR to demonstrate that hypercellular lesions of different podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis consist of three distinct populations: CD133(+)CD24(+)podocalyxin (PDX)(-)nestin(-) renal progenitors, CD133(+)CD24(+)PDX(+)nestin(+) transitional cells, and CD133(-)CD24(-)PDX(+)nestin(+) differentiated podocytes. In addition, TGF-beta induced CD133(+)CD24(+) progenitors to produce extracellular matrix, and these were the only cells to express the proliferation marker Ki67. Taken together, these results suggest that glomerular hyperplastic lesions derive from the proliferation of renal progenitors at different stages of their differentiation toward mature podocytes, providing an explanation for the pathogenesis of hyperplastic lesions in podocytopathies and crescentic glomerulonephritis.

  19. Agriculture in the Fertile Crescent: Continuity and change under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Fertile Crescent is a highly biodiverse region where most temperate-zone agricultural species originated and were first domesticated. A favorable environment, a special plant community, and an adaptive population combined to initiate the transition from a hunter-gatherer economy to one based on ...

  20. China Confronts Afghan Drugs: Law Enforcement Views of The Golden Crescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    tabs of the psychoactive drug amfepramone (jingshen yaopin anfeilatong; 精神药品安非拉酮).18 Although no data are available that would permit Western... consumption market for their drugs arriving from the Golden Crescent. These analysts attribute this change in behavior to the length of time it can take to...entire global consumption of heroin.” Whenever the Taliban decide it is profitable to do so, they will begin “ferociously hurling those drugs onto the

  1. An idealised study for the long term evolution of crescentic bars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W. L.; Dodd, N.; Tiessen, M. C. H.; Calvete, D.

    2018-01-01

    An idealised study that identifies the mechanisms in the long term evolution of crescentic bar systems in nature is presented. Growth to finite amplitude (i.e., equilibration, sometimes referred to as saturation) and higher harmonic interaction are hypothesised to be the leading nonlinear effects in long-term evolution of these systems. These nonlinear effects are added to a linear stability model and used to predict crescentic bar development along a beach in Duck, North Carolina (USA) over a 2-month period. The equilibration prolongs the development of bed patterns, thus allowing the long term evolution. Higher harmonic interaction enables the amplitude to be transferred from longer to shorter lengthscales, which leads to the dominance of shorter lengthscales in latter post-storm stages, as observed at Duck. The comparison with observations indicates the importance of higher harmonic interaction in the development of nearshore crescentic bar systems in nature. Additionally, it is concluded that these nonlinear effects should be included in models simulating the development of different bed patterns, and that this points a way forward for long-term morphodynamical modelling in general.

  2. Proliferative, necrotizing and crescentic immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis in a cat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Gross

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Case Summary A 5-year-old cat was examined for vomiting and anorexia of 2 days’ duration. Azotemia, hyperphosphatemia and hypoalbuminemia were the main biochemical findings. Serial analyses of the urine revealed isosthenuria, proteinuria and eventual glucosuria. Hyperechoic perirenal fat was detected surrounding the right kidney by ultrasonography. Histopathologic evaluation of ante-mortem ultrasound-guided needle biopsies of the right kidney was consistent with proliferative, necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis with fibrin thrombi, proteinaceous and red blood cell casts, and moderate multifocal chronic-active interstitial nephritis. Owing to a lack of clinical improvement, the cat was eventually euthanized. Post-mortem renal biopsies were processed for light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence. This revealed severe focal proliferative and necrotizing glomerulonephritis with cellular crescent formation, podocyte injury and secondary segmental sclerosis. Ultrastructural analysis revealed scattered electron-dense deposits in the mesangium, and immunofluorescence demonstrated positive granular staining for λ light chains, consistent with immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. Severe diffuse acute tubular epithelial injury and numerous red blood cell casts were also seen. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first report of naturally occurring proliferative, necrotizing and crescentic immune complex glomerulonephritis in a cat.

  3. Ceratose pilar e ulerythema ophryogenes em mulher com monossomia do braço curto do cromosomo 18 Keratosis pilaris and ulerythema ophryogenes in a woman with monosomy of the short arm of chromosome 18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles André Carvalho

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A monossomia parcial do braço curto do cromosomo 18 (síndrome do 18p caracteriza-se, principalmente, por atraso na aquisição da fala, retardo mental leve a moderado e baixa estatura. Relatamos o caso de uma paciente com esta síndrome associada à ceratose pilar extensa e ulerythema ophryogenes. Este é o quarto relato de caso que descreve tal associação, que desperta considerável interesse porque pode revelar uma região candidata a sede de genes responsáveis pela queratinização folicularPartial monosomy of the short arm of chromosome 18 (18p- syndrome is characterized mainly by speech delay, mild to moderate mental retardation and short stature. We describe a patient with the 18psyndrome and widespread severe keratosis pilaris and ulerythema ophryogenes. This is the fourth case in which such an association has been reported. This association is of considerable interest because it may uncover a candidate genomic region and help to identify the gene responsible for follicular keratinization

  4. Effects of the reconnection electric field on crescent electron distribution functions in asymmetric guide field reconnection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessho, N.; Chen, L. J.; Hesse, M.; Wang, S.

    2017-12-01

    In asymmetric reconnection with a guide field in the Earth's magnetopause, electron motion in the electron diffusion region (EDR) is largely affected by the guide field, the Hall electric field, and the reconnection electric field. The electron motion in the EDR is neither simple gyration around the guide field nor simple meandering motion across the current sheet. The combined meandering motion and gyration has essential effects on particle acceleration by the in-plane Hall electric field (existing only in the magnetospheric side) and the out-of-plane reconnection electric field. We analyze electron motion and crescent-shaped electron distribution functions in the EDR in asymmetric guide field reconnection, and perform 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to elucidate the effect of reconnection electric field on electron distribution functions. Recently, we have analytically expressed the acceleration effect due to the reconnection electric field on electron crescent distribution functions in asymmetric reconnection without a guide field (Bessho et al., Phys. Plasmas, 24, 072903, 2017). We extend the theory to asymmetric guide field reconnection, and predict the crescent bulge in distribution functions. Assuming 1D approximation of field variations in the EDR, we derive the time period of oscillatory electron motion (meandering + gyration) in the EDR. The time period is expressed as a hybrid of the meandering period and the gyro period. Due to the guide field, electrons not only oscillate along crescent-shaped trajectories in the velocity plane perpendicular to the antiparallel magnetic fields, but also move along parabolic trajectories in the velocity plane coplanar with magnetic field. The trajectory in the velocity space gradually shifts to the acceleration direction by the reconnection electric field as multiple bounces continue. Due to the guide field, electron distributions for meandering particles are bounded by two paraboloids (or hyperboloids) in the

  5. New Jersey shallow shelf

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Expedition 313 Scientists; Bjerrum, Christian J.

    2009-01-01

    to key horizons in wells drilled into the adjacent coastal plain suggest the clinoform structures investigated during Expedition 313 were deposited during times of oscillations in global sea level; however, this needs to be determined with much greater certainty. The age, lithofacies, and core-log......Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 313 to the New Jersey Shallow Shelf off the east coast of the United States is the third IODP expedition to use a mission-specific platform. It was conducted by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling (ECORD) Science Operator (ESO......) between 30 April and 17 July 2009, with additional support from the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP). There were three objectives: (1) date late Paleogene–Neogene depositional sequences and compare ages of unconformable surfaces that divide these sequences with times of sea...

  6. Motor carrier case study evaluation report : appendix C, Vol. 2 : case study field notes, the Crescent Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    The Crescent Project element of the HELP Program is a bi-national multi-jurisdictional : cooperative research and demonstration initiative involving the public and private sectors in an : application of advanced technologies for the creation of an in...

  7. Ahp2 (Hop2) function in Arabidopsis thaliana (Ler) is required for stabilization of close alignment and synaptonemal complex formation except for the two short arms that contain nucleolus organizer regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronghill, P; Pathan, N; Ha, H; Supijono, E; Hasenkampf, C

    2010-08-01

    A cytological comparative analysis of male meiocytes was performed for Arabidopsis wild type and the ahp2 (hop2) mutant with emphasis on ahp2's largely uncharacterized prophase I. Leptotene progression appeared normal in ahp2 meiocytes; chromosomes exhibited regular axis formation and assumed a typical polarized nuclear organization. In contrast, 4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained ahp2 pachytene chromosome spreads demonstrated a severe reduction in stabilized pairing. However, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis of sections from meiocytes revealed that ahp2 chromosome axes underwent significant amounts of close alignment (44% of total axis). This apparent paradox strongly suggests that the Ahp2 protein is involved in the stabilization of homologous chromosome close alignment. Fluorescent in situ hybridization in combination with Zyp1 immunostaining revealed that ahp2 mutants undergo homologous synapsis of the nucleolus-organizer-region-bearing short arms of chromosomes 2 and 4, despite the otherwise "nucleus-wide" lack of stabilized pairing. The duration of ahp2 zygotene was significantly prolonged and is most likely due to difficulties in chromosome alignment stabilization and subsequent synaptonemal complex formation. Ahp2 and Mnd1 proteins have previously been shown, "in vitro," to form a heterodimer. Here we show, "in situ," that the Ahp2 and Mnd1 proteins are synchronous in their appearance and disappearance from meiotic chromosomes. Both the Ahp2 and Mnd1 proteins localize along the chromosomal axis. However, localization of the Ahp2 protein was entirely foci-based whereas Mnd1 protein exhibited an immunostaining pattern with some foci along the axis and a diffuse staining for the rest of the chromosome.

  8. Effect of intensive plasma exchange (PE) in rapidly progressive crescentic glomerulonephritis (RPCGN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, G; Sinico, R; Fornasieri, A; Ferrario, F; Colasanti, G; Porri, M T; Paracchini, M L; Gibelli, A

    1983-07-01

    Ten adult patients with RPCGN (crescents in greater than 70% of glomeruli), primary in 6 and associated with systemic diseases in 4, were treated with PE, associated with oral steroids (P) and cyclophosphamide (C) in all cases and with intravenous methylprednisolone pulses (MP) in 7 cases. Four out of ten patients were anuric and needed dialysis treatment at the start of treatment. Therapeutic benefit, i.e. reversal of the trend to further deterioration and substantial improvement of GFR, was achieved in 8 out of 10 patients (80%), including 2 of 4 anuric patients, and in 7 of those (8) who had still active cellular crescents (87.5%). Similar therapeutic benefit had been achieved only in 10% of a comparable population of 10 patients with RPCGN treated before 1980 with P and C, without PE or MP pulses. It is difficult to establish whether the better therapeutic results in the more recently treated group were due to PE or to MP pulses of to both the new approaches, even though the clinical improvement obtained in all the 3 patients treated with PE without concomitant MP suggest a specific beneficial role for PE. RPCGN is a catastrophic illness characterized by progressive deterioration of kidney function, resulting in oliguria and uremia, usually within weeks or months. The most consistent histopathologic finding is the presence of extensive glomerular crescents resulting from proliferation of the extracapillary epithelial cell lining of Bowman's capsule. It is apparent that RPCGN is not a homogeneous entity, clinically, histologically or immunohistologically, but rather a clinicopathologic syndrome, the features of which may be seen in a variety of systemic disorders, including SLE, polyarteritis nodosa, Wegener's granulomatosis, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, cryoglobulinemia, and subacute bacterial endocarditis.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Predicting Post-Transplant Recurrence of IgA Nephropathy: The Importance of Crescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avasare, Rupali S; Rosenstiel, Paul E; Zaky, Ziad S; Tsapepas, Demetra S; Appel, Gerald B; Markowitz, Glen S; Bomback, Andrew S; Canetta, Pietro A

    2017-01-01

    Most studies that have assessed the predictors of recurrent IgA nephropathy (IgAN) in the renal allograft have focused on post-transplant features. Identifying high-risk pre-transplant features of IgAN is useful for counseling patients and may help in tailoring post-transplant immunosuppression. We investigated the pre-transplant clinical and biopsy features of 62 patients with IgAN who received transplants at Columbia University Medical Center from 2001 to 2012 and compared the characteristics and outcomes of patients with IgAN recurrence to those without recurrence. The primary outcome was time to recurrent IgAN. Secondary outcomes were a composite of doubling of creatinine or allograft failure, and recurrent IgAN as a cause of allograft dysfunction. Of the 62 patients, 14 had recurrent IgAN in the allograft. Mean time to recurrence was 2.75 years. Those with recurrent disease were younger at the time of native kidney biopsy (29 vs. 41 years, p < 0.0009). Black race and Hispanic ethnicity composed a higher proportion of the recurrent disease group. On multivariable analysis, significant predictors of recurrent IgAN included age at diagnosis (hazards ratio (HR) 0.911, 95% CI 0.85-0.98), burden of crescents on native biopsy (HR 1.21 per 10% increase in crescents, 95% CI 1.00-1.47) and allograft rejection (HR 3.59, 95% CI 1.10-11.7). Features of native IgAN can help predict the risk of recurrent disease in the renal allograft. In particular, immunologically active disease represented by earlier age of onset and greater burden of crescents on native biopsy is more likely to recur after transplant. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Formation of tight junctions between neighboring podocytes is an early ultrastructural feature in experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Succar L

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lena Succar,1 Ross A Boadle,2 David C Harris,1,3 Gopala K Rangan1,3 1Centre for Transplant and Renal Research, The Westmead Institute for Medical Research, The University of Sydney, 2Electron Microscopy Laboratory, Institute of Clinical Pathology and Medical Research, Westmead Hospital, 3Department of Renal Medicine, Westmead Hospital, Western Sydney Local Health District, Westmead, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: In crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN, the development of cellular bridges between podocytes and parietal epithelial cells (PECs triggers glomerular crescent formation. However, the sequential changes in glomerular ultrastructure in CGN are not well defined. This study investigated the time course of glomerular ultrastructure in experimental CGN. Methods: Transmission electron microscopy (TEM was performed using kidney samples from rats with nephrotoxic serum nephritis (NSN from day 1 to day 14. Morphometric analysis was conducted on randomly selected glomeruli captured on TEM digital images. Results: On day 1 of NSN, there was widespread formation of focal contacts between the cell bodies of neighboring podocytes, and tight junctions were evident at the site of cell-to-cell contact. This was confirmed by the increased expression of the tight junction molecule, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1, which localized to the points of podocyte cell–cell body contact. On day 2, the interpodocyte distance decreased and the glomerular basement membrane thickness increased. Foot process effacement (FPE was segmental on day 3 and diffuse by day 5, accompanied by the formation of podocyte cellular bridges with Bowman’s capsule, as confirmed by a decrease in podocyte-to-PEC distance. Fibrinoid necrosis and cellular crescents were evident in all glomeruli by days 7 and 14. In vitro, the exposure of podocytes to macrophage-conditioned media altered cellular morphology and caused an intracellular redistribution of ZO-1. Conclusion: The formation of tight

  11. Pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis in the Down′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejda Cherif

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney disease is a rare complication in patients with the Down′s syndrome. However, with increased survival, it appears that a growing number of these patients present with glomerulonephritis. Most cases have been reported as case reports and include lesions such as mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis with hypo-complementemia, crescentic glomerulonephritis with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA, amyloidosis and immunotactoid glomerulopathy. We report the observation of a 38-year-old man with the Down′s syndrome who presented with severe renal failure, proteinuria and microscopic hematuria evolving over two months. There was no history of congenital heart disease or urinary symptoms. Percutaneous renal biopsy revealed fibrous crescents, rupture of Bowman′s capsule and peri-glomerular granuloma; there were no deposits on immunofluorescence study. Thoracic computerized tomography scan showed alveolar congestion. The patient tested negative for ANCA. At the time of reporting, the patient is on regular chronic hemodialysis. Our case illustrates a distinct entity that further expands the spectrum of renal disease known to occur in the Down′s syndrome. Early detection of the renal disorders may prevent or slow down the progression.

  12. Crescent shaped Fabry-Perot fiber cavity for ultra-sensitive strain measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Wang, D. N.; Chen, W. P.

    2016-12-01

    Optical Fabry-Perot interferometer sensors based on inner air-cavity is featured with compact size, good robustness and high strain sensitivity, especially when an ultra-thin air-cavity is adopted. The typical shape of Fabry-Perot inner air-cavity with reflection mode of operation is elliptic, with minor axis along with and major axis perpendicular to the fiber length. The first reflection surface is diverging whereas the second one is converging. To increase the visibility of the output interference pattern, the length of major axis should be large for a given cavity length. However, the largest value of the major axis is limited by the optical fiber diameter. If the major axis length reaches the fiber diameter, the robustness of the Fabry-Perot cavity device would be decreased. Here we demonstrate an ultra-thin crescent shaped Fabry-Perot cavity for strain sensing with ultra-high sensitivity and low temperature cross-sensitivity. The crescent-shape cavity consists of two converging reflection surfaces, which provide the advantages of enhanced strain sensitivity when compared with elliptic or D-shaped FP cavity. The device is fabricated by fusion splicing an etched multimode fiber with a single mode fiber, and hence is simple in structure and economic in cost.

  13. Urinary Transforming Growth Factor-beta 1 as a marker of response to immunosuppressive treatment, in patients with crescentic nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotsiou Florentia

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crescentic nephritis is characterized by formation of cellular crescents that soon become fibrotic and result in irreversible damage, unless an effective immunosuppressive therapy is rapidly commenced. TGF-β1 is involved in the development of crescents through various pathways. The aim of this study was to identify whether the determination of urinary TGF-β1 levels in patients with crescentic nephritis could be used as a marker of response to treatment. Methods Fifteen patients with crescentic nephritis were included in the study. The renal expression of TGF-β1 was estimated in biopsy sections by immunohistochemistry and urinary TGF-β1 levels were determined by quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay (EIA. TGF-β1 levels were determined at the time of renal biopsy, before the initiation of immunosuppressive treatment (corticosteroids, cyclophosphamide and plasma exchange. Twelve patients with other types of proliferative glomerulonephritis and ten healthy subjects were used as controls. Results Improvement of renal function with immunosuppressive therapy was observed in 6 and stabilization in 4 patients (serum creatinine from 3.2 ± 1.5 to 1.4 ± 0.1 mg/dl and from 4.4 ± 1.2 to 4.1 ± 0.6 mg/dl, respectively. In 5 patients, with severe impairment of renal function who started on dialysis, no improvement was noted. The main histological feature differentiating these 5 patients from others with improved or stabilized renal function was the percentage patients with poor response to treatment were the percentage of glomeruli with crescents and the presence of ruptured Bowman's capsule and glomerular necrosis. Urinary TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher in patients who showed no improvement of renal function with immunosuppressive therapy (930 ± 126 ng/24 h vs. 376 ± 84 ng/24 h, p 1 was identified in crescents and tubular epithelial cells, whereas a significant correlation of TGF-β1 immunostaining with the presence

  14. A QTL on the short arm of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3B affects the stability of grain weight in plants exposed to a brief heat shock early in grain filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirdelmoghanloo, Hamid; Taylor, Julian D; Lohraseb, Iman; Rabie, Huwaida; Brien, Chris; Timmins, Andy; Martin, Peter; Mather, Diane E; Emebiri, Livinus; Collins, Nicholas C

    2016-04-22

    Molecular markers and knowledge of traits associated with heat tolerance are likely to provide breeders with a more efficient means of selecting wheat varieties able to maintain grain size after heat waves during early grain filling. A population of 144 doubled haploids derived from a cross between the Australian wheat varieties Drysdale and Waagan was mapped using the wheat Illumina iSelect 9,000 feature single nucleotide polymorphism marker array and used to detect quantitative trait loci for heat tolerance of final single grain weight and related traits. Plants were subjected to a 3 d heat treatment (37 °C/27 °C day/night) in a growth chamber at 10 d after anthesis and trait responses calculated by comparison to untreated control plants. A locus for single grain weight stability was detected on the short arm of chromosome 3B in both winter- and autumn-sown experiments, determining up to 2.5 mg difference in heat-induced single grain weight loss. In one of the experiments, a locus with a weaker effect on grain weight stability was detected on chromosome 6B. Among the traits measured, the rate of flag leaf chlorophyll loss over the course of the heat treatment and reduction in shoot weight due to heat were indicators of loci with significant grain weight tolerance effects, with alleles for grain weight stability also conferring stability of chlorophyll ('stay-green') and shoot weight. Chlorophyll loss during the treatment, requiring only two non-destructive readings to be taken, directly before and after a heat event, may prove convenient for identifying heat tolerant germplasm. These results were consistent with grain filling being limited by assimilate supply from the heat-damaged photosynthetic apparatus, or alternatively, accelerated maturation in the grains that was correlated with leaf senescence responses merely due to common genetic control of senescence responses in the two organs. There was no evidence for a role of mobilized stem reserves (water

  15. The bony crescent sign - a new sign of facial nerve schwannoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, A.; Fagan, P.

    1992-01-01

    Schwannomas are relatively uncommon intracranial tumours. They most commonly involve the acoustic nerve followed in frequency by the trigeminal nerve. Other cranial nerves are rarely involved. Facial nerve schwannomas occurring within the petrous temporal bone are very rare. Their diagnosis may be missed prospectively even when appropriate computerized tomography (CT) scans are performed. Even in retrospect the site of abnormality may be difficult to identify, especially if there is an associated middle ear mass such as a cholesteatoma. In the 4 cases presented the facial nerve schwannoma was seen on high resolution CT as a soft tissue mass bounded anteriorly by a thin rim of bone. This bony crescent sign is a previously undescribed feature of facial nerve schwannoma which appears to be strongly indicative of the presence of this tumour. Recognition of this sign makes these tumours arising in the region of the geniculate ganglion easy to diagnose prospectively. 12 refs., 6 figs

  16. Investigating of Relationship between Conflict and Trust on the Golestan Province Red Crescent Society Volunteer Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidmehdi Mehdi Veiseh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Conflict is the most important behavioral issues that, in several last deceed organizational behavior scholars intentioned to it .according to several idea about positive effects of management of conflict in organization relationship between conflict and many variables had been surveyed .in this research relationship between conflict and trust was surveyed. According to this, researchers studied the theatrical basic of research correctly and recognized main component s and variables by descriptive-survey method in this research and selected sample by random sampling and surveyed research assumptions in Golestan Red Crescent organization. Results of research shows that task conflict related with intergroup trust directly, also there is any relationship between relationship conflict and trust. Finally task conflict related with relationship conflict directly

  17. Generation of highly confined photonic nanojet using crescent-shape refractive index profile in microsphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, H. S.; Kushwaha, P. K.; Swami, M. K.

    2018-05-01

    Photonic nanojets (PNJs) owing to their sub-wavelength near-field features have found many interesting applications like nanoscopy, nano photolithography, high density optical storage, enhancement of Raman signal and single molecule spectroscopy etc. More recently, the focus of research has been on tailoring of PNJs either for better confinement and thus higher peak intensity or for elongation of nanojet for high resolution far field applications. In this paper, we show that crescent-shape refractive index profile (CSRP) of microspheres can be used to generate highly confined PNJ. By optimizing the refractive index of different layers in CSRP microsphere, we show a free space confinement down to ∼ λ / 4 . 5 (FWHM ∼ 110 nm for excitation with 500 nm wavelength). Further, it was observed that the optical properties of substrates also modulate the PNJ characteristics and lead to a further improvement in the transverse confinement to ∼ λ / 6 . 7.

  18. Water masses of Visakhapatnam shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.; Sarma, V.V.; Rao, B.P.; Rao, V.S.

    The T-S relationships of shelf waters off Visakhapatnam in the Bay of Bengal are studied for the different seasons with the data collected during February 1979 to January 1981. The T-S relationships indicate distinct characteristics of the water...

  19. Coordination: southeast continental shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    The objectives are to identify important physical, chemical and biological processes which affect the transfer of materials on the southeast continental shelf, determine important parameters which govern observed temporal and spatial varibility on the continental shelf, determine the extent and modes of coupling between events at the shelf break and nearshore, and determine physical, chemical and biological exchange rates on the inner shelf. Progress in meeting these research objectives is presented. (ACR)

  20. 76 FR 60475 - Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Issuance of a Loan Guarantee to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC, for the Crescent Dunes Solar Energy Project AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy. ACTION: Record of decision. SUMMARY: The U... and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), to Tonopah Solar Energy, LLC (TSE), for construction and...

  1. Native and recombinant proteins to analyze auto-antibodies to myeloperoxidase in pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, MM; Stegeman, CA; Oost-Kort, WW; Kallenberg, CGM; Moguilevsky, N; Limburg, PC; Tervaert, JWC

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of Anti-Neutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibodies (ANCA) directed against myeloperoxidase (MPO) in pauci-immune necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis (NCGN) is dependent on the assay(s) used, We investigated the frequency of MPO-ANCA as detected by different assays for MPO-ANCA in a large

  2. Wild relatives of domesticated pea in the Mediterranean Region and the Fertile Crescent will respond to global climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is growing interest in conservation and utilization of crop wild relatives (CWR) in international food security policy and research. We explored macroecological patterns of wild pea in the Mediterranean Basin and the Fertile Crescent in relation to the past, current and future climate suitabil...

  3. C1q nephropathy and isolated CD59 deficiency manifesting as necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis: A rare association of two diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchika Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available C1q nephropathy is a recently described clinico-pathologic entity with a variable clinical presentation and pathology. Crescentic glomerulonephritis (GN has been reported in only two patients in the available literature. CD59 deficiency, along with lack of CD55, is responsible for paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH. Few cases of isolated CD59 deficiency have been described with PNH-like features. A middle-aged adult male presented with rapidly progressive renal failure. Serological investigations were negative. A renal biopsy revealed necrotizing crescentic GN with rupture of Bowman′s capsule. Immunofluorescence on the frozen sections showed dominant mesangial deposits of C1q along with IgM. Hematological work-up of the patient revealed isolated CD59 deficiency. Hence, a final diagnosis of C1q nephropathy and CD59 deficiency manifesting as crescentic GN and hemolytic anemia was made. The co-existence of two rare disorders, C1q nephropathy and CD59 deficiency, in a patient with necrotizing crescentic GN is described for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The pathogenetic link of these two entities with the clinical manifestation requires further study.

  4. Endmembers of Ice Shelf Melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boghosian, A.; Child, S. F.; Kingslake, J.; Tedesco, M.; Bell, R. E.; Alexandrov, O.; McMichael, S.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of surface melt on ice shelves have defined a spectrum of meltwater behavior. On one end the storage of meltwater in persistent surface ponds can trigger ice shelf collapse as in the 2002 event leading to the disintegration of the Larsen B Ice Shelf. On the other, meltwater export by rivers can stabilize an ice shelf as was recently shown on the Nansen Ice Shelf. We explore this dichotomy by quantifying the partitioning between stored and transported water on two glaciers adjacent to floating ice shelves, Nimrod (Antarctica) and Peterman (Greenland). We analyze optical satellite imagery (LANDSAT, WorldView), airborne imagery (Operation IceBridge, Trimetrogon Aerial Phototography), satellite radar (Sentinel-1), and digital elevation models (DEMs) to categorize surface meltwater fate and map the evolution of ice shelf hydrology and topographic features through time. On the floating Peterman Glacier tongue a sizable river exports water to the ocean. The surface hydrology of Nimrod Glacier, geometrically similar to Peterman but with ten times shallower surface slope, is dominated by storage in surface lakes. In contrast, the Nansen has the same surface slope as Nimrod but transports water through surface rivers. Slope alone is not the sole control on ice shelf hydrology. It is essential to track the storage and transport volumes for each of these systems. To estimate water storage and transport we analyze high resolution (40 cm - 2 m) modern and historical DEMs. We produce historical (1957 onwards) DEMs with structure-from-motion photogrammetry. The DEMs are used to constrain water storage potential estimates of observed basins and water routing/transport potential. We quantify the total volume of water stored seasonally and interannually. We use the normalize difference water index to map meltwater extent, and estimate lake water depth from optical data. We also consider the role of stored water in subsurface aquifers in recharging surface water after

  5. Clinical spectrum and outcomes of crescentic glomerulonephritis: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Rampelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There is limited data on the etiology, clinical and histopathological spectrum and outcomes of crescentic glomerulonephritis (CrGN in adult Indian population. This prospective study was done to evaluate the etiology, clinicohistological patterns and predictors of outcome of CrGN in South Indian population. All the patients received standard protocol based immunosuppression in addition to supportive care. Immune-complex glomerulonephritis (ICGN was the most common etiology (n = 31; 77.5% followed by pauci-immune glomerulonephritis (PauciGN; n = 8; 20% and anti-glomerular basement membrane disease (n = 1; 2.5%. The most common etiology of ICGN was IgA nephropathy (n = 11; 27.5% followed by lupus nephritis (n = 7; 17.5% and post-infectious glomerulonephritis (PIGN (n = 7; 17.5%. The patients with PauciGN were significantly older compared to those with ICGN (44.5 ± 15 years vs. 31.8 ± 11 years; P = 0.01. The patients with PauciGN presented with significantly higher serum creatinine (9.7 ± 4.4 vs. 6.6 ± 3.3 mg/dl; P = 0.03. The histopathologic parameters of ICGN and PauciGN were comparable except for a higher proportion of sclerosed glomeruli in ICGN. At the end of 3 months follow-up, only two patients went into complete remission (5.4%. Majority of the patients had end-stage renal failure (48.6% and were dialysis dependent and seven patients (18.9% expired. There was no signifi difference in the renal survival (10.9 ± 1.9 vs. 9.6 ± 3.3 months or patient survival (17.5 ± 2.1 vs. 17.3 ± 4.3 months. The parameters associated with adverse outcomes at 3 months were hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 0.58; confidence interval [CI]: 0.36–0.94, need for renal replacement therapy (OR: 0.19; CI: 0.04–0.9, serum creatinine at admission (P = 0.019, estimated glomerular filtration rate (P = 0.022 and percentage of fibrocellular crescents (P = 0.022.

  6. Meningitis granulomatosa, glomerulonefritis rápidamente progresiva y vasculitis Granulomatous meningitis, crescentic glomerulonephritis and vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Ludueña

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available El compromiso meníngeo es una manifestación infrecuente de la granulomatosis de Wegener. Puede manifestarse como cefalea con hiperproteinorraquia y engrosamiento de la duramadre con aspecto granulomatoso, que se observa en la resonancia magnética. Presentamos un varón de 57 años con granulomatosis de Wegener que debutó con compromiso de vías aéreas superiores, oídos, órbitas y meningitis granulomatosa asintomática y que posteriormente evolucionó con mononeuritis múltiple y glomerulonefritis crescéntica ANCA positiva. La presencia de ANCA y el compromiso sistémico (vías aéreas superiores, oído, órbitas, nervios periféricos, duramadre y glomerulonefritis rápidamente progresiva permitieron en este caso llegar a un diagnóstico de certeza e iniciar el tratamiento inmunosupresor combinado (corticoides y ciclofosfamida. Evolucionó con remisión clínica y serológica (negativización de ANCA, pero persistiendo leve deterioro secuelar auditivo y de la función renal, sin recidiva de la enfermedad de base.Meningeal involvement is an infrequent manifestation of Wegener's granulomatosis. Clinical manifestations can be headache with high protein level in the cerebrospinal fluid and an enhanced MRI signal of granulomatous thickening of the duramater in the brain. We report a 57 year-old male with Wegener granulomatosis with onset manifestations of asymptomatic granulomatous meningitis, upper respiratory tract, ears and orbits involvement. He progressively developed ANCA positive multiple mononeuritis and crescentic glomerulonephritis. The diagnostic confirmation of Wegener's granulomatosis based on a positive ANCA test and on the evidence of systemic disease (crescentic glomerulonephritis and involvement of the upper respiratory tract, ears, orbits, peripheral nerves and duramater allowed a prompt initiation of aggressive immunosuppressive treatment with systemic cyclophosphamide and high - dosis corticosteroids. The patient entered

  7. Rhino-orbitocerebral mucormycosis in a patient with idiopathic crescentic glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Sanavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis, caused by mucorales, is an acute, rapidly progressive infection associated with high mortality. Rhino-orbitocerebral infection is the most common variant and is generally seen in association with immune deficiency syndromes. Prompt medical treatment of this infection and debridement decreases the mortality rate. We describe a 47-year-old man with crescentic glomerulonephritis on maintenance prednisolone therapy. He had earlier received steroid and cyclophosphamide pulse therapies. Renal functions improved following immunosuppressive treatment. In the third month of maintenance therapy, he presented to us with left-sided facial swelling and bloody nasal discharge. He had high blood sugar and acidic blood pH (ketoacidosis, probably due to steroid therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging of the head and sinuses showed inflammation and mass in the ethmoid sinus and nose with partial septal destruction, proptosis, global destruction of the left eye, brain infarction and carotid artery obliteration. Endoscopic biopsy of the sinuses revealed severe tissue necrosis. Samples of nasal discharge and biopsy tissue showed aseptate hyphae on light microscopy and culture, compatible with Rhizopus. The patient was treated with amphotericin B and multiple wound debridements along with ethmoidectomy and enucleation of the left eye. He was discharged in good general condition but with mild right hemiparesis. On follow-up examination at one year, there were no signs of fungal infection or renal dysfunction.

  8. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Presenting as Pauci-Immune Crescentic Glomerulonephritis in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Kunjal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA associated vasculitis rarely affects females of reproductive age. A 28-year-old African American woman presented at 8 weeks of gestation with intractable vomiting attributed to hyperemesis gravidarum. She was found to have acute kidney injury that was unresponsive to vigorous fluid resuscitation and urine sediment examination was suggestive of an underlying glomerulonephritis. Serum c-ANCA and PR3 were elevated and there was no peripheral eosinophilia. During her course she also developed one episode of small volume hemoptysis with right upper lobe infiltrates on CT Chest. There were no cutaneous manifestations of vasculitis or upper respiratory symptoms. Renal biopsy revealed a pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (PICGN. The diagnosis was consistent with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA. Management initially comprised teratogen sparing agents; steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin; and plasma exchange. The response was suboptimal and she became dependent on daily renal replacement therapy. Ultimately the pregnancy was terminated allowing for traditional treatment approaches with dramatic effect. This is the first case of GPA presenting as PICGN in pregnancy and highlights the challenges of its management.

  9. Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Presenting as Pauci-Immune Crescentic Glomerulonephritis in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunjal, Ryan; Makary, Raafat; Poenariu, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitis rarely affects females of reproductive age. A 28-year-old African American woman presented at 8 weeks of gestation with intractable vomiting attributed to hyperemesis gravidarum. She was found to have acute kidney injury that was unresponsive to vigorous fluid resuscitation and urine sediment examination was suggestive of an underlying glomerulonephritis. Serum c-ANCA and PR3 were elevated and there was no peripheral eosinophilia. During her course she also developed one episode of small volume hemoptysis with right upper lobe infiltrates on CT Chest. There were no cutaneous manifestations of vasculitis or upper respiratory symptoms. Renal biopsy revealed a pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis (PICGN). The diagnosis was consistent with granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA). Management initially comprised teratogen sparing agents; steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin; and plasma exchange. The response was suboptimal and she became dependent on daily renal replacement therapy. Ultimately the pregnancy was terminated allowing for traditional treatment approaches with dramatic effect. This is the first case of GPA presenting as PICGN in pregnancy and highlights the challenges of its management.

  10. Open wedge metatarsal osteotomy versus crescentic osteotomy to correct severe hallux valgus deformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Jens Ulrik; Hamborg-Petersen, Ellen; Herold, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different techniques of proximal osteotomies have been introduced to correct severe hallux valgus. The open wedge osteotomy is a newly introduced method for proximal osteotomy. The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the radiological and clinical results after...... operation for severe hallux valgus, comparing the open wedge osteotomy to the crescentic osteotomy which is our traditional treatment. METHODS: Forty-five patients with severe hallux valgus (hallux valgus angle >35̊, and intermetatarsal angle >15̊) were included in this study. The treatment was proximal...... and 12 months after the operation. RESULTS: In group 1 the hallux valgus angle decreased from 39.0̊ to 24.1̊ after 4 months and 27.9̊ after 12 months. In group 2 the angle decreased from 38.3̊ to 21.4̊ after 4 months and 27.0̊ after 12 months. The intermetatarsal angle in group 1 was 19.0̊ preoperatively...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, salinity and other variables collected from time series observations using Bubble type equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement, Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer and other instruments from MOORINGS_CRESCENT_64W_32N and MOORING_CRESCENT_64W_32N in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2010-11-27 to 2015-12-31 (NODC Accession 0117059)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0117059 includes chemical, meteorological, physical and time series data collected from MOORINGS_CRESCENT_64W_32N and MOORING_CRESCENT_64W_32N in the...

  12. Crescentic and ring-shaped opacities. CT features in two cases of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloudaki, A.E.; Bouros, D.E.; Froudarakis, M.E.; Datseris, G.E.; Apostolaki, E.G.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.C.

    1996-01-01

    Two cases of idiopathic bronchilitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) with unusual CT findings are presented. On CT both cases exhibited crescentic and ring-shaped opacities, surrounding areas of groundglass attenuation, and associated with a nodular pattern in one patient and airspace consolidations in the second patient. CT-pathologic correlation dislosed that the central areas of groundglass attenuation corresponded to alveolar septal inflammation, in contrast to the denser periphery where granulomatous tissue in peripheral airspaces predominated. In the broad spectrum of CT findings, BOOP can exhibit specific CT features with regard to the crescentic or ring-shaped opacities with a central groundglass attenuation area. Since these features have not been described in any other disease, they might be characteristic features for the diagnosis of BOOP. (orig.)

  13. Trafficking Golden Crescent Drugs into Western China: An Analysis and Translation of a Recent Chinese Police Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    illegal drug exchanges and consumption markets in Xinjiang, and soon this heroin even exceeded the market position of traditional Golden Triangle heroin...tons of the precursor chemical acetic anhydride {cusucmgan; WiW. iff) being smuggled out of the border. • 800,000 tabs of the psychoactive drug ...Trafficking Golden Crescent Drugs into Western China: An Analysis and Translation of a Recent Chinese Police Research Article Dr. Murray Scot

  14. Monitoring plant tissue nitrogen isotopes to assess nearshore inputs of nitrogen to Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Stephen E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Huffman, Raegan L.; Fradkin, Steven C.

    2016-05-31

    Mats of filamentous-periphytic algae present in some nearshore areas of Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington, may indicate early stages of eutrophication from nutrient enrichment of an otherwise highly oligotrophic lake. Natural abundance ratios of stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ15N) measured in plant tissue growing in nearshore areas of the lake indicate that the major source of nitrogen used by these primary producing plants is derived mainly from atmospherically fixed nitrogen in an undeveloped forested ecosystem. Exceptions to this pattern occurred in the Barnes Point area where elevated δ15N ratios indicate that effluent from septic systems also contribute nitrogen to filamentous-periphytic algae growing in the littoral zone of that area. Near the Lyre River outlet of Lake Crescent, the δ15N of filamentous-periphytic algae growing in close proximity to the spawning areas of a unique species of trout show little evidence of elevated δ15N indicating that nitrogen from on-site septic systems is not a substantial source of nitrogen for these plants. The δ15N data corroborate estimates that nitrogen input to Lake Crescent from septic sources is comparatively small relative to input from motor vehicle exhaust and vegetative sources in undeveloped forests, including litterfall, pollen, and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. The seasonal timing of blooms of filamentous-periphytic algal near the lake shoreline is also consistent with nitrogen exported from stands of red alder trees (Alnus rubra). Isotope biomonitoring of filamentous-periphytic algae may be an effective approach to monitoring the littoral zone for nutrient input to Lake Crescent from septic sources.

  15. [Notes on the Indian Red Crescent aid and Dr. Ensari's contributions before the decline of the Ottoman Empire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izgöer, Ahmet Zeki

    2002-01-01

    This article deals with the Indian Red Crescent aids and Dr. Ahmed Ensari's role in this activity during the wars in the early 20th century that led the Ottoman Empire to dismantle. The Indian Red Crescent presided by Dr. Ensari sent a medical team and sanitary material for the Ottomans battered during the war in Tripoli (1911) and the succeeding war at the Balkans (1912). The article also deals with the meetings of the above-mentioned medical team with the Ottoman statesmen and dignitaries; its success at the Tripoli front and its projects concerning the Ottoman immigrants from the Balkan region. The humanitarian aids of the Indian Red Crescent continued afterwards, especially during the World War II (1914-1918) and the War of Independence (1919-1922). On their return to India, Dr. Ensari and the members of the team held a series of meetings and spoke of their activities to the people in their country. They tried to spread their sympathy for the Ottoman-Turkish people even to the outposts of India. This article is an attempt to describe the sympathy of this brother nation (Pakistan of today) proved by their aids and support far away from their borders.

  16. The weeding handbook a shelf-by-shelf guide

    CERN Document Server

    Vnuk, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    "No! We can't rid of that!" Vnuk, author of the popular "Weeding Tips" column on Booklist Online, is here to show you that yes, you can. A library is an ever-changing organism; when done the right way, weeding helps a library thrive by focusing its resources on those parts of the collection that are the most useful to its users. Her handbook takes the guesswork out of this delicate but necessary process, giving public and school library staff the knowledge and the confidence to effectively weed any collection, of any size. Going through the proverbial stacks shelf by shelf, Vnuk: Explains why weeding is important for a healthy library, demonstrating that a vibrant collection leads to robust circulation, which in turn affects library budgets Walks readers through a library's shelves by Dewey area, with recommended weeding criteria and call-outs in each area for the different considerations of large collections and smaller collections Features a chapter addressing reference, media, magazines and newspapers, e-b...

  17. On the shelf life of pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capen, Robert; Christopher, David; Forenzo, Patrick; Ireland, Charles; Liu, Oscar; Lyapustina, Svetlana; O'Neill, John; Patterson, Nate; Quinlan, Michelle; Sandell, Dennis; Schwenke, James; Stroup, Walter; Tougas, Terrence

    2012-09-01

    This article proposes new terminology that distinguishes between different concepts involved in the discussion of the shelf life of pharmaceutical products. Such comprehensive and common language is currently lacking from various guidelines, which confuses implementation and impedes comparisons of different methodologies. The five new terms that are necessary for a coherent discussion of shelf life are: true shelf life, estimated shelf life, supported shelf life, maximum shelf life, and labeled shelf life. These concepts are already in use, but not named as such. The article discusses various levels of "product" on which different stakeholders tend to focus (e.g., a single-dosage unit, a batch, a production process, etc.). The article also highlights a key missing element in the discussion of shelf life-a Quality Statement, which defines the quality standard for all key stakeholders. Arguments are presented that for regulatory and statistical reasons the true product shelf life should be defined in terms of a suitably small quantile (e.g., fifth) of the distribution of batch shelf lives. The choice of quantile translates to an upper bound on the probability that a randomly selected batch will be nonconforming when tested at the storage time defined by the labeled shelf life. For this strategy, a random-batch model is required. This approach, unlike a fixed-batch model, allows estimation of both within- and between-batch variability, and allows inferences to be made about the entire production process. This work was conducted by the Stability Shelf Life Working Group of the Product Quality Research Institute.

  18. Swell propagation across a wide continental shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickson, Eric J.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of wave refraction and damping on swell propagation across a wide continental shelf were examined with data from a transect of bottom pressure recorders extending from the beach to the shelf break near Duck, North Carolina. The observations generally show weak variations in swell energy across the shelf during benign conditions, in qualitative agreement with predictions of a spectral refraction model. Although the predicted ray trajectories are quite sensitive to the irregular she...

  19. Long Term Population, City Size and Climate Trends in the Fertile Crescent: A First Approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Dan; Philip, Graham; Hunt, Hannah; Snape-Kennedy, Lisa; Wilkinson, T J

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 8000 years the Fertile Crescent of the Near East has seen the emergence of urban agglomerations, small scale polities and large territorial empires, all of which had profound effects on settlement patterns. Computational approaches, including the use of remote sensing data, allow us to analyse these changes at unprecedented geographical and temporal scales. Here we employ these techniques to examine and compare long term trends in urbanisation, population and climate records. Maximum city size is used as a proxy for the intensity of urbanisation, whilst population trends are modelled from settlement densities in nine archaeological surveys conducted over the last 30 years across the region. These two measures are then compared with atmospheric moisture levels derived from multiple proxy analyses from two locations close to the study area, Soreq Cave in Israel and Lake Van in south-eastern Turkey, as well as wider literature. The earliest urban sites emerged during a period of relatively high atmospheric moisture levels and conform to a series of size thresholds. However, after the Early Bronze Age maximum urban size and population levels increase rapidly whilst atmospheric moisture declines. We argue that although the initial phase of urbanization may have been linked to climate conditions, we can see a definitive decoupling of climate and settlement patterns after 2000 BC. We relate this phenomenon to changes in socio-economic organisation and integration in large territorial empires. The complex relationships sustaining urban growth during this later period resulted in an increase in system fragility and ultimately impacted on the sustainability of cities in the long term.

  20. Whither the UK Continental Shelf?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The development of the oil and gas fields on the United Kingdom continental shelf has been carried out with remarkable success. However, low oil prices now threaten fresh investment and make it likely that both oil and gas output will start to fall in about 2001. The impact of a number of different price scenarios on further development is assessed. It is concluded that continuing technological improvements and the provision of adequate incentives by government should ensure a long productive future for the province. (UK)

  1. Shelf life of electronic/electrical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polanco, S.; Behera, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses inconsistencies which exist between various industry practices regarding the determination of shelf life for electrical and electronic components. New methodologies developed to evaluate the shelf life of electrical and electronic components are described and numerous tests performed at Commonwealth Edison Company's Central Receiving Inspection and Testing (CRIT) Facility are presented. Based upon testing and analysis using the Arrhenius methodology and typical materials used in the manufacturing of electrical and electronic components, shelf life of these devices was determined to be indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite. Various recommendations to achieve an indefinite shelf life are presented to ultimately reduce inventory and operating costs at nuclear power plants

  2. A Lagrangian analysis of the moisture budget over the Fertile Crescent during two intense drought episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Zeinab; Nieto, Raquel; Drumond, Anita; Gimeno, Luis; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2018-05-01

    The Fertile Crescent (FC) region comprises the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula. The FC suffered two severe drought episodes separated by a 7-year period, in 1998-2000 and 2007-2009, which are considered the most severe episodes to hit the region in the last 50 years. A Lagrangian model (FLEXPART) and ERA-Interim data (with a 1° × 1° lat-long resolution) were used to identify for the first time the climatological sources of moisture for the FC and their characteristics. Variability and the source-receptor relationships, concerning their contribution to the precipitation, and the implications regarding the transport of moisture changes over the FC, during the wet season (October-May) from 1980 to 2014 were analysed. The main climatological moisture sources during this period were determined to be the FC itself, the eastern Mediterranean Sea, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, the Arabian Sea, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the central and western parts of the Mediterranean Sea. The analysis showed higher anomalous conditions in the moisture transport from some moisture sources during the two outstanding drought episodes. The key feature of the wet seasons during these episodes was a deficit in the moisture losses over the studied area related to the FC itself, the Red and Arabian Seas sources, followed and to a lesser extent by the eastern Mediterranean Sea over the northern part of the FC region. Nevertheless, the moisture supply deficit from the sources was much greater during the 2007-2009 drought event. The SPEI index at large scales (24 months) showed that the 2007-2009 episode was part of longer-term drought conditions that had been developing over the previous months, reinforcing the drought severity given recycling processes attributed to the FC. During the two extreme drought episodes, the mountainous terrain over the northern and eastern FC suffered the highest precipitation deficits, and these areas are

  3. Radiographic/morphologic investigation of a radiolucent crescent within the flexor central eminence of the navicular bone in Thoroughbreds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.R.; Pool, R.R.; Stover, S.; O'Brien, T.R.; Koblik, P.D.

    1992-01-01

    The source of a previously described radiolucent crescent in the flexor cortex of the distal sesamoid (navicular) bone on the palmaro45 degrees proximal-palmarodistal oblique (Pa45 degrees Pr-PaDio) clinical radiographic projection was investigated in 48 forelimb navicular bones from 24 Thoroughbreds by use of high-detail radiography and x-ray computed tomography (CT). Twenty-five of these bones also were evaluated, using microradiography and histologic examinations. Of these 25 bones, 5 had been labeled in vivo with fluorochrome markers. Tetrachrome-stained 100-microns-thick nondecalcified sections of these 5 bones were examined, using epifluorescence microscopy. A reinforcement line of compacted cancellous bone, parallel and several millimeters deep to the flexor cortex in the region of the flexor central eminence, was visualized by CT in 42 of 48 navicular bones and by microradiography in 23 of 25 navicular bones investigated. Variable degrees of compaction were observed in the cancellous bone between the flexor cortex and the reinforcement line. High-detail skyline radiographic projections and reconstructed CT images indicated a crescent-shaped lucency within the flexor central eminence of the flexor cortex in the bones in which the reinforcement line was identified, but the cancellous bone between the reinforcement line and the flexor cortex had not been compacted. The radiolucent crescent seen in the flexor central eminence of the navicular bone on the Pa45 degrees Pr-PaDiO projection was not caused by the concave defect or synovial fossa of the flexor central eminence overlying the flexor cortex, as was described

  4. Sources and sinks of nitrogen and phosphorus to a deep, oligotrophic lake, Lake Crescent, Olympic National Park, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, P.W.; Cox, S.E.; Embrey, S.S.; Huffman, R.L.; Olsen, T.D.; Fradkin, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    Lake Crescent, in Olympic National Park in the northwest corner of Washington State is a deep-water lake renowned for its pristine water quality and oligotrophic nature. To examine the major sources and sinks of nutrients (as total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and dissolved nitrate), a study was conducted in the Lake Crescent watershed. The study involved measuring five major inflow streams, the Lyre River as the major outflow, recording weather and climatic data, coring lake bed sediment, and analyzing nutrient chemistry in several relevant media over 14 months. Water samples for total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and dissolved nitrate from the five inflow streams, the outlet Lyre River, and two stations in the lake were collected monthly from May 2006 through May 2007. Periodic samples of shallow water from temporary sampling wells were collected at numerous locations around the lake. Concentrations of nutrients detected in Lake Crescent and tributaries were then applied to the water budget estimates to arrive at monthly and annual loads from various environmental components within the watershed. Other sources, such as leaf litter, pollen, or automobile exhaust were estimated from annual values obtained from various literature sources. This information then was used to construct a nutrient budget for total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The nitrogen budget generally highlights vehicle traffic-diesel trucks in particular-along U.S. Highway 101 as a potential major anthropogenic source of nitrogen compounds in the lake. In contrast, contribution of nitrogen compounds from onsite septic systems appears to be relatively minor related to the other sources identified.

  5. High performance 1.3 μm buried crescent lasers and LEDs for fiber optic links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, R.J.; Chan, E.Y.; Hong, C.S.

    1989-01-01

    Self-aligned buried crescent heterostructure (BCH) semiconductor lasers and LEDs have been successfully developed as superb light sources for fiber optic communications. The fabrication and performance characteristics of these InGaAsP/InP lasers and LEDs are described. For lasers, the threshold currents as low as 10 mA and differential quantum efficiencies as high as 50% are achieved. For LEDs, the output powers at 150 mA are higher than 1 mW. Good far field patterns are obtained in both the LEDs and lasers. Measured I-V, L-I, spectrum and far field patterns are presented

  6. Open wedge metatarsal osteotomy versus crescentic osteotomy to correct severe hallux valgus deformity - A prospective comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wester, Jens Ulrik; Hamborg-Petersen, Ellen; Herold, Niels; Hansen, Palle Bo; Froekjaer, Johnny

    2016-03-01

    Different techniques of proximal osteotomies have been introduced to correct severe hallux valgus. The open wedge osteotomy is a newly introduced method for proximal osteotomy. The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare the radiological and clinical results after operation for severe hallux valgus, comparing the open wedge osteotomy to the crescentic osteotomy which is our traditional treatment. Forty-five patients with severe hallux valgus (hallux valgus angle >35̊, and intermetatarsal angle >15̊) were included in this study. The treatment was proximal open wedge osteotomy and fixation with plate (Hemax), group 1, or operation with proximal crescentic osteotomy and fixation with a 3mm cannulated screw, group 2. The mean age was 52 years (19-71). Forty-one females and four males were included. Clinical and radiological follow-ups were performed 4 and 12 months after the operation. In group 1 the hallux valgus angle decreased from 39.0̊ to 24.1̊ after 4 months and 27.9̊ after 12 months. In group 2 the angle decreased from 38.3̊ to 21.4̊ after 4 months and 27.0̊ after 12 months. The intermetatarsal angle in group 1 was 19.0̊ preoperatively, 11.6̊ after 4 months and 12.6̊ after 12 months. In group 2 the mean intermetatarsal angle was 18.9̊ preoperatively, 12.0̊ after 4 months and 12.6̊ after 12 months. The AOFAS score improved from 59.3 to 81.5 in group 1 and from 61.8 to 84.8 in group 2 respectively measured 12 months postoperatively. The relative length of the 1 metatarsal compared to 2 metatarsal bone was 0.88 and 0.87 preoperatively and 0.88 and 0.86 for group 1 and 2 respectively measured after 12 months. Crescentic osteotomy and open wedge osteotomy improve AOFAS score and VAS scores on patients operated with severe hallux valgus. No significant difference was found in the two groups looking at the postoperative improvement of HVA and IMA measured 4 and 12 months postoperatively. The postoperative VAS score and AOFAS score were

  7. Participacao crescente de produtos ultraprocessados na dieta brasileira (1987-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Bortoletto Martins

    2013-08-01

    ários. CONCLUSÕES Produtos ultraprocessados apresentam participação crescente na dieta brasileira, evidenciada desde a década de 1980 nas áreas metropolitanas e confirmada para todo o País na década de 2000.

  8. Respostas de cultivares de girassol a doses crescentes de boro na entressafra do Cerrado Tocantinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Capone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available No cerrado brasileiro a deficiência de boro no solo ocorre com maior frequência. A cultura do girassol é muito sensível à deficiência deste micronutriente, além de apresentar pouca eficiência em seu aproveitamento. Neste contexto, objetivou-se com este estudo avaliar as respostas de cultivares de girassol a doses crescentes de boro no período da entressafra no cerrado tocantinense. O experimento foi conduzido em Gurupi, (TO, com sistema de plantio direto em sucessão a soja, sobre Latossolo Vermelho Amarelo distrófico. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi de blocos casualizados, com quinze tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos num esquema fatorial simples 3 x 5, constituído por três cultivares de girassol (variedade Br 122, híbridos Aguará 4 e Helio 863 e cinco doses de ácido bórico (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 kg ha-1. As características avaliadas foram: altura de planta, diâmetro da haste, diâmetro do capítulo, concentração de boro foliar, massa de mil aquênios e produtividade de aquênios. A dose de 3 kg ha-1 de boro proporcionou, em sua grande maioria, as melhores respostas das cultivares Br 122, Aguará 4 e Helio 863 quanto às características avaliadas. No entanto, com esta dose, a cultivar Aguará 4 apresenta melhor aproveitamento para produção de aquênios.Responses of sunflower cultivars to increasing doses of boron in the between harvests the Cerrado TocantinenseAbstract: In the brazilian cerrado soil boron deficiency occurs more frequently. The sunflower crop is very sensitive to this micronutrient deficiency, and have little efficiency in its use. In that context, aimed to of this study was to evaluate the response of sunflower cultivars to increasing doses of boron during the between harvests in the cerrado tocantinense. The experiment was conducted in Gurupi (TO, with no-tillages soybeans in succession on dystrophic Red Yellow Latosol. The experimental design was a randomized block

  9. A Probabilistic Tsunami Hazard Assessment Methodology and Its Application to Crescent City, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F. I.; Leveque, R. J.; Waagan, K.; Adams, L.; Lin, G.

    2012-12-01

    A PTHA methodology, based in large part on Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment methods (e.g., Cornell, 1968; SSHAC, 1997; Geist and Parsons, 2005), was previously applied to Seaside, OR (Gonzalez, et al., 2009). This initial version of the method has been updated to include: a revised method to estimate tidal uncertainty; an improved method for generating stochastic realizations to estimate slip distribution uncertainty (Mai and Beroza, 2002; Blair, et al., 2011); additional near-field sources in the Cascadia Subduction Zone, based on the work of Goldfinger, et al. (2012); far-field sources in Japan, based on information updated since the 3 March 2011 Tohoku tsunami (Japan Earthquake Research Committee, 2011). The GeoClaw tsunami model (Berger, et. al, 2011) is used to simulate generation, propagation and inundation. We will discuss this revised PTHA methodology and the results of its application to Crescent City, CA. Berger, M.J., D. L. George, R. J. LeVeque, and K. T. Mandli, The GeoClaw software for depth-averaged flows with adaptive refinement, Adv. Water Res. 34 (2011), pp. 1195-1206. Blair, J.L., McCrory, P.A., Oppenheimer, D.H., and Waldhauser, F. (2011): A Geo-referenced 3D model of the Juan de Fuca Slab and associated seismicity: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 633, v.1.0, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/633/. Cornell, C. A. (1968): Engineering seismic risk analysis, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am., 58, 1583-1606. Geist, E. L., and T. Parsons (2005): Probabilistic Analysis of Tsunami Hazards, Nat. Hazards, 37 (3), 277-314. Goldfinger, C., Nelson, C.H., Morey, A.E., Johnson, J.E., Patton, J.R., Karabanov, E., Gutiérrez-Pastor, J., Eriksson, A.T., Gràcia, E., Dunhill, G., Enkin, R.J., Dallimore, A., and Vallier, T. (2012): Turbidite event history—Methods and implications for Holocene paleoseismicity of the Cascadia subduction zone: U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1661-F, 170 p. (Available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/pp1661f/). González, F

  10. A pilot project of an online cross-age tutoring program: crescent school virtual learning (vLearning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Ronald

    2016-11-01

    Traditional classroom teaching is the standard of education. However, there may be some students who feel uncomfortable approaching their teachers and may feel more at ease if they ask for assistance from their peers. There are two types of student-to-student tutoring methods that are supplements to classroom learning: peer tutoring between same-age students and cross-age tutoring between different-age children. Cross-age tutoring programs in which the tutor is 2-3 years older than the tutee have been reported to be more effective than those between same-age students in promoting student responsibility, empowerment and academic performance. A pilot online cross-age tutoring program was launched in September 2014 at Crescent School. A new website was designed, created and implemented with the permission and regular monitoring of the Student Services faculty for the online program - Crescent School Virtual Learning (vLearning). The program was well received and will undergo evaluation in the future.

  11. CARR-CNS with crescent-shape moderator cell and sub-cooling helium jacket around cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qingfeng; Feng, Quanke; Kawai, Takeshi; Cheng, Liang; Shen, Feng; Yuan, Luzheng

    2005-01-01

    The new type of the moderator cell was developed for the Cold Neutron Source (CNS) of the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) which is now constructing at the China Institute of Atomic Energy in Beijing. A crescent-shape moderator cell covered by the sub-cooling helium jacket is adopted. A crescent-shape would help to increase the volume of the moderator cell for corresponding it to the 4 cold neutron guide tubes, even if liquid hydrogen not liquid deuterium were used as a cold moderator. The sub-cooling helium jacket covering the moderator cell removes the nuclear heating of the outer shell wall of the cell. It contributes to reduce the void fraction of liquid hydrogen in the inner shell. Such a type of a moderator cell is suitable for the CNS with higher nuclear heating. The cold helium gas flows down firstly into the sub-cooling helium jacket and then flows up to the condenser. Therefore, the theory of the self-regulation for the thermo-siphon type of the CNS is also applicable

  12. Narrowing the harvest: Increasing sickle investment and the rise of domesticated cereal agriculture in the Fertile Crescent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Osamu; Lucas, Leilani; Silva, Fabio; Tanno, Ken-Ichi; Fuller, Dorian Q.

    2016-08-01

    For the first time we integrate quantitative data on lithic sickles and archaeobotanical evidence for domestication and the evolution of plant economies from sites dated to the terminal Pleistocene and Early Holocene (ca. 12000-5000 cal. BCE) from throughout the Fertile Crescent region of Southwest Asia. We find a strong correlation in some regions, throughout the Levant, for increasing investment in sickles that tracks the evidence for increasing reliance on cereal crops, while evidence for morphological domestication in wheats (Triticum monococcum and Triticum dicoccum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare) was delayed in comparison to sickle use. These data indicate that while the co-increase of sickle blades and cereal crops support the protracted development of agricultural practice, sickles did not drive the initial stages of the domestication process but rather were a cultural adaptation to increasing reliance on cereals that were still undergoing selection for morphological change. For other regions, such as the Eastern Fertile Crescent and Cyprus such correlations are weaker or non-existent suggesting diverse cultural trajectories to cereal domestication. We conclude that sickles were an exaptation transferred to cereal harvesting and important in signalling a new cultural identity of "farmers". Furthermore, the protracted process of technological and agricultural evolution calls into question hypotheses that the transition to agriculture was caused by any particular climatic event.

  13. Strength analysis of CARR-CNS with crescent-shape moderator cell and helium sub-cooling jacket covering cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Qingfeng; Feng Quanke; Kawai Takeshi; Shen Feng; Yuan Luzheng; Cheng Liang

    2005-01-01

    The new type of the moderator cell was developed for the cold neutron source (CNS) of the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) which is now being constructed at the China Institute of Atomic Energy in Beijing. A crescent-shape moderator cell covered by the helium sub-cooling jacket is adopted. The structure of the moderator cell is optimized by the stress FEM analysis. A crescent-shape would help to increase the volume of the moderator cell for fitting it to the four cold neutron guide tubes, even if liquid hydrogen, not liquid deuterium, was used as a cold moderator. The helium sub-cooling jacket covering the moderator cell removes the nuclear heating of the outer shell wall of the cell. It contributes to reduce the void fraction of liquid hydrogen in the outer shell of the moderator cell. Such a type of a moderator cell is suitable for the CNS with higher nuclear heating. The cold helium gas flows down first into the helium sub-cooling jacket and then flows up to the condenser. The theory of the self-regulation suitable to the thermo-siphon type of the CNS is also applicable and validated

  14. CARR-CNS with crescent-shape moderator cell and sub-cooling helium jacket surrounding cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Qingfeng; Feng, Quanke; Kawai, Takeshi; Shen, Feng; Yuan, Luzheng

    2005-01-01

    The new type of the moderator cell was developed for the Cold Neutron Source (CNS) of the China Advanced Research Reactor (CARR) which is now constructing at the China Institute of Atomic Energy in Beijing. A crescent-shape moderator cell covered by the sub-cooling helium jacket is adopted. A crescent-shape would help to increase the volume of the moderator cell for corresponding it to the 4 cold neutron guide tubes, even if liquid hydrogen not liquid deuterium were used as a cold moderator. The sub-cooling helium jacket covering the moderator cell removes the nuclear heating of the outer shell wall of the cell. It contributes to reduce the void fraction of liquid hydrogen in the inner shell. Such a type of a moderator cell is suitable for the CNS with higher nuclear heating. The cold helium gas flows down firstly into the sub-cooling helium jacket and then flows up to the condenser. Therefore, the theory of the self-regulation for the thermo-siphon type of the CNS is also applicable

  15. The crescent sign: dissociation of the polyethylene liner from a modular acetabular component in total hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.P.; Blom, A.W.; Lee, M.; Smith, E.J.

    2005-01-01

    To study whether there was a common pattern of clinical symptoms, signs and radiographic features for the dissociation of the polyethylene liner from an acetabular component and to postulate reasons for these features. Retrospective study of notes and radiographs of cases of revision hip arthroplasty for polyethylene liner dissociation of the cementless Harris-Galante I porous-coated acetabular component (Zimmer Inc, Warsaw, IN) at the Avon Orthopaedic Centre, Bristol, UK and St. Mary's Hospital, Bristol, UK between 1995 and 2004. Patients were contacted to confirm preoperative symptoms. Nine cases of late polyethylene liner dissociation of this prosthesis have been revised in these institutions. All patients presented with a reduction in mobility, groin pain and limp. Eight patients reported an audible noise on hip movement. In all cases, radiographs showed radiolucency medial to the femoral neck in association with an eccentrically placed femoral head showing contact with the acetabular metal shell, which we have termed the ''crescent sign.'' There is a typical clinical presentation in this study. The diagnosis can be made from a single anteroposterior pelvic radiograph without the need for previous films for comparison, or the need for arthrography. Clinicians should look specifically for the crescent sign when an eccentrically placed femoral head has been noted, in order to differentiate the more unusual diagnosis of dissociation from that of polyethylene wear. Early revision surgery can prevent damage to the femoral head and metal acetabular shell, thus reducing the complexity of revision surgery. (orig.)

  16. Influence of estuaries on shelf foraminiferal species

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.

    Dabhol-bhatkal stretch of the west coast of India is marked by a number of estuaries. Cavarotalia annectens is selected to monitor the influence of these estuaries on the inner shelf foraminiferal fauna. The percentage distribution of this species...

  17. Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Southwest Florida Shelf Ecosystems Analysis Study produced grain size analyses in the historic 073 format for 299 sea floor samples collected from October 25,...

  18. The shelf life of dyed polymethylmethacrylate dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bett, R.; Watts, M.F.; Plested, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    The long-term stability of the radiation response of Harwell Red 4034 and Amber 3042 Perspex Dosimeters has been monitored for more than 15 years, and the resulting data used in the justification of their shelf-life specifications

  19. Tidal Mixing at the Shelf Break

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hogg, Nelson; Legg, Sonya

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study mixing forced by tidal flow over sudden changes in topographic slope such as near the shelf-break, using high-resolution nonhydrostatic numerical simulations employing the MIT gem...

  20. Radurisation of broilers for shelf life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bok, H.E.; Holzapfel, W.H.; Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    Radurization is discussed as a method for the shelf life extension of refrigerated chicken carcasses. One of the advantages is that radurization eliminates potential food pathogenic bacteria like Salmonella in the chicken carcasses. Materials and methods for the radurization of chicken are discussed. The objective of the investigation was to determine the influence of different irradiation doses and storage conditions on the microbiological shelf life and organoleptic quality of fresh broilers

  1. How ice shelf morphology controls basal melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Gnanadesikan, Anand; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2009-12-01

    The response of ice shelf basal melting to climate is a function of ocean temperature, circulation, and mixing in the open ocean and the coupling of this external forcing to the sub-ice shelf circulation. Because slope strongly influences the properties of buoyancy-driven flow near the ice shelf base, ice shelf morphology plays a critical role in linking external, subsurface heat sources to the ice. In this paper, the slope-driven dynamic control of local and area-integrated melting rates is examined under a wide range of ocean temperatures and ice shelf shapes, with an emphasis on smaller, steeper ice shelves. A 3-D numerical ocean model is used to simulate the circulation underneath five idealized ice shelves, forced with subsurface ocean temperatures ranging from -2.0°C to 1.5°C. In the sub-ice shelf mixed layer, three spatially distinct dynamic regimes are present. Entrainment of heat occurs predominately under deeper sections of the ice shelf; local and area-integrated melting rates are most sensitive to changes in slope in this "initiation" region. Some entrained heat is advected upslope and used to melt ice in the "maintenance" region; however, flow convergence in the "outflow" region limits heat loss in flatter portions of the ice shelf. Heat flux to the ice exhibits (1) a spatially nonuniform, superlinear dependence on slope and (2) a shape- and temperature-dependent, internally controlled efficiency. Because the efficiency of heat flux through the mixed layer decreases with increasing ocean temperature, numerical simulations diverge from a simple quadratic scaling law.

  2. Modified, Packaged Tortillas Have Long Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, Charles; Glaus-Late, Kimberly

    1995-01-01

    Tortillas made from modified recipe and sealed in low-pressure nitrogen in foil pouches in effort to increase their shelf life at room temperature. Preliminary tests show that shelf life of these tortillas at least five months; in contrast, commercial tortillas last only few days. Part of water in recipe replaced with glycerin. Particularly necessary to avoid Clostridium botulinum, which grows in anaerobic environments and produces deadly toxin that causes botulism.

  3. Evaluating Current Practices in Shelf Life Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capen, Robert; Christopher, David; Forenzo, Patrick; Huynh-Ba, Kim; LeBlond, David; Liu, Oscar; O'Neill, John; Patterson, Nate; Quinlan, Michelle; Rajagopalan, Radhika; Schwenke, James; Stroup, Walter

    2018-02-01

    The current International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) methods for determining the supported shelf life of a drug product, described in ICH guidance documents Q1A and Q1E, are evaluated in this paper. To support this evaluation, an industry data set is used which is comprised of 26 individual stability batches of a common drug product where most batches are measured over a 24 month storage period. Using randomly sampled sets of 3 or 6 batches from the industry data set, the current ICH methods are assessed from three perspectives. First, the distributional properties of the supported shelf lives are summarized and compared to the distributional properties of the true shelf lives associated with the industry data set, assuming the industry data set represents a finite population of drug product batches for discussion purposes. Second, the results of the ICH "poolability" tests for model selection are summarized and the separate shelf life distributions from the possible alternative models are compared. Finally, the ICH methods are evaluated in terms of their ability to manage risk. Shelf life estimates that are too long result in an unacceptable percentage of nonconforming batches at expiry while those that are too short put the manufacturer at risk of possibly having to prematurely discard safe and efficacious drug product. Based on the analysis of the industry data set, the ICH-recommended approach did not produce supported shelf lives that effectively managed risk. Alternative approaches are required.

  4. 41 CFR 101-27.205 - Shelf-life codes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Shelf-life codes. 101-27...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.205 Shelf-life codes. Shelf-life items shall be identified by use of a one-digit code to provide for uniform coding of shelf-life materials by all agencies. (a) The...

  5. Mean Lagrangian drift in continental shelf waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drivdal, M.; Weber, J. E. H.

    2012-04-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E¯ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S¯11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio ¯S11/¯E depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of the latter depends on the ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deep water drilling accidents.

  6. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact On Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.M. van Nierop; D. Fok (Dennis); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAllocating the proper amount of shelf space to stock keeping units [SKUs] is an increasingly relevant and difficult topic for managers. Shelf space is a scarce resource and it has to be distributed across a larger and larger number of items. It is in particular important because the

  7. Interaction Between Shelf Layout and Marketing Effectiveness and Its Impact on Optimizing Shelf Arrangements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nierop, Erjen; Fok, Dennis; Franses, Philip Hans

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose and operationalize a new method for optimizing shelf arrangements. We show that there are important dependencies between the layout of the shelf and stock-keeping unit (SKU) sales and marketing effectiveness. The importance of these dependencies is further shown by the

  8. Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody negative crescentic paucimmune glomerulonephritis in a case of scleroderma with systemic lupus erythematosus overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Tewari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal Involvement in scleroderma is a known problem and the manifestations are well described. Renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is also well known. However, in scleroderma and SLE overlap syndrome, the renal findings may vary being a combination of features of immune complex mediated glomerulonephritis as well as thrombotic microangiopathy. We report a case in which the renal manifestation in such a situation was of a focal necrotising pauci-immune glomerulonephritis with crescents, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody negative. To the best of our knowledge, such manifestations have not been described before. Renal dysfunction in a normotensive setting in such a case should direct one towards evaluation for other causes and should prompt a kidney biopsy. This would be valuable in delineating the pathological process in the kidney and would help in guiding therapy.

  9. Spacecraft observations of a Maxwell Demon coating the separatrix of asymmetric magnetic reconnection with crescent-shaped electron distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egedal, J.; Le, A.; Daughton, W.; Wetherton, B.; Cassak, Pa; Chen, Lj; Lavraud, B.; Dorell, J.; Avanov, L.; Gershman, D.

    2016-10-01

    During asymmetric magnetic reconnection in the dayside magnetopause in situ spacecraft mea- surements show that electrons from the high density inflow penetrate some distance into the low density inflow. Supported by a kinetic simulation, we present a general derivation of an exclusion energy parameter, which provides a lower kinetic energy bound for an electron to jump across the reconnection region from one inflow region to the other. As by a Maxwell Demon, only high energy electrons are permitted to cross the inner reconnection region, strongly impacting the form of the electron distribution function observed along the low density side separatrix. The dynamics produce two distinct flavors of crescent-shaped electron distributions in a thin boundary layer along the separatrix between the magnetospheric inflow and the reconnection exhaust. The analytical model presented relates these salient details of the distribution function to the electron dynamics in the inner reconnection region.

  10. Shelf Life Prediction for Canned Gudeg using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) Based on Arrhenius Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, R.; Rahayu NH, E.; Susanto, A.; Khasanah, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Gudeg is traditional food from Yogyakarta. It is consist of jackfruit, chicken, egg and coconut milk. Gudeg generally have a short shelf life. Canning or commercial sterilization is one way to extend the shelf life of gudeg. This aims of this research is to predict the shelf life of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg with Accelerated Shelf Life Test methods, Arrhenius model. Canned gudeg stored at three different temperature, there are 37, 50 and 60°C for two months. Measuring the number of Thio Barbituric Acid (TBA), as a critical aspect, were tested every 7 days. Arrhenius model approach is done with the equation order 0 and order 1. The analysis showed that the equation of order 0 can be used as an approach to estimating the shelf life of canned gudeg. The storage of Andrawinaloka canned gudeg at 30°C is predicted untill 21 months and 24 months for 25°C.

  11. A biallelic RFLP of the human. alpha. 2-C4 adrenergic receptor gene (ADRA2RL2) localized on the short arm of chromosome 4 and encoding the putative. alpha. 2B receptor is identified with Bsu 36 L using a 1. 5 kb probe (p ADRA2RL2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeche, M.R.; Berrettini, W.H. (Clinical Neurogenetics Branch, Bethesda, MD (USA)); Regan, J.W. (Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (USA))

    1989-12-11

    A 1.5 kb Eco RI cDNA fragment representing the human alpha2-C4 adrenergic receptor (AR) gene encoding the putative alpha2B-AR, containing approximately 1270 bp of the coding and 240 bp of the 3{prime}flanking region, inserted into pSP65, was used as a probe (p ADRA2RL2). This clone was obtained by screening a human kidney lambda GT10 cDNA library with the 0.95 kb Pst I restriction fragment derived from the coding block of the gene for the human platelet alpha2-AR. Hybridization of human genomic DNA digested with Bsu 36 I identifies a two allele polymorphism with bands at 12 kb and 5.8 kb. 20 unrelated North American caucasian subjects were evaluated with frequencies of: A allele, 0.45; B allele, 0.55, heterozygosity (obs), 0.5. This alpha2-AR gene has been mapped in a separation effort in 59 CEPH reference pedigrees to the tip of the short arm of chromosome 4 just proximal to GB (4p 16.3) reported to be linked to the Huntingston's disease gene. Codominant inheritance was observed in seven families with two and three generations, respectively. The number of meioses scored was 95.

  12. Seasonal and interannual cross-shelf transport over the Texas and Louisiana continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyng, Kristen M.; Hetland, Robert D.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical drifters are tracked in a hydrodynamic simulation of circulation over the Texas-Louisiana shelf to analyze patterns in cross-shelf transport of materials. While the important forcing mechanisms in the region (wind, river, and deep eddies) and associated flow patterns are known, the resultant material transport is less well understood. The primary metric used in the calculations is the percent of drifters released within a region that cross the 100 m isobath. Results of the analysis indicate that, averaged over the eleven years of the simulation, there are two regions on the shelf - over the Texas shelf during winter, and over the Louisiana shelf in summer - with increased seasonal probability for offshore transport. Among the two other distinct regions, the big bend region in Texas has increased probability for onshore transport, and the Mississippi Delta region has an increase in offshore transport, for both seasons. Some of these regions of offshore transport have marked interannual variability. This interannual variability is correlated to interannual changes in forcing conditions. Winter transport off of the Texas shelf is correlated with winter mean wind direction, with more northerly winds enhancing offshore transport; summer transport off the Louisiana shelf is correlated with Mississippi River discharge.

  13. Tidal Modulation of Ice-shelf Flow: a Viscous Model of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Kelly M.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Three stations near the calving front of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, recorded GPS data through a full spring-neap tidal cycle in November 2005. The data revealed a diurnal horizontal motion that varied both along and transverse to the long-term average velocity direction, similar to tidal signals observed in other ice shelves and ice streams. Based on its periodicity, it was hypothesized that the signal represents a flow response of the Ross Ice Shelf to the diurnal tides of the Ross Sea. To assess the influence of the tide on the ice-shelf motion, two hypotheses were developed. The first addressed the direct response of the ice shelf to tidal forcing, such as forces due to sea-surface slopes or forces due to sub-ice-shelf currents. The second involved the indirect response of ice-shelf flow to the tidal signals observed in the ice streams that source the ice shelf. A finite-element model, based on viscous creep flow, was developed to test these hypotheses, but succeeded only in falsifying both hypotheses, i.e. showing that direct tidal effects produce too small a response, and indirect tidal effects produce a response that is not smooth in time. This nullification suggests that a combination of viscous and elastic deformation is required to explain the observations.

  14. Modeling Platform Dynamics and Physiological Response to Short Arm Centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    the "venous pump." There is no provision for such a muscular pumping action in the current version of the model, thus this effect is not apparent in...VCt; Dick, DE. Difference-Differential Equations for Fluid Flow in Distensible Tubes. IEEE Trans. Bio-Med. Engr. 14(4): 171-177; 1967. 29. Snyder, MF...Flow in Distensible Tube. IEEE Transactions on efo-Nedical C... Engineering. Vol WNE-14, NO. 3, pp 1M1-177. Jut 1967. C... C... Re - 1*SmCPtl(Sepi

  15. Holocene sea levels of Visakhapatnam shelf, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, K.M.; Rao, T.C.S.

    The Holocene sea level changes in the shelf areas off Visakhapatnam was studied from sediment distribution pattern and shallow seismic profiling. Morphological features on the shelf indicate a Late Pleistocene regression down to about -130 m below...

  16. Sonograph patterns of the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    knolls. A transition zone with tonal variations is present between 40 and 60 m water depth. Ground-truth data sediment and rock distribution maps indicate depositional (inner shelf), nondepositional or erosional (outer shelf) environments and a...

  17. Food packaging and shelf life: a practical guide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robertson, Gordon L

    2010-01-01

    .... Food Packaging and Shelf Life: A Practical Guide provides package developers with the information they need to specify just the right amount of protective packaging to maintain food quality and maximize shelf life...

  18. Seabottom backscatter studies in the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; Pathak, D.

    The study is initiated to observe the interaction effects of the sound signal with three different sediment bottoms in the shelf area between Cochin and Mangalore in the western continental shelf of India. An echo signal acquisition system has been...

  19. 75 FR 1076 - Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... initiate civil penalty proceedings; however, violations that cause injury, death, or environmental damage... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Minerals Management Service Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties... daily civil penalty assessment. SUMMARY: The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act requires the MMS to...

  20. Magnetic surveys of the continental shelf off Visakhapatnam

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.C.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.

    shelf. Quantitative estimates made for the anomalies over the inner shelf using the graphical method and by computing the analytical signal suggest the existence of a fault in the nearshore region and a possible zone of heavy mineral concentration off...

  1. Influence of estuaries on shelf sediment texture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    on the coast. Offshore from regions where there are a large number of estuaries, the inner shelf sediments are fine grained (average mean size 5.02 phi, 0.03 mm), rich in organic matter ( 2%) and low in calcium carbonate ( 25%). In contrast, in regions...

  2. Cosmetics Safety Q&A: Shelf Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of cosmetics? The shelf life for eye-area cosmetics is more limited than for other products. Because of repeated microbial exposure during use by the consumer and the risk of eye infections, some industry experts recommend replacing mascara 3 months after purchase. ...

  3. Coordination: Southeast Continental Shelf studies. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, D.W.

    1981-02-01

    An overview of the Oceanograhic Program of Skidaway Institute of Oceanograhy is presented. Included are the current five year plan for studies of the Southeast Continental Shelf, a summary of research accomplishments, proposed research for 1981-1982, current status of the Savannah Navigational Light Tower, and a list of publications. (ACR)

  4. Shelf life prediction of canned fried-rice using accelerated shelf life testing (ASLT) arrhenius method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurniadi, M.; Bintang, R.; Kusumaningrum, A.; Nursiwi, A.; Nurhikmat, A.; Susanto, A.; Angwar, M.; Triwiyono; Frediansyah, A.

    2017-12-01

    Research on shelf-life prediction of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius model has been conducted. The aim of this research to predict shelf life of canned-fried rice products. Lethality value of 121°C for 15 and 20 minutes and Total Plate count methods are used to determine time and temperatures of sterilization process.Various storage temperatures of ASLT Arrhenius method were 35, 45 and 55°C during 35days. Rancidity is one of the derivation quality of canned fried rice. In this research, sample of canned fried rice is tested using rancidity value (TBA). TBA value was used as parameter which be measured once a week periodically. The use of can for fried rice without any chemical preservative is one of the advantage of the product, additionaly the use of physicalproperties such as temperature and pressure during its process can extend the shelf life and reduce the microbial contamination. The same research has never done before for fried rice as ready to eat meal. The result showed that the optimum conditions of sterilization process were 121°C,15 minutes with total plate count number of 9,3 × 101 CFU/ml. Lethality value of canned fried rice at 121°C,15 minutes was 3.63 minutes. The calculated Shelf-life of canned fried rice using Accelerated Shelf-life Test (ASLT) of Arrhenius method was 10.3 months.

  5. Endogenous Tim-1 (Kim-1) promotes T-cell responses and cell-mediated injury in experimental crescentic glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yuji; Nikolic-Paterson, David J; Snelgrove, Sarah L; Akiba, Hisaya; Yagita, Hideo; Holdsworth, Stephen R; Kitching, A Richard

    2012-05-01

    The T-cell immunoglobulin mucin 1 (Tim-1) modulates CD4(+) T-cell responses and is also expressed by damaged proximal tubules in the kidney where it is known as kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1). We sought to define the role of endogenous Tim-1 in experimental T-cell-mediated glomerulonephritis induced by sheep anti-mouse glomerular basement membrane globulin acting as a planted foreign antigen. Tim-1 is expressed by infiltrating activated CD4(+) cells in this model, and we studied the effects of an inhibitory anti-Tim-1 antibody (RMT1-10) on immune responses and glomerular disease. Crescentic glomerulonephritis, proliferative injury, and leukocyte accumulation were attenuated following treatment with anti-Tim-1 antibodies, but interstitial foxp3(+) cell accumulation and interleukin-10 mRNA were increased. T-cell proliferation and apoptosis decreased in the immune system along with a selective reduction in Th1 and Th17 cellular responses both in the immune system and within the kidney. The urinary excretion and renal expression of Kim-1 was reduced by anti-Tim-1 antibodies reflecting diminished interstitial injury. The effects of anti-Tim-1 antibodies were not apparent in the early phase of renal injury, when the immune response to sheep globulin was developing. Thus, endogenous Tim-1 promotes Th1 and Th17 nephritogenic immune responses and its neutralization reduces renal injury while limiting inflammation in cell-mediated glomerulonephritis.

  6. Functional traits differ between cereal crop progenitors and other wild grasses gathered in the Neolithic fertile crescent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Cunniff

    Full Text Available The reasons why some plant species were selected as crops and others were abandoned during the Neolithic emergence of agriculture are poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that the traits of Fertile Crescent crop progenitors were advantageous in the fertile, disturbed habitats surrounding early settlements and in cultivated fields. We screened functional traits related to competition and disturbance in a group of grass species that were increasingly exploited by early plant gatherers, and that were later domesticated (crop progenitors; and in a set of grass species for which there is archaeological evidence of gathering, but which were never domesticated (wild species. We hypothesised that crop progenitors would have greater seed mass, growth rate, height and yield than wild species, as these traits are indicative of greater competitive ability, and that crop progenitors would be more resilient to defoliation. Our results show that crop progenitors have larger seed mass than wild species, germinate faster and have greater seedling size. Increased seed size is weakly but positively correlated with a higher growth rate, which is primarily driven by greater biomass assimilation per unit leaf area. Crop progenitors also tend to have a taller stature, greater grain yield and higher resilience to defoliation. Collectively, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that adaptations to competition and disturbance gave crop progenitors a selective advantage in the areas surrounding early human settlements and in cultivated environments, leading to their adoption as crops through processes of unconscious selection.

  7. Microgreens: Production, shelf life, and bioactive components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Shabir Ahmad; Shah, Manzoor Ahmad; Mir, Mohammad Maqbool

    2017-08-13

    Microgreens are emerging specialty food products which are gaining popularity and increased attention nowadays. They are young and tender cotyledonary leafy greens that are found in a pleasing palette of colors, textures, and flavors. Microgreens are a new class of edible vegetables harvested when first leaves have fully expanded and before true leaves have emerged. They are gaining popularity as a new culinary ingredient. They are used to enhance salads or as edible garnishes to embellish a wide variety of other dishes. Common microgreens are grown mainly from mustard, cabbage, radish, buckwheat, lettuce, spinach, etc. The consumption of microgreens has nowadays increased due to higher concentrations of bioactive components such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants than mature greens, which are important for human health. However, they typically have a short shelf life due to rapid product deterioration. This review aimed to evaluate the postharvest quality, potential bioactive compounds, and shelf life of microgreens for proper management of this specialty produce.

  8. Relationships between Charpy impact shelf energies and upper shelf Ksub(IC) values for reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, F.J.

    1983-01-01

    Charpy shelf data and lower bound estimates of Ksub(IC) shelf data for the same steels and test temperatures are given. Included are some typical reactor pressure vessel steels as well as some less tough or degraded steels. The data were evaluated with shelf estimates of Ksub(IC) up to and exceeding 550 MPa√m. It is shown that the high shelf fracture toughness representative of tough reactor pressure vessel steels may be obtained from a knowledge of the Charpy shelf energies. The toughness transition may be obtained either by testing small fracture toughness specimens or by Charpy energy indexing. (U.K.)

  9. Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctic Ice and Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In this view of Antarctic ice and clouds, (56.5S, 152.0W), the Ross Ice Shelf of Antarctica is almost totally clear, showing stress cracks in the ice surface caused by wind and tidal drift. Clouds on the eastern edge of the picture are associated with an Antarctic cyclone. Winds stirred up these storms have been known to reach hurricane force.

  10. Regional geochemical baselines for Portuguese shelf sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mil-Homens, M.; Stevens, R.L.; Cato, I.; Abrantes, F.

    2007-01-01

    Metal concentrations (Al, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from the DGM-INETI archive data set have been examined for sediments collected during the 1970s from 267 sites on the Portuguese shelf. Due to the differences in the oceanographic and sedimentological settings between western and Algarve coasts, the archive data set is split in two segments. For both shelf segments, regional geochemical baselines (RGB) are defined using aluminium as a reference element. Seabed samples recovered in 2002 from four distinct areas of the Portuguese shelf are superimposed on these models to identify and compare possible metal enrichments relative to the natural distribution. Metal enrichments associated with anthropogenic influences are identified in three samples collected nearby the Tejo River and are characterised by the highest enrichment factors (EF; EF Pb Zn < 4). EF values close to 1 suggest a largely natural origin for metal distributions in sediments from the other areas included in the study. - Background metal concentrations and their natural variability must be established before assessing anthropogenic impacts

  11. T-Bet Enhances Regulatory T Cell Fitness and Directs Control of Th1 Responses in Crescentic GN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosko, Anna; Kluger, Malte A; Diefenhardt, Paul; Melderis, Simon; Wegscheid, Claudia; Tiegs, Gisa; Stahl, Rolf A K; Panzer, Ulf; Steinmetz, Oliver M

    2017-01-01

    Th1 cells are central pathogenic mediators of crescentic GN (cGN). Mechanisms responsible for Th1 cell downregulation, however, remain widely unknown. Recently, it was proposed that activation of the Th1-characteristic transcription factor T-bet optimizes Foxp3 + regulatory T (Treg) cells to counteract Th1-type inflammation. Because very little is known about the role of T-bet + Treg1 cells in inflammatory diseases, we studied the function of these cells in the nephrotoxic nephritis (NTN) model of cGN. The percentage of Treg1 cells progressively increased in kidneys of nephritic wild-type mice during the course of NTN, indicating their functional importance. Notably, naïve Foxp3 Cre xT-bet fl/fl mice, lacking Treg1 cells, showed spontaneous skewing toward Th1 immunity. Furthermore, absence of Treg1 cells resulted in aggravated NTN with selectively dysregulated renal and systemic Th1 responses. Detailed analyses of Treg cells from Foxp3 Cre xT-bet fl/fl mice revealed unaltered cytokine production and suppressive capacity. However, in competitive cotransfer experiments, wild-type Treg cells outcompeted T-bet-deficient Treg cells in terms of population expansion and expression levels of Foxp3, indicating that T-bet expression is crucial for general Treg fitness. Additionally, T-bet-deficient Treg cells lacked expression of the Th1-characteristic trafficking receptor CXCR3, which correlated with significant impairment of renal Treg infiltration. In summary, our data indicate a new subtype of Treg cells in cGN. These Treg1 cells are characterized by activation of the transcription factor T-bet, which enhances the overall fitness of these cells and optimizes their capacity to downregulate Th1 responses by inducing chemokine receptor CXCR3 expression. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Export of a Winter Shelf Phytoplankton Bloom at the Shelf Margin of Long Bay (South Atlantic Bight, USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J.; Seim, H.; Edwards, C. R.; Lockhart, S.; Moore, T.; Robertson, C. Y.; Amft, J.

    2016-02-01

    A winter 2012 field study off Long Bay (seaward of Myrtle Beach, South Carolina) investigated exchange processes along the shelf margin. Topics addressed included mechanisms of nutrient input (upper slope to outer shelf), phytoplankton blooms and community characteristics (mid-to-outer shelf), and possible export of shelf bloom material (transport to and across the shelf break to the upper slope). Observations utilized three moorings (mid-shelf, shelf break, upper slope), two gliders and ship operations (repeat cruises with profiling, water sampling and towed body surveys) along with satellite SST and ocean color imagery and near-by NOAA buoy records. Here we focus on the late January to early February period, when a mid-shelf bloom of Phaeocystis globosa (which forms large gelatinous colonies) was transported to the shelf break. The presence of Phaeocystis colonies resulted in strong spiking in chlorophyll (chl) fluorescence profiles. A partitioning approach was adapted to estimate chl in colonies (spikes) and small forms (baseline signal) and to account for an apparent difference in measured in vivo fluorescence per unit chl (lower in colonies). Up to 40-50% of chl in the bloom (surface to bottom on the mid-shelf) was estimated to be in the colonies. In late January, there a pronounced seaward slumping of relatively dense mid-shelf water along the bottom under warmer surface water derived from the inshore edge of a broad jet of Gulf Stream water flowing southwestward along the upper slope. We describe the evolution of this event and the conditions which set up this mechanism for episodic near-bed transport of fresh bloom material produced on the shelf to the upper slope off Long Bay. Down-slope transport may have been enhanced in this case by the high phytoplankton biomass in gelatinous colonies, which appeared to be settling in the water column on the shelf prior to the transport event.

  13. Glacial morphology and depositional sequences of the Antarctic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    ten Brink, Uri S.; Schneider, Christopher

    1995-01-01

    Proposes a simple model for the unusual depositional sequences and morphology of the Antarctic continental shelf. It considers the regional stratal geometry and the reversed morphology to be principally the results of time-integrated effects of glacial erosion and sedimentation related to the location of the ice grounding line. The model offers several guidelines for stratigraphic interpretation of the Antarctic shelf and a Northern Hemisphere shelf, both of which were subject to many glacial advances and retreats. -Authors

  14. Victoria Land, Ross Sea, and Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    On December 19, 2001, MODIS acquired data that produced this image of Antarctica's Victoria Land, Ross Ice Shelf, and the Ross Sea. The coastline that runs up and down along the left side of the image denotes where Victoria Land (left) meets the Ross Ice Shelf (right). The Ross Ice Shelf is the world's largest floating body of ice, approximately the same size as France. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  15. Cyclonic entrainment of preconditioned shelf waters into a frontal eddy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, J. D.; Macdonald, H.; Baird, M. E.; Humphries, J.; Roughan, M.; Suthers, I. M.

    2015-02-01

    The volume transport of nutrient-rich continental shelf water into a cyclonic frontal eddy (entrainment) was examined from satellite observations, a Slocum glider and numerical simulation outputs. Within the frontal eddy, parcels of water with temperature/salinity signatures of the continental shelf (18-19°C and >35.5, respectively) were recorded. The distribution of patches of shelf water observed within the eddy was consistent with the spiral pattern shown within the numerical simulations. A numerical dye tracer experiment showed that the surface waters (≤50 m depth) of the frontal eddy are almost entirely (≥95%) shelf waters. Particle tracking experiments showed that water was drawn into the eddy from over 4° of latitude (30-34.5°S). Consistent with the glider observations, the modeled particles entrained into the eddy sunk relative to their initial position. Particles released south of 33°S, where the waters are cooler and denser, sunk 34 m deeper than their release position. Distance to the shelf was a critical factor in determining the volume of shelf water entrained into the eddy. Entrainment reduced to 0.23 Sv when the eddy was furthest from the shelf, compared to 0.61 Sv when the eddy was within 10 km of the shelf. From a biological perspective, quantifying the entrainment of shelf water into frontal eddies is important, as it is thought to play a significant role in providing an offshore nursery habitat for coastally spawned larval fish.

  16. Shelf life prediction of apple brownies using accelerated method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulungan, M. H.; Sukmana, A. D.; Dewi, I. A.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this research was to determine shelf life of apple brownies. Shelf life was determined with Accelerated Shelf Life Testing method and Arrhenius equation. Experiment was conducted at 25, 35, and 45°C for 30 days. Every five days, the sample was analysed for free fatty acid (FFA), water activity (Aw), and organoleptic acceptance (flavour, aroma, and texture). The shelf life of the apple brownies based on FFA were 110, 54, and 28 days at temperature of 25, 35, and 45°C, respectively.

  17. Clay mineral distribution on tropical shelf: an example from the western shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.

    Seventy-five sediment samples collected from the Kerala continental shelf and slope during the 17th and 71st Cruises of RV Gaveshani were analysed by X-ray diffraction for clay mineral content. The distribution of total clay ( 4 mu fraction...

  18. Bio-Optical Properties of the Inner Continental Shelf off Santos Estuarine System, Southeastern Brazil, and their Implications for Ocean Color Algorithm Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Carvalho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Optical characterizations of coastal water masses are important tools for a better understanding of physical and biochemical processes and aid the optimization of ocean color algorithms. In this study we present three optical classes of water observed during October/2005 and March/2006 on the inner continental shelf adjacent to Santos Bay (Brazil, based on remote sensing reflectance. ANOVA indicated a crescent estuarine influence in classes 1 to 3. Class 3 presented the highest chlorophyll-a and nutrient concentration and highest light absorption coefficients. Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM dominated the light absorption in all classes and was strongly correlated to salinity in October/2005 due to the influence of the La Plata plume. The results indicated that CDOM dynamics in the Santos inner shelf are very complex. The performance of global chlorophyll algorithms was significantly smaller for October/2005 than for March/2006. As inconsistent changes in light absorption spectra by phytoplankton were detected between samplings, the results show that future bio-optical algorithms for this region must be optimized preferentially considering CDOM optical parameters.

  19. Seaweed culture and continental shelf protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Przhemenetskaya, V F

    1985-07-01

    The initial impression that the resources of the oceans were limitless has been replaced by a more rational appreciation that everything has its limits, including the seemingly infinite resources of marine plant life. In addition, experience in California, Australia, China, Japan and Korea has demonstrated that depletion of seaweed resources for commercial utilization has a deleterious effect on the biocenotic status of the continental shelf. In view of this, many countries, such as Japan, China, Korea, the Philippines and the USSR, have embarked on aquaculture programs, in which seaweeds are cultivated on marine plantations. Successful developments in this direction should go a long way to preserving the natural ecologic balance on the continental shelf, and yet provide mankind with the resources of the deep. Many difficulties remain to be resolved before aquaculture programs become fully cost effective, one of which deals with the susceptibility of a monoculture to a given predator or disease. To that end, such programs necessitate the creation of well balanced systems that would support a variety of marine plant and animal life without an adverse effect on the desired crop. 4 references, 6 figures.

  20. MILK CANDIES WITH INCREASED SHELF LIFE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Technology for producing milk candies on molasses with increased shelf-life, molded by "extrusion" with a vacuum syringe of continuous action used in the meat industry, into metallized film like "flow-pack" is considered. Rheological characteristics of candy mass: strength, toughness, organoleptic, physical and chemical quality are determined. While increasing the temperature of milk mass the colour, texture, mass fraction of reducing substances and solids change. It was found out that molasses based milk mass is easily molded at a moisture content of 10-11 % and temperature of 60 ºС. The advantages of the new method of forming products are: manufactured products have individual package, which increases the shelf life and improves the quality of products, extend the range of use, the technological equipment has a high productivity, it is compact and reliable. According to the consumer qualities the product surpasses all known analogs. Possibility of using a single-piece product while gathering dinners and breakfasts in public catering, establishments and transport. The technological process is simplified. Energy value of products on molasses in comparison with the control samples on sugar is calculated. It is 51 kcal less than in the control sample on sugar. Thus, the technology of functional milk candies with reduced sugar content is developed. The products will be useful for anyone who leads a healthy lifestyle.

  1. Concurrent IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 myeloperoxidase-anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody positive crescentic glomerulonephritis: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tao; Yang, Li; Cui, Zhao; Wang, Su-Xia; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2017-05-01

    IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a newly recognized systemic disease. The typical pathological finding in the kidney is abundant IgG4-positive plasma cell infiltration with characteristic storiform fibrosis in the interstitium. Antibodies of the IgG4 subclass have been linked to certain autoimmune diseases including antiproteinase 3 (PR3) anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) of the IgG4 subclass. Here, we report a rare case of kidney injury with concurrent typical IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 subclass of myeloperoxidase (MPO) ANCA-positive necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis. A 42-year-old Chinese man presented with repeated epigastric pain, sausage-shaped pancreas observed morphologically in computed tomography, effectiveness of prednisone therapy and was diagnosed with autoimmune pancreatitis. He subsequently developed acute kidney injury. The patient had an elevated serum IgG4, eosinophilia, and positive MPO-ANCA of IgG4-dominant subclass. Renal biopsy revealed necrotizing crescentic nephritis and typical IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis. The patient was treated with a combination of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, and a course of rituximab was later added to deplete peripheral B cells. The patient responded well and his renal function improved. This is the first case report of an IgG4-RD with concurrent IgG4-related tubulointerstitial nephritis and IgG4 MPO-ANCA-associated necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis. It raises the difficulty in differentiation diagnosis of the two separate diseases that is worthy of further study.

  2. DECISION SUPPORT TOOL FOR RETAIL SHELF SPACE OPTIMIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    B. RAMASESHAN; N. R. ACHUTHAN; R. COLLINSON

    2008-01-01

    Efficient allocation of shelf space and product assortment can significantly improve a retailer's profitability. This paper addresses the problem from the perspective of an independent franchise retailer. A Category Management Decision Support Tool (CMDST) is proposed that efficiently generates optimal shelf space allocations and product assortments by using the existing scarce resources, resulting in increased profitability. CMDST utilizes two practical integrated category management models ...

  3. Environmental controls on micro fracture processes in shelf ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, Peter

    2013-04-01

    The recent retreat and collapse of the ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula has been associated with regional atmospheric warming, oceanic warming, increased summer melt and shelf flexure. Although the cause of collapse is a matter of active discussion, the process is that of fracture of a creep-brittle material, close to its melting point. The environmental controls on how fracturing initiates, at a micro-scale, strongly determine the macroscopic disintegration of ice shelves. In particular the shelf temperature profile controls the plasticity of the ice shelf; the densification of shelf ice due to melting and re-freezing affects the crack tip stress intensity; the accretion of marine ice at the bottom of the shelf imposes a thermal/mechanical discontinuity; saline environments control crack tip stress corrosion; cyclic loading promotes sub-critical crack propagation. These strong environmental controls on shelf ice fracture means that assessing shelf stability is a non-deterministic problem. How these factors may be parameterized in ice shelf models, through the use of fracture mechanisms maps, is discussed. The findings are discussed in relation to the stability of Larsen C.

  4. The Statoil/Hydro fusion in a continental shelf perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter

    2007-01-01

    The article analysis the consequences of the Statoil/Hydro merger on the development on the Norwegian continental shelf. Various indicators of results of the market power the merger are presented and the effects of reduced competition on the markets are discussed. The advantages of the merger on the activities on the shelf are analyzed. (tk)

  5. Damage reduces shelf-life of sweetpotato during marketing | Mtunda ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Damage reduces shelf-life of sweetpotato during marketing. ... K. Mtunda, D. Chilosa, E. Rwiza, M. Kilima, H. Kiozya, R. Munisi, R. Kapinga, D. Rees. Abstract. Although sweetpotato is primarily grown for home consumption, marketing is becoming increasingly important, and in this case, short shelf-life of the roots is a major ...

  6. State of the soft bottoms of the continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman Alvis, Angela I; Solano, Oscar David

    2002-01-01

    The presented information, it is based on studies carried out on the continental shelf of the Colombian Caribbean, mainly in the Gulf of Morrosquillo and the Magdalena and Guajira departments in the last ten years. A diagnostic is done of the soft bottoms of the Colombian continental shelf

  7. Geochemistry of sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Paropkari, A.L.; Murty, P.S.N.

    The bulk and partition geochemistry of Al, Fe, Ti, Mn, Zn, and Cu have been investigated in sediments of the eastern continental shelf of India. The results show that (1) the bulk geochemistry varies from one shelf unit to the other, (2) all...

  8. Shelf-life dating of shelf-stable strawberry juice based on survival analysis of consumer acceptance information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buvé, Carolien; Van Bedts, Tine; Haenen, Annelien; Kebede, Biniam; Braekers, Roel; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann; Grauwet, Tara

    2018-07-01

    Accurate shelf-life dating of food products is crucial for consumers and industries. Therefore, in this study we applied a science-based approach for shelf-life assessment, including accelerated shelf-life testing (ASLT), acceptability testing and the screening of analytical attributes for fast shelf-life predictions. Shelf-stable strawberry juice was selected as a case study. Ambient storage (20 °C) had no effect on the aroma-based acceptance of strawberry juice. The colour-based acceptability decreased during storage under ambient and accelerated (28-42 °C) conditions. The application of survival analysis showed that the colour-based shelf-life was reached in the early stages of storage (≤11 weeks) and that the shelf-life was shortened at higher temperatures. None of the selected attributes (a * and ΔE * value, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content) is an ideal analytical marker for shelf-life predictions in the investigated temperature range (20-42 °C). Nevertheless, an overall analytical cut-off value over the whole temperature range can be selected. Colour changes of strawberry juice during storage are shelf-life limiting. Combining ASLT with acceptability testing allowed to gain faster insight into the change in colour-based acceptability and to perform shelf-life predictions relying on scientific data. An analytical marker is a convenient tool for shelf-life predictions in the context of ASLT. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Multi-shelf domestic solar dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Parm Pal; Singh, Sukhmeet; Dhaliwal, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The solar dryer described in this paper can be used for drying various products at home under hygienic conditions with the self guarantee of adulteration free product. This solar dryer is of multi-shelf design, consisting of three perforated trays arranged one above the other. The drying air flows through the product by natural circulation. One of its novel features is variable inclination to capture more solar energy in different seasons. Another novel feature is the option to dry product under shade or without shade as per requirement. The rate of drying is uniform in all the trays due to heating of the air by solar energy in between the trays. The maximum stagnation temperature of this solar dryer was found to be 100 deg. C in the month of November at Ludhiana (31 o N). The moisture evaporation on the 1st, 2nd and 3rd drying day for drying fenugreek leaves was 0.23, 0.18 and 0.038 kg/m 2 h. To overcome the problem of reduction in efficiency on the second and third drying day, a semi-continuous mode of loading has been investigated, in which the efficiency remains almost the same on all drying days. The drying rate in the dryer was more than double that in open shade drying. Moreover, the final moisture content of the product was low enough (7.3% wb) for grinding it to a powder form and for good shelf life (1 year). An uncertainty analysis was performed, and the uncertainty in the efficiency was found to be 1.35%. An economic analysis was performed by three methods. The cost of drying fenugreek leaves in the domestic solar dryer turned out to be about 60% of that in an electric dryer. The cumulative present worth of the savings are much higher (18,316 Rupees) than the capital cost of the dryer (1600 Rupees). The payback period is also very low (<2 years) as compared to the life of the dryer (20 years), so the dryer will dry product free of cost during almost its entire life period. The quality and shelf life of the dried products are comparable to those of

  10. Glacigenic landforms and sediments of the Western Irish Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarron, Stephen; Monteys, Xavier; Toms, Lee

    2013-04-01

    Vibrocoring of possible glacigenic landforms identified from high resolution bathymetric coverage of the Irish Shelf by the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) has provided several clusters of short (<3m) cores that, due to a regional post-glacial erosional event, comprise last glacial age stratigraphies. In addition, new shallow seismic data and sedimentological information from across the Western Irish Shelf provide new insights into aspects of the nature, timing and pattern of shelf occupation by grounded lobate extensions of the last Irish Ice Sheet. Restricted chronological control of deglacial sequences in several cores indicates that northern parts of the western mid-shelf (south of a prominent outer Donegal Bay ridge) were ice free by ~24 ka B.P., and that ice had also probably retreated from outer shelf positions (as far west as the Porcupine Bank) at or before this time.

  11. Shelf stable meals for public sector uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmandt, J. (Editor)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Meal System was developed with three simple concepts in mind: (1) nutritious, conventional foods are packaged in single-serving units and assembled into complete meals; (2) the meals have an extended shelf-life and can be transported and stored without need for refrigeration or freezing; (3) preparation of the meal by the consumer is an easy task which is accomplished in ten minutes or less. The meal system was tested in 1975 and 1976 by different groups of elderly individuals. NASA and the LBJ School of Public Affairs sponsored a national conference to report on the demonstration of the meal system for the elderly and to explore potential uses of the system for social services, institutional feeding programs, disaster relief, and international aid. The proceedings of the conference and how different groups assessed the potential of the meal system are reported.

  12. Trace metal fronts in European shelf waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremling, K.

    1983-01-01

    The Hebrides shelf edge area is characterized by strong horizontal salinity gradients (fronts) which mark the boundary between Scottish coastal and oceanic waters. The results presented here, obtained in summer 1981 on a transect between the open north Atlantic and the German Bight, confirm that the hydrographical front is accompanied by dramatic increases in inorganic nutrients (phosphate, silicate) and dissolved trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Mn, and 226 Ra. These data (together with measurements from North Sea regions) suggest that the trace metals are mobilized from partly reduced (organic-rich) sediments and vertically mixed into the surface waters. The regional variations evident from the transect are interpreted as being the result of the hydrography prevailing in waters around the British Isles. (author)

  13. Uncovering the glacial history of the Irish continental shelf (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, P.; Benetti, S.; OCofaigh, C.

    2013-12-01

    In 1999 the Irish Government initiated a €32 million survey of its territorial waters known as the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS). The INSS is amongst the largest marine mapping programmes ever undertaken anywhere in the world and provides high-resolution multibeam, backscatter and seismic data of the seabed around Ireland. These data have been used to provide the first clear evidence for extensive glaciation of the continental shelf west and northwest of Ireland. Streamlined drumlins on the mid to outer shelf record former offshore-directed ice flow towards the shelf edge and show that the ice sheet was grounded in a zone of confluence where ice flowing onto the shelf from northwest Ireland merged with ice flowing across the Malin Shelf from southwest Scotland. The major glacial features on the shelf are well developed nested arcuate moraine systems that mark the position of the ice sheet margin and confirm that the former British Irish Ice Sheet was grounded as far as the shelf edge around 100 km offshore of west Donegal at the last glacial maximum. Distal to the moraines, on the outermost shelf, prominent zones of iceberg plough marks give way to the Barra/Donegal fan and a well developed system of gullies and canyons which incise the continental slope. Since 2008 several scientific cruises have retrieved cores from the shelf and slope to help build a more detailed understanding of glacial events in this region. This presentation will provide an overview of the glacial history of the Irish shelf and will discuss ongoing research programmes that are building on the initial research findings to produce a better understanding of the nature and timing of ice sheet events in this region.

  14. The Asymmetric Continental Shelf Wave in Response to the Synoptic Wind Burst in a Semienclosed Double-Shelf Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Lixin; Lin, Xiaopei; Hetland, Robert D.; Guo, Jingsong

    2018-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the asymmetric structure of continental shelf wave in a semienclosed double-shelf basin, such as the Yellow Sea. Supported by in situ observations and realistic numerical simulations, it is found that in the Yellow Sea, the shelf wave response to the synoptic wind forcing does not match the mathematically symmetric solution of classic double-shelf wave theory, but rather exhibits a westward shift. To study the formation mechanism of this asymmetric structure, an idealized model was used and two sets of experiments were conducted. The results confirm that the asymmetric structure is due to the existence of a topographic waveguide connecting both shelves. For a semienclosed basin, such as the Yellow Sea, a connection at the end of the basin eliminates the potential vorticity barrier between the two shelves and hence plays a role as a connecting waveguide for shelf waves. This waveguide enables the shelf wave to propagate from one shelf to the other shelf and produces the asymmetric response in sea level and upwind flow evolutions.

  15. Recria e terminação de borregas mestiças em confinamento alimentadas com níveis crescentes de concentrado na dieta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Bertholini Ribeiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar dietas com níveis crescentes de concentrado para borregas confinadas e estabelecer a proporção de concentrado ideal para maximizar a utilização dos nutrientes e o desempenho durante as fases de recria e terminação. Foram confinadas 24 borregas alimentadas com feno de capim-Tifton e níveis crescentes de concentrado na dieta (20, 40, 60 e 80% para avaliação individual do consumo de matéria seca (CMS, digestibilidade dos nutrientes das dietas, ganho médio diário (GMD e eficiência alimentar (EA. As borregas foram abatidas com 47 kg. Na fase de recria, o CMS não foi alterado (P>0,05 pela inclusão de concentrado nas dietas (1176 g/dia. Foi observado efeito quadrático dos níveis de concentrado (P0,05. O CDMS e o valor de NDT apresentaram comportamento quadrático (P0,05. Recomenda-se a inclusão de 71,50% de concentrado na dieta de borregas para maximizar o aproveitamento dos nutrientes e o desempenho na fase de recria e 72,3% de concentrado para fase de terminação.

  16. Lack of cross-shelf transport of sediments on the western margin of India: Evidence from clay mineralogy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Nair, R.R.

    transported long distances along the shelf, cross-shelf transport appears to be minimal. Confirmatory evidence of qualitative differences in outer and inner shelf clays is provided by sediment trap clay mineralogy on the outer shelf. Clay bound pollutant...

  17. Detecting high spatial variability of ice shelf basal mass balance, Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Berger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ice shelves control the dynamic mass loss of ice sheets through buttressing and their integrity depends on the spatial variability of their basal mass balance (BMB, i.e. the difference between refreezing and melting. Here, we present an improved technique – based on satellite observations – to capture the small-scale variability in the BMB of ice shelves. As a case study, we apply the methodology to the Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Dronning Maud Land, East Antarctica, and derive its yearly averaged BMB at 10 m horizontal gridding. We use mass conservation in a Lagrangian framework based on high-resolution surface velocities, atmospheric-model surface mass balance and hydrostatic ice-thickness fields (derived from TanDEM-X surface elevation. Spatial derivatives are implemented using the total-variation differentiation, which preserves abrupt changes in flow velocities and their spatial gradients. Such changes may reflect a dynamic response to localized basal melting and should be included in the mass budget. Our BMB field exhibits much spatial detail and ranges from −14.7 to 8.6 m a−1 ice equivalent. Highest melt rates are found close to the grounding line where the pressure melting point is high, and the ice shelf slope is steep. The BMB field agrees well with on-site measurements from phase-sensitive radar, although independent radar profiling indicates unresolved spatial variations in firn density. We show that an elliptical surface depression (10 m deep and with an extent of 0.7 km × 1.3 km lowers by 0.5 to 1.4 m a−1, which we tentatively attribute to a transient adaptation to hydrostatic equilibrium. We find evidence for elevated melting beneath ice shelf channels (with melting being concentrated on the channel's flanks. However, farther downstream from the grounding line, the majority of ice shelf channels advect passively (i.e. no melting nor refreezing toward the ice shelf front. Although the absolute, satellite

  18. Neural Network Modeling to Predict Shelf Life of Greenhouse Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chin Lin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse-grown butter lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. can potentially be stored for 21 days at constant 0°C. When storage temperature was increased to 5°C or 10°C, shelf life was shortened to 14 or 10 days, respectively, in our previous observations. Also, commercial shelf life of 7 to 10 days is common, due to postharvest temperature fluctuations. The objective of this study was to establish neural network (NN models to predict the remaining shelf life (RSL under fluctuating postharvest temperatures. A box of 12 - 24 lettuce heads constituted a sample unit. The end of the shelf life of each head was determined when it showed initial signs of decay or yellowing. Air temperatures inside a shipping box were recorded. Daily average temperatures in storage and averaged shelf life of each box were used as inputs, and the RSL was modeled as an output. An R2 of 0.57 could be observed when a simple NN structure was employed. Since the "future" (or remaining storage temperatures were unavailable at the time of making a prediction, a second NN model was introduced to accommodate a range of future temperatures and associated shelf lives. Using such 2-stage NN models, an R2 of 0.61 could be achieved for predicting RSL. This study indicated that NN modeling has potential for cold chain quality control and shelf life prediction.

  19. Modern sedimentary processes along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Quaresma

    Full Text Available In areas of the continental shelf where sediment supply is greater than the sediment dispersion capacity, an extensive terrigenous deposits and consequently submerged deltas can be formed. The Eastern Brazilian shelf is characterized by the occurrence of river feed deltas in between starving coasts. Herein, modern sedimentary processes acting along the Doce river adjacent continental shelf are investigated. The main objective was to understand the shelf sediment distribution, recognizing distinct sedimentary patterns and the major influence of river sediment discharge in the formation of shelf deposits. The study used 98 surficial samples that were analyzed for grain size, composition and bulk density. Results revealed 3 distinct sectors: south - dominated by mud fraction with a recent deposition from riverine input until 30 m deep and from this depth bioclastic sands dominate; central north - sand mud dominated, been recognized as a bypass zone of resuspended sediment during high energy events; and north - relict sands with high carbonate content. The modern sedimentation processes along the Doce river continental shelf is dominated by distinct sedimentary regimes, showing a strong fluvial influence associated with wave/wind induced sediment dispersion and a carbonate regime along the outer shelf. These regimes seem to be controlled by the distance from the river mouth and bathymetric gradients.

  20. The exchange of inorganic carbon on the Canadian Beaufort Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth; Hu, Xianmin; Myers, Paul G.

    2017-04-01

    The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is an area that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds and resulting cross-shelf Ekman transport. Downwelling carries inorganic carbon and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world oceans. Upwelling carries water high in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and nutrients from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL) onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA) taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of inorganic carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore and cross-shelf transport of inorganic carbon is quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) model. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf is analyzed and the resulting influence on the carbonate system, including the saturation state of aragonite and pH levels, is investigated. TA and δ18O are used to examine water mass distributions in the study area and analyze the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air-sea fluxes of CO2 in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key in order to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and to provide a basis for understanding how its role will respond to the aforementioned changes in the regional marine system.

  1. Maximizing Shelf Life of Paneer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sumit; Goyal, Gyanendra Kumar

    2016-06-10

    Paneer resembling soft cheese is a well-known heat- and acid-coagulated milk product. It is very popular in the Indian subcontinent and has appeared in the western and Middle East markets. The shelf life of paneer is quite low and it loses freshness after two to three days when stored under refrigeration. Various preservation techniques, including chemical additives, packaging, thermal processing, and low-temperature storage, have been proposed by researchers for enhancing its shelf life. The use of antimicrobial additives is not preferred because of perceived toxicity risks. Modified atmosphere packaging has been recommended as one of the best techniques for maximizing the shelf life of paneer.

  2. Shelf-life extension of fresh chicken through radurisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemand, J.G.; Van der Linde, H.J.

    1982-01-01

    The article discusses the shelf-life extension of fresh chicken through radurization. In order to assess the potential of this process on the South African market, a detailed investigation was carried out to determine the shelf-life extension under local conditions. The following aspects were investigated; 1) reduction of bacterial numbers at different radurisation doses; 2) influence of storage temperature on shelf-life and 3) the elimination of Salmonella. Organoleptic testing was carried out on poultry radurised to doses of 3, 5, 7,5 and 10 kGy as well as on non-radurised controls

  3. Shelf break circulation in the Northern Gulf of Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niebauer, H.J.; Roberts, J.; Royer, T.C.

    1981-05-20

    Current observations from a mooring on the continental shelf near the shelf break in the Gulf of Alaska, with supporting hydrographic and metorological data, are discussed for the period 1976 to March 1977. The described features suggest strong influence by the cyclonic Alaska Gyre for the periods April--June 1976 and October 1976 to March 1977. From July--September 1976 there is evidence of current veering and rotation. It is hypothesized that these current fluctuations are eddies which are important in mixing processes across the shelf.

  4. Cryolithozone of Western Arctic shelf of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmyanskii, Mikhail; Vladimirov, Maksim; Snopova, Ekaterina; Kartashev, Aleksandr

    2017-04-01

    We propose a new original version of the structure of the cryolithozone of west Arctic seas of Russia. In contrast to variants of construction of sections and maps based on thermodynamic modeling, the authors have used electrometric, seismic, and thermal data including their own profile measurements by near-field transient electromagnetic technique and seismic profile observations by reflection method. As a result, we defined the spatial characteristics of cryolithozone and managed to differentiate it to several layers, different both in structure and formation time. We confirmed once again that the spatial boundary of cryolithozone, type and thickness of permafrost, chilled rocks and thawed ground are primarily determined by tectonic and oceanographic regimes of the Arctic Ocean and adjacent land in different geological epochs. Permafrost formed on the land in times of cold weather, turn to submarine during flooding and overlap, in the case of the sea transgression, by marine sediments accumulating in the period of warming. We have been able to establish a clear link between the permafrost thickness and the geomorphological structure of the area. This can be explained by the distribution of thermodynamic flows that change the temperature state of previously formed permafrost rocks. Formation in the outer parts of the shelf which took place at ancient conversion stage can be characterized by the structure: • permafrost table - consists of rocks, where the sea water with a temperature below 0 °C has replaced the melted ice; • middle horizon - composed of undisturbed rocks, and the rocks chilled through the lower sieving underlay; As a result of the interpretation and analysis of all the available data, the authors created a map of types of cryolithozone of the Western Arctic shelf of Russia. The following distribution areas are marked on the map: • single-layer cryolithozone (composed of sediments upper Pleistocene and Holocene); • monosyllabic relict

  5. Arthroscopic repair of large U-shaped rotator cuff tears without margin convergence versus repair of crescent- or L-shaped tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Young; Jung, Seok Won; Jeon, Seung-Hyub; Cho, Hyoung-Weon; Choi, Jin-Ho; Oh, Kyung-Soo

    2014-01-01

    For large-sized tears of the rotator cuff, data according to the tear shape have not yet been reported for repair methodology, configuration, and subsequent integrity. The retear rate after the repair of large mobile tears, such as crescent- or L-shaped tears, is believed to be lower compared with retear rates after the repair of large U-shaped tears that are accompanied by anterior or posterior leaves of the rotator cuff. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Data were collected and analyzed from 95 consecutive patients with a large-sized rotator cuff tear who underwent arthroscopic suture-bridge repair. Patients were divided into 2 groups: those having crescent- or L-shaped tears (mobile tear group, 53 patients) and those having U-shaped tears (U-shaped tear group, 42 patients). The integrity of the repaired constructs was determined by ultrasonography at 4.5, 12, and 24 months. Moreover, clinical evaluations were performed by using the Constant score, the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) score, and muscle strength at intervals of 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. On ultrasonography at 4.5, 12, and 24 months, a retear was detected in 6, 2, and 1 patients in the mobile tear group and in 5, 2, and 1 patients in the U-shaped tear group, respectively. Significant differences in retear rates were not detected between the groups overall or at each time point. Moreover, clinical scores were similar between groups, except for the presence of a temporarily higher Constant score at 12 months in the mobile tear group. With regard to shoulder strength, between-group comparisons indicated no statistically significant difference, either in abduction or external rotation, except for the presence of temporarily higher external rotation strength at 3 months in the mobile tear group. Arthroscopic repair of large-sized rotator cuff tears yielded substantial improvements in shoulder function, regardless of tear retraction, during midterm follow-up. Moreover, the

  6. Biodegradable Long Shelf Life Food Packaging Material, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Long shelf life food packaging is a critical to maintaining the crew's well being in NASA's manned missions to the mars. Not only does the packaging have to offer an...

  7. Gypsum crystals in the inner shelf sediments off Maharashtra, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Ambre, N.V.

    Gypsum crystals have been found in the inner shelf silty clay/clayey silt off the Maharashtra Coast between Vengurla and Bombay. Generally these occur as euhedral single or twinned crystals of selenite. Very often shells are found embedded within...

  8. The Effectiveness of Light Shelf in Tropical Urban Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binarti Floriberta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Light shelf was developed to create uniform indoor illuminance. However, in hot climates the unshaded clerestory above the shelf transmits high solar heat gain. In dense urban context, these advantages and disadvantages might vary regarding the context and position of the fenestration. This study employed an integrated energy simulation software to investigate the effectiveness of light shelf application in a tropical urban context in terms of building energy consumption. Radiance and EnergyPlus based simulations performed the effects of urban canyon aspect ratio and external surface albedo on the daylighting performances, space cooling load, as well as the lighting energy consumption of the building equipped with lightshelves in 2 humid tropical cities. Comparison of the energy performances of 3 fenestration systems, i.e. fenestration without any shading device, with overhangs, and with light shelves, yielded some recommendations concerning the best application of light shelf on the certain floor levels and aspect ratio of the urban context.

  9. Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postharvest Ripening and Shelf Life of Mango ( Mangifera indica L.) Fruit as Influenced by ... evaluate the influence of 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and polyethylene packaging (PP) on postharvest storage of mango. ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  10. Sediments of the western continental shelf of India - Environmental significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Guptha, M.V.S.

    The degree of fragmentation and colour of the skeletal fragments, colouration in benthic foraminifers have been studied in surficial sediment samples collected from forty stations from the continental shelf region between Ratnagiri in the south...

  11. Shelf life study on Nuclear Malaysia biofertilizer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phua Choo Kwai Hoe; Ahmad Nazrul Abd Wahid; Khairuddin Abdul Rahim

    2009-01-01

    Phosphate solubilising bacteria and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are biofertilizer microorganisms known to increase crop yields. It is important to prepare suitable sterile carriers or substrates for these microorganisms into biofertilizer products with long shelf life. Optimum storage conditions, especially storage temperature is needed to improve shelf life of the products. Isolates of two phosphate solubilising bacteria (AP1 and AP3) and one plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (AP2) have been developed into biofertilizer products in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NuclearMalaysia). These isolates were inoculated into a compost-based carrier, sterilised by gamma irradiation at 50 kGy, from MINTec-SINAGAMA, Nuclear Malaysia. Biofertilizer products kept at low temperatures (9 ± 2 degree C) showed better shelf life (storage for six months) as compared to those stored at room temperatures (28 ± 2 degree C). Further observation of the shelf life is still in progress. (Author)

  12. Application of inversion techniques on marine magnetic data: Andaman shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Ramana, M.V.; Murty, G.P.S.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.; Rao, M.M.M.; Narayana, S.L.

    with optimisation procedure of iteration modelling. The depths derived from these methods match well with the acoustic basement mapped by seismic reflection survey across the Andaman shelf. The interpretation by these methods demonstrates the rapid utility in virgin...

  13. 41 CFR 101-27.207-3 - Marking material to show extended shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... extended shelf life. 101-27.207-3 Section 101-27.207-3 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.207-3 Marking material to show extended shelf life. When the shelf-life period of Type II material (except for critical end-use items as...

  14. 41 CFR 102-36.455 - How do we report excess shelf-life items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shelf-life items? 102-36.455 Section 102-36.455 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling Shelf-Life Items § 102-36.455 How do we report excess shelf-life items? You must identify the property as shelf...

  15. Sensory shelf life of mantecoso cheese using accelerated testing

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-González, Jesús A.; Pérez, Joel A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to estimate sensory shelf life of "huacariz" and "cefop" mantecoso cheese, vacuum packaging: "cefop" and packaging to the atmospheric pressure: "huacariz"; brands marketed in Cajamarca, using accelerated shelf life testing. For this purpose, "huacariz" cheese was stored at 20, 28, 35 y 40 °C, while it was set at 20, 28, 35 °C storage for "cefop" cheese, performing acceptability sensory tests according to time storage with both 41 consumers constants. The results f...

  16. Adapting to climate change and addressing drought – learning from the Red Cross Red Crescent experiences in the Horn of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joy C.-Y. Muller

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presented here is intended to share lessons learnt from the operations that the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC and its National Societies undertook from 2008 to 2010 in the Horn of Africa, related to the adaptation to climate change and addressing drought. It acknowledges that to avoid further suffering from drought, not only in Africa (in the Horn and the Sahel region but also other parts of the world, we need to change the way we invest. The IFRC advocates that for a national drought policy to be effective in its implementation, the policy itself will need to be developed with an integrated approach, a strong linkage to climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in a country.

  17. Note On The Ross Sea Shelf Water Downflow Processes (antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, A.; Defendi, V.; Spezie, G.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.

    In the framework of the CLIMA Project of the Italian National Program for Research in Antarctica, three different experimental data sets were acquired along the continental shelf break; two of them (in 1997 and 2001) close to Cape Adare, the 1998 one in the middle of the Ross Sea (i.e. 75 S, 177 W). The investigations were chosen in order to explore the downslope flow of the bottom waters produced in the Ross Sea, namely the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, the densest water mass of the southern ocean coming from its formation site in the polynya region in Terra Nova bay), and the Ice Shelf Water (ISW, originated below the Ross Ice Shelf and outflowing northward). Both bottom waters spill over the shelf edge and mix with the Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) contributing to the formation of the Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW). Interpreting temperature, salinity and density maps in terms of cascading processes, both HSSW and ISW overflows are evidenced during, respectively, 1997 and 1998. During the 2001 acquisition there is no presence of HSSW along the shelf break, nevertheless distribution captures the evidence of a downslope flow process.

  18. Technology transfer equipment qualification methodology for shelf life determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    Discussions with a number of Nuclear Utilities revealed that equipment qualified for 10 to 40 years in the harsh environment of the plant was being assigned shelf lives of only 5 to 10 years in the benign environment of the warehouse, and then the materials were being trashed. One safety-related equipment supplier was assigning a 10-year qualified life, from date of shipment, with no recognition of the difference in the aging rate in the plant vs. that in the warehouse. Many suppliers assign shelf lives based on product warranty considerations rather than actual product degradation. An EPRI program was initiated to evaluate the methods used to assign shelf lives and to adapt the Arrhenius methodology, used in equipment qualification, to assign technically justifiable shelf lives. Temperature is the main factor controlling shelf life; however, atmospheric pressure, humidity, ultraviolet light, ozone and other atmospheric contaminants were also considered. A list of 70 representative materials was addressed in the program. All of these were found to have shelf lives of 14 years to greater than 60 years, except for 19 items. For 18 of these items, there was no data available except for the manufacturer's recommendation

  19. Shelf life of packaged bakery goods--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galić, K; Curić, D; Gabrić, D

    2009-05-01

    Packaging requirements for fresh bakery goods are often minimal as many of the products are for immediate consumption. However, packaging can be an important factor in extending the shelf life of other cereal-based goods (toast, frozen products, biscuits, cakes, pastas). Some amount of the texture changes and flavor loss manifest over the shelf life of a soft-baked good can usually be minimized or delayed by effective use of packaging materials. The gains in the extension of shelf life will be application specific. It is recognized that defining the shelf life of a food is a difficult task and is an area of intense research for food product development scientists (food technologists, microbiologists, packaging experts). Proper application of chemical kinetic principles to food quality loss allows for efficiently designing appropriate shelf-life tests and maximizing the useful information that can be obtained from the resulting data. In the development of any new food product including reformulating, change of packaging, or storage/distribution condition (to penetrate into a new market), one important aspect is the knowledge of shelf life.

  20. Accelerated Shelf Life Testing of Jackfruit Extract Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enny Hawani Loebis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jackfruit is a potential tropical fruit as raw material for food industry. Jackfruit could be processed by co-crystallization technique to extend its shelf life and increase its value. This research was conducted to study and to determine the shelf life of jackfruit powder extract. Shelf life test is conducted using variety of treatments such as: anti-caking types and temperature storage. The results showed that the shelf life of the jackfruit extract powder using anti-caking of magnesium oxide (MO, magnesium carbonate (MC, dan magnesium silicate (MS, which is store in the temperature of 27°C, were: 8.06, 5.42, and 5.5 months respectively. The variation of anti-caking type was significantly affect the product shelf life.  The effect of storage temperature on the product shelf life is more significant for the product using anti-caking MO compared with product using anti-caking MC and MS.

  1. Geochemistry of sediments of the western Canadian continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, R. W.; Pedersen, T. F.

    1991-08-01

    Few chemical data exist for the sedimentary environment off the Canadian west coast. Here we define the chemical nature of the shelf sediments by examining the important sources of material (natural and anthropogenic) to the region and processes relevant to diagenesis. Slightly more data exist for the continental shelf to the south (Washington) and north (Alaska), however it is clear that the sedimentary environment of these neighbouring shelves differs importantly from the Canadian portion. The British Columbia shelf receives little modern terrigenous detritus due mainly to isolation from terrestrial sediment sources by fiords, inland seas, or bypassing by shelf canyons. The chemical state of the sediments depends on the rate of supply of material, the energy of the depositional or erosional environment and the organic and inorganic composition of the material. These features in concert with bottom water characteristics control the redox state. Although no basins hosting continuous depositional records for the Holocene on the open British Columbia shelf have been identified or studied in a manner described by BUCKLEY ( Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1099-1122), some coastal embayments and fiords provide valuable historical records of post-glacial sedimentation. Such environments will prove to be increasingly useful in future studies of changes in regional climate and in establishing the chronology of natural disasters and anthropogenic impacts. Recommendations are given for a variety of research projects that would help us to understand better both chemical interactions at the seabed and Late Quaternary depositional history.

  2. Estimation of shelf life of wikau maombo brownies cake using Accelerated Shelf Life Testing (ASLT) method with Arrhenius model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahyuni, S.; Holilah; Asranudin; Noviyanti

    2018-02-01

    The shelf life of brownies cake made from wikau maombo flour was predicted by ASLT method through the Arrhenius model. The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of brownies cake made from wikau maombo flour. The storage temperature of brownies cake was carried out at 20°C, 30°C and 45°C. The results showed that TBA (Thio Barbaturic Acid) number of brownies cake decreased as the storage temperature increase. Brownies stored at 20°C and 30°C were overgrown with mold on the storage time of six days. Brownies product (WT0 and WT1) had shelf life at 40°C approximately six and fourteen days, respectively. Brownies made from wikau maombo and wheat flour (WT1) was the best product with had the longest of shelf life about fourteen days.

  3. Understanding Ice Shelf Basal Melting Using Convergent ICEPOD Data Sets: ROSETTA-Ice Study of Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Frearson, N.; Tinto, K. J.; Das, I.; Fricker, H. A.; Siddoway, C. S.; Padman, L.

    2017-12-01

    The future stability of the ice shelves surrounding Antarctica will be susceptible to increases in both surface and basal melt as the atmosphere and ocean warm. The ROSETTA-Ice program is targeted at using the ICEPOD airborne technology to produce new constraints on Ross Ice Shelf, the underlying ocean, bathymetry, and geologic setting, using radar sounding, gravimetry and laser altimetry. This convergent approach to studying the ice-shelf and basal processes enables us to develop an understanding of the fundamental controls on ice-shelf evolution. This work leverages the stratigraphy of the ice shelf, which is detected as individual reflectors by the shallow-ice radar and is often associated with surface scour, form close to the grounding line or pinning points on the ice shelf. Surface accumulation on the ice shelf buries these reflectors as the ice flows towards the calving front. This distinctive stratigraphy can be traced across the ice shelf for the major East Antarctic outlet glaciers and West Antarctic ice streams. Changes in the ice thickness below these reflectors are a result of strain and basal melting and freezing. Correcting the estimated thickness changes for strain using RIGGS strain measurements, we can develop decadal-resolution flowline distributions of basal melt. Close to East Antarctica elevated melt-rates (>1 m/yr) are found 60-100 km from the calving front. On the West Antarctic side high melt rates primarily develop within 10 km of the calving front. The East Antarctic side of Ross Ice Shelf is dominated by melt driven by saline water masses that develop in Ross Sea polynyas, while the melting on the West Antarctic side next to Hayes Bank is associated with modified Continental Deep Water transported along the continental shelf. The two sides of Ross Ice Shelf experience differing basal melt in part due to the duality in the underlying geologic structure: the East Antarctic side consists of relatively dense crust, with low amplitude

  4. Formation waters of the Norwegian Continental Shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCartney, R. A.; Rein, E.

    2006-03-15

    New and previously published analyses of formation waters for the Norwegian Continental Shelf (NCS) have been evaluated and interpreted to determine the compositional distribution of formation waters in the region and factors controlling their compositions, and also to obtain information on subsurface fluid flow. Formation waters in the region are Na-Cl and Na-Ca-Cl-type waters that display a wide range of salinity (2500-212000 mg/kg Cl). Generally, the concentrations of most dissolved constituents are positively correlated with Cl so that their distribution in formation waters largely reflects the variations shown by salinity. Exceptions are SO4 which is generally low (less than 40 mg/l) regardless of Cl, and HCO3 and in-situ pH which are negatively correlated with Cl. The main factors determining the compositions of the formation waters are mixing of meteoric water (probably late-Jurassic to Eocene), ancient seawater and primary brine together with diagenetic reactions that have affected each of these components individually as well as mixtures of them. Evaluation of the distribution of salinity has helped us identify where vertical and/or lateral migration of brine from the evaporites has occurred. This has in turn provided us with information on the presence of leak-points and vertical mixing, although further investigation of the location of evaporites and basin palaeohydrogeology are required to determine whether regional lateral advection has occurred in the past. The results of this study may benefit oil exploration and production activities in the NCS including constraint of hydrocarbon migration models, economic evaluation of undrilled prospects, scale management and compartmentalisation studies. (Author)

  5. Modern shelf ice, equatorial Aeolis Quadrangle, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brakenridge, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    As part of a detailed study of the geological and geomorphological evolution of Aeolis Quadrangle, I have encountered evidence suggesting that near surface ice exists at low latitudes and was formed by partial or complete freezing of an inland sea. The area of interest is centered at approximately -2 deg, 196 deg. As seen in a suite of Viking Orbiter frames obtained at a range of approximately 600 km, the plains surface at this location is very lightly cratered or uncratered, and it is thus of late Amazonian age. Extant topographic data indicate that the Amazonian plains at this location occupy a trough whose surface lies at least 1000 m below the Mars datum. A reasonable hypothesis is that quite recent surface water releases, perhaps associated with final evolution of large 'outflow chasms' to the south, but possibly from other source areas, filled this trough, that ice floes formed almost immediately, and that either grounded ice or an ice-covered sea still persists. A reasonable hypothesis is that quite recent surface water releases, perhaps associated with final evolution of large 'outflow chasms' to the south, but possibly from other source areas, filled this trough, that ice floes formed almost immediately, and that either grounded ice or an ice-covered sea still persists. In either case, the thin (a few meters at most) high albedo, low thermal inertia cover of aeolian materials was instrumental in allowing ice preservation, and at least the lower portions of this dust cover may be cemented by water ice. Detailed mapping using Viking stereopairs and quantitative comparisons to terrestrial shelf ice geometries are underway.

  6. Nominal Device Support for ATCA Shelf Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Bruno; Carvalho, Paulo F.; Rodrigues, A.P.; Carvalho, Bernardo B.; Sousa, Jorge; Batista, Antonio J.N.; Combo, Alvaro M.; Cruz, Nuno; Correia, Carlos M.B.A.; Goncalves, Bruno [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Correia, Miguel [Centro de Instrumentacao, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-07-01

    The ATCA standard specifies a mandatory Shelf Manager (ShM) unit which is a key element for the system operation. It includes the Intelligent Platform Management Controller (IPMC) which monitors the system health, retrieves inventory information and controls the Field Replaceable Units (FRUs). These elements enable the intelligent health monitoring, providing high-availability and safety operation, ensuring the correct system operation. For critical systems like ones of tokamak ITER these features are mandatory to support the long pulse operation. The Nominal Device Support (NDS) was designed and developed for the ITER CODAC Core System (CCS), which will be the responsible for plant Instrumentation and Control (I and C), supervising and monitoring on ITER. It generalizes the Enhanced Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) device support interface for Data Acquisition (DAQ) and timing devices. However the support for health management features and ATCA ShM are not yet provided. This paper presents the implementation and test of a NDS for the ATCA ShM, using the ITER Fast Plant System Controller (FPSC) prototype environment. This prototype is fully compatible with the ITER CCS and uses the EPICS Channel Access (CA) protocol as the interface with the Plant Operation Network (PON). The implemented solution running in an EPICS Input / Output Controller (IOC) provides Process Variables (PV) to the PON network with the system information. These PVs can be used for control and monitoring by all CA clients, such as EPICS user interface clients and alarm systems. The results are presented, demonstrating the fully integration and the usability of this solution. (authors)

  7. Radiation stress and mean drift in continental shelf waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jan Erik H.; Drivdal, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    The time- and depth-averaged mean drift induced by barotropic continental shelf waves (CSW's) is studied theoretically for idealized shelf topography by calculating the mean volume fluxes to second order in wave amplitude. The waves suffer weak spatial damping due to bottom friction, which leads to radiation stress forcing of the mean fluxes. In terms of the total wave energy density E̅̅ over the shelf region, the radiation stress tensor component S̅11 for CSW's is found to be different from that of shallow water surface waves in a non-rotating ocean. For CSW's, the ratio S̅11/E̅ depends strongly on the wave number. The mean Lagrangian flow forced by the radiation stress can be subdivided into a Stokes drift and a mean Eulerian drift current. The magnitude of latter depends on ratio between the radiation stress and the bottom stress acting on the mean flow. When the effect of bottom friction acts equally strong on the waves and the mean current, calculations for short CSW's show that the Stokes drift and the friction-dependent wave-induced mean Eulerian current varies approximately in anti-phase over the shelf, and that the latter is numerically the largest. For long CSW's they are approximately in phase. In both cases the mean Lagrangian current, which is responsible for the net particle drift, has its largest numerical value at the coast on the shallow part of the shelf. Enhancing the effect of bottom friction on the Eulerian mean flow, results in a general current speed reduction, as well as a change in spatial structure for long waves. Applying realistic physical parameters for the continental shelf west of Norway, calculations yield along-shelf mean drift velocities for short CSW's that may be important for the transport of biological material, neutral tracers, and underwater plumes of dissolved oil from deepwater drilling accidents.

  8. Feedback Limiting the Coastal Response to Irregularities in Shelf Bathymetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, J. H.; Benedet, L.

    2007-12-01

    Observations and engineering studies have shown that non-uniform inner shelf bathymetry can influence longshore sediment transport gradients and create patterns of shoreline change. One classic example is from Grand Isle, Louisiana, where two offshore borrow pits caused two zones of shoreline accretion landward of the pits. In addition to anthropogenic cases, many natural situations exist in which irregularities in coastal planform are thought to result from offshore shoals or depressions. Recent studies using the hydrodynamic model Delft3D have successfully simulated the observed nearshore erosion and accretion patterns landward of an inner shelf borrow pit. An analysis of the momentum balance in a steady-state simulation has demonstrated that both alongshore pressure gradients (due to alongshore variations in wave setup) and radiation stress gradients (terms relevant to alongshore forcing) are important for forcing the initial pattern of nearshore sedimentation in response to the borrow pit. The response of the coast to non-uniform inner shelf bathymetry appears to be limited, however, because observed shoreline undulations are often rather subtle. (An exception may exist in the case of a very high angle wave climate.) Therefore, feedbacks in processes must exist such that growth of the shoreline salient itself modifies the transport processes in a way that limits further growth (assuming the perturbation in inner shelf bathymetry itself remains unchanged). Examination of the Delft3D momentum balance for an inner shelf pit test case demonstrates that after a certain degree of morphologic development the forcing associated with the well-known shoreline smoothing process (a.k.a., diffusion) counteracts the forcing associated with the inner shelf pit, producing a negative feedback which arrests further growth of the shoreline salient. These results provide insights into the physical processes that control shoreline changes behind inner shelf bathymetric anomalies (i

  9. The crescent and the periluminal halo: Two Computed Tomography signs of aortic aneurysm impending rupture?; La semiluna e l`alone periluminale: Due segni con Tomografia Computerizzata di aneurisma aortico a rischio di rottura?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catalano, Orlando; Cusati, Bianca [Naples, Univ. ``Federico II`` (Italy). Istituto di Scienze Radiologiche; Rotondo, Antonio [Bari, Univ. (Italy). Facolta` di Medicina

    1997-04-01

    Purpose: To assess the prevalence, significance and practical value of two recently described CT signs of instable aneurysm: the crescent sign and the periluminal halo (a low-attenuating internal layer of the thrombus around the patent lumen). Material and methods: Among the CT examination performed in the last 5 years, they retrospectively selected the nonruptured aneurysms with a diameter exceeding 4 cm (no. = 93 average diameter 5.1 cm, unenhanced images in 28 cases and enhanced in 84) and the ruptured aneurysms (no. = 16, average diameter 6.7 cm, unenhanced images in 9 cases and enhanced in 9). They studied the prevalence of the crescent and halo sing, their relationship with the aneurysm diameter, and the effect of contrast enhancement. Results: The crescent sign was identified with a statistically significant prevalence in ruptured ( 37.5 % or cases) over asymptomatic aneurysms (5.5 %); the halo had the same frequency in the 2 groups (12.5 % and 9.5 %). Both signs were more frequent in bigger aneurysms and were recognizable without differences in unenhanced and enhanced images. Conclusions: The crescent sign, though not exclusive of aneurysmal rupture, indicates instability and its detection should lead to careful follow-up or surgical repair. The halo seems to have no real value as risk factor.

  10. Downslope flow across the Ross Sea shelf break (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, A.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.; Defendi, V.; Meloni, R.; Paschini, E.; Sclavo, M.; Spezie, G.

    2003-12-01

    The analysis of some high-resolution hydrological data sets acquired during the 1997, 1998, 2001 and 2003 austral summers across the Ross Sea continental shelf break are here presented. The main focus of these cruises carried out in the framework of the Italian National Antarctic Program was the investigation of the downslope flow of the dense waters originated inside the Ross Sea. Such dense waters, flow near the bottom and, reaching the continental shelf break, ventilate the deep ocean. Two Antarctic continental shelf mechanisms can originate dense and deep waters. The former mechanism involves the formation, along the Victoria Land coasts, of a dense and saline water mass, the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). The HSSW formation is linked to the rejection of salt into the water column as sea ice freezes, especially during winter, in the polynya areas, where the ice is continuously pushed offshore by the strong katabatic winds. The latter one is responsible of the formation of a supercold water mass, the Ice Shelf Water (ISW). The salt supplied by the HSSW recirculated below the Ross Ice Shelf, the latent heat of melting and the heat sink provided by the Ross Ice Shelf give rise to plumes of ISW, characterized by temperatures below the sea-surface freezing point. The dense shelf waters migrate to the continental shelf-break, spill over the shelf edge and descend the continental slope as a shelf-break gravity current, subject to friction and possibly enhanced by topographic channelling. Friction, in particular, breaks the constraint of potential vorticity conservation, counteracting the geostrophic tendency for along slope flow. The density-driven downslope motion or cascading entrains ambient water, namely the lower layer of the CDW, reaches a depth where density is the same and spreads off-slope. In fact, the cascading event is inhibited by friction without entrainment. The downslope processes are important for the ocean and climate system because they play a

  11. Reconstructing the trophic history of the Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunev, Oleg; Velikova, Violeta; Carstensen, Jacob

    2017-11-01

    In the last 50 years the Black Sea has undergone large changes driven by increasing anthropogenic pressures. We estimated the integrated annual primary production (APP) for different shelf regions during the early eutrophication phase (1963-1976) using chlorophyll a and winter nitrate concentrations as proxy observations of primary production to describe its seasonal variation. For comparison, APP was estimated during the period when eutrophication peaked (1985-1992). In the early eutrophication period APP was estimated at 64-89 g C m-2 yr-1 for most part of the shelf, except the shelf part influenced by the Danube River (the shallow waters off the Romanian and Bulgarian coasts) where APP was ∼126 g C m-2 yr-1. In these two different shelf parts, APP increased to 138-190 and 266-318 g C m-2 yr-1 during the peak eutrophication period. These spatial differences are attributed to the large nutrient inputs from the Danube River. The APP estimates provide new insight into the eutrophication history of the Black Sea shelf, documenting stronger signs of eutrophiction than observed in other enclosed seas such as the Baltic Sea. Since the peak eutrophication period APP is estimated to have decreased by approximately 15-20%.

  12. Phytoplankton Distribution in Relation to Environmental Drivers on the North West European Shelf Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemering, Beatrix; Bresnan, Eileen; Painter, Stuart C; Daniels, Chris J; Inall, Mark; Davidson, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The edge of the North West European Shelf (NWES) is characterised by a steep continental slope and a northward flowing slope current. These topographic/hydrographic features separate oceanic water and shelf water masses hence potentially separate phytoplankton communities. The slope current may facilitate the advective transport of phytoplankton, with mixing at the shelf edge supporting nutrient supply and therefore phytoplankton production. On the west Scottish shelf in particular, little is known about the phytoplankton communities in and around the shelf break and adjacent waters. Hence, to improve our understanding of environmental drivers of phytoplankton communities, biological and environmental data were collected on seven cross-shelf transects across the Malin and Hebridean Shelves during autumn 2014. Density profiles indicated that shelf break and oceanic stations had a 100 m deep mixed surface layer while stations on the shelf were generally well mixed. Analysis of similarity and multidimensional scaling of phytoplankton counts revealed that phytoplankton communities on the shelf were significantly different to those found at the shelf break and at oceanic stations. Shelf stations were dominated by dinoflagellates, with diatoms contributing a maximum of 37% of cells. Shelf break and oceanic stations were also dinoflagellate dominated but displayed a lower species diversity. Significant difference between shelf and shelf break stations suggested that the continental slope limited cross shelf phytoplankton exchange. Northern and southern phytoplankton communities on the shelf were approximately 15% dissimilar while there was no latitudinal gradient for stations along the slope current, suggesting this current provided south to north connectivity. Fitting environmental data to phytoplankton ordination showed a significant relationship between phytoplankton community dissimilarities and nutrient concentrations and light availability on the shelf compared to

  13. Carbon Monoxide Modified Atmosphere Packaging Beef Shelf Life Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rini Ariani Basyamfar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The combination of O2, CO2, and low concentrations of CO in CO-MAP has repeatedly been shown to increase the shelf-life of red meat products. Concentrations of CO2 of 30% has been shown to slow microbial growth while O2 preserves the natural color of red meat. The addition of low concentrations of CO (<0.4% preserves the color stability of the meat while allowing for lower levels of O2 which reduces the oxidative spoilage of the product. Shelf-life extension of 5 to 10 days above traditional MAP has been seen with CO-MAP technologies. The addition of active/smart films such as antimicrobial films and/or the combination of irradiation further extends the shelf-life of red meat. Undetectable levels of E. coli at storage temperatures as high as 10oC at 28 days have been shown with CO-MAP and irradiation.

  14. Vertical Variability of Anoxia Along the Northern Omani Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queste, B. Y.; Piontkovski, S.; Heywood, K. J.

    2016-02-01

    Three autonomous underwater gliders were deployed along a 80 km transect extending from Muscat out into the Gulf during both monsoons and the intermonsoon season as part of a project funded by ONR Global and the UK NERC. The gliders surveyed the top 1000m across the continental shelf, the steep continental slope, and the Sea of Oman while measuring temperature, salinity, oxygen, chlorophyll a fluorescence, optical backscatter, photosyntheticall active radiation and providing estimates of depth-averaged currents and up/downwelling. The data show the depth of the surface oxycline varying by 50m across the transect as a function of mixed layer depth. Below, we observed high variability, on the order of days, in the oxygen profile with the boundary of the suboxic zone (glider transect. During periods of minimal flow, it was constrained to 10km beyond the shelf break. PGW was also present in mesoscale eddies beyond the shelf break.

  15. Vacuum Drying for Extending Litchi Shelf-Life: Vitamin C, Total Phenolics, Texture and Shelf-Life Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter Reis, Felipe; de Oliveira, Aline Caroline; Gadelha, Gabriella Giani Pieretti; de Abreu, Marcela Breves; Soares, Hillary Isabelle

    2017-06-01

    In an attempt to obtain shelf-stable litchi fruit with preserved nutritional quality and good sensory features, quarters of peeled and pitted fruits were vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C at a constant pressure of 8.0 kPa. The product was assessed for its vitamin C, total phenolics and texture (hardness). In addition, the product with the best texture was assessed for its shelf-life by means of accelerated testing. Results suggest that vacuum dried litchi retained almost 70% of the vitamin C and total phenolics when compared to frozen fruits (control). Vitamin C and phenolic compounds content significantly decreased with drying, while no difference was found between different drying temperatures. Hardness increased with drying temperature. The sample dried at 70 °C presented crispness, which is a desired quality feature in dried fruit products. This sample was subjected to shelf-life evaluation, whose result suggests a shelf-life of eight months at 23 °C. Total color change (CIE ΔE 00 ) was the expiry criterion. Vacuum drying was a suitable technique for producing shelf-stable litchi fruit with good texture while preserving its desirable original nutrients. Consumption of vacuum dried litchi may be beneficial to health due to its remarkable content of phenolic compounds and vitamin C.

  16. Suspended particulate layers and internal waves over the southern Monterey Bay continental shelf: an important control on shelf mud belts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheriton, Olivia M.; McPhee-Shaw, Erika E.; Shaw, William J.; Stanton, Timothy P.; Bellingham, James G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and optical measurements taken over the mud belt on the southern continental shelf of Monterey Bay, California documented the frequent occurrence of suspended particulate matter features, the majority of which were detached from the seafloor, centered 9–33 m above the bed. In fall 2011, an automated profiling mooring and fixed instrumentation, including a thermistor chain and upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler, were deployed at 70 m depth for 5 weeks, and from 12 to 16 October a long-range autonomous underwater vehicle performed across-shelf transects. Individual SPM events were uncorrelated with local bed shear stress caused by surface waves and bottom currents. Nearly half of all observed SPM layers occurred during 1 week of the study, 9–16 October 2011, and were advected past the fixed profiling mooring by the onshore phase of semidiurnal internal tide bottom currents. At the start of the 9–16 October period, we observed intense near-bed vertical velocities capable of lifting particulates into the middle of the water column. This “updraft” event appears to have been associated with nonlinear adjustment of high-amplitude internal tides over the mid and outer shelf. These findings suggest that nonlinear internal tidal motions can erode material over the outer shelf and that, once suspended, this SPM can then be transported shoreward to the middle and shallow sections of the mud belt. This represents a fundamental broadening of our understanding of how shelf mud belts may be built up and sustained.

  17. Shelf life characteristics of bread produced from ozonated wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadi, Mohammed; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Peng, Wei; Sulieman, Abdellatif A; Mahdi, Amer Ali; Mohammed, Khalid; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-11-13

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of ozone treatment on the quality of bread and its shelf life. Flour was treated with ozone gas a rate of 5 L/min for 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 min. Baking studies showed that bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min exhibited improved quality properties (in terms of specific volume, bread color, and crumb cell numbers). Exposure to ozone for shorter times did not cause obvious changes in the major volatile compounds of bread. A shelf life tests showed that ozone gas treatment influenced the extent of starch crystallinity. The relative starch crystallinity of bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min was lower than the control value, as were the hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Microscopic examination of crumb structure revealed remarkable differences between control and treated breads. Although ozone is a naturally occurring substance found in the atmosphere, ozone can also be produced synthetically. Recently, ozone has come to be regarded as a new treatment for flour. Especially in countries where the chlorination is forbidden, ozone treatment may be of a great interest if it were associated with significant and reliable changes in flour. Ozone treatment of wheat flour tends to improve bread shelf life and quality in terms of physiochemical, baking properties, X-ray diffraction data, volatile compound levels, crumb structure, and textural characteristics. Given such findings, desirable shelf life and bread qualities may be achieved when ozone is used as a flour oxidant prior to bread baking. Analyses of the effects of ozone gas on treatment of flour on bread shelf life and quality would aid the production of high quality and extend the shelf life of bread. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Climatology and decadal variability of the Ross Sea shelf waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Russo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Ocean Database 2001 data located in the Ross Sea (named WOD01 and containing data in this region since 1928 are merged with recent data collected by the Italian expeditions (CLIMA dataset in the period November 1994-February 2004 in the same area. From this extended dataset, austral summer climatologies of the main Ross Sea subsurface, intermediate and bottom water masses: High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW, Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW, Ice Shelf Water (ISW and Modified Circumpolar Deep Water (MCDW have been drawn. The comparison between the WOD01_1994 climatologies (a subset of the WOD01 dataset until April 1994 and the CLIMA ones for the period 1994/95-2003/04 showed significant changes occurred during the decade. The freshening of the Ross Sea shelf waters which occurred during the period 1960-2000, was confirmed by our analysis in all the main water masses, even though with a spatially varying intensity. Relevant variations were found for the MCDW masses, which appeared to reduce their presence and to deepen; this can be ascribed to the very limited freshening of the MCDW core, which allowed an increased density with respect to the surrounding waters. Variations in the MCDW properties and extension could have relevant consequences, e.g. a decreased Ross Ice Shelf basal melting or a reduced supply of nutrients, and may also be indicative of a reduced thermohaline circulation within the Ross Sea. Shelf Waters (SW having neutral density γn > 28.7 Kg m-3, which contribute to form the densest Antarctic Bottom Waters (AABW, showed a large volumetric decrease in the 1994/95-2003/04 decade, most likely as a consequence of the SW freshening.

  19. Sedimentation on the Valencia Continental Shelf: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Andres; Swift, Donald J. P.; Young, Robert A.; Han, Gregory; Nittrouer, Charles A.; DeMaster, David J.; Rey, Jorge; Palomo, Carlos; Acosta, Juan; Ballester, A.; Castellvi, J.

    1983-10-01

    Preliminary analysis of data collected during the course of a cooperative Spanish-United States investigation of the Valencia Shelf (western Mediterranean) reveals a storm-dominated, mud-accumulating sedimentary regime. Calcareous mud is accumulating seaward of a narrow band of shoreface sand and gravel. On the outer shelf the mud is enriched by a pelagic calcareous component. Preliminary 210Pb data from vertical profiles of box cores yield nominal accumulation rates from 2.6 mm y -1 near the Ebro Delta to 1.3 mm y -1 on the southern portion of the Valencia Shelf. Storm-current winnowing has resulted in the development of a biogenic lag sand over the mid-shelf mud in the northern part of the study area. Piston cores reveal a basal Holocene sand and gravel facies similar to that presently seen on the inner shelf. Upward-fining sequences on the central and outer shelf are inferred to result from the landward shift of lithotopes during the course of the Holocene transgression. These sequences are locally repeated, perhaps as the consequence of brief, local interludes of coastal progradation. Application of a diagnostic circulation model suggests that intense, downwelling coastal flows occur during winter northeastern storms. Storm activity has induced erosional shoreface retreat during the course of the Holocene transgression and has generated by this means the basal coarse facies observed in the piston cores. In the central part of the study area seaward of the Albufera Lagoon, the mud blanket thins to a layer several centimeters thick which is draped over a thickened (10 m) basal sand. The basal sand is molded into northwest trending ridges. The data are not sufficient to determine whether these are overstepped barriers, or submarine sand ridges formed by storm flows during the shoreface retreat process.

  20. Shelf stable intermediate moisture fruit cubes using radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Saxena, Sudhanshu; Gautam, Satyendra; Chander, Ramesh; Sharma, Arun

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed to prepare shelf stable ready-to-eat (RTE) intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes using radiation technology. The combination of hurdles including osmotic dehydration, blanching, infrared drying, and gamma radiation dose of 1 kGy successfully reduced the microbial load to below detectable limit. The shelf life of the intermediate moisture pineapple slices and papaya cubes was found to be 40 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2 deg C). The control samples spoiled within 6 days. The RTE intermediate moisture fruit products were found to have good texture, colour and sensory acceptability during this 40 days storage. (author)

  1. Shelf life extension for the lot AAE nozzle severance LSCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, M.

    1990-01-01

    Shelf life extension tests for the remaining lot AAE linear shaped charges for redesigned solid rocket motor nozzle aft exit cone severance were completed in the small motor conditioning and firing bay, T-11. Five linear shaped charge test articles were thermally conditioned and detonated, demonstrating proper end-to-end charge propagation. Penetration depth requirements were exceeded. Results indicate that there was no degradation in performance due to aging or the linear shaped charge curving process. It is recommended that the shelf life of the lot AAE nozzle severance linear shaped charges be extended through January 1992.

  2. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey: Crescent Quadrangle, Burns Quadrangle, Canyon City Quadrangle, Bend Quadrangle, Salem Quadrangle (Oregon). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An airborne combining radiometric and magnetic survey was performed for the Department of Energy over the area covered by the Burns, Crescent, Canyon City, Bend, and Salem, Washington 1:250,000 National Topographic Map Series, 1 0 x 2 0 quadrangle maps. The survey was a part of DOE's National Aerial Radiometric Reconnaissance program, which is in turn a part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Data were collected by a helicopter equipped with a gamma-ray spectrometer having a large crystal volume, and a high sensitivity proton precession magnetometer. The radiometric system was calibrated at the Walker Field Calibration pads and the Lake Mead Dynamic Test range. Data quality was ensured throughout the survey by daily test flights and equipment checks. Radiometric data were corrected for live time, aircraft and equipment background, cosmic background, atmospheric radon, Compton scatter, and altitude dependence. The corrected data were statistically evaluated, plotted, and contoured to produce anomaly maps based on the radiometric response of individual geological units. These maps were interpreted and an anomaly interpretation map produced. Volume I contains a description of the systems used in the survey, a discussion of the calibration of the systems, the data processing procedures, the data display format, the interpretation rationale, and the interpretation methodology. A separate Volume II for each quadrangle contains the data displays and the interpretation results

  3. Assemblages of fish larvae and mesozooplankton across the continental shelf and shelf slope of the Andaman Sea (NE Indian Ocean)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Peter; Bjørnsen, Peter Koefoed; Boonruang, P.

    2004-01-01

    on the sampling of fish larvae and mesozooplankton. Surveys were carried out during 2 monsoon periods in March and August 1996, using 3 cross-bathymetric transects extending to the deeper part of the shelf slope of the Andaman Sea. Station distances were either 5 or 10 n miles apart, and at each station a series...... with a hydrographic front generated where the pycnocline meets the sea-bottom. An internal wave of pronounced amplitude interacts with the shelf slope at ca. 300 m bottom depth, and findings indicated another zone of enhanced abundance in this area. Analysis of the relative abundances of fish larvae within families...

  4. Geochemistry of zinc in the sediments of the western continental shelf and slope of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Paropkari, A.L.; Rao, Ch.M.

    The bulk geochemistry of zinc in the sediments of the western continental shelf and slope of India and also the partition geochemistry of the sediments of the shelf and slope regions between Ratnagiri and Mangalore have been studied. The studies...

  5. Infaunal macrobenthic community of soft bottom sediment in a tropical shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayaraj, K.A.; Jacob, J.; DineshKumar, P.K.

    Studies of benthic communities in tropical shelf waters are limited. In this study, we deal with the infaunal benthic community of soft bottom sediment of the tropical eastern Arabian Sea shelf. Benthic macroinfauna was sampled with a Smith...

  6. Shelf life extension of ground beef by radurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzapfel, W.H.; Niemand, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    Radurization was investigated as a technique in the shelf life extension of ground beef. Although radurization does not necessarily kill off all meat spoilage bacteria, this process may be used for extending the bacteriological keeping quality of fresh meat. The materials and methods used in the investigation are also discussed

  7. Organizing information from the shelf to the web

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, G G

    2007-01-01

    LIS professionals will have to be conversant with all the tools and techniques for organizing information in different domains - from traditional library shelf to full-scale digital libraries. This text covers the organization of the entire spectrum of information, and the principles, tools and techniques needed to do this effectively.

  8. Improvement of Injera shelf life through the use of chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mould spoilage is a serious problem that affects the shelf life of injera, the staple Ethiopian fermented bread. Injera is made from teff (Eragrostis tef) but other cereals may also be used in combination with teff. About two-third of Ethiopian diet consists of injera and it accounts for about two-thirds of the daily protein intake of the ...

  9. Depth study of insular shelf electric sounding Adelaida anomaly (Rivera)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicalese, H.

    1983-01-01

    In the framework of the Uranium prospecting programme, the DINAMIGE geophysical equipment have made a study. It was about the depth of insular shelf electric sounding on the anomalies zone of Adelaida. This equipment carried out a study of the following subjects: geographical location, geologic framework, geophysical intervention, developed works, methods and material and results

  10. Shelf Life Extension of Toasted Groundnuts through the Application ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate edible coatings containing 20% glycerol in extending the shelf life of toasted groundnut during ambient (27 ± 1oC) storage for 14 days was studied. Chemical indices of oxidative rancidity and sensory parameters were evaluated using standard procedures. Moisture ...

  11. Studies on the shelf sediments off the Madras coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.M.; Murty, P.S.N.

    content. Grain size study has shown that the sediments off Madras are mainly sandy in nature and vary from fine to very fine sands in the nearshore and outer shelf regions to medium to coarse sands in the midshelf region. Off Karaikal they vary from coarse...

  12. Surficial sediments of the continental shelf off Karnataka

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.

    sediments occur betweenthe water depths of 15 to 50m corresponding to a distance of about 40 km from the coast. Beyond 50 m to the shelf edge are calcareous sands. Non-carbonate components of these deep water sands are essentially quartz, many of which...

  13. Areas with special ecological values on the Dutch Continental Shelf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, H.J.; Kessel, J.G.; Berkenbosch, L.

    2005-01-01

    In this report we are submitting proposals for the boundaries of areas on the Dutch Continental Shelf (DCS). In the National Spatial Strategy a conservation regime has been determined for five areas in the North Sea with special ecological values. RIKZ and Alterra have formulated this report in

  14. Accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato skin extends shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolino, Laura; Zhang, Yang; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Kiferle, Claudia; Perata, Pierdomenico; Martin, Cathie

    2013-11-01

    Shelf life is one of the most important traits for the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) industry. Two key factors, post-harvest over-ripening and susceptibility to post-harvest pathogen infection, determine tomato shelf life. Anthocyanins accumulate in the skin of Aft/Aft atv/atv tomatoes, the result of introgressing alleles affecting anthocyanin biosynthesis in fruit from two wild relatives of tomato, which results in extended fruit shelf life. Compared with ordinary, anthocyanin-less tomatoes, the fruits of Aft/Aft atv/atv keep longer during storage and are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea, a major tomato pathogen, post-harvest. Using genetically modified tomatoes over-producing anthocyanins, we confirmed that skin-specific accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato is sufficient to reduce the susceptibility of fruit to Botrytis cinerea. Our data indicate that accumulation of anthocyanins in tomato fruit, achieved either by traditional breeding or genetic engineering can be an effective way to extend tomato shelf life. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  15. Clay mineral distribution on the Kerala continental shelf and slope

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    Seventy-five sediment samples collected from the Kerala continental shelf and slope during the 17th and 71st Cruises of @iRV gaveshani@@ were analysed by X-ray diffraction for clay mineral cntent. The distribution of total clay (< 4~k fraction...

  16. Ross Ice Shelf airstream driven by polar vortex cyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-07-01

    The powerful air and ocean currents that flow in and above the Southern Ocean, circling in the Southern Hemisphere's high latitudes, form a barrier to mixing between Antarctica and the rest of the planet. Particularly during the austral winter, strong westerly winds isolate the Antarctic continent from heat, energy, and mass exchange, bolstering the scale of the annual polar ozone depletion and driving the continent's record-breaking low temperatures. Pushing through this wall of high winds, the Ross Ice Shelf airstream (RAS) is responsible for a sizable amount of mass and energy exchange from the Antarctic inland areas to lower latitudes. Sitting due south of New Zealand, the roughly 470,000-square-kilometer Ross Ice Shelf is the continent's largest ice shelf and a hub of activity for Antarctic research. A highly variable lower atmospheric air current, RAS draws air from the inland Antarctic Plateau over the Ross Ice Shelf and past the Ross Sea. Drawing on modeled wind patterns for 2001-2005, Seefeldt and Cassano identify the primary drivers of RAS.

  17. Optimal issuing of perishables with a short fixed shelf life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, R.

    2011-01-01

    The management of inventories of perishable products with a short maximal shelf life takes a good issuing policy next to a good ordering policy. Ordering policies of non-perishables are well studied in literature and implemented in Automated Store Ordering (ASO) systems and Computer Assisted

  18. Speedup and fracturing of George VI Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Holt

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available George VI Ice Shelf (GVIIS is located on the Antarctic Peninsula, a region where several ice shelves have undergone rapid breakup in response to atmospheric and oceanic warming. We use a combination of optical (Landsat, radar (ERS 1/2 SAR and laser altimetry (GLAS datasets to examine the response of GVIIS to environmental change and to offer an assessment on its future stability. The spatial and structural changes of GVIIS (ca. 1973 to ca. 2010 are mapped and surface velocities are calculated at different time periods (InSAR and optical feature tracking from 1989 to 2009 to document changes in the ice shelf's flow regime. Surface elevation changes are recorded between 2003 and 2008 using repeat track ICESat acquisitions. We note an increase in fracture extent and distribution at the south ice front, ice-shelf acceleration towards both the north and south ice fronts and spatially varied negative surface elevation change throughout, with greater variations observed towards the central and southern regions of the ice shelf. We propose that whilst GVIIS is in no imminent danger of collapse, it is vulnerable to ongoing atmospheric and oceanic warming and is more susceptible to breakup along its southern margin in ice preconditioned for further retreat.

  19. Potential power-generating stations on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittl, R.L.

    1975-01-01

    Progress toward the installation of floating power plants, which represent a beneficial use of the continental shelf, is presented. The demonstration of the feasibility of such facilities with existing technology, and the thorough support by safety and environmental reviews, have been made possible by the efforts of engineers and scientists working toward supplying the nation's growing energy needs

  20. Mineralogy of the carbonate sediments - western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.

    An X-ray diffraction study of forty-six sediment samples and three oolitic limestone samples from the western continental shelf of India shows that aragonite is the dominant carbonate mineral (99% maximum), followed by low-magnesium calcite (77...

  1. Agglutinated foraminifera from the shelf of east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Almeida, F.; Setty, M.G.A.P.

    belonging to six families, in a depth zone of 35-222 m of the east-coast of India (between Visakhapatnam and Masulipatnam along the continental shelf-slope region) in terms of lithology, faunal assemblage and their percentage distribution are discussed...

  2. Shelf-life of infrared dry-roasted almonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared heating was recently used to develop a more efficient roasting technology than traditional hot air roasting. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the shelf-life of almonds roasted with three different approaches, namely infrared [IR], sequential infrared and hot air [SIRHA], and regular h...

  3. Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Part of the Ross Ice Shelf and the Queen Maude Mounains of Antarctica (55.5N, 178.0W) are in the background of this scene, oriented toward the south. Low stratocumulus clouds are predominant throughout most of the scene.

  4. Shelf life assessment of Malaysian Pangasius sutchi during cold ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Malaysian Pangasius sutchi concerning the marketing sector from the point of view ... Patin (Pangasius sutchi) is a popular freshwater fish used as food in ... remaining shelf life allows a processor or a retailer to plan the length of time a product can be ... While consumption has increased, the Malaysian fisheries industry.

  5. Magnetic giant magnetoresistance commercial off the shelf for space applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelena, M.D.; Oelschlägel, Wulf; Arruego, I.

    2008-01-01

    The increase of complexity and miniaturizing level of Aerospace platforms make use of commercial off the shelf (COTS) components constitute a plausible alternative to the use of military or rad-tolerant components. In this work, giant magnetoresistance commercial sensors are studied to be used as......-375 mu T biasing field. (c) 2008 American Institute of Physics....

  6. Exchange across the shelf break at high southern latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Klinck

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of water across the Antarctic shelf break has considerable scientific and societal importance due to its effects on circulation and biology of the region, conversion of water masses as part of the global overturning circulation and basal melt of glacial ice and the consequent effect on sea level rise. The focus in this paper is the onshore transport of warm, oceanic Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW; export of dense water from these shelves is equally important, but has been the focus of other recent papers and will not be considered here. A variety of physical mechanisms are described which could play a role in this onshore flux. The relative importance of some processes are evaluated by simple calculations. A numerical model for the Ross Sea continental shelf is used as an example of a more comprehensive evaluation of the details of cross-shelf break exchange. In order for an ocean circulation model to simulate these processes at high southern latitudes, it needs to have high spatial resolution, realistic geometry and bathymetry. Grid spacing smaller than the first baroclinic radius of deformation (a few km is required to adequately represent the circulation. Because of flow-topography interactions, bathymetry needs to be represented at these same small scales. Atmospheric conditions used to force these circulation models also need to be known at a similar small spatial resolution (a few km in order to represent orographically controlled winds (coastal jets and katabatic winds. Significantly, time variability of surface winds strongly influences the structure of the mixed layer. Daily, if not more frequent, surface fluxes must be imposed for a realistic surface mixed layer. Sea ice and ice shelves are important components of the coastal circulation. Ice isolates the ocean from exchange with the atmosphere, especially in the winter. Melting and freezing of both sea ice and glacial ice influence salinity and thereby the character of shelf

  7. Seabed geology of the Canadian eastern continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, David J. W.

    1991-08-01

    The physiography of the continental shelf off eastern Canada is irregular, developed by glacial erosion of a previously fluvially-dominated landscape. Northern shelves are deeper than southern shelves. Most surficial sediments on the shelf are relict or palimpsest. The principal modern source of sediment to the northern shelves is ice rafting and iceberg scour reworking of Quaternary sediments. Southern shelves receive sediment through erosion of Quaternary sediments; only small amounts of fine-grained sediment derived from coastal erosion and rivers escape from the coastal zone. Regional maps of sediment texture, carbonate content and heavy mineralogy consequently show differences between the northern and southern shelves. Large areas of the shelf show little net deposition. On the northern shelves, there is a surface veneer up to 0.5 m thick derived from ice rafting and iceberg turbation of underlying Quaternary sediment, modified by south-flowing currents [ WOODWORTH-LYNASet al. (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 939-961]. The overall effects of former iceberg turbation may extend to a depth of 10 m sub-bottom. On the southern shelves, bioturbation and perhaps storm-related currents rework exposed Quaternary sediments more slowly. Muds accumulate in deep basins on the shelves at rates of about 0.5 m per 1000 years; this accumulation is probably episodic and related to major storms reworking sediment from the surface sediment veneer in shallower areas of little net deposition. In water depths less than 110 m sand and gravel have formed as a result of reworking in the coastal zone during the post-glacial transgression. Over large areas of Georges Bank, the eastern Scotian Shelf and the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, such sands are mobilized during storms to form a wide suite of bedforms [ AMOS and JUDGE (this issue) Continental Shelf Research, 11, 1037-1068]. Elsewhere, particularly in deeper water, sandy surfaces appear moribund or inactive and large

  8. 41 CFR 101-27.204 - Types of shelf-life items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Types of shelf-life items...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.204 Types of shelf-life items. Shelf-life items are classified as nonextendable (Type I) and extendable (Type II). Type I items have a definite storage life after which the item...

  9. Shelf sediment transport during hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kehui; Mickey, Rangley C.; Chen, Qin; Harris, Courtney K.; Hetland, Robert D.; Hu, Kelin; Wang, Jiaze

    2016-05-01

    Hurricanes can greatly modify the sedimentary record, but our coastal scientific community has rather limited capability to predict hurricane-induced sediment deposition. A three-dimensional sediment transport model was developed in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) to study seabed erosion and deposition on the Louisiana shelf in response to Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in the year 2005. Sensitivity tests were performed on both erosional and depositional processes for a wide range of erosional rates and settling velocities, and uncertainty analysis was done on critical shear stresses using the polynomial chaos approximation method. A total of 22 model runs were performed in sensitivity and uncertainty tests. Estimated maximum erosional depths were sensitive to the inputs, but horizontal erosional patterns seemed to be controlled mainly by hurricane tracks, wave-current combined shear stresses, seabed grain sizes, and shelf bathymetry. During the passage of two hurricanes, local resuspension and deposition dominated the sediment transport mechanisms. Hurricane Katrina followed a shelf-perpendicular track before making landfall and its energy dissipated rapidly within about 48 h along the eastern Louisiana coast. In contrast, Hurricane Rita followed a more shelf-oblique track and disturbed the seabed extensively during its 84-h passage from the Alabama-Mississippi border to the Louisiana-Texas border. Conditions to either side of Hurricane Rita's storm track differed substantially, with the region to the east having stronger winds, taller waves and thus deeper erosions. This study indicated that major hurricanes can disturb the shelf at centimeter to meter levels. Each of these two hurricanes suspended seabed sediment mass that far exceeded the annual sediment inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, but the net transport from shelves to estuaries is yet to be determined. Future studies should focus on the modeling of sediment exchange between

  10. Decadal variability on the Northwest European continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sam; Cottier, Finlo; Inall, Mark; Griffiths, Colin

    2018-02-01

    Decadal scale time series of the shelf seas are important for understanding both climate and process studies. Despite numerous investigations of long-term temperature variability in the shelf seas, studies of salinity variability are few. Salt is a more conservative tracer than temperature in shallow seas, and it can reveal changes in local hydrographic conditions as well as transmitted basin-scale changes. Here, new inter-annual salinity time series on the northwest European shelf are developed and a 13 year high resolution salinity record from a coastal mooring in western Scotland is presented and analysed. We find strong temporal variability in coastal salinity on timescales ranging from tidal to inter-annual, with the magnitude of variability greatest during winter months. There is little seasonality and no significant decadal trend in the coastal time series of salinity. We propose 4 hydrographic states to explain salinity variance in the shelf area west of Scotland based on the interaction between a baroclinic coastal current and wind-forced barotropic flow: while wind forcing is important, we find that changes in the buoyancy-driven flow are more likely to influence long-term salinity observations. We calculate that during prevailing westerly wind conditions, surface waters in the Sea of the Hebrides receive a mix of 62% Atlantic origin water to 38% coastal sources. This contrasts with easterly wind conditions, during which the mix is 6% Atlantic to 94% coastal sources on average. This 'switching' between hydrographic states is expected to impact nutrient transport and therefore modify the level of primary productivity on the shelf. This strong local variability in salinity is roughly an order of magnitude greater than changes in the adjacent ocean basin, and we infer from this that Scottish coastal waters are likely to be resilient to decadal changes in ocean climate.

  11. 41 CFR 101-27.209 - Utilization and distribution of shelf-life items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... distribution of shelf-life items. 101-27.209 Section 101-27.209 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209 Utilization and distribution of shelf-life items. Where it is determined that specified quantities of both Type I and Type II...

  12. 41 CFR 101-27.206 - Procurement of shelf-life materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Procurement of shelf-life materials. 101-27.206 Section 101-27.206 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... MANAGEMENT 27.2-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.206 Procurement of shelf-life materials. ...

  13. 41 CFR 102-36.450 - Do we report excess shelf-life items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shelf-life items? 102-36.450 Section 102-36.450 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-DISPOSITION OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY Personal Property Whose Disposal Requires Special Handling Shelf-Life Items § 102-36.450 Do we report excess shelf-life items? (a) When there are quantities on hand, that...

  14. Larger foraminifera distribution on a mesotrophic carbonate shelf in SW Sulawesi (Indonesia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renema, W.; Troelstra, S.R.

    2001-01-01

    Larger symbiont bearing foraminifera typically live in shallow tropical seas. In this study the fauna composition of patch reefs scattered over the Spermonde Shelf (SW Sulawesi, Indonesia), a mesotrophic carbonate shelf, is examined. The foraminiferal fauna of the Spermonde Shelf is characterised by

  15. Acoustic masking in sediments due to gases on the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Siddiquie, H.N.; Rao, D.G.; Vora, K.H.; Topgi, R.S.

    Surveys carried out on the western continental shelf of India indicate that the inner and middle shelf to a depth of 50-60 m is covered by acoustically transparent clays. On the shelf off Bombay, the clays are thin near the shore where they overlie...

  16. Microbial biodiversity, quality and shelf life of microfiltered and pasteurized extended shelf life (ESL) milk from Germany, Austria and Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Verena S J; Kaufmann, Veronika; Kulozik, Ulrich; Scherer, Siegfried; Wenning, Mareike

    2012-03-01

    Information on factors limiting the shelf life of extended shelf life (ESL) milk produced by microfiltration and subsequent pasteurization is very limited. In this study, three different batches of ESL milk were analyzed at different stages of the production process and during storage at 4 °C, 8 °C and 10 °C in order to evaluate the changes in bacterial cell counts, microbial diversity and enzymatic quality. Additionally, detailed biodiversity analyses of 250 retail ESL milk packages produced by five manufacturers in Germany, Austria and Switzerland were performed at the end of shelf life. It was observed that microfiltration decreased the microbial loads by 5-6 log₁₀ units to lower than 1 CFU/mL. However, bacterial counts at the end of shelf life were extremely variable and ranged between ESL treatment, causing stochastic variations of initial species distributions in individual packages. This would result in the development of significantly different bacterial populations during cold storage, including the occasional development of high numbers of pathogenic species such as B. cereus or Acinetobacter. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Biological, physical and chemical properties at the Subtropical Shelf Front Zone in the SW Atlantic Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muelbert, José H.; Acha, Marcelo; Mianzan, Hermes; Guerrero, Raúl; Reta, Raúl; Braga, Elisabete S.; Garcia, Virginia M. T.; Berasategui, Alejandro; Gomez-Erache, Mónica; Ramírez, Fernando

    2008-07-01

    The physical aspects of the Subtropical Shelf Front (STSF) for the Southwest Atlantic Continental Shelf were previously described. However, only scarce data on the biology of the front is available in the literature. The main goal of this paper is to describe the physical, chemical and biological properties of the STSF found in winter 2003 and summer 2004. A cross-section was established at the historically determined location of the STSF. Nine stations were sampled in winter and seven in summer. Each section included a series of conductivity-temperature-depth (CTD) stations where water samples from selected depths were filtered for nutrient determination. Surface samples were taken for chlorophyll a (Chl- a) determination and plankton net tows carried out above and below the pycnocline. Results revealed that winter was marked by an inner-shelf salinity front and that the STSF was located on the mid-shelf. The low salinity waters in the inner-shelf indicated a strong influence of freshwater, with high silicate (72 μM), suspended matter (45 mg l -1), phosphate (2.70 μM) and low nitrate (1.0 μM) levels. Total dissolved nitrogen was relatively high (22.98 μM), probably due to the elevated levels of organic compound contribution close to the continental margin. Surface Chl -a concentration decreased from coastal well-mixed waters, where values up to 8.0 mg m -3 were registered, to offshore waters. Towards the open ocean, high subsurface nutrients values were observed, probably associated to South Atlantic Central Waters (SACW). Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton abundance followed the same trend; three different groups associated to the inner-, mid- and outer-shelf region were identified. During summer, diluted waters extended over the shelf to join the STSF in the upper layer; the concentration of inorganic nutrients decreased in shallow waters; however, high values were observed between 40 and 60 m and in deep offshore waters. Surface Chl -a ranged 0.07-1.5 mg m -3

  18. Nutrient Dynamics in the Northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G. T.; Guo, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Northern South China Sea Shelf-sea (NoSoCS) is situated in the sub-tropics along the southern Chinese coast between the southern end of the Taiwan Strait and the Hainan Island. Samples were collected in four cross-shelf transects in summer, 2010 and two cross-shelf transects in winter, 2011 in this Shelf-sea. The shelf may be sub-divided into the inner shelf (1 μM in NO3- and >0.1 μM in soluble reactive phosphate) stretched across the shelf at least to the middle shelf. Thus, vertical mixing, even to relatively shallow depths, on the shelf may supply nutrients to and play a critical role in determining the primary production in the mixed layer. At least three such processes were observed. Through the year, internal waves of various strengths generated at the Luzon Strait propagated westward along the bottom of the mixed layer and dissipated along the middle and outer shelf. The effects of these waves were especially conspicuous north of the Dongsha Atoll and their action enhances vertical mixing. In the summer, upwelling occurred in the inner/middle shelf off Dongshan in response to the along shore southwest monsoon and the topographic forcing by the ridge extending offshore from Dongshan to the Taiwan Bank. In the winter, surface cooling and the strong northeast monsoon led to complete overturn in the shelf. The maximum density, reaching 24.6, in the surface waters was found offshore in the inner and middle shelf. This density was equivalent to the density of the water at >100 m offshore. As a result, this dense water also appeared as a layer of bottom water that extended across the shelf to the shelf edge.

  19. Sinergia entre aditivo vegetal e níveis crescentes de promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho produtivo e morfometria intestinal de frangos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Gomes Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da adição de níveis crescentes de antibióticos associados ao farelo integral de pimenta rosa (FIPR sobre o desempenho produtivo e morfometria intestinal de frangos corte. Utilizaram-se 528 pintos Cobb, machos, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições de 22 animais cada, constituído pelos grupos T1 - Controle Negativo (CN - Dieta basal sem FIPR e sem antibióticos; T2 - Controle Positivo (CP - Dieta Basal com 1,2% FIPR; T3 - CP + 11ppm bacitracina zinco e 17ppm salinomicina; T4 - CP + 22ppm bacitracina zinco e 34ppm salinomicina; T5 - CP + 33ppm bacitracina zinco e 51ppm salinomicina; T6 - CP + 45ppm bacitracina zinco e 67ppm salinomicina. No período de 1-43 dias de idade, observou-se que a adição de FIPR com ou sem antibiótico reduziu (P≤0,05 o consumo e melhorou a conversão alimentar, comparado com CN. Verificou-se que os frangos alimentados com FIPR associado aos antibióticos, em valores acima de 22mg kg-1 de bacitracina de zinco e 34mg kg-1 de salinomicina, tiveram maiores alturas de vilosidades intestinais que o CN (P≤0,05. O FIPR pode ser utilizado em substituição aos antibióticos sem queda de desempenho animal e com a manutenção da viabilidade e do fator de produção.

  20. Seasonal deformation and active landslide thickness revealed by spaceborne InSAR observations: a case study of Crescent lake landslide, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Lu, Z.; Pierson, T. C.; Kramer, R.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the precipitation triggering mechanism and quantifying the creeping landslide thickness are important to conduct early warnings and estimate potential failure volume and runout extent. However, it is problematic to use traditional geodetic methods to identify the active landslide boundaries and capture the transient mobility over hilly and vegetated landslide landscape. Here we present a novel InSAR processing strategy to characterize the spatial distribution and temporal behavior of the landslide movement in response to precipitation over Crescent lake landslide, WA using spaceborne SAR data of ALOS-1 PALSAR-1, ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 and Sentinel-1A. Time-series measurements reveal the seasonal deformation of landslide lobe, showing a much larger magnitude compared to the motion at lower elevated terrain expressed by an off-slide GPS station, suggesting an amplified hydrological loading effect associated with thick unconsolidated zone. Thanks to the high temporal resolution of Sentinel-1A and on-slide GPS data, we capture the progressive incipient motions in the wet season, characterized by the elastic slope-normal contraction due to loading during antecedent rainfall, followed by downslope slip and lateral propagation in less than one-month intense precipitation, because the elevated pore pressure and the reduced friction at the basal instigate the shear motion. The proposed threshold precipitation concept, in terms of the intensity and duration, can be an integral part of the landslide warning system. The active thickness can be inverted using three-dimensional (3D) displacement map based on the principle of mass conservation. We extract quasi-3D displacements using two independent (ascending and descending) InSAR measurements assuming that the targets move exclusively along the aspect direction on the slope-parallel plane. This routine of the extraction of quasi-3D displacement and the inversion of active lobe thickness can be utilized in the study of

  1. OBTENCIÓN DE BIOETANOL PRIMARIO A PARTIR DE LA BIOMASA LIGNOCELULÓSICA DEL MATE (Crescentía cujete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón Vera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta investigación fue obtener bioetanol a partir de la biomasa lignocelulósica del mate (Crescentía cujete. Se empleó un Diseño Completamente al Azar en arreglo bifactorial AxB con tres réplicas por cada tratamiento. Se manipularon los factores de estudio: A. Concentración de ácido sulfúrico (2.5%, 5% y 7.5% y B. Cantidad de levadura Saccharomyces cerevisiae (2 y 5 mL. Se evaluaron las variables: acidez, °Brix, Grado Gay Lussac, Azucares totales y reductores. Los resultados encontrados demostraron que la hidrólisis ácida permitió desdoblar la lignocelulosa ya que incrementaron los azúcares reductores fue de 13.82% en comparación con los encontrados en la pulpa 6.46%; de la misma forma se obtuvo mayor contenido de alcohol (20.70 GL en el tratamiento a2b2 (5% de ácido sulfúrico + 5 mL de levadura S. cerevisiae, el cual presentó menor contenido de acidez con 0.643%, los °Brix fue de 18.47, mientras que el tratamiento a2b2 presentó mayor contenido de acidez con 0.893%, el a2b1 obtuvo menor contenido de °Brix con 15.00, y el a1b1 presentó menor contenido de Grado Gay Lussac con 8.33. De esta forma se concluye que es posible obtener un alcohol primario a partir de la biomasa del mate sometido a una hidrólisis ácida al 5% y fermentación con S. cerevisiae al 2% en relación al peso de la pulpa del mate.

  2. Shelf-life Assessment of Food Undergoing Oxidation-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, Sonia; Manzocco, Lara; Anese, Monica; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2016-08-17

    Oxidation is the most common event leading to the end of shelf life of microbiologically stable foods. Thus, a reliable shelf-life assessment is crucial to verify how long the product will last before it becomes oxidized to an unacceptable level to the consumers. Shelf-life assessment strategies of foods and beverages suffering oxidation are critically discussed focusing on definition of the acceptability limit, as well as the choice of the proper oxidative indicators, and methodologies for shelf-life testing. Testing methodologies for shelf-life determination under actual and accelerated storage conditions are considered, highlighting possible uncertainties, pitfalls, and future research needs.

  3. Distribution and origin of sediments on the northern Sunda Shelf, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shi-Guo; Wong, H. K.; Luo, You-Lang; Liang, Zhi-Rong

    1999-03-01

    Seventy-seven surface sediment samples and core samples from the outer Sunda Shelf were analyzed and a number of seismic profiles of the shelf were interpreted. The bottom sediments could be divided into six types: terrigenous sand, biogenic sand, silt-sand, clay-silt-sand, clayey silt and coral reef detritus. Our seismic data showed a thick, prograding Pleistocene deltaic sequence near the shelf-break and a thin Holocene sedimentary layer on the outer shelf. Eleven thermoluminescence (TL) ages were determined. The oldest relict sediments were derived from Late Pleistocene deposits. Based on sediment types, ages, and origins, five sedimentary areas were identified: area of modern Mekong sediments; insular shelf area receiving modern sediments from small Borneo rivers; shelf area near the Natuna-Anambas islands in the southeastern Gulf of Thailand Basin off the Malay Peninsula; area of relict sediments on the outer shelf north of the Natuna Islands, and typical coral reefs and detritus sediments.

  4. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian Continental Shelf. 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    Exploration activity has reached record-breaking levels in the last couple of years, which has led to many, but small, discoveries. The NPD believes that large discoveries can still be made in areas of the shelf that have not been extensively explored. Content: Challenges on the Norwegian continental shelf; Value creation in fields; 40 years of oil and gas production; Resource management; Still many possibilities; Energy consumption and the environment; Exploration; Access to acreage; Awards of new licenses; Exploration in frontier areas; Exploration history and statistics; Resources and forecasts; Undiscovered resources; Proven recoverable resources; Forecasts; Short-term petroleum production forecast (2009-2013); Investments- and operating costs forecasts; Long-term forecast for the petroleum production; Emissions from the petroleum activity. (AG)

  5. Shelf life prediction of radiation sterilized polymeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandford, Craig; Woo, Lecon

    1988-01-01

    The functional properties of many polymers employed in medical disposables are unaffected by sterilizing doses of ionizing radiation. However, some materials (PVC, polypropylene, cellulosics, etc.) undergo undesirable changes which continue to occur for the shelf life of the product. In many cases, conventional accelerated aging techniques do not accurately predict the real time properties of the materials. As real time aging is not generally practical, it has become necessary to develop accelerated aging techniques which can predict the functional properties of a material for the shelf life of the product. This presentation will address issues involved in developing these tests. Real time physical property data is compared to data generated by various acceleration methods. (author)

  6. Ice-Shelf Tidal Flexure and Subglacial Pressure Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan T.; Parizek, Byron R.; Alley, Richard B.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Riverman, Kiya L.; Christianson, Knut

    2013-01-01

    We develop a model of an ice shelf-ice stream system as a viscoelastic beam partially supported by an elastic foundation. When bed rock near the grounding line acts as a fulcrum, leverage from the ice shelf dropping at low tide can cause significant (approx 1 cm) uplift in the first few kilometers of grounded ice.This uplift and the corresponding depression at high tide lead to basal pressure variations of sufficient magnitude to influence subglacial hydrology.Tidal flexure may thus affect basal lubrication, sediment flow, and till strength, all of which are significant factors in ice-stream dynamics and grounding-line stability. Under certain circumstances, our results suggest the possibility of seawater being drawn into the subglacial water system. The presence of sea water beneath grounded ice would significantly change the radar reflectivity of the grounding zone and complicate the interpretation of grounded versus floating ice based on ice-penetrating radar observations.

  7. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-05-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates.

  8. Allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for nuclear reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahoor, A.

    1988-01-01

    The paper develops methodology and procedure for determining the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness for continued safe operation of nuclear reactor pressure vessels. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis method based on the J-integral tearing modulus (J/T) approach is used. Closed from expressions for the applied J and tearing modulus are presented for finite length, part-throughwall axial flaw with aspect ratio of 1/6. Solutions are then presented for Section III, Appendix G flaw. A simple flaw evaluation procedure that can be applied quickly by utility engineers is presented. An attractive feature of the simple procedure is that tearing modulus calculations are not required by the user, and a solution for the slope of the applied J/T line is provided. Results for the allowable minimum upper shelf toughness are presented for a range of reactor pressure vessel thickness and heatup/cooldown rates. (orig.)

  9. NW European shelf under climate warming: implications for open ocean – shelf exchange, primary production, and carbon absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gröger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Shelves have been estimated to account for more than one-fifth of the global marine primary production. It has been also conjectured that shelves strongly influence the oceanic absorption of anthropogenic CO2 (carbon shelf pump. Owing to their coarse resolution, currently applied global climate models are inappropriate to investigate the impact of climate change on shelves and regional models do not account for the complex interaction with the adjacent open ocean. In this study, a global ocean general circulation model and biogeochemistry model were set up with a distorted grid providing a maximal resolution for the NW European shelf and the adjacent northeast Atlantic. Using model climate projections we found that already a~moderate warming of about 2.0 K of the sea surface is linked with a reduction by ~ 30% of the biological production on the NW European shelf. If we consider the decline of anthropogenic riverine eutrophication since the 1990s, the reduction of biological production amounts is even larger. The relative decline of NW European shelf productivity is twice as strong as the decline in the open ocean (~ 15%. The underlying mechanism is a spatially well confined stratification feedback along the continental shelf break. This feedback reduces the nutrient supply from the deep Atlantic to about 50%. In turn, the reduced productivity draws down CO2 absorption in the North Sea by ~ 34% at the end of the 21st century compared to the end of the 20th century implying a strong weakening of shelf carbon pumping. Sensitivity experiments with diagnostic tracers indicate that not more than 20% of the carbon absorbed in the North Sea contributes to the long-term carbon uptake of the world ocean. The rest remains within the ocean's mixed layer where it is exposed to the atmosphere. The predicted decline in biological productivity, and decrease of phytoplankton concentration (in the North Sea by averaged 25% due to reduced nutrient imports from

  10. Seasonal cycle of circulation in the Antarctic Peninsula and the off-shelf transport of shelf waters into southern Drake Passage and Scotia Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mingshun; Charette, Matthew A.; Measures, Christopher I.; Zhu, Yiwu; Zhou, Meng

    2013-06-01

    The seasonal cycle of circulation and transport in the Antarctic Peninsula shelf region is investigated using a high-resolution (˜2 km) regional model based on the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS). The model also includes a naturally occurring tracer with a strong source over the shelf (radium isotope 228Ra, t1/2=5.8 years) to investigate the sediment Fe input and its transport. The model is spun-up for three years using climatological boundary and surface forcing and then run for the 2004-2006 period using realistic forcing. Model results suggest a persistent and coherent circulation system throughout the year consisting of several major components that converge water masses from various sources toward Elephant Island. These currents are largely in geostrophic balance, driven by surface winds, topographic steering, and large-scale forcing. Strong off-shelf transport of the Fe-rich shelf waters takes place over the northeastern shelf/slope of Elephant Island, driven by a combination of topographic steering, extension of shelf currents, and strong horizontal mixing between the ACC and shelf waters. These results are generally consistent with recent and historical observational studies. Both the shelf circulation and off-shelf transport show a significant seasonality, mainly due to the seasonal changes of surface winds and large-scale circulation. Modeled and observed distributions of 228Ra suggest that a majority of Fe-rich upper layer waters exported off-shelf around Elephant Island are carried by the shelfbreak current and the Bransfield Strait Current from the shallow sills between Gerlache Strait and Livingston Island, and northern shelf of the South Shetland Islands, where strong winter mixing supplies much of the sediment derived nutrients (including Fe) input to the surface layer.

  11. SHELF LIFE OF THAWED CRUSTACEANS TREATED WITH SULPHITES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Smaldone

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of fish and fish products is closely related to their freshness. Aim of this research was to evaluate the shelf life of thawed crustaceans (Aristeomorpha foliacea and Nefrops norvegicus which had been treated with sulphites and frozen on board. Organoleptic characteristics and microbiological and chemical parameters were judged favourably up to day 6 and 7 for the shrimps and Norway lobsters, respectively.

  12. How fast is the Patagonian shelf-break acidifying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orselli, Iole B. M.; Kerr, Rodrigo; Ito, Rosane G.; Tavano, Virginia M.; Mendes, Carlos Rafael B.; Garcia, Carlos A. E.

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic carbon (Cant) concentration is determined according to the TrOCA method, from carbonate system data and hydrographic parameters collected during two consecutive spring cruises (2007 and 2008) in the Argentinean Patagonian shelf-break zone between 36°S and 50°S. Cant has intruded the water column until intermediate depths, with no Cant below 1000 m, in the deeper waters (i.e., North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water) of the Northern sector of the study area (i.e., North of 38°S). The higher Cant concentration is observed in Subantarctic Shelf Water in the Southern region, whereas in the Northern sector both Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water are equally affected by Cant intrusion. The Antarctic Intermediate Water represents the depth-limit achieved by Cant penetration, reinforcing the role that this water mass plays as an important vehicle to transport Cant to the oceans interior. The estimated Cant average (± method precision) is 46.6 ± 5.3 μmol kg- 1, considering the full depth of the water column. The ocean acidification state (ΔpH) shows an average (± standard deviation) of - 0.11 ± 0.05, thus, indicating an annual pH reduction of - 0.0010 yr- 1 since the Industrial Revolution (c.a. 1750). The degree of aragonite saturation is lowered towards undersaturation levels of calcite. The Patagonian shelf and shelf-break zones-a strong CO2 sink region in the global ocean-are likely a key area for Cant intrusion in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean.

  13. Shelf life of irradiated minimally processed (MP) watercress (Nasturtium officinale)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, C.G.; Behrens, J.H.; Aragon-Alegro, L.C.; Vieira, V.S.; Costa-Sobrinho, P.S.; Vizeu, D.M.; Hutzler, B.; Franco, B.D.G. de M.; Destro, M.T.; Landgraf, M.

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the shelf life of minimally processed (MP) watercress exposed to gamma radiation with doses of 1.0; 3.0; 4.0 kGy. Packaged irradiated and non-irradiated MP watercress was subject to sensory analysis. A panel consisting of 25-30 non-trained members, aged 20-55 years, was used. Sensory evaluation was carried out on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 9 and 12 after treatment with packages maintained at 7 °C. The members of the panel rated each sample for overall liking on a hybrid 10 hedonic scale (0 = extremely dislike; 10 = extremely like). Microbiological analyses were also conducted. Compared to the non-irradiated sample, 1 kGy irradiated watercress increased its shelf life by one day (16 days). Shelf lives of samples exposed to higher doses were reduced to 9 days (3 kGy) and 6 days (4 kGy) due to changes in appearance. The microbiological quality was good throughout the experiment

  14. Simulating shelf life determination by two simultaneous criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Micha; Normand, Mark D

    2015-12-01

    The shelf life of food and pharmaceutical products is frequently determined by a marker's concentration or quality index falling below or surpassing an assigned threshold level. Naturally, different chosen markers would indicate different shelf life for the same storage temperature history. We demonstrate that if there are two markers, such as two labile vitamins, the order in which their concentrations cross their respective thresholds may depend not only on their degradation kinetic parameters but also on the particular storage temperature profile, be it isothermal or non-isothermal. Thus, at least theoretically, the order observed in accelerated storage need not be always indicative of the actual order at colder temperatures, except where the two degradation reactions follow the same kinetic order and their temperature-dependence rate parameter is also the same. This is shown with simulated hypothetical degradation reactions that follow first or zero order kinetics and whose rate constant's temperature-dependence obeys the exponential model. It is also demonstrated with simulated hypothetical Maillard reaction's products whose synthesis rather than their degradation follows pseudo zero order kinetics. The software developed to do the simulations and calculate the thresholds crossing points has been posted on the Internet as a freely downloadable interactive Wolfram Demonstration, which can be used as a tool in storage studies and shelf life prediction. In principle, the methodology can be extended from two to any number of markers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sun

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ∼ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  16. Ice shelf fracture parameterization in an ice sheet model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Sainan; Cornford, Stephen L.; Moore, John C.; Gladstone, Rupert; Zhao, Liyun

    2017-11-01

    Floating ice shelves exert a stabilizing force onto the inland ice sheet. However, this buttressing effect is diminished by the fracture process, which on large scales effectively softens the ice, accelerating its flow, increasing calving, and potentially leading to ice shelf breakup. We add a continuum damage model (CDM) to the BISICLES ice sheet model, which is intended to model the localized opening of crevasses under stress, the transport of those crevasses through the ice sheet, and the coupling between crevasse depth and the ice flow field and to carry out idealized numerical experiments examining the broad impact on large-scale ice sheet and shelf dynamics. In each case we see a complex pattern of damage evolve over time, with an eventual loss of buttressing approximately equivalent to halving the thickness of the ice shelf. We find that it is possible to achieve a similar ice flow pattern using a simple rule of thumb: introducing an enhancement factor ˜ 10 everywhere in the model domain. However, spatially varying damage (or equivalently, enhancement factor) fields set at the start of prognostic calculations to match velocity observations, as is widely done in ice sheet simulations, ought to evolve in time, or grounding line retreat can be slowed by an order of magnitude.

  17. 41 CFR 102-36.460 - Do we report excess medical shelf-life items held for national emergency purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... medical shelf-life items held for national emergency purposes? 102-36.460 Section 102-36.460 Public... Disposal Requires Special Handling Shelf-Life Items § 102-36.460 Do we report excess medical shelf-life items held for national emergency purposes? When the remaining shelf life of any medical materials or...

  18. Efeito de níveis crescentes de levedura de álcool em rações contendo fígado bovino sobre a performance de larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen Effect of crescent levels of yeast of alcohol used in rations containing bovine liver on larvae of (Rhamdia quelen performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamari Piaia

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com a finalidade de avaliar o efeito de diferentes níveis de levedura sobre o desempenho inicial de larvas de Rhamdia quelen durante as trêss primeiras semanas de vida. Um total de 3000 larvas foram distribuídas em quinze grupos, em um sistema de criação com reutilização de água, termoregulada. Utilizou-se cinco tratamentos com níveis crescentes de levedura (T1 - 50%, T2 - 60%, T3 - 70%, T4 - 80% e T5 - 90% em substituição ao fígado bovino fresco. Os níveis de proteína bruta (PB e energia digestível variaram de 41,36 a 26,56% de PB e 3197 a 2789kcal ED/kg. A granulometria dos alimentos testados foi de 100 a 200mi, 200 a 400mi e 400 a 600mi para as três semanas experimentais, respectivamente. O alimento foi fornecido a vontade entre 8 e 20 horas. Dentro dos limites de proteína estudados houve efeito positivo de níveis mais elevados de PB sobre os comprimentos total e padrão e peso individual. Porém houve um efeito negativo sobre a sobrevivência das larvas de jundiá Rhamdia quelen.The present study was developed with the purpose of evaluating the effects of different protein levels in initial performance of Rhamdia quelen larvae during the first three weeks of life. The sample contained 3000 larvae distributed in fifteen groups, maintained in controlled conditions of culture and utilizing termoregulatory water re-use system. Five crescent levels of yeast (T1 50%, T2 60%, T3 70%, T4 80% and T5 90% were used in rations in substituition of bovine liver. Levels of crude protein and digestible energy varied 41,36% to 26,56% CP and from 3197 to 2789 kcal ED/kg. The granulometry of tested food was of 100 a 200mu, 200 a 400mu and 400 a 600mu for three experimental weeks respectively. Food distribution provided at ease between 8 Am and 8 Pm. Within the net protein used in this research, there was found a positive effect for the highest protein levels for total, standard lenght and individual weight

  19. Impacts of Suspended Sediment and Estuarine - Shelf Exchange Pathways on Shelf Ecosystem Dynamics in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggert, J. D.; Pan, C.; Dinniman, M. S.; Lau, Y.; Fitzpatrick, P. J.; O'Brien, S. J.; Bouchard, C.; Quas, L. M.; Miles, T. N.; Cambazoglu, M. K.; Dykstra, S. L.; Dzwonkowski, B.; Jacobs, G. A.; Church, I.; Hofmann, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    A circulation model based on the Coupled-Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System, with coupled biogeochemical and sediment transport modules, has been implemented for Mississippi Sound and the adjacent continental shelf region. The model has 400-m horizontal resolution, 24 vertical layers, and includes wetting/drying capability to resolve shallow inshore regions. The circulation model was spun-up using oceanographic initial and lateral boundary conditions provided by a 1-km resolution regional implementation of the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) in the Gulf of Mexico. The biogeochemical module includes multiple size classes of phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus, a fish larvae compartment, and explicitly tracks dissolved oxygen with benthic cycling interaction. The sediment transport model is implemented based on benthic mapping data that provides bottom sediment type distributions and spatio-temporal validation. A regionally specific atmospheric forcing product that provides improved spatial and temporal resolution, including diurnal sea breeze impacts, has been developed and applied. Model experiments focus on periods when comprehensive ship-based sampling was deployed by the CONCORDE (Consortium for Coastal River-Dominated Ecosystems) research program, which was established to investigate the complex fine-scale biological, chemical and physical interactions in a marine system controlled by pulsed-river plume dynamics. Biophysical interactions and biogeochemical variability associated with estuarine - shelf exchanges between nearshore lagoonal estuarine waters and the continental shelf revealed by the model provide new insight into how seasonal variation of hydrological forcing conditions influence ecological and biogeochemical processes in the highly productive Northern Gulf region. Application of the COAWST-based model system with and without inclusion of the sediment transport module demonstrates how suspended sediment in the

  20. Highstand shelf fans: The role of buoyancy reversal in the deposition of a new type of shelf sand body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Elisabeth; Simms, Alexander R.; Warrick, Jonathan; Yokoyama, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Although sea-level highstands are typically associated with sediment-starved continental shelves, high sea level does not hinder major river floods. Turbidity currents generated by plunging of sediment-laden rivers at the fluvial-marine interface, known as hyperpycnal flows, allow for cross-shelf transport of suspended sand beyond the coastline. Hyperpycnal flows in southern California have deposited six subaqueous fans on the shelf of the northern Santa Barbara Channel in the Holocene. Using eight cores and nine grab samples, we describe the deposits, age, and stratigraphic architecture of two fans in the Santa Barbara Channel. Fan lobes have up to 3 m of relief and are composed of multiple hyperpycnite beds ∼5 cm to 40 cm thick. Deposit architecture and geometry suggest the hyperpycnal flows became positively buoyant and lifted off the seabed, resulting in well-sorted, structureless, elongate sand lobes. Contrary to conventional sequence stratigraphic models, the presence of these features on the continental shelf suggests that active-margin shelves may locally develop high-quality reservoir sand bodies during sea-level highstands, and that such shelves need not be solely the site of sediment bypass. These deposits may provide a Quaternary analogue to many well-sorted sand bodies in the rock record that are interpreted as turbidites but lack typical Bouma-type features.

  1. Transgressive systems tract development and incised-valley fills within a quaternary estuary-shelf system: Virginia inner shelf, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, A.M.; Oertel, G.F.

    1997-01-01

    High-frequency Quaternary glacioeustasy resulted in the incision of six moderate- to high-relief fluvial erosion surfaces beneath the Virginia inner shelf and coastal zone along the updip edges of the Atlantic continental margin. Fluvial valleys up to 5 km wide, with up to 37 m of relief and thalweg depths of up to 72 m below modern mean sea level, cut through underlying Pleistocene and Mio-Pliocene strata in response to drops in baselevel on the order of 100 m. Fluvially incised valleys were significantly modified during subsequent marine transgressions as fluvial drainage basins evolved into estuarine embayments (ancestral generations of the Chesapeake Bay). Complex incised-valley fill successions are bounded by, or contain, up to four stacked erosional surfaces (basal fluvial erosion surface, bay ravinement, tidal ravinement, and ebb-flood channel-base diastem) in vertical succession. These surfaces, combined with the transgressive oceanic ravinement that generally caps incised-valley fills, control the lateral and vertical development of intervening seismic facies (depositional systems). Transgressive stratigraphy characterizes the Quaternary section beneath the Virginia inner shelf where six depositional sequences (Sequences I-VI) are identified. Depositional sequences consist primarily of estuarine depositional systems (subjacent to the transgressive oceanic ravinement) and shoreface-shelf depositional systems; highstand systems tract coastal systems are thinly developed. The Quaternary section can be broadly subdivided into two parts. The upper part contains sequences consisting predominantly of inner shelf facies, whereas sequences in the lower part of the section consist predominantly of estuarine facies. Three styles of sequence preservation are identified. Style 1, represented by Sequences VI and V, is characterized by large estuarine systems (ancestral generations of the Chesapeake Bay) that are up to 40 m thick, have hemicylindrical wedge geometries

  2. Manganese-bearing deposits near Lake Crescent and Humptulips, Washington: Chapter A in Contributions to economic geology (short papers and preliminary reports), 1927: Part I - Metals and nonmetals except fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, J.T.

    1927-01-01

    The Crescent mine, situated a short distance west of Lake Crescent, in the Olympic Mountains of Washington, yields an unusually high grade of manganese ore, which is suitable for making steel. Several manganiferous lodes of promising appearance have been found in the same area, and some near Humptulips, on the south side of the mountains. These and deposits on Skokomish River and at other places in the Olympic region are distributed around three sides of the mountains through a distance of 110 miles.The characteristic and generally the most abundant manganese mineral in this belt is bementite, a silicate of manganese that is rare elsewhere. Hausmannite, a suboxide of manganese (Mn3O4) that is also rather uncommon, occurs in several of the deposits and is locally abundant in the Crescent mine, where it forms the most valuable constituent of the ore. In addition more or less of a manganiferous carbonate is present, and bodies composed of fine-grained quartz and iron oxides form a large but separate part of the lodes.The deposits are associated with an impure red limestone of marine origin, which is probably to be correlated with the Franciscan formation of California. The limestone is overlain by a thick series of basaltic flows and tuff of Tertiary age that are partly altered to greenstone. The manganese is thought to have been deposited originally with the limestone as a carbonate. The concentration and change of much of it from the carbonate into bementite and hausmannite are believed to have been caused by warm solutions charged with silica that were expressed from the lavas or their magma. Afterward mountain-building movements and erosion elevated and exposed the manganiferous beds.The beds at the horizon of the manganiferous deposits are very incompletely explored and are to be regarded as the possible source of large quantities of ore.

  3. The petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-07-01

    The petroleum resources will not last for ever. It is therefore important for Norway to look ahead so as to be prepared for the changes that will come. In this report, the Norwegian Petroleum Directorate presents the current status of the petroleum resources on the Norwegian continental shelf. This is the basis on which the authorities can lay plans for the future. Since no-one can predict the future with certainty, on this occasion the Directorate is presenting four alternative scenarios for the future of Norwegian petroleum activities if the basic scenario proves incorrect. This will enable us to prepare ourselves for changes that may come, and to view the consequences of the various choices we can make. In this report, the Directorate also describes the various plays on the continental shelf, and explains the techniques used and the evaluations made when it estimates the undiscovered resources. This information is important for exploration work, particularly for new companies which need to get acquainted with the geology and the possibilities for finding oil and gas in Norway. Significant volumes remain to be produced and found on the Norwegian continental shelf. Only a third of the total resources have so far been produced, and a quarter of them have still not been discovered. Oil and gas prices are high at the moment, giving the industry and society in general good incentives to produce at a maximum rate. Oil production reached its peak a couple of years ago, but gas production is still increasing. However, the industry is finding less than it produces, which places demands on both it and the authorities. The industry must actively explore the acreage it has been allocated. The Petroleum Directorate believes that substantial resources can still be discovered in areas where production licences have been awarded. At the same time, the industry must gain access to new areas for exploration. The authorities must find an appropriate balance between concern for the

  4. Influence of raw milk quality on fluid milk shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbano, D M; Ma, Y; Santos, M V

    2006-03-01

    Pasteurized fluid milk shelf life is influenced by raw milk quality. The microbial count and somatic cell count (SCC) determine the load of heat-resistant enzymes in milk. Generally, high levels of psychrotrophic bacteria in raw milk are required to contribute sufficient quantities of heat-stable proteases and lipases to cause breakdown of protein and fat after pasteurization. Sanitation, refrigeration, and the addition of CO2 to milk are used to control both total and psychrotrophic bacteria count. It is not uncommon for total bacterial counts of raw milk to be milk processors have not focused much attention on milk SCC. Increased SCC is correlated with increased amounts of heat-stable protease (plasmin) and lipase (lipoprotein lipase) in milk. When starting with raw milk that has a low bacterial count, and in the absence of microbial growth in pasteurized milk, enzymes associated with high SCC will cause protein and fat degradation during refrigerated storage, and produce off-flavors. As the ability to kill, remove, or control microbial growth in pasteurized refrigerated milk continues to improve, the original milk SCC will be the factor limiting the time of refrigerated storage before development of an off-flavor in milk. Most healthy cows in a dairy herd have a milk SCC 200,000 cell/mL are usually due to the contribution of high SCC milk from a small number of cows in the herd. Technology to identify these cows and keep their milk out of the bulk tank could substantially increase the value of the remaining milk for use in fluid milk processing. To achieve a 60- to 90-d shelf life of refrigerated fluid milk, fluid processors and dairy farmers need to work together to structure economic incentives that allow farmers to produce milk with the SCC needed for extended refrigerated shelf life.

  5. Cascading off the West Greenland Shelf: A numerical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, Juliana M.; Myers, Paul G.; Hu, Xianmin; Petrie, Brian; Azetsu-Scott, Kumiko; Lee, Craig M.

    2017-07-01

    Cascading of dense water from the shelf to deeper layers of the adjacent ocean basin has been observed in several locations around the world. The West Greenland Shelf (WGS), however, is a region where this process has never been documented. In this study, we use a numerical model with a 1/4° resolution to determine (i) if cascading could happen from the WGS; (ii) where and when it could take place; (iii) the forcings that induce or halt this process; and (iv) the path of the dense plume. Results show cascading happening off the WGS at Davis Strait. Dense waters form there due to brine rejection and slide down the slope during spring. Once the dense plume leaves the shelf, it gradually mixes with waters of similar density and moves northward into Baffin Bay. Our simulation showed events happening between 2003-2006 and during 2014; but no plume was observed in the simulation between 2007 and 2013. We suggest that the reason why cascading was halted in this period is related to: the increased freshwater transport from the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait; the additional sea ice melting in the region; and the reduced presence of Irminger Water at Davis Strait during fall/early winter. Although observations at Davis Strait show that our simulation usually overestimates the seasonal range of temperature and salinity, they agree with the overall variability captured by the model. This suggests that cascades have the potential to develop on the WGS, albeit less dense than the ones estimated by the simulation.

  6. Ice shelf thickness change from 2010 to 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogg, A.; Shepherd, A.; Gilbert, L.; Muir, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    Floating ice shelves fringe 74 % of Antarctica's coastline, providing a direct link between the ice sheet and the surrounding oceans. Over the last 25 years, ice shelves have retreated, thinned, and collapsed catastrophically. While change in the mass of floating ice shelves has only a modest steric impact on the rate of sea-level rise, their loss can affect the mass balance of the grounded ice-sheet by influencing the rate of ice flow inland, due to the buttressing effect. Here we use CryoSat-2 altimetry data to map the detailed pattern of ice shelf thickness change in Antarctica. We exploit the dense spatial sampling and repeat coverage provided by the CryoSat-2 synthetic aperture radar interferometric mode (SARIn) to investigate data acquired between 2010 to the present day. We find that ice shelf thinning rates can exhibit large fluctuations over short time periods, and that the improved spatial resolution of CryoSat-2 enables us to resolve the spatial pattern of thinning with ever greater detail in Antarctica. In the Amundsen Sea, ice shelves at the terminus of the Pine Island and Thwaites glaciers have thinned at rates in excess of 5 meters per year for more than two decades. We observe the highest rates of basal melting near to the ice sheet grounding line, reinforcing the importance of high resolution datasets. On the Antarctic Peninsula, in contrast to the 3.8 m per decade of thinning observed since 1992, we measure an increase in the surface elevation of the Larsen-C Ice-Shelf during the CryoSat-2 period.

  7. Chronicling ice shelf history in the sediments left behind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenheim, B. E.; Subt, C.; Shevenell, A.; Guitard, M.; Vadman, K. J.; DeCesare, M.; Wellner, J. S.; Bart, P. J.; Lee, J. I.; Domack, E. W.; Yoo, K. C.; Hayes, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Collapsing and retreating ice shelves leave unmistakable sediment sequences on the Antarctic margin. These sequences tell unequivocal stories of collapse or retreat through a typical progression of sub-ice shelf diamicton (marking the past positions of grounding lines), sequentially overlain by a granulated facies from beneath the ice shelf, ice rafted debris from the calving line, and finally open marine sediment. The timelines to these stories, however, are troublesome. Difficulties in chronicling these stories recorded in sediment have betrayed their importance to our understanding of a warming world in many cases. The difficulties involve the concerted lack of preservation/production of calcium carbonate tests from the water column above and admixture of relict organic material from older sources of carbon. Here, we summarize our advances in the last decade of overcoming difficulties associated with the paucity of carbonate and creating chronologies of ice shelf retreat into the deglacial history of Antarctica by exploiting the range of thermochemical stability in organic matter (Ramped PyrOx) from these sediment sequences. We describe our success in comparing Ramped PyrOx 14C dates with foraminiferal dates, the relationship between sediment facies and radiocarbon age spectrum, and our ability to push limits of dating sediments deposited underneath ice shelves. With attention to the caveats of recent dating developments, we summarize expectations that geologist should have when coring the Antarctic margins to discern deglacial history. Perhaps most important among these expectations is the ability to design coring expeditions without regard to our ability to date calcium carbonate microfossils within the cores, in essence removing suspense of knowing whether cores taken from crucial paleo ice channels and other bathymetric features will ultimately yield a robust chronology for its sedimentary sequence.

  8. Application of ESL (Extended Shelf Life) Technology in Drinking Milk Production

    OpenAIRE

    ÜNVER, Naciye; ÇELİK, Şerafettin

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays pasteurization andUHT are the best known and most commonly used technologies in milk production.While products which have shorter shelf life and fresh taste are obtained byusing pasteurization, products which have longer shelf life but less desirabletaste are obtained by UHT technology. ESL technology is a new method which wasdeveloped to obtain a longer shelf life product than pasteurized milk andbetter sensory quality product than UHT milk. ESL milk includes technologiessuch as mic...

  9. An Analysis of Shelf Space Allocation at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base Commissary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Company performed a major shelf space allocation study involving 59 of their stores. The study involved planning and executing a shelf by shelf reset...Betty Crocker Chocolate .a9 2 Betty CrocKer Yellow .93 3 Betty Crocker Devils Food .92 4 Betty Crocker Choc . Choc . Chip .94 5 Betty Crocker German...Headquarters Air Force Commissary Services. ACOS Executive Summary. 28 January 19d6. 12. deadquarters Air Force Commissary Services. Store _Layout

  10. Shelf life of pasteurized microfiltered milk containing 2% fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Z; Barbano, D M

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research was to produce homogenized milk containing 2% fat with a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d using minimum high temperature, short time (HTST) pasteurization in combination with other nonthermal processes. Raw skim milk was microfiltered (MF) using a Tetra Alcross MFS-7 pilot plant (Tetra Pak International SA, Pully, Switzerland) equipped with Membralox ceramic membranes (1.4 μm and surface area of 2.31 m(2); Pall Corp., East Hills, NY). The unpasteurized MF skim permeate and each of 3 different cream sources were blended together to achieve three 2% fat milks. Each milk was homogenized (first stage: 17 MPa, second stage: 3 MPa) and HTST pasteurized (73.8°C for 15s). The pasteurized MF skim permeate and the 3 pasteurized homogenized 2% fat milks (made from different fat sources) were stored at 1.7 and 5.7°C and the standard plate count for each milk was determined weekly over 90 d. When the standard plate count was >20,000 cfu/mL, it was considered the end of shelf life for the purpose of this study. Across 4 replicates, a 4.13 log reduction in bacteria was achieved by MF, and a further 0.53 log reduction was achieved by the combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), resulting in a 4.66 log reduction in bacteria for the combined process. No containers of MF skim milk that was pasteurized after MF exceeded 20,000 cfu/mL bacteria count during 90 d of storage at 5.7°C. The 3 different approaches used to reduce the initial bacteria and spore count of each cream source used to make the 2% fat milks did not produce any shelf-life advantage over using cold separated raw cream when starting with excellent quality raw whole milk (i.e., low bacteria count). The combination of MF with HTST pasteurization (73.8°C for 15s), combined with filling and packaging that was protected from microbial contamination, achieved a refrigerated shelf life of 60 to 90 d at both 1.7 and 5.7°C for 2% fat milks. Copyright © 2013 American

  11. New approaches to cost reduction on the UK continental shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, M I

    1994-12-31

    The conference paper deals with cost reduction on the UK continental shelf. New approaches on the reduction of field development costs are compared with the cases if traditional approaches had been followed. Field developments where success in aligning the goals and objectives of the contractors and owners which led to projects being delivered on time but more than 20% below budget, are exemplified. The contractors in the alliance received 55% of the savings in addition to their normal profit. The procedure to follow in such cases, is discussed

  12. Significance of peat on the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    24 and 31 meters. The cores were subsampled depending upon the lithology. A core off Karwar was chosen for geochemical analyses. Calcium carbonate was determined using a 'KarbonatBombe' (Muller and Gastner, 1971). Organic carbon and sulfur were... the present sea level; it is found up to 27 km from the coast. The resulls suggest that peat on the shelf occurs as layers of restricted thickness (2 to 30 em) with a limited lateral distribution and hence appear to be impersistent layers. A strong hydrogen...

  13. Radurisation of ginger rhizomes to increase shelf lifes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milne, D L; De Rooster, K; Du Toit, L W [Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Research Inst., Nelspruit (South Africa)

    1979-04-01

    In an attempt to increase the shelf-life of ginger rhisomes for marketing purposes and to prevent the use of imported ginger as planting material, trials were carried out in which ginger was radurised at various dosages using a Co 60 source. It was found that even at rates as low as 0,05 kGy both the sprouting and growth of ginger in the soil could be inhibited. Ginger which was already sprouting, virtually ceased further development when treated at dosages of 0,30 and 0,50 kGy. Brief reference is made to the commercial potential of the process.

  14. New approaches to cost reduction on the UK continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, M.I.

    1994-01-01

    The conference paper deals with cost reduction on the UK continental shelf. New approaches on the reduction of field development costs are compared with the cases if traditional approaches had been followed. Field developments where success in aligning the goals and objectives of the contractors and owners which led to projects being delivered on time but more than 20% below budget, are exemplified. The contractors in the alliance received 55% of the savings in addition to their normal profit. The procedure to follow in such cases, is discussed

  15. Sediment transport on the Palos Verdes shelf, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferre, B.; Sherwood, C.R.; Wiberg, P.L.

    2010-01-01

    Sediment transport and the potential for erosion or deposition have been investigated on the Palos Verdes (PV) and San Pedro shelves in southern California to help assess the fate of an effluent-affected deposit contaminated with DDT and PCBs. Bottom boundary layer measurements at two 60-m sites in spring 2004 were used to set model parameters and evaluate a one-dimensional (vertical) model of local, steady-state resuspension, and suspended-sediment transport. The model demonstrated skill (Brier scores up to 0.75) reproducing the magnitudes of bottom shear stress, current speeds, and suspended-sediment concentrations measured during an April transport event, but the model tended to underpredict observed rotation in the bottom-boundary layer, possibly because the model did not account for the effects of temperature-salinity stratification. The model was run with wave input estimated from a nearby buoy and current input from four to six years of measurements at thirteen sites on the 35- and 65-m isobaths on the PV and San Pedro shelves. Sediment characteristics and erodibility were based on gentle wet-sieve analysis and erosion-chamber measurements. Modeled flow and sediment transport were mostly alongshelf toward the northwest on the PV shelf with a significant offshore component. The 95th percentile of bottom shear stresses ranged from 0.09 to 0.16 Pa at the 65-m sites, and the lowest values were in the middle of the PV shelf, near the Whites Point sewage outfalls where the effluent-affected layer is thickest. Long-term mean transport rates varied from 0.9 to 4.8 metric tons m-1 yr-1 along the 65-m isobaths on the PV shelf, and were much higher at the 35-m sites. Gradients in modeled alongshore transport rates suggest that, in the absence of a supply of sediment from the outfalls or PV coast, erosion at rates of ???0.2 mm yr-1 might occur in the region southeast of the outfalls. These rates are small compared to some estimates of background natural sedimentation

  16. Radurisation of ginger rhizomes to increase shelf lifes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milne, D.L.; De Rooster, K.; Du Toit, L.W.

    1979-01-01

    In an attempt to increase the shelf-life of ginger rhisomes for marketing purposes and to prevent the use of imported ginger as planting material, trials were carried out in which ginger was radurised at various dosages using a Co 60 source. It was found that even at rates as low as 0,05 kGy both the sprouting and growth of ginger in the soil could be inhibited. Ginger which was already sprouting, virtually ceased further development when treated at dosages of 0,30 and 0,50 kGy. Brief reference is made to the commercial potential of the process

  17. Small hydroelectric power plants - shelf goods or tailor-made?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aas, Trond R.

    2002-01-01

    If small hydroelectric power plants are defined to be hydroelectric power plants of up to a few 1000 kW, they should be shelf goods because of cost considerations. Design of small hydroelectric power plants is a many-sided optimization task, on a level with constructing larger hydro power plants. But the budget for a small hydro power plant does not permit any comprehensive evaluations. The most important costs are the one-time costs in the form of investments and the following annual costs in the form of operation and maintenance, and losses. Financing costs are not considered in this article

  18. Does Arctic sea ice reduction foster shelf-basin exchange?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Vladimir; Watanabe, Eiji

    2013-12-01

    The recent shift in Arctic ice conditions from prevailing multi-year ice to first-year ice will presumably intensify fall-winter sea ice freezing and the associated salt flux to the underlying water column. Here, we conduct a dual modeling study whose results suggest that the predicted catastrophic consequences for the global thermohaline circulation (THC), as a result of the disappearance of Arctic sea ice, may not necessarily occur. In a warmer climate, the substantial fraction of dense water feeding the Greenland-Scotland overflow may form on Arctic shelves and cascade to the deep basin, thus replenishing dense water, which currently forms through open ocean convection in the sub-Arctic seas. We have used a simplified model for estimating how increased ice production influences shelf-basin exchange associated with dense water cascading. We have carried out case studies in two regions of the Arctic Ocean where cascading was observed in the past. The baseline range of buoyancy-forcing derived from the columnar ice formation was calculated as part of a 30-year experiment of the pan-Arctic coupled ice-ocean general circulation model (GCM). The GCM results indicate that mechanical sea ice divergence associated with lateral advection accounts for a significant part of the interannual variations in sea ice thermal production in the coastal polynya regions. This forcing was then rectified by taking into account sub-grid processes and used in a regional model with analytically prescribed bottom topography and vertical stratification in order to examine specific cascading conditions in the Pacific and Atlantic sectors of the Arctic Ocean. Our results demonstrate that the consequences of enhanced ice formation depend on geographical location and shelf-basin bathymetry. In the Pacific sector, strong density stratification in slope waters impedes noticeable deepening of shelf-origin water, even for the strongest forcing applied. In the Atlantic sector, a 1.5x increase of

  19. The effects of sub-ice-shelf melting on dense shelf water formation and export in idealized simulations of Antarctic margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Gustavo; Stern, Alon; Harrison, Matthew; Sergienko, Olga; Hallberg, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Dense shelf water (DSW) is formed in coastal polynyas around Antarctica as a result of intense cooling and brine rejection. A fraction of this water reaches ice shelves cavities and is modified due to interactions with sub-ice-shelf melt water. This modified water mass contributes to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water, and consequently, influences the large-scale ocean circulation. Here, we investigate the role of sub-ice-shelf melting in the formation and export of DSW using idealized simulations with an isopycnal ocean model (MOM6) coupled with a sea ice model (SIS2) and a thermodynamic active ice shelf. A set of experiments is conducted with variable horizontal grid resolutions (0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 km), ice shelf geometries and atmospheric forcing. In all simulations DSW is spontaneously formed in coastal polynyas due to the combined effect of the imposed atmospheric forcing and the ocean state. Our results show that sub-ice-shelf melting can significantly change the rate of dense shelf water outflows, highlighting the importance of this process to correctly represent bottom water formation.

  20. Impacts of a weather event on shelf circulation and CO2 and O2 dynamics on the Louisiana shelf during summer 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, W.-J.; Cai, W.-J.; Wang, Y.; Hopkinson, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    While much is known about the physics of coastal currents, much less is known about the biogeochemical effects of surface currents on shelf carbon dioxide (CO2) and oxygen distribution and dynamics. The Mississippi and Atchafalaya River plume is usually observed along the Louisiana shelf with easterly winds. Such a typical pattern was observed in August 2007, i.e. a plume of low salinity and low partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), indicating high biological production on the inner shelf; and higher salinity and pCO2 on the outer shelf. This high biological production induced by riverine nitrogen flux thus provided major organic matter sources for the shelf-wide hypoxia (dissolved oxygen [DO] hypoxic area. Furthermore, DIC concentration in bottom waters was higher than those predicted by the Redfield ratio, most likely because of much rapid O2 compensation than CO2 loss during air-sea exchange. Numerical models indicate such relocation of plume was mostly affected by the shelf circulation dominated by southerly and southwesterly winds. Consequently, we conclude that wind-forcing and shelf circulation are critical factors that influence the plume trajectories and the associated biogeochemical properties in coastal waters.

  1. Morphology and sediment dynamics of the northern Catalan continental shelf, northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, Ruth; Canals, Miquel; Sanz, José Luis; Lastras, Galderic; Amblas, David; Micallef, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The northern Catalan continental shelf, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, extends along 200 km from the Cap de Creus submarine canyon to the Llobregat Delta, in the vicinity of the city of Barcelona. In this paper we present the results of a systematic investigation of this area by means of very high-resolution multibeam bathymetry to fully assess its morphological variability. The causative factors and processes determining such variability are subsequently interpreted. The shelf is divided in three segments by two prominent submarine canyons: the northernmost Roses Shelf is separated from the intermediate La Planassa Shelf by the La Fonera Canyon, while the boundary between the La Planassa Shelf and the southernmost Barcelona Shelf is marked by the Blanes Canyon. These two canyons are deeply incised in the continental margin, with their heads located at only 0.8 and 5 km from the shore, respectively. The seafloor character reflects the influence of external controlling factors on the geomorphology and sediment dynamics of the northern continental shelf of Catalonia. These factors are the geological setting, the volume and nature of sediment input, and the type and characteristics of processes leading to sediment redistribution, such as dense shelf water cascading (DSWC) and eastern storms. The interaction of all these factors determines sediment dynamics and allows subdividing the northern Catalan continental shelf into three segments: the erosional-depositional Roses Shelf to the north, the non-depositional La Planassa Shelf in the middle, and the depositional Barcelona Shelf to the south. Erosional features off the Cap de Creus Peninsula and an along-shelf subdued channel in the outer shelf illustrate prevailing sediment dynamics in the Roses segment, which is dominated by erosional processes, local sediment accumulations and the southward bypass of sediment. The rocky character of the seafloor immediately north of the Blanes Canyon head demonstrates that

  2. Determining the inventory impact of extended-shelf-life platelets with a network simulation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, John T

    2017-12-01

    The regulatory shelf life for platelets (PLTs) in many jurisdictions is 5 days. PLT shelf life can be extended to 7 days with an enhanced bacterial detection algorithm. Enhanced testing, however, comes at a cost, which may be offset by reductions in wastage due to longer shelf life. This article describes a method for estimating systemwide reductions in PLT outdates after PLT shelf life is extended. A simulation was used to evaluate the impact of an extended PLT shelf life within a national blood network. A network model of the Canadian Blood Services PLT supply chain was built and validated. PLT shelf life was extended from 5 days to 6, 7, and 8 days and runs were completed to determine the impact on outdates. Results suggest that, in general, a 16.3% reduction in PLT wastage can be expected with each additional day that PLT shelf life is extended. Both suppliers and hospitals will experience fewer outdating units, but wastage will decrease at a faster rate at hospitals. No effect was seen by blood group, but there was some evidence that supplier site characteristics influences both the number of units wasted and the site's ability to benefit from extended-shelf-life PLTs. Extended-shelf-life PLTs will reduce wastage within a blood supply chain. At 7 days, an improvement of 38% reduction in wastage can be expected with outdates being equally distributed between suppliers and hospital customers. © 2017 AABB.

  3. Mycorrhizal dependency of mangaba tree under increasing phosphorus levels Dependência micorrízica de mangabeira em doses crescentes de fósforo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Alves Cardoso Filho

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the mycorrhizal dependency of mangaba tree (Hancornia speciosa plantlets, under increasing levels of phosphorus fertilization. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 4×5 factorial arrangement with three mycorrhizal fungi inocula - Gigaspora margarita, Glomus etunicatum, or a pool of native mycorrhizal fungi (Acaulospora longula, Glomus clarum, Gigaspora albida, Paraglomus sp. -, and a nonmycorrhizal control, in combination with five levels of phosphorus applied to the substrate: 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 mg kg-1. After 180 days of growth, plantlets with inoculation of native mycorrhizal pool produced more shoot and root dry biomass and had higher shoot phosphorus content and accumulation. The noninoculated control showed the lowest values, independently of the phosphorus level. The highest relative mycorrhizal dependency occurred with the inoculation of native mycorrhizal fungi. Plants with mycorrhizal fungi did not respond to phosphorus addition above 50 mg kg-1. Mangaba tree is highly dependent on mycorrhiza, but the degree of dependency varies according to phosphorus levels and fungal inocula. In general, mangaba tree is more responsive to mycorrhizal fungi inoculation than to phosphorus addition.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a dependência micorrízica de mudas de mangaba (Hancornia speciosa, em doses crescentes de fósforo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em arranjo fatorial 4´5 com três inóculos de fungos micorrízicos - Gigaspora margarita, Glomus etunicatum, ou uma mistura de espécies de fungos micorrízicos nativos (Acaulospora longula, Glomus clarum, Gigaspora albida e Paraglomus sp. -, e um controle não micorrízico, combinados a cinco doses de fósforo no substrato: 0, 25, 50, 75 e 100 mg kg-1. Após 180 dias, as mudas com inoculação dos fungos micorrízicos nativos produziram mais biomassa seca de parte aérea e raízes e apresentaram

  4. Shelf life of artisanal demi-glace sauce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natálya Vidal de HOLANDA

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to elaborate and evaluate the shelf life of the liquid artisanal demi-glace sauce considering sensory, microbiological and lipid oxidation characteristics during 75 days of storage compared to commercial hydrated demi-glace sauce. Sensory aspects (visual and olfactory, counts of coliform and Staphylococcus aureus, determination of Salmonella sp. and lipid oxidation were evaluated every 15 days. The artisanal demi-glace sauce was homogenous, without sensory alteration during the storage period, with olfactory alteration only at the end. The commercial demi-glace sauce remained unchanged until t3 (30 days, from t4 (45 days presented turbid appearance, followed by phase separation and with unpleasant odor in t6 (75 days. The lipid oxidation showed an increased concentration of malonaldehyde at every evaluated time. The artisanal and commercial demi-glace sauces showed a significant difference at t1, t2, t4 and t5, when the artisanal sauce had lower contents of malonaldehyde (18, 23, 36 and 11%, respectively, only at the 30th and 75th days of storage there was significant similarity. The sauces were within the microbiological standards required by the law. Although the artisanal demi-glace sauce does not contain conservatives, its shelf life was similar to the hydrated commercial product.

  5. Optimum Thermal Processing for Extended Shelf-Life (ESL) Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeth, Hilton

    2017-11-20

    Extended shelf-life (ESL) or ultra-pasteurized milk is produced by thermal processing using conditions between those used for traditional high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization and those used for ultra-high-temperature (UHT) sterilization. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. To achieve this, the thermal processing has to be quite intense. The challenge is to produce a product that has high bacteriological quality and safety but also very good organoleptic characteristics. Hence the two major aims in producing ESL milk are to inactivate all vegetative bacteria and spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, and to cause minimal chemical change that can result in cooked flavor development. The first aim is focused on inactivation of spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus because some strains of this organism are pathogenic, some can grow at ≤7 °C and cause spoilage of milk, and the spores of some strains are very heat-resistant. The second aim is minimizing denaturation of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg) as the extent of denaturation is strongly correlated with the production of volatile sulfur compounds that cause cooked flavor. It is proposed that the heating should have a bactericidal effect, B * (inactivation of thermophilic spores), of >0.3 and cause ≤50% denaturation of β-Lg. This can be best achieved by heating at high temperature for a short holding time using direct heating, and aseptically packaging the product.

  6. Optimum Thermal Processing for Extended Shelf-Life (ESL Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilton Deeth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Extended shelf-life (ESL or ultra-pasteurized milk is produced by thermal processing using conditions between those used for traditional high-temperature, short-time (HTST pasteurization and those used for ultra-high-temperature (UHT sterilization. It should have a refrigerated shelf-life of more than 30 days. To achieve this, the thermal processing has to be quite intense. The challenge is to produce a product that has high bacteriological quality and safety but also very good organoleptic characteristics. Hence the two major aims in producing ESL milk are to inactivate all vegetative bacteria and spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, and to cause minimal chemical change that can result in cooked flavor development. The first aim is focused on inactivation of spores of psychrotrophic bacteria, especially Bacillus cereus because some strains of this organism are pathogenic, some can grow at ≤7 °C and cause spoilage of milk, and the spores of some strains are very heat-resistant. The second aim is minimizing denaturation of β-lactoglobulin (β-Lg as the extent of denaturation is strongly correlated with the production of volatile sulfur compounds that cause cooked flavor. It is proposed that the heating should have a bactericidal effect, B* (inactivation of thermophilic spores, of >0.3 and cause ≤50% denaturation of β-Lg. This can be best achieved by heating at high temperature for a short holding time using direct heating, and aseptically packaging the product.

  7. Interannual variability in lower trophic levels on the Alaskan Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batten, Sonia D.; Raitsos, Dionysios E.; Danielson, Seth; Hopcroft, Russell; Coyle, Kenneth; McQuatters-Gollop, Abigail

    2018-01-01

    This study describes results from the first 16 years of the Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) program that has sampled the lower trophic levels (restricted to larger, hard-shelled phytoplankton and robust zooplankton taxa) on the Alaskan shelf. Sampling took place along transects from the open ocean across the shelf (to the entrance to Prince William Sound from 2000 to 2003 and into Cook Inlet from 2004 to 2015) to provide plankton abundance data, spring through autumn of each year. We document interannual variability in concentration and composition of the plankton community of the region over this time period. At least in part and through correlative relationships, this can be attributed to changes in the physical environment, particularly direct and indirect effects of temperature. For example; spring mixed layer depth is shown to influence the timing of the spring diatom peak and warmer years are biased towards smaller copepod species. A significant positive relationship between temperature, diatom abundance and zooplankton biomass existed from 2000 to 2013 but was not present in the warm years of 2014 and 2015. These results suggest that anomalous warming events, such as the "heat wave" of 2014-2015, could fundamentally influence typical lower trophic level patterns, possibly altering trophic interactions.

  8. Increased power supplied to the shelf from land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report analyses how increasing the power supply from land to the offshore installations will affect the emissions of carbon dioxide from the power production on land. For the time being the CO 2 emissions from the production in existing power plants outside Norway will increase. Since the power price also rises, this checks the rise in consumption. This means that the total emission of carbon dioxide does not increase as much as it would have done if the power supply to the shelf had been covered entirely by increased production in existing coal power plants. If in the long term new conventional gas power capacity can be developed commercially, then increased power supply to the shelf will cause the CO 2 emission from power production on land in Norway to increase. Should conventional gas power plants not be granted concession, then the effect will be to increase the power production in existing plants in other countries and to check the rise in consumption. The net rise in consumption increases the emission of carbon dioxide from production in coal, oil, or gas power plants in Denmark, Finland, Germany or Poland

  9. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placek, V. E-mail: pla@ujv.cz; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M

    2004-10-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO{sub x}-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.

  10. Petroleum hydrocarbon contamination of the Southern Black Sea Shelf, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkıs, Nuray; Aksu, Abdullah; Erşan, Mahmut S

    2012-02-01

    In this study, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) contents and some aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations were analysed in coastal sediments of hot points collected from along the Southern Black Sea Shelf. Surface sediment (0-2 cm) samples were collected from the locations using a Van Veen type grab sampler in September 2008 during a cruise on the Pollution Monitoring R/V ARAR. All sampling procedures were carried out according to internationally recognized guide-lines (UNEP 1991). Samples were analysed using a UV-fluorescence spec-trophotometry (UNEP/IOC/IAEA 1992) and gas chromatog- raphy (GC) via a Hewlett-Packard HP6890N series with a selective detector (GC-MSD) after hexane/ dichloromethane extraction. The ratio C(17)/C(18) varied between 2.2 and 2.9 for the surface sediments of TRK 34Y (Samsun), TRK46 (Giresun), and TRK55 (Rize), respectively. These results showed higher marine organic matter accumulation. However, pyrolytic PAHs were found predominant in these areas. In contrast, petrogenic contributions were found at Stations TRK1 (İğneada), TRK13 (Zonguldak), TRK53 (Trabzon) and TRK61 (Hopa). TPH contents of surface sediments varied between 0.29 and 363 μg g(-1) (dry wt) throughout the shelf. The lowest values were measured at Stations TRK1 (İğneada) and TRK 19 (Bartın), whereas the highest values were found at Stations TRK13 (Zonguldak) and TRK 53 (Trabzon).

  11. Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Placek, V.; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M.

    2004-01-01

    Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x -containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested

  12. Cross shelf benthic biodiversity patterns in the Southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne; Anlauf, Holger; Kurten, Saskia; Lozano-Corté s, Diego; Alsaffar, Zahra Hassan Ali; Curdia, Joao; Jones, Burton; Carvalho, Susana

    2017-01-01

    The diversity of coral reef and soft sediment ecosystems in the Red Sea has to date received limited scientific attention. This study investigates changes in the community composition of both reef and macrobenthic communities along a cross shelf gradient. Coral reef assemblages differed significantly in species composition and structure with location and depth. Inner shelf reefs harbored less abundant and less diverse coral assemblages with higher percentage macroalgae cover. Nutrient availability and distance from the shoreline were significantly related to changes in coral composition and structure. This study also observed a clear inshore offshore pattern for soft sediment communities. In contrast to the coral reef patterns the highest diversity and abundance of soft sediment communities were recorded at the inshore sites, which were characterized by a higher number of opportunistic polychaete species and bivalves indicative of mild disturbance. Sediment grain size and nutrient enrichment were important variables explaining the variability. This study aims to contribute to our understanding of ecosystem processes and biodiversity in the Red Sea region in an area that also has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics, such as the capacity of reef systems and benthic macrofaunal organisms to adapt to global climate change.

  13. A geoelectrical survey above an Antarctic ice shelf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pavan

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A geoelectrical survey was performed on the Hells Gate ice shelf (Victoria Land-Antarctic within the framework of an integrated geophysical and glaciological research program. The resistivity profiles show a similar trend, with resistivity values ranging from about 25000 W · m to 500000 W · m. These results have been interpreted as the effect of a sharp transition from "marine ice" to "continental" ice an interpretation that is consistent with the results of surface mapping. Interpreting the Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES is a complex process. In fact, the alternating layers of ice with different compositions and salt content generate great uncertainty relative to the corresponding electric stratigraphies. To solve these problems of equivalency, all the available constraints were used including the drilling thickness, seismic reflection profiles as well as radar profiles. The results were used to provide what is mainly a qualitative overview that is coherent with the glaciological hypotheses relative to the evolution and structure proposed by some researchers for this ice shelf.

  14. Active packaging using ethylene absorber to extend shelf-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponce, Patricia; Carbonari, Guilherme L.R.; Lugao, Ademar B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: patponce@iq.usp.br, e-mail: guilacaz@uol.com.br, e-mail: ablugao@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Ethylene gas is a plant hormone which is produced by fruits and vegetables during ripening and it is also found in the environment. It plays an essential role in normal ripening, but excessive exposure can radically reduce the shelf-life of the product, in some cases inducing undesirable reactions such as development of bitter flavors and loss of chlorophyll (yellowing of greens). The objectives of our work were: to test an active packaging of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for apple stored; to test the effect of ethylene absorber agent, impregnated in plastic film, to reduce decay of fresh apple; to study the influence of radiation on the barrier properties, mechanical properties and biodegradability of PVA films. This study evaluated the effect of coating produced from PVA and polyol (glycerol and sorbitol) as plasticizer on apple conservation (75 deg F (24 deg C); 70%RH). The coated product was analyzed for mass loss, color alterations and fungi. The PVA films were produced by casting process (dehydration of a filmogenic solution on Petriplastic dishes) and were irradiated at low doses of 2, 5 and 10 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The resulting films were transparent and homogeneous. The active packaged fruits presented higher acceptance, lower microbiological growth, less alterations in acidity, lower weight loss rate during the storage time and an extended shelf-life as compared to the control fruits (without plastic films). (author)

  15. Active packaging using ethylene absorber to extend shelf-life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, Patricia; Carbonari, Guilherme L.R.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2009-01-01

    Ethylene gas is a plant hormone which is produced by fruits and vegetables during ripening and it is also found in the environment. It plays an essential role in normal ripening, but excessive exposure can radically reduce the shelf-life of the product, in some cases inducing undesirable reactions such as development of bitter flavors and loss of chlorophyll (yellowing of greens). The objectives of our work were: to test an active packaging of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) for apple stored; to test the effect of ethylene absorber agent, impregnated in plastic film, to reduce decay of fresh apple; to study the influence of radiation on the barrier properties, mechanical properties and biodegradability of PVA films. This study evaluated the effect of coating produced from PVA and polyol (glycerol and sorbitol) as plasticizer on apple conservation (75 deg F (24 deg C); 70%RH). The coated product was analyzed for mass loss, color alterations and fungi. The PVA films were produced by casting process (dehydration of a filmogenic solution on Petriplastic dishes) and were irradiated at low doses of 2, 5 and 10 kGy, commonly used in food irradiation. The resulting films were transparent and homogeneous. The active packaged fruits presented higher acceptance, lower microbiological growth, less alterations in acidity, lower weight loss rate during the storage time and an extended shelf-life as compared to the control fruits (without plastic films). (author)

  16. Suitability of different formulated carriers for sustaining microbial shelf life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabassam, T.; Ali, A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-availability of a suitable carrier for bioinnoculant is a serious constraint for dissemination of biofertilizer technology in Pakistan. Present study was designed to formulate a suitable carrier from locally available cheap material and evaluate for shelf life by using locally isolated plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains from maize rhizosphere. Different combinations of material were prepared using clay soil (35-50%), fly-ash (30-45%), press mud (5-15%) and lignite (5-15%). Clay soil (53% clay) was used for adhesion purpose but considering free of lump formation an important property of a good carrier, mixing 40% of soil with other material was found suitable. Using 40% of soil, six different treatments were formulated and physico-chemical characteristics were determined. Four combinations in the range of 40% clay, 30-40% fly-ash, 10-15% press mud and 10-15% lignitic coal were selected which had good adhesion capacity, moisture holding capacity, nutrient contents and investigated for microbial shelf life. Significant difference regarding microbial survival was observed between different formulations as well as between different incubation intervals. Among different carrier tested the FC-4 supported the maximum population of 33.5x10- 10.8x10 cfu g for MR-8 and 32.6x10 - 7.2x10 cfu g for MR-5. Results showed that the required population of PGPR was sustained in all the formulation tested up to six months of storage period. (author)

  17. Reduction of upper shelf energy of highly irradiated RPV steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otaka, M.; Osaki, T. [Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (Japan)

    2004-07-01

    It is well known that as the embrittlement due to neutron irradiation of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels, there is the tendency of the decrease in Charpy absorbed energy at upper shelf region (USE), in addition to the shift of ductile-brittle transition temperature. Concerning to the regulation of the upper shelf region, no method is provided to evaluate integrity for RPV steels with USE of less than 68J in Japanese codes. Under the circumstance, the reduction tendency of USE using simulated Japanese RPV steels, irradiated by fast neutron up to 1 x 10{sup 24} n/m{sup 2}, E>1 MeV in the OECD Halden test reactor, was investigated to establish the basis of the USE prediction after 60 year plant operation for the integrity assessment of the RPVs. This paper describes the results of an atom probe tomography characterization of irradiated steels. A new form of USE prediction equation was developed based on the atom probe tomography characterization and the Charpy impact test results of the irradiated steels. And, the USE prediction equations have been determined through the regression analysis of the test reactor data combined with Japanese surveillance test data. (orig.)

  18. Mobile Bay river plume mixing in the inner shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, S. M.; Book, J. W.; Warner, S. J.; Moum, J.

    2017-12-01

    The microtidal region (0.5 m spring tides) of the inner shelf outside Mobile Bay presented a complex circulation pattern driven by the pulsed river discharge and winds. Currents, salinity, temperature, and turbulence profiles were measured for up to three weeks in April 2016 at six moorings outside Mobile Bay. Currents varied between locations and with depth. During neap and spring tides the currents were reliably >0.4 and 0.5 m/s) and toward deeper waters, concurrent with the strongest stratification. The possible flow drivers considered include tides, winds, inertial oscillations, waves, and stratification. Turbulent kinetic energy production and dissipation were calculated with multiple methods using data from bottom-mounted, upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profilers sampling at 1 Hz, and using data from line-moored chi-pod turbulent temperature microstructure instruments sampling at 100 Hz. This work explores different forcing mechanisms involved in modulating the circulation and turbulence in a multi-layered pulsed-river inner shelf region in the Gulf of Mexico.

  19. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  20. Cross shelf benthic biodiversity patterns in the Southern Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ellis, Joanne

    2017-03-21

    The diversity of coral reef and soft sediment ecosystems in the Red Sea has to date received limited scientific attention. This study investigates changes in the community composition of both reef and macrobenthic communities along a cross shelf gradient. Coral reef assemblages differed significantly in species composition and structure with location and depth. Inner shelf reefs harbored less abundant and less diverse coral assemblages with higher percentage macroalgae cover. Nutrient availability and distance from the shoreline were significantly related to changes in coral composition and structure. This study also observed a clear inshore offshore pattern for soft sediment communities. In contrast to the coral reef patterns the highest diversity and abundance of soft sediment communities were recorded at the inshore sites, which were characterized by a higher number of opportunistic polychaete species and bivalves indicative of mild disturbance. Sediment grain size and nutrient enrichment were important variables explaining the variability. This study aims to contribute to our understanding of ecosystem processes and biodiversity in the Red Sea region in an area that also has the potential to provide insight into pressing topics, such as the capacity of reef systems and benthic macrofaunal organisms to adapt to global climate change.

  1. Shelf life of ground beef patties treated by gamma radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W T; Weese, J O

    1998-10-01

    The effects of irradiation on microbial populations in ground beef patties vacuum package and irradiated frozen at target doses of 0.0, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy were determined. Irradiated samples were stored at 4 or -18 degrees C for 42 days, and mesophilic aerobic plate counts (APCs) were periodically determined. Fresh ground beef (initial APC of 10(2) CFU/g) treated with 3.0, 5.0, and 7.0 kGy was acceptable ( 10(7) CFU/g) by day 14 and 21, respectively, whereas patties treated at 5.0 kGy did not spoil until 42 days. The nonirradiated control samples for both batches of ground beef spoiled within 7 days. Microbial counts in ground beef patties stored at -18 degrees C did not change over the 42-day period. Shelf life of ground beef patties stored at 4 degrees C may be extended with gamma radiation, especially at 5.0 and 7.0 kGy. Initial microbial load in ground beef samples was an important shelf life factor.

  2. 1300 km long late Pleistocene-Holocene shelf edge barrier reef system along the western continental shelf of India: Occurrence and significance

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Wagle, B.G.; Veerayya, M.; Almeida, F.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.

    . It is surmised that coral/algal reef growth commenced with the advent of the Holocene trangression and favorable antecedent topography, and continued until early Holocene. Subsequently, rapid sea level rise drowned the reefs. The shelf edge reefs, therefore...

  3. Paleocene Wilcox cross-shelf channel-belt history and shelf-margin growth: Key to Gulf of Mexico sediment delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinyu; Steel, Ronald; Ambrose, William

    2017-12-01

    Shelf margins prograde and aggrade by the incremental addition of deltaic sediments supplied from river channel belts and by stored shoreline sediment. This paper documents the shelf-edge trajectory and coeval channel belts for a segment of Paleocene Lower Wilcox Group in the northern Gulf of Mexico based on 400 wireline logs and 300 m of whole cores. By quantitatively analyzing these data and comparing them with global databases, we demonstrate how varying sediment supply impacted the Wilcox shelf-margin growth and deep-water sediment dispersal under greenhouse eustatic conditions. The coastal plain to marine topset and uppermost continental slope succession of the Lower Wilcox shelf-margin sediment prism is divided into eighteen high-frequency ( 300 ky duration) stratigraphic sequences, and further grouped into 5 sequence sets (labeled as A-E from bottom to top). Sequence Set A is dominantly muddy slope deposits. The shelf edge of Sequence Sets B and C prograded rapidly (> 10 km/Ma) and aggraded modestly ( 80 m/Ma) characterizes Sequence Sets D and E, which is associated with smaller (9-10 m thick on average) and isolated channel belts. This stratigraphic trend is likely due to an upward decreasing sediment supply indicated by the shelf-edge progradation rate and channel size, as well as an upward increasing shelf accommodation indicated by the shelf-edge aggradation rate. The rapid shelf-edge progradation and large rivers in Sequence Sets B and C confirm earlier suggestions that it was the early phase of Lower Wilcox dispersal that brought the largest deep-water sediment volumes into the Gulf of Mexico. Key factors in this Lower Wilcox stratigraphic trend are likely to have been a very high initial sediment flux to the Gulf because of the high initial release of sediment from Laramide catchments to the north and northwest, possibly aided by modest eustatic sea-level fall on the Texas shelf, which is suggested by the early, flat shelf-edge trajectory, high

  4. A Physical Map of the Short Arm of Wheat Chromosome 1A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Breen, J.; Wicker, T.; Shatalina, M.; Frenkel, Z.; Bertin, I.; Philippe, R.; Spielmeyer, W.; Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Cattonaro, F.; Scalabrin, S.; Magni, F.; Vautrin, S.; Berges, H.; Paux, E.; Fahima, T.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Korol, A.; Feuillet, C.; Keller, B.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013) E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : TRITICUM-AESTIVUM L. * EXPRESSED SEQUENCE TAGS * WEIGHT GLUTENIN LOCI Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  5. Development of microsatellite markers specific for the short arm of rye (Secale cereale L.) chromosome 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kofler, R.; Bartoš, Jan; Gong, L.; Stift, G.; Suchánková, Pavla; Šimková, Hana; Berenyi, M.; Burg, K.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Lelley, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 117, č. 6 (2008), s. 915-926 ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/04/0607; GA ČR GP521/06/P412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : NON-LTR RETROTRANSPOSONS * ORYZA-SATIVA L. * PLANT GENOMES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.490, year: 2008

  6. Sequence Composition and Gene Content of the Short Arm of Rye (Secale cereale) Chromosome 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fluch, S.; Kopecky, D.; Burg, K.; Šimková, Hana; Taudien, S.; Petzold, A.; Kubaláková, Marie; Platzer, M.; Berenyi, M.; Krainer, S.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Lelley, T.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2012), e30784 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : GENOME SIZE * CHLOROPLAST DNA * ISOZYME MARKERS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  7. Physical map of the short arm of bread wheat chromosome 3D

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holušová, Kateřina; Vrána, Jan; Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Balcárková, Barbora; Frenkel, Z.; Darrier, B.; Paux, E.; Cattonaro, F.; Berges, H.; Letellier, T.; Alaux, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Bartoš, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2017) ISSN 1940-3372 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08786S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : TRITICUM-AESTIVUM L. * COMPLEX GENOMES * INDIVIDUAL CHROMOSOMES Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 2.736, year: 2016

  8. Development of SSR markers for the short arm of rye chromosome 1

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kofler, R.; Stift, G.; Gong, L.; Suchánková, Pavla; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Lelley, T.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 71, - (2007), s. 279-281 ISSN 0723-7812 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/04/0607 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Source of funding: V - iné verejné zdroje Keywords : SSR markers * rye chromosome 1 Subject RIV: GE - Plant Breeding

  9. Transport and transfer rates in the waters of the continental shelf and slope: SEEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscaye, P.E.; Anderson, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    The overall Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP) Program, which began in 1980 or 1981, had as its goal the testing of a hypothesis with respect to the fate of particulate matter formed in and introduced into the waters of the continental shelf adjacent to the northern east coast of the US, i.e., the MAB. The original hypothesis was that a large proportion of the particles in general, and of the particulate organic carbon (POC) in particular, was exported from the shelf, across the shelf/slope break and front, into the waters of, and, to some degree, deposited in the sediments of the continental slope. This hypothesis was based on budgets of organic carbon and lead-210 that did not account for a large proportion of those species in the waters or sediments of the shelf, and on a carbon-rich band of sediments centered on the slope at ∼1,000 m water depth. The results of the first SEEP experiment, south of New England and Long Island (SEEP-1) suggested, but did not prove, that there was only a relatively small proportion of the carbon which was exported from the shelf to the slope. The objective of the second experiment -- SEEP-2 -- done under the subject grant, was to tighten the experiment in terms of the kinds of data collected, and to focus it more on the shelf and only the upper slope, where shelf-derived particles were thought to be deposited

  10. Salt stabilizer for preventing chlorine depletion and increasing shelf-life of potable water - A concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, E. J.; Edgerley, R. H.

    1971-01-01

    Proposed concept, based on law of mass action uses addition of salt to increase chlorine ions produced in sodium hydrochlorite solutions, thereby increasing solution shelf-life. This technique is not costly. Usefulness will be determined by acceptability of salt in product undergoing long shelf-life.

  11. Deposition and Accumulation of Emerging Contaminants in the Sediments of the Palos Verde Shelf, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deposition and Accumulation of Emerging Contaminants in the Sediments of the Palos Verde Shelf, California Mark G. Cantwell, David R. Katz, Julia Sullivan, Robert P. Eganhouse, Monique M. Perron, Robert M. Burgess The Palos Verdes shelf is located off the Southern California coa...

  12. Field Observations of Surf Zone-Inner Shelf Exchange on a Rip-Channeled Beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, J.A.; MacMahan, J.H.; Reniers, A.J.H.M.; Thornton, E.B.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-shore exchange between the surf zone and the inner shelf is investigated using Lagrangian and Eulerian field measurements of rip current flows on a rip-channeled beach in Sand City, California. Surface drifters released on the inner shelf during weak wind conditions moved seaward due to rip

  13. Distribution and dispersal of clay minerals on the western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Hashimi, N.H.; Rao, V.P

    off the Gulf of Kutch; (2) the montmorillonite-rich zone off the Gulf of Cambay; (3) a transition zone on the central parts of the shelf; and (4) a relatively montmorillonite poor-gibbsite province on the southwestern part of the shelf. Source...

  14. Dynamics of tidal and non-tidal currents along the southwest continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aruna, C.; Ravichandran, C.; Srinivas, K.; Rasheed, P.A.A.; Lekshmi, S.

    are predominantly mixed, semidiurnal in nature. Motion over any continental shelf is governed by the tide-driven oscillatory flow. In this paper, tidal and non-tidal characteristics of the waters of Southwest continental shelf of India are assessed using...

  15. Effects of pre- and postharvest calcium treatments on shelf life and postharvest quality of broccoli microgreens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microgreens’ extremely short shelf life limits their commercial usage. The objective of this study is to compare the effect of pre- and post- harvest treatments using different forms of calcium on the postharvest quality and shelf-life of broccoli microgreens. Preharvest spray with calcium lactate, ...

  16. Nutrient Distributions, Transports, and Budgets on the Inner Margin of a River-Dominated Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    Nutrient distributions, transports, and budgets on the inner margin of a river-dominated continental shelf John C. Lehrter,1 Dong S. Ko,2 Michael C...and D. C. Biggs (1993), The influence of advec- tion on the spatial variability of nutrient concentrations on the Texas- Louisiana continental shelf

  17. An MILP modeling approach for shelf life integrated planning in yoghurt production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lütke Entrup, M.; Grunow, M.; Günther, H.O.; Seiler, T.; Beek, van P.

    2005-01-01

    In the production of perishable products such as dairy, meat, or bakery goods, the consideration of shelf life in production planning is of particular importance. Retail customers with relatively low inventory turns can benefit significantly from longer product shelf life as wastage and out-of-stock

  18. Statistics of Stacked Strata on Experimental Shelf Margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, A. M.; Straub, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Continental margin deposits provide the most complete record on Earth of paleo-landscapes, but these records are complex and difficult to interpret. To a seismic geomorphologist or stratigrapher, mapped surfaces often present a static diachronous record of these landscapes through time. We present data that capture the dynamics of experimental shelf-margin landscapes at high-temporal resolution and define internal hierarchies within stacked channelized and weakly channelized deposits from the shelf to the slope. Motivated by observations from acoustically-imaged continental margins offshore Brunei and in the Gulf of Mexico, we use physical experiments to quantify stratal patterns of sub-aqueous slope channels and lobes that are linked to delta-top channels. The data presented here are from an experiment that was run for 26 hours of experimental run time. Overhead photographs and topographic scans captured flow dynamics and surface aggradation/degradation every ten minutes. Currents rich in sediment built a delta that prograded to the shelf-edge. These currents were designed to plunge at the shoreline and travel as turbidity currents beyond the delta and onto the continental slope. Pseudo-subsidence was imposed by a slight base-level rise that generated accommodation space and promoted the construction of stratigraphy on the delta-top. Compensational stacking is a term that is frequently applied to deposits that tend to fill in topographic lows in channelized and weakly channelized systems. The compensation index, a metric used to quantify the strength of compensation, is used here to characterize deposits at different temporal scales on the experimental landscape. The compensation timescale is the characteristic time at which the accumulated deposits begins to match the shape of basin-wide subsidence rates (uniform for these experiments). We will use the compensation indices along strike transects across the delta, proximal slope and distal slope to evaluate the

  19. Effect of TiO2 photocatalytic preservation on quality of kiwifruit during shelf life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chengjie; Jiang, Yong; Qi, Shasha; Zhang, Changfeng; Guo, Fengjun

    2018-04-01

    In order to study the effect of titanium dioxide photocatalysis technology on the quality of kiwifruit during shelf life, the texture properties of kiwifruit during shelf life were measured by simulating the effect of cross-ripening among fruits and vegetables under the mixed environment of different fruits and vegetables. The results showed that the kiwifruit after photocatalytic preservation maintained a more mature state in the middle and preliminary stage of shelf life, chewiness is better than the control group and the blank group, compared with the over-ripen control group and low-maturity blank group, experimental group has the best commodity value. Therefore, using nanometer photocatalytic preservation can effectively reduce the ripening effect of kiwifruit in the mixed environment, control the after-ripening of kiwifruit, and meanwhile maintain the commodity value of the kiwifruit during the shelf life.iO2, Photocatalysis, Kiwifruit, Shelf-life.

  20. Field evaluation of air-blocking shelf for dust control on blasthole drills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Drew Potts; W. Randolph Reed [Office of Mine Safety and Health Research, NIOSH, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dust Control, Ventilation, and Toxic Substance Branch

    2011-03-15

    In previous studies, an air-blocking shelf has been shown to be successful in reducing respirable dust leakage from the drill shroud in a laboratory setting. Dust reductions of up to 81% were achieved with the shelf under operating conditions consisting of a 1.9:1 collector-to-bailing airflow ratio and a 5.1-cm gap between the shroud and ground. Recent research focused on evaluating the shelf on two actual operating blasthole drills, in much more severe environments. In the field, the shelf reduced dust levels in the areas surrounding one operating blasthole drill by 70%. Dust reductions measured in the immediate vicinity of the shroud were reduced by 66% at one mine and 81% at the other mine. These field tests confirm that the air-blocking shelf is useful for reducing respirable dust generation from blasthole drills.

  1. Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    and oils and fats-containing foods in the food and pet food industries. Discusses oxidative stability and shelf life of low-moisture (dry) food, including dry pet food. Discusses lipid co-oxidation with protein because a number of food products contain both lipids and proteins. Directed mainly toward......Oxidative Stability and Shelf Life of Foods Containing Oils and Fats focuses on food stability and shelf life, both important factors in the improvement and development of food products. This book, relevant for professionals in the food and pet food industries, presents an evaluation of methods...... for studies on the oxidative stability and shelf life of bulk oils/fats, fried oils and foods, food emulsions, dried foods, meat and meat products, and seafood in food and pet food. Focuses on the application of various evaluation methods to studies of oxidative stability and shelf life in oils and fats...

  2. Seasonal circulation over the Catalan inner-shelf (northwest Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grifoll, Manel; Aretxabaleta, Alfredo L.; Pelegrí, Josep L.; Espino, Manuel; Warner, John C.; Sánchez-Arcilla, Agustín

    2013-01-01

    This study characterizes the seasonal cycle of the Catalan inner-shelf circulation using observations and complementary numerical results. The relation between seasonal circulation and forcing mechanisms is explored through the depth-averaged momentum balance, for the period between May 2010 and April 2011, when velocity observations were partially available. The monthly-mean along-shelf flow is mainly controlled by the along-shelf pressure gradient and by surface and bottom stresses. During summer, fall, and winter, the along-shelf momentum balance is dominated by the barotropic pressure gradient and local winds. During spring, both wind stress and pressure gradient act in the same direction and are compensated by bottom stress. In the cross-shelf direction the dominant forces are in geostrophic balance, consistent with dynamic altimetry data.

  3. Point-of-Sale Notification and Shelf Tags for Urban Uses of Certain Pesticides in the San Francisco Bay Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Stipulated Injunction and Court Order required EPA to develop a shelf tag to help retailers inform consumers about potential risks to endangered species related to use of certain pesticides. See the shelf tag and pesticide ingredients affected.

  4. A two-stage evolution of Visakhapatnam-Paradip Shelf, east coast of India, from magnetic studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, A.S.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Rao, T.C.S.; Rao, M.M.M.; Lakshminarayana, S.; Venkateswarlu, K.

    A detailed analysis of bathymetry and magnetic data of Visakhapatnam-Paradip shelf, east coast of India revealed three major structural lineaments over the shelf/slope of the area. Models derived from the anomalies associated with the trends...

  5. Lithology, monsoon and sea-surface current control on provenance, dispersal and deposition of sediments over the Andaman continental shelf

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Damodararao, K.; Singh, S.K.; Rai, V.K.; Ramaswamy, V.; Rao, P.S.

    , constrain their transport pathways and assess the factors influencing the erosion in the catchment and their dispersal and deposition over the Andaman Shelf region. Major elemental compositions of the shelf sediments suggest mafic lithology...

  6. Microfluidic Apps for off-the-shelf instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Daniel; von Stetten, Felix; Zengerle, Roland

    2012-07-21

    Within the last decade a huge increase in research activity in microfluidics could be observed. However, despite several commercial success stories, microfluidic chips are still not sold in high numbers in mass markets so far. Here we promote a new concept that could be an alternative approach to commercialization: designing microfluidic chips for existing off-the-shelf instruments. Such "Microfluidic Apps" could significantly lower market entry barriers and provide many advantages: developers of microfluidic chips make use of existing equipment or platforms and do not have to develop instruments from scratch; end-users can profit from microfluidics without the need to invest in new equipment; instrument manufacturers benefit from an expanded customer base due to the new applications that can be implemented in their instruments. Microfluidic Apps could be considered as low-cost disposables which can easily be distributed globally via web-shops. Therefore they could be a door-opener for high-volume mass markets.

  7. Global change: Ecology of Greenlandish and Siberian shelf areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This work aimed to study the distribution and structure of pelagic and benthal biocoenoses in two areas, the continental shelf of eastern Greenland and the northern Barents Sea, and to compare them in relation to their ecological boundary conditions. Furthermore, aspects of ontogenetic and ecophysiological adaptations of key species were investigated. The programme followed a fourfold approach: 1) Inventory of fauna, 2) analysis of the distribution and composition of communities, 3) autecological studies of selected key species, 4) description of associations between community structures, autecological adaptations, and special environmental conditions. In this way an inventory of pelagic and benthal biocoenoses in the two areas of investigation was prepared also with a view to further studies. Different modern sampling and data acquisition methods were used to ensure covering a broad spectrum of forms and sizes of fauna. (orig./KW) [de

  8. Propagation of inertial-gravity waves on an island shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondur, V. G.; Sabinin, K. D.; Grebenyuk, Yu. V.

    2015-09-01

    The propagation of inertial-gravity waves (IGV) at the boundary of the Pacific shelf near the island of Oahu (Hawaii), whose generation was studied in the first part of this work [1], is analyzed. It is shown that a significant role there is played by the plane oblique waves; whose characteristics were identified by the method of estimating 3D wave parameters for the cases when the measurements are available only for two verticals. It is established that along with the descending propagation of energy that is typical of IGVs, wave packets ascend from the bottom to the upper layers, which is caused by the emission of waves from intense jets of discharged waters flowing out of a diffusor located at the bottom.

  9. KNOWLEDGE AND THEIR SHELF LIFE IN THE BUSINESS CYCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentia Elena SCURTU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the attempt to draw a definition to the business topics of the current period, we report to a string of descriptive key words, which appeal to a growing amount of assets, other than the physical/tangible ones. Thus, the most used words/keywords are: knowledge, skills/abilities or talents and the successful leaders that can use/exploit them productively, to achieve competitive advantage, become the key individuals in the business organizations. This is partly due to the "promise" that "the world of intangibles" guarantee to the modern corporate success. Thus, knowledge has become valuable resources in the current competitive chaos. The issue of this paper focuses on how knowledge are used in business organizations, where they can be located within the organization domain and which is their shelf life/their term of validity comparing to the one of those tangible/physical.

  10. Potential alternative energy technologies on the Outer Continental Shelf.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Environmental Assessment

    2007-04-20

    This technical memorandum (TM) describes the technology requirements for three alternative energy technologies for which pilot and/or commercial projects on the U.S. Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) are likely to be proposed within the next five to seven years. For each of the alternative technologies--wind, wave, and ocean current--the TM first presents an overview. After each technology-specific overview, it describes the technology requirements for four development phases: site monitoring and testing, construction, operation, and decommissioning. For each phase, the report covers the following topics (where data are available): facility description, electricity generated, ocean area (surface and bottom) occupied, resource requirements, emissions and noise sources, hazardous materials stored or used, transportation requirements, and accident potential. Where appropriate, the TM distinguishes between pilot-scale (or demonstration-scale) facilities and commercial-scale facilities.

  11. DONKEY MILK SHELF LIFE: MICROBIOLOGY AND VOLATILE COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Conte

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organoleptics properties are important to evaluate the shelf life of food products. Sensory analysis is generally used for this purpose. In this study psychrotrophic, mesophilic bacteria, and pH values were correlated to volatile compounds. The quality of raw donkey milk stored for 3, 7, 10, 14 and 28 days at two different temperatures (3°C and 7°C was tested. Donkey milk volatiles for the first time in this study were identified. Different volatiles distribution were detected by Smart Nose and GCO during the trials and a correlation with bacteriological and pH data were shown. On the basis of the results the acceptability of 10 days storing at +3°C, and of 3-4 days at +7°C, for milk samples, was pointed out.

  12. Circulation in the SAV, Shelf of Veracruz, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Martinez-Lopez, B.; Fernandez-Eguiarte, A.; de Buen, R.; Rojas, J.

    2007-05-01

    Data from current meter, hydrographic measurements, and numerical modeling are analyzed to determine the circulation patterns in the Sistema Arrecifal Veracruzano (SAV), Veracruz, Mexico, region. Results show that the main forcing in the region is the along-coast wind stress component. Tides contribute with one order of magnitude less energy, during the fall-winter period. Two main regimes are identified: one between the coast and the 20 m isobath, with waters of large turbidity and small influence from rivers, and the other between the 20 m isobath and the external shelf, with clearer waters. Stratified water column with low temperature upwelled waters near the bottom are observed when southeasterly winds are present. Downwelling and southeastward currents are associated with northerly winds linked with northers.

  13. Chemotrophic Ecosystem Beneath the Larsen Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventer, A.; Domack, E.; Ishman, S.; Sylva, S.; Willmott, V.; Huber, B.; Padman, L.

    2005-12-01

    The first living chemotrophic ecosystem in the Southern Ocean was discovered in a region of the seafloor previously occupied by the Larsen-B Ice Shelf. A towed video survey documents an ecosystem characterized by a bottom-draping white mat that appears similar to mats of Begiattoa, hydrogen sulfide oxidizing bacteria, and bivalves, 20-30 cm large, similar to vesicomyid clams commonly found at cold seeps. The carbon source is unknown; three potential sources are hypothesized. First, thermogenically-produced methane may occur as the marine shales of this region are similar to hydrocarbon-bearing rocks to the north in Patagonia. The site occurs in an 850 m deep glacially eroded trough located along the contact between Mesozoic-Tertiary crystalline basement and Cretaceous-Tertiary marine rocks; decreased overburden could have induced upward fluid flow. Also possible is the dissociation of methane hydrates, a process that might have occurred as a result of warming oceanic bottom waters. This possibility will be discussed in light of the distribution of early diagenetic ikaite in the region. Third, the possibility of a biogenic methane source will be discussed. A microstratigraphic model for the features observed at the vent sites will be presented; the system is comprised of mud mounds with central vents and surrounding mud flow channels. A series of still image mosaics record the dynamic behavior of the system, which appears to demonstrate episodic venting. These images show the spatial relationship between more and less active sites, as reflected in the superposition of several episodes of mud flow activity and the formation of mud channels. In addition, detailed microscale features of the bathymetry of the site will be presented, placing the community within the context of glacial geomorphologic features. The Larsen-B Ice Shelf persisted through the entire Holocene, limiting carbon influx from a photosynthetic source. Tidal modeling of both pre and post breakup

  14. Extension of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) shelf life by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lescano, G.

    1994-01-01

    Fresh mushroom sporophores (Agaricus bisporus) were placed in trays and covered with PVC film. Forty-eight of the number of packs were irradiated by a γ-source with a dose of 3 kGy, and the remaining 24 treated as control packs. Both treated and control samples were subsequently stored at 10 ± 2°C and relative humidity of 94 ± 6%. After storage, mushrooms were subjected to quality assessments and taste panel-testing, both raw and when cooked. Irradiated sporophores had an extended shelf-life compared with control samples, with less browning and a delay in cap opening. Desiccation was slowed and stipe elongation reduced so that irradiated mushrooms were still acceptable for consumption 16 days after treatment. Deleterious effects of irradiation at this relatively low level were not observed

  15. Continental shelf landscapes of the southeastern United States since the last interglacial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M. Scott; Sautter, Leslie Reynolds; Johnson, Kacey L.; Luciano, Katherine E.; Sedberry, George R.; Wright, Eric E.; Siuda, Amy N. S.

    2013-12-01

    The wide, sediment-starved continental shelf and modern coastal areas of the southeastern United States retain well-preserved but scattered remnants of a submerged paleolandscape. This paper presents a conceptual model of stratigraphic deposition and landscape formation since the last interglacial on the continental shelf of South Carolina, with portions of North Carolina, Georgia, and Florida (USA). Data for this study include multibeam bathymetry surveys, sidescan sonar mosaics, high-resolution subbottom profiles, and ground-truth surveys from - 250 m to the modern tidewater region. Four bathymetric zones are recognized with eleven landforms and landform indicators. The described zones range in depths from the modern shoreline, across the shelf, and over the shelf edge to - 250 m MSL. Relative sea level curves are presented for the area and discussed in conjunction with cultural and climatic events. The potential for preservation of Paleoamerican sites is high at the shelf edge between - 130 m and - 45 m, with Archaic and later occupations likely in depths of less than - 25 m. Prominent vantage points for Paleoamericans (> 11 kya) would have existed at the shelf edge, and tidewater resources would have been available nearby for a period of almost 6 ka. Rapid transgression rates (> 60 km/ka) after the sea level rose over the shelf edge make preservation of tidewater sites less likely on the outer and middle shelf. Searches for the earliest Paleoamericans should focus on promontories at the edge of the shelf and along future discoveries of paleoincisions on the shelf. Mapping and delineating this paleolandscape and associated unconsolidated sedimentary deposits interspersed with rocky plains and ledges will continue to be a priority to marine archeologists, coastal managers, fishery scientists, and marine spatial planners over the next several decades.

  16. The Northeast Greenland Shelf as a Potential Habitat for the Northeast Arctic Cod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjersti O. Strand

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Observations (1978–1991 of distributions of pelagic juvenile Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua L. show that up to 1/3 of the year class are dispersed off the continental shelf and into the deep Norwegian Sea while on the way from the spring-spawning areas along the Norwegian coast to the autumn-settlement areas in the Barents Sea. The fate of this variable fraction of pelagic juveniles off-shelf has been an open question ever since Johan Hjort's (1914 seminal work. We have examined both the mechanisms causing offspring off-shelf transport, and their subsequent destiny using an individual-based biophysical model applied to quantify growth and dispersal. Our results show, consistently with the observations, that total off-shelf transport is highly variable between years and may be up to 27.4%. Offspring from spawning grounds around Lofoten have a higher chance of being displaced off the shelf. The off-shelf transport is dominated by episodic events where frequencies and dates vary between years. Northeasterly wind conditions over a 3–7-day period prior to the off-shelf events are a good proxy for dispersal of offspring off the shelf. Offspring transported into the open ocean are on average carried along three following routes: back onto the adjacent eastern shelves and into the Barents Sea (36.9%, recirculating within the Lofoten Basin (60.7%, or drifting northwest to the northeast Greenland shelf (2.4%. For the latter fraction the transport may exceed 12% depending on year. Recent investigations have discovered distributions of young cod on the northeast Greenland shelf indicating that conditions may support survival for Northeast Arctic cod offspring.

  17. Amazon water lenses and the influence of the North Brazil Current on the continental shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, Yuri O.; Silva, Alex Costa da; Jeandel, Catherine

    2018-05-01

    The exchange processes on the Amazon continental shelf in northern Brazil are subject to complex interactions that involve forcings derived from distinct sources. The Amazon shelf is a unique and highly dynamic environment in which considerable discharge of freshwater enters the Atlantic Ocean, producing extensive Amazon Water Lenses (AWL). In addition to the presence of the AWL, the shelf is influenced by the semidiurnal oscillations of the tides and the strong North Brazil Current (NBC), a boundary current of the western Atlantic. The present study was based primarily on the influence of the freshwater input and the NBC on the shelf and the Amazon Shelf Break (ASB) off the mouth of the Pará River. For this purpose, hydrographic and hydrodynamic data were obtained by moorings of the AMANDES Project (April-July 2008), located on the Amazon shelf and the ASB. Spectral analysis and the continuous wavelet transform were applied to define tidal (high frequency/short period) and subtidal (low frequency/long period) signals. The results indicated that on both the shelf and the break, the semidiurnal tides are responsible for the residual landward transport and are predominantly across-shelf. Low-frequency motions in the synoptic bands and the AWL are related to spatial changes in the velocity field, mainly on the ASB in the along-shelf direction. The flow of the NBC can be interpreted as an along-shelf low-frequency oscillation capable of altering the spatial configuration of the velocity field, although its influence is perceived only in the absence of the AWL.

  18. Ice gouging effects on the eastern Arctic shelf of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libina N. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Results of the latest geological and geophysical marine cruises indicate activating of natural risks (or hazards processes connected with ice gouging, permafrost melting, landslides, coastal thermoerosion and seismic activity. These processes represent great risks for all human marine activities including exploitation of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. One of the most dangerous natural processes is ice gouging, which results in the ploughing of the seabed by an underwater part of ice bodies. Ice gouging processes can create some emergency situation in the construction and operation of any underwater engineering structures. Natural seismoacoustic data obtained within the eastern Arctic shelf of Russia have recorded numerous ice gouging trails both in the coastal shallow and deep parts of the shelf as well. Modern high-resolution seismic devices have allowed receive detailed morphology parameters of underwater ice traces. The actual depth and occurrence of traces of the effect of ice formations on the bottom significantly exceed the calculated probability of occurrence according to ice conditions. Seismic data have allowed classify all these traces and subdivide them on modern coastal and ancient (or relict deep ones. During Late Quaternary sea level down lifting the absence of cover glaciation did not exclude the presence of powerful drifting ice that produced ice gouging processes in the present deep part of the sea. Afterwards during sea level up lifting ice gouging follows to the sea level changes. In this case there could be destructed some dense clay dewatered sediment layer formed during the regression period. Further, during the repeated transgressive-regressive sea level fluctuations the generated ice traces could be frozen and thus preserved until our days. Modern coastal ice traces into marine shallow are the result of nowadays interaction of drifting ice and seabed that in conditions of global climate warming are activated and represent

  19. Habitat specialization in tropical continental shelf demersal fish assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben M Fitzpatrick

    Full Text Available The implications of shallow water impacts such as fishing and climate change on fish assemblages are generally considered in isolation from the distribution and abundance of these fish assemblages in adjacent deeper waters. We investigate the abundance and length of demersal fish assemblages across a section of tropical continental shelf at Ningaloo Reef, Western Australia, to identify fish and fish habitat relationships across steep gradients in depth and in different benthic habitat types. The assemblage composition of demersal fish were assessed from baited remote underwater stereo-video samples (n = 304 collected from 16 depth and habitat combinations. Samples were collected across a depth range poorly represented in the literature from the fringing reef lagoon (1-10 m depth, down the fore reef slope to the reef base (10-30 m depth then across the adjacent continental shelf (30-110 m depth. Multivariate analyses showed that there were distinctive fish assemblages and different sized fish were associated with each habitat/depth category. Species richness, MaxN and diversity declined with depth, while average length and trophic level increased. The assemblage structure, diversity, size and trophic structure of demersal fishes changes from shallow inshore habitats to deeper water habitats. More habitat specialists (unique species per habitat/depth category were associated with the reef slope and reef base than other habitats, but offshore sponge-dominated habitats and inshore coral-dominated reef also supported unique species. This suggests that marine protected areas in shallow coral-dominated reef habitats may not adequately protect those species whose depth distribution extends beyond shallow habitats, or other significant elements of demersal fish biodiversity. The ontogenetic habitat partitioning which is characteristic of many species, suggests that to maintain entire species life histories it is necessary to protect corridors of

  20. Circumpolar Deep Water transport and current structure at the Amundsen Sea shelf break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Karen M.; Wåhlin, Anna K.; Heywood, Karen J.; Jenkins, Adrian; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Sang Hoon

    2017-04-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet has been losing mass at an increasing rate over the past decades. Ocean heat transport to the ice-ocean interface has been identified as an important contributor to this mass loss and the role it plays in ice sheet stability makes it crucial to understand its drivers in order to make accurate future projections of global sea level. While processes closer to the ice-ocean interface modulate this heat transport, its ultimate source is located in the deep basin off the continental shelf as a core of relatively warm, salty water underlying a colder, fresher shallow surface layer. To reach the marine terminating glaciers and the base of floating ice shelves, this warm, salty water mass must cross the bathymetric obstacle of the shelf break. Glacial troughs that intersect the Amundsen shelf break and deepen southwards towards the ice shelf fronts have been shown to play an important role in transporting warm, salty Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) towards the ice shelves. North of the shelf break, circulation in the Amundsen Sea occupies an intermediate regime between the eastward Antarctic Circumpolar Current that impinges on the shelf break in the Bellingshausen Sea and the westward southern limb of the Ross Gyre that follows the shelf break in the Ross Sea. Hydrographic and mooring observations and numerical model results at the mouth of the central shelf break trough leading to Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers show a westward wind-driven shelf break current overlying an eastward undercurrent that turns onto the shelf in the trough. It is thought that the existence of the latter feature facilitates the on-shelf transport of CDW. A less clearly defined shelf break depression further west acts as the main pathway for CDW to Dotson and eastern Getz Ice shelves. Model results indicate that a similar eastward undercurrent exists here driving the on-shelf transport of CDW. Two moorings on the upper slope east of the trough entrance show a

  1. Shelf life extension as solution for environmental impact mitigation: A case study for bakery products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacenetti, Jacopo; Cavaliere, Alessia; Falcone, Giacomo; Giovenzana, Valentina; Banterle, Alessandro; Guidetti, Riccardo

    2018-06-15

    Over the last years, increasing attention has been paid to environmental concerns related to food production and potential solutions to this issue. Among the different strategies being considered to reduce the impact food production has on the environment, only moderate has been paid to the extension of shelf life; a longer shelf life can reduce food losses as well as the economic and environmental impacts of the distribution logistics. The aim of this study is to assess the environmental performance of whole-wheat breadsticks with extended shelf lives and to evaluate whether the shelf-life extension is an effective mitigation solution from an environmental point of view. To this purpose, the life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was applied from a "cradle-to-grave" perspective. Rosmarinic acid was used as an antioxidant to extend the shelf life. To test the robustness of the results and to investigate the influence of the choices made in the modelling phase, a sensitivity and uncertainty analysis were carried out. The achieved results highlighted how, for 10 of the 12 evaluated impact categories, the shelf-life extension is a proper mitigation solution, and its effectiveness depends on the magnitude of product loss reduction that is achieved. The shelf-life extension doesn't allow for the reduction of environmental impact in the categories of human toxicity, cancer effects and freshwater eutrophication. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Shelf life stability of lactobacilli encapsulated in raspberry powder: insights into non-dairy probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekella, Kartheek; Orsat, Valérie

    2014-06-01

    Study the shelf-life quality changes in raspberry juice with encapsulated lactobacilli (Lactobacillus rhamnosus NRRL B-4495 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NRRL B-442) obtained by spray drying and understand the various factors involved. Raspberry powder was obtained from spray drying lactobacilli and raspberry juice with maltodextrin as an additive. Shelf life of the powder was analyzed over a period of 30 d. Acid and bile tolerance and antibiotic resistance was compared before and after spray drying. Water activity, survival, and scanning electron microscope images were also measured during the shelf life. A combination of processing conditions: inlet temperature (°C), maltodextrin to juice solids ratio and inlet feed rate (ml/min) during spray drying had a significant role on the survival of lactobacilli during shelf life. Refrigerated storage provided a higher shelf-life stability with regards to CFU/g (as high as 84% on day 0 and 98% retention by the end of 30 d) compared to room temperature storage. Probiotic properties during shelf life are affected by the processing conditions and encapsulated food matrix. Thus, understanding these aspects in vitro during shelf life gives us a brief insight into the future of non-dairy probiotics.

  3. Predictive modelling for shelf life determination of nutricereal based fermented baby food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasane, Prasad; Jha, Alok; Sharma, Nitya

    2015-08-01

    A shelf life model based on storage temperatures was developed for a nutricereal based fermented baby food formulation. The formulated baby food samples were packaged and stored at 10, 25, 37 and 45 °C for a test storage period of 180 days. A shelf life study was conducted using consumer and semi-trained panels, along with chemical analysis (moisture and acidity). The chemical parameters (moisture and titratable acidity) were found inadequate in determining the shelf life of the formulated product. Weibull hazard analysis was used to determine the shelf life of the product based on sensory evaluation. Considering 25 and 50 % rejection probability, the shelf life of the baby food formulation was predicted to be 98 and 322 days, 84 and 271 days, 71 and 221 days and 58 and 171 days for the samples stored at 10, 25, 37 and 45 °C, respectively. A shelf life equation was proposed using the rejection times obtained from the consumer study. Finally, the formulated baby food samples were subjected to microbial analysis for the predicted shelf life period and were found microbiologically safe for consumption during the storage period of 360 days.

  4. Analytical and Mathematical Determination of Shelf-life of Fresh-cut Red Cabbage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulya Şimşek

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables have longer shelf lives when appropriate packaging materials having proper permeability properties are used. For this reason eight different packaging materials having different permeability properties were used and it was aimed to determine the appropriate packaging material and analytical and mathematical shelf lives of fresh cut red cabbage. Head space analysis, microbiological and sensorial analysis together with pH, weight loss (% and colour analysis were performed. As a result of the study, it was determined that low density polyethylene (LDPE film having 20 µm of thickness and 12276 cc/m2-day of oxygen permeability was determined as the most suitable packaging material for packaging of fresh-cut red cabbage. Mathematical microbiological shelf life was determined as 12.33 days and both analytical microbiological and sensorial shelf lives were determined as 12 days. It was shown that Gompertz equation can be used in determination of microbiological shelf life of fresh-cut red cabbage since the analytical and mathematical shelf life results fit to each other. Also, the equation that can be used in calculation of shelf life of fresh-cut red cabbage when packaged with AYPE film having 12276 cc/m2-day oxygen permeability was determined as log(Nt/N0 = 6,83 × exp{-exp{[(0,80*e(6,83-t/6,83]+1}}.

  5. The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Numerical simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matano, Ricardo P; Combes, Vincent; Piola, Alberto R; Guerrero, Raul; Palma, Elbio D; Ted Strub, P; James, Corinne; Fenco, Harold; Chao, Yi; Saraceno, Martin

    2014-11-01

    A high-resolution model is used to characterize the dominant patterns of sea surface salinity (SSS) variability generated by the freshwater discharges of the Rio de la Plata (RdlP) and the Patos/Mirim Lagoon in the southwestern Atlantic region. We identify three dominant modes of SSS variability. The first two, which have been discussed in previous studies, represent the seasonal and the interannual variations of the freshwater plumes over the continental shelf. The third mode of SSS variability, which has not been discussed hitherto, represents the salinity exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. A diagnostic study using floats and passive tracers identifies the pathways taken by the freshwater plumes. During the austral winter (JJA) , the plumes leave the shelf region north of the BMC. During the austral summer (DJF), the plumes are entrained more directly into the BMC. A sensitivity study indicates that the high - frequency component of the wind stress forcing controls the vertical structure of the plumes while the low-frequency component of the wind stress forcing and the interannual variations of the RdlP discharge controls the horizontal structure of the plumes. Dynamical analysis reveals that the cross-shelf flow has a dominant barotropic structure and, therefore, the SSS anomalies detected by Aquarius represent net mass exchanges between the shelf and the deep ocean. The net cross-shelf volume flux is 1.21 Sv. This outflow is largely compensated by an inflow from the Patagonian shelf.

  6. Flexural-response of the McMurdo Ice Shelf to surface lake filling and drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwell, A. F.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Willis, I.; Macdonald, G. J.; Goodsell, B.

    2017-12-01

    Antarctic ice-shelf instability and break-up, as exhibited by the Larsen B ice shelf in 2002, remains one of the most difficult glaciological processes to observe directly. It is, however, vital to do so because ice-shelf breakup has the potential to influence the buttressing controls on inland ice discharge, and thus to affect sea level. Several mechanisms enabling Larsen B style breakup have previously been proposed, including the ability of surface lakes to introduce ice-shelf fractures when they fill and drain. During the austral summer of 2016/2017, we monitored the filling and draining of four surface lakes on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica, and the effect of these processes on ice-shelf flexure. Water-depth data from pressure sensors reveal that two lakes filled to >2 m in depth and subsequently drained over multiple week timescales, which had a simultaneous effect on vertical ice deflection in the area. Differential GPS data from 12 receivers over three months show that vertical deflection varies as a function of distance from the maximum load change (i.e. at the lake centre). Using remote sensing techniques applied to both Landsat 8 and Worldview imagery, we also quantify the meltwater volume in these two lakes through the melt season, which, together with the vertical deflection data, are used to constrain key flexural parameter values in numerical models of ice-shelf flexure.

  7. Geometric controls of the flexural gravity waves on the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergienko, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Long-period ocean waves, formed locally or at distant sources, can reach sub-ice-shelf cavities and excite coupled motion in the cavity and the ice shelf - flexural gravity waves. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flexural gravity waves on the Ross Ice Shelf show that propagation of these waves is strongly controlled by the geometry of the system - the cavity shape, its water-column thickness and the ice-shelf thickness. The results of numerical simulations demonstrate that propagation of the waves is spatially organized in beams, whose orientation is determined by the direction of the of the open ocean waves incident on the ice-shelf front. As a result, depending on the beams orientation, parts of the Ross Ice Shelf experience significantly larger flexural stresses compared to other parts where the flexural gravity beams do not propagate. Very long-period waves can propagate farther away from the ice-shelf front exciting flexural stresses in the vicinity of the grounding line.

  8. The evolution of a coupled ice shelf-ocean system under different climate states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosfeld, Klaus; Sandhäger, Henner

    2004-07-01

    Based on a new approach for coupled applications of an ice shelf model and an ocean general circulation model, we investigate the evolution of an ice shelf-ocean system and its sensitivity to changed climatic boundary conditions. Combining established 3D models into a coupled model system enabled us to study the reaction and feedbacks of each component to changes at their interface, the ice shelf base. After calculating the dynamics for prescribed initial ice shelf and bathymetric geometries, the basal mass balance determines the system evolution. In order to explore possible developments for given boundary conditions, an idealized geometry has been chosen, reflecting basic features of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The model system is found to be especially sensitive in regions where high ablation or accretion rates occur. Ice Shelf Water formation as well as the build up of a marine ice body, resulting from accretion of marine ice, is simulated, indicating strong interaction processes. To improve consistency between modeled and observed ice shelf behavior, we incorporate the typical cycle of steady ice front advance and sudden retreat due to tabular iceberg calving in our time-dependent simulations. Our basic hypothesis is that iceberg break off is associated with abrupt crack propagation along elongated anomalies of the inherent stress field of the ice body. This new concept yields glaciologically plausible results and represents an auspicious basis for the development of a thorough calving criterion. Experiments under different climatic conditions (ocean warming of 0.2 and 0.5 °C and doubled surface accumulation rates) show the coupled model system to be sensitive especially to ocean warming. Increased basal melt rates of 100% for the 0.5 °C ocean warming scenario and an asymmetric development of ice shelf thicknesses suggest a high vulnerability of ice shelf regions, which represent pivotal areas between the Antarctic Ice Sheet and the Southern

  9. Dynamics of internal waves on the Southeast Florida shelf: Implications for cross-shelf exchange and turbulent mixing on a barrier reef system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristen Alexis

    The dynamics of internal waves shoaling on the Southeast Florida shelf and the resulting stratified turbulence in the shelf bottom boundary layer are investigated using observational studies completed during the summers of 2003-2005. This work is driven by a desire to understand the effects of internal wave-driven flow and the shoreward transport of cool, nutrient-rich water masses on cross-shelf exchange, vertical mixing, and mass transfer to benthic reef organisms. Shelf sea internal wave fields are typically highly variable and dominated by wind and tidal forces. However, this is not necessarily true for outer shelf regions or very narrow shelves where remote physical processes originating over the slope or deep ocean may exert a strong influence on the internal wave climate. During the summers of 2003 and 2004 observational studies were conducted to examine the effects of a western boundary current (the Florida Current), tides, and wind on the mean currents and internal wave field on the outer Southeast Florida shelf. We present evidence that suggests that the Florida Current plays as large a role in the determination of the high frequency internal wave field as tidal forces. These observations and analyses show that it is necessary to include the forcing from the Florida Current meanders and instabilities in order to predict accurately the episodic nature of the internal wave field on the Southeast Florida shelf. Deep ocean and continental shelf processes intersect at the shelf edge and influence the exchange of water masses and their associated characteristics including heat, nutrients, sediment, and larvae across the shelf. Thus, the dynamics of cross-shelf circulation have important consequences for organisms living on the shelf. In the second phase of this work, we investigate physical mechanisms controlling the exchange of water masses during the summer season across the Southeast Florida shelf. A time series of cross-shelf transport from May to August

  10. NW Iberia Shelf Dynamics. Study of the Douro River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available River plumes are one of the most important mechanisms that transport the terrestrial materials to the coast and the ocean. Some examples of those materials are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing modifications on the bathymetry affecting the navigation channels. The mixing between the riverine and the oceanic waters can induce instabilities, which might generate bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the buoyant riverine water could form a front with the oceanic waters often related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor for the complete understanding of sediment transport mechanisms and patterns, and of coastal physics and dynamic processes. On this study the Douro River plume will be simulated. The Douro River is located on the north-west Iberian coast and its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s. This variability impacts the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. This study builds on the long-term objective of generate a Douro River plume forecasting system as part of the RAIA and RAIA.co projects. Satellite imagery was analyzed showing that the river Douro is one of the main sources of suspended particles, dissolved material and chlorophyll in the NW Iberian Shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS model was selected to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion. Whit this model, three types of simulations were performed: (i schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; (ii multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; (iii extreme case simulation, based on the Entre-os-Rios accident situation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the

  11. Sources, Fate and Distribution of Organic Matter on the Western Adriatic Continental Shelf, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tesi, Tommaso; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Boni, Laurita; Guerrini, Franca

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the EUROSTRATAFORM projects, a multidisciplinary research was focused on processes that involve transport and deposition of riverine material in the Adriatic Sea. The aim of our contribution was to increase a more complete understanding of organic matter deposition on the Adriatic shelf, also taking into account the role of Apennine rivers beyond the Po influence. In order to characterize origin, fate and variability of sedimentary organic carbon we utilized elemental and stable carbon isotope data in surficial sediments along shallow cross-shelf transects on the western Adriatic shelf

  12. Inorganic carbon fluxes on the Mackenzie Shelf of the Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Jacoba; Thomas, Helmuth; Myers, Paul G.; Hu, Xianmin; Mucci, Alfonso

    2018-02-01

    The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is a region that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds, resulting in cross-shelf Ekman transport, and an alternating estuarine and anti-estuarine circulation. Downwelling carries dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world's oceans. Upwelling carries DIC and nutrient-rich waters from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL) onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA) taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore transport of water and the cross-shelf transport of DIC are quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4) configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO) framework. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf took place, bringing CO2-rich (elevated pCO2) water from the UHL onto the shelf bottom. The maximum on-shelf DIC flux was estimated at 16.9×103 mol C d-1 m-2 during the event. The maximum on-shelf transport of DIC through the upwelling event was found to be 65±15×10-3 Tg C d-1. TA and the oxygen isotope ratio of water (δ18O-H2O) are used to examine water-mass distributions in the study area and to investigate the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air-sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and provide a basis for understanding how it will

  13. Inorganic carbon fluxes on the Mackenzie Shelf of the Beaufort Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mol

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The Mackenzie Shelf in the southeastern Beaufort Sea is a region that has experienced large changes in the past several decades as warming, sea-ice loss, and increased river discharge have altered carbon cycling. Upwelling and downwelling events are common on the shelf, caused by strong, fluctuating along-shore winds, resulting in cross-shelf Ekman transport, and an alternating estuarine and anti-estuarine circulation. Downwelling carries dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC and other remineralization products off the shelf and into the deep basin for possible long-term storage in the world's oceans. Upwelling carries DIC and nutrient-rich waters from the Pacific-origin upper halocline layer (UHL onto the shelf. Profiles of DIC and total alkalinity (TA taken in August and September of 2014 are used to investigate the cycling of carbon on the Mackenzie Shelf. The along-shore transport of water and the cross-shelf transport of DIC are quantified using velocity field output from a simulation of the Arctic and Northern Hemisphere Atlantic (ANHA4 configuration of the Nucleus of European Modelling of the Ocean (NEMO framework. A strong upwelling event prior to sampling on the Mackenzie Shelf took place, bringing CO2-rich (elevated pCO2 water from the UHL onto the shelf bottom. The maximum on-shelf DIC flux was estimated at 16.9×103 mol C d−1 m−2 during the event. The maximum on-shelf transport of DIC through the upwelling event was found to be 65±15×10−3 Tg C d−1. TA and the oxygen isotope ratio of water (δ18O-H2O are used to examine water-mass distributions in the study area and to investigate the influence of Pacific Water, Mackenzie River freshwater, and sea-ice melt on carbon dynamics and air–sea fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2 in the surface mixed layer. Understanding carbon transfer in this seasonally dynamic environment is key to quantify the importance of Arctic shelf regions to the global carbon cycle and provide a basis

  14. A Numerical Study of the Plata River Plume Along the Southeastern South American Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    the effect of ambient shelf currents, level decreased by -0.20 and -0.55 in at the estuary and which would be essential in the determination of the 142...Res. SI 39, realistic wind and tidal forcing. J. Geophys. Res., 101 (submitted). (C2):3435-3455. Piola, A. R. 2002. El impacto del Plata sobre la...discharge on the continental impactos en el Plata y en la regi6n pampeana. Vol. 1. shelf. 1. Modeling the river plume and the inner shelf Assoc. Bonaerense de

  15. The Faroe shelf circulation and its potential impact on the primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Till A. S.; Olsen, Steffen M.; Hansen, Bogi; Hátún, Hjálmar; Larsen, Karin M. H.

    2014-10-01

    The ecosystem on the Faroe shelf has been shown to be tightly controlled by the primary production. It has been suggested that the primary production is governed by the physical processes controlling this water mass. The objective of this study is to identify the physical control mechanisms that control this water mass, link these to the interannual variability of the chlorophyll content on the Faroe shelf and through this discuss the influence on the primary production. In order to achieve this, a 10 year hindcast (2000-2009) with a regional ocean circulation model has been set up for the focus area. Results are compared with measurements on the Faroe shelf. The model reproduces the clockwise residual circulation around the Faroe Islands. The vertical velocity profile is validated using observations at a location west of the Islands. Observations show a logarithmic profile in the entire water column indicating a fully developed boundary layer. The modeled profile matches the observations in the bottom part of the water column, however the thickness of the bottom boundary layer is underestimated, which results in a constant profile in the upper part of the water column. As a consequence, the modeled velocity in the upper part of the water column is up to 20% lower than the observed velocity. The direction of the modeled velocity profile compares well with observations. The model realistically forms the partly isolated unique shelf water mass. Years with anomalously early and persistent modeled spring stratification correspond with years with a high on-shelf chlorophyll concentration. An integration of the exchange across the 120 m isobath shows intense water mass exchange across this depth contour. The major part of this includes tidal shifting of the front between on-shelf and off-shelf waters and is associated with little effective water mass exchange. The result is a shelf water mass that is relatively isolated. The modeled net exchange is constituted by an on-shelf

  16. Specific inhibition of Photobacterium phosphoreum extends the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Paw; Munoz, L.G.; Mejlholm, Ole

    1998-01-01

    rather than the development of a new product. In naturally contaminated modified-atmosphere-packed cod fillets, 500 ppm Na(2)CaEDTA reduced the growth rate of P. phosphoreum by 40% and shelf life was increased proportionally by 40%, from 15 to 17 days to 21 to 23 days at 0 degrees C. In aerobically...... stored cod fillets other microorganisms were responsible for spoilage and Na2CaEDTA had no effect on shelf Life. The extension of the shelf life of modified-atmosphere-packed cod therefore was a result of the reduced growth of P. phosphoreum and no other microbial or nonmicrobial spoilage reactions...

  17. Radiocarbon and seismic evidence of ice-sheet extent and the last deglaciation on the mid-Norwegian continental shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rokoengen, Kaare; Frengstad, Bjoern

    1999-01-01

    Reconstruction of the ice extent and glacier chronology on the continental shelf off mid-Norway has been severely hampered by the lack of dates from the glacial deposits. Seismic interpretation and new accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon dates show that the ice sheet extended to the edge of the continental shelf at the last glacial maximum. The two youngest till units near the shelf edge were deposited about 15000 and 13500 BP. The results indicate that the ice sheet partly reached the shelf break as late as 11000 BP followed by a deglaciation of most of the continental shelf in less than 1000 years

  18. Methods for preservation and extension of shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, G W

    1996-11-01

    There is potential for spoilage of all foods at some rate or other following harvest, slaughter or manufacture and spoilage may occur at any of the stages between the acquisition of raw materials and the eventual consumption of a food product. These stages include processing, packaging, distribution, retail display, transport, storage and use by the consumer. They are under varying degrees of control that aim to deliver a satisfactory shelf life, to ensure that the finally-consumed product is of high quality and to ensure that it is safe. Spoilage may be caused by a wide range of reactions including some that are essentially physical, some that are chemical, some enzymic and some microbiological. The various forms of microbiological spoilage are preventable to a large degree by a wide range of preservation techniques, most of which act by preventing or inhibiting microbial growth (e.g., chilling, freezing, drying, curing, conserving, vacuum packing, modified atmosphere packing, acidifying, fermenting and adding preservatives). A smaller number of techniques act by inactivating microorganisms (e.g., pasteurization, sterilization and irradiation). Additional techniques restrict the access of microorganisms to products (e.g., aseptic processing and packaging. A major trend is that new and emerging preservation techniques which are coming into use or are under development include more that act by inactivation (e.g., ultrahigh pressure, electroporation, manothermosonication and addition of bacteriolytic enzymes). A further trend is towards the use of procedures that deliver products that are less heavily preserved, have higher quality, are more natural, freer from additives and nutritionally healthier. Less severe preservation procedures are therefore being developed that make use of preservative factors in combinations to deliver (a) less damage to product quality (hurdle technologies); (b) new methods of heating that are better controlled and therefore deliver milder

  19. A laboratory scale model of abrupt ice-shelf disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macayeal, D. R.; Boghosian, A.; Styron, D. D.; Burton, J. C.; Amundson, J. M.; Cathles, L. M.; Abbot, D. S.

    2010-12-01

    An important mode of Earth’s disappearing cryosphere is the abrupt disintegration of ice shelves along the Peninsula of Antarctica. This disintegration process may be triggered by climate change, however the work needed to produce the spectacular, explosive results witnessed with the Larsen B and Wilkins ice-shelf events of the last decade comes from the large potential energy release associated with iceberg capsize and fragmentation. To gain further insight into the underlying exchanges of energy involved in massed iceberg movements, we have constructed a laboratory-scale model designed to explore the physical and hydrodynamic interactions between icebergs in a confined channel of water. The experimental apparatus consists of a 2-meter water tank that is 30 cm wide. Within the tank, we introduce fresh water and approximately 20-100 rectangular plastic ‘icebergs’ having the appropriate density contrast with water to mimic ice. The blocks are initially deployed in a tight pack, with all blocks arranged in a manner to represent the initial state of an integrated ice shelf or ice tongue. The system is allowed to evolve through time under the driving forces associated with iceberg hydrodynamics. Digitized videography is used to quantify how the system of plastic icebergs evolves between states of quiescence to states of mobilization. Initial experiments show that, after a single ‘agitator’ iceberg begins to capsize, an ‘avalanche’ of capsizing icebergs ensues which drives horizontal expansion of the massed icebergs across the water surface, and which stimulates other icebergs to capsize. A surprise initially evident in the experiments is the fact that the kinetic energy of the expanding mass of icebergs is only a small fraction of the net potential energy released by the rearrangement of mass via capsize. Approximately 85 - 90 % of the energy released by the system goes into water motion modes, including a pervasive, easily observed seich mode of the tank

  20. Low Impedance Carbon Adhesive Electrodes with Long Shelf Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Reyes, Bersaín A; Burnham, Ken; Pennace, John; Chon, Ki H

    2015-10-01

    A novel electrocardiogram (ECG) electrode film is developed by mixing carbon black powder and a quaternary salt with a visco-elastic polymeric adhesive. Unlike traditional wet gel-based electrodes, carbon/salt/adhesive (CSA) electrodes should theoretically have an infinite shelf life as they do not dehydrate even after a prolonged period of storage. The CSA electrodes are electrically activated for use through the process of electrophoresis. Specifically, the activation procedure involves sending a high voltage and current through the electrode, which results in significant reduction of impedance so that high fidelity ECG signals can be obtained. Using the activation procedure, the ideal concentration of carbon black powder in the mixture with the adhesive was examined. It was determined that the optimum concentration of carbon black which minimized post-activation impedance was 10%. Once the optimal carbon black powder concentration was determined, extensive signal analysis was performed to compare the performance of the CSA electrodes to the standard silver-silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes. As a part of data analysis, electrode-skin contact impedance of the CSA was measured and compared to the standard Ag/AgCl electrodes; we found consistently lower impedance for CSA electrodes. For quantitative data analysis, we simultaneously collected ECG data with CSA and Ag/AgCl electrodes from 17 healthy subjects. Heart rate variability (HRV) indices and ECG morphological waveforms were calculated to compare CSA and Ag/AgCl electrodes. Non-significant differences for most of the HRV indices between CSA and Ag/AgCl electrodes were found. Of the morphological waveform metrics consisting of R-wave peak amplitude, ST-segment elevation and QT interval, only the first index was found to be significantly different between the two media. The response of CSA electrodes to motion artifacts was also tested, and we found in general no difference in the quality of the ECG signal

  1. Commercial-off-the-shelf digital surveillance systems for safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neufing, C.; Tschritter, C.; Meylemans, P.; Vandaele, R.; Heppleston, M.; Chare, P.; Kloeckner, W.

    2001-01-01

    The reasons why safeguards authorities are from time to time looking for Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (C.O.T.S.) equipment for safeguards purposes are for the following reasons: Equipment that is designed from scratch to satisfy specific safeguards requirements is very likely to go through a period of teething problems. If these problems are only discovered once the equipment is deployed for routine use, this will be accompanied with large overhead costs for the safeguards authorities to maintain and repair such equipment. The overhead costs are much higher if unattended equipment is concerned that is permanently installed on-site. In that case an extra mission has to be organised to return the faulty equipment to our headquarters before it can be repaired. Using C.O.T.S. equipment that is also used by others reduces the risk of teething problems. At least the burden of going through such kind of problem period is shared with other customers of the concerned equipment. It is clear that safeguards is not a big market on its own. The non-negligible cost of the development of equipment that only fits safeguards requirements will therefore have to be recovered on the expected sales. If the market is small, if the expected number of units that can be sold is small, a large part of the unit cost will depend on the initial development costs. Going for C.O.T.S. equipment that is also sold in other markets, would in that respect lower the equipment cost. That not any safeguards equipment can be obtained commercially off the shelf is clear, but in certain domains like digital surveillance, the functionality of C.O.T.S. equipment has been approaching the one needed for safeguards. That is why in 1998 the Euratom Safeguards Office published an open call for tender for the purchase of a digital surveillance system that is able to support up to 64 colour camera channels. In response to a successful bid for this call for tender a contract for the delivery of 3 prototype systems and 6

  2. Unstable ductile fracture conditions in upper shelf region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Yoshifumi; Kubo, Takahiro

    1985-01-01

    The phenomenon of unstability of ductile fracture in the upper shelf region of a forged steel for nuclear reactor pressure vessels A508 Cl. 3 was studied with a large compliance apparatus, whose spring constants were 100, 170 and 230 kgf/mm, at the test temperatures of 100, 200 and 300 0 C and at the loading rates of 2, 20 and 200 mm/min in the crosshead speed. The main results obtained are as follows: (1) The fracture modes of the specimens consisted of (a) stable fracture, (b) unstable fracture which leads to a complete fracture rapidly and (c) quasiunstable fracture which does not lead to a complete fracture though a rapid extension of ductile crack takes place. (2) Side groove, high temperature or small spring constant made a ductile crack more unstable. (3) High temperature or large spring constant made the occurrence of quasiunstable fracture easier. (4) Quasiunstable ductile fracture took place before the maximum load, that is, at the J integral value of about 10 kgf/mm. The initiation of a microscopic ductile crack, therefore, seems to lead to quasiunstable fracture. (5) The concept that unstable ductile fracture takes place when Tsub(app) exceeds Tsub(mat) seems applicable only to the case in which unstable ductile fracture takes place after the maximum load has been exceeded. (author)

  3. Crevasse detection with GPR across the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, A.; Arcone, S.

    2005-12-01

    We have used 400-MHz ground penetrating radar (GPR) to detect crevasses within a shear zone on the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, to support traverse operations. The transducer was attached to a 6.5-m boom and pushed ahead of an enclosed tracked vehicle. Profile speeds of 4.8-11.3 km / hr allowed real-time crevasse image display and a quick, safe stop when required. Thirty-two crevasses were located with radar along the 4.8 km crossing. Generally, crevasse radar images were characterized by dipping reflections above the voids, high-amplitude reflections originating from ice layers at the base of the snow-bridges, and slanting, diffracting reflections from near-vertical crevasse walls. New cracks and narrow crevasses (back-filling with bulldozed snow, afforded an opportunity to ground-truth GPR interpretations by comparing void size and snow-bridge geometry with the radar images. While second and third season radar profiles collected along the identical flagged route confirmed stability of the filled crevasses, those profiles also identified several new cracks opened by ice extension. Our experiments demonstrate capability of high-frequency GPR in a cold-snow environment for both defining snow layers and locating voids.

  4. Conditions Affecting Shelf-Life of Inoculated Legume Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Gemell

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbial inoculants are becoming more available as sustainable alternatives to fertilizers and other agrichemicals in broad-acre cropping. However, with the exception of legume inoculants little is understood about effective delivery and survival of the inoculum. Legume inoculants are applied to both seed and soil but seed inoculation is the most economical technique. Large quantities of pasture seed in Australia are inoculated by commercial seed coating companies, but the long-term survival of seed-applied inoculum is variable and monitoring of viability requires specialist microbiology skills and facilities. The aim of our research was to define optimum storage conditions for survival of rhizobia on legume seed and evaluate water activity as a means of monitoring shelf-life. The relationship between survival and water activity varied according to seed species, inoculum preparation, coating ingredients, initial water activity and time suggesting that storage conditions would need to be defined for each different combination. Although drying seeds after coating significantly reduced viable numbers of rhizobia, survival of rhizobia on dried commercially coated lucerne seed after 11 weeks was less variable than seeds that had not been dried. The highest numbers were maintained when seeds remained dry with water activities of between 0.47 and 0.38. The quality of inoculated seed could be improved by reducing the death rate of inoculum during preparation and providing optimum storage conditions for long-term survival.

  5. Layered mixing on the New England Shelf in summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianing; Greenan, Blair J. W.; Lu, Youyu; Oakey, Neil S.; Shaw, William J.

    2014-09-01

    The layered structure of stratification and mixing on the New England Shelf (NES) in summer is examined by analyzing a comprehensive set of observations of hydrography, currents and turbulence. A clear distinction in mixing characteristics between the midcolumn water (consisting of subsurface stratification, middepth weak stratification and lower-layer stratification) and a well-mixed bottom boundary layer (BBL) is revealed. The combination of subtidal Ekman onshore bottom transport and cross-shore density gradient created a lower-layer stratification that inhibited the upward extension of the BBL turbulence. The BBL mixing was related to strong shear generated by bottom stress, and the magnitude and periodic variation of BBL mixing was determined by both the tidal and subtidal flows. Mixing in the midcolumn water occurred under stably stratified conditions and showed correspondence with the occurrence of near-inertial and semidiurnal internal waves. Positive correlations between buoyancy frequency squared (N2) and shear variance (S2), S2 and dissipation rate (ɛ), N2 and ɛ are established in the midcolumn, but not in the BBL. The midcolumn ɛ was reasonably described by a slightly modified MacKinnon-Gregg (MG) model.

  6. Shelf life of pie caps with biodegradable films as spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Verónica Escobar Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly pie caps at market use polyethylene films as spacers between them. This paper studies the conventional spacers replacement with edible and biodegradable films made with whey protein isolate (WPI and potassium sorbate as a preservative. Besides facilitating the separation of pie caps, with this application is intended to increase their shelf life. The films made by the compression molding method were used as spacers in pie caps without preservative in their formula (A and with preservative (B and they were compared with conventional polyethylene spacers (C. During four months, monthly sensory, microbiological and physicochemical (humidity evaluations were done on the pie caps, together with humidity and solubility evaluations of the films. None of the samples showed microbiological or sensory deterioration. The sensory attributes showed no or slight difference in study time. Between samples the differences were minor: the best scores were for sample A in color, sample C in flavor, and samples B and C in texture and overall liking. The edible films have an interesting potential for this application, although studies in disguise the flavor of serum should be done.

  7. Irradiation of refrigerated corned beef for shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sallam, Y.I.; El-Magoli, S.B.M.; Mohamed, H.H.; El-Mongy, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    The development of the microflora of unirradiated and irradiated cowed beef was followed during storage at 5 degree. The total aerobic counts in unirradiated corned beef samples reached x 10 7 cfu/g after 10 days and after 15, 20 , 25 and 30 days of cold storage in irradiated samples at 2, 4, 6, 8 kGy, respectively, accompanied with obvious organoleptic evidence of microbial. Radiation doses up to 8 kGy and cold storage (5 degree) of cowed beef had no effect on the major constituents (moisture, protein and lipids) of these products. During storage, total volatile bases nitrogen (TVBN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values tended to increase; the Ph of corned beef fall down to ca. 5. 7. Increasing the radiation dose level to 6 and 8 kGy, to increase the product shelf-life, affects generally the physical properties of the corned beef samples, and therefore, it could be concluded that the radiation dose level should be chosen to inhibit public health concern bacteria and reduce spoilage organisms, and at the same time preserve the natural properties of the food. At the present study a dose level of 4 kGy was found to be quite enough to reach such requirements for corned beef samples

  8. Development of shelf-stable meat sausages using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Muhammad Lebai Juri; Mariani Deraman

    2006-01-01

    Irradiation techniques have been applied in development of ready to eat or shelf stable sausages. These sausages can be eaten directly without the need for prior heating or cooking procedure and displayed in the room temperature on the shelves of the retailers without frozen facilities. This study was designed to investigate the acceptability and microbial status of packed ready to eat sausages that had been sterilized using gamma irradiation at MINTec-Sinagama. Packed pre-cooked sausage samples (sealed in plastic-polyethylene individually) were irradiated with different doses of 2.5 kGy, 3.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy. Acceptability of the sausages was determined through sensory evaluation by 30 members of untrained panelists comprising of staffs of MINT. A 5 points hedonic rating scale was used. The attributes evaluated were rancidity, texture, chewiness, juiciness, aroma, colour, shape and overall acceptance. Samples irradiated with doses 3.5 kGy were the most acceptable followed by samples irradiated with doses 2.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy respectively. Irradiation with doses up to 2.5 kGy will virtually eliminate disease-causing microorganisms and pathogens. The total microbial count, detection of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi in these samples were determined and discussed. (Author)

  9. Allyl isothiocyanate enhances shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Penna, Suprasanna; Variyar, Prasad S

    2015-09-15

    The effect of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), in combination with low temperature (10°C) storage on post harvest quality of minimally processed shredded cabbage was investigated. An optimum concentration of 0.05μL/mL AITC was found to be effective in maintaining the microbial and sensory quality of the product for a period of 12days. Inhibition of browning was shown to result from a down-regulation (1.4-fold) of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene expression and a consequent decrease in PAL enzyme activity and o-quinone content. In the untreated control samples, PAL activity increased following up-regulation in PAL gene expression that could be linearly correlated with enhanced o-quinone formation and browning. The efficacy of AITC in extending the shelf life of minimally processed shredded cabbage and its role in down-regulation of PAL gene expression resulting in browning inhibition in the product is reported here for the first time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Technological feasibility of irradiating pineapples for shelf-life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Jiten

    2001-01-01

    The spoilage of food caused by infestation, contamination and deterioration of the world's food supply is enormous in the developing countries where warm and humid climate favour the growth of spoilage organisms and hasten deterioration of stored food. Particularly, in a country like India where the population growth has already attained one billion, any preventable loss of food is intolerable. Since food security of a nation also largely determines the economic stability as well as self-reliance, this problem draws utmost attention not only of the food scientists but also of the food policy makers. From these above facts, it may be concluded that radiation technology can be safely used for extending shelf-life of pineapple fruits thereby maximizing the transportation and marketing potentials. Consumption of such irradiated pineapples simultaneously does not pose any immediate or long-term human health risks. Keeping these techno-economic considerations in view establishment of large scale industrial operations for irradiating fruits, vegetables, cereals etc. are of immense importance

  11. Sedimentation Deposition Patterns on the Chukchi Shelf Using Radionuclide Inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, L. W.; Grebmeier, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    Sediment core collections and assays of the anthropogenic and natural radioisotopes, 137Cs and 210Pb, respectively, are providing long-term indications of sedimentation and current flow processes on the Chukchi and East Siberian sea continental shelf. This work, which has been integrated into interdisciplinary studies of the Chukchi Sea supported by both the US Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (COMIDA Hanna Shoal Project) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (Russian-US Long Term Census of the Arctic, RUSALCA) includes studies of total radiocesium inventories, sedimentation rate determinations, where practical, and depths of maxima in radionuclide deposition. Shallow maxima in the activities of the anthropogenic radionuclide in sediment cores reflect areas with higher current flow (Barrow Canyon and Herald Canyon; 3-6 cm) or low sedimentation (Hanna Shoal; 1-3 cm). The first sedimentation studies from Long Strait are consistent with quiescent current conditions and steady recent sedimentation of clay particles. Elsewhere, higher and more deeply buried radionuclide inventories (> 2 mBq cm-2 at 15-17 cm depth) in the sediments correspond to areas of high particle deposition north of Bering Strait where bioturbation in productive sediments is also clearly an important influence. Radiocesium activities from bomb fallout dating to 1964 are now present at low levels (20 cm. Independent sedimentation rate measurements with the natural radionuclide 210Pb are largely consistent with the radiocesium measurements.

  12. Supervised classification of continental shelf sediment off western Donegal, Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteys, X.; Craven, K.; McCarron, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    Managing human impacts on marine ecosystems requires natural regions to be identified and mapped over a range of hierarchically nested scales. In recent years (2000-present) the Irish National Seabed Survey (INSS) and Integrated Mapping for the Sustainable Development of Ireland's Marine Resources programme (INFOMAR) (Geological Survey Ireland and Marine Institute collaborations) has provided unprecedented quantities of high quality data on Ireland's offshore territories. The increasing availability of large, detailed digital representations of these environments requires the application of objective and quantitative analyses. This study presents results of a new approach for sea floor sediment mapping based on an integrated analysis of INFOMAR multibeam bathymetric data (including the derivatives of slope and relative position), backscatter data (including derivatives of angular response analysis) and sediment groundtruthing over the continental shelf, west of Donegal. It applies a Geographic-Object-Based Image Analysis software package to provide a supervised classification of the surface sediment. This approach can provide a statistically robust, high resolution classification of the seafloor. Initial results display a differentiation of sediment classes and a reduction in artefacts from previously applied methodologies. These results indicate a methodology that could be used during physical habitat mapping and classification of marine environments.

  13. Storage temperature: A factor of shelf life of dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memiši Nurgin R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to monitor the durability of certain dairy products stored at proper temperatures (8°C and elevated temperatures (14°C within their shelf life. Samples of fermented milk products were tested during 25 days, samples of cheese spread products over 80 days, while soft white cheese samples were analyzed during a storage period of 100 days. In the defined study periods, depending on the type of product, pH and aw value of the product, as well as sensory analysis (odor, taste, color and consistency, along with microbiological safety, were investigated. The investigations were performed in accordance with national legislation. The results indicate that the products stored at 14°C showed significant acidity (lower pH value, changed sensory properties, and had an increased number of aerobic bacteria. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46009: Improvement and development of hygienic and technological procedures in production of foodstuffs of animal origin with the aim of producing high-quality and safe products competitive on the global market

  14. BLM/OCS Southern California Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Baseline Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data in this file were produced by Science Applications, Inc., prime contractor on the Bureau of Land Management/Outer Continental Shelf - Southern California...

  15. The effect of garlic and ginger phytogenics on the shelf life and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of garlic and ginger phytogenics on the shelf life and microbial contents ... The preservative effects of garlic and ginger was compared with that of sodium ... reduced health risks of infection and/or intoxication from their consumption.

  16. The Retail Chain Design for Perishable Food: The Case of Price Strategy and Shelf Space Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Xiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Managing perishable food in a retail store is quite difficult because of the product’s short lifetime and deterioration. Many elements, such as price, shelf space allocation, and quality, which can affect the consumption rate, should be taken into account when the perishable food retail chain is designed. The modern tracking technologies provide good opportunities to improve the management of the perishable food retail chain. In this research, we develop a mathematical model for a single-item retail chain and determine the pricing strategy, shelf space allocation, and order quantity to maximize the retailer’s total profit with the application of tracking technologies. Then the single-item retail chain is extended into a multi-item one with a shelf space capacity and a simple algorithm is developed to find the optimal allocation of shelf space among these items. Finally, numerical experiments and real-life examples are conducted to illustrate the proposed models.

  17. 2006 Multibeam Mapping of along-shelf corridor, between Madison-Swanson and Steamboat Lumps Florida

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This disk or set of disks contain high-resolution multibeam and backscatter maps of a long thin corridor at the shelf edge near he 74-m isobath spanning from...

  18. Observations on the scattering layers over the continental shelf off Konkan coast (India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, V.S.

    The echograms obtained by R.V. "varuna" using asdic during the September, 1963 cruise are analysed. Scattering layers observed over the shelf area, off Ratnagiri, are examined and studied in relation to the thermocline layer present. Comparison...

  19. BLM/OCS South Texas Outer Continental Shelf (STOCS) Project Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Texas Outer Continental Shelf Project (STOCS) conducted by the University of Texas and the USGS with funding from BLM/NOAA. The USGS produced geochemical...

  20. Size distribution and carbonate content of the sediments of the western shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Pylee, A.

    %). (2) The outer shelf (approximately 20 to 70 fms) is a zone of relict sediments, having relatively low rates of sedimentation and composed of fine to medium sands. Occasional patches of coarse iron stained sands and pebbles are also present...

  1. Mining of phosphorite resources from the Indian continental shelf will help food production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Qasim, S.Z.; Nair, R.R.

    of phosphorite deposits would depend on several technical and economic factors Phosphorites occur in water depths upto 200 meters of the western continental shelf of India These are the areas associated with upwelling The relationship between phosphorite deposits...

  2. Numerical Coupling of River Discharge to Shelf/Slope Sedimentation Models

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Syvitski, James

    1997-01-01

    Scientific objectives of this project are: (1) Develop a nested set of models to study the interactions of sedimentation processes on the shelf, including the effects of river supply, plume transport and initial deposition of sediments; (2...

  3. Sound Propagation from the Continental Slope to the Continental Shelf: Remote Sensing Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly, Kathryn

    2000-01-01

    ... along the East Coast of North America. The AVHRR images were used to show the location and orientation of the shelf I/slope front and the altimeter was used to study the fluctuations of the geostrophic currents...

  4. Cluster analysis and ecology of living benthonic foraminiferids from inner shelf off Ratnagiri, West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Sarupria, J.S.

    Q-mode cluster analysis explains the spatial distribution data of living benthonic foraminiferids from the inner shelf off Ratnagiri. Two main biotopes and two sub-biotopes are revognised within the study area; biotope A, characterised by @i...

  5. A Study for Shelf Life Evaluation of Rubber O-ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Sun Chul; Kim, Jong Seog

    2005-01-01

    Non-metallic materials stored in warehouses in nuclear power plants have shelf life. The shelf life means the maximum storage time allowable such that the install life of the material is not affected. Materials whose shelf lives expire are generally discarded. unless the shelf lives of these materials can be extended by reducing the install life. Examples of this case are rubber materials. Rubber materials are widely used for sealing of various machines. There are various life evaluation methods for rubber material. For example, the compression set is generally used for evaluation the aging condition of rubber materials used for sealing. A compression set value can be calculated according to the ASTM D395. We have tried the compression set test by using specimens with 6.99mm diameter O-ring even when ASTM D 395 recommends the use of bar specimen. Test results and comparison between O-ring and reference data of EPRI NP-6608 are presented below

  6. Regional tectonic trends on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    Satellite imagery and offshore magnetic data were analysed to correlate regional tectonic elements on the inner continental shelf off Konkan and the adjacent Deccan plateau. Three statistically important lineament trends N-S, WNW-ESE and ENE...

  7. Short term variation in particulate matter in the shelf waters of the Princess Astrid Coast, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Particulate matter collected at a single station in the shelf waters of Princess Astrid coast (70 degrees S, 11 degrees E) Antarctica, during the austral summer (Jan.-Feb. 1986) was analysed for phytoplankton biomass (Chl @ia@@), living carbon (ATP...

  8. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Twin Ridges Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  9. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Steamboat Lumps), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  10. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Southern Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  11. Effect of shelf aging on vibration transmissibility of anti-vibration gloves

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHIBATA, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Anti-vibration gloves have been used in real workplaces to reduce vibration transmitted through hand-held power tools to the hand. Generally materials used for vibration attenuation in gloves are resilient materials composed of certain synthetic and/or composite polymers. The mechanical characteristics of the resilient materials used in anti-vibration gloves are prone to be influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, and photo-irradiation, which cause material degradation and aging. This study focused on the influence of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of air-packaged anti-vibration gloves following 2 yr of shelf aging. Effects of shelf aging on the vibration attenuation performance of anti-vibration gloves were examined according to the Japan industrial standard JIS T8114 test protocol. The findings indicate that shelf aging induces the reduction of vibration attenuation performance in air-packaged anti-vibration gloves. PMID:28978817

  12. 77 FR 10707 - Safety Zone; NOBLE DISCOVERER, Outer Continental Shelf Drillship, Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... indigenous population; (4) the lack of any established shipping fairways, fueling and supply storage... location of the DRILLSHIP NOBLE DISCOVERER on the Outer Continental Shelf and its distance from both land...

  13. Interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in shelf sediments off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma; Raju, G.R.K.

    Spatial distribution of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in the shelf sediments shows an increasing trend with distance from coastal to inshore region. Maximum concentration ranges of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates are 16-19 and 40-50 mu g...

  14. Impact of Savannah Harbor Deep Draft Navigation Project on Tybee Island Shelf and Shoreline

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smith, Jane M; Stauble, Donald K; Williams, Brian P; Wutkowski, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    ... (including sand lost from the beach and the Tybee shelf). The study methodology includes numerical modeling of waves, currents, water levels, and sediment transport rates and sediment budgets analysis for pre-project and post- project conditions...

  15. EBSSED database-Surficial sediments of the eastern Bering Sea continental shelf

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In order to facilitate descriptions of groundfish habitat over a large portion of the EBS shelf, the NMFS/AFSC has assembled a single comprehensive database of the...

  16. Climatic aridity over India 11,000 years ago: Evidence from feldspar distribution in shelf sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.

    Feldspars and quartz contents of sand and silt fractions of forty three samples from the western continental shelf of India were determined by the X-ray diffraction method. The results indicate that the feldspar content in the relict (9000...

  17. Distribution of total phosphorus in the shelf sediments off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Reddy, C.V.G.; Varadachari, V.V.R.

    The total phosphorus content in the sediment samples collected from different stations on the continental shelf along five sections normal to the coast near Bombay, Karwar, Mangalore, Cochin and Alleppey has been determined and the distribution...

  18. Grain Size Data from the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains grain size data from samples acquired under the NOAA Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program (OCSEAP) from the Outer...

  19. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico, Madison Swanson Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2002 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico.

  20. Multibeam Mapping of the West Florida Shelf-The Edges, Gulf of Mexico, Appalachicola, Florida.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format high-resolution bathymetry data generated from the 2010 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf-The Edges, Gulf of Mexico, Appalachicola,...

  1. Geomorphology and surficial geology of the western continental shelf and slope of India: A review

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, V.P.; Wagle, B.G.

    Coastal geology and geomorphology of the area and nearshore currents played a significant role in the distribution of placer minerals off Kerala and Maharashtra. Transport and sedeimentation of fine-grained materials at places on the shelf...

  2. Influence of peanut skin extract on shelf-life of sheep patties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Eduardo Sichetti Munekata

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: The present results showed the potential application of PSE as a natural alternative to replace synthetic antioxidants (BHT for increasing the quality and extending the shelf-life of sheep patties.

  3. Origins of Stratal Surfaces in Channel Fills on the New Jersey Continental Shelf

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sommerfield, Christopher K

    2006-01-01

    The goal of this project was to advance an understanding of acoustic anomalies created by sub-seafloor paleochannels by investigating the geologic properties of channel-rich strata on the New Jersey continental shelf...

  4. Manganese in the shelf sediments off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Rao, Ch.M.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    shows that the contribution is practically from land. Higher rates of sedimentation was also observed on the inner shelf particularly between Alleppey and Karwar. The sediments in the slope region were slightly enriched in their manganese content than...

  5. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Geological samples collected as part of the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project are curated by the U.S. Geological Survey, a partner in the ECS Project. To...

  6. Bathymetry of Mid Shelf Reef, US Virgin Islands 2005, 1M Grid, UTM 20 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 1 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of the Mid Shelf Reef south of St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. NOAA's...

  7. Multi-Decadal Averages of Basal Melt for Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica Using Airborne Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, I.; Bell, R. E.; Tinto, K. J.; Frearson, N.; Kingslake, J.; Padman, L.; Siddoway, C. S.; Fricker, H. A.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in ice shelf mass balance are key to the long term stability of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Although the most extensive ice shelf mass loss currently is occurring in the Amundsen Sea sector of West Antarctica, many other ice shelves experience changes in thickness on time scales from annual to ice age cycles. Here, we focus on the Ross Ice Shelf. An 18-year record (1994-2012) of satellite radar altimetry shows substantial variability in Ross Ice Shelf height on interannual time scales, complicating detection of potential long-term climate-change signals in the mass budget of this ice shelf. Variability of radar signal penetration into the ice-shelf surface snow and firn layers further complicates assessment of mass changes. We investigate Ross Ice Shelf mass balance using aerogeophysical data from the ROSETTA-Ice surveys using IcePod. We use two ice-penetrating radars; a 2 GHz unit that images fine-structure in the upper 400 m of the ice surface and a 360 MHz radar to identify the ice shelf base. We have identified internal layers that are continuous along flow from the grounding line to the ice shelf front. Based on layer continuity, we conclude that these layers must be the horizons between the continental ice of the outlet glaciers and snow accumulation once the ice is afloat. We use the Lagrangian change in thickness of these layers, after correcting for strain rates derived using modern day InSAR velocities, to estimate multidecadal averaged basal melt rates. This method provides a novel way to quantify basal melt, avoiding the confounding impacts of spatial and short-timescale variability in surface accumulation and firn densification processes. Our estimates show elevated basal melt rates (> -1m/yr) around Byrd and Mullock glaciers within 100 km from the ice shelf front. We also compare modern InSAR velocity derived strain rates with estimates from the comprehensive ground-based RIGGS observations during 1973-1978 to estimate the potential magnitude of

  8. 41 CFR 102-36.465 - May we transfer or exchange excess medical shelf-life items with other federal agencies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... exchange excess medical shelf-life items with other federal agencies? 102-36.465 Section 102-36.465 Public... Disposal Requires Special Handling Shelf-Life Items § 102-36.465 May we transfer or exchange excess medical shelf-life items with other federal agencies? Yes, you may transfer or exchange excess medical shelf...

  9. Morphology and stratal geometry of the Antarctic continental shelf: Insights from models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alan K.; Barker, Peter F.; Brancolini, Giuliano

    1997-01-01

    Reconstruction of past ice-sheet fluctuations from the stratigraphy of glaciated continental shelves requires understanding of the relationships among the stratal geometry, glacial and marine sedimentary processes, and ice dynamics. We investigate the formation of the morphology and the broad stratal geometry of topsets on the Antarctic continental shelf with numerical models. Our models assume that the stratal geometry and morphology are principally the results of time-integrated effects of glacial erosion and sedimentation related to the location of the seaward edge of the grounded ice. The location of the grounding line varies with time almost randomly across the shelf. With these simple assumptions, the models can successfully mimic salient features of the morphology and the stratal geometry. The models suggest that the current shelf has gradually evolved to its present geometry by many glacial advances and retreats of the grounding line to different locations across the shelf. The locations of the grounding line do not appear to be linearly correlated with either fluctuations in the 5 l s O record (which presumably represents changes in the global ice volume) or with the global sea-level curve, suggesting that either a more complex relationship exists or local effects dominate. The models suggest that erosion of preglacial sediments is confined to the inner shelf, and erosion decreases and deposition increases toward the shelf edge. Some of the deposited glacial sediments must be derived from continental erosion. The sediments probably undergo extensive transport and reworking obliterating much of the evidence for their original depositional environment. The flexural rigidity and the tectonic subsidence of the underlying lithosphere modify the bathymetry of the shelf, but probably have little effect on the stratal geometry. Our models provide several guidelines for the interpretation of unconformities, the nature of preserved topset deposits, and the

  10. Sponge assemblages on the deep Mediterranean continental shelf and slope (Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Andreu; Grinyó, Jordi; Ambroso, Stefano; Uriz, Maria J.; Gori, Andrea; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Sponge assemblages on continental shelves and slopes around the world have been known about for centuries. However, due to limitations of the traditional sampling systems, data about individual sponge species rather than assemblages have been reported. This study characterizes sponge assemblages over a wide bathymetric range ( 50-350 m depth) and covering the entire continental shelf and the upper slope of the Menorca Channel, an area soon to be declared a Marine Protected Area (MPA) as part of the Natura 2000 Network. Quantitative analysis of 85 video-transects (a total linear distance of 75 km), together with representative collections to confirm species identifications, allowed us to discriminate six major assemblages. Differences in the assemblages mainly corresponded to differences in substrate type and depth. On the inner continental shelf, a semi-sciaphilous Axinellid assemblage dominated the rocky outcrops. Maërl beds on the inner continental shelf were dominated by Haliclona (Reniera) mediterranea, whereas the horny sponge Aplysina cavernicola and several other haliclonids mostly dominated maërl beds and rocky substrates of the outer shelf. Soft sediments on the shelf break hosted a monospecific Thenea muricata assemblage, whereas rocky substrates of the shelf break were characterized by a mixture of encrusting, columnar and fan-shaped sponges. Finally, the upper slope was dominated by Hamacantha (Vomerula) falcula and the hexactinellid Tretodictyum reiswigi. Overall, sponge diversity showed its highest values above the shelf break, plummeting severely on the upper slope. Despite this diversity decrease, we found very high densities (> 70 ind./m2) of sponges over vast areas of both the shelf break and the upper slope.

  11. Connections between the growth of Arctica islandica and phytoplankton dynamics on the Faroe Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Fabian; Andersson, Carin; Trofimova, Tamara

    2017-04-01

    In this study we use molluscan sclerochronological techniques in order to obtain closer insights into environmental and ecological dynamics of Faroe Shelf waters. The Faroe Shelf represents a special ecosystem with rich benthic and neritic communities, which also have great importance for many economically relevant fish stocks. Thus, a better understanding of seasonal and year-to-year phytoplankton and stratification dynamics would be useful because they also have implications for higher trophic levels. The water masses of the Faroe Shelf are fairly homogenous and isolated from off-shelf waters but at a certain depth, which is referred to as transition zone, seasonal stratification and horizontal exchange occur. Systematic observations and phytoplankton dynamic investigations have only been performed during the last 29 years but longer records are missing. Thus, we use the growth increment variability in long-lived Arctica islandica shells from the transition zone of the eastern Faroe Shelf to evaluate its potential to estimate on-shelf phytoplankton and stratification dynamics since previous studies have shown that the growth of A. islandica is highly dependent on food availability. We have built a shell-based master-chronology reaching back to the 17th century. Comparisons between the growth indices of our chronology and fluorescence data reveal significant positive relationships. In combination with an index that accounts for stratification even stronger correlations are obtained. This indicates that the growth of A. islandica is largely influenced by a combination of how much phytoplankton is produced and how much actually reaches the bottom, i.e. how well-mixed the water column is. Further significant positive correlations can also be found between the growth indices and other primary productivity data from the Faroe Shelf. In conclusion, our results suggest that the growth indices can be related to year-to-year changes in phytoplankton production and

  12. An Analysis of the Effects of Promotion and Shelf Position on Store Revenue

    OpenAIRE

    Valter Afonso Vieria; Luis Fernando Camilo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the influence of shelf placement and the ways of presenting prices at supermarkets. We carried out an experimental longitudinal study for three months in a supermarket involving nine common products, divided by placement into three shelf positions (upper area, middle area and lower area) and three price presentation strategies. These were the supermarket’s standard price sticker for the base month (control) and two new presentations: the first a poster with the appeal ...

  13. Development of shelf-stable radiation processed Ready-to-Cook (RTC) Indian vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, J.; Chatterjee, S.; Gupta, S.; Kumar, Vivekanand; Variyar, P.S.; Sharma, A.

    2009-01-01

    Use of radiation processing in combination with packaging and low temperature storage aided in extending shelf-life of RTC Indian vegetables without affecting their organoleptic and sensory quality. An extension in shelf-life of 15 days in case of RTC french beans and pumpkin and in RTC ash gourd and drumstick of 8 and 5 days respectively was achieved when cling wrapped, irradiated at a dose of 2 kGy and stored at 10 deg C. (author)

  14. Variability in measured current structure on the southwest continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.

    -1 Variability in Measured Current Structure on the Southwest Continental Shelf of India P.K. Dinesh Kumar and K. Srinivas National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre P.O.Box 1913, Cochin - 682018,India Email: dineshku@niokochi.org ABSTRACT... WORDS: Direct current measurements, tidal currents, southwest coast of India. INTRODUCTION The circulation pattern of the eastern Arabian Sea over the southwest continental shelf of India (inferred...

  15. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.

    -262 255 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam -- Printed in the Netherlands Letter Section Submerged Reef Systems on the Central Western Continental Shelf of India K.H. VORA and F. ALMEIDA National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403... 004 (India) (Revision accepted October 26, 1989) Abstract Vora, K.H. and Almeida, F., 1990. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India. Mar. Geol., 91: 255-262. Echosounding and sidescan sonar data from the western...

  16. Surface and Subsurface Meltwater Ponding and Refreezing on the Bach Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, I.; Haggard, E.; Benedek, C. L.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Banwell, A. F.

    2017-12-01

    There is growing concern about the stability and fate of Antarctic ice shelves, as four major ice shelves on the Antarctic Peninsula have completely disintegrated since the 1950s. Their collapse has been linked to the southward movement of the -9 oC mean annual temperature isotherm. The proximal causes of ice shelf instability are not fully known, but an increase in surface melting leading to water ponding and ice flexure, fracture and calving has been implicated. Close to the recently collapsed Wilkins Ice Shelf, the Bach Ice Shelf (72°S 72°W) may be at risk from break up in the near future. Here, we document the changing surface hydrology of the Bach Ice Shelf between 2001 and 2017 using Landsat 7 & 8 imagery. Extensive surface water is identified across the Bach Ice Shelf and its tributary glaciers. Two types of drainage system are observed, drainage into firn via simple stream networks and drainage into the ocean via more complex networks. There are differences between the surface hydrology on the ice shelf and the tributary glaciers, as well as variations within and between summer seasons linked to surface air temperature fluctuations. We also document the changing subsurface hydrology of the ice shelf between 2014 and 2017 using Sentinel 1 A/B SAR imagery. Forty-five subsurface features are identified and analysed for their patterns and temporal evolution. Fourteen of the features show similar characteristics to previously-identified buried lakes and some occur in areas associated with surface lakes in previous years. The buried lakes show seasonal variability in area and surface backscatter, which varies with surface air temperature, and are consistent with the presence, enlargement and contraction of liquid water bodies. Buried lakes are an overlooked source of water loading on ice shelves, which may contribute to ice shelf flexure and potential fracture.

  17. Exchanges between the open Black Sea and its North West shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zhou, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Exchanges between the vast NW shelf and the deep basin of the Black Sea play a significant role in maintaining the balance of nutrients, heat content and salinity of the shelf waters. Nearly 87 % of the Black Sea is entirely anoxic below 70 to 200m and contains high levels of hydrogen sulphide (Zaitsev et al, 2001), and this makes the shelf waters particularly valuable for maintaining the Black Sea ecosystem in good health. The increase in salinity of shelf waters occurs partially due to exchanges with more saline open sea waters and represents a threat to relics and endemic species. The shelf-break is commonly considered the bottle-neck of the shelf-deep sea exchanges (e.g. (Huthnance, 1995, Ivanov et al, 1997). Due to conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic currents flow along the contours of constant depth. However the ageostrophic flows (Ekman drift, mesoscale eddies, filaments, internal waves) are not subject to the same constraints. It has been shown that during the winter well mixed cold waters formed on the North West shelf propagate into the deep sea, providing an important mechanism for the replenishment of the Cold Intermediate Layer ( Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However, much less is known about exchanges in the warm season. In this study, the transports of water, heat and salt between the northwestern shelf and the adjacent deep basin of the Black Sea are investigated using a high-resolution three-dimensional primitive equation model, NEMO-SHELF-BLS (Shapiro et al, 2013). It is shown that during the period from April to August, 2005, both onshore and offshore cross-shelf break transports in the top 20 m were as high as 0.24 Sv on average, which was equivalent to the replacement of 60% of the volume of surface shelf waters (0 - 20 m) per month. Two main exchange mechanisms are studied: (i) Ekman transport, and (ii) transport by mesoscale eddies and associated meanders of the Rim Current. The Ekman drift causes nearly uniform onshore or

  18. The yogurt amino acid profile's variation during the shelf-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germani, A; Luneia, R; Nigro, F; Vitiello, V; Donini, L M; del Balzo, V

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the yogurt amino acid profile starting from marketing through the whole shelf-life. The evaluation of the proteolytic activity of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus, allows to deduce their vitality during the shelf-life period and within 45 days. Three types of full fats yogurts have been analyzed (a) natural white (b) sweet white and (c) whole fruit - in two stages: t0 (first day of shelf-life) and t1 (end of shelf-life). The proteins have been analyzed by the Kjeldahl method and the amino acid profile by HPLC. In natural yogurt a significant increase of the amount of free amino acids has been observed during the period of shelf-life (97%). In the sweetened full fats and fruit yogurt, instead, there is a lower increase of respectively 33% and 39% In whole milk natural yogurt, based on our data, the proteolytic activity seems to persist during the entire period of the shelf-life and this can be considered an index of bacterial survival, especially of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus during the marketing process.

  19. Determination of Shelf Life for Butter and Cheese Products in Actual and Accelerated Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Min; Shin, Jin-Ho; Bak, Da-Jeong; Kim, Na-Kyeong; Lim, Kwang-Sei; Yang, Cheul-Young; Kim, Jin-Man

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the shelf life of butter and cheese products, with shelf life being a guide used to determine the storage period of food before deterioration. Butter and cheese samples stored at 10℃ and 15℃ had a shelf life of 221 d, while those stored at 25℃ and 35℃ had a shelf life of 109 d. Quality changes, including total cell count, coliform counts, Listeria monocytogenes counts, acid value, moisture content, pH, acidity and overall sensory evaluation, were monitored. In order to pass the overall sensory evaluation, a quality score of 5 points on a 9-point scale was required. For other quality criteria, legal quality limits were established based on the "Process Criteria and Ingredient Standard of Livestock Products" by the Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (Republic of Korea). The nonlegal quality limit was estimated by regression analysis between non-quality criteria (y) and overall sensory evaluation (x). The shelf life was estimated based on the number of days that the product passed the quality limit of the quality criteria. The shelf life of samples stored at 10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃ was 21.94, 17.18, 6.10 and 0.58 mon, respectively, for butter and 10.81, 9.47, 4.64 and 0.20 mon, respectively, for cheese.

  20. Shelf Life of Food Products: From Open Labeling to Real-Time Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, Maria G

    2018-03-25

    The labels currently used on food and beverage products only provide consumers with a rough guide to their expected shelf lives because they assume that a product only experiences a limited range of predefined handling and storage conditions. These static labels do not take into consideration conditions that might shorten a product's shelf life (such as temperature abuse), which can lead to problems associated with food safety and waste. Advances in shelf-life estimation have the potential to improve the safety, reliability, and sustainability of the food supply. Selection of appropriate kinetic models and data-analysis techniques is essential to predict shelf life, to account for variability in environmental conditions, and to allow real-time monitoring. Novel analytical tools to determine safety and quality attributes in situ coupled with modern tracking technologies and appropriate predictive tools have the potential to provide accurate estimations of the remaining shelf life of a food product in real time. This review summarizes the necessary steps to attain a transition from open labeling to real-time shelf-life measurements.

  1. Nutrient regeneration and oxygen demand in Bering Sea continental shelf sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Gilbert T.; Phoel, William C.

    1992-04-01

    Measurements of seabed oxygen demand and nutrient regeneration were made on continental shelf sediments in the southeast Bering Sea from 1 to 15 June 1981. The mean seabed oxygen demand was relatively modest (267 μM O 2 m -2 h -1), equivalent to a utilization of 60 mg organic carbon m -2 day -1. The seasonal build up of ammonium over the mid-shelf domain was generated at least in part by the bottom biota, as previously suggested ( WHITLEDGEet al., 1986 , Continental Shelf Research, 5, 109-132), but on the outer shelf nitrate replaced ammonium as the dominant inorganic nitrogen compound that was regenerated from the sediments. Comparison of oxygen consumption with the organic matter in sedimenting particulate matter (sampled with sediment traps) could imply that benthic processes were not accounting for the fate of considerable quantities of organic matter. Benthic oxygen demand rates, however, probably lag behind the input of the spring bloom to the bottom, thus extending the remineralization process out over time. Consumption by small microheterotrophs in the water column was also a likely sink, although shelf export and advective transport north were possible as well. Estimated nitrification rates in surface sediments could account for only a small fraction of the abrupt increase in nitrate observed in the water column over the shelf just prior to the spring bloom.

  2. Variability of Basal Melt Beneath the Pine Island Glacier Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindschadler, Robert; Vaughan, David G.; Vornberger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Observations from satellite and airborne platforms are combined with model calculations to infer the nature and efficiency of basal melting of the Pine Island Glacier ice shelf, West Antarctica, by ocean waters. Satellite imagery shows surface features that suggest ice-shelf-wide changes to the ocean s influence on the ice shelf as the grounding line retreated. Longitudinal profiles of ice surface and bottom elevations are analyzed to reveal a spatially dependent pattern of basal melt with an annual melt flux of 40.5 Gt/a. One profile captures a persistent set of surface waves that correlates with quasi-annual variations of atmospheric forcing of Amundsen Sea circulation patterns, establishing a direct connection between atmospheric variability and sub-ice-shelf melting. Ice surface troughs are hydrostatically compensated by ice-bottom voids up to 150m deep. Voids form dynamically at the grounding line, triggered by enhanced melting when warmer-than-average water arrives. Subsequent enlargement of the voids is thermally inefficient (4% or less) compared with an overall melting efficiency beneath the ice shelf of 22%. Residual warm water is believed to cause three persistent polynyas at the ice-shelf front seen in Landsat imagery. Landsat thermal imagery confirms the occurrence of warm water at the same locations.

  3. Estimation of failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Ana; Gagliardi, Andrés; Ares, Gastón

    2017-09-01

    For most food products, shelf life is determined by changes in their sensory characteristics. A predetermined increase or decrease in the intensity of a sensory characteristic has frequently been used to signal that a product has reached the end of its shelf life. Considering all attributes change simultaneously, the concept of multivariate shelf life allows a single measurement of deterioration that takes into account all these sensory changes at a certain storage time. The aim of the present work was to apply survival analysis to estimate failure criteria in multivariate sensory shelf life testing using two case studies, hamburger buns and orange juice, by modelling the relationship between consumers' rejection of the product and the deterioration index estimated using PCA. In both studies, a panel of 13 trained assessors evaluated the samples using descriptive analysis whereas a panel of 100 consumers answered a "yes" or "no" question regarding intention to buy or consume the product. PC1 explained the great majority of the variance, indicating all sensory characteristics evolved similarly with storage time. Thus, PC1 could be regarded as index of sensory deterioration and a single failure criterion could be estimated through survival analysis for 25 and 50% consumers' rejection. The proposed approach based on multivariate shelf life testing may increase the accuracy of shelf life estimations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. West Florida shelf circulation and temperature budget for the 1998 fall transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruoying; Weisberg, Robert H.

    2003-05-01

    Mid-latitude continental shelves undergo a fall transition as the net heat flux changes from warming to cooling. Using in situ data and a numerical model we investigate the circulation on the west Florida shelf (WFS) for the fall transition of 1998. The model is a regional adaptation of the primitive equation, Princeton Ocean Model forced by NCEP reanalysis wind, air pressure, and heat flux fields, plus river inflows. After comparison with observations the model is used to draw inferences on the seasonal and synoptic scale features of the shelf circulation. By running twin experiments, one without and the other with an idealized Loop Current (LC), we explore the relative importance of local versus deep-ocean forcing. We find that local forcing largely controls the inner-shelf circulation, including changes from the Florida Panhandle in the north to regions farther south. The effects of the LC in fall 1998 are to reinforce the mid-shelf currents and to increase the across-shelf transports in the bottom Ekman layer, thereby accentuating the shoreward transport of cold, nutrient rich water of deep-ocean origin. A three-dimensional analysis of the temperature budget reveals that surface heat flux largely controls both the seasonal and synoptic scale temperature variations. Surface cooling leads to convective mixing that rapidly alters temperature gradients. One interesting consequence is that upwelling can result in near-shore warming as warmer offshore waters are advected landward. The temperature balances on the shelf are complex and fully three-dimensional.

  5. Macronutrient and carbon supply, uptake and cycling across the Antarctic Peninsula shelf during summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, Sian F; Jones, Elizabeth M; Venables, Hugh J; Meredith, Michael P; Firing, Yvonne L; Dittrich, Ribanna; Heiser, Sabrina; Stefels, Jacqueline; Dougans, Julie

    2018-06-28

    The West Antarctic Peninsula shelf is a region of high seasonal primary production which supports a large and productive food web, where macronutrients and inorganic carbon are sourced primarily from intrusions of warm saline Circumpolar Deep Water. We examined the cross-shelf modification of this water mass during mid-summer 2015 to understand the supply of nutrients and carbon to the productive surface ocean, and their subsequent uptake and cycling. We show that nitrate, phosphate, silicic acid and inorganic carbon are progressively enriched in subsurface waters across the shelf, contrary to cross-shelf reductions in heat, salinity and density. We use nutrient stoichiometric and isotopic approaches to invoke remineralization of organic matter, including nitrification below the euphotic surface layer, and dissolution of biogenic silica in deeper waters and potentially shelf sediment porewaters, as the primary drivers of cross-shelf enrichments. Regenerated nitrate and phosphate account for a significant proportion of the total pools of these nutrients in the upper ocean, with implications for the seasonal carbon sink. Understanding nutrient and carbon dynamics in this region now will inform predictions of future biogeochemical changes in the context of substantial variability and ongoing changes in the physical environment.This article is part of the theme issue 'The marine system of the West Antarctic Peninsula: status and strategy for progress in a region of rapid change'. © 2018 The Authors.

  6. A summary of the low upper shelf toughness safety margin issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkle, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The low upper shelf toughness issue has a long history, beginning with the choice of materials for the submerged arc welding process, but also potentially involving the use of A302-B plate. Criteria for vessels containing low upper shelf materials have usually been expressed in terms of the Charpy upper shelf impact energy. Although these criteria have had several different bases, the range of limiting values for wall thicknesses approaching 229 mm (9 in.) has remained between 54 to 68J (40 to 50 ft lbs). Allowable values for vessels with thinner walls and/or only circumferential low upper shelf welds might conceivably be less. A decision on criteria to be incorporated into the ASME Code is now being made. Choices to be made concern the method for estimating the decrease in upper shelf impact energy, flaw geometry for circumferential welds, statistical significance of toughness values, the choice between J D and J M , reference pressure, safety factors and the inclusion of tearing stability calculations by means of R curve extrapolation. NRC research programs have contributed significantly to the resolution of the low upper shelf issue. These programs embrace all aspects of the issue, including material characterization, large scale testing, analysis and criteria development. 52 refs., 5 figs

  7. Ocean stratification reduces melt rates at the grounding zone of the Ross Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begeman, C. B.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Marsh, O.; Mikucki, J.; Stanton, T. P.; Hodson, T. O.; Siegfried, M. R.; Powell, R. D.; Christianson, K. A.; King, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    Ocean-driven melting of ice shelves is often invoked as the primary mechanism for triggering ice loss from Antarctica. However, due to the difficulty in accessing the sub-ice-shelf ocean cavity, the relationship between ice-shelf melt rates and ocean conditions is poorly understood, particularly near the transition from grounded to floating ice, known as the grounding zone. Here we present the first borehole oceanographic observations from the grounding zone of Antarctica's largest ice shelf. Contrary to predictions that tidal currents near grounding zones should mix the water column, driving high ice-shelf melt rates, we find a stratified sub-ice-shelf water column. The vertical salinity gradient dominates stratification over a weakly unstable vertical temperature gradient; thus, stratification takes the form of a double-diffusive staircase. These conditions limit vertical heat fluxes and lead to low melt rates in the ice-shelf grounding zone. While modern grounding zone melt rates may presently be overestimated in models that assume efficient tidal mixing, the high sensitivity of double-diffusive staircases to ocean freshening and warming suggests future melt rates may be underestimated, biasing projections of global sea-level rise.

  8. Recent rift formation and impact on the structural integrity of the Brunt Ice Shelf, East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Rydt

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the recent reactivation of a large rift in the Brunt Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, in December 2012 and the formation of a 50 km long new rift in October 2016. Observations from a suite of ground-based and remote sensing instruments between January 2000 and July 2017 were used to track progress of both rifts in unprecedented detail. Results reveal a steady accelerating trend in their width, in combination with alternating episodes of fast ( > 600 m day−1 and slow propagation of the rift tip, controlled by the heterogeneous structure of the ice shelf. A numerical ice flow model and a simple propagation algorithm based on the stress distribution in the ice shelf were successfully used to hindcast the observed trajectories and to simulate future rift progression under different assumptions. Results show a high likelihood of ice loss at the McDonald Ice Rumples, the only pinning point of the ice shelf. The nascent iceberg calving and associated reduction in pinning of the Brunt Ice Shelf may provide a uniquely monitored natural experiment of ice shelf variability and provoke a deeper understanding of similar processes elsewhere in Antarctica.

  9. Recent rift formation and impact on the structural integrity of the Brunt Ice Shelf, East Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rydt, Jan; Hilmar Gudmundsson, G.; Nagler, Thomas; Wuite, Jan; King, Edward C.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the recent reactivation of a large rift in the Brunt Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, in December 2012 and the formation of a 50 km long new rift in October 2016. Observations from a suite of ground-based and remote sensing instruments between January 2000 and July 2017 were used to track progress of both rifts in unprecedented detail. Results reveal a steady accelerating trend in their width, in combination with alternating episodes of fast ( > 600 m day-1) and slow propagation of the rift tip, controlled by the heterogeneous structure of the ice shelf. A numerical ice flow model and a simple propagation algorithm based on the stress distribution in the ice shelf were successfully used to hindcast the observed trajectories and to simulate future rift progression under different assumptions. Results show a high likelihood of ice loss at the McDonald Ice Rumples, the only pinning point of the ice shelf. The nascent iceberg calving and associated reduction in pinning of the Brunt Ice Shelf may provide a uniquely monitored natural experiment of ice shelf variability and provoke a deeper understanding of similar processes elsewhere in Antarctica.

  10. Oxidative changes in lipids, proteins, and antioxidants in yogurt during the shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citta, Anna; Folda, Alessandra; Scalcon, Valeria; Scutari, Guido; Bindoli, Alberto; Bellamio, Marco; Feller, Emiliano; Rigobello, Maria Pia

    2017-11-01

    Oxidation processes in milk and yogurt during the shelf life can result in an alteration of protein and lipid constituents. Therefore, the antioxidant properties of yogurt in standard conditions of preservation were evaluated. Total phenols, free radical scavenger activity, degree of lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation were determined in plain and skim yogurts with or without fruit puree. After production, plain, skim, plain berries, and skim berries yogurts were compared during the shelf life up to 9 weeks. All types of yogurts revealed a basal antioxidant activity that was higher when a fruit puree was present but gradually decreased during the shelf life. However, after 5-8 weeks, antioxidant activity increased again. Both in plain and berries yogurts lipid peroxidation increased until the seventh week of shelf life and after decreased, whereas protein oxidation of all yogurts was similar either in the absence or presence of berries and increased during shelf life. During the shelf life, a different behavior between lipid and protein oxidation takes place and the presence of berries determines a protection only against lipid peroxidation.

  11. Biocenoses of benthic foraminifera of the Aveiro Continental Shelf (Portugal: influence of the upwelling events and other shelf processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Virgínia Alves Martins

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to compare the dimensions and composition of benthic foraminiferal biocenoses (living specimens during two summer sampling events. Forty-four sediment samples were collected on the Aveiro Continental Shelf (Center of Portugal (latitude of 40º30'N-40º50'N, longitude of 8º46'W-9º20'W for granulometry, total organic matter (TOM and living foraminiferal analyses. The sediment samples were collected during summers of 1994 and 1995, on stations located along transects (east-west direction and between the bathymetries of 10-200 m. During the sampling campaigns, measurements of salinity, temperature and density data were recorded in the water column. The results showed that the living assemblages were mainly found in stations located between 20-80 m depth. The abundance of living foraminifera was generally reduced at depths <20 m in the so-called “coastal deposits”, where the sediments are frequently remobilized and transported by the littoral drift. Living benthic foraminiferal densities were also reduced in stations at 80-200 m depth, despite the high sedimentary TOM contents. Results obtained in this work indicate that, in this marine setting, the most determinant factors for the dimension and composition of living foraminifera are not the sediments’ granulometry and organic matter content. In fact, the coastal dynamics, sediment stability, availability of quality food, among other factors, such as the bottom salinity oscillations and their combination, should better explain the abundance of living foraminifera and the biocenoses composition.

  12. The surface climatology of the Ross Ice Shelf Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanza, Carol A; Lazzara, Matthew A; Keller, Linda M; Cassano, John J

    2016-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison Antarctic Automatic Weather Station (AWS) project has been making meteorological surface observations on the Ross Ice Shelf (RIS) for approximately 30 years. This network offers the most continuous set of routine measurements of surface meteorological variables in this region. The Ross Island area is excluded from this study. The surface climate of the RIS is described using the AWS measurements. Temperature, pressure, and wind data are analysed on daily, monthly, seasonal, and annual time periods for 13 AWS across the RIS. The AWS are separated into three representative regions - central, coastal, and the area along the Transantarctic Mountains - in order to describe specific characteristics of sections of the RIS. The climatology describes general characteristics of the region and significant changes over time. The central AWS experiences the coldest mean temperature, and the lowest resultant wind speed. These AWSs also experience the coldest potential temperatures with a minimum of 209.3 K at Gill AWS. The AWS along the Transantarctic Mountains experiences the warmest mean temperature, the highest mean sea-level pressure, and the highest mean resultant wind speed. Finally, the coastal AWS experiences the lowest mean pressure. Climate indices (MEI, SAM, and SAO) are compared to temperature and pressure data of four of the AWS with the longest observation periods, and significant correlation is found for most AWS in sea-level pressure and temperature. This climatology study highlights characteristics that influence the climate of the RIS, and the challenges of maintaining a long-term Antarctic AWS network. Results from this effort are essential for the broader Antarctic meteorology community for future research.

  13. Australian Northwest Shelf: a Late Neogene Reversible Tectonic Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kominz, M. A.; Gurnis, M.; Gallagher, S. J.; Expedition 356 Scientists, I.

    2017-12-01

    The Northwest Shelf (NWS) of Australia is characterized by several offshore basins with active rifting in Permian and Jurassic time. Thus, by the Late Neogene this continental margin should be a very slowly subsiding passive margin. However, thick, poorly dated sediments have been noted in this region leading to speculation that this part of Australia has undergone down-warping in this time period. The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 356 was designed, in part, to better constrain this even in both time and space. Post-cruise Airy-backstripping analyses of samples from four IODP 356 well sites, located as far south as the Perth Basin and as far North as the Carnarvon Basin, suggest that, in fact, this region has undergone a latest Miocene (≈ 8 to 6 Ma) subsidence event followed by a later (≈ 2 to 1 Ma) uplift event. Age constraints are from micropaleontology with some refinement using climate cycle-stratigraphy. Water depth constraints are from benthic foraminifera and from quantitative ratios of benthic foraminifera to planktonic foraminifera. These event cannot be explained as related to either the high-magnitude glacial eustatic changes nor can the uplift event be eliminated and ascribed to sediments filling the accommodation space generated in the earlier event. The magnitude and duration of the vertical movements are remarkably similar and suggests that the subsidence is reversible. Reversibility is a key aspect of a dynamic topography signal. However, it is difficult to produce a mantle anomaly that reproduces the subsidence and subsequent uplift with the requisite amplitude and rates as observed in the NWS of Australia. Additionally, the subduction of the Australian Plate into the Java Trench is too distant to affect this region of Australia. Modeling of a flexural warping due to in-plane stress related to collision of Timor with the Java trench is

  14. Methane-oxidizing seawater microbial communities from an Arctic shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, Christiane; Kirkpatrick, John B.; D'Hondt, Steven; Loose, Brice

    2018-06-01

    Marine microbial communities can consume dissolved methane before it can escape to the atmosphere and contribute to global warming. Seawater over the shallow Arctic shelf is characterized by excess methane compared to atmospheric equilibrium. This methane originates in sediment, permafrost, and hydrate. Particularly high concentrations are found beneath sea ice. We studied the structure and methane oxidation potential of the microbial communities from seawater collected close to Utqiagvik, Alaska, in April 2016. The in situ methane concentrations were 16.3 ± 7.2 nmol L-1, approximately 4.8 times oversaturated relative to atmospheric equilibrium. The group of methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) in the natural seawater and incubated seawater was > 97 % dominated by Methylococcales (γ-Proteobacteria). Incubations of seawater under a range of methane concentrations led to loss of diversity in the bacterial community. The abundance of MOB was low with maximal fractions of 2.5 % at 200 times elevated methane concentration, while sequence reads of non-MOB methylotrophs were 4 times more abundant than MOB in most incubations. The abundances of MOB as well as non-MOB methylotroph sequences correlated tightly with the rate constant (kox) for methane oxidation, indicating that non-MOB methylotrophs might be coupled to MOB and involved in community methane oxidation. In sea ice, where methane concentrations of 82 ± 35.8 nmol kg-1 were found, Methylobacterium (α-Proteobacteria) was the dominant MOB with a relative abundance of 80 %. Total MOB abundances were very low in sea ice, with maximal fractions found at the ice-snow interface (0.1 %), while non-MOB methylotrophs were present in abundances similar to natural seawater communities. The dissimilarities in MOB taxa, methane concentrations, and stable isotope ratios between the sea ice and water column point toward different methane dynamics in the two environments.

  15. Extension of Space Food Shelf Life Through Hurdle Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, M. R.; Sirmons, T. A.; Froio-Blumsack, D.; Mohr, L.; Young, M.; Douglas, G. L.

    2018-01-01

    The processed and prepackaged space food system is the main source of crew nutrition, and hence central to astronaut health and performance. Unfortunately, space food quality and nutrition degrade to unacceptable levels in two to three years with current food stabilization technologies. Future exploration missions will require a food system that remains safe, acceptable and nutritious through five years of storage within vehicle resource constraints. The potential of stabilization technologies (alternative storage temperatures, processing, formulation, ingredient source, packaging, and preparation procedures), when combined in hurdle approach, to mitigate quality and nutritional degradation is being assessed. Sixteen representative foods from the International Space Station food system were chosen for production and analysis and will be evaluated initially and at one, three, and five years with potential for analysis at seven years if necessary. Analysis includes changes in color, texture, nutrition, sensory quality, and rehydration ratio when applicable. The food samples will be stored at -20 C, 4 C, and 21 C. Select food samples will also be evaluated at -80 C to determine the impacts of ultra-cold storage after one and five years. Packaging film barrier properties and mechanical integrity will be assessed before and after processing and storage. At the study conclusion, if tested hurdles are adequate, formulation, processing, and storage combinations will be uniquely identified for processed food matrices to achieve a five-year shelf life. This study will provide one of the most comprehensive investigations of long duration food stability ever completed, and the achievement of extended food system stability will have profound impacts to health and performance for spaceflight crews and for relief efforts and military applications on Earth.

  16. Polynya dynamics and associated atmospheric forcing at the Ronne Ice Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Lars; Heinemann, Günther

    2014-05-01

    The Ronne Ice Shelf is known as one of the most active regions of polynya developments around the Antarctic continent. Low temperatures are prevailing throughout the whole year, particularly in winter. It is generally recognized that polynya formations are primarily forced by offshore winds and secondarily by ocean currents. Many authors have addressed this issue previously at the Ross Ice Shelf and Adélie Coast and connected polynya dynamics to strong katabatic surge events. Such investigations of atmospheric dynamics and simultaneous polynya occurrence are still severely underrepresented for the southwestern part of the Weddell Sea and especially for the Ronne Ice Shelf. Due to the very flat terrain gradients of the ice shelf katabatic winds are of minor importance in that area. Other atmospheric processes must therefore play a crucial role for polynya developments at the Ronne Ice Shelf. High-resolution simulations have been carried out for the Weddell Sea region using the non-hydrostatic NWP model COSMO from the German Meteorological Service (DWD). For the austral autumn and winter (March to August) 2008 daily forecast simulations were conducted with the consideration of daily sea-ice coverage deduced from the passive microwave system AMSR-E. These simulations are used to analyze the synoptic and mesoscale atmospheric dynamics of the Weddell Sea region and find linkages to polynya occurrence at the Ronne Ice Shelf. For that reason, the relation between the surface wind speed, the synoptic pressure gradient in the free atmosphere and polynya area is investigated. Seven significant polynya events are identified for the simulation period, three in the autumn and four in the winter season. It can be shown that in almost all cases synoptic cyclones are the primary polynya forcing systems. In most cases the timely interaction of several passing cyclones in the northern and central Weddell Sea leads to maintenance of a strong synoptic pressure gradient above the

  17. Observed tidal currents on the continental shelf off the east coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jithin, A. K.; Unnikrishnan, A. S.; Fernando, V.; Subeesh, M. P.; Fernandes, R.; Khalap, S.; Narayan, S.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Gaonkar, M.; Tari, P.; Kankonkar, A.; Vernekar, S.

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, we analysed 9-month long data from Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP) deployed on the shelf off the east coast of India to study the characteristics of tidal currents in the region. The ADCPs were deployed at about 100-150 m depths off Cuddalore (CD, 12.0°N), Ramayapatnam (RM, 15.0°N), Kakinada (KN, 16.3°N) and South of Gopalpur (SG, 18.6°N). Tidal currents in the region are mainly semidiurnal in nature and dominant constituent is M2. Semimajor axes of barotropic tidal ellipses of M2 is about 1.9 cms-1 in the southernmost ADCP location (off CD) and it is about 4.0 cms-1 in the northernmost ADCP location (off SG), which indicate a northward increase of tidal currents. Baroclinic spectra show high energy at tidal frequencies, which suggests the presence of internal tides on the shelf, particularly in the semidiurnal band. Semidiurnal internal tides of about 8-15 cms-1 are observed at different locations and the magnitude is relatively large on the shelf off SG in the northern part of the shelf, which is primarily due to large barotropic forcing on the north. The semidiurnal internal tides are found to be intensified at the bottom, particularly on the shelf off SG and RM. The computed ratio of slope of internal wave characteristics (c) and topographic slope (γ) indicates that large near-critical regions present surrounding the ADCP locations off SG and RM could be the possible reason of bottom intensification at these two locations. EOF analysis shows that observed semidiurnal internal tides are dominated by the first baroclinic mode, where it accounts for about 70-80% of semidiurnal internal tide variability on the shelf off SG and CD, whereas the contribution of the first mode is relatively small (43-50%) on the shelf off KN and RM. Enhanced small-scale vertical shear is observed at the ADCP locations associated with multimode structure of semidiurnal internal tides. Semidiurnal internal tides show a spring-neap variability on the

  18. Exchanges between the shelf and the deep Black Sea: an integrated analysis of physical mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zatsepin, Andrei; Akivis, Tatiana; Zhou, Feng

    2017-04-01

    This study provides an integrated analysis of exchanges of water, salt and heat between the north-western Black Sea shelf and the deep basin. Three contributing physical mechanisms are quantified, namely: Ekman drift, transport by mesoscale eddies at the edge of the NW Black Sea shelf and non-local cascading assisted by the rim current and mesoscale eddies. The semi-enclosed nature of the Black Sea together with its unique combination of an extensive shelf area in the North West and the deep central part make it sensitive to natural variations of fluxes, including the fluxes between the biologically productive shelf and predominantly anoxic deep sea. Exchanges between the shelf and deep sea play an important role in forming the balance of waters, nutrients and pollution within the coastal areas, and hence the level of human-induced eutrophication of coastal waters (MSFD Descriptor 5). In this study we analyse physical mechanisms and quantify shelf-deep sea exchange processes in the Black Sea sector using the NEMO ocean circulation model. The model is configured and optimized taking into account specific features of the Black Sea, and validated against in-situ and satellite observations. The study uses NEMO-BLS24 numerical model which is based on the NEMO codebase v3.2.1 with amendments introduced by the UK Met Office. The model has a horizontal resolution of 1/24×1/24° and a hybrid s-on-top-of-z vertical coordinate system with a total of 33 layers. The horizontal viscosity/diffusivity operator is rotated to reduce the contamination of vertical diffusion/viscosity by large values of their horizontal counterparts. The bathymetry is processed from ETOPO5 and capped to 1550m. Atmospheric forcing for the period 1989-2012 is given by the Drakkar Forcing Set v5.2. For comparison, the NCEP atmospheric forcing also used for 2005. The climatological runoff from 8 major rivers is included. We run the model individually for 24 calendar years without data assimilation. For

  19. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehling, Johanna; Davidson, Keith; Bolch, Christopher J S; Brand, Tim D; Narayanaswamy, Bhavani E

    2012-01-01

    Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA), of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations) clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS) demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community), and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone). Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi limitation of

  20. The evolving instability of the remnant Larsen B Ice Shelf and its tributary glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazendar, Ala; Borstad, Christopher P.; Scheuchl, Bernd; Rignot, Eric; Seroussi, Helene

    2015-06-01

    Following the 2002 disintegration of the northern and central parts of the Larsen B Ice Shelf, the tributary glaciers of the southern surviving part initially appeared relatively unchanged and hence assumed to be buttressed sufficiently by the remnant ice shelf. Here, we modify this perception with observations from IceBridge altimetry and InSAR-inferred ice flow speeds. Our analyses show that the surfaces of Leppard and Flask glaciers directly upstream from their grounding lines lowered by 15 to 20 m in the period 2002-2011. The thinning appears to be dynamic as the flow of both glaciers and the remnant ice shelf accelerated in the same period. Flask Glacier started accelerating even before the 2002 disintegration, increasing its flow speed by ∼55% between 1997 and 2012. Starbuck Glacier meanwhile did not change much. We hypothesize that the different evolutions of the three glaciers are related to their dissimilar bed topographies and degrees of grounding. We apply numerical modeling and data assimilation that show these changes to be accompanied by a reduction in the buttressing afforded by the remnant ice shelf, a weakening of the shear zones between its flow units and an increase in its fracture. The fast flowing northwestern part of the remnant ice shelf exhibits increasing fragmentation, while the stagnant southeastern part seems to be prone to the formation of large rifts, some of which we show have delimited successive calving events. A large rift only 12 km downstream from the grounding line is currently traversing the stagnant part of the ice shelf, defining the likely front of the next large calving event. We propose that the flow acceleration, ice front retreat and enhanced fracture of the remnant Larsen B Ice Shelf presage its approaching demise.

  1. Evolution of Meltwater on the McMurdo Ice Shelf, Antarctica During Two Summer Melt Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, G. J.; Banwell, A. F.; Willis, I.; Mayer, D. P.; Hansen, E. K.; MacAyeal, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Ice shelves surround > 50% of Antarctica's coast and their response to climate change is key to the ice sheet's future and global sea-level rise. Observations of the development and drainage of 2750 lakes prior to the collapse of the Larsen B Ice Shelf, combined with our understanding of ice-shelf flexure/fracture, suggest that surface meltwater plays a key role in ice-shelf stability, although the present state of knowledge remains limited. Here, we report results of an investigation into the seasonal evolution of meltwater on the McMurdo Ice Shelf (MIS) during the 2015/16 and 2016/17 austral summers using satellite remote sensing, complemented by ground survey. Although the MIS is relatively far south (78° S), it experiences relatively high ablation rates in the west due to adiabatically warmed winds, making it a useful example of how meltwater could evolve on more southerly ice shelves in a warming climate. We calculate the areas and depths of ponded surface meltwater on the ice shelf at different stages of the two melt seasons using a modified NDWI approach and water-depth algorithm applied to both Landsat 8 and Worldview imagery. Data from two automatic weather stations on the ice shelf are used to drive a positive degree-day model to compare our observations of surface water volumes with modelled meltwater production. Results suggest that the spatial and temporal variations in surface meltwater coverage on the ice shelf vary not only with climatic conditions but also in response to other important processes. First, a rift that widens and propagates between the two melt seasons intercepts meltwater streams, redirecting flow and facilitating ponding elsewhere. Second, some lakes from previous years remain frozen over and become pedestalled, causing streams to divert around their perimeter. Third, surface debris conditions also cause large-scale spatial variation in melt rates and the flow and storage of water.

  2. The relationship between phytoplankton distribution and water column characteristics in North West European shelf sea waters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Fehling

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton underpin the marine food web in shelf seas, with some species having properties that are harmful to human health and coastal aquaculture. Pressures such as climate change and anthropogenic nutrient input are hypothesized to influence phytoplankton community composition and distribution. Yet the primary environmental drivers in shelf seas are poorly understood. To begin to address this in North Western European waters, the phytoplankton community composition was assessed in light of measured physical and chemical drivers during the "Ellett Line" cruise of autumn 2001 across the Scottish Continental shelf and into adjacent open Atlantic waters. Spatial variability existed in both phytoplankton and environmental conditions, with clear differences not only between on and off shelf stations but also between different on shelf locations. Temperature/salinity plots demonstrated different water masses existed in the region. In turn, principal component analysis (PCA, of the measured environmental conditions (temperature, salinity, water density and inorganic nutrient concentrations clearly discriminated between shelf and oceanic stations on the basis of DIN:DSi ratio that was correlated with both salinity and temperature. Discrimination between shelf stations was also related to this ratio, but also the concentration of DIN and DSi. The phytoplankton community was diatom dominated, with multidimensional scaling (MDS demonstrating spatial variability in its composition. Redundancy analysis (RDA was used to investigate the link between environment and the phytoplankton community. This demonstrated a significant relationship between community composition and water mass as indexed by salinity (whole community, and both salinity and DIN:DSi (diatoms alone. Diatoms of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata group occurred at densities potentially harmful to shellfish aquaculture, with the potential for toxicity being elevated by the likelihood of DSi

  3. Shelf-life extension of gilthead seabream fillets by osmotic treatment and antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsironi, T N; Taoukis, P S

    2012-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to evaluate the effect of selected antimicrobial agents on the shelf life of osmotically pretreated gilthead seabream and to establish reliable kinetic equations for shelf-life determination validated in dynamic conditions. Fresh gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) fillets were osmotically treated with 50% high dextrose equivalent maltodextrin (HDM, DE 47) plus 5% NaCl and 0·5% carvacrol, 0·5% glucono-δ-lactone or 1% Citrox (commercial antimicrobial mix). Untreated and treated slices were aerobically packed and stored isothermally (0-15°C). Microbial growth and quality-related chemical indices were modelled as functions of temperature. Models were validated at dynamic storage conditions. Osmotic pretreatment with the use of antimicrobials led to significant shelf-life extension of fillets, in terms of microbial growth and organoleptic deterioration. The shelf life was 7 days for control samples at 5°C. The osmotic pretreatment with carvacrol, glucono-δ-lactone and Citrox allowed for shelf-life extension by 8, 10 and 5 days at 5°C, respectively. The results of the study show the potential of adding carvacrol, glucono-δ-lactone or Citrox in the osmotic solution to extend the shelf life and improve commercial value of chilled osmotically pretreated fish products. The developed models can be a reliable tool for predicting the shelf life of fresh or minimally processed gilthead seabream fillets in the real chill chain. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Interannual variability of surface and bottom sediment transport on the Laptev Sea shelf during summer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wegner

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Sediment transport dynamics were studied during ice-free conditions under different atmospheric circulation regimes on the Laptev Sea shelf (Siberian Arctic. To study the interannual variability of suspended particulate matter (SPM dynamics and their coupling with the variability in surface river water distribution on the Laptev Sea shelf, detailed oceanographic, optical (turbidity and Ocean Color satellite data, and hydrochemical (nutrients, SPM, stable oxygen isotopes process studies were carried out continuously during the summers of 2007 and 2008. Thus, for the first time SPM and nutrient variations on the Laptev Sea shelf under different atmospheric forcing and the implications for the turbidity and transparency of the water column can be presented.

    The data indicate a clear link between different surface distributions of riverine waters and the SPM transport dynamics within the entire water column. The summer of 2007 was dominated by shoreward winds and an eastward transport of riverine surface waters. The surface SPM concentration on the southeastern inner shelf was elevated, which led to decreased transmissivity and increased light absorption. Surface SPM concentrations in the central and northern Laptev Sea were comparatively low. However, the SPM transport and concentration within the bottom nepheloid layer increased considerably on the entire eastern shelf. The summer of 2008 was dominated by offshore winds and northward transport of the river plume. The surface SPM transport was enhanced and extended onto the mid-shelf, whereas the bottom SPM transport and concentration was diminished. This study suggests that the SPM concentration and transport, in both the surface and bottom nepheloid layers, are associated with the distribution of riverine surface waters which are linked to the atmospheric circulation patterns over the Laptev Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean during the open water season. A continuing trend toward

  5. The salinity signature of the cross-shelf exchanges in the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean: Satellite observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Raul A; Piola, Alberto R; Fenco, Harold; Matano, Ricardo P; Combes, Vincent; Chao, Yi; James, Corinne; Palma, Elbio D; Saraceno, Martin; Strub, P Ted

    2014-11-01

    Satellite-derived sea surface salinity (SSS) data from Aquarius and SMOS are used to study the shelf-open ocean exchanges in the western South Atlantic near 35°S. Away from the tropics, these exchanges cause the largest SSS variability throughout the South Atlantic. The data reveal a well-defined seasonal pattern of SSS during the analyzed period and of the location of the export of low-salinity shelf waters. In spring and summer, low-salinity waters over the shelf expand offshore and are transferred to the open ocean primarily southeast of the river mouth (from 36°S to 37°30'S). In contrast, in fall and winter, low-salinity waters extend along a coastal plume and the export path to the open ocean distributes along the offshore edge of the plume. The strong seasonal SSS pattern is modulated by the seasonality of the along-shelf component of the wind stress over the shelf. However, the combined analysis of SSS, satellite-derived sea surface elevation and surface velocity data suggest that the precise location of the export of shelf waters depends on offshore circulation patterns, such as the location of the Brazil Malvinas Confluence and mesoscale eddies and meanders of the Brazil Current. The satellite data indicate that in summer, mixtures of low-salinity shelf waters are swiftly driven toward the ocean interior along the axis of the Brazil/Malvinas Confluence. In winter, episodic wind reversals force the low-salinity coastal plume offshore where they mix with tropical waters within the Brazil Current and create a warmer variety of low-salinity waters in the open ocean. Satellite salinity sensors capture low-salinity detrainment events from shelves SW Atlantic low-salinity detrainments cause highest basin-scale variability In summer low-salinity detrainments cause extended low-salinity anomalies.

  6. Geochemical record of Holocene to Recent sedimentation on the Western Indus continental shelf, Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limmer, David R.; BöNing, Philipp; Giosan, Liviu; Ponton, Camilo; KöHler, Cornelia M.; Cooper, Matthew J.; Tabrez, Ali R.; Clift, Peter D.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multiproxy geochemical analysis of two cores recovered from the Indus Shelf spanning the Early Holocene to Recent (<14 ka). Indus-23 is located close to the modern Indus River, while Indus-10 is positioned ˜100 km further west. The Holocene transgression at Indus-10 was over a surface that was strongly weathered during the last glacial sea level lowstand. Lower Holocene sediments at Indus-10 have higherɛNdvalues compared to those at the river mouth indicating some sediment supply from the Makran coast, either during the deposition or via reworking of older sediments outcropping on the shelf. Sediment transport from Makran occurred during transgressive intervals when sea level crossed the mid shelf. The sediment flux from non-Indus sources to Indus-10 peaked between 11 ka and 8 ka. A hiatus at Indus-23 from 8 ka until 1.3 ka indicates non-deposition or erosion of existing Indus Shelf sequences. HigherɛNdvalues seen on the shelf compared to the delta imply reworking of older delta sediments in building Holocene clinoforms. Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA), Mg/Al and Sr isotopes are all affected by erosion of detrital carbonate, which reduced through the Holocene. K/Al data suggest that silicate weathering peaked ca. 4-6 ka and was higher at Indus-10 compared to Indus-23. Fine-grained sediments that make up the shelf have geochemical signatures that are different from the coarser grained bulk sediments measured in the delta plain. The Indus Shelf data highlight the complexity of reconstructing records of continental erosion and provenance in marine settings.

  7. Variability of Shelf Growth Patterns along the Iberian Mediterranean Margin: Sediment Supply and Tectonic Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Durán

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinoform depositional features along the Iberian Mediterranean margin are investigated in this study, with the aim of establishing the causes of their varied shapes and other characteristics. We have analyzed the broad-scale margin physiography and seismic stratigraphic patterns based on high-resolution bathymetric data and previously interpreted seismic data. In addition, we have evaluated regional supply conditions and the uplift-subsidence regime of the different shelf sectors. The upper Quaternary record is strongly dominated by shelf-margin regressive wedges affected by the prevailing 100 ka cyclicity. However, the margins exhibit considerable lateral variability, as the result of the balance between the amount of sediment supply and the uplift-subsidence relationship. Three major shelf sectors with distinct morpho-sedimentary features have been defined. The relatively narrow northern shelves (Roses, La Planassa and Barcelona are supplied by discrete river outlets that collectively constitute a linear source and are mainly affected by tectonic tilting. The wide middle shelves (Ebro Shelf, the Gulf of Valencia, and the Northern Arc receive the sediment supply from the large Ebro River and other medium rivers. Although the tectonic regime changes laterally (strong subsidence in the north and uplift in the south, shelf growth is maintained by lateral advection of sediments. The southern shelves (the Southern Arc and the northern Alboran Shelf are very abrupt and narrow because of the uplifting Betic Cordillera, and the torrential fluvial regimes that determine a very efficient sediment by-pass toward the deep basin. Submarine canyons deeply incised in the continental margin constitute a key physiographic feature that may enhance the transport of sediment to the deep sea or individualize shelf sectors with specific sedimentation patterns, as occurs in the Catalan margin.

  8. Similarities and differences among fluid milk products: traditionally produced, extended shelf life and ultrahigh-temperature processed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabowski, N T; Ahlfeld, B; Brix, A; Hagemann, A; von Münchhausen, C; Klein, G

    2013-06-01

    Extended shelf life milk is a relatively new kind of fluid milk, generally manufactured by high-temperature treatment and/or micro-filtration. Being advertised as 'pasteurized milk with an extended shelf life', its flavour, compositional quality and labelling was questioned. Extended shelf life (high-temperature treatment), pasteurized ('traditionally produced') and ultrahigh-temperature milk were, therefore, compared at the beginning and end of shelf life. In triangle tests, panellists distinguished clearly between all products. High-temperature treatment milk's flavour was closer to ultrahigh-temperature and traditionally produced milk in the beginning and at the end of shelf life, respectively. Physicochemically and bacteriologically, all three types could be distinguished. Since 'extended shelf life' comprises many process varieties (each affecting flavour differently), consumer information and appropriate package labelling beyond 'long-lasting' is necessary, e.g. by mentioning the heat treatment applied.

  9. Explicit representation and parametrised impacts of under ice shelf seas in the z∗ coordinate ocean model NEMO 3.6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Mathiot

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ice-shelf–ocean interactions are a major source of freshwater on the Antarctic continental shelf and have a strong impact on ocean properties, ocean circulation and sea ice. However, climate models based on the ocean–sea ice model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean currently do not include these interactions in any detail. The capability of explicitly simulating the circulation beneath ice shelves is introduced in the non-linear free surface model NEMO. Its implementation into the NEMO framework and its assessment in an idealised and realistic circum-Antarctic configuration is described in this study. Compared with the current prescription of ice shelf melting (i.e. at the surface, inclusion of open sub-ice-shelf cavities leads to a decrease in sea ice thickness along the coast, a weakening of the ocean stratification on the shelf, a decrease in salinity of high-salinity shelf water on the Ross and Weddell sea shelves and an increase in the strength of the gyres that circulate within the over-deepened basins on the West Antarctic continental shelf. Mimicking the overturning circulation under the ice shelves by introducing a prescribed meltwater flux over the depth range of the ice shelf base, rather than at the surface, is also assessed. It yields similar improvements in the simulated ocean properties and circulation over the Antarctic continental shelf to those from the explicit ice shelf cavity representation. With the ice shelf cavities opened, the widely used three equation ice shelf melting formulation, which enables an interactive computation of melting, is tested. Comparison with observational estimates of ice shelf melting indicates realistic results for most ice shelves. However, melting rates for the Amery, Getz and George VI ice shelves are considerably overestimated.

  10. Seasonal and inter-annual temperature variability in the bottom waters over the Black Sea shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, G. I.; Wobus, F.; Aleynik, D. L.

    2011-02-01

    Long-term changes in the state of the Bottom Shelf Water (BSW) on the Western shelf of the Black Sea are assessed using analysis of intra- and inter-annual variations of temperature as well as their relations to physical parameters of both shelf and deep-sea waters. First, large data sets of in-situ observations over the 20th century are compiled into high-resolution monthly climatology at different depth levels. Then, the temperature anomalies from the climatic mean are calculated and aggregated into spatial compartments and seasonal bins to reveal temporal evolution of the BSW. For the purpose of this study the BSW is defined as such shelf water body between the seabed and the upper mixed layer (bounded by the σθ = 14.2 isopycnal) which has limited ability to mix vertically with oxygen-rich surface waters during the warm season (May-November) due to the formation of a seasonal pycnocline. The effects of atmospheric processes at the surface on the BSW are hence suppressed as well as the action of the "biological pump". The vertical extent of the near- bottom waters is determined based on energy considerations and the structure of the seasonal pycnocline, whilst the horizontal extent is controlled by the shelf break, where strong along-slope currents hinder exchanges with the deep sea. The BSW is shown to occupy nearly half of the area of the shelf during the summer stratification period. The potential of the BSW to ventilate horizontally during the warm season with the deep-sea waters is assessed using isopycnic analysis of temperature variations. A long-term time series of temperature anomalies in the BSW is constructed from observations during the May-November period for the 2nd half of the 20th century. The results reveal a warm phase in the 1960s/70s, followed by cooling of the BSW during 1980-2001. The transition between the warm and cold periods coincides with a regime shift in the Black Sea ecosystem. While it was confirmed that the memory of winter

  11. Carbon mineralization in Laptev and East Siberian sea shelf and slope sediment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Brüchert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Siberian Arctic Sea shelf and slope is a key region for the degradation of terrestrial organic material transported from the organic-carbon-rich permafrost regions of Siberia. We report on sediment carbon mineralization rates based on O2 microelectrode profiling; intact sediment core incubations; 35S-sulfate tracer experiments; pore-water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; δ13CDIC; and iron, manganese, and ammonium concentrations from 20 shelf and slope stations. This data set provides a spatial overview of sediment carbon mineralization rates and pathways over large parts of the outer Laptev and East Siberian Arctic shelf and slope and allows us to assess degradation rates and efficiency of carbon burial in these sediments. Rates of oxygen uptake and iron and manganese reduction were comparable to temperate shelf and slope environments, but bacterial sulfate reduction rates were comparatively low. In the topmost 50 cm of sediment, aerobic carbon mineralization dominated degradation and comprised on average 84 % of the depth-integrated carbon mineralization. Oxygen uptake rates and anaerobic carbon mineralization rates were higher in the eastern East Siberian Sea shelf compared to the Laptev Sea shelf. DIC ∕ NH4+ ratios in pore waters and the stable carbon isotope composition of remineralized DIC indicated that the degraded organic matter on the Siberian shelf and slope was a mixture of marine and terrestrial organic matter. Based on dual end-member calculations, the terrestrial organic carbon contribution varied between 32 and 36 %, with a higher contribution in the Laptev Sea than in the East Siberian Sea. Extrapolation of the measured degradation rates using isotope end-member apportionment over the outer shelf of the Laptev and East Siberian seas suggests that about 16 Tg C yr−1 is respired in the outer shelf seafloor sediment. Of the organic matter buried below the oxygen penetration depth, between 0.6 and 1.3

  12. Nepheloid Layers: Origin and Development In A Narrow Continental Shelf (nw Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, A.; Vitorino, J.; Rodrigues, A.; Jouanneau, J. M.; Weber, O.; Dias, J. A.

    A general hydrographic, nephelometric and sedimentological surveying of the NW Portuguese continental shelf and slope was undertaken, under winter and spring con- ditions in order to elaborate a conceptual model of suspended sediments (nepheloid layer) dynamics. Two major situations were found: 1) Spring/Summer - with northerly winds (upwelling) and low energetic wave regime that favour the deposition of sedi- ments. The northerly winds promote offshore transport in the surface nepheloid layer (SNL) and the establishment of a seasonal thermocline allow the expansion of the SNL to the west. The SNL can reach or even cross the shelf-break (50 km from coastline). Particulate organic carbon (POC) content in this layer highlights the higher contribution of biogenic particles (average concentration of 22%); 2) Winter, with southerly winds (downwelling) and high energetic wave regime that favour mid- shelf sediments resuspension and offshore transport in the bottom nepheloid layer (BNL). In the shelf-break the BNL detached to form intermediate nepheloid layers (INL). The SNL is restricted to the inner shelf. The effect of southerly winds gener- ates shoreward Ekman transport and detains the offshore westward extension of this layer even during high river run-off periods. The POC content indicates a dominance of litogenic particles in suspension (average concentration of 8%). Over the mid- and inner-shelf the dominant resuspension mechanism is associated with surface waves (Vitorino et al., 2002). Estimates based on wave measurements at mid-shelf (86m depth) suggested that, in winter, the wave shear velocity frequently exceeds 1 cm/s, assumed as the critical shear velocity for the resuspension of the fine grained sedi- ments (34m) of the bottom cover. Storm events, such as the one observed in November 1996 easily increase the wave shear velocities over 3 cm/s, leading to the increase of the BNL thickness (20-30m) (Vitorino et al., 2002; Oliveira et al., 2002). Low

  13. Fun at Antarctic grounding lines: Ice-shelf channels and sediment transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Reinhard; Mayer, Christoph; Eisen, Olaf; Helm, Veit; Ehlers, Todd A.; Pattyn, Frank; Berger, Sophie; Favier, Lionel; Hewitt, Ian H.; Ng, Felix; Fürst, Johannes J.; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Bergeot, Nicolas; Matsuoka, Kenichi

    2017-04-01

    Meltwater beneath the polar ice sheets drains, in part, through subglacial conduits. Landforms created by such drainages are abundant in areas formerly covered by ice sheets during the last glacial maximum. However, observations of subglacial conduit dynamics under a contemporary ice sheet are lacking. We present results from ice-penetrating radar to infer the existence of subglacial conduits upstream of the grounding line of Roi Baudouin Ice Shelf, Antarctica. The conduits are aligned with ice-shelf channels, and underlain by esker ridges formed from sediment deposition due to reduced water outflow speed near the grounding line. In turn, the eskers modify local ice flow to initiate the bottom topography of the ice-shelf channels, and create small surface ridges extending onto the shelf. Relict features on the shelf are interpreted to indicate a history of these interactions and variability of past subglacial drainages. Because ice-shelf channels are loci where intense melting occurs to thin an ice shelf, these findings expose a novel link between subglacial drainage, sedimentation, and ice-shelf stability. To investigate the role of sediment transport beneath ice sheets further, we model the sheet-shelf system of the Ekstömisen catchment, Antarctica. A 3D finite element model (Elmer/ICE) is used to solve the transients full Stokes equation for isotropic, isothermal ice with a dynamic grounding line. We initialize the model with surface topography from the TanDEM-X satellites and by inverting simultaneously for ice viscosity and basal drag using present-day surface velocities. Results produce a flow field which is consitent with sattelite and on-site observations. Solving the age-depth relationship allows comparison with radar isochrones from airborne data, and gives information about the atmospheric/dynamic history of this sector. The flow field will eventually be used to identify potential sediment sources and sinks which we compare with more than 400 km of

  14. Biodisponibilidade do P e digestibilidade aparente do N em dietas de suínos suplementadas com níveis crescentes de fitase, balanceadas de acordo com o conceito de proteína ideal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Moreira

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o efeito de inclusão crescente de fitase (unidade de fitase - UF em dietas para suínos na fase de crescimento pela técnica de diluição isotópica. Foram utilizados 20 suínos, machos castrados, em delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos - 0, 250, 500, 750 e 1000UF/kg da ração - e quatro repetições. Os animais foram alojados em gaiolas metabólicas por 17 dias, sendo 10 dias para adaptação e sete dias para coleta de fezes e urina. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas por cinco dias. No primeiro dia da fase experimental, cada animal recebeu por via endovenosa em solução radioativa com 7,4MBq de 32P. A Quantum Phytase foi eficiente em disponibilizar o P fítico para suínos em crescimento até 750UF/kg de dieta, sendo que 500UF/kg da ração foi o indicado para dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja, formuladas de acordo com o conceito de proteína ideal.

  15. Antarctic Ice Shelf Potentially Stabilized by Export of Meltwater in Surface River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Robin E.; Chu, Winnie; Kingslake, Jonathan; Das, Indrani; Tedesco, Marco; Tinto, Kirsty J.; Zappa, Christopher J.; Frezzotti, Massimo; Boghosian, Alexandra; Lee, Won Sang

    2017-01-01

    Meltwater stored in ponds and crevasses can weaken and fracture ice shelves, triggering their rapid disintegration. This ice-shelf collapse results in an increased flux of ice from adjacent glaciers and ice streams, thereby raising sea level globally. However, surface rivers forming on ice shelves could potentially export stored meltwater and prevent its destructive effects. Here we present evidence for persistent active drainage networks-interconnected streams, ponds and rivers-on the Nansen Ice Shelf in Antarctica that export a large fraction of the ice shelf's meltwater into the ocean. We find that active drainage has exported water off the ice surface through waterfalls and dolines for more than a century. The surface river terminates in a 130-metre-wide waterfall that can export the entire annual surface melt over the course of seven days. During warmer melt seasons, these drainage networks adapt to changing environmental conditions by remaining active for longer and exporting more water. Similar networks are present on the ice shelf in front of Petermann Glacier, Greenland, but other systems, such as on the Larsen C and Amery Ice Shelves, retain surface water at present. The underlying reasons for export versus retention remain unclear. Nonetheless our results suggest that, in a future warming climate, surface rivers could export melt off the large ice shelves surrounding Antarctica-contrary to present Antarctic ice-sheet models, which assume that meltwater is stored on the ice surface where it triggers ice-shelf disintegration.

  16. CMIP5-downscaled projections for the NW European Shelf Seas: initial results and insights into uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Jonathan; Palmer, Matthew; Lowe, Jason; Howard, Tom

    2017-04-01

    The North Sea, and wider Northwest European Shelf seas (NWS) are economically, environmentally, and culturally important for a number of European countries. They are protected by European legislation, often with specific reference to the potential impacts of climate change. Coastal climate change projections are an important source of information for effective management of European Shelf Seas. For example, potential changes in the marine environment are a key component of the climate change risk assessments (CCRAs) carried out under the UK Climate Change Act We use the NEMO shelf seas model combined with CMIP5 climate model and EURO-CORDEX regional atmospheric model data to generate new simulations of the NWS. Building on previous work using a climate model perturbed physics ensemble and the POLCOMS, this new model setup is used to provide first indication of the uncertainties associated with: (i) the driving climate model; (ii) the atmospheric downscaling model (iii) the shelf seas downscaling model; (iv) the choice of climate change scenario. Our analysis considers a range of physical marine impacts and the drivers of coastal variability and change, including sea level and the propagation of open ocean signals onto the shelf. The simulations are being carried out as part of the UK Climate Projections 2018 (UKCP18) and will feed into the following UK CCRA.

  17. Mixing processes at the subsurface layer in the Amundsen Sea shelf region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojica, J.; Djoumna, G.; Francis, D. K.; Holland, D.

    2017-12-01

    In the Amundsen Sea shelf region, mixing processes promote an upward transport of diapycnal fluxes of heat and salt from the subsurface to the surface mixing layer. Here we estimate the diapycnal mixing rates on the Amundsen shelf from a multi-year mooring cluster and five research cruises. By applying fine-scale parameterizations, the mixing rates obtained were higher near the southern end of Pine Island glacier front and exceeded 10-2 m2s-1. The eddy diffusivity increased near the critical latitude (74o 28' S) for semi-diurnal M2 tides, which coincided with near-critical topography on the shelf. This condition favored the generation of internal waves of M2 frequency. The semi-diurnal dynamic enhanced the mixing that potentially affected the heat budget and the circulation of the modified Circumpolar Deep Water. This can be observed in the characteristics of water exchange both below the ice shelves and between the continental shelf and the ice shelf cavities. The location of the critical latitude and critical topography provided favorable conditions for the generation of internal waves. KEYWORDS: Mixing processes, diapycnal fluxes, critical latitude, Circumpolar Deep Water.

  18. Spatial patterning and persistence of meltwater on ice shelves and the implications for ice shelf collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robel, A.; MacAyeal, D. R.; Tsai, V. C.; Shean, D. E.

    2017-12-01

    Observations indicate that for at least the last few decades, there has been extensive surface melting over ice shelves in Antarctica. Meltwater either collects in ponds or flows over the surface in streams that discharge to the ocean. The spatial organization and persistence of this meltwater can have a significant influence on the thermomechanical ice shelf state through albedo, turbulent heat exchange, refreezing and hydrofracture. However, as more meltwater forms on Antarctic ice shelves, there is no general theory that predicts the spatial pattern of meltwater ponded on the ice shelf surface and the volume of meltwater runoff to the ocean. Here, we show how dynamical systems tools, such as cellular automata, can be used to calculate the expected distribution of meltwater on ice shelf surfaces. These tools can also be used to explore how ice shelf surface morphology is modified by meltwater albedo and turbulent heating feedbacks. We apply these numerical approaches to new high-resolution digital elevation models for ice shelves in West Antarctica. Additionally, we survey the prospects of developing general rules of meltwater patterning by applying scaling approaches from percolation theory. We conclude by discussing the types of ice shelves that are more likely to cause ice shelf collapse through surface melt-induced hydrofracture or thermomechanical weakening.

  19. Arsenic enrichment in shelf and coastal sediment of the Brazilian subtropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirlean, N.; Medeanic, S.; Garcia, F. A.; Travassos, M. P.; Baisch, P.

    2012-03-01

    High levels of As (i.e., above the nationally legislated threshold of 70 mg kg-1) were found in shelf sediment of the Espirito Santo state of Brazil. The elevated content of this metalloid propagated in the sediment to a depth of approximately 1.5 m. The adjacent beach sands and mangrove sediments were also enriched in As. The variation in As levels along the shelf sediment profiles was acompained by calcareous-material distribution, which reflects the paleogeographical circumstances that promote local reef development during the corresponding intervals of sedimentation. Arsenic-rich calcareous bioclast materials migrate to a beach from the surface horizon of nearby shelf sediment, thereby replacing the part of the As that previously entered the marine environment with eroded material from the continent to the littoral zone. The segment of the Brazilian tropical shelf that was studied clearly demonstrated that the As enrichment of the shelf sediment is determined by the exposure of the Barreiras formation on the coast and the development of reefs, which are favorable sites for the settling of bodies of biogenic carbonates.

  20. Shelf life modelling for first-expired-first-out warehouse management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Maarten L A T M; Uysal, Ismail; McCarthy, Ultan; Verlinden, Bert M; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2014-06-13

    In the supply chain of perishable food products, large losses are incurred between farm and fork. Given the limited land resources and an ever-growing population, the food supply chain is faced with the challenge of increasing its handling efficiency and minimizing post-harvest food losses. Huge value can be added by optimizing warehouse management systems, taking into account the estimated remaining shelf life of the product, and matching it to the requirements of the subsequent part of the handling chain. This contribution focuses on how model approaches estimating quality changes and remaining shelf life can be combined in optimizing first-expired-first-out cold chain management strategies for perishable products. To this end, shelf-life-related performance indicators are used to introduce remaining shelf life and product quality in the cost function when optimizing the supply chain. A combinatorial exhaustive-search algorithm is shown to be feasible as the complexity of the optimization problem is sufficiently low for the size and properties of a typical commercial cold chain. The estimated shelf life distances for a particular batch can thus be taken as a guide to optimize logistics.

  1. Effect of Packaging on Shelf-life and Lutein Content of Marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) Flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sayani; Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita

    2016-01-01

    African marigold (Tagetes erecta L.) flowers are highly valued for their ornamental appeal as well as medicinal properties. However, their short shelf lives cause high post-harvest loss and limit their export potential. The review of patents and research articles revealed that different types of packaging designs/materials have been successfully employed for extension of shelf lives of cut flowers. The current work focuses on designing of different packaging configurations and selection of best configuration for preservation of marigold cut flowers. Ten packaging configurations, composed of four different packaging materials i.e., low density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate, glassine paper and cellophane paper, were designed. Each pack, consisting of 20 ± 1 g of marigold flowers along with non-packaged control set were stored at 23 ± 2°C, 80% R.H., in an environmental chamber and the flowers were evaluated for their sensory attributes, phytochemical characteristics and physicochemical parameters of senescence to determine their shelf lives. Flowers packed in LDPE bag showed highest shelf life of 8 days with a lead of 4 days compared to control (shelf life - 4 days). This study also established for the first time the phenomenon of carotenogenesis in marigold cut flowers with significantly (Pshelf lives. This economically viable packaging can not only boost the export potential of this ornamental flower, but also allow utilization of nutraceutical potency of lutein.

  2. Modelling of storm-driven shelf waves north of Scotland—I. Idealized models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaps, N. S.; Huthnance, J. M.; Jones, J. E.; Wolf, J.

    1988-11-01

    Storm-driven currents observed over the Scottish continental shelf were described by GORDON and HUTHNANCE (1987 , Continental Shelf Research, 7, 1015-1048). Their suggestion of continental shelf-wave responses is investigated here using semi-analytic and numerical models of a straight continental shelf. Grid resolution, boundary conditions, truncations and differences of depth profile are considered with the semi-analytic model, from which dispersion curves and wave forms are derived. These forms are closely matched by the fully numerical model forced by specified elevations at one end. Further numerical calculations are described, for idealized wind forcing along or across limited regions of the shelf or slope. Localized forcing of short duration gives currents of the type observed, being rotary (clockwise) with roughly 22 h period. More extensive alongshelf forcing gives predominantly alongshelf currents with a strength tending to follow the forcing; the second form of observed response. Frictional effects are considered. A companion paper ( FLATHER and PROCTOR, 1988 , in preparation) describes the results of numerical simulations using realistic meteorological forcing and bathymetry.

  3. Coastal-change and glaciological map of the Amery Ice Shelf area, Antarctica: 1961–2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kevin M.; Ferrigno, Jane G.; Swithinbank, Charles; Williams, Richard S.; Orndorff, Audrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction in the area and volume of Earth’s two polar ice sheets is intricately linked to changes in global climate and to the resulting rise in sea level. Measurement of changes in area and mass balance of the Antarctic ice sheet was given a very high priority in recommendations by the Polar Research Board of the National Research Council. On the basis of these recommendations, the U.S. Geological Survey used its archive of satellite images to document changes in the cryospheric coastline of Antarctica and analyze the glaciological features of the coastal regions. Amery Ice Shelf, lying between 67.5° and 75° East longitude and 68.5° and 73.2° South latitude, is the largest ice shelf in East Antarctica. The latest measurements of the area of the ice shelf range between 62,620 and 71,260 square kilometers. The ice shelf is fed primarily by Lambert, Mellor, and Fisher Glaciers; its thickness ranges from 3,000 meters in the center of the grounding line to less than 300 meters at the ice front. Lambert Glacier is considered to be the largest glacier in the world, and its drainage basin is more than 1 million square kilometers in area. It is possible to see some coastal change on the outlet glaciers along the coast, but most of the noticeable change occurs on the Amery Ice Shelf front.

  4. Cross-shore flow on the inner-shelf off southwest Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, L.; Peliz, A.; Oliveira, P.; Dias, J.

    2012-04-01

    Velocity measurements from 4 bottom-mounted ADCP deployments (summers of 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2011) at a 12-m depth site off Sines, Portugal, complemented with time series of winds, waves and tides, are used to study the inner-shelf cross-shore flow dependence on wave, tidal and wind forcings. During these four summers, the dominating winds are from the north (upwelling-favorable), with strong diurnal sea breeze cycle throughout these periods. This quasi-steady wind circulation is sometimes interrupted by short event-like reversals. The observed records were split in different subsets according to tidal amplitude, wave height, cross- and along-shore wind magnitudes, and the vertical structure of the cross-shore flow was studied for each of these subsets. Despite different forcing conditions, the cross-shore velocity profiles usually show a vertical parabolic structure with maximum onshore flow at mid-depth, resembling the upwelling return flow for mid-shelf conditions, but atypical for the inner-shelf and in disagreement with other inner-shelf studies from other sites. We compare the observations with simplified 2D inner-shelf models and with results from other studies.

  5. One- and two-stage Arrhenius models for pharmaceutical shelf life prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhewen; Zhang, Lanju

    2015-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of the pharmaceutical development is the demonstration and estimation of chemical stability. It is imperative that pharmaceutical products be stable for two or more years. Long-term stability studies are required to support such shelf life claim at registration. However, during drug development to facilitate formulation and dosage form selection, an accelerated stability study with stressed storage condition is preferred to quickly obtain a good prediction of shelf life under ambient storage conditions. Such a prediction typically uses Arrhenius equation that describes relationship between degradation rate and temperature (and humidity). Existing methods usually rely on the assumption of normality of the errors. In addition, shelf life projection is usually based on confidence band of a regression line. However, the coverage probability of a method is often overlooked or under-reported. In this paper, we introduce two nonparametric bootstrap procedures for shelf life estimation based on accelerated stability testing, and compare them with a one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius prediction model. Our simulation results demonstrate that one-stage nonlinear Arrhenius method has significant lower coverage than nominal levels. Our bootstrap method gave better coverage and led to a shelf life prediction closer to that based on long-term stability data.

  6. Shelf life modelling for first-expired-first-out warehouse management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertog, Maarten L. A. T. M.; Uysal, Ismail; McCarthy, Ultan; Verlinden, Bert M.; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2014-01-01

    In the supply chain of perishable food products, large losses are incurred between farm and fork. Given the limited land resources and an ever-growing population, the food supply chain is faced with the challenge of increasing its handling efficiency and minimizing post-harvest food losses. Huge value can be added by optimizing warehouse management systems, taking into account the estimated remaining shelf life of the product, and matching it to the requirements of the subsequent part of the handling chain. This contribution focuses on how model approaches estimating quality changes and remaining shelf life can be combined in optimizing first-expired-first-out cold chain management strategies for perishable products. To this end, shelf-life-related performance indicators are used to introduce remaining shelf life and product quality in the cost function when optimizing the supply chain. A combinatorial exhaustive-search algorithm is shown to be feasible as the complexity of the optimization problem is sufficiently low for the size and properties of a typical commercial cold chain. The estimated shelf life distances for a particular batch can thus be taken as a guide to optimize logistics. PMID:24797134

  7. Chitosan extends the shelf-life of filleted tilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus) during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rong; Liu, Qi; Yin, Bangzhong; Wu, Biao

    2012-09-01

    Shelf-life extension of aquatic products is of significant economical importance. To determine the potential effect of chitosan on the shelf-life of filleted tilapia, this study analyzed the bacterial community diversity in fresh and spoiled tilapia fillets stored at (4 ± 1)°C and examined the antimicrobial activity of chitosan against relevant bacteria isolates. Results showed that Pseudomonas (20%) and Aeromonas (16%) were abundant in fresh tilapia fillets, whereas Pseudomonas (52%), Aeromonas (32%) and Staphylococcus (12%) were dominant in the spoiled samples. Chitosan showed wide-spectrum antibacterial activity against bacteria isolated from tilapia and 5.0 g L-1 chitosan was selected for application in preservation. We further determined the shelf-life of chitosan-treated, filleted tilapia stored at (4 ± 1)°C based on microbiological, biochemical and sensory analyses. Results showed that the shelf-life of chitosan-treated, filleted tilapia was extended to 12 d, whereas that of untreated, control samples was 6 d. These indicate that chitosan, as a natural preservative, has great application potential in the shelf-life extension of tilapia fillets.

  8. Uranium geochemistry on the Amazon shelf: Evidence for uranium release from bottom sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, B.A.; DeMaster, D.J.; Nittrouer, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    In Amazon-shelf waters, as salinity increases to 36.5 x 10 -3 , dissolved uranium activities increase to a maximum of 4.60 dpm 1 -1 . This value is much higher than the open-ocean value (2.50 dpm 1 -1 ), indicating a source of dissolved uranium to shelf waters in addition to that supplied from open-ocean and riverine waters. Uranium activities are much lower for surface sediments in the Amazon-shelf sea bed (mean: 0.69 ± .09 dpm g -1 ) than for suspended sediments in the Amazon river (1.82 dpm g -1 ). Data suggest that the loss of particulate uranium from riverine sediments is probably the result of uranium desorption from the ferric-oxyhydroxide coatings on sediment particles, and/or uranium release by mobilization of the ferric oxyhydroxides. The total flux of dissolved 238 U from the Amazon shelf (about 1.2 x 10 15 dpm yr -1 ) constitutes about 15% of uranium input to the world ocean, commensurate to the Amazon River's contribution to world river-water discharge. Measurement of only the riverine flux of dissolved 238 U underestimates, by a factor of about 5, the flux of dissolved 238 U from the Amazon shelf to the open ocean

  9. EFFECT OF PASTEURIZATION TEMPERATURE AND ASEPTIC FILLING ON THE SHELF-LIFE OF MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues PETRUS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aseptic filling process can contribute to extend the shelf-life of pasteurized milk. However, this technology is not still commercially practiced in Brazil for this product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the pasteurization temperature and aseptic filling on the stability of milk packaged in high density polyethylene bottle (HDPE. Three batches of one hundred bottles each were processed at 72, 83, and 94ºC/15s, followed by aseptic packaging and storage at 9ºC, simulating a deficient cold chain scenario as found in the Brazilian market. Microbiological stability evaluation was based on mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts. Sensory shelf-life was estimated according to the ratings assigned to the attributes appearance, aroma, flavor and overall appreciation of milk samples. The pasteurization temperature, in the range investigated, did not affect the shelf-life of milk, which lasted up to 11 days for the three processed batches. The aseptic filling, associated to the employed thermal treatments, did not extend the shelf-life of milk stored under the abuse condition of 9°C, considering that the commercial product shelf-life in Brazil is of about 10 days.

  10. Fives decades of strong temporal variability in the flow of the Brunt Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rydt, Jan; Gudmundsson, Hilmar; Nagler, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    The Brunt Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, is a complex conglomerate of meteoric and marine ice, weakly connected to the much larger and faster-flowing Stancomb Wills Glacier Tongue to the east, and pinned down to the seabed in a small area around the McDonalds Ice Rumples in the north. The ice shelf is home to the UK research station Halley, from which changes to the ice shelf have been monitored closely since the 1960s. A unique 50-year record of the flow speed and an intense surveying programme over the past 10 years, have revealed a strong temporal variability in the flow. In particular, the speed of the ice shelf has increased by 10% each year over the past few years. In order to understand these rapid changes, we use a state-of-the-art flow model in combination with a range of satellite, ground-based and airborne radar data, to accurately simulate the historical flow and recent changes. In particular, we model the effects of a recently formed rift that is propagating at a speed of up to 600m/day and threatens to dislodge the ice shelf from its pinning point at the McDonalds Ice Rumples. We also report on the recent reactivation of a large chasm which has prompted the relocation of the station during the 2016/17 austral summer.

  11. Summer Drivers of Atmospheric Variability Affecting Ice Shelf Thinning in the Amundsen Sea Embayment, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Pranab; Orr, Andrew; Bromwich, David H.; Nicolas, Julien P.; Turner, John; Hosking, J. Scott

    2018-05-01

    Satellite data and a 35-year hindcast of the Amundsen Sea Embayment summer climate using the Weather Research and Forecasting model are used to understand how regional and large-scale atmospheric variability affects thinning of ice shelves in this sector of West Antarctica by melting from above and below (linked to intrusions of warm water caused by anomalous westerlies over the continental shelf edge). El Niño episodes are associated with an increase in surface melt but do not have a statistically significant impact on westerly winds over the continental shelf edge. The location of the Amundsen Sea Low and the polarity of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) have negligible impact on surface melting, although a positive SAM and eastward shift of the Amundsen Sea Low cause anomalous westerlies over the continental shelf edge. The projected future increase in El Niño episodes and positive SAM could therefore increase the risk of disintegration of West Antarctic ice shelves.

  12. Deterioration and shelf-life extension of fish and fishery products by modified atmosphere packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payap Masniyom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish and fishery products have been recognized as a nutrition source due to their high protein content. Moreover, theycontain considerable amount of unsaturated fatty acids, especially omega-3 fatty acids, which are regarded as preventivecompounds. However, shelf-life of seafood is limited by biochemical and microbiological changes. Modified atmospherepackaging (MAP is widely used for minimally processed fishery products including fresh meat for retarding microbial growthand enzymatic spoilage. CO2, O2, and N2 are most often used in MAP. CO2 enriched atmosphere inhibits the autolyticdegradation of fish muscle during storage. However, high levels of CO2 negatively affect product quality, especially by increasingdrip loss and altering texture. Development of satisfactory methods for shelf-life extension that ensure qualitymaintenance of products with minimum loss has drawn the attention of food technologists. The application of MAP andcombination process in seafood is a promising preservation method to extend the shelf-life of fish and fishery products.

  13. Late Quaternary glaciation history of northernmost Greenland - Evidence of shelf-based ice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Nicolaj K.; Kjær, Kurt H.; Funder, Svend Visby

    2010-01-01

    We present the mapping of glacial landforms and sediments from northernmost Greenland bordering 100 km of the Arctic Ocean coast. One of the most important discoveries is that glacial landforms, sediments, including till fabric measurements, striae and stoss-lee boulders suggest eastward ice......-flow along the coastal plain. Volcanic erratic boulders document ice-transport from 80 to 100 km west of the study area. We argue that these findings are best explained by local outlet glaciers from the Greenland Ice Sheet and local ice caps that merged to form a shelf-based ice in the Arctic Ocean...... and possibly confirming an extensive ice shelf in the Lincoln Sea between Greenland and Ellesmere Island. It is speculated that the shelf-based ice was largely affected by the presence of thick multiyear sea ice in the Arctic Ocean that prevented it from breaking up and forced the outlet glaciers to flow...

  14. Ethylene vinyl alcohol: a review of barrier properties for packaging shelf stable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokwena, K Khanah; Tang, Juming

    2012-01-01

    Ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) is one of the best known flexible thermoplastic oxygen barrier materials in use today. It is especially important for refrigerated and shelf-stable foods where oxygen deteriorates the quality of packaged products and reduces their shelf life. EVOH accounts for a majority of thermoplastic barrier materials used for rigid or semi-rigid retortable food containers. However. it is of limited use in flexible packages or lid films for rigid trays used for packaging thermally processed shelf-stable low acid foods due to its moisture sensitivity. Nevertheless, current use of other oxygen barrier materials such as polyvinylidene chloride and aluminum foil creates environmental concerns. Innovations in food processing technologies provide opportunities for increased use of EVOH in food packaging. The aim of this review is to give an overview of research on the oxygen barrier properties of EVOH from the perspective of structure-barrier property relationships and the consequences of food processing conditions.

  15. Modelling shelf-ocean exchange and its biogeochemical consequences in coastal upwelling systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muchamad, Al Azhar

    margin bathymetry, and 3) what processes determine the observed variability of total organic carbon (TOC) content in shelf sediments underlying the upwelling system, with implications for the formation of petroleum source rocks. Here, a numerical ocean modeling approach is used in this thesis to explore...... processes and the development of anoxia/euxinia under the present day or past geological conditions. Thirdly and last, processes controlling distribution of total organic carbon (TOC) content in sediments across the continental margin is evaluated by application of the model to the Benguela upwelling system....... In the model, biological primary production and shelf bottom-water anoxia result in enhanced sedimentary TOC concentrations on the mid shelf and upper slope. The simulated TOCs implicate that bottom lateral transport only has a significant effect on increasing the deposition of the organic carbon on the mid...

  16. Shelf-life modeling of bakery products by using oxidation indices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calligaris, Sonia; Manzocco, Lara; Kravina, Giuditta; Nicoli, Maria Cristina

    2007-03-07

    The aim of this work was to develop a shelf-life prediction model of lipid-containing bakery products. To this purpose (i) the temperature dependence of the oxidation rate of bakery products was modeled, taking into account the changes in lipid physical state; (ii) the acceptance limits were assessed by sensory analysis; and (iii) the relationship between chemical oxidation index and acceptance limit was evaluated. Results highlight that the peroxide number, the changes of which are linearly related to consumer acceptability, is a representative index of the quality depletion of biscuits during their shelf life. In addition, the evolution of peroxides can be predicted by a modified Arrhenius equation accounting for the changes in the physical state of biscuit fat. Knowledge of the relationship between peroxides and sensory acceptability together with the temperature dependence of peroxide formation allows a mathematical model to be set up to simply and quickly calculate the shelf life of biscuits.

  17. Impact of environmental factors on the distribution of extreme scouring (gouging) event, Canadian Beaufort shelf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco, Steve [Geological Survey of Canada, Dartmouth (Canada); Carr, Erin; Campbell, Patrick [Canadian Seabed Research Ltd., Porters Lake (Canada); Shearer, Jim [Shearer Consulting, Ottawa (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    A knowledge of the presence of scours, their dimensions and their return frequencies is highly important in the development of hydrocarbon offshore structures. Mapping surveys have identified 290 extreme scour events across the Canadian Beaufort shelf. This paper investigated the impact of environmental factors on the distribution of extreme scouring events in the Canadian Beaufort shelf. This study used the NEWBASE database of new ice scours to perform an analysis of the scours appearance mechanisms. The geotechnical zonation, the bathymetry and the shelf gradient were evaluated using these data. Estimation of the surficial sediment type, the surficial sediment thickness and sea ice regime were also made. It was found that the spatial distribution of extreme scour events is controlled by sea-ice regime, bathymetry and geotechnical zonation. The results obtained from mapping surveys suggested that the key controlling environmental factors may combine to limit the depth of extreme scour events to 5 meters.

  18. Coupling a thermodynamically active ice shelf to a regional simulation of the Weddell Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Meccia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamically interactive ice shelf cavity parameterization is coupled to the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS and is applied to the Southern Ocean domain with enhanced resolution in the Weddell Sea. This implementation is tested in order to assess its degree of improvement to the hydrography (and circulation of the Weddell Sea. Results show that the inclusion of ice shelf cavities in the model is feasible and somewhat realistic (considering the lack of under-ice observations for validation. Ice shelf–ocean interactions are an important process to be considered in order to obtain realistic hydrographic values under the ice shelf. The model framework presented in this work is a promising tool for analyzing the Southern Ocean's response to future climate change scenarios.

  19. Recruitment and condition of juvenile sandeel on the Faroe shelf in relation to primary production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Kirstin; Reinert, Jákup; Gaard, Eilif

    The food of early-life sandeel is dominated by zooplankton, which again depends on primary production. On the Faroe Shelf, measurements of accumulated new primary production and chlorophyll a during spring and summer have been carried out since 1990 and 1997, respectively. Large inter...... availability. We compare the time series from the sandeel 0-group surveys with data on phytoplankton production and biomass. The results confirm that survival and condition of the early-life stages of sandeel on the Faroe Shelf is dependent on the magnitude of the primary production. Although the sandeel......-annual variations in the onset of the spring bloom and its intensity have been observed. Since 1974 juvenile sandeels have been sampled annually on the Faroe shelf. These results also show large variations – both in number and in average length. Here, we investigate the variations in recruitment in relation to food...

  20. Effects of low upper shelf fracture toughness on reactor vessel integrity during pressurized thermal shock events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, W.H.; Heinecke, C.C.; Balkey, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    For the past decade, significant attention has been focused on the subject of nuclear rector vessel integrity during pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events. The issue of low upper shelf fracture toughness at operating temperatures has been a consideration for some reactor vessel materials since the early 1970's. Deterministic and probabilistic fracture mechanics sensitivity studies have been completed to evaluate the interaction between the PTS and lower upper shelf toughness issues that result from neutron embrittlement of the critical beltline region materials. This paper presents the results of these studies to show the interdependency of these fracture considerations in certain instances and to identify parameters that need to be carefully treated in reactor vessel integrity evaluations for these subjects. This issue is of great importance to those vessels which have low upper shelf toughness, both for demonstrating safety during the original design life and in life extension assessments