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Sample records for short wavelength capillary

  1. Lasing at short wavelength in a capillary discharge and in a dense Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunze, H.-J.; Glenzer, S.; Steden, C.; Wieschebrink, H. T.; Koshelev, K. N.; Uskov, D.

    1995-01-01

    Results on the emission of the CVI Balmer-α transition obtained with a fast capillary discharge are summarized, and a model is discussed, which explains the observations as result of fast ions produced by a m=0 instabililty and charge exchange with CIII ions in the cold plasma region. Plasmas of large dimensions were produced in the gas-liner pinch discharge, and the emission of the 4f-3d transition has been studied in CIV, NV, OVI, and FVII. Amplification is seen on the transition in OVI and FVII

  2. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  3. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FELs offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FELs will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program

  5. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-11-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FEL's offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FEL's will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program.

  6. Review of short wavelength lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references

  7. Review of short wavelength lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-03-18

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.

  8. Capillary condensation of short-chain molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Paweł; Pizio, Orest; Sokolowski, Stefan

    2005-05-15

    A density-functional study of capillary condensation of fluids of short-chain molecules confined to slitlike pores is presented. The molecules are modeled as freely jointed tangent spherical segments with a hard core and with short-range attractive interaction between all the segments. We investigate how the critical parameters of capillary condensation of the fluid change when the pore width decreases and eventually becomes smaller than the nominal linear dimension of the single-chain molecule. We find that the dependence of critical parameters for a fluid of dimers and of tetramers on pore width is similar to that of the monomer fluid. On the other hand, for a fluid of chains consisting of a larger number of segments we observe an inversion effect. Namely, the critical temperature of capillary condensation decreases with increasing pore width for a certain interval of values of the pore width. This anomalous behavior is also influenced by the interaction between molecules and pore walls. We attribute this behavior to the effect of conformational changes of molecules upon confinement.

  9. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); a fourth generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much aborter wavelength than the 240 mn that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3-100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops

  10. Short wavelength sources and atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of ionizing radiation with atoms and ions is a key fundamental process. Experimental progress has depended in particular on the development of short wavelength light sources. Laser-plasma and synchrotron sources have been exploited for several decades and most recently the development of short wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) sources is revolutionizing the field. This paper introduces laser plasma and synchrotron sources through examples of their use in studies of the interaction of ionizing radiation with atoms and ions, ranging from few-electron atomic and ionic systems to the many-electron high atomic number actinides. The new FEL source (FLASH) at DESY is introduced. (author)

  11. Optical Detection in Ultrafast Short Wavelength Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K.; Hall, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to coherent detection of ionising radiation is briefly motivated and recounted. The approach involves optical scattering of coherent light fields by colour centres in transparent solids. It has significant potential for diffractive imaging applications that require high detection dynamic range from pulsed high brilliance short wavelength sources. It also motivates new incarnations of Bragg's X-ray microscope for pump-probe studies of ultrafast molecular structure-dynamics.

  12. Short wavelength striations on expanding plasma clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Gary, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The growth and evolution of short wavelength (< ion gyroradius) flute modes on a plasma expanding across an ambient magnetic field have been actively studied in recent years, both by means of experiments in the laboratory as well as in space and through numerical simulations. We review the relevant observations and simulations results, discuss the instability mechanism and related linear theory, and describe recent work to bring experiments and theory into better agreement. 30 refs., 6 figs

  13. Self-amplified spontaneous emission for short wavelength coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Xie, M.

    1992-09-01

    We review the recent progress in our understanding of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), emphasizing the application to short wavelength generation. Simple formulae are given for the start-up, exponential gain and the saturation of SASE. Accelerator technologies producing high brightness electron beams required for short wavelength SASE are discussed. An example utilizing electron beams from a photocathode-linac system to produce 4nm SASE in the multigigawatt range is presented

  14. Estimates of SASE power in the short wavelength region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang-Je.

    1992-03-01

    Given a sufficiently bright electron beam, the self-amplified-spontaneous emission (SASE) can provide gigawatts of short wavelength coherent radiation. The advantages of SASE approach are that is requires neither optical cavity nor an imput seed laser. In this note, we estimate the peak power performance of SASE for wavelengths shorter than 1000 Angstrom. At each wavelength, we calculate the saturated power from a uniform parameter undulator and the enhanced power from a tapered undulator. The method described here is an adaptation of that discussed by L.H. Yu, who discussed the harmonic generation scheme with seeded laser, to the case of SASE

  15. Nonlinear propagation of short wavelength drift-Alfven waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P. K.; Pecseli, H. L.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    Making use of a kinetic ion and a hydrodynamic electron description together with the Maxwell equation, the authors derive a set of nonlinear equations which governs the dynamics of short wavelength ion drift-Alfven waves. It is shown that the nonlinear drift-Alfven waves can propagate as two-dim...

  16. OMEGA: a short-wavelength laser for fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soures, J.M.; Hutchison, R.J.; Jacobs, S.D.; Lund, L.D.; McCrory, R.L.; Richardson, M.C.

    1983-01-01

    The OMEGA, Nd:glass laser facility was constructed for the purpose of investigating the feasibility of direct-drive laser fusion. With 24 beams producing a total energy of 4 kJ or a peak power of 12 TW, OMEGA is capable of nearly uniform illumination of spherical targets. Six of the OMEGA beams have recently been converted to short-wavelength operation (351 nm). In this paper, we discuss details of the system design and performance, with particular emphasis on the frequency-conversion system and multi-wavelength diagnostic system

  17. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of synthetic short-chain oligoribonucleotides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellai, L; Onori, A M; Desiderio, C; Fanali, S

    1998-12-01

    Thirty synthetic oligoribonucleotides, 3 to 18 nucleotides (nt) long, were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis, under nondenaturing conditions, using a commercial kit. The migration time t(m) was dependent on nt length and composition, capillary length, operating temperature, and type of sieving polymer. Under fixed experimental conditions, the t(m) proved predictable by the equation: t(m) = [0.22(n-1) + 6.14A/n + 6.86G/n + 3.61 (C+U)/n] min, for n>3, where A/n, G/n, C/n, U/n is the frequency of each type of nt within the oligonucleotide (ONT). The equation accounts for the influence of charge-to-mass ratio on t(m), but not for structural effects, if present. This approximation is acceptable for short ONTs. The possibility of detecting n+1, n-1, n-2 impurities, having predicted the t(m), is of crucial importance in assessing the purity of synthetic ONTs dedicated to structural studies. This appears to be feasible. High resolution was shown among homologous series of ONTs of increasing length, and in some cases, even within groups of ONTs of the same length but different composition. The addition of 7 M urea to the buffer, as denaturing agent, accelerates the t(m) and significantly lowers the resolution for the shortest ONTs. It was also possible to monitor the state of association of mixtures of RNA and DNA sequence-complementary strands.

  18. Local Analysis Approach for Short Wavelength Geopotential Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, P. L.

    2009-12-01

    The value of global spherical harmonic analyses for determining 15 day to 30 day changes in the Earth's gravity field has been demonstrated extensively using data from the GRACE mission and previous missions. However, additional useful information appears to be obtainable from local analyses of the data. A number of such analyses have been carried out by various groups. In the energy approximation, the changes in the height of the satellite altitude geopotential can be determined from the post-fit changes in the satellite separation during individual one-revolution arcs of data from a GRACE-type pair of satellites in a given orbit. For a particular region, it is assumed that short wavelength spatial variations for the arcs crossing that region during a time T of interest would be used to determine corrections to the spherical harmonic results. The main issue in considering higher measurement accuracy in future missions is how much improvement in spatial resolution can be achieved. For this, the shortest wavelengths that can be determined are the most important. And, while the longer wavelength variations are affected by mass distribution changes over much of the globe, the shorter wavelength ones hopefully will be determined mainly by more local changes in the mass distribution. Future missions are expected to have much higher accuracy for measuring changes in the satellite separation than GRACE. However, how large an improvement in the derived results in hydrology will be achieved is still very much a matter of study, particularly because of the effects of uncertainty in the time variations in the atmospheric and oceanic mass distributions. To be specific, it will be assumed that improving the spatial resolution in continental regions away from the coastlines is the objective, and that the satellite altitude is in the range of roughly 290 to 360 km made possible for long missions by drag-free operation. The advantages of putting together the short wavelength

  19. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nause, Ariel; Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham

    2014-01-01

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect

  20. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nause, Ariel, E-mail: arielnau@post.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Exact Sciences, Department of Physics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physical Electronics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2014-08-15

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect.

  1. Short-wavelength magnetic recording new methods and analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Ruigrok, JJM

    2013-01-01

    Short-wavelength magnetic recording presents a series of practical solutions to a wide range of problems in the field of magnetic recording. It features many new and original results, all derived from fundamental principles as a result of up-to-date research.A special section is devoted to the playback process, including the calculations of head efficiency and head impedance, derived from new theorems.Features include:A simple and fast method for measuring efficiency; a simple method for the accurate separation of the read and write behaviour of magnetic heads; a new concept - the bandpass hea

  2. Experimental tests of induced spatial incoherence using short laser wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenschain, S.P.; Grun, J.; Herbst, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a laser beam smoothing technique called induced spatial incoherence (ISI), which can produce the highly uniform focal profiles required for direct-drive laser fusion. Uniform well-controlled focal profiles are required to obtain the highly symmetric pellet implosions needed for high-energy gain. In recent experiments, the authors' tested the effects of ISI on high-power laser-target interaction. With short laser wavelength, the coupling physics dramatically improved over that obtained with an ordinary laser beam

  3. Stability of short wavelength tearing and twisting modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waelbroeck, F.L.

    1998-01-01

    The stability and mutual interaction of tearing and twisting modes in a torus is governed by matrices that generalize the well-known Δ' stability index. The diagonal elements of these matrices determine the intrinsic stability of modes that reconnect the magnetic field at a single resonant surface. The off-diagonal elements indicate the strength of the coupling between the different modes. The author shows how the elements of these matrices can be evaluated, in the limit of short wavelength, from the free energy driving radially extended ballooning modes. The author applies the results by calculating the tearing and twisting Δ' for a model high-beta equilibrium with circular flux surfaces

  4. Research with high-power short-wavelength lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzrichter, J.F.; Campbell, E.M.; Lindl, J.D.; Storm, E.

    1985-01-01

    Three important high-temperature, high-density experiments were conducted recently using the 10-TW, short-wavelength Novette laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. These experiments demonstrated successful solutions to problems that arose during previous experiments with long wavelength lasers (lambda greater than or equal to 1μm) in which inertial confinement fusion (ICF), x-ray laser, and other high-temperature physics concepts were being tested. The demonstrations were: (1) large-scale plasmas (typical dimensions of up to 1000 laser wavelengths) were produced in which potentially deleterious laser-plasma instabilities were collisionally damped. (2) Deuterium-tritium fuel was imploded to a density of 20 g/cm 3 and a pressure of 10 10 atm. (3) A 700-fold amplification of soft x rays by stimulated emission at 206 and 209 A (62 eV) from Se +24 ions was observed in a laser-generated plasma. Isoelectronic scaling to 155 A (87 eV) in Y +29 was also demonstrated

  5. Observation of magnon-phonon interaction at short wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolling, G.; Cowley, R.A.

    1966-01-01

    Measurements have been made of the magnon and phonon dispersion relations in uranium dioxide at 9 o K. These measurements provide evidence of a strong interaction between the magnon and phonon excitations and enable a value to be deduced for the coupling constant. The interaction of long-wavelength magnons in ferromagnetic materials has been studied previously with ultrasonic techniques; however, inelastic scattering of slow neutrons enables both the magnon and phonon dispersion relations to be determined for short wavelengths. In those magnetic materials which have been studied by earlier workers, the magnons and phonons either interacted with one another very weakly or else their frequencies were very different. The results could then be understood without introducing any magnon-phonon interaction. In this note we report measurements of both the magnon and the phonon spectra of antiferromagnetic uranium dioxide, which lead to a magnon-phonon coupling constant of 9.6 ± 1.6 o K. Since the Neel temperature is 30.8 o K, this coupling constant is of a similar magnitude to the direct magnetic interactions. (author)

  6. Self Referencing Heterodyne Transient Grating Spectroscopy with Short Wavelength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Grilj

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Heterodyning by a phase stable reference electric field is a well known technique to amplify weak nonlinear signals. For short wavelength, the generation of a reference field in front of the sample is challenging because of a lack of suitable beamsplitters. Here, we use a permanent grating which matches the line spacing of the transient grating for the creation of a phase stable reference field. The relative phase among the two can be changed by a relative translation of the permanent and transient gratings in direction orthogonal to the grating lines. We demonstrate the technique for a transient grating on a VO2 thin film and observe constructive as well as destructive interference signals.

  7. Beam dynamics simulations for linacs driving short-wavelength FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrario, M.; Tazzioli, F.

    1999-01-01

    The fast code HOMDYN has been recently developed, in the framework of the TTF (Tesla test facility) collaboration, in order to study the beam dynamics of linacs delivering high brightness beams as those needed for short wavelength Fel experiments. These linacs are typically driven by radio-frequency photo-injectors, where correlated time dependent space charge effects are of great relevance: these effects cannot be studied by standard beam optics codes (TRACE3D, etc.) and they have been modeled so far by means of multi-particle (Pic or quasistatic) codes requiring heavy cpu time and memory allocations. HOMDYN is able to describe the beam generation at the photo-cathode and the emittance compensation process in the injector even running on a laptop with very modest running rimes (less than a minute). In this paper it is showed how this capability of the code is exploited so to model a whole linac up to the point where the space charge dominated regime is of relevance (200 MeV)

  8. Interferometry on small quantum systems at short wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usenko, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    The present work concentrates on prototypical studies of light-induced correlated many-body dynamics in complex systems. In its course a reflective split-and-delay unit (SDU) for phase-resolved one-color pump-probe experiments with gas phase samples using VUV-XUV laser pulses was built. The collinear propagation of pump and probe pulses is ensured by the special geometry of the SDU and allows to perform phase-resolved (coherent) autocorrelation measurements. The control of the pump-probe delay with attosecond precision is established by a specially developed diagnostic tool based on an in-vacuum white light interferometer that allows to monitor the relative displacement of the SDU reflectors with nanometer resolution. Phase-resolved (interferometric) pump-probe experiments with developed SDU require spatially-resolved imaging of the ionization volume. For this an electron-ion coincidence spectrometer was built. The spectrometer enables coincident detection of photoionization products using velocity map imaging (VMI) technique for electrons and VMI or spatial imaging for ions. In first experiments using the developed SDU and the spectrometer in the ion spatial-imaging mode linear field autocorrelation of free-electron laser pulses at the central wavelength of 38 nm was recorded. A further focus of the work were energy- and time-resolved resonant two-photon ionization experiments using short tunable UV laser pulses on C_6_0 fullerene. The experiments demonstrated that dipole-selective excitation on a timescale faster than the characteristic intramolecular energy dissipation limits the number of accessible excitation pathways and thus results in a narrow resonance. Time-dependent one-color pump-probe study showed that nonadiabatic (vibron) coupling is the dominant energy dissipation mechanism for high-lying electronic excited states in C_6_0.

  9. Interferometry on small quantum systems at short wavelength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usenko, Sergey

    2017-01-15

    The present work concentrates on prototypical studies of light-induced correlated many-body dynamics in complex systems. In its course a reflective split-and-delay unit (SDU) for phase-resolved one-color pump-probe experiments with gas phase samples using VUV-XUV laser pulses was built. The collinear propagation of pump and probe pulses is ensured by the special geometry of the SDU and allows to perform phase-resolved (coherent) autocorrelation measurements. The control of the pump-probe delay with attosecond precision is established by a specially developed diagnostic tool based on an in-vacuum white light interferometer that allows to monitor the relative displacement of the SDU reflectors with nanometer resolution. Phase-resolved (interferometric) pump-probe experiments with developed SDU require spatially-resolved imaging of the ionization volume. For this an electron-ion coincidence spectrometer was built. The spectrometer enables coincident detection of photoionization products using velocity map imaging (VMI) technique for electrons and VMI or spatial imaging for ions. In first experiments using the developed SDU and the spectrometer in the ion spatial-imaging mode linear field autocorrelation of free-electron laser pulses at the central wavelength of 38 nm was recorded. A further focus of the work were energy- and time-resolved resonant two-photon ionization experiments using short tunable UV laser pulses on C{sub 60} fullerene. The experiments demonstrated that dipole-selective excitation on a timescale faster than the characteristic intramolecular energy dissipation limits the number of accessible excitation pathways and thus results in a narrow resonance. Time-dependent one-color pump-probe study showed that nonadiabatic (vibron) coupling is the dominant energy dissipation mechanism for high-lying electronic excited states in C{sub 60}.

  10. Capillary waves at the interface of two Bose–Einstein condensates. Long wavelengths asymptotic by trial function approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishonov, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The dispersion relation for capillary waves at the boundary of two different Bose condensates is investigated using a trial wave-function approach applied to the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations. The surface tension is expressed by the parameters of the GP equations. In the long wave-length limit the usual dispersion relation is re-derived while for wavelengths comparable to the healing length we predict significant deviations from the ω ∝ k 3/2 law which can be experimentally observed. We approximate the wave variables by a frozen order parameter, i.e. the wave function is frozen in the superfluid analogous to the magnetic field in highly conductive space plasmas. PACS codes: 67.85.Jk

  11. Short-wavelength ablation of polymers in the high-fluence regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liberatore, Chiara; Juha, Libor; Vyšín, Ludek; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas; Mann, Klaus; Müller, Matthias; Pina, Ladislav; Rocca, Jorge J

    2014-01-01

    Short-wavelength ablation of poly(1,4-phenylene ether-ether-sulfone) (PPEES) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) was investigated using extreme ultraviolet (XUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) radiation from plasma-based sources. The initial experiment was performed with a 10 Hz desktop capillary-discharge XUV laser lasing at 46.9 nm. The XUV laser beam was focused onto the sample by a spherical mirror coated with a Si/Sc multilayer. The same materials were irradiated with 13.5 nm radiation emitted by plasmas produced by focusing an optical laser beam onto a xenon gas-puff target. A Schwarzschild focusing optics coated with a Mo/Si multilayer was installed at the source to achieve energy densities exceeding 0.1 J cm −2 in the tight focus. The existing experimental system at the Laser Laboratorium Göttingen was upgraded by implementing a 1.2 J driving laser. An increase of the SXR fluence was secured by improving the alignment technique. (paper)

  12. Observation of Rayleigh - Taylor growth to short wavelengths on Nike

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawley, C.J.; Bodner, S.E.; Dahlburg, J.P.; Obenschain, S.P.; Schmitt, A.J.; Sethian, J.D.; Sullivan, C.A.; Gardner, J.H.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Chan, Y.; Lehecka, T.

    1999-01-01

    The uniform and smooth focal profile of the Nike KrF laser [S. Obenschain et al., Phys. Plasmas 3, 2098 (1996)] was used to ablatively accelerate 40 μm thick polystyrene planar targets with pulse shaping to minimize shock heating of the compressed material. The foils had imposed small-amplitude sinusoidal wave perturbations of 60, 30, 20, and 12.5 μm wavelength. The shortest wavelength is near the ablative stabilization cutoff for Rayleigh - Taylor growth. Modification of the saturated wave structure due to random laser imprint was observed. Excellent agreement was found between the two-dimensional simulations and experimental data for most cases where the laser imprint was not dominant. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  13. Single Mode Fiber Optic Transceiver Using Short Wavelength Active Devices In Long Wavelength Fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillham, Frederick J.; Campbell, Daniel R.; Corke, Michael; Stowe, David W.

    1990-01-01

    Presently, single mode optical fiber technology is being utilized in systems to supply telephone service to the subscriber. However, in an attempt to be competitive with copper based systems, there are many development programs underway to determine the most cost effective solution while still providing a service that will either satisfy or be upgradeable to satisfy the demands of the consumer for the next 10 to 20 years. One such approach is to combine low cost laser transmitters and silicon receivers, which have been developed for the "compact disc" industry, with fiber that operates in the single mode regime at 1300 nm. In this paper, an optical transceiver will be presented, consisting of a compact disc laser, a silicon detector and a single mode coupler at 1300 nm. A possible system layout is presented which operates at 780 nm bi-directionally for POTS and upgradeable to 1300 nm for video services. There are several important design criteria that have to be considered in the development of such a system which will be addressed. These include: 1. Optimization of coupled power from laser to fiber while maintaining stable launched conditions over a wide range of environmental conditions. 2. Consideration of the multimode operation of the 1300 nm single mode fiber while operating in the 780 nm wavelength region. 3. Development of a low cost pseudo-wavelength division multiplexer for 1300 nm single mode/780 nm multimode operation and a low cost dual mode 50/50, 780 nm splitter using 1300 nm fiber. Details will be given of the design criteria and solution in terms of optimized design. Results of the performance of several prototype devices will be given with indications of the merits of this approach and where further development effort should be applied.

  14. Sexual dimorphism of short-wavelength photoreceptors in the small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arikawa, K; Wakakuwa, M; Qiu, XD; Kurasawa, M; Stavenga, DG; Qiu, Xudong

    2005-01-01

    The eyes of the female small white butterfly, Pieris rapae crucivora, are furnished with three classes of short-wavelength photoreceptors, with sensitivity peaks in the ultraviolet (UV) (lambda(max) = 360 nm), violet (V) (lambda max = 425 nm), and blue (B) (lambda(max) = 453 nm) wavelength range.

  15. Introduction: a short-wavelength-FEL/storage-ring complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessler, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    We believe that, in view of the present state of FEL understanding, it is now proper to construct a research facility devoted to the use of coherent radiation and the advancement of FEL physics technology at wavelengths shorter than 1000 A. We show a possible layout of such a facility, which will be referred to as a Coherent xuv Facility (CXF), where research can be conducted on several techniques for generating coherent radiation. Undulators are already well understood and will generate broadly tunable, spatially coherent radiation of bandwidth lambda /Δlambda approx. = 10 2 . A crossed undulator system will extend the undulator capability to include variable polarization. For full coherence, in spatial as well as in longitudinal directions, it is necessary to induce and exploit density modulation in electron beams, as is the case in the transverse optical klystrons (TOKs) and FELs. In TOKs, coherent radiation is generated at harmonics of an input laser frequency, with the electron beam playing the role of a nonlinear medium. Ultimately, FELS would deliver intense, tunable x rays and vuv radiation of extremely narrow spectral width. There are two possible routes to an FEL, one based on feedback by end mirrors, the other based on development of a high-gain, single-pass device. It can be seen, from this paper, that the photon flux increases monotonically, or the wavelength decreases monotonically, as one goes through (1) undulator radiation, (2) TOK radiation, (3) FEL oscillator radiation, to (4) FEL single-pass radiation. Each of these will demand considerable quality development effort. Each will result in photon fluxes of increased value to the users

  16. Short-wavelength electrostatic waves in the earth's magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    Recent observations with the ISEE 1 spacecraft have found electric field emissions in the dayside magnetosheath whose frequency spectrum is modulated at twice the spacecraft spin period. The upper frequency cutoff in the frequency-time spectrum of the emission has a characteristic parabola shape or ''festoon'' shape. The low-frequency cutoff ranges from 100 to 400 Hz, while the high-frequency limit ranges from about 1 to 4 kHz. The bandwidth is found to minimize for antenna orientations parallel to the wave vectors. The wave vector does not appear to be related to the local magnetic field, the plasma flow velocity, or the spacecraft-sun directions. The spacecraft observed frequency spectrum results from the spacecraft antenna response to the Doppler-shifted wave vector spectrum which exists in the plasma. Imposed constraints on the plasma rest frame wave vectors and frequencies indicate that emissions occur within the frequency range from about 150 Hz to 1 kHz, with wavelengths between about 40 and 600 m. These constraints strongly suggest that the festoon-shaped emissions are ion-acoustic waves. The small group velocity and k direction of the ion-acoustic mode are consistent with wave generation upstream at the bow shock and convection downstream to locations within the outer dayside magnetosheath

  17. Short wavelength electrostatic waves in the earth's magnetosheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallagher, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent observations with the ISEE-1 spacecraft have found electric field emissions in the dayside magnetosheath whose frequency spectrum is modulated at twice the spacecraft spin period. The upper frequency cutoff in the frequency-time spectrum of the emissions has a characteristic parabola shape or ''festoon'' shape. The low frequency cutoff ranges from 100 Hz to 400 Hz, while the high frequency limit ranges from about 1kHz to 4kHz. The bandwidth is found to minimize for antenna orientations parallel to these wave number vectors, requiring the confinement of those vectors to a plane which contains the geocentric solar eclilptic coordinate z-axis. The spacecraft observed frequency spectrum results from the spacecraft antenna response to the Doppler shifted wave vector spectrum which exists in the plasma. Imposed constraints on the plasma rest-frame wave vectors and frequencies indicate that the emissions occur within the frequency range from about 150 Hz to 1 kHz, with wavelengths between about 30 meters and 600 meters. These constraints strongly suggest that the festoon-shaped emissions are ion-acoustic waves. The small group velocity and k vector direction of the ion-acoustic mode are consistent with wave generation upstream at the bow shock and convection downstream to locations within the outer dayside magnetosheath

  18. A Novel Protocol to Analyze Short- and Long-Chain Fatty Acids Using Nonaqueous Microchip Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cable, M. L.; Stockton, A. M.; Mora, Maria F; Willis, P. A.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a new protocol to identify and quantify both short- and long-chain saturated fatty acids in samples of astrobiological interest using non-aqueous microchip capillary electrophoresis (micronNACE) with laser induced fluorescence (LIF).

  19. Influence of wavelength on transient short-circuit current in polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ba, B.; Kane, M.

    1993-10-01

    The influence of the wavelength of a monochromatic illumination on transient short-circuit current in an n/p polycrystalline silicon part solar cell junction is investigated. A wavelength dependence in the initial part of the current decay is observed in the case of cells with moderate grain boundary effects. This influence is attenuated in polycrystalline cells with strong grain boundary activity. (author). 10 refs, 6 figs

  20. Operational characteristics of the OMEGA short-wavelength laser fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soures, J.M.; Hutchison, R.; Jacobs, S.; McCrory, R.L.; Peck, R.; Seka, W.

    1984-01-01

    Twelve beams of the OMEGA, 24 beam direct-drive laser facility have been converted to 351-nm wavelength operation. The performance characteristics of this short-wavelength facility will be discussed. Beam-to-beam energy balance of +-2.3% and on-target energy, at 351-nm, in excess of 70 J per beam have been demonstrated. Long-term performance (>600 shots) of the system has been optimized by appropriate choice of index matching liquid, optical materials and coatings. The application of this system in direct-drive laser fusion experiments will be discussed

  1. Short-wavelength attenuated polychromatic white light during work at night : Limited melatonin suppression without substantial decline of alertness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werken, Maan; Giménez, Marina C; de Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G M; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    Exposure to light at night increases alertness, but light at night (especially short-wavelength light) also disrupts nocturnal physiology. Such disruption is thought to underlie medical problems for which shiftworkers have increased risk. In 33 male subjects we investigated whether short-wavelength

  2. Local instabilities in magnetized rotational flows: A short-wavelength approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kirillov, Oleg N.; Stefani, Frank; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2014-01-01

    We perform a local stability analysis of rotational flows in the presence of a constant vertical magnetic field and an azimuthal magnetic field with a general radial dependence. Employing the short-wavelength approximation we develop a unified framework for the investigation of the standard, the helical, and the azimuthal version of the magnetorotational instability, as well as of current-driven kink-type instabilities. Considering the viscous and resistive setup, our main focus is on the cas...

  3. Nonlinear-optical generation of short-wavelength radiation controlled by laser-induced interference structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, A K; Kimberg, V V

    1998-01-01

    A study is reported of the combined influence of laser-induced resonances in the energy continuum, of splitting of discrete resonances in the field of several strong radiations, and of absorption of the initial and generated radiations on totally resonant parametric conversion to the short-wavelength range. It is shown that the radiation power can be increased considerably by interference processes involving quantum transitions. (nonlinear optical phenomena and devices)

  4. Short-Wavelength Light Enhances Cortisol Awakening Response in Sleep-Restricted Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana G. Figueiro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Levels of cortisol, a hormone produced by the adrenal gland, follow a daily, 24-hour rhythm with concentrations reaching a minimum in the evening and a peak near rising time. In addition, cortisol levels exhibit a sharp peak in concentration within the first hour after waking; this is known as the cortisol awakening response (CAR. The present study is a secondary analysis of a larger study investigating the impact of short-wavelength (λmax≈470 nm light on CAR in adolescents who were sleep restricted. The study ran over the course of three overnight sessions, at least one week apart. The experimental sessions differed in terms of the light exposure scenarios experienced during the evening prior to sleeping in the laboratory and during the morning after waking from a 4.5-hour sleep opportunity. Eighteen adolescents aged 12–17 years were exposed to dim light or to 40 lux (0.401 W/m2 of 470-nm peaking light for 80 minutes after awakening. Saliva samples were collected every 20 minutes to assess CAR. Exposure to short-wavelength light in the morning significantly enhanced CAR compared to dim light. Morning exposure to short-wavelength light may be a simple, yet practical way to better prepare adolescents for an active day.

  5. Short-term hyperglycemia increases endothelial glycocalyx permeability and acutely decreases lineal density of capillaries with flowing red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Coert J.; Demirci, Cihan; Koeman, Anneke; Vink, Hans; Ince, Can

    2005-01-01

    Hyperglycemia is becoming recognized as an important risk factor for microvascular dysfunction. We hypothesized that short-term hyperglycemia, either on the scale of hours or weeks, alters the barrier function and the volume of the endothelial glycocalyx and decreases functional capillary density

  6. Extended short wavelength infrared HgCdTe detectors on silicon substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Hansel, D.; Mukhortova, A.; Chang, Y.; Kodama, R.; Zhao, J.; Velicu, S.; Aqariden, F.

    2016-09-01

    We report high-quality n-type extended short wavelength infrared (eSWIR) HgCdTe (cutoff wavelength 2.59 μm at 77 K) layers grown on three-inch diameter CdTe/Si substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). This material is used to fabricate test diodes and arrays with a planar device architecture using arsenic implantation to achieve p-type doping. We use different variations of a test structure with a guarded design to compensate for the lateral leakage current of traditional test diodes. These test diodes with guarded arrays characterize the electrical performance of the active 640 × 512 format, 15 μm pitch detector array.

  7. Short-wavelength free-electron laser sources and science: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, E. A.; Clarke, J. A.; Dunning, D. J.; Masciovecchio, C.; Milne, C. J.; Parmigiani, F.; Rugg, D.; Spence, J. C. H.; Thompson, N. R.; Ueda, K.; Vinko, S. M.; Wark, J. S.; Wurth, W.

    2017-11-01

    This review is focused on free-electron lasers (FELs) in the hard to soft x-ray regime. The aim is to provide newcomers to the area with insights into: the basic physics of FELs, the qualities of the radiation they produce, the challenges of transmitting that radiation to end users and the diversity of current scientific applications. Initial consideration is given to FEL theory in order to provide the foundation for discussion of FEL output properties and the technical challenges of short-wavelength FELs. This is followed by an overview of existing x-ray FEL facilities, future facilities and FEL frontiers. To provide a context for information in the above sections, a detailed comparison of the photon pulse characteristics of FEL sources with those of other sources of high brightness x-rays is made. A brief summary of FEL beamline design and photon diagnostics then precedes an overview of FEL scientific applications. Recent highlights are covered in sections on structural biology, atomic and molecular physics, photochemistry, non-linear spectroscopy, shock physics, solid density plasmas. A short industrial perspective is also included to emphasise potential in this area. Dedicated to John M J Madey (1943-2016) and Rodolfo Bonifacio (1940-2016) whose perception, drive and perseverance paved the way for the realisation and development of short-wavelength free-electron lasers.

  8. Optimization of a miniature short-wavelength infrared objective optics of a short-wavelength infrared to visible upconversion layer attached to a mobile-devices visible camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadosh, Itai; Sarusi, Gabby

    2017-10-01

    The use of dual cameras in parallax in order to detect and create 3-D images in mobile devices has been increasing over the last few years. We propose a concept where the second camera will be operating in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR-1300 to 1800 nm) and thus have night vision capability while preserving most of the other advantages of dual cameras in terms of depth and 3-D capabilities. In order to maintain commonality of the two cameras, we propose to attach to one of the cameras a SWIR to visible upconversion layer that will convert the SWIR image into a visible image. For this purpose, the fore optics (the objective lenses) should be redesigned for the SWIR spectral range and the additional upconversion layer, whose thickness is mobile device visible range camera sensor (the CMOS sensor). This paper presents such a SWIR objective optical design and optimization that is formed and fit mechanically to the visible objective design but with different lenses in order to maintain the commonality and as a proof-of-concept. Such a SWIR objective design is very challenging since it requires mimicking the original visible mobile camera lenses' sizes and the mechanical housing, so we can adhere to the visible optical and mechanical design. We present in depth a feasibility study and the overall optical system performance of such a SWIR mobile-device camera fore optics design.

  9. Integral equation based stability analysis of short wavelength drift modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, A.; Elia, M.

    2003-01-01

    Linear stability of electron skin-size drift modes in collisionless tokamak discharges has been investigated in terms of electromagnetic, kinetic integral equations in which neither ions nor electrons are assumed to be adiabatic. A slab-like ion temperature gradient mode persists in such a short wavelength regime. However, toroidicity has a strong stabilizing influence on this mode. In the electron branch, the toroidicity induced skin-size drift mode previously predicted in terms of local kinetic analysis has been recovered. The mode is driven by positive magnetic shear and strongly stabilized for negative shear. The corresponding mixing length anomalous thermal diffusivity exhibits favourable isotope dependence. (author)

  10. Short wavelength laser-plasma interaction experiments in a spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, R.L.

    1984-01-01

    Short wavelength (250 to 500 nm) lasers should provide reduced fast electron preheat and increased laser-pellet coupling efficiency when used as laser fusion drivers. As part of an ongoing effort to study short wavelength laser plasm interaction, six beams of the 24 beam OMEGA Nd-glass laser system have been converted to operation at the third harmonic. This system is capable of providing in excess of 250 Joules of 351 nm light on spherical targets at intensities up to 2 x 10/sup 15/ W/cm/sup 2/. To date, experiments have been performed to study the uniformity of irradiation, laser absorption, fast electron production and preheat, energy transport within the target and underdense plasma instabilities. Both x-ray continuum measurements and Kα line measurements indicate that the absorption is dominated by inverse bremsstrahlung. Electron energy transport has been studied using x-ray burn-through and charge collector measurements. The results show that with 351 nm irradiation ablation pressures of order 100 Mbars are generated at intensities of 10/sup 15/ W/cm/sup 2/

  11. The opto-cryo-mechanical design of the short wavelength camera for the CCAT Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshley, Stephen C.; Adams, Joseph; Nikola, Thomas; Stacey, Gordon J.

    2014-07-01

    The CCAT observatory is a 25-m class Gregorian telescope designed for submillimeter observations that will be deployed at Cerro Chajnantor (~5600 m) in the high Atacama Desert region of Chile. The Short Wavelength Camera (SWCam) for CCAT is an integral part of the observatory, enabling the study of star formation at high and low redshifts. SWCam will be a facility instrument, available at first light and operating in the telluric windows at wavelengths of 350, 450, and 850 μm. In order to trace the large curvature of the CCAT focal plane, and to suit the available instrument space, SWCam is divided into seven sub-cameras, each configured to a particular telluric window. A fully refractive optical design in each sub-camera will produce diffraction-limited images. The material of choice for the optical elements is silicon, due to its excellent transmission in the submillimeter and its high index of refraction, enabling thin lenses of a given power. The cryostat's vacuum windows double as the sub-cameras' field lenses and are ~30 cm in diameter. The other lenses are mounted at 4 K. The sub-cameras will share a single cryostat providing thermal intercepts at 80, 15, 4, 1 and 0.1 K, with cooling provided by pulse tube cryocoolers and a dilution refrigerator. The use of the intermediate temperature stage at 15 K minimizes the load at 4 K and reduces operating costs. We discuss our design requirements, specifications, key elements and expected performance of the optical, thermal and mechanical design for the short wavelength camera for CCAT.

  12. Lack of short-wavelength light during the school day delays dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) in middle school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Rea, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    Circadian timing affects sleep onset. Delayed sleep onset can reduce sleep duration in adolescents required to awake early for a fixed school schedule. The absence of short-wavelength ("blue") morning light, which helps entrain the circadian system, can hypothetically delay sleep onset and decrease sleep duration in adolescents. The goal of this study was to investigate whether removal of short-wavelength light during the morning hours delayed the onset of melatonin in young adults. Dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) was measured in eleven 8th-grade students before and after wearing orange glasses, which removed short-wavelength light, for a five-day school week. DLMO was significantly delayed (30 minutes) after the five-day intervention, demonstrating that short-wavelength light exposure during the day can be important for advancing circadian rhythms in students. Lack of short-wavelength light in the morning has been shown to delay the circadian clock in controlled laboratory conditions. The results presented here are the first to show, outside laboratory conditions, that removal of short-wavelength light in the morning hours can delay DLMO in 8th-grade students. These field data, consistent with results from controlled laboratory studies, are directly relevant to lighting practice in schools.

  13. Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limited short-wavelength optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M.; Jackson, KeithH.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, John S.; Sommargren, Gary E.; Chapman, Henry N.; Phillion, Donald W.; Johnson, Michael; Barty, Anton; Soufli, Regina; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Bajt, Sasa

    2005-01-01

    Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-(angstrom) and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date

  14. Towards shorter wavelength x-ray lasers using a high power, short pulse pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-05-01

    A near-terawatt, KrF* laser system, focussable to power densities >10 18 W/cm 2 has been constructed for use as a pump laser in various schemes aimed at the development of x-ray lasing below 5nm. The laser system along with output characteristics such as the pulse duration, the focal spot size, and the percentage of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) emitted along with the laser pulse will be presented. Schemes intended to lead to shorter wavelength x-ray emission will be described. The resultant requirements on the pump laser characteristics and the target design will be outlined. Results from recent solid target experiments and two-laser experiments, showing the interaction of a high-power, short pulse laser with a preformed plasma, will be presented. 13 refs., 5 figs

  15. Scaling model for high-aspect-ratio microballoon direct-drive implosions at short laser wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmann, D.; Juraszek, D.; Lane, S.M.; Campbell, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    A scaling model for hot spherical ablative implosions in direct-drive mode is presented. The model results have been compared with experiments from LLE, ILE, and LLNL. Reduction of the neutron yield due to illumination nonuniformities is taken into account by the assumption that the neutron emission is cut off when the gas shock wave reflected off the center meets the incoming pusher, i.e., at a time when the probability of shell breakup is greatly enhanced. The main advantage of this semiempirical scaling model is that it elucidates the principal features of these simple implosions and permits one to estimate very quickly the performance of a high-aspect-ratio direct-drive target illuminated by short-wavelength laser light. (Author)

  16. Surface Variability of Short-wavelength Radiation and Temperature on Exoplanets around M Dwarfs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xin; Tian, Feng [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Earth System Modeling, Department of Earth System Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Wang, Yuwei [Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 0B9 (Canada); Dudhia, Jimy; Chen, Ming, E-mail: tianfengco@tsinghua.edu.cn [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-03-10

    It is a common practice to use 3D General Circulation Models (GCM) with spatial resolution of a few hundred kilometers to simulate the climate of Earth-like exoplanets. The enhanced albedo effect of clouds is especially important for exoplanets in the habitable zones around M dwarfs that likely have fixed substellar regions and substantial cloud coverage. Here, we carry out mesoscale model simulations with 3 km spatial resolution driven by the initial and boundary conditions in a 3D GCM and find that it could significantly underestimate the spatial variability of both the incident short-wavelength radiation and the temperature at planet surface. Our findings suggest that mesoscale models with cloud-resolving capability be considered for future studies of exoplanet climate.

  17. Magneto-optical enhancement of TbFeCo/Al films at short wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K.; Ito, H.; Naoe, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the bilayered films composed of magneto-optical (MO) amorphous Tb-Te-Co alloy and reflective Al layers were deposited successively on glass slide substrates without plasma exposure by using the facing targets sputtering system. The specimen films with the thickness of MO layer t MO below 5 nm showed apparent perpendicular magnetic anisotropy constant Ku of 2 to 3 x 10 6 erg/cm3 and rectangular Kerr loop. The specimen film with t MO of 14 nm took the Kerr rotation angle θ k as large as about 0.36 degree, at the wavelength λ as short as about 400 nm. These values of θ k is considerably larger than those of the bilayered films in the conventional MO media. Normally, the bilayered films with t MO above 50 nm took θ k of about 0.25 degree at θ k of 400 nm

  18. Temperature distribution and heat radiation of patterned surfaces at short wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emig, Thorsten

    2017-05-01

    We analyze the equilibrium spatial distribution of surface temperatures of patterned surfaces. The surface is exposed to a constant external heat flux and has a fixed internal temperature that is coupled to the outside heat fluxes by finite heat conductivity across the surface. It is assumed that the temperatures are sufficiently high so that the thermal wavelength (a few microns at room temperature) is short compared to all geometric length scales of the surface patterns. Hence the radiosity method can be employed. A recursive multiple scattering method is developed that enables rapid convergence to equilibrium temperatures. While the temperature distributions show distinct dependence on the detailed surface shapes (cuboids and cylinder are studied), we demonstrate robust universal relations between the mean and the standard deviation of the temperature distributions and quantities that characterize overall geometric features of the surface shape.

  19. Emitted short wavelength infrared radiation for detection and monitoring of volcanic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothery, D. A.; Francis, P. W.; Wood, C. A.

    1988-01-01

    Thematic Mapper images from LANDSAT were used to monitor volcanoes. Achievements include: (1) the discovery of a magmatic precursor to the 16 Sept. 1986 eruption of Lascar, northern Chile, on images from Mar. and July 1985 and of continuing fumarolic activity after the eruption; (2) the detection of unreported major changes in the distribution of lava lakes on Erta'Ale, Ethiopia; and (3) the mapping of a halo of still-hot spatter surrounding a vent on Mount Erebus, Antarctica, on an image acquired 5 min after a minor eruption otherwise known only from seismic records. A spaceborne short wavelength infrared sensor for observing hot phenomena of volcanoes is proposed. A polar orbit is suggested.

  20. Short-wavelength InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot superluminescent diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, De-Chun; An, Qi; Jin, Peng; Li, Xin-Kun; Wei, Heng; Wu, Ju; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2011-10-01

    This paper reports the fabrication of J-shaped bent-waveguide superluminescent diodes utilizing an InAlGaAs/AlGaAs quantum dot active region. The emission spectrum of the device is centred at 884 nm with a full width at half maximum of 37 nm and an output power of 18 mW. By incorporating an Al composition into the quantum dot active region, short-wavelength superluminescent diode devices can be obtained. An intersection was found for the light power-injection current curves measured from the straight-waveguide facet and the bent-waveguide facet, respectively. The result is attributed to the conjunct effects of the gain and the additional loss of the bent waveguide. A numerical simulation is performed to verify the qualitative explanation. It is shown that bent waveguide loss is an important factor that affects the output power of J-shaped superluminescent diode devices.

  1. Laser spectroscopy on atoms and ions using short-wavelength radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Joergen.

    1994-05-01

    Radiative properties and energy structures in atoms and ions have been investigated using UV/VUV radiation. In order to obtain radiation at short wavelengths, frequency mixing of pulsed laser radiation in crystals and gases has been performed using recently developed frequency-mixing schemes. To allow the study of radiative lifetimes shorter than the pulses from standard Q-switched lasers, different techniques have been used to obtain sufficiently short pulses. The Hanle effect has been employed following pulsed laser excitation for the same purpose. High-resolution spectroscopic techniques have been adapted for use with the broad-band, pulsed laser sources which are readily available in the UV/VUV spectral region. In order to investigate sources of radiation in the XUV and soft X-ray spectral regions, harmonic generation in rare gases has been studied. The generation of coherent radiation by the interaction between laser radiation and relativistic electrons in a synchrotron storage ring has also been investigated. 60 refs

  2. Ultrafast terawatt laser sources for high-field particle acceleration and short wavelength generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downer, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    The Laser Sources working group concerned itself with recent advances in and future requirements for the development of laser sources relevant to high-energy physics (HEP) colliders, small scale accelerators, and the generation of short wave-length radiation. We heavily emphasized pulsed terawatt peak power laser sources for several reasons. First, their development over the past five years has been rapid and multi-faceted, and has made relativistic light intensity available to the advanced accelerator community, as well as the wider physics community, for the first time. Secondly, they have strongly impacted plasma-based accelerator research over the past two years, producing the first experimental demonstrations of the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) in both its resonantly-driven and self-modulated forms. Thirdly, their average power and wall-plug efficiency currently fall well short of projected requirements for future accelerators and other high average power applications, but show considerable promise for improving substantially over the next few years. A review of this rapidly emerging laser technology in the context of advanced accelerator research is therefore timely

  3. A novel multi-wavelength procedure for blood pressure estimation using opto-physiological sensor at peripheral arteries and capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardulla, Francesco; Hu, Sijung; D'Acquisto, Leonardo; Pasta, Salvatore; Barrett, Laura; Blanos, Panagiotis; Yan, Liangwen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the Carelight multi-wavelength opto-electronic patch sensor (OEPS) was adopted to assess the effectiveness of a new approach for estimating the systolic blood pressure (SBP) through the changes in the morphology of the OEPS signal. Specifically, the SBP was estimated by changing the pressure exerted on an inflatable cuff placed around the left upper arm. Pressure acquisitions were performed both with gold standard (i.e. electronic sphygmomanometer), and Carelight sensor (experimental procedure), on subjects from a multiethnic cohort (aged 28 +/- 7). The OEPS sensor was applied together with a manual inflatable cuff, going slightly above the level of the SBP with increases of +10mmHg and subsequently deflated by 10mmHg until reaching full deflation. The OEPS signals were captured using four wavelength illumination sources (i.e., green 525 nm, orange 595 nm, red 650 nm and IR 870 nm) on three different measuring sites, namely forefinger, radial artery and wrist. The implemented algorithm provides information on the instant when the SBP was reached and the signal is lost since the vessel is completely blocked. Similarly, it detected the signal resumption when the external pressure dropped below the SBP. The findings demonstrated a good correlation between the variation of the pressure and the corresponding OEPS signal with the most accurate result achieved in the fingertip among all wavelengths, with a temporal identification error of 8.07 %. Further studies will improve the clinical relevance on a cohort of patients diagnosed with hyper- or hypotension, in order to develop a wearable blood-pressure device.

  4. TES arrays for the short wavelength band of the SAFARI instrument on SPICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropanah, P.; Hijmering, R.; Ridder, M.; Gao, J. R.; Morozov, D.; Mauskopf, P. D.; Trappe, N.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, A.; Griffin, D.; Goldie, D.; Glowacka, D.; Withington, S.; Jackson, B. D.; Audley, M. D.; de Lange, G.

    2012-09-01

    SPICA is an infra-red (IR) telescope with a cryogenically cooled mirror (~5K) with three instruments on board, one of which is SAFARI that is an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) with three bands covering the wavelength of 34-210 μm. We develop transition edge sensors (TES) array for short wavelength band (34-60 μm) of SAFARI. These are based on superconducting Ti/Au bilayer as TES bolometers with a Tc of about 105 mK and thin Ta film as IR absorbers on suspended silicon nitride (SiN) membranes. These membranes are supported by long and narrow SiN legs that act as weak thermal links between the TES and the bath. Previously an electrical noise equivalent power (NEP) of 4×10-19 W/√Hz was achieved for a single pixel of such detectors. As an intermediate step toward a full-size SAFARI array (43×43), we fabricated several 8×9 detector arrays. Here we describe the design and the outcome of the dark and optical tests of several of these devices. We achieved high yield (<93%) and high uniformity in terms of critical temperature (<5%) and normal resistance (7%) across the arrays. The measured dark NEPs are as low as 5×10-19 W/√Hz with a response time of about 1.4 ms at preferred operating bias point. The optical coupling is implemented using pyramidal horns array on the top and hemispherical cavity behind the chip that gives a measured total optical coupling efficiency of 30±7%.

  5. Correlated evolution of short wavelength sensitive photoreceptor sensitivity and color pattern in Lake Malawi cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Pauers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For evolutionary ecologists, the holy grail of visual ecology is to establish an unambiguous link between photoreceptor sensitivity, the spectral environment, and the perception of specific visual stimuli (e.g., mates, food, predators, etc.. Due to the bright nuptial colors of the males, and the role female mate choice plays in their evolution, the haplochromine cichlid fishes of the African great lakes are favorite research subjects for such investigations. Despite this attention, current evidence is equivocal; while distinct correlations among photoreceptor sensitivity, photic environment, and male coloration exist in Lake Victorian haplochromines, attempts to find such correlations in Lake Malawian cichlids have failed. Lake Malawi haplochromines have a wide variability in their short-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors, especially compared to their mid- and long-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors; these cichlids also vary in the degree to which they express one of three basic color patterns (vertical bars, horizontal stripes, and solid patches of colors, each of which is likely used in a different form of communication. Thus, we hypothesize that, in these fishes, spectral sensitivity and color pattern have evolved in a correlated fashion to maximize visual communication; specifically, ultraviolet sensitivity should be found in vertically-barred species to promote ‘private’ communication, while striped species should be less likely to have ultraviolet sensitivity, since their color pattern carries ‘public’ information. Using phylogenetic independent contrasts, we found that barred species had strong sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths, but that striped species typically lacked sensitivity to ultraviolet light. Further, the only variable, even when environmental variables were simultaneously considered, that could predict ultraviolet sensitivity was color pattern. We also found that, using models of correlated evolution, color

  6. Dual-wavelength recording, a simple algorithm to eliminate interferences due to UV-absorbing substances in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaux, Liesbeth; Van Houcke, Sofie; Dumoulin, Els; Fiers, Tom; Lecocq, Elke; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-08-01

    Analytical interferences have been described due to the presence of various exogenous UV-absorbing substances in serum. Iodine-based X-ray contrast agents and various antibiotics have been reported to interfere with interpretation of serum protein pherograms, resulting in false diagnosis of paraproteinemia. In the present study, we have explored the possibility of measuring UV absorbance at two distinct wavelengths (210 and 246 nm) to distinguish between true and false paraproteins on a Helena V8 clinical electrophoresis instrument. This study demonstrates that most substances potentially interfering with serum protein electrophoresis show UV-absorption spectra that are distinct from those of serum proteins. Scanning at 246 nm allows detection of all described interfering agents. Comparing pherograms recorded at both wavelengths (210 and 246 nm) enables to distinguish paraproteins from UV-absorbing substances. In case of a true paraprotein, the peak with an electrophoretic mobility in the gamma-region decreases, whereas the X-ray contrast media and antibiotics show an increased absorption when compared to the basic setting (210 nm). The finding of iodine-containing contrast media interfering with serum protein electrophoresis is not uncommon. In a clinical series, interference induced by contrast media was reported in 54 cases (of 13 237 analyses), corresponding with a prevalence of 0.4%. In the same series, 1631 true paraproteins (12.3%) were detected. Implementation of the proposed algorithm may significantly improve the interpretation of routine electrophoresis results. However, attention should still be paid to possible interference due to presence of atypical proteins fractions (e.g., tumor markers, C3). © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Reactions of N2(A3Σ/sub u/+) and candidates for short wavelength lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setser, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    This proposal is a request for a one year renewal of a contract with the Univ. of California (Lawrence Livermore Laboratory). The proposed experiments are directed towards investigation of possible short-wavelength laser candidate molecules that can be pumped via excitation-transfer reactions with N 2 (A 3 Σ/sub u/ + ) molecules. We will continue our flowing-afterglow experiments to characterize the excitation-transfer collisions between N 2 (A) and promising acceptor diatomic molecules (radicals). We also will extend the studies to include excitation-transfer to Cd and to S atoms. For some chemical systems, a pulsed N 2 (A) source would be very convenient for kinetic measurements and we propose to develop a pulsed N 2 (A) source. During the first year, we have shown that the excitation-transfer reaction between N 2 (A) and SO(X) provides a possible laser candidate. Therefore, we propose to start a program to study the quenching and relaxation kinetics of the SO(A 3 PI) molecule, using pulsed laser excitation techniques to generate specific levels of SO(A 3 PI)

  8. Short wavelength infrared optical windows for evaluation of benign and malignant tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Diana C.; Sordillo, Laura A.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Shi, Lingyan; Alfano, Robert R.

    2017-04-01

    There are three short wavelength infrared (SWIR) optical windows outside the conventionally used first near-infrared (NIR) window (650 to 950 nm). They occur in the 1000- to 2500-nm range and may be considered second, third, and fourth NIR windows. The second (1100 to 1350 nm) and third windows (1600 to 1870 nm) are now being explored through label-free linear and multiphoton imaging. The fourth window (2100 to 2350 nm) has been mostly ignored because of water absorption and the absence of sensitive detectors and ultrafast lasers. With the advent of new technology, use of window IV is now possible. Absorption and scattering properties of light through breast and prostate cancer, bone, lipids, and intralipid solutions at these windows were investigated. We found that breast and prostate cancer and bone have longer total attenuation lengths at NIR windows III and IV, whereas fatty tissues and intralipid have longest lengths at windows II and III. Since collagen is the major chromophore at 2100 and 2350 nm, window IV could be especially valuable in evaluating cancers and boney tissues, whereas windows II and III may be more useful for tissues with high lipid content. SWIR windows may be utilized as additional optical tools for the evaluation of collagen in tissues.

  9. Ultraviolet and short wavelength visible light exposure: why ultraviolet protection alone is not adequate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichow, Alan W; Citek, Karl; Edlich, Richard F

    2006-01-01

    The danger of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in both the natural environment and artificial occupational settings has long been recognized by national and international standards committees and worker safety agencies. There is an increasing body of literature that suggests that protection from UV exposure is not enough. Unprotected exposure to the short wavelengths of the visible spectrum, termed the "blue light hazard", is gaining acceptance as a true risk to long-term visual health. Global standards and experts in the field are now warning that those individuals who spend considerable time outdoors should seek sun filter eyewear with high impact resistant lenses that provide 100% UV filtration, high levels of blue light filtration, and full visual field lens/frame coverage as provided by high wrap eyewear. The Skin Cancer Foundation has endorsed certain sunglasses as "product[s]...effective [as] UV filter[s] for the eyes and surrounding skin". However, such endorsement does not necessarily mean that the eyewear meets all the protective needs for outdoor use. There are several brands that offer products with such protective characteristics. Performance sun eyewear by Nike Vision, available in both corrective and plano (nonprescription) forms, is one such brand incorporating these protective features.

  10. Multi-photon ionization of atoms in intense short-wavelength radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael

    2015-05-01

    The unprecedented characteristics of XUV and X-ray Free Electron Lasers (FELs) have stimulated numerous investigations focusing on the detailed understanding of fundamental photon-matter interactions in atoms and molecules. In particular, the high intensities (up to 106 W/cm2) giving rise to non-linear phenomena in the short wavelength regime. The basic phenomenology involves the production of highly charged ions via electron emission to which both sequential and direct multi-photon absorption processes contribute. The detailed investigation of the role and relative weight of these processes under different conditions (wavelength, pulse duration, intensity) is the key element for a comprehensive understanding of the ionization dynamics. Here the results of recent investigations are presented, performed at the FELs in Hamburg (FLASH) and Trieste (FERMI) on atomic systems with electronic structures of increasing complexity (Ar, Ne and Xe). Mainly, electron spectroscopy is used to obtain quantitative information about the relevance of various multi-photon ionization processes. For the case of Ar, a variety of processes including above threshold ionization (ATI) from 3p and 3s valence shells, direct 2p two-photon ionization and resonant 2p-4p two-photon excitations were observed and their role was quantitatively determined comparing the experimental ionization yields to ab-initio calculations of the cross sections for the multi-photon processes. Using Ar as a benchmark to prove the reliability of the combined experimental and theoretical approach, the more complex and intriguing case of Xe was studied. Especially, the analysis of the two-photon ATI from the Xe 4d shell reveals new insight into the character of the 4d giant resonance, which was unresolved in the linear one-photon regime. Finally, the influence of intense XUV radiation to the relaxation dynamics of the Ne 2s-3p resonance was investigated by angle-resolved electron spectroscopy, especially be observing

  11. Modelling single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for high-intensity short-wavelength radiation sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loch, R.A.; Sobierajski, R.; Louis, Eric; Bosgra, J.; Bosgra, J.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2012-01-01

    The single shot damage thresholds of multilayer optics for highintensity short-wavelength radiation sources are theoretically investigated, using a model developed on the basis of experimental data obtained at the FLASH and LCLS free electron lasers. We compare the radiation hardness of commonly

  12. Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy of low-grade metamorphic volcanic rocks of the Pilbara Craton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abweny, Mohammad S.; van Ruitenbeek, Frank J A; de Smeth, Boudewijn; Woldai, Tsehaie; van der Meer, Freek D.; Cudahy, Thomas; Zegers, Tanja; Blom, Jan Kees; Thuss, Barbara

    This paper shows the results of Short-Wavelength Infrared (SWIR) spectroscopy investigations of volcanic rocks sampled from low-grade metamorphic greenstone belts of the Archean Pilbara Craton in Western Australia. From the reflectance spectra a range of spectrally active minerals were identified,

  13. Short wavelength light filtering by the natural human lens and IOLs -- implications for entrainment of circadian rhythm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, Adam Elias; Lundeman, Jesper Holm; Kessel, Line

    2013-01-01

    Photoentrainment of circadian rhythm begins with the stimulation of melanopsin containing retinal ganglion cells that respond directly to blue light. With age, the human lens becomes a strong colour filter attenuating transmission of short wavelengths. The purpose of the study was to examine the ...

  14. High intensity pulse self-compression in short hollow core capillaries

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher, Thomas J.; Anderson, Patrick N.; Horak, Peter; Frey, Jeremy G.; Brocklesby, William S.

    2011-01-01

    The drive for shorter pulses for use in techniques such as high harmonic generation and laser wakefield acceleration requires continual improvement in post-laser pulse compression techniques. The two most commonly used methods of pulse compression for high intensity pulses are hollow capillary compression via self-phase modulation (SPM) [1] and the more recently developed filamentation [2]. Both of these methods can require propagation distances of 1-3 m to achieve spectral broadening and com...

  15. New Insight into Short-Wavelength Solar Wind Fluctuations from Vlasov Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Fouad; Belmont, G.; Goldstein, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of solar wind (SW) turbulence below the proton gyroscale is a topic that is being investigated extensively nowadays, both theoretically and observationally. Although recent observations gave evidence of the dominance of kinetic Alfven waves (KAWs) at sub-ion scales with omega omega (sub ci)) is more relevant. Here, we study key properties of the short-wavelength plasma modes under limited, but realistic, SW conditions, Typically Beta(sub i) approx. > Beta (sub e) 1 and for high oblique angles of propagation 80 deg theory, we discuss the relevance of each plasma mode (fast, Bernstein, KAW, whistler) in carrying the energy cascade down to electron scales. We show, in particular, that the shear Alfven mode (known in the magnetohydrodynamic limit) extends at scales kappa rho (sub i) approx. > 1 to frequencies either larger or smaller than omega (sub ci), depending on the anisotropy kappa (parallel )/ kappa(perpendicular). This extension into small scales is more readily called whistler (omega > omega (sub ci)) or KAW (omega < omega (sub ci)) although the mode is essentially the same. This contrasts with the well-accepted idea that the whistler branch always develops as a continuation at high frequencies of the fast magnetosonic mode. We show, furthermore, that the whistler branch is more damped than the KAW one, which makes the latter the more relevant candidate to carry the energy cascade down to electron scales. We discuss how these new findings may facilitate resolution of the controversy concerning the nature of the small-scale turbulence, and we discuss the implications for present and future spacecraft wave measurements in the SW.

  16. Increasing robustness of indirect drive capsule designs against short wavelength hydrodynamic instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, S.W.; Herrmann, M.C.; Dittrich, T.R.; Fetterman, A.J.; Marinak, M.M.; Munro, D.H.; Pollaine, S.M.; Salmonson, J.D.; Strobel, G.L.; Suter, L.J.

    2005-01-01

    Targets meant to achieve ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [J. A. Paisner, J. D. Boyes, S. A. Kumpan, W. H. Lowdermilk, and M. S. Sorem, Laser Focus World 30, 75 (1994)] have been redesigned and their performance simulated. Simulations indicate dramatically reduced growth of short wavelength hydrodynamic instabilities, resulting from two changes in the designs. First, better optimization results from systematic mapping of the ignition target performance over the parameter space of ablator and fuel thickness combinations, using techniques developed by one of us (Herrmann). After the space is mapped with one-dimensional simulations, exploration of it with two-dimensional simulations quantifies the dependence of instability growth on target dimensions. Low modes and high modes grow differently for different designs, allowing a trade-off of the two regimes of growth. Significant improvement in high-mode stability can be achieved, relative to previous designs, with only insignificant increase in low-mode growth. This procedure produces capsule designs that, in simulations, tolerate several times the surface roughness that could be tolerated by capsules optimized by older more heuristic techniques. Another significant reduction in instability growth, by another factor of several, is achieved with ablators with radially varying dopant. In this type of capsule the mid-Z dopant, which is needed in the ablator to minimize x-ray preheat at the ablator-ice interface, is optimally positioned within the ablator. A fabrication scenario for graded dopants already exists, using sputter coating to fabricate the ablator shell. We describe the systematics of these advances in capsule design, discuss the basis behind their improved performance, and summarize how this is affecting our plans for NIF ignition

  17. Pressure-assisted introduction of urine samples into a short capillary for electrophoretic separation with contactless conductivity and UV spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrlíková, Anna; Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2015-08-01

    A computer-controlled hydrodynamic sample introduction method has been proposed for short-capillary electrophoresis. In the method, the BGE flushes sample from the loop of a six-way sampling valve and is carried to the injection end of the capillary. A short pressure impulse is generated in the electrolyte stream at the time when the sample zone is at the capillary, leading to injection of the sample into the capillary. Then the electrolyte flow is stopped and the separation voltage is turned on. This way of sample introduction does not involve movement of the capillary and both of its ends remain constantly in the solution during both sample injection and separation. The amount of sample introduced to the capillary is controlled by the duration of the pressure pulse. The new sample introduction method was tested in the determination of ammonia, creatinine, uric acid, and hippuric acid in human urine. The determination was performed in a capillary with an overall length of 10.5 cm, in two BGEs with compositions 50 mM MES + 5 mM NaOH (pH 5.1) and 1 M acetic acid + 1.5 mM crown ether 18-crown-6 (pH 2.4). A dual contactless conductivity/UV spectrometric detector was used for the detection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Action spectrum for photobleaching of human lenses by short wavelength visible irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Larsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    transmission with increasing laser irradiation. CONCLUSIONS: For a 75 year old lens an effect corresponding to elimination of 15 years or more of optical ageing was obtained. This study of the spectral characteristics and intensity needed to bleach the human lens with single-photon laser effects found...... an action-spectrum peak at 420 nm tailing gradually off toward longer wavelengths and more steeply toward shorter wavelengths. The results may be used to guide experiments with two-photon bleaching....

  19. A cure for the blues: opsin duplication and subfunctionalization for short-wavelength sensitivity in jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Nathan P; Plimpton, Rebecca L; Sharkey, Camilla R; Suvorov, Anton; Lelito, Jonathan P; Willardson, Barry M; Bybee, Seth M

    2016-05-18

    Arthropods have received much attention as a model for studying opsin evolution in invertebrates. Yet, relatively few studies have investigated the diversity of opsin proteins that underlie spectral sensitivity of the visual pigments within the diverse beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera). Previous work has demonstrated that beetles appear to lack the short-wavelength-sensitive (SWS) opsin class that typically confers sensitivity to the "blue" region of the light spectrum. However, this is contrary to established physiological data in a number of Coleoptera. To explore potential adaptations at the molecular level that may compensate for the loss of the SWS opsin, we carried out an exploration of the opsin proteins within a group of beetles (Buprestidae) where short-wave sensitivity has been demonstrated. RNA-seq data were generated to identify opsin proteins from nine taxa comprising six buprestid species (including three male/female pairs) across four subfamilies. Structural analyses of recovered opsins were conducted and compared to opsin sequences in other insects across the main opsin classes-ultraviolet, short-wavelength, and long-wavelength. All nine buprestids were found to express two opsin copies in each of the ultraviolet and long-wavelength classes, contrary to the single copies recovered in all other molecular studies of adult beetle opsin expression. No SWS opsin class was recovered. Furthermore, the male Agrilus planipennis (emerald ash borer-EAB) expressed a third LWS opsin at low levels that is presumed to be a larval copy. Subsequent homology and structural analyses identified multiple amino acid substitutions in the UVS and LWS copies that could confer short-wavelength sensitivity. This work is the first to compare expressed opsin genes against known electrophysiological data that demonstrate multiple peak sensitivities in Coleoptera. We report the first instance of opsin duplication in adult beetles, which occurs in both the UVS and LWS opsin classes

  20. Monolithic photonic integration for visible and short near-infrared wavelengths: technologies and platforms for bio and life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Marco A. G.; Artundo, Iñigo; Domenech, J. David; Geuzebroek, Douwe; Sunarto, Rino; Hoofman, Romano

    2018-04-01

    This tutorial aims to provide a general overview on the state-of-the-art of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) in the visible and short near-infrared (NIR) wavelength ranges, mostly focusing in silicon nitride (SiN) substrates, and a guide to the necessary steps in the design toward the fabrication of such PICs. The focus is put on bio- and life sciences, given the adequacy and, thus, a large number of applications in this field.

  1. Photonic crystal fibre enables short-wavelength two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy with fura-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, Gail; Riis, Erling

    2004-01-01

    We report on a novel and compact reliable laser source capable of short-wavelength two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy based on soliton self-frequency shift effects in photonic crystal fibre. We demonstrate the function of the system by performing two-photon microscopy of smooth muscle cells and cardiac myocytes from the rat pulmonary vein and Chinese hamster ovary cells loaded with the fluorescent calcium indicator fura-2/AM

  2. Study of short wavelength turbulence in dense plasmas. Final technical report, September 8, 1981-August 7, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.F.; Joshi, C.

    1983-10-01

    The work includes studies of four topics: (1) Thomson scattering from short wavelength density fluctuations from laser excited plasmas from solid targets; (2) studies of SBS driven ion acoustic waves and it's harmonics in underdense plasmas; (3) studies of optical mixing excitation of electron plasma waves (high frequency density fluctuations) in theta pinch plasma; and (4) computational studies of high frequency wave excitation by intense laser beams in plasmas

  3. Laser spectroscopy of the products of photoevaporation with a short-wavelength (λ = 193 nm) excimer laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gochelashvili, K S; Zemskov, M E; Evdokimova, O N; Mikhkel'soo, V T; Prokhorov, A M

    1999-01-01

    An excimer laser spectrometer was designed and constructed. It consists of a high-vacuum interaction chamber, a short-wavelength (λ = 193 nm) excimer ArF laser used for evaporation, a probe dye laser pumped by an XeCl excimer laser, and a system for recording a laser-induced fluorescence signal. This spectrometer was used to investigate nonthermal mechanisms of photoevaporation of a number of wide-gap dielectrics. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  4. Stability of short-axial-wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihi, M.; Scheffel, J.

    1987-12-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m ≥ 1) modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also, constant-current-density equilibria can be stabilized for P > P and large β

  5. Stability of short-axial-wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, M.; Schefffel, J.

    1987-01-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m ≥ 1) modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also, constant-current-density equilibria can be stabilized for Psub(perpendicular) > Psub(parallel) and large βsub(perpendicular). (author)

  6. Group III nitride semiconductors for short wavelength light-emitting devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, J. W.; Foxon, C. T.

    1998-01-01

    The group III nitrides (AlN, GaN and InN) represent an important trio of semiconductors because of their direct band gaps which span the range 1.95-6.2 eV, including the whole of the visible region and extending well out into the ultraviolet (UV) range. They form a complete series of ternary alloys which, in principle, makes available any band gap within this range and the fact that they also generate efficient luminescence has been the main driving force for their recent technological development. High brightness visible light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are now commercially available, a development which has transformed the market for LED-based full colour displays and which has opened the way to many other applications, such as in traffic lights and efficient low voltage, flat panel white light sources. Continuously operating UV laser diodes have also been demonstrated in the laboratory, exciting tremendous interest for high-density optical storage systems, UV lithography and projection displays. In a remarkably short space of time, the nitrides have therefore caught up with and, in some ways, surpassed the wide band gap II-VI compounds (ZnCdSSe) as materials for short wavelength optoelectronic devices. The purpose of this paper is to review these developments and to provide essential background material in the form of the structural, electronic and optical properties of the nitrides, relevant to these applications. We have been guided by the fact that the devices so far available are based on the binary compound GaN (which is relatively well developed at the present time), together with the ternary alloys AlGaN and InGaN, containing modest amounts of Al or In. We therefore concentrate, to a considerable extent, on the properties of GaN, then introduce those of the alloys as appropriate, emphasizing their use in the formation of the heterostructures employed in devices. The nitrides crystallize preferentially in the hexagonal wurtzite structure and devices have so

  7. Stability of short-axial-wavelength internal kink modes of an anisotropic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, M.; Schefffel, J.

    1987-12-01

    The double adiabatic equations are used to study the stability of a cylindrical Z-pinch with respect to small axial wavelength, internal kink (m greater than or equal to 1) modes. It is found that marginally (ideally) unstable, isotropic equilibria are stabilized. Also, constant-current-density equilibria can be stabilized for Psub(perpendicular) > Psub(parallel) and large ..beta..sub(perpendicular).

  8. Is there an unknown risk for short-wavelength visible laser radiation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidenbach, Hans-Dieter; Beckmann, Dirk; Al Ghouz, Imene; Dollinger, Klaus [Fachhochschule Koeln (Germany). Forschungsbereich Medizintechnik und Nichtionisierende Strahlung; Ott, Guenter [Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin (BAuA), Dortmund (Germany); Brose, Martin [Berufsgenossenschaft Energie Textil Elektro Medienerzeugnisse (BG ETEM), Koeln (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    A specially designed test apparatus was used in the investigation on temporary blinding. During provisional tests, exposure had been carried out with different wavelengths, power settings and exposure durations. One subject familiar to the effects of temporary blinding experienced an unusual effect, which lasted a long period of time. Concerning that this effect is not known enough to be considered in safety regulations, make it important to publish this report. (orig.)

  9. Recovery Of Short Wavelength Geophysical Signals With Future Delay-Doppler Altimeters (Cryosat Ii And Sentinel Type)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2010-01-01

    altimetry: Factor of 20 improvements in along track resolution. An along-track footprint length that does not vary with wave height (sea state). Twice the precision in sea surface height measurements / sea surface slope measurements. These improvements are studied with respect to retrieval of short...... wavelength geophysical signal related to mainly bathymetric features. The combination of upward continuation from the sea bottom and smoothing the altimeter observations resulted in the best recovery of geophysical signal for simulated 5-Hz DD observations. Simulations carried out in this investigation...

  10. Paraconductivity of three-dimensional amorphous superconductors: evidence for a short-wavelength cutoff in the fluctuation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.

    1977-10-01

    Measurements of the temperature dependence and magnetic field dependence of the paraconductivity of a three dimensional amorphous superconductor are presented. The data are analyzed in terms of several current theories and are found to give good agreement for low fields and temperatures near T/sub c/. The paraconductivity falls well below predicted theoretical values in the high temperature and high field limits. This is attributed to the reduced role of high wavevector contributions to the paraconductivity. It is shown that the introduction of a short wavelength cutoff in the theoretical fluctuation spectrum provides a phenomelogical account of the discrepancy between theory and experiment

  11. AlGaN-based laser diodes for the short-wavelength ultraviolet region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Harumasa; Kuwabara, Masakazu; Yamashita, Yoji; Takagi, Yasufumi; Uchiyama, Kazuya; Kan, Hirofumi

    2009-01-01

    We have demonstrated the room-temperature operation of GaN/AlGaN and indium-free AlGaN multiple-quantum-well (MQW) laser diodes under the pulsed-current mode. We have successfully grown low-dislocation-density AlGaN films with AlN mole fractions of 20 and 30% on sapphire substrates using the hetero-facet-controlled epitaxial lateral overgrowth (hetero-FACELO) method. GaN/AlGaN and AlGaN MQW laser diodes have been fabricated on the low-dislocation-density Al 0.2 Ga 0.8 N and Al 0.3 Ga 0.7 N films, respectively. The GaN/AlGaN MQW laser diodes lased at a peak wavelength ranging between 359.6 and 354.4 nm. A threshold current density of 8 kA cm -2 , an output power as high as 80 mW and a differential external quantum efficiency (DEQE) of 17.4% have been achieved. The AlGaN MQW laser diodes lased at a peak wavelength down to 336.0 nm far beyond the GaN band gap. For the GaN/AlGaN MQW laser diodes, the modal gain coefficient and the optical internal loss are estimated to be 4.7±0.6 cm kA -1 and 10.6±2.7 cm -1 , respectively. We have observed that the characteristic temperature T 0 ranges from 132 to 89 K and DEQE shows an almost stable tendency with increase of temperature. A temperature coefficient of 0.049 nm K -1 is also found for the GaN/AlGaN MQW laser diode. The results for the AlGaN-based laser diodes grown on high-quality AlGaN films presented here will be essential for the future development of laser diodes emitting much shorter wavelengths.

  12. Gamma-ray detection with an UV-enhanced photodiode and scintillation crystals emitting at short wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansen, G.A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-noise ion implanted photodiode with high spectral response in the deep blue/UV region has been tested as read-out device for scintillation crystals with matching emission spectra (YAP(Ce), GSO(Ce), BGO and CsI(Tl)). This gamma-ray detector concept is attractive in many industrial applications where compactness, reliability and ambient temperature operation are important. The results show that the amount of detected scintillation light energy falls rapidly off as the wavelength of the scintillation light decreases. It is concluded that the dynamic spectral response of the photodiode, due to increasing carrier collection times, is considerably less than the DC response at short wavelengths. The diode is not useful in pulse mode operation with scintillation crystals emitting at wavelengths below about 400 nm. For read-out of CsI(Tl) with 661.6 keV gamma-radiation, however, the photodiode concept shows better energy resolution (7.1%) than other detectors. (orig.)

  13. [Methods quantitative for determination of water-soluble vitamins in premixes and fortified food products by micellar electrokinetic chromatography on short end of the capillary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogachuk, M N; Bessonov, V V; Perederiaev, O I

    2011-01-01

    It was purposed new technique by micellar electrokinetic chromatography on short end of the capillary (capillary electrophoresis system Agilent 3D CE, DAD, quartz capillary HPCE stndrd cap 56 cm, 50 microm, 50 mM borate buffer pH=9,3, 100 mM sodium dodecil sulfate) for simultaneous determination of water-soluble vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B12, PP, B5, B9, C, B8) in fortified food products and premixes. It was observed on 6 samples of vitamin premixes and 28 samples of fortified food products using this technique. Our findings are consistent with the results of research on certain vitamins, conducted by other methods. The developed technique can be used in analysis of water-soluble vitamins in premixes and fortified food products.

  14. Short-wavelength luminescence in Ho{sup 3+}-doped KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, M., E-mail: m.malinowski@elka.pw.edu.p [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Kaczkan, M.; Stopinski, S.; Piramidowicz, R. [Institute of Microelectronics and Optoelectronics, Koszykowa 75, 00-662 Warsaw (Poland); Majchrowski, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Military University of Technology, Kaliskiego 2, 00-908 Warsaw (Poland)

    2009-12-15

    Emissions from the high-lying excited states, energy transfer and upconversion processes are investigated in Ho{sup 3+}-activated KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystal. The spectral assignment based on time-resolved emission spectra allowed to identify various near ultra-violet (UV), blue and green emissions starting from the excited {sup 3}H{sub 5}, {sup 5}G{sub 4}, {sup 5}G{sub 5}, {sup 5}F{sub 3} and {sup 5}S{sub 2} levels. The temporal behavior of these transitions after pulsed excitation was analyzed as a function of temperature and holmium ions concentration. The shortening and nonexponentiality of the decays, observed with increasing activator concentrations, indicated cross-relaxation (CR) among the Ho{sup 3+} ions. Cross-relaxation rates were experimentally determined as a function of activator concentration and used to evaluate the values of the nearest-neighbor trapping rates X{sub 01} and to model the decays. It was observed that KGW, despite higher than in YAG maximum phonon energy of about 900 cm{sup -1}, is more efficient short-wavelength emitter than YAG. Examples of the excited-state absorption (ESA) and energy transfer (ET) mechanisms responsible for the upconverted, short-wavelength emissions were identified by analyzing fluorescence dynamics and possible energy resonances.

  15. Efficient soft x-ray generation in short wavelength laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, T.; Yamanaka, C.

    1987-01-01

    Intense x-ray generation in 1.053, 0.53, 0.26 μm laser-produced plasma has been investigated in the photon energy range of 0.1 to 3keV. The x-ray spectrum is found to have several humps which move to the higher energy side as the atomic number of the target increases. This atomic dependence is explained by a semi-Moseley's law and allows us to predict a target material most suitable for generating the photons of desired energies. Conversion efficiencies of 1.5 -- 3keV x-rays are obtained also as a function of laser wavelength at the intensity of 10/sup 13/W/cm/sup 2/. The conversion efficiency of keV x rays has been enhanced by a factor of 2 -- 3 with a controlled prepulse laser. From the semi-Moseley's law we find that cryogenic targets using either Xe or Kr in a liquid or solid phase may be most useful for a number of applications because they radiate 1 -- 3 keV x rays efficiently and never deposit on the x-ray optical components and the objects to be exposed

  16. Atomic layer deposition of absorbing thin films on nanostructured electrodes for short-wavelength infrared photosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jixian; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Fan, Fengjia; Sargent, Edward H., E-mail: ted.sargent@utoronto.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King' s College Road, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Kinge, Sachin [Advanced Technology, Materials and Research, Research and Development, Hoge Wei 33- Toyota Technical Centre, B-1930 Zaventem (Belgium)

    2015-10-12

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), prized for its high-quality thin-film formation in the absence of high temperature or high vacuum, has become an industry standard for the large-area deposition of a wide array of oxide materials. Recently, it has shown promise in the formation of nanocrystalline sulfide films. Here, we demonstrate the viability of ALD lead sulfide for photodetection. Leveraging the conformal capabilities of ALD, we enhance the absorption without compromising the extraction efficiency in the absorbing layer by utilizing a ZnO nanowire electrode. The nanowires are first coated with a thin shunt-preventing TiO{sub 2} layer, followed by an infrared-active ALD PbS layer for photosensing. The ALD PbS photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 10{sup −2} A W{sup −1} and a shot-derived specific detectivity of 3 × 10{sup 9} Jones at 1530 nm wavelength.

  17. Short-wavelength out-of-band EUV emission from Sn laser-produced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretti, F.; Schupp, R.; Kurilovich, D.; Bayerle, A.; Scheers, J.; Ubachs, W.; Hoekstra, R.; Versolato, O. O.

    2018-02-01

    We present the results of spectroscopic measurements in the extreme ultraviolet regime (7-17 nm) of molten tin microdroplets illuminated by a high-intensity 3 J, 60 ns Nd:YAG laser pulse. The strong 13.5 nm emission from this laser-produced plasma (LPP) is of relevance for next-generation nanolithography machines. Here, we focus on the shorter wavelength features between 7 and 12 nm which have so far remained poorly investigated despite their diagnostic relevance. Using flexible atomic code calculations and local thermodynamic equilibrium arguments, we show that the line features in this region of the spectrum can be explained by transitions from high-lying configurations within the Sn{}8+-Sn{}15+ ions. The dominant transitions for all ions but Sn{}8+ are found to be electric-dipole transitions towards the n = 4 ground state from the core-excited configuration in which a 4p electron is promoted to the 5s subshell. Our results resolve some long-standing spectroscopic issues and provide reliable charge state identification for Sn LPP, which could be employed as a useful tool for diagnostic purposes.

  18. Reduction of short wavelength reflectance of multi-wall carbon nanotubes through ultraviolet laser irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Michelle S.; Simonds, Brian J.; Yung, Christopher S.; Conklin, Davis; Livigni, David J.; Oliva, Alberto Remesal; Lehman, John H.

    2018-05-01

    Multi-wall carbon nanotube coatings are used as broadband, low-reflectance absorbers for bolometric applications and for stray light control. They are also used as high emittance blackbody radiators. Irradiation of single wall carbon nanotubes with ultraviolet (UV) laser light has been shown to remove amorphous carbon debris, but there have been few investigations of the interaction of UV light with the more complex physics of multi-wall carbon nanotubes. We present measurements of reflectance and surface morphology before and after exposure of multi-wall carbon nanotube coatings to 248 nm UV laser light. We show that UV exposure reduces the reflectivity at wavelengths below 600 nm and present modeling of the thermal cycling the UV exposure causes at the surface of the carbon nanotubes. This effect can be used to flatten the spectral shape of the reflectivity curve of carbon nanotube absorber coatings used for broadband applications. Finally, we find that the effect of UV exposure depends on the nanotube growth process.

  19. Atomic layer deposition of absorbing thin films on nanostructured electrodes for short-wavelength infrared photosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jixian; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Fan, Fengjia; Sargent, Edward H.; Kinge, Sachin

    2015-01-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), prized for its high-quality thin-film formation in the absence of high temperature or high vacuum, has become an industry standard for the large-area deposition of a wide array of oxide materials. Recently, it has shown promise in the formation of nanocrystalline sulfide films. Here, we demonstrate the viability of ALD lead sulfide for photodetection. Leveraging the conformal capabilities of ALD, we enhance the absorption without compromising the extraction efficiency in the absorbing layer by utilizing a ZnO nanowire electrode. The nanowires are first coated with a thin shunt-preventing TiO 2 layer, followed by an infrared-active ALD PbS layer for photosensing. The ALD PbS photodetector exhibits a peak responsivity of 10 −2  A W −1 and a shot-derived specific detectivity of 3 × 10 9  Jones at 1530 nm wavelength

  20. A microanalytical method for ammonium and short-chain primary aliphatic amines using precolumn derivatization and capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moliner-Martínez, Y; Herráez-Hernández, R; Campíns-Falcó, P

    2007-09-14

    A new microscale method is presented for the determination of ammonium and primary short-chain aliphatic amines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, n-butylamine and n-pentylamine) in water. The assay uses precolumn derivatization with the reagent o-phthaldialdehyde (OPA) in combination with the thiol N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), and capillary liquid chromatography with UV detection at 330 nm. The described method is very simple and rapid as no preconcentration of the analytes is necessary, and the volume of sample required is only 0.1 mL. Under the proposed conditions good linearity has been obtained up to a concentration of the analytes of 10.0 mgL(-1), the limits of detection being of 8-50 microgL(-1). No matrix effect was found, and recoveries between 97 and 110% were obtained. The precision of the method was good, and the achieved variation coefficients were below 12%. The reliability of the proposed approach has been tested by analyzing a microsample of fogwater collected from leaf surfaces.

  1. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  2. Short wavelength automated perimetry can detect visual field changes in diabetic patients without retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Ali Zico

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of the following study is to compare short wave automated perimetry (SWAP versus standard automated perimetry (SAP for early detection of diabetic retinopathy (DR. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 diabetic patients, divided into group I without DR (20 patients = 40 eyes and group II with mild non-proliferative DR (20 patients = 40 eyes were included. They were tested with central 24-2 threshold test with both shortwave and SAP to compare sensitivity values and local visual field indices in both of them. A total of 20 healthy age and gender matched subjects were assessed as a control group. Results: Control group showed no differences between SWAP and SAP regarding mean deviation (MD, corrected pattern standard deviation (CPSD or short fluctuations (SF. In group I, MD showed significant more deflection in SWAP (−4.44 ± 2.02 dB compared to SAP (−0.96 ± 1.81 dB (P = 0.000002. However, CPSD and SF were not different between SWAP and SAP. In group II, MD and SF showed significantly different values in SWAP (−5.75 ± 3.11 dB and 2.0 ± 0.95 compared to SAP (−3.91 ± 2.87 dB and 2.86 ± 1.23 (P = 0.01 and 0.006 respectively. There are no differences regarding CPSD between SWAP and SAP. The SWAP technique was significantly more sensitive than SAP in patients without retinopathy (p, but no difference exists between the two techniques in patients with non-proliferative DR. Conclusion: The SWAP technique has a higher yield and efficacy to pick up abnormal findings in diabetic patients without overt retinopathy rather than patients with clinical retinopathy.

  3. Highly efficient pulsed power supply system with a two-stage LC generator and a step-up transformer for fast capillary discharge soft x-ray laser at shorter wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yusuke; Takahashi, Shnsuke; Komatsu, Takanori; Song, Inho; Watanabe, Masato; Hotta, Eiki

    2010-01-01

    Highly efficient and compact pulsed power supply system for a capillary discharge soft x-ray laser (SXRL) has been developed. The system consists of a 2.2 μF two-stage LC inversion generator, a 2:54 step-up transformer, a 3 nF water capacitor, and a discharge section with a few tens of centimeter length capillary. Adoption of the pulsed transformer in combination with the LC inversion generator enables us to use only one gap switch in the circuit for charging the water capacitor up to about 0.5 MV. Furthermore, step-up ratio of a water capacitor voltage to a LC inversion generator initial charging voltage is about 40 with energy transfer efficiency of about 50%. It also leads to good reproducibility of a capillary discharge which is necessary for lasing a SXRL stably. For the study of the possibility of lasing a SXRL at shorter wavelength in a small laboratory scale, high-density and high-temperature plasma column suitable for the laser can be generated relatively easily with this system.

  4. Expression and Evolution of Short Wavelength Sensitive Opsins in Colugos: A Nocturnal Lineage That Informs Debate on Primate Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gillian L; Lim, Norman T-L; Neitz, Maureen; Peichl, Leo; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2013-01-01

    A nocturnal activity pattern is central to almost all hypotheses on the adaptive origins of primates. This enduring view has been challenged in recent years on the basis of variation in the opsin genes of nocturnal primates. A correspondence between the opsin genes and activity patterns of species in Euarchonta-the superordinal group that includes the orders Primates, Dermoptera (colugos), and Scandentia (treeshrews)-could prove instructive, yet the basic biology of the dermopteran visual system is practically unknown. Here we show that the eye of the Sunda colugo ( Galeopterus variegatus ) lacks a tapetum lucidum and has an avascular retina, and we report on the expression and spectral sensitivity of cone photopigments. We found that Sunda colugos have intact short wavelength sensitive (S-) and long wavelength sensitive (L-) opsin genes, and that both opsins are expressed in cone photoreceptors of the retina. The inferred peak spectral sensitivities are 451 and 562 nm, respectively. In line with adaptation to nocturnal vision, cone densities are low. Surprisingly, a majority of S-cones coexpress some L-opsin. We also show that the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions of exon 1 of the S-opsin gene is indicative of purifying selection. Taken together, our results suggest that natural selection has favored a functional S-opsin in a nocturnal lineage for at least 45 million years. Accordingly, a nocturnal activity pattern remains the most likely ancestral character state of euprimates.

  5. Investigation of concept of efficient short wavelength laser. Quarterly progress report, 1 August 1978--31 October 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, L.G.; Krech, R.H.; Pugh, E.R.; Taylor, R.L.

    1978-12-01

    A concept for the development of an efficient short wavelength laser based on a class of endoergic molecules-azides is being studied. One of these two laser-device experiments involves generating high concentrations of azide radicals in the thermal pyrolysis of solid, ionic azides, with the subsequent excitation of the N/sub 2/(B/sup 3/pi/sub g/) state from azide-radical recombination. Laser action would then take place upon the N/sub 2/(B/sup 3/pi/sub g/ - A/sup 3/Sigma/sup +//sub u/), first-postive transition. The second laser-demonstration experiment involves creating a high density of NCl(b/sup 1/Sigma/sup +/) state by uv photolysis of ClN/sub 3/. In this case laser emission is expected on the NCl(b/sup 1/Sigma/sup +/ ..-->.. X/sup 3/Sigma/sup -/) transition at 665 nm.

  6. Investigation of concept of efficient short wavelength laser. Quarterly progress report, 1 August 1978--31 October 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, L.G.; Krech, R.H.; Pugh, E.R.; Taylor, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A concept for the development of an efficient short wavelength laser based on a class of endoergic molecules-azides is being studied. One of these two laser-device experiments involves generating high concentrations of azide radicals in the thermal pyrolysis of solid, ionic azides, with the subsequent excitation of the N 2 (B 3 pi/sub g/) state from azide-radical recombination. Laser action would then take place upon the N 2 (B 3 pi/sub g/ - A 3 Sigma + /sub u/), first-postive transition. The second laser-demonstration experiment involves creating a high density of NCl(b 1 Sigma + ) state by uv photolysis of ClN 3 . In this case laser emission is expected on the NCl(b 1 Sigma + → X 3 Sigma - ) transition at 665 nm

  7. Investigation of concept of efficient short wavelength laser. Quarterly progress report, 1 November 1978-31 January 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krech, R.H.; Piper, L.G.; Pugh, E.R.; Taylor, R.L.

    1979-03-01

    A concept for the development of an efficient short wavelength laser based on a class of endoergic molecules-azides is being investigated. The first of two laser-device experiments involves generating high concentrations of azide radicals in the thermal pyrolysis of solid, ionic azides, with the subsequent excitation of the N/sub 2/(B/sup 3/..pi../sub g/) state from azide-radical recombination. Laser action would then take place upon the N/sub 2/(B/sup 3/..pi../sub g/-A/sup 3/..sigma../sup +//sub u/), first-positive transition. The second laser-demonstration experiment involves creating a high density of NCl(b/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/) state by uv photolysis of ClN/sub 3/. In this case laser emission is expected on the NCl(b/sup 1/..sigma../sup +/..-->..X/sup 3/..sigma../sup -/) transition at 665 nm.

  8. Investigation of concept of efficient short wavelength laser. Final technical report, April 1, 1977-July 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, L.G.; Krech, R.H.; Pugh, E.; Taylor, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of producing an efficient, short wavelength, storage laser for ICF driven applications by making use of certain state-specific reactions of exoergic azide compounds has been investigated. The ultraviolet (approx. 300 nm) photolysis of gaseous ClN 3 produced prompt emission in the red, which was attributed to the efficient formation of ClN(b 1 Σ + ) with subsequent ClN(X reverse arrow b) fluorescence. Based on these results, a small-scale laser demonstration experiment was constructed using short duration Xe flash lamps as the photolytic source. The results of this latter experiment were negative. The most plausible explanation was that the flash lamps provided sufficient far-uv radiation to dissociate and/or ionize the ClN(b) produced in the primary photolytic step. In parallel, limited experiments were performed on the rapid pyrolysis of a solid, ionic azide, NaN 3 , to produce gaseous N 3 radicals and subsequent production of triplet N 2 molecules

  9. Evidence for nonuniversal behavior of paraconductivity caused by predominant short-wavelength Gaussian fluctuations in YBa2Cu3O6.9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauzzi, A.; Pavuna, D.

    1995-01-01

    We report on in-plane paraconductivity measurements in thin YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.9 films. Our analysis of the data shows that the temperature dependence of paraconductivity is affected by lattice disorder and deviates at all temperatures from the universal power laws predicted by both scaling and mean-field theories. This gives evidence for the absence of critical fluctuations and for the failure of the Aslamazov-Larkin universal relation between critical exponent and dimensionality of the spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations. We account quantitatively for the data within the experimental error by introducing a short-wavelength cutoff into this spectrum. This implies that three-dimensional short-wavelength Gaussian fluctuations dominate in YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6.9 and suggests a rapid attenuation of these fluctuations with decreasing wavelength in short-coherence-length systems as compared to the case of the conventional Ginzburg-Landau theory

  10. Relationship between short-wavelength automatic perimetry and Heidelberg retina tomograph parameters in eyes with ocular hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Pitsas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare and correlate optic nerve head parameters obtained byHeidelberg retina tomograph (HRT with short-wavelength automatic perimetry (SWAP indices in eyes with ocular hypertension (OHT.METHODS: One hundred and forty-six patients with OHT included in the present study. All subjects had reliable SWAP and HRT measurements performed within a 2wk period. The eyes were classified as normal/abnormal according to visual field criteria and Moorfields regression analysis (MRA. Correlations between visual field indices and HRT parameters were analyzed using Pearson correlation coefficient (r.RESULTS:Twenty-nine eyes (19.9% had SWAP defects. Twenty-nine eyes (19.9% were classified as abnormal according to global MRA. Six eyes (4.1% had abnormal global MRA and SWAP defects. The k statistic is 0.116 (P=0.12 indicating a very poor agreement between the methods. No statistical significant correlation between HRT and SWAP parameters was detected.CONCLUSION:SWAP defects may coexist with abnormalities of optic disc detected by HRT in eyes with OHT. In most eyes, however, the two methods detect different glaucoma properties.

  11. Multiple pathways carry signals from short-wavelength-sensitive ('blue') cones to the middle temporal area of the macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayakumar, Jaikishan; Roy, Sujata; Dreher, Bogdan; Martin, Paul R; Vidyasagar, Trichur R

    2013-01-01

    We recorded spike activity of single neurones in the middle temporal visual cortical area (MT or V5) of anaesthetised macaque monkeys. We used flashing, stationary spatially circumscribed, cone-isolating and luminance-modulated stimuli of uniform fields to assess the effects of signals originating from the long-, medium- or short- (S) wavelength-sensitive cone classes. Nearly half (41/86) of the tested MT neurones responded reliably to S-cone-isolating stimuli. Response amplitude in the majority of the neurones tested further (19/28) was significantly reduced, though not always completely abolished, during reversible inactivation of visuotopically corresponding regions of the ipsilateral primary visual cortex (striate cortex, area V1). Thus, the present data indicate that signals originating in S-cones reach area MT, either via V1 or via a pathway that does not go through area V1. We did not find a significant difference between the mean latencies of spike responses of MT neurones to signals that bypass V1 and those that do not; the considerable overlap we observed precludes the use of spike-response latency as a criterion to define the routes through which the signals reach MT.

  12. Characterization of Low Noise TES Detectors Fabricated by D-RIE Process for SAFARI Short-Wavelength Band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosropanah, P.; Suzuki, T.; Hijmering, R. A.; Ridder, M. L.; Lindeman, M. A.; Gao, J.-R.; Hoevers, H.

    2014-08-01

    SRON is developing TES detectors based on a superconducting Ti/Au bilayer on a suspended SiN membrane for the short-wavelength band of the SAFARI instrument on SPICA mission. We have recently replaced the wet KOH etching of the Si substrate by deep reactive ion etching. The new process enables us to fabricate the detectors on the substrate and release the membrane at the very last step. Therefore the production of SAFARI large arrays (4343) on thin SiN membrane (250 nm) is feasible. It also makes it possible to realize narrow supporting SiN legs of 1 m, which are needed to meet SAFARI NEP requirements. Here we report the current-voltage characteristics, noise performance and impedance measurement of these devices. The measured results are then compared with the distributed leg model that takes into account the thermal fluctuation noise due to the SiN legs. We measured a dark NEP of 0.7 aW/, which is 1.6 times higher than the theoretically expected phonon noise.

  13. Effects of low or high doses of short wavelength ultraviolet light (UVB) on Langerhans cells and skin allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odling, K.A.; Halliday, G.M.; Muller, H.K.

    1987-01-01

    Donor C57BL mouse shaved dorsal trunk or tail skin was exposed to high (200 mJ/cm 2 ) or low (40 mJ/cm 2 ) doses of short wavelength ultraviolet light (UVB) before grafting on to the thorax of BALB/c mouse recipients of the same sex. Skin grafted 1-14 days following a single high dose of UVB irradiation was ultrastructurally depleted of LC and survived significantly longer than unirradiated skin before being rejected. After a 21-day interval between exposure and grafting when LC were again present in the epidermis there was no significant difference between treated and control graft survival. Exposure to low dose UVB irradiation only significantly increased graft survival for skin transplanted 1-3 days after irradiation; skin grafted 4 days following irradiation survived for a similar period to unirradiated control skin grafts. Electronmicroscopy showed that the low UVB dose did not deplete LC from the epidermis. We conclude that after low dose UVB treatment the class II MHC antigens on the LC Plasma membrane were lost temporarily, thus prolonging graft survival, but when the plasma membrane antigens were re-expressed graft survival returned to normal. In contrast, high-dose UVB irradiation prolonged graft survival by depleting LC from the epidermis, with graft survival only returning to control values as LC repopulated the epidermis

  14. Quantification in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry : Long- and short-term variance components and their compensation using internal standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohnesorge, Jens; Sänger-van de Griend, Cari; Wätzig, Hermann

    Different approaches were chosen to examine ionization reproducibility of analytes after separation by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) in a commercially available sheath-flow electrospray interface. For this task three different standard samples were examined. Sample 1 contained

  15. [Experiences in short-term dialyses with 2 capillary dialyzers in parallel and serial circuit in 2 and 3 shift operations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, W; Krohs, G

    1976-02-01

    It is reported on experiences made in 200 short-term dialyses with every 2 capillary dialysators. 167 dialyses of which 112 were performed by means of parallel arrangement and 55 by means of serial arrangement of the dialysators are analysed in detail. In their effectivity of dialysis the two variants proved to be nearly equivalent, in which cases the series-connection is of practical advantage. In two shifts of nurses up to 3 shifts of patients could be treated. In the large area dialysis an adaptation of the dialysate and a more intensive control of the patients must be performed. Advantages and disadvantages of this method are discussed.

  16. Automated Parallel Capillary Electrophoretic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Kane, Thomas E.; Liu, Changsheng; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.; Kernan, John R.

    2000-02-22

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  17. Role of short-wavelength filtering lenses in delaying myopia progression and amelioration of asthenopia in juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Lan Zhao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the positive effects of blue-violet light filtering lenses in delaying myopia and relieving asthenopia in juveniles. METHODS: Sixty ametropia juveniles (aged range, 11-15y were randomized into two groups: the test group (30 children, 60 eyes, wearing blue-violet light filtering lenses; and the control group (30 children, 60 eyes, wearing ordinary aspherical lenses. Baseline refractive power of the affected eyes and axial length of the two groups was recorded. After 1-year, the patients underwent contrast sensitivity (glare and non-glare under bright and dark conditions, accommodation-related testing, asthenopia questionnaire assessment, and adverse reaction questionnaire assessment. RESULTS: After 1y of wearing the filtering lenses, changes in refractive power and axial length were not significantly different between the two groups (P>0.05. Under bright conditions, the contrast sensitivities at low and medium-frequency grating (vision angles of 6.3°, 4.0°, and 2.5° with glare in the test group were significantly higher than in the control group (P0.05. In the test group, the amplitude of accommodation, accommodative lag, and accommodative sensitivity of patients wearing glasses for 6 and 12mo were significantly elevated (P0.05, and the asthenopia grating was not significantly decreased (P>0.05. In addition, after wearing glasses for 6 to 12mo, the asthenopia grating of patients in the test group decreased significantly compared with the control group (P0.05. CONCLUSION: A 1-year follow-up reveal that compare with ordinary glasses, short-wavelength filtering lenses (blue/violet-light filters increase the low- and medium-frequency contrast sensitivity under bright conditions and improved accommodation. They effectively relieved asthenopia without severe adverse reactions, suggesting potential for clinical application. However, no significant advantages in terms of refractive power or axial length progression were found compared

  18. Short wavelength lateral variability of lithospheric mantle beneath the Middle Atlas (Morocco) as recorded by mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Messbahi, Hicham; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Vauchez, Alain; Dautria, Jean-Marie; Ouali, Houssa; Garrido, Carlos J.

    2015-05-01

    mountains results from the combination of different mechanisms and occurred in a piecewise fashion at a short wavelength scale.

  19. Comparison of XH2O Retrieved from GOSAT Short-Wavelength Infrared Spectra with Observations from the TCCON Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Dupuy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the atmospheric distribution of water (H 2 O is crucial for global warming studies and climate change mitigation. In this context, reliable satellite data are extremely valuable for their global and continuous coverage, once their quality has been assessed. Short-wavelength infrared spectra are acquired by the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS aboard the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT. From these, column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide, methane and water vapor (XH 2 O have been retrieved at the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES, Japan and are available as a Level 2 research product. We compare the NIES XH 2 O data, Version 02.21, with retrievals from the ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON, Version GGG2014. The datasets are in good overall agreement, with GOSAT data showing a slight global low bias of −3.1% ± 24.0%, good consistency over different locations (station bias of −1.53% ± 10.35% and reasonable correlation with TCCON (R = 0.89. We identified two potential sources of discrepancy between the NIES and TCCON retrievals over land. While the TCCON XH 2 O amounts can reach 6000–7000 ppm when the atmospheric water content is high, the correlated NIES values do not exceed 5500 ppm. This could be due to a dry bias of TANSO-FTS in situations of high humidity and aerosol content. We also determined that the GOSAT-TCCON differences directly depend on the altitude difference between the TANSO-FTS footprint and the TCCON site. Further analysis will account for these biases, but the NIES V02.21 XH 2 O product, after public release, can already be useful for water cycle studies.

  20. Capillary waves of compressible fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, Kerstin; Mecke, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The interplay of thermal noise and molecular forces is responsible for surprising features of liquids on sub-micrometer lengths-in particular at interfaces. Not only does the surface tension depend on the size of an applied distortion and nanoscopic thin liquid films dewet faster than would be expected from hydrodynamics, but also the dispersion relation of capillary waves differ at the nanoscale from the familiar macroscopic behavior. Starting with the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation we study the coupling of capillary waves to acoustic surface waves which is possible in compressible fluids. We find propagating 'acoustic-capillary waves' at nanometer wavelengths where in incompressible fluids capillary waves are overdamped.

  1. Experimental studies on the production and suppression mechanism of the hot electrons produced by short wavelength laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Lanying; Jiang Xiaohua; Zhao Xuewei; Li Sanwei; Zhang Wenhai; Li Chaoguang; Zheng Zhijian; Ding Yongkun

    1999-12-01

    The experiments on gold-disk and hohlraum and plastic hydrocarbon (CH) film targets irradiated by laser beams with wavelength 0.35 μm (Xingguang-II) and 0.53 μm (Shenguang-I) are performed. The characteristics of hot electrons are commonly deduced from spectrum of hard X-ray. Associated with the measurement of backward SRS and 3/2ω 0 , the production mechanism of hot electrons for different target type is analyzed in laser plasma with shorter wavelength. A effective way to suppress hot electrons has been found

  2. Simultaneous and rapid determination of caffeine and taurine in energy drinks by MEKC in a short capillary with dual contactless conductivity/photometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vochyánová, Blanka; Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2014-06-01

    A method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of taurine and caffeine using a laboratory-made instrument enabling separation analysis in a short 10.5 cm capillary. The substances are detected using a contactless conductometry/ultraviolet (UV) photometry detector that enables recording both signals at one place in the capillary. The separation of caffeine and taurine was performed using the MEKC technique in a BGE with the composition 40 mM CHES, 15 mM NaOH, and 50 mM SDS, pH 9.36. Under these conditions, the migration time of caffeine is 43 s and of taurine 60 s; LOD for caffeine is 4 mg/L using photometric detection and LOD for taurine is 24 mg/L using contactless conductometric detection. The standard addition method was used for determination in Red Bull energy drink of caffeine 317 mg/L and taurine 3860 mg/L; the contents in Kamikaze drink were 468 mg/L caffeine and 4110 mg/L taurine. The determined values are in good agreement with the declared contents of these substances. RSD does not exceed 3%. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Backscattering of gyrotron radiation and short-wavelength turbulence during electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating in the L-2M stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batanov, G. M.; Borzosekov, V. D., E-mail: tinborz@gmail.com; Kovrizhnykh, L. M.; Kolik, L. V.; Konchekov, E. M.; Malakhov, D. V.; Petrov, A. E.; Sarksyan, K. A.; Skvortsova, N. N.; Stepakhin, V. D.; Kharchev, N. K. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-15

    Backscattering of gyrotron radiation ({theta} = {pi}) by short-wavelength density fluctuations (k{sub Up-Tack} = 30 cm{sup -1}) in the plasma of the L-2M stellarator was studied under conditions of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma heating at the second harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency (75 GHz). The scattering of the O-wave emerging due to the splitting of the linearly polarized gyrotron radiation into the X- and O-waves was analyzed. The signal obtained after homodyne detection of scattered radiation is a result of interference of the reference signal, the quasi-steady component, and the fast oscillating component. The coefficients of reflection of the quasi-steady component, R{sub =}{sup 2}(Y), and fast oscillating component, R{sub {approx}}{sup 2}(Y), of scattered radiation are estimated. The growth of the R{sub {approx}}{sup 2}(Y) coefficient from 3.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} to 5.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} with increasing ECR heating power from 190 to 430 kW is found to correlate with the decrease in the energy lifetime from 1.9 to 1.46 ms. The relative density of short-wavelength fluctuations is estimated to be Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub {approx}}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket / Left-Pointing-Angle-Bracket n{sub e}{sup 2} Right-Pointing-Angle-Bracket = 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -7}. It is shown that the frequencies of short-wavelength fluctuations are in the range 10-150 kHz. The recorded short-wavelength fluctuations can be interpreted as structural turbulence, the energy of which comprises {approx}10% of the total fluctuations energy. Simulations of transport processes show that neoclassical heat fluxes are much smaller than anomalous ones. It is suggested that short-wavelength turbulence plays a decisive role in the anomalous heat transport.

  4. Improved performance of P3HT:PCBM solar cells by both anode modification and short-wavelength energy utilization using Tb(aca)3phen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuo Zu-Liang; Wang Yong-Sheng; He Da-Wei; Fu Ming

    2014-01-01

    The performance of P3HT:PCBM solar cells was improved by anode modification using spin-coated Tb(aca) 3 phen ultrathin films. The modification of the Tb(aca) 3 phen ultrathin film between the indium tin oxide (ITO) anode and the PE-DOT:PSS layer resulted in a maximum power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.99% compared to 2.66% for the reference device, which was due to the increase in the short-circuit current density (J sc ). The PCE improvement could be attributed to the short-wavelength energy utilization and the optimized morphology of the active layers. Tb(aca) 3 phen with its strong down-conversion luminescence properties is suitable for the P3HT:PCBM blend active layer, and the absorption region of the ternary blend films is extended into the near ultraviolet region. Furthermore, the crystallization and the surface morphology of P3HT:PCBM films were improved with the Tb(aca) 3 phen ultrathin film. The ultraviolent—visible absorption spectra, atomic force microscope (AFM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of the films were investigated. Both anode modification and short-wavelength energy utilization using Tb(aca) 3 phen in P3HT:PCBM solar cells led to about a 12% PCE increase. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  5. Short-wavelength soft-x-ray laser pumped in double-pulse single-beam non-normal incidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, D.; Ros, D.; Guilbaud, O.; Habib, J.; Kazamias, S.; Zielbauer, B.; Bagnoud, V.; Ecker, B.; Aurand, B.; Kuehl, T.; Hochhaus, D. C.; Neumayer, P.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated a 7.36 nm Ni-like samarium soft-x-ray laser, pumped by 36 J of a neodymium:glass chirped-pulse amplification laser. Double-pulse single-beam non-normal-incidence pumping was applied for efficient soft-x-ray laser generation. In this case, the applied technique included a single-optic focusing geometry for large beam diameters, a single-pass grating compressor, traveling-wave tuning capability, and an optimized high-energy laser double pulse. This scheme has the potential for even shorter-wavelength soft-x-ray laser pumping.

  6. Losses of functional opsin genes, short-wavelength cone photopigments, and color vision--a significant trend in the evolution of mammalian vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gerald H

    2013-03-01

    All mammalian cone photopigments are derived from the operation of representatives from two opsin gene families (SWS1 and LWS in marsupial and eutherian mammals; SWS2 and LWS in monotremes), a process that produces cone pigments with respective peak sensitivities in the short and middle-to-long wavelengths. With the exception of a number of primate taxa, the modal pattern for mammals is to have two types of cone photopigment, one drawn from each of the gene families. In recent years, it has been discovered that the SWS1 opsin genes of a widely divergent collection of eutherian mammals have accumulated mutational changes that render them nonfunctional. This alteration reduces the retinal complements of these species to a single cone type, thus rendering ordinary color vision impossible. At present, several dozen species from five mammalian orders have been identified as falling into this category, but the total number of mammalian species that have lost short-wavelength cones in this way is certain to be much larger, perhaps reaching as high as 10% of all species. A number of circumstances that might be used to explain this widespread cone loss can be identified. Among these, the single consistent fact is that the species so affected are nocturnal or, if they are not technically nocturnal, they at least feature retinal organizations that are typically associated with that lifestyle. At the same time, however, there are many nocturnal mammals that retain functional short-wavelength cones. Nocturnality thus appears to set the stage for loss of functional SWS1 opsin genes in mammals, but it cannot be the sole circumstance.

  7. Capillary detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konijn, J.; Winter, K.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Fabre, J.P.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Goldberg, J.; Hoepfner, K.; Bay, A.; Currat, C.; Koppenburg, P.; Frekers, D.; Wolff, T.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Frenkel, A.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Penso, G.; Ekimov, A.; Golovkin, S.; Govorun, V.; Medvedkov, A.; Vasil'chenko, V.

    1998-01-01

    The option for a microvertex detector using glass capillary arrays filled with liquid scintillator is presented. The status of capillary layers development and possible read-out techniques for high rate environment are reported. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Reactions of N2(A3SIGMA/sub u/+) and candidates for short wavelength lasers, March 1, 1984-February 28, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setser, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    There are several potential schemes for efficiently generating high concentrations of the first electronically excited state of nitrogen, N 2 (A 3 Σ/sub u/ + , 6.2 eV) by either chemical or electrical pumping. The goal of this proposal is to study ways of utilizing the energy of the N 2 (A) molecules for developing efficient, short wavelength gas lasers. Such lasers are of potential interest for laser fusion. The authors report both excitation-transfer and dissociative excitation-transfer reactions of N 2 (A) that yield electronically-excited diatomic molecules as products. 25 refs

  9. A UV pre-ionized dual-wavelength short-pulse high-power CO{sub 2} laser facility for laser particle acceleration research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahim, N A; Mouris, J F; Davis, R W

    1994-12-01

    In this report we describe the Chalk River dual-wavelength, short-pulse, single-mode, high-power CO{sub 2} laser facility for research in laser particle acceleration and CANDU materials modifications. The facility is designed and built around UV-preionized transversely-excited atmospheric-pressure (TEA) Lumonics CO{sub 2} laser discharge modules. Peak focussed power densities of up to 2 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} in 500 ps pulses have been obtained. (author). 10 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Wavelength dependence of momentum-space images of low-energy electrons generated by short intense laser pulses at high intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharjan, C M; Alnaser, A S; Litvinyuk, I; Ranitovic, P; Cocke, C L

    2006-01-01

    We have measured momentum-space images of low-energy electrons generated by the interaction of short intense laser pulses with argon atoms at high intensities. We have done this over a wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm. The spectra show considerable structure in both the energy and angular distributions of the electrons. Some, but not all, energy features can be identified as multi-photon resonances. The angular structure shows a regularity which transcends the resonant structure and may be due instead to diffraction. The complexity of the results defies easy model-dependent interpretations and invites full solutions to Schroedinger's equation for these systems

  11. Capillary refill time is a predictor of short-term mortality for adult patients admitted to a medical department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrgan, Monija; Rytter, Dorte; Brabrand, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    the relationship between CRT (using two existing definitions and as a continuous variable) and short-term mortality. METHODS: We included all acutely admitted adult patients to a medical admission unit. We measured CRT, blood pressure, pulse, temperature and peripheral oxygen saturation. We presented the data...... mortality with all definitions of CRT. Performing multivariable analysis, controlling for age, sex, mean blood pressure, pulse, temperature and peripheral oxygen saturation, we found increasing CRT as a continuous variable and according to the Schriger and Baraff definition to be associated with increased...... mortality. Both the Trauma score and Schriger and Baraff definitions had high negative predictive values. The calculations on the Schriger and Baraff defition were based on limited power. CONCLUSIONS: We found a significant association between CRT measured as a continuous variable and short-term mortality...

  12. Measurements of the growth rate of the short wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor instability of foam foil packages driven by a soft x-ray pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willi, O.; Pasley, J.; Iwase, A.; Nazarov, W.; Rose, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability was studied in the short wavelength regime using single mode targets that were driven by hohlraum radiation allowing the Takabe-Morse roll-over due to ablative stabilisation to be investigated. A temporally shaped soft x-ray drive was generated by focusing one of the PHEBUS laser beams into a gold hohlraum with a maximum radiation temperature of about 120 eV. Thin plastic foils with sinusoidal modulations with wavelengths between 12 and 50 μm, and a perturbation amplitude of about 10% of the wavelength, were used. A low density 50 mg/cc tri-acrylate foam 150 μm in length facing the hohlraum was attached to the modulated foam target. The targets were radiographed face-on at an x-ray energy of about 1.3 keV with a spatial resolution of about 5 μm using a Wolter-like x-ray microscope coupled to an x-ray streak camera with a temporal resolution of 50 ps. The acceleration was obtained from side-on radiography. 2-D hydrodynamic code simulations have been carried out to compare the experimental results with the simulations. (authors)

  13. Investigation of concept of efficient short wavelength laser. Interim progress report, 1 April 1977-30 April 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, L.G.; Krech, R.H.; Taylor, R.L.

    1978-05-01

    Under this program PSI is investigating the photolytic decomposition of a class of endoergic molecules - azides. Because these compounds contain substantial chemical energy, they offer a potentially more efficient approach for the production of electronically excited fragments. The goal of the present program was to acquire sufficient data and understanding of certain fundamental processes to permit the critical evaluation of this approach for laser development. An apparatus was built to study the wavelength-selected photolysis of gaseous, covalent azides. The photolysis source is a frequency doubled, tuneable dye laser. Detection of fragment species is accomplished by observation of primary fluorescence, or by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) using a second tuneable dye laser. The design of the apparatus is discussed in detail.

  14. Analysis of short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms by the powerplex 16 system and capillary electrophoresis: application to forensic practice.

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Osamu; Yamamoto, Yuji; Inagaki, Sachiyo; Yoshitome, Kei; ishikawa, Takaki; Imabayashi, Kiyomi; Miyaishi, Satoru; Ishizu, Hideo

    2003-01-01

    Allele and genotype frequencies for 15 short tandem repeat (STR) polymorphisms--D3S1358, TH01, D21S11, D18S51, Penta E, D5S818, D13S317, D7S820, D16S539, CSF1PO, Penta D, vWA, D8S1179, TPOX and FGA--in a Japanese population were estimated. No deviations of the observed allele frequency from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations were found for any of the systems studied. Between 2 new pentanucleotide STR loci, Penta E and Penta D, for which there is only limited data regarding the allelic di...

  15. Reducing Short-Wavelength Blue Light in Dry Eye Patients with Unstable Tear Film Improves Performance on Tests of Visual Acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaido, Minako; Toda, Ikuko; Oobayashi, Tomoo; Kawashima, Motoko; Katada, Yusaku; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether suppression of blue light can improve visual function in patients with short tear break up time (BUT) dry eye (DE). Twenty-two patients with short BUT DE (10 men, 12 women; mean age, 32.4 ± 6.4 years; age range, 23-43 years) and 18 healthy controls (10 men, 8 women; mean age, 30.1 ± 7.4 years; age range, 20-49 years) underwent functional visual acuity (VA) examinations with and without wearing eyeglasses with 50% blue light blocked lenses. The functional VA parameters were starting VA, functional VA, and visual maintenance ratio. The baseline mean values (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, logMAR) of functional VA and the visual maintenance ratio were significantly worse in the DE patients than in the controls (P 0.05). The DE patients had significant improvement in mean functional VA and visual maintenance ratio while wearing the glasses (P 0.05). Protecting the eyes from short-wavelength blue light may help to ameliorate visual impairment associated with tear instability in patients with DE. This finding represents a new concept, which is that the blue light exposure might be harmful to visual function in patients with short BUT DE.

  16. Reducing Short-Wavelength Blue Light in Dry Eye Patients with Unstable Tear Film Improves Performance on Tests of Visual Acuity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minako Kaido

    Full Text Available To investigate whether suppression of blue light can improve visual function in patients with short tear break up time (BUT dry eye (DE.Twenty-two patients with short BUT DE (10 men, 12 women; mean age, 32.4 ± 6.4 years; age range, 23-43 years and 18 healthy controls (10 men, 8 women; mean age, 30.1 ± 7.4 years; age range, 20-49 years underwent functional visual acuity (VA examinations with and without wearing eyeglasses with 50% blue light blocked lenses. The functional VA parameters were starting VA, functional VA, and visual maintenance ratio.The baseline mean values (logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution, logMAR of functional VA and the visual maintenance ratio were significantly worse in the DE patients than in the controls (P 0.05. The DE patients had significant improvement in mean functional VA and visual maintenance ratio while wearing the glasses (P 0.05.Protecting the eyes from short-wavelength blue light may help to ameliorate visual impairment associated with tear instability in patients with DE. This finding represents a new concept, which is that the blue light exposure might be harmful to visual function in patients with short BUT DE.

  17. Optimum electron temperature and density for short-wavelength plasma-lasing from nickel-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoudnia, Leili; Bleiner, Davide

    2014-01-01

    Soft X-ray lasing across a Ni-like plasma gain-medium requires optimum electron temperature and density for attaining to the Ni-like ion stage and for population inversion in the 3d 9 4d 1 (J=0)→3d 9 4p 1 (J=1) laser transition. Various scaling laws, function of operating parameters, were compared with respect to their predictions for optimum temperatures and densities. It is shown that the widely adopted local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) model underestimates the optimum plasma-lasing conditions. On the other hand, non-LTE models, especially when complemented with dielectronic recombination, provided accurate prediction of the optimum plasma-lasing conditions. It is further shown that, for targets with Z equal or greater than the rare-earth elements (e.g. Sm), the optimum electron density for plasma-lasing is not accessible for pump-pulses at λ=1ω=1μm. This observation explains a fundamental difficulty in saturating the wavelength of plasma-based X-ray lasers below 6.8 nm, unless using 2ω pumping

  18. Does one hour of bright or short-wavelength filtered tablet screenlight have a meaningful effect on adolescents' pre-bedtime alertness, sleep, and daytime functioning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Melanie; Sutherland, Cate; Bartel, Kate; Gradisar, Michael; Williamson, Paul; Lovato, Nicole; Micic, Gorica

    2014-05-01

    Electronic media use is prevalent among adolescent populations, as is the frequency of sleeplessness. One mechanism proposed for technology affecting adolescents' sleep is the alerting effects from bright screens. Two explanations are provided. First, screens emit significant amounts of short-wavelength light (i.e. blue), which produces acute alertness and alters sleep timing. Second, later chronotypes are hypothesised to be hypersensitive to evening light. This study analysed the pre-sleep alertness (GO/NOGO task speed, accuracy; subjective sleepiness), sleep (sleep diary, polysomnography), and morning functioning of 16 healthy adolescents (M = 17.4 ± 1.9 yrs, 56% f) who used a bright tablet screen (80 lux), dim screen (1 lux) and a filtered short-wavelength screen (f.lux; 50 lux) for 1 hr before their usual bedtime in a within-subjects protocol. Chronotype was analysed as a continuous between-subjects factor; however, no significant interactions occurred. Significant effects occurred between bright and dim screens for GO/NOGO speed and accuracy. However, the magnitude of these differences was small (e.g. GO/NOGO speed = 23 ms, accuracy = 13%), suggesting minimal clinical significance. No significant effects were found for sleep onset latency, slow-rolling eye movements, or the number of SWS and REM minutes in the first two sleep cycles. Future independent studies are needed to test short (1 hr) vs longer (>2 hrs) screen usage to provide evidence for safe-to-harmful levels of screenlight exposure before adolescents' usual bedtime.

  19. The vertical and the longitudinal dynamic responses of the vehicle-track system to squat-type short wavelength irregularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Li, Zili; Dollevoet, Rolf

    2013-12-01

    The squat, a kind of rolling contact fatigue occurring on the rail top, can excite the high-frequency vehicle-track interaction effectively due to its geometric deviations with a typical wavelength of 20-40 mm, leading to the accelerated deterioration of a track. In this work, a validated 3D transient finite element model is employed to calculate in the time domain the vertical and the longitudinal dynamic contact forces between the wheel and the rail caused by squats. The vehicle-track structure and the wheel-rail continua are both considered in order to include all the important eigencharacteristics of the system related to squats. By introducing the rotational and translational movements of the wheel, the transient wheel-rail rolling contact is solved in detail by a 3D frictional contact model integrated. The contact filter effect is considered automatically in the simulations by the finite size of the contact patch. The present work focuses on the influences of the length, width and depth of a light squat on the resulted dynamic contact forces, for which idealised defect models are used. The growth of a squat is also modelled to a certain extent by a series of defects with different dimensions. The results show that the system is mainly excited at two frequencies separately in the vertical and the longitudinal dynamics. Their superposition explains the typical appearance of mature squats. As a squat grows up, the magnitude of the excited vibration at the lower frequency increases faster than the one at the higher frequency.

  20. Fluid Delivery System For Capillary Electrophoretic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingbo; Liu, Changsheng; Kane, Thomas E.; Kernan, John R.; Sonnenschein, Bernard; Sharer, Michael V.

    2002-04-23

    An automated electrophoretic system is disclosed. The system employs a capillary cartridge having a plurality of capillary tubes. The cartridge has a first array of capillary ends projecting from one side of a plate. The first array of capillary ends are spaced apart in substantially the same manner as the wells of a microtitre tray of standard size. This allows one to simultaneously perform capillary electrophoresis on samples present in each of the wells of the tray. The system includes a stacked, dual carrousel arrangement to eliminate cross-contamination resulting from reuse of the same buffer tray on consecutive executions from electrophoresis. The system also has a gel delivery module containing a gel syringe/a stepper motor or a high pressure chamber with a pump to quickly and uniformly deliver gel through the capillary tubes. The system further includes a multi-wavelength beam generator to generate a laser beam which produces a beam with a wide range of wavelengths. An off-line capillary reconditioner thoroughly cleans a capillary cartridge to enable simultaneous execution of electrophoresis with another capillary cartridge. The streamlined nature of the off-line capillary reconditioner offers the advantage of increased system throughput with a minimal increase in system cost.

  1. Simultaneous determination of free and total glycerol in biodiesel by capillary electrophoresis using multiple short-end injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spudeit, Daniel Alfonso; Piovezan, Marcel; Dolzan, Maressa D; Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Azevedo, Mônia Stremel; Vitali, Luciano; Leal Oliveira, Marcone Augusto; Oliveira Costa, Ana Carolina; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2013-12-01

    A rapid method for the simultaneous determination of free glycerol (FG) and total glycerol (TG) in biodiesel by CE using a short-end multiple injection (SE/MI) configuration system is described. The sample preparation for FG involves the extraction of glycerol with water and for TG a saponification reaction is carried out followed by extraction as in the case of FG. The glycerol extracted in both cases is submitted to periodate oxidation and the iodate ions formed are measured on a CE-SE/MI system. The relevance of this study lies in the fact that no analytical procedure has been previously reported for the determination of TG (or of FG and TG simultaneously) by CE. The optimum conditions for the saponification/extraction process were 1.25% KOH and 25°C, with a time of only 5 min, and biodiesel mass in the range of 50.0-200.0 mg can be used. Multiple injections were performed hydrodynamically with negative pressure as follows: 50 mbar/3s (FG sample); 50 mbar/6s (electrolyte spacer); 50 mbar/3s (TG sample). The linear range obtained was 1.55-46.5 mg/L with R(2) > 0.99. The LOD and LOQ were 0.16 mg/L and 0.47 mg/L, respectively for TG. The method provides acceptable throughput for application in quality control and monitoring biodiesel synthesis process. In addition, it offers simple sample preparation (saponification process), it can be applied to a variety biodiesel samples (soybean, castor, and waste cooking oils) and it can be used for the determination of two key parameters related to the biodiesel quality with a fast separation (less than 30 s) using an optimized CE-SE/MI system. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. High color rendering index of remote-type white LEDs with multi-layered quantum dot-phosphor films and short-wavelength pass dichroic filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Do, Young Rag

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces high color rendering index (CRI) white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) coated with red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors and yellowish-green emitting AgIn5S8/ZnS (AIS/ZS) quantum dots (QDs) on glass or a short-wavelength pass dichroic filter (SPDF), which transmit blue wavelength regions and reflect yellow wavelength regions. The red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphor film is coated on glass and a SPDF using a screen printing method, and then the yellowish-green emitting AIS/ZS QDs are coated on the red phosphor (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu film-coated glass and SPDF using the electrospray (e-spray) method.To fabricate the red phosphor film, the optimum amount of phosphor is dispersed in a silicon binder to form a red phosphor paste. The AIS/ZS QDs are mixed with dimethylformamide (DMF), toluene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the e-spray coating. The substrates are spin-coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to fabricate a conductive surface. The CRI of the white LEDs is improved through inserting the red phosphor film between the QD layer and the glass substrate. Furthermore, the light intensities of the multi-layered phosphor films are enhanced through changing the glass substrate to the SPDF. The correlated color temperatures (CCTs) vary as a function of the phosphor concentration in the phosphor paste. The optical properties of the yellowish-green AIS/ZS QDs and red (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors are characterized using photoluminescence (PL), and the multi-layered QD-phosphor films are measured using electroluminescence (EL) with an InGaN blue LED (λmax = 450 nm) at 60 mA.

  3. Short-wavelength infrared imaging using low dark current InGaAs detector arrays and vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser illuminators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdougal, Michael; Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; Follman, David

    2011-06-01

    We describe the factors that go into the component choices for a short wavelength IR (SWIR) imager, which include the SWIR sensor, the lens, and the illuminator. We have shown the factors for reducing dark current, and shown that we can achieve well below 1.5 nA/cm2 for 15 μm devices at 7 °C. In addition, we have mated our InGaAs detector arrays to 640×512 readout integrated integrated circuits to make focal plane arrays (FPAs). The resulting FPAs are capable of imaging photon fluxes with wavelengths between 1 and 1.6 μm at low light levels. The dark current associated with these FPAs is extremely low, exhibiting a mean dark current density of 0.26 nA/cm2 at 0 °C. Noise due to the readout can be reduced from 95 to 57 electrons by using off-chip correlated double sampling. In addition, Aerius has developed laser arrays that provide flat illumination in scenes that are normally light-starved. The illuminators have 40% wall-plug efficiency and provide low-speckle illumination, and provide artifact-free imagery versus conventional laser illuminators.

  4. Transition operators in acoustic-wave diffraction theory. I - General theory. II - Short-wavelength behavior, dominant singularities of Zk0 and Zk0 exp -1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahne, G. E.

    1991-01-01

    A formal theory of the scattering of time-harmonic acoustic scalar waves from impenetrable, immobile obstacles is established. The time-independent formal scattering theory of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, in particular the theory of the complete Green's function and the transition (T) operator, provides the model. The quantum-mechanical approach is modified to allow the treatment of acoustic-wave scattering with imposed boundary conditions of impedance type on the surface (delta-Omega) of an impenetrable obstacle. With k0 as the free-space wavenumber of the signal, a simplified expression is obtained for the k0-dependent T operator for a general case of homogeneous impedance boundary conditions for the acoustic wave on delta-Omega. All the nonelementary operators entering the expression for the T operator are formally simple rational algebraic functions of a certain invertible linear radiation impedance operator which maps any sufficiently well-behaved complex-valued function on delta-Omega into another such function on delta-Omega. In the subsequent study, the short-wavelength and the long-wavelength behavior of the radiation impedance operator and its inverse (the 'radiation admittance' operator) as two-point kernels on a smooth delta-Omega are studied for pairs of points that are close together.

  5. Effect of re-expansion after short-period lung collapse on pulmonary capillary permeability and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in isolated rabbit lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, T; Ishibe, Y; Okazaki, N; Miura, K; Liu, R; Nagai, S; Minami, Y

    2004-04-01

    Re-expansion pulmonary oedema is a rare complication caused by rapid re-expansion of a chronically collapsed lung. Several cases of pulmonary oedema associated with one-lung ventilation (OLV) have been reported recently. Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in pulmonary oedema fluid are suggested to play important roles in its development. Activation of cytokines after re-expansion of collapsed lung during OLV has not been thoroughly investigated. Here we investigated the effects of re-expansion of the collapsed lung on pulmonary oedema formation and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. Lungs isolated from female white Japanese rabbits were perfused and divided into a basal (BAS) group (n=7, baseline measurement alone), a control (CONT) group (n=9, ventilated without lung collapse for 120 min) and an atelectasis (ATEL) group (n=9, lung collapsed for 55 min followed by re-expansion and ventilation for 65 min). Pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and the coefficient of filtration (Kfc) were measured at baseline and 60 and 120 min. At the end of perfusion, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid/plasma protein ratio (B/P), wet/dry lung weight ratio (W/D) and mRNA expressions of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined. TNF-alpha and IL-1beta mRNA were significantly up-regulated in lungs of the ATEL group compared with BAS and CONT, though no significant differences were noted in PVR, Kfc, B/P and W/D within and between groups. MPO increased at 120 min in CONT and ATEL groups. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were up-regulated upon re-expansion and ventilation after short-period lung collapse, though no changes were noted in pulmonary capillary permeability.

  6. Determination of Seed Soundness in Conifers Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa Using Narrow-Multiband Spectral Imaging in the Short-Wavelength Infrared Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Osamu; Hara, Masashi; Tobita, Hiroyuki; Yazaki, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Toshinori; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi; Uemura, Akira; Utsugi, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    Regeneration of planted forests of Cryptomeria japonica (sugi) and Chamaecyparis obtuse (hinoki) is the pressing importance to the forest administration in Japan. Low seed germination rate of these species, however, has hampered low-cost production of their seedlings for reforestation. The primary cause of the low germinability has been attributed to highly frequent formation of anatomically unsound seeds, which are indistinguishable from sound germinable seeds by visible observation and other common criteria such as size and weight. To establish a method for sound seed selection in these species, hyperspectral imaging technique was used to identify a wavelength range where reflectance spectra differ clearly between sound and unsound seeds. In sound seeds of both species, reflectance in a narrow waveband centered at 1,730 nm, corresponding to a lipid absorption band in the short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range, was greatly depressed relative to that in adjacent wavebands on either side. Such depression was absent or less prominent in unsound seeds. Based on these observations, a reflectance index SQI, abbreviated for seed quality index, was formulated using reflectance at three narrow SWIR wavebands so that it represents the extent of the depression. SQI calculated from seed area-averaged reflectance spectra and spatial distribution patterns of pixelwise SQI within each seed area were both proven as reliable criteria for sound seed selection. Enrichment of sound seeds was accompanied by an increase in germination rate of the seed lot. Thus, the methods described are readily applicable toward low-cost seedling production in combination with single seed sowing technology. PMID:26083366

  7. Design and analysis of InN - In0.25Ga0.75N single quantum well laser for short distance communication wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polash, Md. Mobarak Hossain; Alam, M. Shah; Biswas, Saumya

    2018-03-01

    A single quantum well semiconductor laser based on wurtzite-nitride is designed and analyzed for short distance communication wavelength (at around 1300 nm). The laser structure has 12 Å well layer of InN, 15 Å barrier layer of In0.25Ga0.75N, and 54 Å separate confinement heterostructure layer of GaN. To calculate the electronic characteristics of the structure, a self-consistent method is used where Hamiltonian with effective mass approximation is solved for conduction band while six-bands Hamiltonian matrix with k · p formalism including the polarization effect, valence-band mixing effect, and strain effect is solved for valence band. The interband optical transition elements, optical gain, differential gain, radiative current density, spontaneous emission rate, and threshold characteristics have been calculated. The wave function overlap integral is found to be 45.93% for TE-polarized structure. Also, the spontaneous emission rate is found to be 6.57 × 1027 s - 1 cm - 3 eV - 1 at 1288.21 nm with the carrier density of 5 × 1019 cm - 3. Furthermore, the radiative current density and the radiative recombination rate are found to be 121.92 A cm - 2 and 6.35 × 1027 s - 1 cm - 3, respectively, while the TE-polarized optical gain of the structure is 3872.1 cm - 1 at 1301.7 nm.

  8. Spectral shifts of mammalian ultraviolet-sensitive pigments (short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1) are associated with eye length and photic niche evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerling, Christopher A; Huynh, Hieu T; Nguyen, Minh A; Meredith, Robert W; Springer, Mark S

    2015-11-22

    Retinal opsin photopigments initiate mammalian vision when stimulated by light. Most mammals possess a short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1) pigment that is primarily sensitive to either ultraviolet or violet light, leading to variation in colour perception across species. Despite knowledge of both ultraviolet- and violet-sensitive SWS1 classes in mammals for 25 years, the adaptive significance of this variation has not been subjected to hypothesis testing, resulting in minimal understanding of the basis for mammalian SWS1 spectral tuning evolution. Here, we gathered data on SWS1 for 403 mammal species, including novel SWS1 sequences for 97 species. Ancestral sequence reconstructions suggest that the most recent common ancestor of Theria possessed an ultraviolet SWS1 pigment, and that violet-sensitive pigments evolved at least 12 times in mammalian history. We also observed that ultraviolet pigments, previously considered to be a rarity, are common in mammals. We then used phylogenetic comparative methods to test the hypotheses that the evolution of violet-sensitive SWS1 is associated with increased light exposure, extended longevity and longer eye length. We discovered that diurnal mammals and species with longer eyes are more likely to have violet-sensitive pigments and less likely to possess UV-sensitive pigments. We hypothesize that (i) as mammals evolved larger body sizes, they evolved longer eyes, which limited transmittance of ultraviolet light to the retina due to an increase in Rayleigh scattering, and (ii) as mammals began to invade diurnal temporal niches, they evolved lenses with low UV transmittance to reduce chromatic aberration and/or photo-oxidative damage. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Short-wavelength multiline erbium-doped fiber ring laser by a broadband long-period fiber grating inscribed in a taper transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anzueto-Sánchez, G; Martínez-Rios, A

    2014-01-01

    A stable multiwavelength all-fiber erbium-doped fiber ring laser (EDFRL) based on a broadband long-period fiber grating (LPFG) inscribed in a fiber taper transition is presented. The LPFG’s characteristics were engineered to provide a higher loss at the natural lasing wavelength of the laser cavity. The LPFG inscribed on a taper transition provided a depth greater than 25 dB, and posterior chemical etching provided a broad notch band to inhibit laser generation on the long-wavelength side of the EDF gain. Up to four simultaneous laser wavelengths are generated in the range of 1530–1535 nm. (paper)

  10. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  11. Amplification of spontaneous emission of neon-like argon in a fast gas-filled capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolacek, K.; Schmidt, J.; Bohacek, V.; Ripa, M.; Frolov, O.; Vrba, P.; Straus, J.; Prukner, V.; Rupasov, A. A.; Shikanov, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of the CAPEX facility and its basic diagnostics are described. The experiments carried out in the last modification of this facility accomplished with the demonstration of amplified spontaneous emission of neon-like argon (Ar 8+ ) at the wavelength 46.88 nm. The first version of the facility, CAPEX1, operated with a plastic capillary and had a short high-power passive prepulse and an imperfect gas-filling system. In the second version, CAPEX2, a ceramic capillary was used, the prepulse amplitude was lowered, and the gas-filling system was improved. In the third, most successful version, CAPEX3, the capillary bending was reduced, a longer external prepulse was used, and the gas-filling system was further optimized. For each version, results of X-ray measurements are presented and interpreted

  12. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseyev, S A; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N; Petrunin, V V; Chekalin, S V

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ, was measured by the conical probe operating in shear force mode. In shear force regime, the dielectric capillary has been used as a "classical" SPM tip, which provided images reflecting the surface topology. In a photoelectron regime photoelectrons passed through hollow tip and entered a detector. The spatial distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element resolution using the combination of a hollow-tip scanner with time-of-flight technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards point of care testing for C. difficile infection by volatile profiling, using the combination of a short multi-capillary gas chromatography column with metal oxide sensor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, N D; Ewen, R J; De Lacy Costello, B; Garner, C E; Vaughan, K; Ratcliffe, N M; Probert, C S J

    2014-01-01

    Rapid volatile profiling of stool sample headspace was achieved using a combination of short multi-capillary chromatography column (SMCC), highly sensitive heated metal oxide semiconductor sensor and artificial neural network software. For direct analysis of biological samples this prototype offers alternatives to conventional gas chromatography (GC) detectors and electronic nose technology. The performance was compared to an identical instrument incorporating a long single capillary column (LSCC). The ability of the prototypes to separate complex mixtures was assessed using gas standards and homogenized in house ‘standard’ stool samples, with both capable of detecting more than 24 peaks per sample. The elution time was considerably faster with the SMCC resulting in a run time of 10 min compared to 30 min for the LSCC. The diagnostic potential of the prototypes was assessed using 50 C. difficile positive and 50 negative samples. The prototypes demonstrated similar capability of discriminating between positive and negative samples with sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 80% respectively. C. difficile is an important cause of hospital acquired diarrhoea, with significant morbidity and mortality around the world. A device capable of rapidly diagnosing the disease at the point of care would reduce cases, deaths and financial burden. (paper)

  14. Capillary waves with surface viscosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Li; Denner, Fabian; Morgan, Neal; van Wachem, Berend; Dini, Daniele

    2017-11-01

    Experiments over the last 50 years have suggested a correlation between the surface (shear) viscosity and the stability of a foam or emulsion. With recent techniques allowing more accurate measurements of the elusive surface viscosity, we examine this link theoretically using small-amplitude capillary waves in the presence of the Marangoni effect and surface viscosity modelled via the Boussinesq-Scriven model. The surface viscosity effect is found to contribute a damping effect on the amplitude of the capillary wave with subtle differences to the effect of the convective-diffusive Marangoni transport. The general wave dispersion is augmented to take into account the Marangoni and surface viscosity effects, and a first-order correction to the critical damping wavelength is derived. The authors acknowledge the financial support of the Shell University Technology Centre for fuels and lubricants.

  15. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aseyev, S.A.; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N

    2017-01-01

    of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ...... distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element...

  16. Conventional and narrow bore short capillary columns with cyclodextrin derivatives as chiral selectors to speed-up enantioselective gas chromatography and enantioselective gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicchi, Carlo; Liberto, Erica; Cagliero, Cecilia; Cordero, Chiara; Sgorbini, Barbara; Rubiolo, Patrizia

    2008-11-28

    The analysis of complex real-world samples of vegetable origin requires rapid and accurate routine methods, enabling laboratories to increase sample throughput and productivity while reducing analysis costs. This study examines shortening enantioselective-GC (ES-GC) analysis time following the approaches used in fast GC. ES-GC separations are due to a weak enantiomer-CD host-guest interaction and the separation is thermodynamically driven and strongly influenced by temperature. As a consequence, fast temperature rates can interfere with enantiomeric discrimination; thus the use of short and/or narrow bore columns is a possible approach to speeding-up ES-GC analyses. The performance of ES-GC with a conventional inner diameter (I.D.) column (25 m length x 0.25 mm I.D., 0.15 microm and 0.25 microm d(f)) coated with 30% of 2,3-di-O-ethyl-6-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl-beta-cyclodextrin in PS-086 is compared to those of conventional I.D. short column (5m length x 0.25 mm I.D., 0.15 microm d(f)) and of different length narrow bore columns (1, 2, 5 and 10 m long x 0.10 mm I.D., 0.10 microm d(f)) in analysing racemate standards of pesticides and in the flavour and fragrance field and real-world-samples. Short conventional I.D. columns gave shorter analysis time and comparable or lower resolutions with the racemate standards, depending mainly on analyte volatility. Narrow-bore columns were tested under different analysis conditions; they provided shorter analysis time and resolutions comparable to those of conventional I.D. ES columns. The narrow-bore columns offering the most effective compromise between separation efficiency and analysis time are the 5 and 2m columns; in combination with mass spectrometry as detector, applied to lavender and bergamot essential oil analyses, these reduced analysis time by a factor of at least three while separation of chiral markers remained unaltered.

  17. Intramedullary capillary haemangioma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelleher, T

    2012-02-03

    Intramedullary capillary haemangioma is extremely rare and only four cases have been previously reported. We describe a further case, outlining the clinical, radiological, surgical and pathological features.

  18. Extended wavelength InGaAs on GaAs using InAlAs buffer for back-side-illuminated short-wave infrared detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Lars; John, Joachim; Degroote, Stefan; Borghs, Gustaaf; Hoof, Chris van; Nemeth, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    We conducted an experimental study of back-side-illuminated InGaAs photodiodes grown on GaAs and sensitive in the short-wave infrared up to 2.4 μm. Standard metamorphic InGaAs or IR-transparent InAlAs buffers were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy. We studied dark current and photocurrent as a function of buffer thickness, buffer material, and temperature. A saturation of the dark current with buffer thickness was not observed. The maximum resistance area product was ∼10 Ω cm2 at 295 K. The dark current above 200 K was dominated by generation-recombination current. A pronounced dependence of the photocurrent on the buffer thickness was observed. The peak external quantum efficiency was 46% (at 1.6 μm) without antireflective coating

  19. Short Wavelength Electromagnetic Perturbations Excited Near the Solar Probe Plus Spacecraft in the Inner Heliosphere: 2.5D Hybrid Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipatov, Alexander S.; Sittler, Edward C.; Hartle, Richard E.; Cooper, John F.

    2011-01-01

    A 2.5D numerical plasma model of the interaction of the solar wind (SW) with the Solar Probe Plus spacecraft (SPPSC) is presented. These results should be interpreted as a basic plasma model derived from the SW-interaction with the spacecraft (SC), which could have consequences for both plasma wave and electron plasma measurements on board the SC in the inner heliosphere. Compression waves and electric field jumps with amplitudes of about 1.5 V/m and (12-18) V/m were also observed. A strong polarization electric field was also observed in the wing of the plasma wake. However, 2.5D hybrid modeling did not show excitation of whistler/Alfven waves in the upstream connected with the bidirectional current closure that was observed in short-time 3D modeling SPPSC and near a tether in the ionosphere. The observed strong electromagnetic perturbations may be a crucial point in the electromagnetic measurements planned for the future Solar Probe Plus (SPP) mission. The results of modeling electromagnetic field perturbations in the SW due to shot noise in absence of SPPSC are also discussed.

  20. Wavelength converter technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan; Hansen, Peter Bukhave; Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov

    1999-01-01

    Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers.......Wavelength conversion is important since it ensures full flexibility of the WDM network layer. Progress in optical wavelength converter technology is reviewed with emphasis on all-optical wavelength converter types based on semiconductor optical amplifiers....

  1. Nasal Lobular Capillary Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Patil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal lobular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of the paranasal sinuses. This lesion is believed to grow rapidly in size over time. The exact etiopathogenesis is still a dilemma. We discuss a case of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma presenting with a history of epistaxis. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of paranasal sinuses revealed an intensely enhancing soft-tissue mass in the left nasal cavity and left middle and inferior meati with no obvious bony remodeling or destruction. We present imaging and pathologic features of nasal lobular capillary hemangioma and differentiate it from other entities like nasal angiofibroma.

  2. Short-Wavelength Countermeasures for Circadian Desynchrony

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heller, H. C; Smith, Mark

    2008-01-01

    .... Exposure of humans to bright light for an hour or more at the right phase of the circadian cycle produces significant phase shifts of circadian rhythms speeding recovery from jet-lag, and optimizing...

  3. Physics of short-wavelength-laser design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1981-01-01

    The physics and design of vuv and soft x-ray lasers pumped by ICF class high intensity infrared laser drivers are described (for example, the SHIVA laser facility at LLNL). Laser design and physics issues are discussed in the case of a photoionization pumping scheme involving Ne II and line pumping schemes involving H-like and He-like neon.

  4. Demonstration of a Short Wavelength Chemical Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gole, James

    1999-01-01

    ...)). Using this gain medium in a full vacuum cavity constructed following the design of the HF overtone system at the University of Illinois, Urbana, we have pursued and are continuing experiments...

  5. Short-Wavelength Countermeasures for Circadian Desynchrony

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heller, H. C; Smith, Mark

    2008-01-01

    ... cognitive functionality and restorative sleep. Our work on mice produced the unexpected result that exposure to intermittent millisecond flashes of light distributed over an hour for a total of only 120 msec...

  6. Analysis of the fluctuation-induced excess dc conductivity of epitaxial YBa2Cu3O7 films: Influence of a short-wavelength cutoff in the fluctuation spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopfengaertner, R.; Hensel, B.; Saemann-Ischenko, G.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements of the temperature dependence of the in-plane dc conductivity on various high-quality epitaxial YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 films are presented. The rounding of the resistivity in the transition region has been analyzed in terms of the anisotropic Aslamazov-Larkin (AL), Lawrence-Doniach (LD), and Maki-Thompson theories. In the framework of the time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (GL) approach we have investigated the influence of a short-wavelength cutoff parameter in the fluctuation spectrum of the AL and LD term. In both theories this physically reasonable cutoff leads to a considerable reduction of the predicted excess dc conductivity at higher temperatures. Moreover, the three-dimensional anisotropic AL term, taking the cutoff into account, predicts nearly the same excess conductivity as the original LD term, although these two approaches describe different systems. A good agreement between experimental data and LD as well as the modified three-dimensional anisotropic AL term was found in the region 1.01T c ≤T≤1.1T c . The zero-temperature GL coherence length ξ c (0) has been estimated to be about 1.5 A

  7. Determination of surface tension coefficient of liquids by diffraction of light on capillary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolić, D; Nešić, Lj

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a simple technique for determining the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids, based on laser light diffraction on capillary waves. Capillary waves of given frequency are created by an exciter needle acting on the surface of liquid and represent a reflective diffraction grating, the constant of which (the wavelength of capillary waves) can be determined based on a known incidence angle of light (grazing angle). We obtain the coefficient of the surface tension of liquids by applying the dispersion relation for capillary waves and analyze the difficulties that arise when setting up and conducting the experiment in detail. (paper)

  8. Thermally excited capillary waves at vapor/liquid interfaces of water-alcohol mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaknin, David; Bu Wei; Sung, Jaeho; Jeon, Yoonnam; Kim, Doseok

    2009-01-01

    The density profiles of liquid/vapor interfaces of water-alcohol (methanol, ethanol and propanol) mixtures were studied by surface-sensitive synchrotron x-ray scattering techniques. X-ray reflectivity and diffuse scattering measurements, from the pure and mixed liquids, were analyzed in the framework of capillary wave theory to address the characteristic length scales of the intrinsic roughness and the shortest capillary wavelength (alternatively, the upper wavevector cutoff in capillary wave theory). Our results establish that the intrinsic roughness is dominated by average interatomic distances. The extracted effective upper wavevector cutoff indicates capillary wave theory breaks down at distances of the order of bulk correlation lengths.

  9. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration -- Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment

  10. Biomimetic Unidirectional Capillary Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupert, Eric; Moran, Patrick; Dahl, Jason

    2017-11-01

    In arid environments animals require specialized adaptations to collect adequate water. The Texas horned lizard (P. cornutum) has superhydrophylic skin which draws water out of moist soil or directly from water sources. The water then makes its way into the lizard's unidirectional capillary system, made of overlapping scales, which serves to channel water to its mouth. Testing different channel geometries, repeated ``D'' shaped chambers as in Commans et al. (2015) and truncated isosceles triangle chambers, as found in P. cornutum, we show the ability to have passive, unidirectional, fluid transport. Tests were carried out with the capillaries in a horizontal configuration. While both capillary geometries produced the desired traits, the triangular chambers showed superior unidirectionality, with no observed back flow, while ``D'' chambers showed back flow under testing conditions. The chambers provided similar flow rates. These types of channel systems will find use in microfluidics, notably in medical, printing, and lab-on-chip applications.

  11. Capillary condenser/evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Javier A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A heat transfer device is disclosed for transferring heat to or from a fluid that is undergoing a phase change. The heat transfer device includes a liquid-vapor manifold in fluid communication with a capillary structure thermally connected to a heat transfer interface, all of which are disposed in a housing to contain the vapor. The liquid-vapor manifold transports liquid in a first direction and conducts vapor in a second, opposite direction. The manifold provides a distributed supply of fluid (vapor or liquid) over the surface of the capillary structure. In one embodiment, the manifold has a fractal structure including one or more layers, each layer having one or more conduits for transporting liquid and one or more openings for conducting vapor. Adjacent layers have an increasing number of openings with decreasing area, and an increasing number of conduits with decreasing cross-sectional area, moving in a direction toward the capillary structure.

  12. Western Blotting using Capillary Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J.; Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein a...

  13. Practical capillary electrophoresis

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberger, Robert

    2000-01-01

    In the 1980s, capillary electrophoresis (CE) joined high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as the most powerful separation technique available to analytical chemists and biochemists. Published research using CE grew from 48 papers in the year of commercial introduction (1988) to 1200 in 1997. While only a dozen major pharmaceutical and biotech companies have reduced CE to routine practice, the applications market is showing real or potential growth in key areas, particularly in the DNA marketplace for genomic mapping and forensic identification. For drug development involving small molecules (including chiral separations), one CE instrument can replace 10 liquid chromatographs in terms of speed of analysis. CE also uses aqueous rather than organic solvents and is thus environmentally friendlier than HPLC. The second edition of Practical Capillary Electrophoresis has been extensively reorganized and rewritten to reflect modern usage in the field, with an emphasis on commercially available apparatus and ...

  14. Wavelength conversion devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Benny; Durhuus, Terji; Jørgensen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    system requirements. The ideal wavelength converter should be transparent to the bit rate and signal format and provide an unchirped output signal with both a high extinction ratio and a large signal-to-noise ratio. It should allow conversion to both shorter and longer wavelengths with equal performance...

  15. Functional characterization of spectral tuning mechanisms in the great bowerbird short-wavelength sensitive visual pigment (SWS1), and the origins of UV/violet vision in passerines and parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hazel, Ilke; Sabouhanian, Amir; Day, Lainy; Endler, John A; Chang, Belinda S W

    2013-11-13

    One of the most striking features of avian vision is the variation in spectral sensitivity of the short wavelength sensitive (SWS1) opsins, which can be divided into two sub-types: violet- and UV- sensitive (VS & UVS). In birds, UVS has been found in both passerines and parrots, groups that were recently shown to be sister orders. While all parrots are thought to be UVS, recent evidence suggests some passerine lineages may also be VS. The great bowerbird (Chlamydera nuchalis) is a passerine notable for its courtship behaviours in which males build and decorate elaborate bower structures. The great bowerbird SWS1 sequence possesses an unusual residue combination at known spectral tuning sites that has not been previously investigated in mutagenesis experiments. In this study, the SWS1 opsin of C. nuchalis was expressed along with a series of spectral tuning mutants and ancestral passerine SWS1 pigments, allowing us to investigate spectral tuning mechanisms and explore the evolution of UV/violet sensitivity in early passerines and parrots. The expressed C. nuchalis SWS1 opsin was found to be a VS pigment, with a λmax of 403 nm. Bowerbird SWS1 mutants C86F, S90C, and C86S/S90C all shifted λmax into the UV, whereas C86S had no effect. Experimentally recreated ancestral passerine and parrot/passerine SWS1 pigments were both found to be VS, indicating that UV sensitivity evolved independently in passerines and parrots from a VS ancestor. Our mutagenesis studies indicate that spectral tuning in C. nuchalis is mediated by mechanisms similar to those of other birds. Interestingly, our ancestral sequence reconstructions of SWS1 in landbird evolution suggest multiple transitions from VS to UVS, but no instances of the reverse. Our results not only provide a more precise prediction of where these spectral sensitivity shifts occurred, but also confirm the hypothesis that birds are an unusual exception among vertebrates where some descendants re-evolved UVS from a violet type

  16. Influence of blue light spectrum filter on short-wavelength and standard automated perimetries Influência de filtro para o espectro azul da luz na perimetria computadorizada branco-branco e azul-amarelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Cunha Castro

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the influence of a blue light spectrum filter (BLSF, similar in light spectrum transmittance to the intraocular lens Acrysof NaturalTM, on standard automated perimetry (SAP and short-wavelength automated perimetry (SWAP. METHODS: Twenty young individuals (OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência de um filtro para o espectro azul da luz, semelhante à lente intra-ocular Acrysof Natural®, nos exames de perimetria automatizada padrão (branco-no-branco e de comprimento de onda curto (azul-no-amarelo. MÉTODOS: Vinte pacientes jovens sem alterações oculares (20 olhos realizaram seqüência de 4 exames de campo visual: perimetria automatizada padrão e azul-no-amarelo com e sem o filtro para o espectro azul da luz. Os índices de limiar foveal (FT, desvio médio (MD e desvio-padrão (PSD obtidos em todos os exames e a diferença causada pela excentricidade nos exames de perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo foram analisados. Variabilidade interindivíduos (desvio-padrão dos pontos testados foi calculada. RESULTADOS: Observou-se redução estatisticamente significante no desvio médio (p<0.001 e no limiar foveal (p<0.001 medidos pela perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo com o uso do filtro para o espectro azul da luz comparado quando realizado sem o filtro. Nenhum outro índice avaliado apresentou diferença estatisticamente significante nos exames de perimetria automatizada padrão ou azul-no-amarelo. Foi notado aumento da variabilidade interindivíduos com a excentricidade nos exames de perimetria automatizada azul-no-amarelo com e sem o uso do filtro para o espectro azul da luz, assim como a diferença de sensibilidade entre os hemisférios inferior e superior (hemisfério inferior menos superior, mas não houve diferença estatisticamente significante quando comparados os exames com e sem o uso do filtro. Quando foram comparados os 4 pontos mais inferiores e os 4 pontos mais superiores, a diferença inferior-superior aumentou

  17. Capillary Condensation in Confined Media

    OpenAIRE

    Charlaix, Elisabeth; Ciccotti, Matteo

    2009-01-01

    28 pages - To appear in 2010 in the Handbook of Nanophysics - Vol 1 - Edited by Klaus Sattler - CRC Press; We review here the physics of capillary condensation of liquids in confined media, with a special regard to the application in nanotechnologies. The thermodynamics of capillary condensation and thin film adsorption are first exposed along with all the relevant notions. The focus is then shifted to the modelling of capillary forces, to their measurements techniques (including SFA, AFM and...

  18. Capillary waves in slow motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seydel, Tilo; Tolan, Metin; Press, Werner; Madsen, Anders; Gruebel, Gerhard

    2001-01-01

    Capillary wave dynamics on glycerol surfaces has been investigated by means of x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy performed at grazing angles. The measurements show that thermally activated capillary wave motion is slowed down exponentially when the sample is cooled below 273 K. This finding directly reflects the freezing of the surface waves. The wave-number dependence of the measured time constants is in quantitative agreement with theoretical predictions for overdamped capillary waves

  19. Short communication: Identification of coagulase-negative staphylococcus species from goat milk with the API Staph identification test and with transfer RNA-intergenic spacer PCR combined with capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, G; De Visscher, A; Collar, C A; Bacon, D A C; Maga, E A; Murray, J D; Supré, K; De Vliegher, S; Haesebrouck, F; Rowe, J D; Nielen, M; van Werven, T

    2012-12-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most commonly isolated bacteria from goat milk, but they have often been identified with phenotypic methods, which may have resulted in misclassification. The aims of this paper were to assess the amount of misclassification of a phenotypic test for identifying CNS species from goat milk compared with transfer RNA intergenic spacer PCR (tDNA-PCR) followed by capillary electrophoresis, and to apply the tDNA-PCR technique on different capillary electrophoresis equipment. Milk samples were collected from 416 does in 5 Californian dairy goat herds on 3 occasions during lactation. In total, 219 CNS isolates were identified at the species level with tDNA-PCR and subjected to the API 20 Staph identification test kit (API Staph; bioMérieux, Durham, NC). If the same species was isolated multiple times from the same udder gland, only the first isolate was used for further analyses, resulting in 115 unique CNS isolates. According to the tDNA-PCR test, the most prevalent CNS species were Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus caprae, and Staphylococcus simulans. Typeability with API staph was low (72%). Although the API Staph test was capable of identifying the majority of Staph. epidermidis and Staph. caprae isolates, sensitivity for identification of Staph. simulans was low. The true positive fraction was high for the 3 most prevalent species. It was concluded that the overall performance of API Staph in differentiating CNS species from goat milk was moderate to low, mainly because of the low typeability, and that genotypic methods such as tDNA-PCR are preferred. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. On Capillary Rise and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R.

    2008-01-01

    A comparison of capillary rise and nucleation is presented. It is shown that both phenomena result from a balance between two competing energy factors: a volume energy and a surface energy. Such a comparison may help to introduce nucleation with a topic familiar to the students, capillary rise. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)

  1. Capillary optics for radiation focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Reeder, P.L.; Bliss, M.; Craig, R.A.; Lepel, E.A.; Stromswold, D.C.; Stoffels, J.; Sunberg, D.S.; Tenny, H.

    1996-11-01

    Capillary lens technology may ultimately bring benefits to neutron and x-ray-based science like conventional lenses with visible light. Although the technology is not yet 10 years old, these lenses have already had a significant impact in engineering, science, and medicine. Capillary lenses are advantageous when it is desirable to increase the radiation flux at a location without regard to its angular divergence. PNNL has worked to improve the technology in several ways. A single, optimally tapered capillary was manufactured, which allows intensity gains of a factor of 270 for an initially parallel, incident x-ray beam. Feasibility of constructing neutron lenses using 58 Ni (particularly effective at reflecting neutrons) has been explored. Three applications for capillary optics have been identified and studied: neutron telescope, Gandolphi x-ray diffractometry, and neutron radiotherapy. A brief guide is given for determining which potential applications are likely to be helped by capillary optics

  2. On hydraulics of capillary tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Aloyan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the laws of motion of water in the capillary tubes, taken as a model for flowing well, on the analogical net count device. For capillary tube the lower limit value of flow rate is empirically determined above which the total hydraulic resistance of the capillary is practically constant. The specificity of the phenomenon is that the regime of motion, by a Reynolds number, for a given flow rate still remains laminar. This circumstance can perplex the specialists, so the author invites them to the scientific debate on the subject of study. Obviously, to identify the resulting puzzle it is necessary to conduct a series of experiments using capillaries of different lengths and diameters and with different values of overpressure. The article states that in tubes with very small diameter the preliminary magnitude of capillary rise of water in the presence of flow plays no role and can be neglected.

  3. Biomedical applications of capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartsova, L A; Bessonova, E A

    2015-01-01

    The review deals with modern analytical approaches used in capillary electrophoresis for solving medical and biological problems: search for biomarkers of various diseases and rapid diagnosis based on characteristic profiles of biologically active compounds by capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometric detection; monitoring of the residual drugs in biological fluids for evaluating the efficiency of drug therapy; testing of the enantiomeric purity of pharmaceutical products; the use of novel materials as components of stationary and pseudo-stationary phases in capillary electrophoresis and capillary electrochromatography to increase the selectivity of separation of components of complex matrices; and identification of various on-line preconcentration techniques to reduce the detection limits of biologically active analytes. A topical trend in capillary electrophoresis required in clinical practice, viz., the design of microfluidic systems, is discussed. The bibliography includes 173 references

  4. Physiological factors influencing capillary growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egginton, S

    2011-07-01

    (1) Angiogenesis (growth of new capillaries from an existing capillary bed) may result from a mismatch in microvascular supply and metabolic demand (metabolic error signal). Krogh examined the distribution and number of capillaries to explore the correlation between O(2) delivery and O(2) consumption. Subsequently, the heterogeneity in angiogenic response within a muscle has been shown to reflect either differences in fibre type composition or mechanical load. However, local control leads to targetted angiogenesis in the vicinity of glycolytic fibre types following muscle stimulation, or oxidative fibres following endurance training, while heterogeneity of capillary spacing is maintained during ontogenetic growth. (2) Despite limited microscopy resolution and lack of specific markers, Krogh's interest in the structure of the capillary wall paved the way for understanding the mechanisms of capillary growth. Angiogenesis may be influenced by the response of perivascular or stromal cells (fibroblasts, macrophages and pericytes) to altered activity, likely acting as a source for chemical signals modulating capillary growth such as vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, haemodynamic factors such as shear stress and muscle stretch play a significant role in adaptive remodelling of the microcirculation. (3) Most indices of capillarity are highly dependent on fibre size, resulting in possible bias because of scaling. To examine the consequences of capillary distribution, it is therefore helpful to quantify the area of tissue supplied by individual capillaries. This allows the spatial limitations inherent in most models of tissue oxygenation to be overcome generating an alternative approach to Krogh's tissue cylinder, the capillary domain, to improve descriptions of intracellular oxygen diffusion. © 2010 The Author. Acta Physiologica © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  5. Capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectromet of intact proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Domínguez-Vega, Elena; Haselberg, Rob; Somsen, Govert W.

    2016-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) has proven to be a powerful analytical tool for the characterization of intact proteins. It combines the high separation efficiency, short analysis time, and versatility of CE with the mass selectivity and sensitivity offered by MS

  6. Capillary Pumped Heat Transfer (CHT) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Kevin P.; Allen, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  7. Capillaries for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, E.S.; Chang, H.T.; Fung, E.N.

    1997-12-09

    The invention provides a side-entry optical excitation geometry for use in a multiplexed capillary electrophoresis system. A charge-injection device is optically coupled to capillaries in the array such that the interior of a capillary is imaged onto only one pixel. In Sanger-type 4-label DNA sequencing reactions, nucleotide identification (``base calling``) is improved by using two long-pass filters to split fluorescence emission into two emission channels. A binary poly(ethyleneoxide) matrix is used in the electrophoretic separations. 19 figs.

  8. Wavelength conversion technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    1998-01-01

    Optical wavelength conversion is currently attracting much interest. This is because it enables full flexibility and eases management of WDM fibre networks. The tutorial will review existing and potential application areas. Examples of node architectures and network demonstrators that use wavelen...

  9. Capillary gas-solid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezkin, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    Modern state of gas adsorption chromatography in open capillary columns has been analyzed. The history of the method development and its role in gas chromatography, ways to construct open adsorptional capillary columns, foundations of the theory of retention and washing of chromatographic regions in gas adsorption capillary columns have been considered. The fields is extensively and for analyzing volatile compounds of different isotopic composition, inorganic and organic gases, volatile organic polar compounds, aqueous solutions of organic compounds. Separation of nuclear-spin isomers and isotopes of hydrogen is the first illustrative example of practical application of the adsorption capillary chromatography. It is shown that duration of protium and deuterium nuclear isomers may be reduced if the column temperature is brought to 47 K

  10. DNA typing by capillary electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, N.

    1997-10-08

    Capillary electrophoresis is becoming more and more important in nucleic acid analysis including DNA sequencing, typing and disease gene measurements. This work summarized the background of DNA typing. The recent development of capillary electrophoresis was also discussed. The second part of the thesis showed the principle of DNA typing based on using the allelic ladder as the absolute standard ladder in capillary electrophoresis system. Future work will be focused on demonstrating DNA typing on multiplex loci and examples of disease diagnosis in the on-line format of PCR-CE. Also capillary array electrophoresis system should allow high throughput, fast speed DNA typing. Only the introduction and conclusions for this report are available here. A reprint was removed for separate processing.

  11. Wavelength-stepped, actively mode-locked fiber laser based on wavelength-division-multiplexed optical delay lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjoo; Kim, Byoung Yoon

    2017-12-01

    We propose a new scheme for an actively mode-locked wavelength-swept fiber laser that produces a train of discretely wavelength-stepped pulses from a short fiber cavity. Pulses with different wavelengths are split and combined by standard wavelength division multiplexers with fiber delay lines. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate a laser using an erbium doped fiber amplifier and commercially available wavelength-division multiplexers with wavelength spacing of 0.8 nm. The results show simultaneous mode-locking at three different wavelengths. Laser output parameters in time domain, optical and radio frequency spectral domain, and the noise characteristics are presented. Suggestions for the improved design are discussed.

  12. Time resolved EUV spectra from Zpinching capillary discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jancarek, Alexandr; Nevrkla, Michal; Nawaz, Fahad

    2015-09-01

    We developed symmetrically charged driver to obtain high voltage, high current Z-pinching capillary discharge. Plasma is created by up to 70 kA, 29 ns risetime current pulse passing through a 5 mm inner diameter, 224 mm long capillary filled with gas to initial pressure in the range of 1 kPa. Due to the low inductance design of the driver, the pinch is observable directly from the measured current curve. Time-integrated and time-resolved spectra of discharge plasma radiation are recorded together with the capillary current and analyzed. The most encouraging spectra were captured in the wavelength range 8.3 ÷ 14 nm. This spectral region contains nitrogen Balmer series lines including potentially lasing NVII 2 - 3 transition. Spectral lines are identified in the NIST database using the FLY kinetic code. The line of 13.38 nm wavelength, transition NVII 2 - 3, was observed in gated, and also in time-integrated spectra for currents >60 kA. This work has been supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic grants LG13029.

  13. Wavelength sweepable laser source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Wavelength sweepable laser source is disclosed, wherein the laser source is a semiconductor laser source adapted for generating laser light at a lasing wavelength. The laser source comprises a substrate, a first reflector, and a second reflector. The first and second reflector together defines...... and having a rest position, the second reflector and suspension together defining a microelectromechanical MEMS oscillator. The MEMS oscillator has a resonance frequency and is adapted for oscillating the second reflector on either side of the rest position.; The laser source further comprises electrical...... connections adapted for applying an electric field to the MEMS oscillator. Furthermore, a laser source system and a method of use of the laser source are disclosed....

  14. Capillary viscosimetry on ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pop, L M; Odenbach, S

    2008-01-01

    Experiments performed for different ferrofluids under shear flow have shown that an increase of the magnetic field strength applied to the sample yields an increase of the fluid's viscosity, the so called magnetoviscous effect. It has been shown that the magnitude of the effect is strongly related to the modification of the microstructure of ferrofluids and can be influenced by varying both the dipole-dipole interaction between the particles and the concentration of large particles within the fluid. This result has been further used to synthesize new ferrofluids which, on one hand, are more compatible for technical applications but, on the other hand, led to difficulties for the experimenters in measuring the viscous behavior in the presence of a magnetic field. To overcome this problem, a specially designed ferrofluid-compatible capillary viscometer has been developed. Within this paper, the experimental setup as well as experimental results concerning the investigation of the magnetoviscous effect in both diluted and concentrated cobalt-based ferrofluids are presented

  15. MIT wavelength tables. Volume 2. Wavelengths by element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, F.M. III.

    1982-01-01

    This volume is the first stage of a project to expand and update the MIT wavelength tables first compiled in the 1930's. For 109,325 atomic emission lines, arranged by element, it presents wavelength in air, wavelength in vacuum, wave number and intensity. All data are stored on computer-readable magnetic tape

  16. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J; M Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T

    2011-02-15

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ∼1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot.

  17. Impacts on oil recovery from capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bognoe, Thomas

    2008-07-01

    The main conclusions drawn from this thesis are; 7 scientific papers are published on a broad variety of subjects, and describes in detail the experiments and research treated in this thesis. Scientific research has been performed, investigating the subjects of capillary pressure and capillary heterogeneities from different angles. This thesis discusses the findings in this study and aims to illustrate the benefits of the results obtained for further development of other experiments, and/or even the industrial benefits in field development. The methods for wettability alteration have developed throughout the work. From producing heterogeneous wettability alterations, the methods have improved to giving both radial and lateral uniform wettability alterations, which also remains unaltered throughout the duration of the experimental work. The alteration of wettability is dependent on initial water saturation, flow rate, aging time and crude oil composition. Capillary pressure and relative permeability curves have been measured for core plugs at different wettabilities using conventional centrifuge methods. The trends observed are mostly consistent with theory. The production mechanisms of strongly and moderately water wet chalk has been investigated. At strongly water wet conditions in fractured chalk; the flow is governed by capillary forces, showing strong impact from the fractures. At moderately water wet conditions, the impact of the fractures are absent, and a dispersed water front is observed during the displacement. The oil recovery is about the same, at the two wettabilities. Fracture crossing mechanisms at the same wettability conditions have been mapped. And the observations are consistent with those of the water floods. During strongly water wet displacement, the fracture crossing is occurring once the inlet core has reached endpoint of spontaneous imbibition. At moderately water wet conditions the fracture crossing is less abrupt, and creation of wetting

  18. Paramecium swimming in capillary tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Saikat; Um, Soong Ho; Jung, Sunghwan

    2012-04-01

    Swimming organisms in their natural habitat need to navigate through a wide range of geometries and chemical environments. Interaction with boundaries in such situations is ubiquitous and can significantly modify the swimming characteristics of the organism when compared to ideal laboratory conditions. We study the different patterns of ciliary locomotion in glass capillaries of varying diameter and characterize the effect of the solid boundaries on the velocities of the organism. Experimental observations show that Paramecium executes helical trajectories that slowly transition to straight lines as the diameter of the capillary tubes decreases. We predict the swimming velocity in capillaries by modeling the system as a confined cylinder propagating longitudinal metachronal waves that create a finite pressure gradient. Comparing with experiments, we find that such pressure gradient considerations are necessary for modeling finite sized ciliary organisms in restrictive geometries.

  19. Weight-controlled capillary viscometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digilov, Rafael M.; Reiner, M.

    2005-11-01

    The draining of a water column through a vertical discharge capillary tube is examined with the aid of a force sensor. The change of the mass of the liquid in the column with time is found to be not purely exponential as implied by Poiseuille's law. Using observed residuals associated with a kinetic energy correction, an approximate formula for the mass as a function of time is derived and excellent agreement with experimental data is attained. These results are verified by a viscosity test of distilled water at room temperature. A simple and inexpensive weight-controlled capillary viscometer is proposed that is especially suitable for undergraduate physics and chemistry laboratories.

  20. Genetic variability of Artemisia capillaris (Wormwood capillary) by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic variability among individuals of Artemisia capillaris from state of Terengganu, Malaysia was examined by using the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The samples were collected from differences regional in Terengganu State. The genomic DNA was extracted from the samples leaves.

  1. Laser pulse guiding and electron acceleration in the ablative capillary discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameshima, T.; Kotaki, H.; Kando, M.; Daito, I.; Kawase, K.; Fukuda, Y.; Homma, T.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Chen, L. M.; Kondo, S.; Bobrova, N. A.; Sasorov, P. V.; Bulanov, S. V.

    2009-01-01

    The results of experiments are presented for the laser electron acceleration in the ablative capillary discharge plasma. The plasma channel is formed by the discharge inside the ablative capillary. The intense short laser pulse is guided over a 4 cm length. The generated relativistic electrons show both the quasimonoenergetic and quasi-Maxwellian energy spectra, depending on laser and plasma parameters. The analysis of the inner walls of the capillaries that underwent several tens of shots shows that the wall deformation and blistering resulted from the discharge and laser pulse effects.

  2. 3D capillary valves for versatile capillary patterning of channel walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papadimitriou, Vasileios; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate passive capillary patterning of channel walls with a liquid in situ. Patterning is performed using a novel 3D capillary valve system combining three standard capillary stop valves. A range of different patterns is demonstrated in three channel walls. Capillary patterning was designed

  3. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  4. Capillary thinning of polymeric filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Mette Irene; Szabo, Peter

    1999-01-01

    The capillary thinning of filaments of a Newtonian polybutene fluid and a viscoelastic polyisobutylene solution are analyzed experimentally and by means of numerical simulation. The experimental procedure is as follows. Initially, a liquid sample is placed between two cylindrical plates. Then, th...

  5. Capillary Sharp Inner Edge Manufacturing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jan; Studenovský, K.; Najdek, D.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 35 (2009), s. 19-25 ISSN 1584-5982. [MECAHITECH 09 /1./. Bukurešť, 08.10.2009-09.10.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200760905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : capillary * edge * manufacturing Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery

  6. X-ray focusing using capillary arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.A.; Chapman, H.N.

    1990-01-01

    A new form of X-ray focusing device based on glass capillary arrays is presented. Theoretical and experimental results for array of circular capillaries and theoretical and computational results for square hole capillaries are given. It is envisaged that devices such as these will find wide applications in X-ray optics as achromatic condensers and collimators. 3 refs., 4 figs

  7. Design and evaluation of capillary coupled with optical fiber light-emitting diode induced fluorescence detection for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongyun; Li, Meng; Guo, Lihong; Yuan, Hongyan; Wang, Chunling; Xiao, Dan

    2013-09-01

    A new detector, capillary coupled with optical fiber LED-induced fluorescence detector (CCOF-LED-IFD, using CCOF for short), is introduced for CE. The strategy of the present work was that the optical fiber and separation capillary were, in the parallel direction, fastened in a fixation capillary with larger inner diameter. By employing larger inner diameter, the fixation capillary allowed the large diameter of the optical fiber to be inserted into it. By transmitting an enhanced excitation light through the optical fiber, the detection sensitivity was improved. The advantages of the CCOF-CE system were validated by the detection of riboflavin, and the results were compared to those obtained by the in-capillary common optical fiber LED-induced fluorescence detector (IC-COF-LED-IFD, using COF for short). The LODs of CCOF-CE and COF-CE were 0.29 nM and 11.0 nM (S/N = 3), respectively. The intraday (n = 6) repeatability and interday (n = 6) reproducibility of migration time and corresponding peak area for both types of CE were all less than 1.10 and 3.30%, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was judged by employing standard addition method, and recoveries obtained were in the range of 98.0-102.4%. The results indicated that the sensitivity of the proposed system was largely improved, and that its reproducibility and accuracy were satisfactory. The proposed system was successfully applied to separate and determine riboflavin in real sample. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Lodenafil carbonate tablets: optimization and validation of a capillary zone electrophoresis method

    OpenAIRE

    Codevilla, Cristiane F; Ferreira, Pâmela Cristina L; Sangoi, Maximiliano S; Fröehlich, Pedro Eduardo; Bergold, Ana Maria

    2012-01-01

    A simple capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) method was developed and validated for the analysis of lodenafil carbonate in tablets. Response surface methodology was used for optimization of the pH and concentration of the buffer, applied voltage and temperature. The method employed 50 mmol L-1 borate buffer at pH 10 as background electrolyte with an applied voltage of 15 kV. The separation was carried out in a fused-silica capillary maintained at 32.5 ºC and the detection wavelength was 214 ...

  9. Radiative flux calculations at UV and visible wavelengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.; Wuebbles, D.J.

    1993-10-01

    A radiative transfer model to calculate the short wavelength fluxes at altitudes between 0 and 80 km has been developed at LLNL. The wavelength range extends from 175--735 nm. This spectral range covers the UV-B wavelength region, 250--350 nm, with sufficient resolution to allow comparison of UV-B measurements with theoretical predictions. Validation studies for the model have been made for both UV-B ground radiation calculations and tropospheric solar radiative forcing calculations for various ozone distributions. These studies indicate that the model produces results which agree well with respect to existing UV calculations from other published models

  10. Mixed Capillary Venous Retroperitoneal Hemangioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohit Godar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of mixed capillary venous hemangioma of the retroperitoneum in a 61-year-old man. Abdominal ultrasonography showed a mass to be hypoechoic with increased flow in color Doppler imaging. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a centripetal filling-in of the mass, located anterior to the left psoas muscle at the level of sacroiliac joint. On the basis of imaging features, preoperative diagnosis of hemangioma was considered and the mass was excised by laparoscopic method. Immunohistochemical studies were strongly positive for CD31 and CD34, and negative for calretinin, EMA, WT1, HMB45, Ki67, synaptophysin, and lymphatic endothelial cell marker D2–40. Histologically, the neoplasm was diagnosed as mixed capillary venous hemangioma.

  11. Capillary Refill using Augmented Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Clausen, Christoffer

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in Computer science The opportunities within augmented reality is growing. Augmented reality is a combination of the real and the virtual world in real time, and large companies like Microsoft and Google is now investing heavily in the technology. This thesis presents a solution for simulating a medical test called capillary refill, by using augmented reality. The simulation is performed with an augmented reality headset called HoloLens. The HoloLens will recognise a mark...

  12. Capillary electrophoresis systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorairaj, Rathissh [Hillsboro, OR; Keynton, Robert S [Louisville, KY; Roussel, Thomas J [Louisville, KY; Crain, Mark M [Georgetown, IN; Jackson, Douglas J [New Albany, IN; Walsh, Kevin M [Louisville, KY; Naber, John F [Goshen, KY; Baldwin, Richard P [Louisville, KY; Franco, Danielle B [Mount Washington, KY

    2011-08-02

    An embodiment of the invention is directed to a capillary electrophoresis apparatus comprising a plurality of separation micro-channels. A sample loading channel communicates with each of the plurality of separation channels. A driver circuit comprising a plurality of electrodes is configured to induce an electric field across each of the plurality of separation channels sufficient to cause analytes in the samples to migrate along each of the channels. The system further comprises a plurality of detectors configured to detect the analytes.

  13. Capillaries modified by noncovalent anionic polymer adsorption for capillary zone electrophoresis, micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L; Hansen, S H; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2001-01-01

    A simple coating procedure for generation of a high and pH-independent electroosmotic flow in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) is described. The bilayer coating was formed by noncovalent adsorption of the ionic polymers Polybrene...... capillaries was (4.9+/-0.1) x 10(-4) cm2V(-1)s(-1) in a pH-range of 2-10 (ionic strength = 30 mM). When alkaline compounds were used as test substances intracapillary and intercapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 1% relative standard deviation (RSD) and 2% RSD, respectively in the entire...... pH range. The coating was fairly stable in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and this made it possible to perform fast MEKC separations at low pH. When neutral compounds were used as test substances, the intracapillary migration time variations (n = 6) were less than 2% RSD in a pH range of 2...

  14. Progression of Diabetic Capillary Occlusion: A Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Fu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An explanatory computational model is developed of the contiguous areas of retinal capillary loss which play a large role in diabetic maculapathy and diabetic retinal neovascularization. Strictly random leukocyte mediated capillary occlusion cannot explain the occurrence of large contiguous areas of retinal ischemia. Therefore occlusion of an individual capillary must increase the probability of occlusion of surrounding capillaries. A retinal perifoveal vascular sector as well as a peripheral retinal capillary network and a deleted hexagonal capillary network are modelled using Compucell3D. The perifoveal modelling produces a pattern of spreading capillary loss with associated macular edema. In the peripheral network, spreading ischemia results from the progressive loss of the ladder capillaries which connect peripheral arterioles and venules. System blood flow was elevated in the macular model before a later reduction in flow in cases with progression of capillary occlusions. Simulations differing only in initial vascular network structures but with identical dynamics for oxygen, growth factors and vascular occlusions, replicate key clinical observations of ischemia and macular edema in the posterior pole and ischemia in the retinal periphery. The simulation results also seem consistent with quantitative data on macular blood flow and qualitative data on venous oxygenation. One computational model applied to distinct capillary networks in different retinal regions yielded results comparable to clinical observations in those regions.

  15. Topology optimised wavelength dependent splitters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, K. K.; Burgos Leon, J.; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn

    A photonic crystal wavelength dependent splitter has been constructed by utilising topology optimisation1. The splitter has been fabricated in a silicon-on-insulator material (Fig. 1). The topology optimised wavelength dependent splitter demonstrates promising 3D FDTD simulation results....... This complex photonic crystal structure is very sensitive against small fabrication variations from the expected topology optimised design. A wavelength dependent splitter is an important basic building block for high-performance nanophotonic circuits. 1J. S. Jensen and O. Sigmund, App. Phys. Lett. 84, 2022...

  16. AWG Filter for Wavelength Interrogator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Richard J. (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Faridian, Fereydoun (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Sotoudeh, Vahid (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength interrogator is coupled to a circulator which couples optical energy from a broadband source to an optical fiber having a plurality of sensors, each sensor reflecting optical energy at a unique wavelength and directing the reflected optical energy to an AWG. The AWG has a detector coupled to each output, and the reflected optical energy from each grating is coupled to the skirt edge response of the AWG such that the adjacent channel responses form a complementary pair response. The complementary pair response is used to convert an AWG skirt response to a wavelength.

  17. Eco-friendly ionic liquid assisted capillary electrophoresis and α-acid glycoprotein-assisted liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of anticancer drugs in human fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hady, Deia; Albishri, Hassan M; Rengarajan, Rajesh

    2015-06-01

    In the current work, two eco-friendly analytical methods based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) were developed for simultaneous determination of the most commonly used anticancer drugs for Hodgkin's disease: methotrexate (MTX), vinblastine, chlorambucil and dacarbazine. A background electrolyte (BGE) of 12.5 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and 0.1 µmol/L 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazolium bromide (BMImBr) ionic liquid (IL) was used for CE measurements at 250 nm detection wavelength, 20 kV applied voltage and 25 °C. The rinsing protocol was significantly improved to reduce the adsorption of IL on the interior surface of capillary. Moreover, RPLC method was developed on α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) column. Mobile phase was 10 mmol/L phosphate buffer at pH 6.0 (100% v/v) and flow rate at 0.1 mL/min. As AGP is a chiral column, it was successfully separated l-MTX from its enantiomer impurity d-MTX. Good linearity of quantitative analysis was achieved with coefficients of determinations (r(2) ) >0.995. The stability of drugs measurements was investigated with adequate recoveries up to 24 h storage time under ambient temperature. The limits of detection were <50 and 90 ng/mL by CE and RPLC, respectively. The using of short-chain IL as an additive in BGE achieved 600-fold sensitivity enhancement compared with conventional Capillary Zone Electrophoresis (CZE). Therefore, for the first time, the proposed methods were successfully applied to determine simultaneously the analytes in human plasma and urine samples at clinically relevant concentrations with fast and simple pretreatments. Developed IL-assisted CE and RPLC methods were also applied to measure MTX levels in patients' samples over time. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Microfluidic PMMA interfaces for rectangular glass capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evander, Mikael; Tenje, Maria

    2014-01-01

    We present the design and fabrication of a polymeric capillary fluidic interface fabricated by micro-milling. The design enables the use of glass capillaries with any kind of cross-section in complex microfluidic setups. We demonstrate two different designs of the interface; a double-inlet interface for hydrodynamic focusing and a capillary interface with integrated pneumatic valves. Both capillary interfaces are presented together with examples of practical applications. This communication shows the design optimization and presents details of the fabrication process. The capillary interface opens up for the use of complex microfluidic systems in single-use glass capillaries. They also enable simple fabrication of glass/polymer hybrid devices that can be beneficial in many research fields where a pure polymer chip negatively affects the device's performance, e.g. acoustofluidics. (technical note)

  19. Capillary pumped loop body heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Theodore D. (Inventor); Wren, deceased, Paul (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A capillary pumped loop for transferring heat from one body part to another body part, the capillary pumped loop comprising a capillary evaporator for vaporizing a liquid refrigerant by absorbing heat from a warm body part, a condenser for turning a vaporized refrigerant into a liquid by transferring heat from the vaporized liquid to a cool body part, a first tube section connecting an output port of the capillary evaporator to an input of the condenser, and a second tube section connecting an output of the condenser to an input port of the capillary evaporator. A wick may be provided within the condenser. A pump may be provided between the second tube section and the input port of the capillary evaporator. Additionally, an esternal heat source or heat sink may be utilized.

  20. Wave Tank Studies of Phase Velocities of Short Wind Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.

    Wave tank studies of phase velocities of short wind waves have been carried out using Ka-band radar and an Optical Spectrum Analyser. The phase velocities were retrieved from measured radar and optical Doppler shifts, taking into account measurements of surface drift velocities. The dispersion relationship was studied in centimetre (cm)- and millimetre(mm)-scale wavelength ranges at different fetches and wind speeds, both for a clean water surface and for water covered with surfactant films. It is ob- tained that the phase velocities do not follow the dispersion relation of linear capillary- gravity waves, increasing with fetch and, therefore, depending on phase velocities of dominant decimetre (dm)-centimetre-scale wind waves. One thus can conclude that nonlinear cm-mm-scale harmonics bound to the dominant wind waves and propagat- ing with the phase velocities of the decimetric waves are present in the wind wave spectrum. The resulting phase velocities of short wind waves are determined by re- lation between free and bound waves. The relative intensity of the bound waves in the spectrum of short wind waves is estimated. It is shown that this relation depends strongly on the surfactant concentration, because the damping effect due to films is different for free and bound waves; this results to changes of phase velocities of wind waves in the presence of surfactant films. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).

  1. Intracranial capillary hemangioma mimicking a dissociative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Lacasse

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary hemangiomas, hamartomatous proliferation of vascular endothelial cells, are rare in the central nervous system (CNS. Intracranial capillary hemangiomas presenting with reversible behavioral abnormalities and focal neurological deficits have rarely been reported. We report a case of CNS capillary hemangioma presenting with transient focal neurological deficits and behavioral abnormalities mimicking Ganser’s syndrome. Patient underwent total excision of the vascular malformation, resulting in complete resolution of his symptoms.

  2. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characteri...

  3. Capillary concentrators for synchrotron radiation beamlines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heald, S.M.; Brewe, D.L.; Kim, K.H.; Brown, F.C.; Barg, B.; Stern, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Capillary concentrators condense x-rays by multiple reflections down a gradually tapering capillary. They can provide sub-micron beam spots, and are promising candidates for use in the next generation x-ray microprobe beamlines. The weak energy dependence of their properties make them especially useful for energy scanning applications such as micro-XAFS. This paper examines the potential performance of capillary optics for an x-ray microprobe, as well as some practical issues such as fabrication and alignment. Best performance at third generation sources requires long capillaries, and the authors have been using fiber optics techniques to fabricate capillaries up to one meter in length. The performance of shorter (less than about 0.5 m) capillaries has often been found to agree well with theoretical calculations, indicating the inner surface is a high quality x-ray reflector. These capillaries have been tested at the NSLS for imaging and micro-XAFS down to 2.6 microm resolution with excellent results. On an unfocused bend magnet line flux density approaching 10 6 ph/sec/microm 2 has been achieved. While nearly optimum profiles have been achieved for longer capillaries, the results have been disappointing, and alignment problems are suspected. The dramatic improvement in performance possible at third generation synchrotrons such as the APS is discussed along with improvements possible by using the capillaries in conjunction with coupling optics

  4. Slope wavenumber spectrum models of capillary and capillary-gravity waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾永君; 张杰; 王岩峰

    2010-01-01

    Capillary and capillary-gravity waves possess a random character, and the slope wavenumber spectra of them can be used to represent mean distributions of wave energy with respect to spatial scale of variability. But simple and practical models of the slope wavenumber spectra have not been put forward so far. In this article, we address the accurate definition of the slope wavenumber spectra of water surface capillary and capillary-gravity waves. By combining the existing slope wavenumber models and using th...

  5. Efficient compression of the femtosecond pulses of an ytterbium laser in a gas-filled capillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu

    2011-01-01

    A 290-fs radiation pulse of an ytterbium laser system with a central wavelength of 1028 nm and an energy of 145 μJ was compressed to a 27-fs pulse with an energy of 75 μJ. The compression was realised on the basis of the effect of pulse spectrum broadening in a xenon-filled glass capillary for a pulse repetition rate of 3kHz. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  6. Short Wavelength Electrostatic Waves in the Earth’s Magnetosheath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-01

    to an antenna effect. Emissions likely to be ion-acoustic mode waves have been found up- stream of the bow shock ( foreshock ) in the solar wind...particles apparently reflected at the bow shock and associated with ion- acoustic mode waves in the Earth’s foreshock are also observed [Eastman et al...Res., 86, A 4493-4510, 1981. Eastman, T.E., 1.R. Anderson, L.A. Frank, and G.K. Parks, Upstream particles observed in the Earth’s foreshock region

  7. Short wavelength optics for future free electron lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.

    1984-04-01

    Although much free-electron laser work is directed toward achieving sufficient single-pass gain to be useful for research purposes, the availability of mirrors of high reflectance for the vacuum ultraviolet and soft x-ray regime would make resonant cavities a possibility. In addition, as in ordinary synchrotron radiation work, mirrors are required for the construction of realistic experiments and for beam manipulation purposes such as folding and extraction. The Working Group discussed a number of approaches to reflecting optics for free electron lasers, which are summarized here, and described in some detail. 16 references, 2 figures

  8. Ultra-short wavelength x-ray system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umstadter, Donald [Ann Arbor, MI; He, Fei [Ann Arbor, MI; Lau, Yue-Ying [Potomac, MD

    2008-01-22

    A method and apparatus to generate a beam of coherent light including x-rays or XUV by colliding a high-intensity laser pulse with an electron beam that is accelerated by a synchronized laser pulse. Applications include x-ray and EUV lithography, protein structural analysis, plasma diagnostics, x-ray diffraction, crack analysis, non-destructive testing, surface science and ultrafast science.

  9. Non-linear modulation of short wavelength compressional Alfven eigenmodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Podesta, M.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Bortolon, A. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Crocker, N. A. [University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Levinton, F. M.; Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Most Alfvenic activity in the frequency range between toroidal Alfven eigenmodes and roughly one half of the ion cyclotron frequency on National Spherical Torus eXperiment [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], that is, approximately 0.3 MHz up to Almost-Equal-To 1.2 MHz, are modes propagating counter to the neutral beam ions. These have been modeled as Compressional and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (CAE and GAE) and are excited through a Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with the beam ions. There is also a class of co-propagating modes at higher frequency than the counter-propagating CAE and GAE. These modes have been identified as CAE, and are seen mostly in the company of a low frequency, n = 1 kink-like mode. In this paper, we present measurements of the spectrum of these high frequency CAE (hfCAE) and their mode structure. We compare those measurements to a simple model of CAE and present a predator-prey type model of the curious non-linear coupling of the hfCAE and the low frequency kink-like mode.

  10. Workshop on scientific applications of short wavelength coherent light sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spicer, W.; Arthur, J.; Winick, H.

    1993-02-01

    This report contains paper on the following topics: A 2 to 4nm High Power FEL On the SLAC Linac; Atomic Physics with an X-ray Laser; High Resolution, Three Dimensional Soft X-ray Imaging; The Role of X-ray Induced Damage in Biological Micro-imaging; Prospects for X-ray Microscopy in Biology; Femtosecond Optical Pulses?; Research in Chemical Physics Surface Science, and Materials Science, with a Linear Accelerator Coherent Light Source; Application of 10 GeV Electron Driven X-ray Laser in Gamma-ray Laser Research; Non-Linear Optics, Fluorescence, Spectromicroscopy, Stimulated Desorption: We Need LCLS' Brightness and Time Scale; Application of High Intensity X-rays to Materials Synthesis and Processing; LCLS Optics: Selected Technological Issues and Scientific Opportunities; Possible Applications of an FEL for Materials Studies in the 60 eV to 200 eV Spectral Region

  11. Electron beam acceleration and compression for short wavelength FELs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raubenheimer, T.O.

    1994-11-01

    A single pass UV or X-ray FEL will require a low emittance electron beam with high peak current and relatively high beam energy, a few hundred MeV to many GeV. To achieve the necessary peak current and beam energy, the beams must be bunch compressed and they must be accelerated in long transport lines where dispersive and wakefield emittance dilutions are important. In this paper, we will describe the sources and significance of the dilutions during acceleration, bunch compression, and transport through the undulator. In addition, we will discuss sources of jitter, especially effects arising from the bunch compressions, and the possible cancellation techniques

  12. Coherence techniques at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The renaissance of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) and soft x-ray (SXR) optics in recent years is mainly driven by the desire of printing and observing ever smaller features, as in lithography and microscopy. This attribute is complemented by the unique opportunity for element specific identification presented by the large number of atomic resonances, essentially for all materials in this range of photon energies. Together, these have driven the need for new short-wavelength radiation sources (e.g. third generation synchrotron radiation facilities), and novel optical components, that in turn permit new research in areas that have not yet been fully explored. This dissertation is directed towards advancing this new field by contributing to the characterization of spatial coherence properties of undulator radiation and, for the first time, introducing Fourier optical elements to this short-wavelength spectral region. The first experiment in this dissertation uses the Thompson-Wolf two-pinhole method to characterize the spatial coherence properties of the undulator radiation at Beamline 12 of the Advanced Light Source. High spatial coherence EUV radiation is demonstrated with appropriate spatial filtering. The effects of small vertical source size and beamline apertures are observed. The difference in the measured horizontal and vertical coherence profile evokes further theoretical studies on coherence propagation of an EUV undulator beamline. A numerical simulation based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle is performed.

  13. Capillary electrophoresis and nanomaterials - Part I: Capillary electrophoresis of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials are in analytical science used for a broad range of purposes, covering the area of sample pretreatment as well as separation, detection, and identification of target molecules. This part of the review covers capillary electrophoresis (CE) of nanomaterials and focuses on the application of CE as a method for characterization used during nanomaterial synthesis and modification as well as the monitoring of their properties and interactions with other molecules. The heterogeneity of the nanomaterial family is extremely large. Depending on different definitions of the term Nanomaterial/Nanoparticle, the group may cover metal and polymeric nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, liposomes and even dendrimers. Moreover, these nanomaterials are usually subjected to some kind of surface modification or functionalization, which broadens the diversity even more. Not only for purposes of verification of nanomaterial synthesis and batch-to-batch quality check, but also for determination the polydispersity and for functionality characterization on the nanoparticle surface, has CE offered very beneficial capabilities. Finally, the monitoring of interactions between nanomaterials and other (bio)molecules is easily performed by some kind of capillary electromigration technique. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Ion guiding and losses in insulator capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.; Vikor, Gy.; Biri, S.; Fekete, E.; Ivan, I.; Gall, F.; Toekesi, K.; Matefi-Tempfli, S.; Matefi-Tempfli, M.

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Not long ago it was discovered that insulating capillaries can guide slow ions, so that the ions avoid close contact with the capillary walls and preserve their initial charge state. This phenomenon did not only give a new puzzle for theoreticians but opened the way for new possible applications where ions are manipulated (deflected, focused and directed to different patterns on the irradiated media) with small capillary devices. The most important question for such applications is how large fraction of the ions can be guided to the desired direction. It is already known that the ion guiding is due to the charging up of the inner capillary walls by earlier ion impact events. In tilted capillaries one side of the capillary walls charges up. This deflects the later arriving ions, so that some of them pass through the capillaries nearly parallel with respect to their axes. The angle where the transmission drops to 1/e of the direct transmission at 0 deg is the guiding angle, which characterize the guiding ability. At 0 deg the ideal 100 percent transmission for the ions, which enter the capillaries, is reduced due to the mirror charge attraction and geometrical imperfections. These losses appear in the transmission for tilted capillaries with similar magnitude, since after the deflection region, which usually restricted to the close surroundings of the capillary openings, the guided ions pass through the rest of the capillaries as in non-tilted samples. In our experimental studies with Al 2 O 3 capillaries we found that around 90 percent of the incoming ions are lost. To understand these significant losses, the effects of the mirror charge attraction and geometrical imperfections have been calculated classically. The mirror charge potential was taken from.The model of the capillaries used in the calculations can be seen in Figure 1. The calculations have shown that the effects of mirror charge attraction and the angular

  15. Interrogation of weak Bragg grating sensors based on dual-wavelength differential detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rui; Xia, Li

    2016-11-15

    It is shown that for weak Bragg gratings the logarithmic ratio of reflected intensities at any two wavelengths within the spectrum follows a linear relationship with the Bragg wavelength shift, with a slope proportional to their wavelength spacing. This finding is exploited to develop a flexible, efficient, and cheap interrogation solution of weak fiber Bragg grating (FBGs), especially ultra-short FBGs, in distributed sensing based on dual-wavelength differential detection. The concept is experimentally studied in both single and distributed sensing systems with ultra-short FBG sensors. The work may form the basis of new and promising FBG interrogation techniques based on detecting discrete rather than continuous spectra.

  16. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brubaker, N.D., E-mail: nbrubaker@math.arizona.edu; Lega, J., E-mail: lega@math.arizona.edu

    2016-01-08

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  17. Two-dimensional capillary origami

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brubaker, N.D.; Lega, J.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a global approach to the problem of capillary origami that captures all unfolded equilibrium configurations in the two-dimensional setting where the drop is not required to fully wet the flexible plate. We provide bifurcation diagrams showing the level of encapsulation of each equilibrium configuration as a function of the volume of liquid that it contains, as well as plots representing the energy of each equilibrium branch. These diagrams indicate at what volume level the liquid drop ceases to be attached to the endpoints of the plate, which depends on the value of the contact angle. As in the case of pinned contact points, three different parameter regimes are identified, one of which predicts instantaneous encapsulation for small initial volumes of liquid. - Highlights: • Full solution set of the two-dimensional capillary origami problem. • Fluid does not necessarily wet the entire plate. • Global energy approach provides exact differential equations satisfied by minimizers. • Bifurcation diagrams highlight three different regimes. • Conditions for spontaneous encapsulation are identified.

  18. Mixed Fluid Conditions: Capillary Phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Santamarina, Carlos

    2017-07-06

    Mixed fluid phenomena in porous media have profound implications on soil-atmosphere interaction, energy geotechnology, environmental engineering and infrastructure design. Surface tension varies with pressure, temperature, solute concentration, and surfactant concentration; on the other hand, the contact angle responds to interfacial tensions, surface topography, invasion velocity, and chemical interactions. Interfaces are not isolated but interact through the fluid pressure and respond to external fields. Jumps, snap-offs and percolating wetting liquids along edges and crevices are ubiquitous in real, non-cylindrical porous networks. Pore- and macroscale instabilities together with pore structure variability-and-correlation favor fluid trapping and hinder recovery efficiency. The saturation-pressure characteristic curve is affected by the saturation-history, flow-rate, the mechanical response of the porous medium, and time-dependent reactive and diffusive processes; in addition, there are salient differences between unsaturation by internal gas nucleation and gas invasion. Capillary forces add to other skeletal forces in the porous medium and can generate open-mode discontinuities when the capillary entry pressure is high relative to the effective stress. Time emerges as an important variable in mixed-fluid conditions and common quasi-static analyses may fail to capture the system response.

  19. FY 2000 report on the results of the regional consortium R and D project - Regional consortium energy R and D. Development of new vacuum ultraviolet area optical materials realizing next generation short wavelength optical lithography; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo - chiiki consortium energy kenkyu kaihatsu. Jisedai tanhacho hikari lithography wo jitsugensuru shinku shigaiiki kogaku zairyo no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    As materials for next generation lithography use optical device using short wavelength light sources such as F{sub 2} and Ar{sub 2}, the development was proceeded with of fluoride monocrystal materials and 12-inch class large/high quality monocrystal production technology. Studies were made in the following five fields: 1) proposal/design of new materials and the heightening of performance: 2) establishment of the large/high quality crystal production method; 3) evaluation of optical properties and elucidation of micro-defect formation mechanism; 4) comprehensive investigational research; 5) study of the evaluation technology by vacuum ultraviolet area pulse light. In 1), for the development of the optimum materials, a lot of materials were tried to be monocrystallized, and the permeability was estimated by measuring the reflectance in the vacuum ultraviolet area. As to LiCaAlF{sub 6}, monocrystal with 1-inch diameter was made by the Bridgman method. In 2), studies were made of conditions for large crystal growth by the pull method, large crystal growth by the Bridgman method, and the structure of production equipment for crystals with larger diameter. (NEDO)

  20. Agility of Felix Regarding Wavelength and Micropulse Shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, R. J.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Jaroszynski, D. A.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Oepts, D.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Anderegg, V.; van Son, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    The user-facility FELIX employs two FELs together covering the spectral range from 6.5 to 110 mum. Adjustment of the undulator strength permits wavelength tuning over a factor of two within two minutes while continuously providing several kilowatts of output power. As FELIX combines short electron

  1. Long-Wavelength Phonon Scattering in Nonpolar Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawætz, Peter

    1969-01-01

    The long-wavelength acoustic- and optical-phonon scattering of carriers in nonpolar semiconductors is considered from a general point of view. The deformation-potential approximation is defined and it is shown that long-range electrostatic forces give a nontrivial correction to the scattering...... of the very-short-range nature of interactions in a covalent semiconductor....

  2. Familial Pulmonary Capillary Hemangiomatosis Early in Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Wirbelauer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH is a rare disease, especially in infancy. Four infants have been reported up to the age of 12 months. So far, no familial patients are observed at this age. Patients. We report three siblings, two female newborns and a foetus of 15-week gestation of unrelated, healthy parents suffering from histologically proven PCH. The first girl presented with increased O2 requirements shortly after birth and patent ductus arteriosus (PDA. She subsequently developed progressive respiratory failure and pulmonary hypertension and died at the age of five months. The second girl presented with clinical signs of bronchial obstruction at the age of three months. The work-up showed a PDA—which was surgically closed—pulmonary hypertension, and bronchial wall instability with stenosis of the left main bronchus. Transient oxygen therapy was required with viral infections. The girl is now six years old and clinically stable without additional O2 requirements. Failure to thrive during infancy and a somewhat delayed development may be the consequence of the disease itself but also could be attributed to repeated episodes of respiratory failure and a long-term systemic steroid therapy. The third pregnancy ended as spontaneous abortion. The foetus showed histological signs of PCH. Conclusion. Despite the differences in clinical course, the trias of PCH, PDA, and pulmonary hypertension in the two life born girls suggests a genetic background.

  3. Wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavko, G.E.

    1974-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of interstellar polarization was measured for twelve stars in three regions of the Milky Way. A 120A bandpass was used to measure the polarization at a maximum of sixteen wavelengths evenly spaced between 2.78μ -1 (3600A) and 1.28μ -1 (7800A). For such a wide wavelength range, the wavelength resolution is superior to that of any previously reported polarization measurements. The new scanning polarimeter built by W. A. Hiltner of the University of Michigan was used for the observations. Very broad structure was found in the wavelength dependence of the polarization. Extensive investigations were carried out to show that the structure was not caused by instrumental effects. The broad structure observed is shown to be in agreement with concurrent extinction measurements for the same stars. Also, the observed structure is of the type predicted when a homogeneous silicate grain model is fitted to the observed extinction. The results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the very broad band structure seen in the extinction is produced by the grains. (Diss. Abstr. Int., B)

  4. Equilibrium capillary forces with atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprakel, J.H.B.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Leermakers, F.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of equilibrium forces resulting from capillary condensation. The results give access to the ultralow interfacial tensions between the capillary bridge and the coexisting bulk phase. We demonstrate this with solutions of associative polymers and an aqueous mixture of gelatin

  5. Assembly for connecting the column ends of two capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, B.; Auer, M.; Pospisil, P.

    1984-01-01

    In gas chromatography, the column ends of two capillary columns are inserted into a straight capillary from both sides forming annular gaps. The capillary is located in a tee out of which the capillary columns are sealingly guided, and to which carrier gas is supplied by means of a flushing flow conduit. A ''straight-forward operation'' having capillary columns connected in series and a ''flush-back operation'' are possible. The dead volume between the capillary columns can be kept small

  6. Sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis with mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-06-17

    A sheathless interface for coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) with mass spectrometry is disclosed. The sheathless interface includes a separation capillary for performing CE separation and an emitter capillary for electrospray ionization. A portion of the emitter capillary is porous or, alternatively, is coated to form an electrically conductive surface. A section of the emitter capillary is disposed within the separation capillary, forming a joint. A metal tube, containing a conductive liquid, encloses the joint.

  7. The penetration of aerosols through fine capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.P.; Edwards, R.T.; Ball, M.H.E.

    1989-10-01

    A novel experimental technique has been developed to study the penetration of aerosol particles ranging from about 1 to 15 μm aerodynamic diameter through capillaries varying from 20 to 80 μm bore and from 10 to 50 mm in length. When the driving pressure was 100 kPa, the penetration of the airborne particles was considerably smaller than expected from a simple comparison of particle diameter with the bore of the capillary. Particle size distributions determined after penetration through the capillaries were in almost all cases similar to the particle size distribution of the aerosol at the capillary entrance. This lack of size-selectivity can be explained in terms of the capillary behaving as a conventional suction-based sampler from a near still (calm) air environment. The resulting particle penetration data are important in assessing the potential for the leakage of aerosols through seals in containers used to transport radioactive materials. (author)

  8. Genetics Home Reference: megalencephaly-capillary malformation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Megalencephaly Educational Resources (5 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformation Cincinnati Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformations ...

  9. Capillary leak syndrome: etiologies, pathophysiology, and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddall, Eric; Khatri, Minesh; Radhakrishnan, Jai

    2017-07-01

    In various human diseases, an increase in capillary permeability to proteins leads to the loss of protein-rich fluid from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Although sepsis is the disease most commonly associated with this phenomenon, many other diseases can lead to a "sepsis-like" syndrome with manifestations of diffuse pitting edema, exudative serous cavity effusions, noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypotension, and, in some cases, hypovolemic shock with multiple-organ failure. The term capillary leak syndrome has been used to describe this constellation of disease manifestations associated with an increased capillary permeability to proteins. Diseases other than sepsis that can result in capillary leak syndrome include the idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome or Clarkson's disease, engraftment syndrome, differentiation syndrome, the ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, viral hemorrhagic fevers, autoimmune diseases, snakebite envenomation, and ricin poisoning. Drugs including some interleukins, some monoclonal antibodies, and gemcitabine can also cause capillary leak syndrome. Acute kidney injury is commonly seen in all of these diseases. In addition to hypotension, cytokines are likely to be important in the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury in capillary leak syndrome. Fluid management is a critical part of the treatment of capillary leak syndrome; hypovolemia and hypotension can cause organ injury, whereas capillary leakage of administered fluid can worsen organ edema leading to progressive organ injury. The purpose of this article is to discuss the diseases other than sepsis that produce capillary leak and review their collective pathophysiology and treatment. Copyright © 2017 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Wavelength conversion techniques and devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Søren Lykke; Mikkelsen, Benny; Hansen, Peter Bukhave

    1997-01-01

    Taking into account the requirements to the converters e.g., bit rate transparency (at least up to 10 Gbit/s), polarisation independence, wavelength independence, moderate input power levels, high signal-to-noise ratio and high extinction ratio interferometric wavelength convertors are very...... interesting for use in WDM optical fibre networks. However, the perfect converter has probably not yet been fabricated and new techniques such as conversion relying on cross-absorption modulation in electro-absorption modulators might also be considered in pursue of effective conversion devices...

  11. Sub-wavelength plasmon laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-04-19

    A plasmonic laser device has resonant nanocavities filled with a gain medium containing an organic dye. The resonant plasmon frequencies of the nanocavities are tuned to align with both the absorption and emission spectra of the dye. Variables in the system include the nature of the dye and the wavelength of its absorption and emission, the wavelength of the pumping radiation, and the resonance frequencies of the nanocavities. In addition the pumping frequency of the dye is selected to be close to the absorption maximum.

  12. Wavelength standards in the infrared

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, KN

    2012-01-01

    Wavelength Standards in the Infrared is a compilation of wavelength standards suitable for use with high-resolution infrared spectrographs, including both emission and absorption standards. The book presents atomic line emission standards of argon, krypton, neon, and xenon. These atomic line emission standards are from the deliberations of Commission 14 of the International Astronomical Union, which is the recognized authority for such standards. The text also explains the techniques employed in determining spectral positions in the infrared. One of the techniques used includes the grating con

  13. Interfacial layering and capillary roughness in immiscible liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geysermans, P; Pontikis, V

    2010-08-21

    The capillary roughness and the atomic density profiles of extended interfaces between immiscible liquids are determined as a function of the interface area by using molecular dynamics and Lennard-Jones (12-6) potentials. We found that with increasing area, the interface roughness diverges logarithmically, thus fitting the theoretical mean-field prediction. In systems small enough for the interfacial roughness not to blur the structural details, atomic density profiles across the fluid interface are layered with correlation length in the range of molecular correlations in liquids. On increasing the system size, the amplitude of the thermally excited position fluctuations of the interface increases, thus causing layering to rapidly vanish, if density profiles are computed without special care. In this work, we present and validate a simple method, operating in the direct space, for extracting from molecular dynamics trajectories the "intrinsic" structure of a fluid interface that is the local density profile of the interface cleaned from capillary wave effects. Estimated values of interfacial properties such as the tension, the intrinsic width, and the lower wavelength limit of position fluctuations are in agreement with results collected from the literature.

  14. Two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis: capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jane A.; Ramsay, Lauren M.; Dada, Oluwatosin O.; Cermak, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Capillary isoelectric focusing and capillary zone electrophoresis are coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection to create an ultrasensitive two-dimensional separation method for proteins. In this method, two capillaries are joined through a buffer filled interface. Separate power supplies control the potential at the injection end of the first capillary and at the interface; the detector is held at ground potential. Proteins are labeled with the fluorogenic reagent Chromeo P503, which preserves the isoelectric point of the labeled protein. The labeled proteins were mixed with ampholytes and injected into the first dimension capillary. A focusing step was performed with the injection end of the capillary at high pH and the interface at low pH. To mobilize components, the interface was filled with a high pH buffer, which was compatible with the second dimension separation. A fraction was transferred to the second dimension capillary for separation. The process of fraction transfer and second dimension separation was repeated two dozen times. The separation produced a spot capacity of 125. PMID:20603830

  15. Microwave discharges in capillary tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dervisevic, Emil

    1984-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the study of microwave discharge by a surface wave, and more precisely focusses on the discharge in capillary tubes filled with argon. The author first present theoretical models which describe, on the one hand, the propagation of the surface wave along the plasma column, and, on the other hand, longitudinal and radial profiles of the main discharge characteristics. The second part addresses the study of the influence of parameters (gas pressure and tube radius) on discharge operation and characteristics. Laws of similitude as well as empirical relationships between argon I and argon II emission line intensities, electron density, and electric field in the plasma have been established [fr

  16. Cycle 24 COS FUV Internal/External Wavelength Scale Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, William J.

    2018-02-01

    We report on the monitoring of the COS FUV wavelength scale zero-points during Cycle 24 in program 14855. Select cenwaves were monitored for all FUV gratings at Lifetime Position 3. The target and cenwaves have remained the same since Cycle 21, with a change only to the target acquisition sequence. All measured offsets are within the error goals, although the G140L cenwaves show offsets at the short-wavelength end of segment A that are approaching the tolerance. This behavior will be closely monitored in subsequent iterations of the program.

  17. Aluminum nitride nanophotonic circuits operating at ultraviolet wavelengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegmaier, M.; Ebert, J.; Pernice, W. H. P., E-mail: wolfram.pernice@kit.edu [Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76133 Karlsruhe (Germany); Meckbach, J. M.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M. [Institute of Micro- und Nanoelectronic Systems, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, 76187 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-03-03

    Aluminum nitride (AlN) has recently emerged as a promising material for integrated photonics due to a large bandgap and attractive optical properties. Exploiting the wideband transparency, we demonstrate waveguiding in AlN-on-Insulator circuits from near-infrared to ultraviolet wavelengths using nanophotonic components with dimensions down to 40 nm. By measuring the propagation loss over a wide spectral range, we conclude that both scattering and absorption of AlN-intrinsic defects contribute to strong attenuation at short wavelengths, thus providing guidelines for future improvements in thin-film deposition and circuit fabrication.

  18. Capillary condensation between disks in two dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, Tamir; Ipsen, John Hjorth

    1997-01-01

    Capillary condensation between two two-dimensional wetted circular substrates (disks) is studied by an effective free energy description of the wetting interface. The interfacial free-energy potential is developed on the basis of the theory for the wetting of a single disk, where interfacial...... capillary fluctuations play a dominant role. A simple approximative analytical expression of the interfacial free energy is developed and is validated numerically. The capillary condensation is characterized by the analysis of the coverage of the condensed phase, its stability, and asymptotic behaviors...

  19. Solutions for ultra-high speed optical wavelength conversion and clock recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael; Mulvad, Hans Christian Hansen

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on our recent advances in ultra-fast optical communications relying on ultra-short pulses densely stacked in ultra-high bit rate serial data signals at a single wavelength. The paper describes details in solutions for the network functionalities of wavelength conversion and clock...... recovery at bit rates up to 320 Gb/s...

  20. [Fundus autofluorescence in patients with inherited retinal diseases : Patterns of fluorescence at two different wavelengths.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theelen, T.; Boon, C.J.F.; Klevering, B.J.; Hoyng, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) may be excited and measured at different wavelengths. In the present study we compared short wavelength and near-infrared FAF patterns of retinal dystrophies. METHODS: We analysed both eyes of 108 patients with diverse retinal dystrophies. Besides colour

  1. 100G shortwave wavelength division multiplexing solutions for multimode fiber data links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cimoli, Bruno; Estaran Tolosa, Jose Manuel; Rodes Lopez, Guillermo Arturo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate an alternative 100G solution for optical short-range data center links. The presented solution adopts wavelength division multiplexing technology to transmit four channels of 25G over a multimode fiber. A comparative performance analysis of the wavelength-grid selection for the wav...

  2. Nanoparticle-based capillary electroseparation of proteins in polymer capillaries under physiological conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, C.; Harwigsson, I.; Becker, K.

    2010-01-01

    Totally porous lipid-based liquid crystalline nanoparticles were used as pseudostationary phase for capillary electroseparation with LIF detection of proteins at physiological conditions using unmodified cyclic olefin copolymer capillaries (Topas (R), 6.7 cm effective length). In the absence of n...... at protein friendly conditions. The developed capillary-based method facilitates future electrochromatography of proteins on polymer-based microchips under physiological conditions and enables the initial optimization of separation conditions in parallel to the chip development....

  3. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Bay, A.; Bonekaemper, D.; Buontempo, S.; Ereditato, A.; Fabre, J.P.; Fiorillo, G.; Frekers, D.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Garufi, F.; Goldberg, J.; Golovkin, S.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Liberti, B.; Martellotti, G.; Medvedkov, A.; Mommaert, C.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Yu.; Rondeshagen, D.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Vischers, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wolff, T.; Wong, H.

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 x 10 5 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on electron bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented. (orig.)

  4. Capillary detectors for high resolution tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Annis, P

    1997-01-01

    We present a new tracking device based on glass capillary bundles or layers filled with highly purified liquid scintillator and read out at one end by means of image intensifiers and CCD devices. A large-volume prototype consisting of 5 × 105 capillaries with a diameter of 20 μm and a length of 180 cm and read out by a megapixel CCD has been tested with muon and neutrino beams at CERN. With this prototype a two track resolution of 33 μm was achieved with passing through muons. Images of neutrino interactions in a capillary bundle have also been acquired and analysed. Read-out chains based on Electron Bombarded CCD (EBCCD) and image pipeline devices are also investigated. Preliminary results obtained with a capillary bundle read out by an EBCCD are presented.

  5. Microgravity Investigation of Capillary Driven Imbibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dushin, V. R.; Nikitin, V. F.; Smirnov, N. N.; Skryleva, E. I.; Tyurenkova, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    The goal of the present paper is to investigate the capillary driven filtration in porous media under microgravity conditions. New mathematical model that allows taking into account the blurring of the front due to the instability of the displacement that is developing at the front is proposed. The constants in the mathematical model were selected on the basis of the experimental data on imbibition into unsaturated porous media under microgravity conditions. The flow under the action of a combination of capillary forces and a constant pressure drop or a constant flux is considered. The effect of capillary forces and the type of wettability of the medium on the displacement process is studied. A criterion in which case the capillary effects are insignificant and can be neglected is established.

  6. Characterization of asphaltenes by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, W.T.; Tüdös, A.J.; Grutters, M.; Shepherd, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    Nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis was used for the separation and characterization of asphaltene samples from different sources. For the separation medium (background electrolyte), mixtures of tetrahydrofuran and a high-permittivity organic solvent could be used. The best results were obtained

  7. Hierarchical capillary adhesion of microcantilevers or hairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jianlin; Feng Xiqiao; Xia Re; Zhao Hongping

    2007-01-01

    As a result of capillary forces, animal hairs, carbon nanotubes or nanowires of a periodically or randomly distributed array often assemble into hierarchical structures. In this paper, the energy method is adopted to analyse the capillary adhesion of microsized hairs, which are modelled as clamped microcantilevers wetted by liquids. The critical conditions for capillary adhesion of two hairs, three hairs or two bundles of hairs are derived in terms of Young's contact angle, elastic modulus and geometric sizes of the beams. Then, the hierarchical capillary adhesion of hairs is addressed. It is found that for multiple hairs or microcantilevers, the system tends to take a hierarchical structure as a result of the minimization of the total potential energy of the system. The level number of structural hierarchy increases with the increase in the number of hairs if they are sufficiently long. Additionally, we performed experiments to verify our theoretical solutions for the adhesion of microbeams

  8. Nitrogen capillary plasma as a source of intense monochromatic radiation at 2.88 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrba, P., E-mail: vrbovmir@fbmi.cvut.cz [Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences, Za Slovankou 3, Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Vrbova, M. [Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, CTU in Prague, Sitna 3105, Kladno 2 (Czech Republic); Zakharov, S.V. [EPPRA sas, Villebon/Yvette (France); Zakharov, V.S. [EPPRA sas, Villebon/Yvette (France); KIAM RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Jancarek, A.; Nevrkla, M. [Faculty of Nuclear Science and Physical Engineering, CTU in Prague, Brehova 7, Prague 1 (Czech Republic)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Pinching capillary discharge is studied as a source of monochromatic SXR. • Modeling of the laboratory device was performed by RMHD Z* code. • Results of computer and laboratory experiments are presented. - Abstract: Capillary discharge plasma related to our laboratory device is modeled and the results are compared with experimental data. Time dependences of selected plasma quantities (e.g. plasma mass density, electron temperature and density and emission intensities) evaluated by 2D Radiation-Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic code Z* describe plasma evolution. The highest output pulse energy at 2.88 nm wavelength is achieved for nitrogen filling pressure ∼100 Pa. The estimated output energy of monochromatic radiation 5.5 mJ sr{sup −1} (∼10{sup 14} photons sr{sup −1}) corresponds properly to observe experimental value ∼3 × 10{sup 13} photons sr{sup −1}. Ray tracing inspection along the capillary axis proves an influence of radiation self-absorption for the investigated wavelength. The spectra, evaluated using the FLY code, agree to the measured ones.

  9. Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Mori, Ryota; Kikunaga, Shuhei; Arai, Yasuhiko; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-06-15

    Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography that selectively extracts wavelength information from five wavelength-multiplexed holograms is presented. Specific phase shifts for respective wavelengths are introduced to remove the crosstalk components and extract only the object wave at the desired wavelength from the holograms. Object waves in multiple wavelengths are selectively extracted by utilizing 2π ambiguity and the subtraction procedures based on phase-shifting interferometry. Numerical results show the validity of the proposed technique. The proposed technique is also experimentally demonstrated.

  10. Vulvar Lobular Capillary Hemangioma (Pyogenic Granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kian-Mei Chong

    2005-03-01

    Conclusion: Pyogenic granuloma is considered a reactive hyperproliferative vascular response to trauma or other stimuli. The name “pyogenic granuloma” is a misnomer since the condition is not associated with pus and does not represent a granuloma histologically. There are a few cases of lobular capillary hemangioma of the glans penis but it is rare on the female genitalia. We present this case to help physicians become aware that lobular capillary hemangiomas may occur at this site.

  11. Simulation of capillary bridges between nanoscale particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörmann, Michael; Schmid, Hans-Joachim

    2014-02-04

    Capillary forces are very important as they exceed in general other adhesion forces. But at the same time the exact calculation of these forces is very complex, so often assumptions and approximations are used. Previous research was done with regard to micrometer sized particles, but the behavior of nanoscale particles is different. Hence, the results for micrometer sized particles cannot be directly transferred when considering nanoscale particles. Therefore, a simulation method was developed to calculate numerically the shape of a rotationally symmetrical capillary bridge between two spherical particles or a particle and a plate. The capillary bridge in the gap between the particles is formed due to capillary condensation and is in thermodynamic equilibrium with the gas phase. Hence the Kelvin equation and the Young-Laplace equation can be used to calculate the profile of the capillary bridge, depending on the relative humidity of the surrounding air. The bridge profile consists of several elements that are determined consecutively and interpolated linearly. After the shape is determined, the volume and force, divided into capillary pressure force and surface tension force, can be calculated. The validation of this numerical model will be shown by comparison with several different analytical calculations for micrometer-sized particles. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that two often used approximations, (1) the toroidal approximation and (2) the use of an effective radius, cannot be used for nanoscale particles without remarkable mistake. It will be discussed how the capillary force and its components depend on different parameters, like particle size, relative humidity, contact angle, and distance, respectively. The rupture of a capillary bridge due to particle separation will also be presented.

  12. DNA Sequencing by Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karger, Barry L.; Guttman, Andras

    2009-01-01

    Sequencing of human and other genomes has been at the center of interest in the biomedical field over the past several decades and is now leading toward an era of personalized medicine. During this time, DNA sequencing methods have evolved from the labor intensive slab gel electrophoresis, through automated multicapillary electrophoresis systems using fluorophore labeling with multispectral imaging, to the “next generation” technologies of cyclic array, hybridization based, nanopore and single molecule sequencing. Deciphering the genetic blueprint and follow-up confirmatory sequencing of Homo sapiens and other genomes was only possible by the advent of modern sequencing technologies that was a result of step by step advances with a contribution of academics, medical personnel and instrument companies. While next generation sequencing is moving ahead at break-neck speed, the multicapillary electrophoretic systems played an essential role in the sequencing of the Human Genome, the foundation of the field of genomics. In this prospective, we wish to overview the role of capillary electrophoresis in DNA sequencing based in part of several of our articles in this journal. PMID:19517496

  13. Simultaneous determination of rifabutin and human serum albumin in pharmaceutical formulations by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermolenko, Yu; Anshakova, A; Osipova, N; Kamentsev, M; Maksimenko, O; Balabanyan, V; Gelperina, S

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was used for determination of rifabutin (RFB), an anti-tuberculosis antibiotic drug, in various pharmaceutical formulations. Apart from that, simultaneous determination of RFB and human serum albumin (HSA) was performed. Electrophoretic behaviour of RFB was examined at various pH levels. CE conditions: a quartz capillary tube (internal diameter 75mm, effective length 50cm, total length 60cm), the capillary temperature was 25°С, the voltage applied to the capillary tube was +20kV, the UV detection wavelength was 214nm, hydrodynamic injection of the sample was performed at 30mbar for 5s, tetraborate buffer solution (0.01М, рН9.2). The obtained results are characterized by high efficiency (number of theoretical plates up to 260,000) and sufficient sensitivity (LOQ starting from 0.02μg/ml for RFB). The obtained data are in good accord with both HPLC results (for RFB) and spectrophotometry (for HSA). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of hindpaw electrical stimulation on capillary flow heterogeneity and oxygen delivery (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuandong; Wei, Wei; Li, Chenxi; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2017-02-01

    We report a novel use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) based angiography to visualize and quantify dynamic response of cerebral capillary flow pattern in mice upon hindpaw electrical stimulation through the measurement of the capillary transit-time heterogeneity (CTH) and capillary mean transit time (MTT) in a wide dynamic range of a great number of vessels in vivo. The OCT system was developed to have a central wavelength of 1310 nm, a spatial resolution of 8 µm and a system dynamic range of 105 dB at an imaging rate of 92 kHz. The mapping of dynamic cerebral microcirculations was enabled by optical microangiography protocol. From the imaging results, the spatial homogenization of capillary velocity (decreased CTH) was observed in the region of interest (ROI) corresponding to the stimulation, along with an increase in the MTT in the ROI to maintain sufficient oxygen exchange within the brain tissue during functional activation. We validated the oxygen consumption due to an increase of the MTT through demonstrating an increase in the deoxygenated hemoglobin (HbR) during the stimulation by the use of laser speckle contrast imaging.

  15. Cell adhesion during bullet motion in capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Naoki; Imai, Yohsuke; Ishida, Shunichi; Omori, Toshihiro; Kamm, Roger D; Ishikawa, Takuji

    2016-08-01

    A numerical analysis is presented of cell adhesion in capillaries whose diameter is comparable to or smaller than that of the cell. In contrast to a large number of previous efforts on leukocyte and tumor cell rolling, much is still unknown about cell motion in capillaries. The solid and fluid mechanics of a cell in flow was coupled with a slip bond model of ligand-receptor interactions. When the size of a capillary was reduced, the cell always transitioned to "bullet-like" motion, with a consequent decrease in the velocity of the cell. A state diagram was obtained for various values of capillary diameter and receptor density. We found that bullet motion enables firm adhesion of a cell to the capillary wall even for a weak ligand-receptor binding. We also quantified effects of various parameters, including the dissociation rate constant, the spring constant, and the reactive compliance on the characteristics of cell motion. Our results suggest that even under the interaction between P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) and P-selectin, which is mainly responsible for leukocyte rolling, a cell is able to show firm adhesion in a small capillary. These findings may help in understanding such phenomena as leukocyte plugging and cancer metastasis. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Attempts to retreat from a dead-ended long capillary by backward swimming in Paramecium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itsuki eKunita

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We have observed how the ciliate Paramecium attempts to retreat from the dead-end of a long capillary that is too narrow for turning. After many trial-and-error episodes of short-term backward swimming (SBS, which is the conventional avoidance behavior exhibited in free swimming when an obstacle is faced, long-term backward swimming (LBS that lasted five to ten times longer was developed. LBS may have a beneficial effect for complete withdrawal from the capillary space, although in our experiment it was impossible for the organism to do so due to the capillary length. In order to identify a physically possible mechanism for LBS, we propose model equations for the membrane potential of Hodgkin-Huxley type, which describe the control of ciliary movement. The physiological implications and physical mechanism of the development of LBS are discussed.

  17. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  18. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  19. Femtosecond laser micromachining of sapphire capillaries for laser-wakefield acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messner, Philipp; Delbos, Niels Matthias; Maier, Andreas R. [CFEL, Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); University of Hamburg, Institute of Experimental Physics, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Calmano, Thomas [University of Hamburg, Institute of Experimental Physics, 22761 Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Laser-plasma accelerator are promising candidates to provide ultra-relativistic electron beams for compact light sources. One factor that limits the achievable electron beam energy in a laser plasma accelerator is the Rayleigh length of the driver laser, which dictates the length over which the electron beams can effectively be accelerated. To overcome this limitation lasers can be guided in a capillary waveguide to extend the acceleration length beyond the Rayleigh length. The production of waveguide structures on scales, that are suitable for plasma acceleration is very challenging. Here, we present experimental results from waveguide machining in sapphire crystals using a Clark MXR CPA 2010 laser with a wavelength of 775nm, 1KHZ repetition rate and a pulse duration of 160 fs. We discuss the effects of different parameters like energy, lens types, writing speed and polarisation on the size and shape of the capillaries, and compare the performance of different parameter sets.

  20. Comparison of different wavelength pump sources for Tm subnanosecond amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserteg, Andras; Guillemet, Sébastien; Hernandez, Yves; Giannone, Domenico

    2012-06-01

    We report here a comparison of different pumping wavelengths for short pulse Thulium fibre amplifiers. We compare the results in terms of efficiency and required fibre length. As we operate the laser in the sub-nanosecond regime, the fibre length is a critical parameter regarding non linear effects. With 793 nm clad-pumping, a 4 m long active fibre was necessary, leading to strong spectral deformation through Self Phase Modulation (SPM). Core-pumping scheme was then more in-depth investigated with several wavelengths tested. Good results with Erbium and Raman shifted pumping sources were obtained, with very short fibre length, aiming to reach a few micro-joules per pulse without (or with limited) SPM.

  1. Optogalvanic wavelength calibration for laser monitoring of reactive atmospheric species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Laser-based techniques have been successfully employed for monitoring atmospheric species of importance to stratospheric ozone chemistry or tropospheric air quality control. When spectroscopic methods using tunable lasers are used, a simultaneously recorded reference spectrum is required for wavelength calibration. For stable species this is readily achieved by incorporating into the sensing instrument a reference cell containing the species to be monitored. However, when the species of interest is short-lived, this approach is unsuitable. It is proposed that wavelength calibration for short-lived species may be achieved by generating the species of interest in an electrical or RF discharge and using optogalvanic detection as a simple, sensitive, and reliable means of recording calibration spectra. The wide applicability of this method is emphasized. Ultraviolet, visible, or infrared lasers, either CW or pulsed, may be used in aircraft, balloon, or shuttle experiments for sensing atoms, molecules, radicals, or ions.

  2. Impaired skin capillary recruitment in essential hypertension is caused by both functional and structural capillary rarefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serne, EH; Gans, ROB; ter Maaten, JC; Tangelder, GJ; Donker, AJM; Stehouwer, CDA

    Capillary rarefaction occurs in many tissues in patients with essential hypertension and may contribute to an increased vascular resistance and impaired muscle metabolism. Rarefaction may be caused by a structural (anatomic) absence of capillaries, functional nonperfusion, or both. The aim of this

  3. Monoliths in capillary electrochromatography and capillary liquid chromatography in conjunction with mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravcová, Dana; Rantamäki, A. H.; Duša, Filip; Wiedmer, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, 7-8 (2016), s. 880-912 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrochromatography * capillary liquid chromatography * mass spec- trometry * monolithic columns Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.744, year: 2016

  4. Transport of volatile organic compounds across the capillary fringe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Kathleen A.; Johnson, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    Physical experiments were conducted to investigate the transport of a dissolved volatile organic compound (trichloroethylene, TCE) from shallow groundwater to the unsaturated zone under a variety of conditions including changes in the soil moisture profile and water table position. Experimental data indicated that at moderate groundwater velocities (0.1 m/d), vertical mechanical dispersion was negligible and molecular diffusion was the dominant vertical transport mechanism. Under these conditions, TCE concentrations decreased nearly 3 orders of magnitude across the capillary fringe and soil gas concentrations remained low relative to those of underlying groundwater. Data collected during a water table drop showed a short-term increase in concentrations throughout most of the unsaturated zone, but these concentrations quickly declined and approached initial values after the water table was returned to its original level. In the deep part of the unsaturated zone, the water table drop resulted in a long-term decrease in concentrations, illustrating the effects of hysteresis in the soil moisture profile. A two-dimensional random walk advection-diffusion model was developed to simulate the experimental conditions, and numerical simulations agreed well with experimental data. A simpler, one-dimensional finite-difference diffusion-dispersion model was also developed. One-dimensional simulations based on molecular diffusion also agreed well with experimental data. Simulations which incorporated mechanical dispersion tended to overestimate flux across the capillary fringe. Good agreement between the one- and two-dimensional models suggested that a simple, one-dimensional approximation of vertical transport across the capillary fringe can be useful when conditions are appropriate.

  5. Making Displaced Holograms At Two Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherow, William K.; Ecker, Andreas

    1989-01-01

    Two-wavelength holographic system augmented with pair of prisms to introduce small separation between holograms formed simultaneously at two wavelengths on holographic plate. Principal use in study of flows. Gradients in index of refraction of fluid caused by variations in temperature, concentration, or both. Holography at one wavelength cannot be used to distinguish between two types of variations. Difference between spacings of fringes in photographs reconstructed from holograms taken simultaneously at two different wavelengths manipulated mathematically to determine type of variation.

  6. Modeling aerobic biodegradation in the capillary fringe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jian; Kurt, Zohre; Hou, Deyi; Spain, Jim C

    2015-02-03

    Vapor intrusion from volatile subsurface contaminants can be mitigated by aerobic biodegradation. Laboratory column studies with contaminant sources of chlorobenzene and a mixture of chlorobenzene, 1,2-dichlorobenzene, and 1,4-dichlorobenzene showed that contaminants were rapidly degraded in thin reactive zones with high biomass and low substrate concentrations in the vicinity of the capillary fringe. Such behavior was well characterized by a model that includes oxygen-, substrate-, and biomass-dependent biodegradation kinetics along with diffusive transport processes. An analytical solution was derived to provide theoretical support for the simplification of reaction kinetics and the approximation of reactive zone location and mass flux relationships at steady state. Results demonstrate the potential of aerobic natural attenuation in the capillary fringe for preventing contaminant migration in the unsaturated zone. The solution indicates that increasing contaminant mass flux into the column creates a thinner reactive zone and pushes it toward the oxygen boundary, resulting in a shorter distance to the oxygen source and a larger oxygen mass flux that balances the contaminant mass flux. As a consequence, the aerobic biodegradation can reduce high contaminant concentrations to low levels within the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone. The results are consistent with the observations of thin reactive layers at the interface in unsaturated zones. The model considers biomass while including biodegradation in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone and clearly demonstrates that microbial communities capable of using the contaminants as electron donors may lead to instantaneous degradation kinetics in the capillary fringe and unsaturated zone.

  7. Micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Koenka, Israel Joel; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Müller, Beat; Chwalek, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-08-01

    A novel micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis for the handling of samples with volumes down to as little as 300 nL was designed and built in our laboratory for analyses in which the available volume is a limitation. The sample is placed into a small cavity located directly in front of the separation capillary, and the injection is then carried out automatically by controlled pressurization of the chamber with compressed air. The system also allows automated flushing of the injection chamber as well as of the capillary. In a trial with a capillary electrophoresis system with contactless conductivity detector, employing a capillary of 25 μm diameter, the results showed good stability of migration times and peak areas. To illustrate the technique, the fast separation of five inorganic cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH4 (+) , Ca(2+) , and Mg(2+) ) was set up. This could be achieved in less than 3 min, with good limits of detection (10 μM) and linear ranges (between about 10 and 1000 μM). The system was demonstrated for the determination of the inorganic cations in porewater samples of a lake sediment core. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Microjet formation in a capillary by laser-induced cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Ivo R.; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; van der Meer, Devaraj; Prosperetti, Andrea; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-11-01

    A vapor bubble is created by focusing a laser pulse inside a capillary that is partially filled with water. Upon creation of the bubble, a shock wave travels through the capillary. When this shock wave meets the meniscus of the air-water interface, a thin jet is created that travels at very high speeds. A crucial ingredient for the creation of the jet is the shape of the meniscus, which is responsible for focusing the energy provided by the shock wave. We examine the formation of this jet numerically using a boundary integral method, where we prepare an initial interface at rest inside a tube with a diameter ranging from 50 to 500 μm. To simulate the effect of the bubble we then apply a short, strong pressure pulse, after which the jet forms. We investigate the influence of the shape of the meniscus, and pressure amplitude and duration on the jet formation. The jet shape and velocity obtained by the simulation compare well with experimental data, and provides good insight in the origin of the jet.

  9. Recent applications of nanomaterials in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Curbelo, Miguel Ángel; Varela-Martínez, Diana Angélica; Socas-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Hernández-Borges, Javier

    2017-10-01

    Nanomaterials have found an important place in Analytical Chemistry and, in particular, in Separation Science. Among them, metal-organic frameworks, magnetic and non-magnetic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes and graphene, as well as their combinations, are the most important nanomaterials that have been used up to now. Concerning capillary electromigration techniques, these nanomaterials have also been used as both pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography (EKC) and as stationary phases in microchip capillary electrophoresis (CE) and capillary electrochromatography (CEC), as a result of their interesting and particular properties. This review article pretends to provide a general and critical revision of the most recent applications of nanomaterials in this field (period 2010-2017). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy of semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, S.E.

    1977-10-01

    The use of modulation spectroscopy to study the electronic properties of solids has been very productive. The construction of a wide range Wavelength Modulation Spectrometer to study the optical properties of solids is described in detail. Extensions of the working range of the spectrometer into the vacuum ultraviolet are discussed. Measurements of the reflectivity and derivative reflectivity spectra of the lead chalcogenides, the chalcopyrite ZnGeP/sub 2/, the layer compounds GaSe and GaS and their alloys, the ferroelectric SbSI, layer compounds SnS/sub 2/ and SnSe/sub 2/, and HfS/sub 2/ were made. The results of these measurements are presented along with their interpretation in terms of band structure calculations.

  11. Hollow-core revolver fibre with a double-capillary reflective cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosolapov, A F; Alagashev, G K; Kolyadin, A N; Pryamikov, A D; Dianov, E M [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Biryukov, A S; Bufetov, I A [Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the fabrication of the first hollow-core revolver fibre with a core diameter as small as 25 μm and an optical loss no higher than 75 dB km{sup -1} at a wavelength of 1850 nm. The decrease in core diameter, with no significant increase in optical loss, is due to the use of double nested capillaries in the reflective cladding design. A number of technical problems pertaining to the fabrication of such fibres are resolved. (fiber optics)

  12. Capillary interactions in nano-particle suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossev, D.P.; Warren, G.

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the structures formed by colloidal particles suspended in solvents at volume fractions below 10% and interacting through capillary bridges. Such systems resemble colloidal gas of sticky nano-spheres that form pearl-necklace like chains that, in turn, induce strong viscoelasticity due to the formation of 3-D fractal network. The capillary force dominates the electrostatic and Van der Waals forces in solutions and can bridge multiple particles depending of the volume of the capillary bridge. We have investigated the morphology of the structures formed at different fractions of the bridging fluid. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to study nanoparticles with an average diameter of 10 nm in polar and non-polar organic solvents at ambient temperatures. SANS intensity as a function of the scattering vector is analyzed as a product of a form factor, that depends on the particle shape, and a structure factor, that characterizes the interparticle inter reactions. The interaction of particles in polar solvents is considered to be through electrostatic repulsion and the data is successfully fitted by Hayter-Penfold mean spherical approximation (HPMSA). Computer simulations of a pearl necklace-like chain of spheres is conducted to explain the structure factor when capillary bridges are present. Alternatively, we have analyzed the slope of the intensity at low scattering vector in a double logarithmic plot to determine the dimension of the fractal structures formed by the particles at different volume fraction of the bridging fluid. We have also studied the properties of the capillary bridge between a pair of particles. The significance of this study is to explore the possibility of using capillary force as a tool to engineer new colloidal structures and materials in solutions and to optimize their viscoelastic properties. (author)

  13. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc. Methods: Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Results: Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Conclusion: Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. Impact of the study: This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing. Keywords: Epoc, Capillary, Transport, Blood gas, Point of care

  14. Infraglottic lobular capillary hemangioma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinh Ly Pham Hoang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Lobular capillary hemangioma (LCH is a benign proliferation of capillary blood vessels adopting a lobular configuration. A laryngeal origin of LCH is exceedingly rare. Here, we describe a case of an 11-year-old boy presenting with a subglottic lesion, leading to a subglottic stenosis. Histopathologic findings of the lesion implicated an LCH, which was removed successfully by a coblator. This is the first report of a subglottic LCH. Physicians should be aware of this unique lesion and laryngeal LCH should be considered in diagnosing the cause of a subglottic stenosis. Additionally, coblation should be an effective treatment for laryngeal LCH.

  15. Use of Plastic Capillaries for Macromolecular Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Rachel R.; Hong, Young-Soo; Ciszak, Ewa M.

    2003-01-01

    Methods of crystallization of biomolecules in plastic capillaries (Nalgene 870 PFA tubing) are presented. These crystallization methods used batch, free-interface liquid- liquid diffusion alone, or a combination with vapor diffusion. Results demonstrated growth of crystals of test proteins such as thaumatin and glucose isomerase, as well as protein studied in our laboratory such dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase. Once the solutions were loaded in capillaries, they were stored in the tubes in frozen state at cryogenic temperatures until the desired time of activation of crystallization experiments.

  16. Can positrons be guided by insulating capillaries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, R.D.; Toekesi, K.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Investigations of guiding of few hundred eV antiparticles by macroscopic insulating capillaries have been described. Using subfemtoamp positron and electron beams, we demonstrated that a portion of the entering beams were transmitted and emerged in the direction of the capillary. We also demonstrated that the transmitted intensities decreased as the capillary tilt angle was increased (see Fig. 1). Both of these are indications of guiding. However, a comparison with transmitted photon data implies that the positron transmission may result from geometric factors associated with our diffuse beams and tapered capillary used in these studies. For electrons, the comparison indicates differences which could imply that even very low intensity beams can be guided. Measurements of the transmitted intensity as a function of charge entering the capillary were inconclusive as no major increases in the transmitted intensity were observed. 2D static simulations imply that our beam intensities, although extremely small with respect to previous guiding experiments, were capable of supplying sufficient charge for guiding to occur. Although not definitive, our study implies that sub-femtoamp beam intensities are sufficient to form charge patches and produce guiding. This may have been observed for electrons with the question remaining open for positrons. That guiding was not clearly seen may have been due to the capillary geometry used or it may indicate that although sufficient charge is being supplied, the surface and bulk resistivities of glass permit this charge to dissipate faster than it is formed. This aspect was not taken into consideration in our simulations but a crude estimate of the discharge rate implies that beam intensities on the order of pA, rather than fA as used here, may be required for guiding to occur in the capillaries used here. Additional studies are required to definitively answer the question as to whether antiparticles

  17. Capillary condensation of adsorbates in porous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Toshihide; Do, D D; Nicholson, D

    2011-11-14

    Hysteresis in capillary condensation is important for the fundamental study and application of porous materials, and yet experiments on porous materials are sometimes difficult to interpret because of the many interactions and complex solid structures involved in the condensation and evaporation processes. Here we make an overview of the significant progress in understanding capillary condensation and hysteresis phenomena in mesopores that have followed from experiment and simulation applied to highly ordered mesoporous materials such as MCM-41 and SBA-15 over the last few decades. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hysteretic capillary condensation in a porous material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilly, M.P.; Hallock, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    The authors report on the behavior of hysteresis subloops in the capillary condensation of 4 He in the porous material Nuclepore. For hysteretic systems composed of many independent elements, the Preisach model may be used to predict the behavior of the resulting hysteresis. One prediction is that subloops with common chemical potential endpoints will be congruent. The observations of such subloops show that the prediction of congruence fails for this capillary condensation system. To understand deviations from Preisach behavior the authors modify the model to account for intersections among the pores. The modified model is in close agreement with the experimental results

  19. Intracerebral Capillary Hemangioma: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youn, In Young; Kim, Jae Kyun; Byun, Jun Soo [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Eon Sub [Dept. of Radiology, Chung Ang University Medical Center, Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    Intracerebral capillary hemangiomas are very rare benign vascular tumors that mostly occur during infancy. We described a 69-year-old man with generalized tonic-clonic seizures who was diagnosed with an intracranial mass. Multidetector computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and digital subtraction angiography studies were performed for evaluation of brain, and there was a well-enhancing mass found in the right temporal lobe without a definite feeding vessel. The patient underwent surgery and the pathologic examination demonstrated marked proliferation of small vessels with a lobular pattern in the brain parenchyma, which was confirmed to be capillary hemangioma.

  20. Studies on pulsed hollow cathode capillary discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, P; Dumitrescu-Zoita, C; Larour, J; Rous, J [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Physique des Milieux Ionises; Favre, M; Moreno, J; Chuaqui, H; Wyndham, E [Pontificia Univ. Catolica de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Facultad de Fisica; Zambra, M [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Wong, C S [Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Plasma Research Lab

    1997-12-31

    Preliminary results on radiation characteristics of pulsed hollow cathode capillary discharges are presented. The device combines the on axis electron beam assisted ionization capabilities of the transient hollow cathode discharge with a novel high voltage low inductance geometrical design, which integrates the local energy storage into the electrode system. A nanosecond regime high temperature plasma is produced in a long, high aspect ratio capillary, with light emission in the UV to XUV region. The discharge is operated from near vacuum to pressure in the 1000 mTorr range. (author). 2 figs., 7 refs.

  1. TESTICULAR CAPILLARY HEMANGIOMA: DESCRIPTION OF A CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Markova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a clinical case of testicular capillary hemangioma in a 24-year-old man undergone a partial resection of the testis with the intraoperative morphological examination. Testicular capillary hemangioma is a rare benign tumor of a vascular origin, which can be similar to malignant testicular tumors on the clinical presentation, as well as on the imaging methods, in particular to seminoma. The intraoperative histological study can assist in avoiding organ-removing surgical interventions in diagnostically ambiguous cases if a benign testicular tumor is diagnosed.

  2. Quantification of nucleotides by ICPMS: coupling of ICPMS with capillary electrophoresis or capillary HPLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, K.; Fujii, S.; Takatsu, A.; Yarita, T.; Zhu, Y.; Chiba, K.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Quantification of nucleotides in small volumes of biological samples has eagerly been demanded. A method using ICPMS coupled with capillary electrophoresis or capillary liquid chromatography is reported. A new interface system, which consists of a double tube nebulizer inserted with a fused silica capillary tube and a cylinder mini-chamber with a sheath gas inlet, was designed. Moreover, the surface conditions of the sampling and skimmer cones, and the introduction of H 2 gas into the plasma were found to significantly improve the signal/background ratio for phosphorus determination at m/z 31. (author)

  3. Comprehensive protein profiling by multiplexed capillary zone electrophoresis using cross-linked polyacrylamide coated capillaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shaorong; Gao, Lin; Pu, Qiaosheng; Lu, Joann J; Wang, Xingjia

    2006-02-01

    We have recently developed a new process to create cross-linked polyacrylamide (CPA) coatings on capillary walls to suppress protein-wall interactions. Here, we demonstrate CPA-coated capillaries for high-efficiency (>2 x 10(6) plates per meter) protein separations by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE). Because CPA virtually eliminates electroosmotic flow, positive and negative proteins cannot be analyzed in a single run. A "one-sample-two-separation" approach is developed to achieve a comprehensive protein analysis. High throughput is achieved through a multiplexed CZE system.

  4. Capillary density and capillary-to-fibre ratio in vastus lateralis muscle of untrained and trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. Kilarski

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Muscle fibre profile area (Af, volume density (Vv, capillary-to-fibre ratio (CF and number of capillaries per fibre square millimetre (CD were determined from needle biopsies of vastus lateralis of twenty-four male volunteers (mean ± SD: age 25.4±5.8 years, height 178.6±5.5 cm, body mass 72.1±7.7 kg of different training background. Seven subjects were untrained students (group A, nine were national and sub-national level endurance athletes (group B with the background of 7.8±2.9 years of specialised training, and eight subjects were sprint-power athletes (group C with 12.8±8.7 years of specialised training. Muscle biopsies of vastus lateralis were analysed histochemically for mATPase. Capillaries were visualized and counted using CD31 antibodies against endothelial cells. There were significant differences in the Vv of type I and type II muscle fibres in both trained groups, B (51.8%; 25.6% and C (50.5%; 26.4%. However, in untrained group A that was treated as a reference group, the difference between Vv of type I and type II fibres was less prominent, nevertheless statistically significant (42.1%; 35.1%. There was also a significant difference in CF: 1.9 in group A and 2.1 in groups B and C. The number of capillaries per mm2 (CD was 245 (group A, 308 (group B and 325 (group C. Significant differences (P<0.05 in CF and CD, were found only between group A (1.9; 245 and both groups of trained men, B and C (2.1; 308 and 325. However, endurance athletes (group B, such as long-distance runners, cyclists and cross country skiers, did not differ from the athletes representing short term, high power output sports (group C such as ice hockey, karate, ski-jumping, volleyball, soccer and modern dance.

  5. Hysteretic capillary condensation of 4He on Nuclepore substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godshalk, K.M.; Smith, D.T.; Hallock, R.B.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the approach to capillary condensation and the hysteresis encountered in capillary condensation are reported for helium adsorbed on the polycarbonate substrate Nuclepore. (Author) (5 refs., 3 figs.)

  6. Viscosity measurement in the capillary tube viscometer under unsteady flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Heung Jun; Yoo, Sang Sin; Suh, Sang Ho

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to develop a new device that the viscous characteristics of fluids are determined by applying the unsteady flow concept to the traditional capillary tube viscometer. The capillary tube viscometer consists of a small cylindrical reservoir, capillary tube, a load cell system that measures the mass flow rate, interfaces, and computer. Due to the small size of the reservoir the height of liquid in the reservoir decreases as soon as the liquid in the reservoir drains out through the capillary and the mass flow rate in the capillary decreases as the hydrostatic pressure in the reservoir decreases resulting in a decrease of the shear rate in the capillary tube. The instantaneous shear rate and driving force in the capillary tube are determined by measuring the mass flow rate through the capillary, and the fluid viscosity is determined from the measured flow rate and the driving force

  7. Anomalous capillary flow of coal tar pitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saint Romain, J.L.; Lahaye, J.; Ehrburger, P.; Couderc, P.

    1986-06-01

    Capillary flow of liquid coal tar pitch into a coke bed was studied. Anomalies in the flow could not be attributed to a plugging effect for mesophase content lower than 20 wt%. The flow behaviour of small pitch droplets can be correlated with the change in physicochemical properties, as measured by the glass transition temperature, on penetration into the coke bed. 4 references.

  8. Capillary-Patterns for Biometric Authentication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paloma Benedicto, J.; Bruekers, A.A.M.; Presura, C.N.; Garcia Molina, G.

    2007-01-01

    In this report, we present a method using the capillary structuresunder the "distal interphalangeal joint" (DIP joint), which is located between the second and third (distal) phalanges of the finger, for achieving secure biometric authentication. Images of the DIPjoint are acquired using a

  9. Capillary Condensation in Pores with Rough Walls:

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bryk, P.; Rżysko, W.; Malijevský, Alexandr; Sokołowski, S.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 313, č. 1 (2007), s. 41-52 ISSN 0021-9797 Grant - others:TOK(XE) 509249 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Source of funding: R - rámcový projekt EK Keywords : adsorption * pore * capillary condensation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.309, year: 2007

  10. Numerical simulations of capillary barrier field tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.E.; Stormont, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Numerical simulations of two capillary barrier systems tested in the field were conducted to determine if an unsaturated flow model could accurately represent the observed results. The field data was collected from two 7-m long, 1.2-m thick capillary barriers built on a 10% grade that were being tested to investigate their ability to laterally divert water downslope. One system had a homogeneous fine layer, while the fine soil of the second barrier was layered to increase its ability to laterally divert infiltrating moisture. The barriers were subjected first to constant infiltration while minimizing evaporative losses and then were exposed to ambient conditions. The continuous infiltration period of the field tests for the two barrier systems was modelled to determine the ability of an existing code to accurately represent capillary barrier behavior embodied in these two designs. Differences between the field test and the model data were found, but in general the simulations appeared to adequately reproduce the response of the test systems. Accounting for moisture retention hysteresis in the layered system will potentially lead to more accurate modelling results and is likely to be important when developing reasonable predictions of capillary barrier behavior

  11. Delayed Capillary Breakup of Falling Viscous Jets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, A.; Eggers, J.; Bonn, D.; Habibi, M.; Ribe, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    Thin jets of viscous fluid like honey falling from capillary nozzles can attain lengths exceeding 10 m before breaking up into droplets via the Rayleigh-Plateau (surface tension) instability. Using a combination of laboratory experiments and WKB analysis of the growth of shape perturbations on a jet

  12. Imbibition of ``Open Capillary'': Fundamentals and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, Marie; Kawano, Ryuji; Kamiya, Koki; Okumura, Ko

    2015-11-01

    Control or transportation of small amount of liquid is one of the most important issues in various contexts including medical sciences or pharmaceutical industries to fuel delivery. We studied imbibition of ``open capillary'' both experimentally and theoretically, and found simple scaling laws for both statics and dynamics of the imbibition, similarly as that of imbibition of capillary tubes. Furthermore, we revealed the existence of ``precursor film,'' which developed ahead of the imbibing front, and the dynamics of it is described well by another scaling law for capillary rise in a corner. Then, to show capabilities of open capillaries, we demonstrated two experiments by fabricating micro mixing devices to achieve (1) simultaneous multi-color change of the Bromothymol blue (BTB) solution and (2) expression of the green florescent protein (GFP). This research was partly supported by ImPACT Program of Council for Science, Technology and Innovation (Cabinet Office, Government of Japan). M. T. is supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Research Fellowships for Young Scientists.

  13. Van de Graaff generator for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Jae; Castro, Eric R; Guijt, Rosanne M; Tarn, Mark D; Manz, Andreas

    2017-09-29

    A new approach for high voltage capillary electrophoresis (CE) is proposed, which replaces the standard high voltage power supply with a Van de Graaff generator, a low current power source. Because the Van de Graaff generator is a current-limited source (10μA), potentials exceeding 100kV can be generated for CE when the electrical resistance of the capillary is maximized. This was achieved by decreasing the capillary diameter and reducing the buffer ionic strength. Using 2mM borate buffer and a 5μm i.d. capillary, fluorescently labeled amino acids were separated with efficiencies up to 3.5 million plates; a 5.7 fold improvement in separation efficiency compared to a normal power supply (NPS) typically used in CE. This separation efficiency was realized using a simple set-up without significant Joule heating, making the Van de Graaff generator a promising alternative for applying the high potentials required for enhancing resolution in the separation and analysis of highly complex samples, for example mixtures of glycans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Capillary Electrophoresis Analysis of Conventional Splicing Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Garibay, Gorka Ruiz; Acedo, Alberto; García-Casado, Zaida

    2014-01-01

    of these assays is often challenging. Here, we explore this issue by conducting splicing assays in 31 BRCA2 genetic variants. All variants were assessed by RT-PCR followed by capillary electrophoresis and direct sequencing. If assays did not produce clear-cut outputs (Class-2 or Class-5 according to analytical...

  15. Analytical biotechnology: Capillary electrophoresis and chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, C.; Nikelly, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    The papers describe the separation, characterization, and equipment required for the electrophoresis or chromatography of cyclic nucleotides, pharmaceuticals, therapeutic proteins, recombinant DNA products, pheromones, peptides, and other biological materials. One paper, On-column radioisotope detection for capillary electrophoresis, has been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  16. Application of CHESS single-bounce capillaries at synchrotron beamlines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R.; Szebenyi, T.; Pfeifer, M.; Woll, A.; Smilgies, D.-M.; Finkelstein, K.; Dale, D.; Wang, Y.; Vila-Comamala, J.; Gillilan, R.; Cook, M.; Bilderback, D. H.

    2014-03-01

    Single-bounce capillaries are achromatic X-ray focusing optics that can provide efficient and high demagnification focusing with large numerical apertures. Capillary fabrication at CHESS can be customized according to specific application requirements. Exemplary applications are reviewed in this paper, as well as recent progress on condensers for high-resolution transmission X-ray microscopy and small focal size capillaries.

  17. Solar Observations at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, P.

    We review earlier to recent observational evidences and theoretical motivations leading to a renewed interest to observe flares in the submillimeter (submm) - infrared (IR) range of wavelengths. We describe the new solar dedicated submillimeter wave telescope which began operations at El Leoncito in the Argentina Andes: the SST project. It consists of focal plane arrays of two 405 GHz and four 212 GHz radiometers placed in a 1.5-m radome-enclosed Cassegrain antenna, operating simultaneously with one millisecond time resolution. The first solar events analyzed exhibited the onset of rapid submm-wave spikes (100-300 ms), well associated to other flare manifestations, especially at X-rays. The spikes positions were found scattered over the flaring source by tens of arcseconds. For one event an excellent association was found between the gamma-ray emission time profile and the rate of occurrence of submm-wave rapid spikes. The preliminary results favour the idea that bulk burst emissions are a response to numerous fast energetic injections, discrete in time, produced at different spatial positions over the flaring region. Coronal mass ejections were associated to the events studied. Their trajectories extrapolated to the solar surface appear to correspond to the onset time of the submm-wave spikes, which might represent an early signature of the CME's initial acceleration process.

  18. Analysis of glycated hemoglobin A1c by capillary electrophoresis and capillary isoelectric focusing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koval, Dušan; Kašička, Václav; Cottet, H.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 413, č. 1 (2011), s. 8-15 ISSN 0003-2697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP203/09/P485; GA ČR(CZ) GA203/08/1428 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : capillary zone electrophoresis * capillary isoelectric focusing * glycated hemoglobin HbA1c Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.996, year: 2011

  19. Validation of capillary blood analysis and capillary testing mode on the epoc Point of Care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jing; Edwards, Rachel; Chairez, Janette; Devaraj, Sridevi

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory test in transport is a critical component of patient care, and capillary blood is a preferred sample type particularly in children. This study evaluated the performance of capillary blood testing on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System (Alere Inc). Ten fresh venous blood samples was tested on the epoc system under the capillary mode. Correlation with GEM 4000 (Instrumentation Laboratory) was examined for Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pO2, pCO2, and pH, and correlation with serum tested on Vitros 5600 (Ortho Clinical Diagnostics) was examined for creatinine. Eight paired capillary and venous blood was tested on epoc and ABL800 (Radiometer) for the correlation of Na+, K+, Cl-, Ca2+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Capillary blood from 23 apparently healthy volunteers was tested on the epoc system to assess the concordance to reference ranges used locally. Deming regression correlation coefficients for all the comparisons were above 0.65 except for ionized Ca2+. Accordance of greater than 85% to the local reference ranges were found in all assays with the exception of pO2 and Cl-. Data from this study indicates that capillary blood tests on the epoc system provide comparable results to reference method for these assays, Na+, K+, glucose, lactate, hematocrit, hemoglobin, pCO2, and pH. Further validation in critically ill patients is needed to implement the epoc system in patient transport. This study demonstrated that capillary blood tests on the epoc Point of Care Blood Analysis System give comparable results to other chemistry analyzers for major blood gas and critical tests. The results are informative to institutions where pre-hospital and inter-hospital laboratory testing on capillary blood is a critical component of patient point of care testing.

  20. A complete soil hydraulic model accounting for capillary and adsorptive water retention, capillary and film conductivity, and hysteresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sakai, Masaru; Van Genuchten, Martinus Th|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31481518X; Alazba, A. A.; Setiawan, Budi Indra; Minasny, Budiman

    2015-01-01

    A soil hydraulic model that considers capillary hysteretic and adsorptive water retention as well as capillary and film conductivity covering the complete soil moisture range is presented. The model was obtained by incorporating the capillary hysteresis model of Parker and Lenhard into the hydraulic

  1. Effective wavelength calibration for moire fringe projection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, Daryl; Davies, Angela; Farahi, Faramarz

    2006-01-01

    The fringe patterns seen when using moire instruments are similar to the patterns seen in traditional interferometry but differ in the spacing between consecutive fringes. In traditional interferometry, the spacing is constant and related to the wavelength of the source. In moire fringe projection, the spacing (the effective wavelength) may not be constant over the field of view and the spacing depends on the system geometry. In these cases, using a constant effective wavelength over the field of view causes inaccurate surface height measurements. We examine the calibration process of the moirefringe projection measurement, which takes this varying wavelength into account to produce a pixel-by-pixel wavelength map. The wavelength calibration procedure is to move the object in the out-of-plane direction a known distance until every pixel intensity value goes through at least one cycle. A sinusoidal function is then fit to the data to extract the effective wavelength pixel by pixel, yielding an effective wavelength map. A calibrated step height was used to validate the effective wavelength map with results within 1% of the nominal value of the step height. The error sources that contributed to the uncertainty in determining the height of the artifact are also investigated

  2. Sensitive detection of malachite green and crystal violet by nonlinear laser wave mixing and capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Eric J; Tong, William G

    2016-05-01

    An ultrasensitive label-free antibody-free detection method for malachite green and crystal violet is presented using nonlinear laser wave-mixing spectroscopy and capillary zone electrophoresis. Wave-mixing spectroscopy provides a sensitive absorption-based detection method for trace analytes. This is accomplished by forming dynamic gratings within a sample cell, which diffracts light to create a coherent laser-like signal beam with high optical efficiency and high signal-to-noise ratio. A cubic dependence on laser power and square dependence on analyte concentration make wave mixing sensitive enough to detect molecules in their native form without the use of fluorescent labels for signal enhancement. A 532 nm laser and a 635 nm laser were used for malachite green and crystal violet sample excitation. The use of two lasers of different wavelengths allows the method to simultaneously detect both analytes. Selectivity is obtained through the capillary zone electrophoresis separation, which results in characteristic migration times. Measurement in capillary zone electrophoresis resulted in a limit of detection of 6.9 × 10(-10)M (2.5 × 10(-19) mol) for crystal violet and 8.3 × 10(-11)M (3.0 × 10(-20) mol) for malachite green at S/N of 2. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Design and operation of a portable scanner for high performance microchip capillary array electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, James R; Liu, Peng; Mathies, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    We have developed a compact, laser-induced fluorescence detection scanner, the multichannel capillary array electrophoresis portable scanner (McCAEPs) as a platform for electrophoretic detection and control of high-throughput, integrated microfluidic devices for genetic and other analyses. The instrument contains a confocal optical system with a rotary objective for detecting four different fluorescence signals, a pneumatic system consisting of two pressure/vacuum pumps and 28 individual addressable solenoid valves for control of on-chip microvalves and micropumps, four Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) temperature control systems, and four high voltage power supplies for electrophoresis. The detection limit of the instrument is ~20 pM for on-chip capillary electrophoresis of fluorescein dyes. To demonstrate the system performance for forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, two experiments were conducted: (i) electrophoretic separation and detection of STR samples on a 96-lane microfabricated capillary array electrophoresis microchip. Fully resolved PowerPlex(®) 16 STR profiles amplified from 1 ng of 9947A female standard DNA were successfully obtained; (ii) nine-plex STR amplification, sample injection, separation, and fluorescence detection of 100-copy 9948 male standard DNA in a single integrated PCR- capillary electrophoresis microchip. These results demonstrate that the McCAEPs can be used as a versatile control and detection instrument that operates integrated microfluidic devices for high-performance forensic human identification.

  4. Comparison between ray-tracing and physical optics for the computation of light absorption in capillaries--the influence of diffraction and interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yuan; Michalowski, Andreas; Weber, Rudolf; Yang, Sen; Graf, Thomas; Ni, Xiaowu

    2012-11-19

    Ray-tracing is the commonly used technique to calculate the absorption of light in laser deep-penetration welding or drilling. Since new lasers with high brilliance enable small capillaries with high aspect ratios, diffraction might become important. To examine the applicability of the ray-tracing method, we studied the total absorptance and the absorbed intensity of polarized beams in several capillary geometries. The ray-tracing results are compared with more sophisticated simulations based on physical optics. The comparison shows that the simple ray-tracing is applicable to calculate the total absorptance in triangular grooves and in conical capillaries but not in rectangular grooves. To calculate the distribution of the absorbed intensity ray-tracing fails due to the neglected interference, diffraction, and the effects of beam propagation in the capillaries with sub-wavelength diameter. If diffraction is avoided e.g. with beams smaller than the entrance pupil of the capillary or with very shallow capillaries, the distribution of the absorbed intensity calculated by ray-tracing corresponds to the local average of the interference pattern found by physical optics.

  5. Early capillary flux homogenization in response to neural activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Boas, David A

    2016-02-01

    This Brief Communication reports early homogenization of capillary network flow during somatosensory activation in the rat cerebral cortex. We used optical coherence tomography and statistical intensity variation analysis for tracing changes in the red blood cell flux over hundreds of capillaries nearly at the same time with 1-s resolution. We observed that while the mean capillary flux exhibited a typical increase during activation, the standard deviation of the capillary flux exhibited an early decrease that happened before the mean flux increase. This network-level data is consistent with the theoretical hypothesis that capillary flow homogenizes during activation to improve oxygen delivery. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Applications of capillary optics for focused ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces applications of focused ion beams (∼1 μm) with glass capillaries systems. A first report on the interaction between ion beams and glass capillaries was published in 1996. The guiding capabilities of glass capillaries were discovered due to ion reflection from inner wall of glass surfaces. Meanwhile, the similar optics have been already realized in focusing X-rays using glass capillaries. The basic technology of X-rays optics using glass capillaries had been developed in the 1980's and 1900's. Also, low energy atom scattering spectroscopy for insulator material analysis will be mentioned. (author)

  7. Mechanism of wavelength conversion in polystyrene doped with benzoxanthene: emergence of a complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hidehito; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Kitamura, Hisashi; Sato, Nobuhiro; Shinji, Osamu; Saito, Katashi; Takahashi, Sentaro

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescent guest molecules doped in polymers have been used to convert ultraviolet light into visible light for applications ranging from optical fibres to filters for the cultivation of plants. The wavelength conversion process involves the absorption of light at short wavelengths followed by fluorescence emission at a longer wavelength. However, a precise understanding of the light conversion remains unclear. Here we show light responses for a purified polystyrene base substrates doped with fluorescent benzoxanthene in concentrations varied over four orders of magnitude. The shape of the excitation spectrum for fluorescence emission changes significantly with the concentration of the benzoxanthene, indicating formation of a base substrate/fluorescent molecule complex. Furthermore, the wavelength conversion light yield increases in three stages depending on the nature of the complex. These findings identify a mechanism that will have many applications in wavelength conversion materials.

  8. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  9. The dynamics of interacting nonlinearities governing long wavelength driftwave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, D.E.

    1993-09-01

    Because of the ubiquitous nature of turbulence and the vast array of different systems which have turbulent solutions, the study of turbulence is an area of active research. Much present day understanding of turbulence is rooted in the well established properties of homogeneous Navier-Stokes turbulence, which, due to its relative simplicity, allows for approximate analytic solutions. This work examines a group of turbulent systems with marked differences from Navier-Stokes turbulence, and attempts to quantify some of their properties. This group of systems represents a variety of drift wave fluctuations believed to be of fundamental importance in laboratory fusion devices. From extensive simulation of simple local fluid models of long wavelength drift wave turbulence in tokamaks, a reasonably complete picture of the basic properties of spectral transfer and saturation has emerged. These studies indicate that many conventional notions concerning directions of cascades, locality and isotropy of transfer, frequencies of fluctuations, and stationarity of saturation are not valid for moderate to long wavelengths. In particular, spectral energy transfer at long wavelengths is dominated by the E x B nonlinearity, which carries energy to short scale in a manner that is highly nonlocal and anisotropic. In marked contrast to the canonical self-similar cascade dynamics of Kolmogorov, energy is efficiently passed between modes separated by the entire spectrum range in a correlation time. At short wavelengths, transfer is dominated by the polarization drift nonlinearity. While the standard dual cascade applies in this subrange, it is found that finite spectrum size can produce cascades that are reverse directed and are nonconservative in enstrophy and energy similarity ranges. In regions where both nonlinearities are important, cross-coupling between the nolinearities gives rise to large no frequency shifts as well as changes in the spectral dynamics

  10. Design of Capillary Flows with Spatially Graded Porous Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Young Soo; Figliuzzi, Bruno Michel; Buie, Cullen

    2013-11-01

    We have developed a new capillary tube model, consisting of multi-layered capillary tubes oriented in the direction of flow, to predict capillary speeds on spatially graded porous films. Capillary flows through thin porous media have been widely utilized for small size liquid transport systems. However, for most media it is challenging to realize arbitrary shapes and spatially functionalized micro-structures with variable flow properties. Therefore, conventional media can only be used for capillary flows obeying Washburn's equation and the modifications thereof. Given this background, we recently developed a method called breakdown anodization (BDA) to produce highly wetting porous films. The resulting surfaces show nearly zero contact angles and fast water spreading speed. Furthermore, capillary pressure and spreading diffusivity can be expressed as functions of capillary height when customized electric fields are used in BDA. From the capillary tube model, we derived a general capillary flow equation of motion in terms of capillary pressure and spreading diffusivity. The theoretical model shows good agreement with experimental capillary flows. The study will provide novel design methodologies for paper-based microfluidic devices.

  11. Long-wavelength photonic integrated circuits and avalanche photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, Yi-Jen D.; Zaytsev, Sergey; Pauchard, Alexandre; Hummel, Steve; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2001-10-01

    Fast-growing internet traffic volume require high data communication bandwidth over longer distances. Access network bottlenecks put pressure on short-range (SR) telecommunication systems. To effectively address these datacom and telecom market needs, low-cost, high-speed laser modules at 1310 to 1550 nm wavelengths and avalanche photodetectors are required. The great success of GaAs 850nm VCSEls for Gb/s Ethernet has motivated efforts to extend VCSEL technology to longer wavelengths in the 1310 and 1550 nm regimes. However, the technological challenges associated with materials for long wavelength VCSELs are tremendous. Even with recent advances in this area, it is believed that significant additional development is necessary before long wavelength VCSELs that meet commercial specifications will be widely available. In addition, the more stringent OC192 and OC768 specifications for single-mode fiber (SMF) datacom may require more than just a long wavelength laser diode, VCSEL or not, to address numerous cost and performance issues. We believe that photonic integrated circuits (PICs), which compactly integrate surface-emitting lasers with additional active and passive optical components with extended functionality, will provide the best solutions to today's problems. Photonic integrated circuits have been investigated for more than a decade. However, they have produced limited commercial impact to date primarily because the highly complicated fabrication processes produce significant yield and device performance issues. In this presentation, we will discuss a new technology platform of InP-based PICs compatible with surface-emitting laser technology, as well as a high data rate externally modulated laser module. Avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are the key component in the receiver to achieve high data rate over long transmission distance because of their high sensitivity and large gain- bandwidth product. We have used wafer fusion technology to achieve In

  12. Capillary Interactions between a Probe Tip and a Nanoparticle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li-Ning, Sun; Le-Feng, Wang; Wei-Bin, Rong

    2008-01-01

    To understand capillary interactions between probe tips and nanoparticles under ambient conditions, a theoretical model of capillary forces between them is developed based on the geometric relations. It is found that the contribution of surface tension force to the total capillary force attains to similar order of magnitude as the capillary pressure force in many cases. It is also shown that the tip shape and the radial distance of the meniscus have great influence on the capillary force. The capillary force decreases with the increasing separation distances, and the variance of the contact angles may change the magnitudes of capillary forces several times at large radial distances. The applicability of the symmetric meniscus approximation is discussed. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  13. Wavelength scaling of laser plasma coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of shorter wavelength laser light both enhances collisional absorption and reduces deleterious collective plasma effects. Coupling processes which can be important in reactor-size targets are briefly reviewed. Simple estimates are presented for the intensity-wavelength regime in which collisional absorption is high and collective effects are minimized

  14. Microfluidic chip-capillary electrophoresis devices

    CERN Document Server

    Fung, Ying Sing; Du, Fuying; Guo, Wenpeng; Ma, Tongmei; Nie, Zhou; Sun, Hui; Wu, Ruige; Zhao, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) and microfluidic chip (MC) devices are relatively mature technologies, but this book demonstrates how they can be integrated into a single, revolutionary device that can provide on-site analysis of samples when laboratory services are unavailable. By introducing the combination of CE and MC technology, Microfluidic Chip-Capillary Electrophoresis Devices broadens the scope of chemical analysis, particularly in the biomedical, food, and environmental sciences. The book gives an overview of the development of MC and CE technology as well as technology that now allows for the fabrication of MC-CE devices. It describes the operating principles that make integration possible and illustrates some achievements already made by the application of MC-CE devices in hospitals, clinics, food safety, and environmental research. The authors envision further applications for private and public use once the proof-of-concept stage has been passed and obstacles to increased commercialization are ad...

  15. Demonstration of Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, RIchard; Tang, Linh; Wambolt, Spencer; Golliher, Eric; Agui, Juan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a proof of concept effort for development of a Nautilus Centripetal Capillary Condenser (NCCC or NC3) used for microgravity compatible water recovery from moist air with integral passive phase separation. Removal of liquid condensate from the air stream exiting a condenser is readily performed here on Earth. In order to perform this function in space however, without gravity or mechanical action, other tactics including utilization of inertial, drag and capillary forces are required. Within the NC3, liquid water forms via condensation on cold condenser surfaces as humid air passes along multiple spiral channels, each in its own plane, all together forming a stacked plate assembly. Non-mechanical inertial forces are employed to transfer condensate, as it forms, via centripetal action to the outer perimeter of each channel. A V-shaped groove, constructed on this outer edge of the spiral channel, increases local capillary forces thereby retaining the liquid. Air drag then pulls the liquid along to a collection region near the center of the device. Dry air produced by each parallel spiral channel is combined in a common orthogonal, out-of-plane conduit passing down the axial center of the stacked device. Similarly, the parallel condensate streams are combined and removed from the condenser/separator through yet another out-of-plane axial conduit. NC3 is an integration of conventional finned condenser operation, combined with static phase separation and capillary transport phenomena. A Mars' transit mission would be a logical application for this technology where gravity is absent and the use of vibrating, energy-intensive, motor-driven centrifugal separators is undesired. Here a vapor stream from either the Heat Melt Compactor or the Carbon dioxide Reduction Assembly, for example, would be dried to a dew point of 10 deg using a passive NC3 condenser/separator with the precious water condensate recycled to the water bus.

  16. Bacterial surface layer proteins as a novel capillary coating material for capillary electrophoretic separations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Gordaliza, Estefanía, E-mail: emorenog@ucm.es [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, 28040, Madrid (Spain); Stigter, Edwin C.A. [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands); Department of Molecular Cancer Research, Universitair Medisch Centrum Utrecht, Wilhelmina Kinder Ziekenhuis, Lundlaan 6, 3584, EA Utrecht (Netherlands); Lindenburg, Petrus W.; Hankemeier, Thomas [Division of Analytical Biosciences, Leiden Academic Centre for Drug Research, Universiteit Leiden, Einsteinweg 55, 2300, RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2016-06-07

    A novel concept for stable coating in capillary electrophoresis, based on recrystallization of surface layer proteins on hydrophobized fused silica capillaries, was demonstrated. Surface layer protein A (SlpA) from Lactobacillus acidophilus bacteria was extracted, purified and used for coating pre-silanized glass substrates presenting different surface wettabilities (either hydrophobic or hydrophilic). Contact angle determination on SlpA-coated hydrophobic silica slides showed that the surfaces turned to hydrophilic after coating (53 ± 5°), due to a protein monolayer formation by protein-surface hydrophobic interactions. Visualization by atomic force microscopy demonstrated the presence of a SlpA layer on methylated silica slides displaying a surface roughness of 0.44 ± 0.02 nm. Additionally, a protein layer was visualized by fluorescence microscopy in methylated silica capillaries coated with SlpA and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled. The SlpA-coating showed an outstanding stability, even after treatment with 20 mM NaOH (pH 12.3). The electroosmotic flow in coated capillaries showed a partial suppression at pH 7.50 (3.8 ± 0.5 10{sup −9} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}) when compared with unmodified fused silica (5.9 ± 0.1 10{sup −8} m{sup 2} V{sup −1} s{sup −1}). To demonstrate the potential of this novel coating, the SlpA-coated capillaries were applied for the first time for electrophoretic separation, and proved to be very suitable for the isotachophoretic separation of lipoproteins in human serum. The separations showed a high degree of repeatability (absolute migration times with 1.1–1.8% coefficient-of-variation (CV) within a day) and 2–3% CV inter-capillary reproducibility. The capillaries were stable for more than 100 runs at pH 9.40, and showed to be an exceptional alternative for challenging electrophoretic separations at long-term use. - Highlights: • New coating using recrystallized surface-layer proteins on

  17. Tunable Optical Tweezers for Wavelength-dependent Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    have been studied in an optical levitation scheme over short laser wavelength ranges20 and for dye-loaded di- electric particles.21 In the first case...M. Block, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 1066 (1996). 7K. Dholakia, W. M. Lee, L. Paterson, M. P. MacDonald, I. Andreev, P. Mthunzi, C. T. A...Brown, R. F. Marchington, and A. C. Riches, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 13, 1646 (2007). 8K. Dholakia, M. P. MacDonald, P. Zemanek, and T

  18. PROTECTIVE COATINGS OF FIBER BRAGG GRATING FOR MINIMIZING OF MECHANICAL IMPACT ON ITS WAVELENGTH CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Munko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the scheme for the study of the Bragg wavelength shift dependence on the applied tensile force. Samples of fiber Bragg gratings with different coatings have been studied: the restored acrylate coating, the heatshrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve without metal rod, the heat-shrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve with a metal rod, the metal capillary, polyvinylchloride tube. For different coatings of diffractive structure, dependences of wavelength shift for the Bragg grating resonance have been obtained on the tensile strength applied to the ends of an optical fiber. It was determined that the studied FBG coatings give the possibility to reduce the mechanical impact on the Bragg wavelength shift for 1.1-15 times as compared to an uncoated waveguide. The most effective version of coated fiber Bragg grating is the heatshrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve with a metal rod. When the force (equal to 6 N is applied to the 100 mm optical fiber area with the inscribed diffractive structure, the Bragg wavelength shift is 7.5 nm for the unprotected sample and 0.5 nm for the one coated with the heat-shrinkable fusion splice protection sleeve.

  19. Thermally stable dexsil-400 glass capillary columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskarinec, M.P.; Olerich, G.

    1980-01-01

    The factors affecting efficiency, thermal stability, and reproducibility of Dexsil-400 glass capillary columns for gas chromatography in general, and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particular were investigated. Columns were drawn from Kimble KG-6 (soda-lime) glass or Kimox (borosilicate) glass. All silylation was carried out at 200 0 C. Columns were coated according to the static method. Freshly prepared, degassed solutions of Dexsil-400 in pentane or methylene chloride were used. Thermal stability of the Dexsil 400 columns with respect to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) were tested. Column-to-column variability is a function of each step in the fabrication of the columns. The degree of etching, extent of silylation, and stationary phase film thickness must be carefully controlled. The variability in two Dexsil-400 capillary column prepared by etching, silylation with solution of hexa methyl disilazone (HMDS), and static coating is shown and also indicates the excellent selectivity of Dexsil-400 for the separation of alkylated aromatic compounds. The wide temperature range of Dexsil-400 and the high efficiency of the capillary columns also allow the analysis of complex mixtures with minimal prefractionation. Direct injection of a coal liquefaction product is given. Analysis by GC/MS indicated the presence of parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs, nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles, and their alkylated derivatives. 4 figures

  20. The order of condensation in capillary grooves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rascón, Carlos; Parry, Andrew O; Nürnberg, Robert; Pozzato, Alessandro; Tormen, Massimo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2013-01-01

    We consider capillary condensation in a deep groove of width L. The transition occurs at a pressure p co (L) described, for large widths, by the Kelvin equation p sat − p co (L) = 2σcosθ/L, where θ is the contact angle at the side walls and σ is the surface tension. The order of the transition is determined by the contact angle of the capped end θ cap ; it is continuous if the liquid completely wets the cap, and first-order otherwise. When the transition is first-order, corner menisci at the bottom of the capillary lead to a pronounced metastability, determined by a complementary Kelvin equation Δp(L) = 2σsinθ cap /L. On approaching the wetting temperature of the capillary cap, the corner menisci merge and a single meniscus unbinds from the bottom of the groove. Finite-size scaling shifts, crossover behaviour and critical singularities are determined at mean-field level and beyond. Numerical and experimental results showing the continuous nature of condensation for θ cap = 0 and the influence of corner menisci on adsorption isotherms are presented. (fast track communication)

  1. The order of condensation in capillary grooves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascón, Carlos; Parry, Andrew O; Nürnberg, Robert; Pozzato, Alessandro; Tormen, Massimo; Bruschi, Lorenzo; Mistura, Giampaolo

    2013-05-15

    We consider capillary condensation in a deep groove of width L. The transition occurs at a pressure p(co)(L) described, for large widths, by the Kelvin equation p(sat) - p(co)(L) = 2σ cosθ/L, where θ is the contact angle at the side walls and σ is the surface tension. The order of the transition is determined by the contact angle of the capped end θcap; it is continuous if the liquid completely wets the cap, and first-order otherwise. When the transition is first-order, corner menisci at the bottom of the capillary lead to a pronounced metastability, determined by a complementary Kelvin equation Δp(L) = 2σ sinθcap/L. On approaching the wetting temperature of the capillary cap, the corner menisci merge and a single meniscus unbinds from the bottom of the groove. Finite-size scaling shifts, crossover behaviour and critical singularities are determined at mean-field level and beyond. Numerical and experimental results showing the continuous nature of condensation for θcap = 0 and the influence of corner menisci on adsorption isotherms are presented.

  2. Capillary electrophoresis methods for microRNAs assays: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ban, Eunmi; Song, Eun Joo, E-mail: ejsong@kist.re.kr

    2014-12-10

    Highlights: • A review of CE analysis of miRNAs. • Summary of developments and applications of CE systems in miRNA studies. • Applications and development of microchip-based CE for rapid analysis of miRNA. - Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that conduct important roles in many cellular processes such as development, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In particular, circulating miRNAs have been proposed as biomarkers for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other illnesses. Therefore, determination of miRNA expression levels in various biofluids is important for the investigation of biological processes in health and disease and for discovering their potential as new biomarkers and drug targets. Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is emerging as a useful analytical tool for analyzing miRNA because of its simple sample preparation steps and efficient resolution of a diverse size range of compounds. In particular, CE with laser-induced fluorescence detection is a promising and relatively rapidly developing tool with the potential to provide high sensitivity and specificity in the analysis of miRNAs. This paper covers a short overview of the recent developments and applications of CE systems in miRNA studies in biological and biomedical areas.

  3. Modeling steady state SO2-dependent changes in capillary ATP concentration using novel O2 micro-delivery methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghonaim, Nour W.; Fraser, Graham M.; Ellis, Christopher G.; Yang, Jun; Goldman, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is known to be released from the erythrocyte in an oxygen (O2) dependent manner. Since ATP is a potent vasodilator, it is proposed to be a key regulator in the pathway that mediates micro-vascular response to varying tissue O2 demand. We propose that ATP signaling mainly originates in the capillaries due to the relatively long erythrocyte transit times in the capillary and the short ATP diffusion distance to the electrically coupled endothelium. We have developed a computational model to investigate the effect of delivering or removing O2 to limited areas at the surface of a tissue with an idealized parallel capillary array on total ATP concentration. Simulations were conducted when exposing full surface to perturbations in tissue O2 tension (PO2) or locally using a circular micro-outlet (~100 μm in diameter), a square micro-slit (200 × 200 μm), or a rectangular micro-slit (1000 μm wide × 200 μm long). Results indicated the rectangular micro-slit has the optimal dimensions for altering hemoglobin saturations (SO2) in sufficient number capillaries to generate effective changes in total [ATP]. This suggests a threshold for the minimum number of capillaries that need to be stimulated in vivo by imposed tissue hypoxia to induce a conducted micro-vascular response. SO2 and corresponding [ATP] changes were also modeled in a terminal arteriole (9 μm in diameter) that replaces 4 surface capillaries in the idealized network geometry. Based on the results, the contribution of terminal arterioles to the net change in [ATP] in the micro-vascular network is minimal although they would participate as O2 sources thus influencing the O2 distribution. The modeling data presented here provide important insights into designing a novel micro-delivery device for studying micro-vascular O2 regulation in the capillaries in vivo. PMID:24069001

  4. Proper Use of Capillary Number in Chemical Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Capillary number theory is very important for chemical flooding enhanced oil recovery. The difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one is easy to confuse. After decades of development, great progress has been made in capillary number theory and it has important but sometimes incorrect application in EOR. The capillary number theory was based on capillary tube bundles and Darcy’s law hypothesis, and this should always be kept in mind when used in chemical flooding EOR. The flow in low permeability porous media often shows obvious non-Darcy effects, which is beyond Darcy’s law. Experiments data from ASP flooding and SP flooding showed that remaining oil saturation was not always decreasing as capillary number kept on increasing. Relative permeability was proved function of capillary number; its rate dependence was affected by capillary end effects. The mobility control should be given priority rather than lowering IFT. The displacement efficiency was not increased as displacement velocity increased as expected in heavy oil chemical flooding. Largest capillary number does not always make highest recovery in chemical flooding in heterogeneous reservoir. Misuse of CDC in EOR included the ignorance of mobility ratio, Darcy linear flow hypothesis, difference between microscopic capillary number and the microscopic one, and heterogeneity caused flow regime alteration. Displacement of continuous oil or remobilization of discontinuous oil was quite different.

  5. Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.

  6. Experimental results from a large volume active target made of glass capillaries and liquid scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, P.; Buontempo, S.; Brunner, J.; De Jong, M.; Fabre, J.P.; Frenkel, A.; Galeazzi, F.; Golovkin, S.; Gregoire, G.; Hoepfner, K.; Konijn, J.; Kozarenko, E.; Kreslo, I.; Kushnirenko, A.; Martellotti, G.; Mazzoni, M.A.; Medvedkov, A.; Michel, L.; Mondardini, M.R.; Panman, J.; Penso, G.; Petukhov, Y.; Riccardi, F.; Siegmund, W.P.; Strack, R.; Tyukov, V.; Vasilchenko, V.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.; Winter, K.; Wong, H.; Zymin, K.

    1995-01-01

    We are investigating the feasibility of high-resolution tracking with an active target made of glass capillaries filled with organic liquid scintillator. This technique allows real time detection of short-lived particle decays. In this paper, we report on experimental results obtained from an active target having 2 x 2 cm 2 cross section and 180 cm length, installed in front of the CHORUS detector and exposed to the CERN Wide Band Neutrino Beam. The detector consists of 5.1 x 10 5 capillaries with 20 μm inner diameter, read out by a single optoelectronic chain and a Megapixel CCD. Details on tests in the neutrino beam will be reported. First neutrino interactions have been detected. (orig.)

  7. Effective long wavelength scalar dynamics in de Sitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moss, Ian; Rigopoulos, Gerasimos, E-mail: ian.moss@newcastle.ac.uk, E-mail: gerasimos.rigopoulos@ncl.ac.uk [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Herschel Building, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU U.K. (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-01

    We discuss the effective infrared theory governing a light scalar's long wavelength dynamics in de Sitter spacetime. We show how the separation of scales around the physical curvature radius k / a ∼ H can be performed consistently with a window function and how short wavelengths can be integrated out in the Schwinger-Keldysh path integral formalism. At leading order, and for time scales Δ t >> H {sup −1}, this results in the well-known Starobinsky stochastic evolution. However, our approach allows for the computation of quantum UV corrections, generating an effective potential on which the stochastic dynamics takes place. The long wavelength stochastic dynamical equations are now second order in time, incorporating temporal scales Δ t ∼ H {sup −1} and resulting in a Kramers equation for the probability distribution—more precisely the Wigner function—in contrast to the more usual Fokker-Planck equation. This feature allows us to non-perturbatively evaluate, within the stochastic formalism, not only expectation values of field correlators, but also the stress-energy tensor of φ.

  8. Evaluation of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz amd Pav. f. capillaris as biomonitor of atmospheric pollution in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pignata, M.L. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales]|[Instituto Multidisciplinario de Biologia Vegetal (IMBIV-UNC), Cordoba (Argentina); Wannaz, E.D.; Martinez, M.S.; Caminotti, G. [Univ. Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Fisicas y Naturales

    2002-07-01

    The behaviour of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz and Pav. f. capillaris, when exposed to atmospheric pollutants, was assessed by measuring chemical parameters indicating foliar damage and the contents of some heavy metals. Samples were transplanted to three sites in the City of Cordoba and were collected back after 15, 30, 60 and 90 days of exposure. At the same time, samples coming from the collection site were analyzed for each of said exposure times. Chlorophylls, hydroperoxy conjugated dienes, water contents, malondialdehyde, sulfur, Cu, Pb, Ni, Co, Mn, Zn and Fe were measured in the samples. A Foliar Damage Index was calculated from some of these parameters. (orig.)

  9. Capillary density: An important parameter in nailfold capillaroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrani, Zahra; Karbalaie, Abdolamir; Fatemi, Alimohammad; Etehadtavakol, Mahnaz; Erlandsson, Björn-Erik

    2017-01-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is one of the various noninvasive bioengineering methods used to investigate skin microcirculation. It is an effective examination for assessing microvascular changes in the peripheral circulation; hence it has a significant role for the diagnosis of Systemic sclerosis with the classic changes of giant capillaries as well as the decline in capillary density with capillary dropout. The decline in capillary density is one of microangiopathic features existing in connective tissue disease. It is detectable with nailfold capillaroscopy. This parameter is assessed by applying quantitative measurement. In this article, we reviewed a common method for calculating the capillary density and the relation between the number of capillaries as well as the existence of digital ulcers, pulmonary arterial hypertension, autoantibodies, scleroderma patterns and different scoring system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Multi-wavelength lasers using AWGs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besten, den J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Multiwavelength lasers using AWGs can be used as digitally tunable lasers with simple channel selection, and for generating multiple wavelengths simultanously. In this paper a number of different configurations is reviewed.

  11. Condensation and Evaporation Transitions in Deep Capillary Grooves

    OpenAIRE

    Malijevský, A. (Alexandr); Parry, A.O.

    2014-01-01

    We study the order of capillary condensation and evaporation transitions of a simple fluid adsorbed in a deep capillary groove using a fundamental measure density functional theory (DFT). The walls of the capillary interact with the fluid particles via long-ranged, dispersion, forces while the fluid-fluid interaction is modelled as a truncated Lennard-Jones-like potential. We find that below the wetting temperature $T_w$ condensation is first-order and evaporation is continuous with the metas...

  12. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharti, Vineet [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Wasan, Ajay [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Natarajan, Vasant [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-07-15

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch—near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers. - Highlights: • Wavelength mismatch effect is investigated in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). • An experimental realization of 4-level vee + ladder system using energy levels of rubidium atom is presented. • EIA resonances are studied under different conditions of wavelength mismatch. • Possibility of observation of EIA using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  13. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Vineet; Wasan, Ajay; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch—near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers. - Highlights: • Wavelength mismatch effect is investigated in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). • An experimental realization of 4-level vee + ladder system using energy levels of rubidium atom is presented. • EIA resonances are studied under different conditions of wavelength mismatch. • Possibility of observation of EIA using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  14. High Performance Wafer-Based Capillary Electrochromatography, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Phase II research comprises designing, constructing, and testing a chip-based capillary electrochromatography (CEC) prototype for separation and analysis of...

  15. Channeling of neutral particles in micro- and nano-capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabagov, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    After briefly reviewing the main directions in X-ray optics and analyzing the development of capillary optics, a general theory of radiation propagation through capillary structures is described in both geometrical optics and wave optics approximations. Analysis of radiation field structure inside a capillary waveguide shows that wave propagation in channels can be of a purely modal nature, with transmitted energy mostly concentrated in the immediate neighbourhood of capillary inner walls. A qualitative change in radiation scattering with decreasing channel diameter 0 namely, the transition from surface channeling in microcapillaries to bulk channeling in nanocapillaries - is discussed [ru

  16. Capillary-Condenser-Pumped Heat-Transfer Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Calvin C.

    1989-01-01

    Heat being transferred supplies operating power. Capillary-condenser-pumped heat-transfer loop similar to heat pipe and to capillary-evaporator-pumped heat-transfer loop in that heat-transfer fluid pumped by evaporation and condensation of fluid at heat source and sink, respectively. Capillary condenser pump combined with capillary evaporator pump to form heat exchanger circulating heat-transfer fluids in both loops. Transport of heat more nearly isothermal. Thermal stress in loop reduced, and less external surface area needed in condenser section for rejection of heat to heat sink.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute: How the Heart Works National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Arteriovenous Malformation Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Arteriovenous Malformation Boston Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformation ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Stroke: Epilepsy Information Page National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke: Microcephaly Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Capillary Malformation Boston Children's Hospital: Microcephaly Centers ...

  19. Modelization and simulation of capillary barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisbona Cortes, F.; Aguilar Villa, G.; Clavero Gracia, C.; Gracia Lozano, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Among the different underground transport phenomena, that due to water flows is of great relevance. Water flows in infiltration and percolation processes are responsible of the transport of hazardous wastes towards phreatic layers. From the industrial and geological standpoints, there is a great interest in the design of natural devices to avoid the flows transporting polluting substances. This interest is increased when devices are used to isolate radioactive waste repositories, whose life is to be longer than several hundred years. The so-called natural devices are those based on the superimposition of material with different hydraulic properties. In particular, the flow retention in this kind stratified media, in unsaturated conditions, is basically due to the capillary barrier effect, resulting from placing a low conductivity material over another with a high hydraulic conductivity. Covers designed from the effect above have also to allow a drainage of the upper layer. The lower cost of these covers, with respect to other kinds of protection systems, and the stability in time of their components make them very attractive. However, a previous investigation to determine their effectivity is required. In this report we present the computer code BCSIM, useful for easy simulations of unsaturated flows in a capillary barrier configuration with drainage, and which is intended to serve as a tool for designing efficient covers. The model, the numerical algorithm and several implementation aspects are described. Results obtained in several simulations, confirming the effectivity of capillary barriers as a technique to build safety covers for hazardous waste repositories, are presented. (Author)

  20. Capillary Flow of Liquid Metals in Brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehsara, Mohammad

    Capillary flow is driven or controlled by capillary forces, exerted at the triple line where the fluid phases meet the solid boundary. Phase field (PF) models naturally accommodate diffusive triple line motion with variable contact angle, thus allowing for the no-slip boundary condition without the stress singularities. Moreover, they are uniquely suited for modeling of topological discontinuities which often arise during capillary flows. In this study, we consider diffusive triple line motion within two PF models: the compositionally compressible (CC) and the incompressible (IC) models. We derive the IC model as a systematic approximation to the CC model, based on a suitable choice of continuum velocity field. The CC model, applied to the fluids of dissimilar mass densities, exhibits a computational instability at the triple line. The IC model perfectly represents the analytic equilibria. We develop the parameter identification procedure and show that the triple line kinetics can be well represented by the IC model's diffusive boundary condition. The IC model is first tested by benchmarking the phase-field and experimental kinetics of water, and silicone oil spreading over the glass plates in which two systems do not interact with the substrate. Then, two high-temperature physical settings involving spreading of the molten Al-Si alloy: one over a rough wetting substrate, the other over a non-wetting substrate are modeled in a T-joint structure which is a typical geometric configuration for many brazing and soldering applications. Surface roughness directly influences the spreading of the molten metal by causing break-ups of the liquid film and trapping the liquid away from the joint. In the early stages of capillary flow over non-wetting surface, the melting and flow are concurrent, so that the kinetics of wetting is strongly affected by the variations in effective viscosity of the partially molten metal. We define adequate time-dependent functions for the

  1. Capillary Thinning of Particle-laden Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Brayden; Thete, Sumeet; Jahns, Matt; Doshi, Pankaj; Basaran, Osman

    2015-11-01

    Drop formation is central in many applications such as ink-jet printing, microfluidic devices, and atomization. During drop formation, a thinning filament is created between the about-to-form drop and the fluid hanging from the nozzle. Therefore, the physics of capillary thinning of filaments is key to understanding drop formation and has been thoroughly studied for pure Newtonian fluids. The thinning dynamics is, however, altered completely when the fluid contains particles, the physics of which is not well understood. In this work, we explore the impact of solid particles on filament thinning and drop formation by using a combination of experiments and numerical simulations.

  2. Paramecium swimming in a capillary tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Saikat; Jung, Sunghwan

    2010-03-01

    Micro-organisms exhibit different strategies for swimming in complex environments. Many micro-swimmers such as paramecium congregate and tend to live near wall. We investigate how paramecium moves in a confined space as compared to its motion in an unbounded fluid. A new theoretical model based on Taylor's sheet is developed, to study such boundary effects. In experiments, paramecia are put inside capillary tubes and their swimming behavior is observed. The data obtained from experiments is used to test the validity of our theoretical model and understand how the cilia influence the locomotion of paramecia in confined geometries.

  3. Sapphire capillary interstitial irradiators for laser medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikunova, I. A.; Dolganova, I. N.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Mukhina, E. E.; Zaytsev, K. I.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate instruments for laser radiation delivery based on sapphire capillary needles. Such sapphire irradiators (introducers) can be used for various medical applications, such as photodynamic therapy, laser hyperthermia, laser interstitial thermal therapy, and ablation of tumors of various organs. Unique properties of sapphire allow for effective redistribution of the heat, generated in biological tissues during their exposure to laser radiation. This leads to homogeneous distribution of the laser irradiation around the needle, and lower possibility of formation of the overheating focuses, as well as the following non-transparent thrombi.

  4. Dynamics of capillary condensation in aerogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, R; Miyashita, W; Yoneyama, K; Okuda, Y

    2006-03-01

    Dynamics of capillary condensation of liquid 4He in various density silica aerogels was investigated systematically. Interfaces were clearly visible when bulk liquid was rapidly sucked into the aerogel. Time evolution of the interface positions was consistent with the Washburn model and their effective pore radii were obtained. Condensation was a single step in a dense aerogel and two steps in a low density aerogel. Crossover between the two types of condensation was observed in an intermediate density aerogel. Variety of the dynamics may be the manifestation of the fractal nature of aerogels which had a wide range of distribution of pore radii.

  5. Modulation of capillary condensation by trace component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqi Zhou

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact of trace component on capillary condensation (CC is investigated systematically using a classical density functional theory. It is discovered that (i presence of the trace component makes the CC to occur at much lower condensation pressure than when its absence; (ii Lennard-Jones potential parameters like size parameter and energy parameter of the trace component, and its concentration in the bulk adsorption system, show their effects the most remarkably within a particular range beyond which the effects eventually become insignificant. The present discoveries have implications in low pressure storage of gases, separation and enrichment of low concentration component, and easy control of CC transition, etc.

  6. Gravimetric capillary method for kinematic viscosity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberger, Franz; Iwan, J.; Alexander, D.; Jin, Wei-Qing

    1992-01-01

    A novel version of the capillary method for viscosity measurements of liquids is presented. Viscosity data can be deduced in a straightforward way from mass transfer data obtained by differential weighing during the gravity-induced flow of the liquid between two cylindrical chambers. Tests of this technique with water, carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol suggest that this arrangement provides an accuracy of about +/- 1 percent. The technique facilitates operation under sealed, isothermal conditions and, thus can readily be applied to reactive and/or high vapor pressure liquids.

  7. An automated quasi-continuous capillary refill timing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaxter, L L; Morris, D E; Crowe, J A; Hayes-Gill, B R; Henry, C; Hill, S; Sharkey, D; Vyas, H

    2016-01-01

    Capillary refill time (CRT) is a simple means of cardiovascular assessment which is widely used in clinical care. Currently, CRT is measured through manual assessment of the time taken for skin tone to return to normal colour following blanching of the skin surface. There is evidence to suggest that manually assessed CRT is subject to bias from ambient light conditions, a lack of standardisation of both blanching time and manually applied pressure, subjectiveness of return to normal colour, and variability in the manual assessment of time. We present a novel automated system for CRT measurement, incorporating three components: a non-invasive adhesive sensor incorporating a pneumatic actuator, a diffuse multi-wavelength reflectance measurement device, and a temperature sensor; a battery operated datalogger unit containing a self contained pneumatic supply; and PC based data analysis software for the extraction of refill time, patient skin surface temperature, and sensor signal quality. Through standardisation of the test, it is hoped that some of the shortcomings of manual CRT can be overcome. In addition, an automated system will facilitate easier integration of CRT into electronic record keeping and clinical monitoring or scoring systems, as well as reducing demands on clinicians. Summary analysis of volunteer (n  =  30) automated CRT datasets are presented, from 15 healthy adults and 15 healthy children (aged from 5 to 15 years), as their arms were cooled from ambient temperature to 5°C. A more detailed analysis of two typical datasets is also presented, demonstrating that the response of automated CRT to cooling matches that of previously published studies. (paper)

  8. Capillary electrophoresis in a fused-silica capillary with surface roughness gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Karásek, Pavel; Růžička, F.; Šalplachta, Jiří; Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 19 (2016), s. 3827-3834 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * supercritical water * surface roughness gradient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  9. Capillary electrophoresis in a fused-silica capillary with surface roughness gradient

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horká, Marie; Šlais, Karel; Karásek, Pavel; Růžička, F.; Šalplachta, Jiří; Šesták, Jozef; Kahle, Vladislav; Roth, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 19 (2016), s. 3827-3834 ISSN 1615-9306 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03749S; GA MZd(CZ) NV16-29916A Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : capillary electrophoresis * supercritical water * surface roughness gradient Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.557, year: 2016

  10. Open tubular capillary column for the separation of cytochrome C tryptic digest in capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Faiz; Cheong, Won Jo

    2015-10-01

    A silica capillary of 50 μm internal diameter and 500 mm length (416 mm effective length) was chemically modified with 4-(trifluoromethoxy) phenyl isocyanate in the presence of dibutyl tin dichloride as catalyst. Sodium diethyl dithiocarbamate was reacted with the terminal halogen of the bound ligand to incorporate the initiator moiety, and in situ polymerization was performed using a monomer mixture of styrene, N-phenylacrylamide, and methacrylic acid. The resultant open tubular capillary column immobilized with the copolymer layer was used for the separation of tryptic digest of cytochrome C in capillary electrochromatography. The sample was well eluted and separated into many components. The elution patterns of tryptic digest of cytochrome C were studied with respect to pH and water content in the mobile phase. This preliminary study demonstrates that open tubular capillary electrochromatography columns with a modified copolymer layer composed of proper nonpolar and polar units fabricated by reversible addition-fragmentation transfer polymerization can be useful as separation media for proteomic analysis. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Electro-capillary effects in capillary filling dynamics of electrorheological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Jayabrata; Ghosh, Uddipta; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-09-21

    The flow of electrorheological fluids is characterized by an apparent increase in viscosity manifested by the yield stress property of the fluid, which is a function of the applied electric field and the concentration of the suspended solute phase within the dielectric medium. This property of electrorheological fluids generally hinders flow through a capillary if the imposed shear stress is lower than the induced yield stress. This results in a plug-like zone in the flow profile, thus giving the fluid Bingham plastic properties. In the present work, we study such influences of the yield stress on the capillary filling dynamics of an electrorheological fluid by employing a rheologically consistent reduced order formalism. One important feature of the theoretical formalism is its ability to address the intricate interplay between the surface tension and viscous forces, both of which depend sensitively on the electric field. Our analysis reveals that the progress of the capillary front is hindered at an intermediate temporal regime, which is attributable to the increase of the span of the plug-zone across the channel width with time. With a preliminary understanding on the cessation of the capillary front advancement due to the yield stress property of the electrorheological fluids, we further strive to achieve a basic comparison with an experimental study made earlier. Reasonable agreements with the reported data support our theoretical framework. Comprehensive scaling analysis brings further insight to our reported observations over various temporal regimes.

  12. A 12 GHz wavelength spacing multi-wavelength laser source for wireless communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, P. C.; Shiu, R. K.; Bitew, M. A.; Chang, T. L.; Lai, C. H.; Junior, J. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a multi-wavelength laser source with 12 GHz wavelength spacing based on a single distributed feedback laser. A light wave generated from the distributed feedback laser is fed into a frequency shifter loop consisting of 50:50 coupler, dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator, optical amplifier, optical filter, and polarization controller. The frequency of the input wavelength is shifted and then re-injected into the frequency shifter loop. By re-injecting the shifted wavelengths multiple times, we have generated 84 optical carriers with 12 GHz wavelength spacing and stable output power. For each channel, two wavelengths are modulated by a wireless data using the phase modulator and transmitted through a 25 km single mode fiber. In contrast to previously developed schemes, the proposed laser source does not incur DC bias drift problem. Moreover, it is a good candidate for radio-over-fiber systems to support multiple users using a single distributed feedback laser.

  13. Reliability of widefield capillary microscopy to measure nailfold capillary density in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, M; Masetto, A; Steele, R; Arthurs, E; Baron, M

    2010-01-01

    To determine intra- and inter-observer reliability of widefield microscopy to measure nailfold capillary density in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Five SSc patients were examined with a STEMV-8 Zeiss biomicroscope with 50x magnification. The nailfold of the second, third, fourth and fifth fingers of both hands of each patient were photographed twice by each of two observers, once in the morning and again in the afternoon (total of 32 pictures). Two raters reviewed the photographs to produce capillary density readings. Intra- and inter-rater reliability of the readings were computed using intra-class correlations (ICC). Additional analyses were undertaken to determine the impact of other sources of variability in the data, namely patient, finger, technician and time. Intra-and inter-rater reliability were substantial (ICC 0.72-0.84) when raters were reading the same photographs or photographs taken at the same time of day. Agreement was only fair between morning and afternoon density readings (ICC 0.30-0.37). Patients, individual fingers and technician accounted for a large part of the variability in the data (combined variance component of 7.69 out of the total 12.23). The coefficient of variation of widefield microscopy was 24%. Although intra- and inter-rater reliability of nailfold capillary density measurements using widefield microscopy are good, proper standardisation of the conditions under which capillaroscopy is done and better imaging of nailfold capillary abnormalities should be considered if nailfold capillary density is to be used as an outcome measure in multi-centre clinical trials in SSc.

  14. Wavelength converter placement for different RWA algorithms in wavelength-routed all-optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiaowen; Li, Bo; Chlamtac, Imrich

    2002-07-01

    Sparse wavelength conversion and appropriate routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) algorithms are the two key factors in improving the blocking performance in wavelength-routed all-optical networks. It has been shown that the optimal placement of a limited number of wavelength converters in an arbitrary mesh network is an NP complete problem. There have been various heuristic algorithms proposed in the literature, in which most of them assume that a static routing and random wavelength assignment RWA algorithm is employed. However, the existing work shows that fixed-alternate routing and dynamic routing RWA algorithms can achieve much better blocking performance. Our study in this paper further demonstrates that the wavelength converter placement and RWA algorithms are closely related in the sense that a well designed wavelength converter placement mechanism for a particular RWA algorithm might not work well with a different RWA algorithm. Therefore, the wavelength converter placement and the RWA have to be considered jointly. The objective of this paper is to investigate the wavelength converter placement problem under fixed-alternate routing algorithm and least-loaded routing algorithm. Under the fixed-alternate routing algorithm, we propose a heuristic algorithm called Minimum Blocking Probability First (MBPF) algorithm for wavelength converter placement. Under the least-loaded routing algorithm, we propose a heuristic converter placement algorithm called Weighted Maximum Segment Length (WMSL) algorithm. The objective of the converter placement algorithm is to minimize the overall blocking probability. Extensive simulation studies have been carried out over three typical mesh networks, including the 14-node NSFNET, 19-node EON and 38-node CTNET. We observe that the proposed algorithms not only outperform existing wavelength converter placement algorithms by a large margin, but they also can achieve almost the same performance comparing with full wavelength

  15. Integrated refractive index optical ring resonator detector for capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; White, Ian M; Suter, Jonathan D; Zourob, Mohammed; Fan, Xudong

    2007-02-01

    We developed a novel miniaturized and multiplexed, on-capillary, refractive index (RI) detector using liquid core optical ring resonators (LCORRs) for future development of capillary electrophoresis (CE) devices. The LCORR employs a glass capillary with a diameter of approximately 100 mum and a wall thickness of a few micrometers. The circular cross section of the capillary forms a ring resonator along which the light circulates in the form of the whispering gallery modes (WGMs). The WGM has an evanescent field extending into the capillary core and responds to the RI change due to the analyte conducted in the capillary, thus permitting label-free measurement. The resonating nature of the WGM enables repetitive light-analyte interaction, significantly enhancing the LCORR sensitivity. This LCORR architecture achieves dual use of the capillary as a sensor head and a CE fluidic channel, allowing for integrated, multiplexed, and noninvasive on-capillary detection at any location along the capillary. In this work, we used electro-osmotic flow and glycerol as a model system to demonstrate the fluid transport capability of the LCORRs. In addition, we performed flow speed measurement on the LCORR to demonstrate its flow analysis capability. Finally, using the LCORR's label-free sensing mechanism, we accurately deduced the analyte concentration in real time at a given point on the capillary. A sensitivity of 20 nm/RIU (refractive index units) was observed, leading to an RI detection limit of 10-6 RIU. The LCORR marries photonic technology with microfluidics and enables rapid on-capillary sample analysis and flow profile monitoring. The investigation in this regard will open a door to novel high-throughput CE devices and lab-on-a-chip sensors in the future.

  16. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  17. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  18. Capillary discharge sources of hard UV radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cachoncinlle, C; Dussart, R; Robert, E; Goetze, S; Pons, J; Mohanty, S R; Viladrosa, R; Fleurier, C; Pouvesle, J M

    2002-01-01

    We developed and studied three different extreme ultraviolet (EUV) capillary discharge sources either dedicated to the generation of coherent or incoherent EUV radiation. The CAPELLA source has been developed especially as an EUV source for the metrology at 13.4 nm. With one of these sources, we were able to produce gain on the Balmer-Hα (18.22 nm) and Hβ (13.46 nm) spectral lines in carbon plasma. By injecting 70 GW cm -3 we measured gain-length products up to 1.62 and 3.02 for the Hα and Hβ, respectively optimization of the EUV capillary source CAPELLA led to the development of an EUV lamp which emits 2 mJ in the bandwidth of the MoSi mirror, per joule stored, per shot and in full solid angle. The wall-plug efficiency is 0.2%. Stability of this lamp is better than 4% and the lamp can operate at repetition rate of 50 Hz

  19. Vesicle dynamics in shear and capillary flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Hiroshi; Gompper, Gerhard

    2005-01-01

    The deformation of vesicles in flow is studied by a mesoscopic simulation technique, which combines multi-particle collision dynamics for the solvent with a dynamically triangulated surface model for the membrane. Shape transitions are investigated both in simple shear flows and in cylindrical capillary flows. We focus on reduced volumes, where the discocyte shape of fluid vesicles is stable, and the prolate shape is metastable. In simple shear flow at low membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from discocyte to prolate with increasing shear rate, while at high membrane viscosity, the shear induces a transformation from prolate to discocyte, or tumbling motion accompanied by oscillations between these two morphologies. In capillary flow, at small flow velocities the symmetry axis of the discocyte is found not to be oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis. With increasing flow velocity, a transition to a prolate shape occurs for fluid vesicles, while vesicles with shear-elastic membranes (like red blood cells) transform into a coaxial parachute-like shape

  20. Quantitative analysis by microchip capillary electrophoresis – current limitations and problem-solving strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revermann, T.; Götz, S.; Künnemeyer, Jens; Karst, U.

    2008-01-01

    Obstacles and possible solutions for the application of microchip capillary electrophoresis in quantitative analysis are described and critically discussed. Differences between the phenomena occurring during conventional capillary electrophoresis and microchip-based capillary electrophoresis are

  1. Heterogeneity of capillary spacing in the hypertrophied plantaris muscle from young-adult and old rats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degens, H.; Morse, C.I.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2009-01-01

    Heterogeneity of capillary spacing may affect tissue oxygenation. The determinants of heterogeneity of capillary spacing are, however, unknown. To investigate whether 1) impaired angiogenesis and increased heterogeneity of capillary spacing delays development of hypertrophy during aging and 2)

  2. Dopamine-imprinted monolithic column for capillary electrochromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aşır, Süleyman; Sarı, Duygu; Derazshamshir, Ali; Yılmaz, Fatma; Şarkaya, Koray; Denizli, Adil

    2017-11-01

    A dopamine-imprinted monolithic column was prepared and used in capillary electrochromatography as stationary phase for the first time. Dopamine was selectively separated from aqueous solution containing the competitor molecule norepinephrine, which is similar in size and shape to the template molecule. Morphology of the dopamine-imprinted column was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The influence of the organic solvent content of mobile phase, applied pressure and pH of the mobile phase on the recognition of dopamine by the imprinted monolithic column has been evaluated, and the imprinting effect in the dopamine-imprinted monolithic polymer was verified. Developed dopamine-imprinted monolithic column resulted in excellent separation of dopamine from structurally related competitor molecule, norepinephrine. Separation was achieved in a short period of 10 min, with the electrophoretic mobility of 5.81 × 10 -5  m 2 V -1 s -1 at pH 5.0 and 500 mbar pressure. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Neutral hydrophilic coatings for capillary electrophoresis prepared by controlled radical polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Fabián H.; Gómez, Jorge E.; Espinal, José H.; Sandoval, Junior E., E-mail: junior.sandoval@correounivalle.edu.co

    2016-12-15

    In the present study, porous silica particles as well as impervious fused-silica wafers and capillary tubes were modified with hydrophilic polymers (hydroxylated polyacrylamides and polyacrylates), using a surface-confined grafting procedure based on atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) which was also surface-initiated from α-bromoisobutyryl groups. Initiator immobilization was achieved by hydrosilylation of allyl alcohol on hydride silica followed by esterification of the resulting propanol-bonded surface with α-bromoisobutyryl bromide. Elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopies on silica micro-particles, atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and profilometry on fused-silica wafers, as well as CE on fused-silica tubes were used to characterize the chemically modified silica substrate at different stages. We studied the effect of monomer concentration as well as cross-linker on the ability of the polymer film to reduce electroosmosis and to prevent protein adsorption (i. e., its non-fouling capabilities) and found that the former was rather insensitive to both parameters. Surface deactivation towards adsorption was somewhat more susceptible to monomer concentration and appeared also to be favored by a low concentration of the cross-linker. The results show that hydrophilic polyacrylamide and polyacrylate coatings of controlled thickness can be prepared by ATRP under very mild polymerization conditions (aqueous solvent, room temperature and short reaction times) and that the coated capillary tubes exhibit high efficiencies for protein separations (0.3–0.6 million theoretical plates per meter) as well as long-term hydrolytic stability under the inherently harsh conditions of capillary isoelectric focusing. Additionally, there was no adsorption of lysozyme on the coated surface as indicated by a complete recovery of the basic enzyme. Furthermore, since polymerization is confined to the inner capillary surface, simple precautions (e.g., solution

  4. Isotherms of Capillary Condensation Influenced by Formation of Adsorption Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churaev; Starke; Adolphs

    2000-01-15

    Isotherms of capillary condensation are often used to determine the vapor sorption capacity of porous adsorbents as well as the pore size distribution by radii. In this paper, for calculating the volume of capillary condensate and of adsorption films in a porous body, an approach based on the theory of surface forces is used. Adsorption isotherms and disjoining pressure isotherms of wetting films are presented here in an exponential form discussed earlier. The calculations were made for straight cylindrical capillaries of different radii and slit pores of different width. The mechanisms of capillary condensation differ in cylindrical and slit pores. In cylindrical pores capillary condensation occurs due to capillary instability of curved wetting films on a capillary surface, when film thickness grows. In the case of slit pores, coalescence of wetting films formed on opposite slit surfaces proceeds under the action of attractive dispersion forces. Partial volumes of liquid in the state of both capillary condensate and adsorbed films are calculated dependent on the relative vapor pressure in a surrounding media. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  5. The profile of a capillary liquid bridge between solid surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Honschoten, J.W.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2010-01-01

    Scanning force microscopy, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) is complicated by the capillary force of a water meniscus formed in air between the probe tip and the sample. This small liquid bridge between the hydrophilic sample and the sharp AFM tip can be formed by capillary condensation from

  6. Capillary condensation in porous alumina observed by positronium lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Eugeniu; Vata, Ion; Toderian, Stefan; Dudu, Dorin; Rusen, Ion; Stefan, Nitisor

    2008-01-01

    The PALS method based on time distribution measurements has been used to study capillary condensation of different gases adsorbed in microporous alumina powder. The isotherms exhibit features which are associated with a shifted gas-liquid transition. The sorption and desorption processes are irreversible presenting a hysteresis effect. Suggestions on some new aspects of the capillary condensation dynamics are made

  7. Capillary filling of miniaturized sources for electrospray mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arscott, Steve; Gaudet, Matthieu; Brinkmann, Martin; Ashcroft, Alison E; Blossey, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Capillary slot-based emitter tips are a novel tool for use in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of large biomolecules. We have performed a combined theoretical and experimental study of capillary filling in micron-sized slots with the aim of developing a rational design procedure for miniaturized electrospray sources, ultimately enabling the integration of ESI into laboratory-on-a-chip devices

  8. Potential of capillary electrophoresis for the profiling of propolis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.J; Somsen, G.W; de Jong, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    The usefulness of capillary electrophoresis (CE) with diode array detection for the profiling of Propolis, a hive product, is investigated. Water extracts of Propolis were analyzed with both capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) at pH 7.0 and 9.3, and micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC)

  9. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section 864.6150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6150 Capillary...

  10. First report of microcephaly-capillary malformations syndrome in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Microcephaly-capillary malformation (MIC-CAP) syndrome is a newly described autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by microcephaly, multiple cutaneous capillary malformations, intractable epilepsy and profound developmental delay. We present the first description of MIC-CAP syndrome in Russia.

  11. Thermodynamics of Capillary Rise: Why Is the Meniscus Curved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Ulf; Eriksson, Jan Christer

    2004-01-01

    The thermodynamics of capillary rise is explained as the gravitational elevation of the whole column of liquid caused by the positive connection between the liquid, and the solid wall of the capillary tube. The curvature of the meniscus is ascribed to the maintenance of a physiochemical balance throughout the gravitational column of liquid.

  12. Geometry Effects of Capillary on the Evaporation from the Meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Choong Hyo; Jin, Song Wan; Yoo, Jung Yul

    2007-01-01

    The effect of capillary cross-section geometry on evaporation is investigated in terms of the meniscus shape, evaporation rate and evaporation-induced flow for circular, square and rectangular cross-sectional capillaries. The shapes of water and ethanol menisci are not much different from each other in square and rectangular capillaries even though the surface tension of water is much larger than that of ethanol. On the other hand, the shapes of water and ethanol menisci are very different from each other in circular capillary. The averaged evaporation fluxes in circular and rectangular capillaries are measured by tracking the meniscus position. At a given position, the averaged evaporation flux in rectangular capillaries in much larger than that in circular capillary with comparable hydraulic diameter. The flow near the evaporating meniscus is also measured using micro-PIV, so that the rotating vortex motion is observed near the evaporating ethanol and methanol menisci except for the case of methanol meniscus in rectangular capillary. This difference is considered to be due to the existence of corner menisci at the four corners

  13. Artificial light pollution: Shifting spectral wavelengths to mitigate physiological and health consequences in a nocturnal marsupial mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimovski, Alicia M; Robert, Kylie A

    2018-05-02

    The focus of sustainable lighting tends to be on reduced CO 2 emissions and cost savings, but not on the wider environmental effects. Ironically, the introduction of energy-efficient lighting, such as light emitting diodes (LEDs), may be having a great impact on the health of wildlife. These white LEDs are generated with a high content of short-wavelength 'blue' light. While light of any kind can suppress melatonin and the physiological processes it regulates, these short wavelengths are potent suppressors of melatonin. Here, we manipulated the spectral composition of LED lights and tested their capacity to mitigate the physiological and health consequences associated with their use. We experimentally investigated the impact of white LEDs (peak wavelength 448 nm; mean irradiance 2.87 W/m 2 ), long-wavelength shifted amber LEDs (peak wavelength 605 nm; mean irradiance 2.00 W/m 2 ), and no lighting (irradiance from sky glow light treatments. White LED exposed wallabies had significantly suppressed nocturnal melatonin compared to no light and amber LED exposed wallabies, while there was no difference in lipid peroxidation. Antioxidant capacity declined from baseline to week 10 under all treatments. These results provide further evidence that short-wavelength light at night is a potent suppressor of nocturnal melatonin. Importantly, we also illustrate that shifting the spectral output to longer wavelengths could mitigate these negative physiological impacts. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Paper Capillary Enables Effective Sampling for Microfluidic Paper Analytical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shangguan, Jin-Wen; Liu, Yu; Wang, Sha; Hou, Yun-Xuan; Xu, Bi-Yi; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2018-06-06

    Paper capillary is introduced to enable effective sampling on microfluidic paper analytical devices. By coupling mac-roscale capillary force of paper capillary and microscale capillary forces of native paper, fluid transport can be flexibly tailored with proper design. Subsequently, a hybrid-fluid-mode paper capillary device was proposed, which enables fast and reliable sampling in an arrayed form, with less surface adsorption and bias for different components. The resulting device thus well supports high throughput, quantitative, and repeatable assays all by hands operation. With all these merits, multiplex analysis of ions, proteins, and microbe have all been realized on this platform, which has paved the way to level-up analysis on μPADs.

  15. Capillary array electrophoresis using laser-excited confocal fluorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, X.C.; Quesada, M.A.; Mathies, R.A. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-04-15

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) has found widespread application in analytical and biomedical research, and the scope and sophistication of CE is still rapidly advancing. Gel-filled capillaries have been employed for the rapid separation and analysis of synthetic polynucleotides, DNA sequencing fragments, and DNA restriction fragments. Open-tube capillary electrophoresis has attained subattomole detection levels in amino acid separations 14 and proven its utility for the separation of proteins, viruses, and bacteria. Separation of the optical isomers of dansyl amino acids has also been successfully demonstrated. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, isoelectric focusing, and on-column derivatization can all be performed on CE columns, demonstrating the utility of capillary electrophoresis as an analytical and micropreparative tool. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. A macrothermodynamic approach to the limit of reversible capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trens, Philippe; Tanchoux, Nathalie; Galarneau, Anne; Brunel, Daniel; Fubini, Bice; Garrone, Edoardo; Fajula, François; Di Renzo, Francesco

    2005-08-30

    The threshold of reversible capillary condensation is a well-defined thermodynamic property, as evidenced by corresponding states treatment of literature and experimental data on the lowest closure point of the hysteresis loop in capillary condensation-evaporation cycles for several adsorbates. The nonhysteretical filling of small mesopores presents the properties of a first-order phase transition, confirming that the limit of condensation reversibility does not coincide with the pore critical point. The enthalpy of reversible capillary condensation can be calculated by a Clausius-Clapeyron approach and is consistently larger than the condensation heat in unconfined conditions. Calorimetric data on the capillary condensation of tert-butyl alcohol in MCM-41 silica confirm a 20% increase of condensation heat in small mesopores. This enthalpic advantage makes easier the overcoming of the adhesion forces by the capillary forces and justifies the disappearing of the hysteresis loop.

  17. Generalized polymer effective charge measurement by capillary isotachophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamieh, Joseph; Koval, Dušan; Besson, Adeline; Kašička, Václav; Cottet, Hervé

    2014-11-28

    In this work, we have generalized the use of capillary isotachophoresis as a universal method for determination of effective charge of anionic and cationic (co)polymers on ordinary capillary electrophoresis instruments. This method is applicable to a broad range of strong or weak polyelectrolytes with good repeatability. Experimental parameters (components and concentrations of leading and terminating electrolytes, capillary diameters, constant electric current intensity) were optimized for implementation in 100 μm i.d. capillaries for both polyanions and polycations. Determined values of polymer effective charge were in a very good agreement with those obtained by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection. Uncertainty of the effective charge measurement using isotachophoresis was addressed and estimated to be ∼5-10% for solutes with mobilities in the 20-50 × 10(-9)m(2)V(-1)s(-1) range. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Capillary condensation in atomic scale friction: how water acts like a glue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinesh, K B; Frenken, J W M

    2006-04-28

    We present atomic-scale friction force measurements that strongly suggest that the capillary condensation of water between a tungsten tip and a graphite surface leads to the formation of ice at room temperature. This phenomenon increases the friction force, introduces a short-term memory in the form of an elastic response against shearing, and allows us to "write" a temporary line of ice on a hydrophobic surface. Rearrangements of the condensate are shown to take place on a surprisingly slow time scale of seconds.

  19. Capillary condensation in pores with rough walls: a density functional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, P; Rzysko, W; Malijevsky, Al; Sokołowski, S

    2007-09-01

    The effect of surface roughness of slit-like pore walls on the capillary condensation of a spherical particles and short chains is studied. The gas molecules interact with the substrate by a Lennard-Jones (9,3) potential. The rough layer at each pore wall has a variable thickness and density and consists of a disordered quenched matrix of spherical particles. The system is described in the framework of a density functional approach and using computer simulations. The contribution due to attractive van der Waals interactions between adsorbate molecules is described by using first-order mean spherical approximation and mean-field approximation.

  20. Wavelength division multiplexing a practical engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Grobe, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In this book, Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is approached from a strictly practical and application-oriented point of view. Based on the characteristics and constraints of modern fiber-optic components, transport systems and fibers, the text provides relevant rules of thumb and practical hints for technology selection, WDM system and link dimensioning, and also for network-related aspects such as wavelength assignment and resilience mechanisms. Actual 10/40 Gb/s WDM systems are considered, and a preview of the upcoming 100 Gb/s systems and technologies for even higher bit rate

  1. Wavelength dependence of superhumps in VW Hyi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amerongen, S. van; Bovenschen, H.; Paradijs, J. van

    1987-01-01

    Results are presented of five-colour photometric observations of the SU UMa system VW Hyi, made on six nights during the November 1984 superoutburst. The light curve is dominated by superhump variations, whose amplitude in all passbands decreases with time (in the V-band from 0.16 mag about 4.5 day after the superoutburst reached maximum brightness, to 0.10 mag about 5 day later). The superhump light curve depends strongly on wavelength. In particular it appears that the light curves in different passbands are mutually shifted: the larger the wavelength, the more the light curve is delayed. (author)

  2. Laser-induced capillary leakage for blood biomarker detection and vaccine delivery via the skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jeffrey H; Li, Bo; Wu, Mei X

    2016-07-01

    Circulation system is the center for coordination and communication of all organs in our body. Examination of any change in its analytes or delivery of therapeutic drugs into the system consists of important medical practice in today's medicine. Two recent studies prove that brief illumination of skin with a low powered laser, at wavelengths preferentially absorbed by hemoglobin, increases the amount of circulating biomarkers in the epidermis and upper dermis by more than 1,000-fold. When probe-coated microneedle arrays are applied into laser-treated skin, plasma blood biomarkers can be reliably, accurately, and sufficiently quantified in 15∼30 min assays, with a maximal detection in one hr in a manner independent of penetration depth or a molecular mass of the biomarker. Moreover, the laser treatment permits a high efficient delivery of radiation-attenuated malarial sporozoites (RAS) into the circulation, leading to robust immunity against malaria infections, whereas similar immunization at sham-treated skin elicits poor immune responses. Thus this technology can potentially instruct designs of small, portable devices for onsite, in mobile clinics, or at home for point-of-care diagnosis and drug/vaccine delivery via the skin. Laser-induced capillary leakage (a) to induce extravasation of circualing molecules only (b) or facilitate entry of attenuated malaria sporozoites into the capillary (c). Skin illumination with a laser preferably absorbed by hemoglobin causes dilation of the capillary beneath the skin. The extravasated molecules can be sufficiently measured in the skin or guide sporozoites to enter the vessel. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. High-Throughput Genetic Analysis and Combinatorial Chiral Separations Based on Capillary Electrophoresis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Wenwan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) offers many advantages over conventional analytical methods, such as speed, simplicity, high resolution, low cost, and small sample consumption, especially for the separation of enantiomers. However, chiral method developments still can be time consuming and tedious. They designed a comprehensive enantioseparation protocol employing neutral and sulfated cyclodextrins as chiral selectors for common basic, neutral, and acidic compounds with a 96-capillary array system. By using only four judiciously chosen separation buffers, successful enantioseparations were achieved for 49 out of 54 test compounds spanning a large variety of pKs and structures. Therefore, unknown compounds can be screened in this manner to identify optimal enantioselective conditions in just one rn. In addition to superior separation efficiency for small molecules, CE is also the most powerful technique for DNA separations. Using the same multiplexed capillary system with UV absorption detection, the sequence of a short DNA template can be acquired without any dye-labels. Two internal standards were utilized to adjust the migration time variations among capillaries, so that the four electropherograms for the A, T, C, G Sanger reactions can be aligned and base calling can be completed with a high level of confidence. the CE separation of DNA can be applied to study differential gene expression as well. Combined with pattern recognition techniques, small variations among electropherograms obtained by the separation of cDNA fragments produced from the total RNA samples of different human tissues can be revealed. These variations reflect the differences in total RNA expression among tissues. Thus, this Ce-based approach can serve as an alternative to the DNA array techniques in gene expression analysis.

  4. High-intensity subpicosecond laser pulse propagation in a 1-cm capillary tube and fast ignitor experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malka, G.; Courtois, C.; Cros, B.; Matthieussent, G. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Lab. de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas; Blanchot, N.; Bonnaud, G.; Busquet, M.; Canaud, B.; Desenne, D.; Diskier, L.; Garconnet, J.P.; Louis-Jacquet, M.; Lefebvre, E.; Lours, L.; Mens, A.; Miquel, J.L.; Peyrusse, O.; Rousseaux, C. [CEA/Limeil Valenton, 94 - Villeneuve Saint Georges (France); Borghesi, M.; Gaillard, R.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Willi, O. [Imperial Coll., Plasma Physics Groups, London (United Kingdom); Danson, C.; Neely, D. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Chilton (United Kingdom); Altenberd, D.; Feurer, T.; Forster, E.; Gibbon, P.; Sauerbray, R.; Teubner, U.; Theobald, W.; Uschmann, I. [Institut fur Optik und Quantenelektronik, Jena (Germany); Amiranoff, F.; Baton, S.; Gremillet, L.; Fuchs, J.; Marques, J.R. [Ecole Polytechnique, Lab. d' Utilisation de Lasers Intenses, CNRS-CEA, 91 - Palaiseau (France); Gallant, P.; Kieffer, J.C.; Pepin, H. [INRS Energie et Materiaux, Quebec (Canada); Adam, J.C.; Heron, A.; Laval, G.; Mora, P. [Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Centre de Physique Theorique

    2000-07-01

    We present an abstract of ultra short and intense laser plasma interaction experiments which were performed with the 100 TW P102 laser facility at CEA/Limeil-Valenton. Laser interaction at relativistic regime (I>10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) has been investigated with different 'targets': overdense plasma, underdense plasma, free electrons and capillary tube. These experiments are of great interests for the Fast Ignitor concept and the Laser Particle Accelerator. (authors)

  5. High-intensity subpicosecond laser pulse propagation in a 1-cm capillary tube and fast ignitor experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malka, G.; Courtois, C.; Cros, B.; Matthieussent, G.; Borghesi, M.; Gaillard, R.; Mackinnon, A.J.; Willi, O.; Danson, C.; Neely, D.; Altenberd, D.; Feurer, T.; Forster, E.; Gibbon, P.; Sauerbray, R.; Teubner, U.; Theobald, W.; Uschmann, I.; Amiranoff, F.; Baton, S.; Gremillet, L.; Fuchs, J.; Marques, J.R.; Gallant, P.; Kieffer, J.C.; Pepin, H.; Adam, J.C.; Heron, A.; Laval, G.; Mora, P.

    2000-01-01

    We present an abstract of ultra short and intense laser plasma interaction experiments which were performed with the 100 TW P102 laser facility at CEA/Limeil-Valenton. Laser interaction at relativistic regime (I>10 18 W/cm 2 ) has been investigated with different 'targets': overdense plasma, underdense plasma, free electrons and capillary tube. These experiments are of great interests for the Fast Ignitor concept and the Laser Particle Accelerator. (authors)

  6. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarian, Artaches A.; Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A.; McCord, James; Muddiman, David C.; Paull, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L"−"1 levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min"−"1, and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L"−"1 for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%. - Highlights: • Novel PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for in-capillary micro-extraction. • New method for micro-extraction of PAHs and HPLC-FL detection at sub-ppb levels. • Demonstration of PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for capillary bioseparations.

  7. Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillaries as porous layer open tubular columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and capillary chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, Artaches A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Sanz Rodriguez, Estrella; Deverell, Jeremy A. [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); McCord, James; Muddiman, David C. [W.M. Keck FT-ICR-MS Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Paull, Brett, E-mail: Brett.Paull@utas.edu.au [Australian Centre for Research on Separation Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia); ARC Centre of Excellence for Electromaterials Science, School of Physical Sciences, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 75, Hobart, Tasmania 7001 (Australia)

    2016-01-28

    Wall modified photonic crystal fibre capillary columns for in-capillary micro-extraction and liquid chromatographic separations is presented. Columns contained 126 internal parallel 4 μm channels, each containing a wall bonded porous monolithic type polystyrene-divinylbenzene layer in open tubular column format (PLOT). Modification longitudinal homogeneity was monitored using scanning contactless conductivity detection and scanning electron microscopy. The multichannel open tubular capillary column showed channel diameter and polymer layer consistency of 4.2 ± 0.1 μm and 0.26 ± 0.02 μm respectively, and modification of 100% of the parallel channels with the monolithic polymer. The modified multi-channel capillaries were applied to the in-capillary micro-extraction of water samples. 500 μL of water samples containing single μg L{sup −1} levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons were extracted at a flow rate of 10 μL min{sup −1}, and eluted in 50 μL of acetonitrile for analysis using HPLC with fluorescence detection. HPLC LODs were 0.08, 0.02 and 0.05 μg L{sup −1} for acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, respectively, with extraction recoveries of between 77 and 103%. The modified capillaries were also investigated briefly for direct application to liquid chromatographic separations, with the retention and elution of a standard protein (cytochrome c) under isocratic conditions demonstrated, proving chromatographic potential of the new column format, with run-to-run retention time reproducibility of below 1%. - Highlights: • Novel PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for in-capillary micro-extraction. • New method for micro-extraction of PAHs and HPLC-FL detection at sub-ppb levels. • Demonstration of PS-DVB modified photonic crystal fibres for capillary bioseparations.

  8. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  9. Rapid capillary coating by epoxy-poly-(dimethylacrylamide): Performance in capillary zone electrophoresis of protein and polystyrene carboxylate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chiari, M.; Cretich, M.; Šťastná, Miroslava; Radko, S. P.; Chrambach, A.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 4 (2001), s. 656-659 ISSN 0173-0835 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : capillary coating * capillary zone electrophoresis * proteins Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.282, year: 2001

  10. Growth of metal-organic framework HKUST-1 in capillary using liquid-phase epitaxy for open-tubular capillary electrochromatography and capillary liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tao; Zhang, Juan; Zhang, Wenpeng; Chen, Zilin

    2015-02-13

    Much attention is being paid to applying metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) as stationary phases in chromatography because of their fascinating properties, such as large surface-to-volume ratios, high levels of porosity, and selective adsorption. HKUST-1 is one of the best-studied face-centered-cubic MOF containing nano-sized channels and side pockets for film growth. However, growth of HKUST-1 framework inside capillary column as stationary phase for capillary electrochromatography is a challenge work. In this work, we carry out the growth of HKUST-1 on the inner wall of capillary by using liquid-phase epitaxy process at room temperature. The fabricated HKUST-1@capillary can be successfully used for the separation of substituted benzene including methylbenzene, ethylbenzene, styrene, chlorobenzene, bromobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, benzene series, phenolic acids, and benzoic acids derivates. High column efficiency of 1.5×10(5) N/m for methylbenzene was achieved. The formation of HKUST-1 grown in the capillary was confirmed and characterized by scanning electron microscopy images, Fourier transform infrared spectra and X-ray diffraction. The column showed long lifetime and excellent stability. The relative standard deviations for intra-day and inter-day repeatability of the HKUST-1@capillary were lower than 7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An Optical Fiber Viscometer Based on Long-Period Fiber Grating Technology and Capillary Tube Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Neng Wang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the development and assessment of a fiber optical viscometer using a simple and low-cost long-period fiber grating (LPFG level sensor and a capillary tube mechanism. Previous studies of optical viscosity sensors were conducted by using different optical sensing methods. The proposed optical viscometer consists of an LPFG sensor, a temperature-controlled chamber, and a cone-shaped reservoir where gravitational force could cause fluid to flow through the capillary tube. We focused on the use of LPFGs as level sensors and the wavelength shifts were not used to quantify the viscosity values of asphalt binders. When the LPFG sensor was immersed in the constant volume (100 mL AC-20 asphalt binder, a wavelength shift was observed and acquired using LabVIEW software and GPIB controller. The time spent between empty and 100 mL was calculated to determine the discharge time. We simultaneously measured the LPFG-induced discharge time and the transmission spectra both in hot air and AC-20 asphalt binder at five different temperatures, 60, 80, 100, 135, and 170 Celsius. An electromechanical rotational viscometer was also used to measure the viscosities, 0.15–213.80 Pa·s, of the same asphalt binder at the above five temperatures. A non-linear regression analysis was performed to convert LPFG-induced discharge time into viscosities. Comparative analysis shows that the LPFG-induced discharge time agreed well with the viscosities obtained from the rotational viscometer.

  12. Comments on the Operation of Capillary Pumped Loop Devices in Low Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, K. P.; Allen, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  13. Capillary-wave dynamics and interface structure modulation in binary Bose-Einstein condensate mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indekeu, Joseph O.; Van Thu, Nguyen; Lin, Chang-You; Phat, Tran Huu

    2018-04-01

    The localized low-energy interfacial excitations, or interfacial Nambu-Goldstone modes, of phase-segregated binary mixtures of Bose-Einstein condensates are investigated analytically. To this end a double-parabola approximation (DPA) is performed on the Lagrangian density in Gross-Pitaevskii theory for a system in a uniform potential. This DPA entails a model in which analytic expressions are obtained for the excitations underlying capillary waves or ripplons for arbitrary strength K (>1 ) of the phase segregation. The dispersion relation ω (k ) ∝k3 /2 is derived directly from the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations in the limit that the wavelength 2 π /k is much larger than the interface width. The proportionality constant in the dispersion relation provides the static interfacial tension. A correction term in ω (k ) of order k5 /2 is calculated analytically within the DPA model. The combined result is tested against numerical diagonalization of the exact Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations. Satisfactory agreement is obtained in the range of physically relevant wavelengths. The ripplon dispersion relation is relevant to state-of-the-art experiments using (quasi)uniform optical-box traps. Furthermore, within the DPA model explicit expressions are obtained for the structural deformation of the interface due to the passing of the capillary wave. It is found that the amplitude of the wave is enhanced by an amount that is quadratic in the ratio of the phase velocity ω /k to the sound velocity c . For generic mixtures consisting of condensates with unequal healing lengths, an additional modulation is predicted of the common value of the condensate densities at the interface.

  14. Separation of oligopeptides, nucleobases, nucleosides and nucleotides using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography with sol-gel modified inner capillary wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svobodová, Jana; Kofroňová, Olga; Benada, Oldřich; Král, Vladimír; Mikšík, Ivan

    2017-09-29

    The aim of this article is to study the modification of an inner capillary wall with sol-gel coating (pure silica sol-gel or silica sol-gel containing porphyrin-brucine conjugate) and determine its influence on the separation process using capillary electrophoresis/electrochromatography method. After modification of the inner capillary surface the separation of analytes was performed using two different phosphate buffers (pH 2.5 and 9.0) and finally the changes in electrophoretic mobilities of various samples were calculated. To confirm that the modification of the inner capillary surface was successful, the parts of the inner surfaces of capillaries were observed using scanning electron microscopy. The analytes used as testing samples were oligopeptides, nucleosides, nucleobases and finally nucleotides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Radionuclide diagnosis of pulmonary capillary protein leakage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutzig, H.; Sturm, J.A.; Schober, O.; Nerlich, M.L.; Kant, C.J.; Medizinische Hochschule Hannover

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary extravascular albumin extra-vasation in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome can be quantified with radionuclide techniques. While imaging procedures with a computerized gamma camera will allow reproducible ROIs, this will be the main limitation in nonimaging measurements with small scintillation probes. Repeated positioning by one operator results in a mean spatial variation of position of about 2 cm and a variation in count rate of 25%. For the estimation of PCPL the small probes must be positioned under scintigraphic control. Under these conditions the results of both techniques are identical. The upper limit of normal was estimated to be 1 x E-5/sec. The standard deviation abnormal measurements was about 10%. The pulmonary capillary protein leakage can be quantified by radionuclide techniques with good accuracy, using the combination of imaging and nonimaging techniques. (orig.) [de

  16. Imbibition Triggered by Capillary Condensation in Nanopores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Olivier; Marguet, Bastien; Stroock, Abraham D

    2017-02-21

    We study the spatiotemporal dynamics of water uptake by capillary condensation from unsaturated vapor in mesoporous silicon layers (pore radius r p ≃ 2 nm), taking advantage of the local changes in optical reflectance as a function of water saturation. Our experiments elucidate two qualitatively different regimes as a function of the imposed external vapor pressure: at low vapor pressures, equilibration occurs via a diffusion-like process; at high vapor pressures, an imbibition-like wetting front results in fast equilibration toward a fully saturated sample. We show that the imbibition dynamics can be described by a modified Lucas-Washburn equation that takes into account the liquid stresses implied by Kelvin equation.

  17. Capillary condensation and adsorption of binary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, B; Darkrim-Lamari, F; Levesque, D

    2006-06-21

    The adsorption of equimolar binary mixtures of hydrogen-carbon dioxide, hydrogen-methane, and methane-carbon dioxide in porous material models is determined by grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations. The material models have an adsorbent surface similar to that of nanofibers with a herringbone structure. Our main result, which is relevant for hydrogen purification and carbon dioxide capture, is that the adsorption selectivities calculated for the mixtures can differ significantly from those deduced from simulations of the adsorption of pure gases, in particular, when one of the adsorbed gases presents a capillary condensation induced by confinement within the pore network. A comparison of our data is also made with theoretical models used in the literature for predicting the properties of the mixture adsorption.

  18. Capillary Condensation with a Grain of Salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarom, Michal; Marmur, Abraham

    2017-11-21

    Capillary condensation (CC), namely, the formation from the vapor of a stable phase of drops below the saturation pressure, is a prevalent phenomenon. It may occur inside porous structures or between surfaces of particles. CC between surfaces, a liquid "bridge", is of particular practical interest because of its resulting adhesive force. To date, studies have focused on pure water condensation. However, nonvolatile materials, such as salts and surfactants, are prevalent in many environments. In the current study, the effect of these contaminants on CC is investigated from a thermodynamic point of view. This is done by computing the Gibbs energy of such systems and developing the modified Kelvin equation, based on the Kohler theory. The results demonstrate that nonvolatile solutes may have a number of major effects, including an increase in the critical radius and the stabilization of the newly formed phase.

  19. EFFECTS OF LIGHT WAVELENGTHS AND COHERENCE ON BASIDIOSPORES GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Poyedinok

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of light wavelengths and coherence on basidiospore germination of Agaricus bisporus, Flammulina velutipes, Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Hericium erinaceus, Lentinus edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus have been studied. Short-term low-intensity irradiation by coherent (laser light wavelength 488.0 nm and 632.8 nm at doses 45 and 230 mJ/cm2 has significantly increased the number of germinated basidiospores. It has established that there are differences in the photosensitivity not only between species but also between strains. Spores irradiation by 514.5 nm light has been either neutral or inhibitory. A comparative analysis of basidiospores sensitivity to laser and LED light has also been conducted. To stimulate germination of basidiospores and growth of monokaryons the most suitable solution was to use red coherent and incoherent light of 632.8 nm and 660,0 nm for A. bisporus, G. applanatum and P. ostreatus, red and blue coherent light of 632.8 nm and 488,0 nm for F. velutipes, and both red and blue laser and LED light G. lucidum and H. erinaceus and for L. edodes. No essential difference of a continuous wave mode and intermittent mode light effect at the same doses and wavelength on spore germination were revealed. Light influence has reduced germination time and formation of aerial mycelium on agar medium as compared to the original value and increased the growth rate of monosporous isolates. Characterization of basidiospores photosensitivity and development of environmentally friendly stimulating methods of their germination is important for creating highly effective technologies of mushrooms selection and cultivation.

  20. Topology Optimization of Sub-Wavelength Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erentok, Aycan; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    We propose a topology optimization strategy for the systematic design of a three-dimensional (3D), conductor-based sub-wavelength antenna. The post-processed finite-element (FE) models of the optimized structure are shown to be self-resonant, efficient and exhibit distorted omnidirectional...

  1. Characterization of ethanol concentrations at ultraviolet wavelength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the measurement of optical absorption spectrum for different concentrations of ethanol at ultraviolet wavelength. Ethanol absorption spectrum was measured using portable spectroscopy setup from Avantes. It consists of Balanced Deuterium Halogen light source and spectrometer. The light source can ...

  2. Smart wavelength meter for integrated photonics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benelajla, Meryem; Taballione, Caterina; Boller, Klaus J.

    2017-01-01

    Thermally tunable SiN waveguide microring resonators in connection with neural network readout algorithms appear promising for use as integrated optical wavelength meters. So far, we have observed long-term reliability and a temperature immunity of the readout across several degrees of ambient

  3. An automated wavelength selection for flame spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurteau, M.; Mislan, J.P.; Ashley, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    A simple electro-mechanical programming system is described for use with a flame spectrophotometer. Its application for automated sequential multi-element analysis is illustrated. Reproducibility of wavelength settings are within +-0.5 A. Precision and sensitivities are at least as good as those obtained for single element determinations. (author)

  4. Alien wavelength modeling tool and field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambo, N.; Sgambelluri, A.; Secondini, M.

    2015-01-01

    A modeling tool is presented for pre-FEC BER estimation of PM-QPSK alien wavelength signals. A field trial is demonstrated and used as validation of the tool's correctness. A very close correspondence between the performance of the field trial and the one predicted by the modeling tool has been...

  5. Two-wavelength spatial-heterodyne holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Gregory R.; Bingham, Philip R.; Simpson, John T.; Karnowski, Thomas P.; Voelkl, Edgar

    2007-12-25

    Systems and methods are described for obtaining two-wavelength differential-phase holograms. A method includes determining a difference between a filtered analyzed recorded first spatially heterodyne hologram phase and a filtered analyzed recorded second spatially-heterodyned hologram phase.

  6. Capillary sieving electrophoresis and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography produce highly correlated separation of tryptic digests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Jane A.; Dovichi, Norman J.

    2011-01-01

    We perform two-dimensional capillary electrophoresis on fluorescently labeled proteins and peptides. Capillary sieving electrophoresis was performed in the first dimension and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography was performed in the second. A cellular homogenate was labeled with the fluorogenic reagent FQ and separated using the system. This homogenate generated a pair of ridges; the first had essentially constant migration time in the CSE dimension, while the second had essentially constant migration time in the MEKC dimension. In addition a few spots were scattered through the electropherogram. The same homogenate was digested using trypsin, and then labeled and subjected to the two dimensional separation. In this case, the two ridges observed from the original two-dimensional separation disappeared, and were replaced by a set of spots that fell along the diagonal. Those spots were identified using a local-maximum algorithm and each was fit using a two-dimensional Gaussian surface by an unsupervised nonlinear least squares regression algorithm. The migration times of the tryptic digest components were highly correlated (r = 0.862). When the slowest migrating components were eliminated from the analysis, the correlation coefficient improved to r = 0.956. PMID:20564272

  7. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  8. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  9. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  10. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  11. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  12. Using a fast dual-wavelength imaging ellipsometric system to measure the flow thickness profile of an oil thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chih-Wei; Han, Chien-Yuan; Jhou, Jhe-Yi; Peng, Zeng-Yi

    2017-11-01

    Dual-wavelength light sources with stroboscopic illumination technique were applied in a process of photoelastic modulated ellipsometry to retrieve two-dimensional ellipsometric parameters of thin films on a silicon substrate. Two laser diodes were alternately switched on and modulated by a programmable pulse generator to generate four short pulses at specific temporal phase angles in a modulation cycle, and short pulses were used to freeze the intensity variation of the PEM modulated signal that allows ellipsometric images to be captured by a charge-coupled device. Although the phase retardation of a photoelastic modulator is related to the light wavelength, we employed an equivalent phase retardation technique to avoid any setting from the photoelastic modulator. As a result, the ellipsometric parameters of different wavelengths may be rapidly obtained using this dual-wavelength ellipsometric system every 4 s. Both static and dynamic experiments are demonstrated in this work.

  13. The At-Wavelength Metrology Facility at BESSY-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Schäfers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The At-Wavelength Metrology Facility at BESSY-II is dedicated to short-term characterization of novel UV, EUV and XUV optical elements, such as diffraction gratings, mirrors, multilayers and nano-optical devices like reflection zone plates. It consists of an Optics Beamline PM-1 and a Reflectometer in a clean-room hutch as a fixed end station. The bending magnet Beamline is a Plane Grating Monochromator beamline (c-PGM equipped with an SX700 monochromator. The beamline is specially tailored for efficient high-order suppression and stray light reduction. The versatile 11-axes UHV-Reflectometer can house life-sized optical elements, which are fully adjustable and of which the reflection properties can be measured in the full incidence angular range as well as in the full azimuthal angular range to determine polarization properties.

  14. Capillary electrophoresis: principles and applications in illicit drug analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaro, F; Turrina, S; Smith, F P

    1996-02-09

    Capillary electrophoresis, which appeared in the early 1980s, is now rapidly expanding into many scientific disciplines, including analytical chemistry, biotechnology and biomedical and pharmaceutical sciences. In capillary electrophoresis,electrokinetic separations are carried out in tiny capillaries at high voltages (10-30 kV), thus obtaining high efficiencies (N > 10(5)) and excellent mass sensitivities (down to 10(-18)-10(-20) moles). The main features of capillary electrophoresis are: versatility of application (from inorganic ions to large DNA fragments), use of different separation modes with different selectivity, extremely low demands on sample volume, negligible running costs, possibility of interfacing with different detection systems, ruggedness and simplicity of instrumentation. Capillary electrophoresis applications in forensic sciences have appeared only recently, but are now rapidly growing, particularly in forensic toxicology. The present paper briefly describes the basic principles of capillary electrophoresis, from both the instrumental and analytical points of view. Furthermore, the main applications in the analysis of illicit/controlled drugs in both illicit preparations and biological samples are presented and discussed (43 references). It is concluded that the particular separation mechanism and the high complementarity of this technique to chromatography makes capillary electrophoresis a new powerful tool of investigation in the hands of forensic toxicologists.

  15. Colloid mobilization and transport during capillary fringe fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L

    2014-07-01

    Capillary fringe fluctuations due to changing water tables lead to displacement of air-water interfaces in soils and sediments. These moving air-water interfaces can mobilize colloids. We visualized colloids interacting with moving air-water interfaces during capillary fringe fluctuations by confocal microscopy. We simulated capillary fringe fluctuations in a glass-bead-filled column. We studied four specific conditions: (1) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase, (2) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially wet porous medium, (3) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially dry porous medium, and (4) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase with the presence of a static air bubble. Confocal images confirmed that the capillary fringe fluctuations affect colloid transport behavior. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids initially suspended in the aqueous phase were deposited at the solid-water interface after a drainage passage, but then were removed by subsequent capillary fringe fluctuations. The colloids that were initially attached to the wet or dry glass bead surface were detached by moving air-water interfaces in the capillary fringe. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids did not attach to static air-bubbles, but hydrophobic negatively charged and hydrophilic positively charged colloids did. Our results demonstrate that capillary fringe fluctuations are an effective means for colloid mobilization.

  16. Geometry-induced phase transition in fluids: capillary prewetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2013-02-01

    We report a new first-order phase transition preceding capillary condensation and corresponding to the discontinuous formation of a curved liquid meniscus. Using a mean-field microscopic approach based on the density functional theory we compute the complete phase diagram of a prototypical two-dimensional system exhibiting capillary condensation, namely that of a fluid with long-ranged dispersion intermolecular forces which is spatially confined by a substrate forming a semi-infinite rectangular pore exerting long-ranged dispersion forces on the fluid. In the T-μ plane the phase line of the new transition is tangential to the capillary condensation line at the capillary wetting temperature T(cw). The surface phase behavior of the system maps to planar wetting with the phase line of the new transition, termed capillary prewetting, mapping to the planar prewetting line. If capillary condensation is approached isothermally with T>T(cw), the meniscus forms at the capping wall and unbinds continuously, making capillary condensation a second-order phenomenon. We compute the corresponding critical exponent for the divergence of adsorption.

  17. Capillary contact angle in a completely wet groove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A O; Malijevský, A; Rascón, C

    2014-10-03

    We consider the phase equilibria of a fluid confined in a deep capillary groove of width L with identical side walls and a bottom made of a different material. All walls are completely wet by the liquid. Using density functional theory and interfacial models, we show that the meniscus separating liquid and gas phases at two phase capillary coexistence meets the bottom capped end of the groove at a capillary contact angle θ(cap)(L) which depends on the difference between the Hamaker constants. If the bottom wall has a weaker wall-fluid attraction than the side walls, then θ(cap) > 0 even though all the isolated walls are themselves completely wet. This alters the capillary condensation transition which is now first order; this would be continuous in a capped capillary made wholly of either type of material. We show that the capillary contact angle θ(cap)(L) vanishes in two limits, corresponding to different capillary wetting transitions. These occur as the width (i) becomes macroscopically large, and (ii) is reduced to a microscopic value determined by the difference in Hamaker constants. This second wetting transition is characterized by large scale fluctuations and essential critical singularities arising from marginal interfacial interactions.

  18. Automation and integration of polymerase chain reaction with capillary electrophoresis for high throughput genotyping and disease diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, N.

    1999-02-12

    Genotyping is to detect specific loci in the human genome. These loci provide important information for forensic testing, construction of genetic linkage maps, gene related disease diagnosis and pharmacogenetic research. Genotyping is becoming more and more popular after these loci can be easily amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Capillary electrophoresis has its unique advantages for DNA analysis due to its fast heat dissipation and ease of automation. Four projects are described in which genotyping is performed by capillary electrophoresis emphasizing different aspects. First, the author demonstrates a principle to determine the genotype based on capillary electrophoresis system. VNTR polymorphism in the human D1S80 locus was studied. Second, the separation of four short tandem repeat (STR) loci vWF, THO1, TPOX and CSF1PO (CTTv) by using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) was studied in achieving high resolution and preventing rehybridization of the DNA fragments. Separation under denaturing, non-denaturing conditions and at elevated temperature was discussed. Third, a 250 {micro}m i.d., 365 {micro}m o.d. fused silica capillary was used as the microreactor for PCR. Fourth, direct PCR from blood was studied to simplify the sample preparation for genotyping to minimum.

  19. Short-timescale variability in cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, F.A.; Mason, K.O.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid variability, including flickering and pulsations, has been detected in cataclysmic binaries at optical and x-ray frequencies. In the case of the novalike variable TT Arietis, simultaneous observations reveal that the x-ray and optical flickering activity is strongly correlated, while short period pulsations are observed that occur at the same frequencies in both wavelength bands

  20. Capillary Rise: Validity of the Dynamic Contact Angle Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pingkeng; Nikolov, Alex D; Wasan, Darsh T

    2017-08-15

    The classical Lucas-Washburn-Rideal (LWR) equation, using the equilibrium contact angle, predicts a faster capillary rise process than experiments in many cases. The major contributor to the faster prediction is believed to be the velocity dependent dynamic contact angle. In this work, we investigated the dynamic contact angle models for their ability to correct the dynamic contact angle effect in the capillary rise process. We conducted capillary rise experiments of various wetting liquids in borosilicate glass capillaries and compared the model predictions with our experimental data. The results show that the LWR equations modified by the molecular kinetic theory and hydrodynamic model provide good predictions on the capillary rise of all the testing liquids with fitting parameters, while the one modified by Joos' empirical equation works for specific liquids, such as silicone oils. The LWR equation modified by molecular self-layering model predicts well the capillary rise of carbon tetrachloride, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane, and n-alkanes with the molecular diameter or measured solvation force data. The molecular self-layering model modified LWR equation also has good predictions on the capillary rise of silicone oils covering a wide range of bulk viscosities with the same key parameter W(0), which results from the molecular self-layering. The advantage of the molecular self-layering model over the other models reveals the importance of the layered molecularly thin wetting film ahead of the main meniscus in the energy dissipation associated with dynamic contact angle. The analysis of the capillary rise of silicone oils with a wide range of bulk viscosities provides new insights into the capillary dynamics of polymer melts.

  1. Combining ligation reaction and capillary gel electrophoresis to obtain reliable long DNA probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cañas, Virginia; Mondello, Monica; Cifuentes, Alejandro

    2011-05-01

    New DNA amplification methods are continuously developed for sensitive detection and quantification of specific DNA target sequences for, e.g. clinical, environmental or food applications. These new applications often require the use of long DNA oligonucleotides as probes for target sequences hybridization. Depending on the molecular technique, the length of DNA probes ranges from 40 to 450 nucleotides, solid-phase chemical synthesis being the strategy generally used for their production. However, the fidelity of chemical synthesis of DNA decreases for larger DNA probes. Defects in the oligonucleotide sequence result in the loss of hybridization efficiency, affecting the sensitivity and selectivity of the amplification method. In this work, an enzymatic procedure has been developed as an alternative to solid-phase chemical synthesis for the production of long oligonucleotides. The enzymatic procedure for probe production was based on ligation of short DNA sequences. Long DNA probes were obtained from smaller oligonucleotides together with a short sequence that acts as bridge stabilizing the molecular complex for DNA ligation. The ligation reactions were monitored by capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF) using a bare fused-silica capillary. The capillary gel electrophoresis-LIF method demonstrated to be very useful and informative for the characterization of the ligation reaction, providing important information about the nature of some impurities, as well as for the fine optimization of the ligation conditions (i.e. ligation cycles, oligonucleotide and enzyme concentration). As a result, the yield and quality of the ligation product were highly improved. The in-lab prepared DNA probes were used in a novel multiplex ligation-dependent genome amplification (MLGA) method for the detection of genetically modified maize in samples. The great possibilities of the whole approach were demonstrated by the specific and sensitive

  2. Creeping motion of long bubbles and drops in capillary tubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westborg, Henrik; Hassager, Ole

    1989-01-01

    The flow of inviscid bubbles and viscous drops in capillary tubes has been simulated by a Galerkin finite element method with surface tension included at the bubble/liquid interface. The results show good agreement with published experimental results. At low capillary numbers the front and the rear...... of the bubble are nearly spherical. As the capillary number increases the thickness of the wetting film between the tube wall and the bubble increases, and the bubble assumes a more slender shape with a characteristic bump at the rear. Recirculations are found in front and behind the bubble, which disappear...

  3. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis: a rare cause of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, K Anand; Supraja, K; Singh, Raj B

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis (PCH) is a rare disorder of unknown aetiology, characterised by proliferating capillaries that invade the pulmonary interstitium, alveolar septae and the pulmonary vasculature. It is often mis-diagnosed as primary pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease. Pulmonary capillary haemangiomatosis is a locally aggressive benign vascular neoplasm of the lung. We report the case of a 19-year-old female who was referred to us in the early post-partum period with severe pulmonary artery hypertension, which was diagnosed as PCH by open lung biopsy.

  4. Recent advances of capillary electrophoresis in pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntornsuk, Leena

    2010-09-01

    This review covers recent advances of capillary electrophoresis (CE) in pharmaceutical analysis. The principle, instrumentation, and conventional modes of CE are briefly discussed. Advances in the different CE techniques (non-aqueous CE, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography, capillary isotachophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, and immunoaffinity CE), detection techniques (mass spectrometry, light-emitting diode, fluorescence, chemiluminescence, and contactless conductivity), on-line sample pretreatment (flow injection) and chiral separation are described. Applications of CE to assay of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), drug impurity testing, chiral drug separation, and determination of APIs in biological fluids published from 2008 to 2009 are tabulated.

  5. Early Regimes of Water Capillary Flow in Slit Silica Nanochannels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oyarzua, Elton; Walther, Jens Honore; Mejia, Andres

    2015-01-01

    on the dynamics of capillaryfilling. The results indicate that the nanoscale imbibition process is divided into three main flow regimes:an initial regime where the capillary force is balanced only by the inertial drag and characterized by aconstant velocity and a plug flow profile. In this regime, the meniscus...... velocity profiles identify the passage froman inviscid flow to a developing Poiseuille flow. Gas density profiles ahead of the capillary front indicatea transient accumulation of air on the advancing meniscus. Furthermore, slower capillary filling ratescomputed for higher air pressures reveal a significant...... retarding effect of the gas displaced by the advancing meniscus....

  6. On the influence of crystal size and wavelength on native SAD phasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebschner, Dorothee; Yamada, Yusuke; Matsugaki, Naohiro; Senda, Miki; Senda, Toshiya

    2016-06-01

    Native SAD is an emerging phasing technique that uses the anomalous signal of native heavy atoms to obtain crystallographic phases. The method does not require specific sample preparation to add anomalous scatterers, as the light atoms contained in the native sample are used as marker atoms. The most abundant anomalous scatterer used for native SAD, which is present in almost all proteins, is sulfur. However, the absorption edge of sulfur is at low energy (2.472 keV = 5.016 Å), which makes it challenging to carry out native SAD phasing experiments as most synchrotron beamlines are optimized for shorter wavelength ranges where the anomalous signal of sulfur is weak; for longer wavelengths, which produce larger anomalous differences, the absorption of X-rays by the sample, solvent, loop and surrounding medium (e.g. air) increases tremendously. Therefore, a compromise has to be found between measuring strong anomalous signal and minimizing absorption. It was thus hypothesized that shorter wavelengths should be used for large crystals and longer wavelengths for small crystals, but no thorough experimental analyses have been reported to date. To study the influence of crystal size and wavelength, native SAD experiments were carried out at different wavelengths (1.9 and 2.7 Å with a helium cone; 3.0 and 3.3 Å with a helium chamber) using lysozyme and ferredoxin reductase crystals of various sizes. For the tested crystals, the results suggest that larger sample sizes do not have a detrimental effect on native SAD data and that long wavelengths give a clear advantage with small samples compared with short wavelengths. The resolution dependency of substructure determination was analyzed and showed that high-symmetry crystals with small unit cells require higher resolution for the successful placement of heavy atoms.

  7. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  8. Long wavelength irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudeki, E.; Farley, D.T.; Fejer, B.G.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the radar interferometer technique at Jicamarca to study in detail irregularities with wavelengths of a few kilometers generated in the unstable equatorial electrojet plasma during strong type 1 conditions. In-situ rocket observations of the same instability process are discussed in a companion paper. These large scale primary waves travel essentially horizontally and have large amplitudes. The vertical electron drift velocities driven by the horizontal wave electric fields reach or exceed the ion-acoustic velocity even though the horizontal phase velocity of the wave is considerably smaller. A straightforward extension to the long wavelength regime of the usual linear theory of the electrojet instability explains this and several other observed features of these dominant primary waves

  9. Design alternatives for wavelength routing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliotis, K.; Papadimitriou, G. I.; Pomportsis, A. S.

    2003-03-01

    This paper attempts to provide a high level overview of many of the technologies employed in optical networks with a focus on wavelength-routing networks. Optical networks involve a number of technologies from the physics of light through protocols and networks architectures. In fact there is so much technology and know-how that most people involved with optical networks only have a full understanding of the narrow area they deal with. We start first examining the principles that govern light and its use as a wave guide, and then turn our focus to the various components that constitute an optical network and conclude with the description of all optical networks and wavelength-routed networks in greater detail.

  10. Long wavelength irregularities in the equatorial electrojet

    OpenAIRE

    Kudeki, E.; Farley, D. T.; Fejer, Bela G.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the radar interferometer technique at Jicamarca to study in detail irregularities with wavelengths of a few kilometers generated in the unstable equatorial electrojet plasma during strong type 1 conditions. In-situ rocket observations of the same instability process are discussed in a companion paper. These large scale primary waves travel essentially horizontally and have large amplitudes. The vertical electron drift velocities driven by the horizontal wave electric fields reach...

  11. Capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis and clone sequencing in detection of dynamic mutations of spinocerebellar ataxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-yuan CHEN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To estimate the accuracy and stability of capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis and clone sequencing in detecting dynamic mutations of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA. Methods Capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis and clone sequencing were used in detecting trinucleotide repeated sequence of 14 SCA patients (3 cases of SCA2, 2 cases of SCA7, 7 cases of SCA8 and 2 cases of SCA17. Results Capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of 3 SCA2 cases showed the expanded cytosine-adenine-guanine (CAG repeats were 31, 30 and 32, and the copy numbers of 3 clone sequencing for 3 colonies in each case were 37/40/40, 37/38/39 and 38/39/40 respectively. Capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis of 2 SCA7 cases showed the expanded CAG repeats were 57 and 34, and the copy numbers of repeats were 69, 74, 75 in 3 colonies of one case, and was 45 in the other case. For the 7 SCA8 cases with the expanded cytosine-thymine-adenine (CTA/cytosine-thymine-guanine (CTG repeats of 99, 111, 104, 92, 89, 104 and 75, the results of clone sequencing were 97, 116, 104, 90, 90, 102 and 76 respectively. For 2 SCA17 cases with the short/expanded CAG repeats of 37/50 and 36/45, the results of clone sequencing were 51/50/52 and 45/44 for 3 and 2 colonies. Conclusions Although the higher mobility of polymerase chain reaction (PCR products containing dynamic mutation in the capillary electrophoresis fragment analysis might cause the deviation for analysis of copy numbers, the deviation was predictable and the results were repeatable. The clone sequencing results showed obvious instability, especially for SCA2 and SCA7 genes, which might owing to their simple CAG repeats. Consequently, clone sequencing is not suited for detection of dynamic mutation, not to mention the quantitative criteria of dynamic mutation sequencing. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2018.03.008

  12. Optically coupled cavities for wavelength switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costazo-Caso, Pablo A; Granieri, Sergio; Siahmakoun, Azad, E-mail: pcostanzo@ing.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: granieri@rose-hulman.edu, E-mail: siahmako@rose-hulman.edu [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, 5500 Wabash Avenue, Terre Haute, IN 47803 (United States)

    2011-01-01

    An optical bistable device which presents hysteresis behavior is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The system finds applications in wavelength switching, pulse reshaping and optical bistability. It is based on two optically coupled cavities named master and slave. Each cavity includes a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA), acting as the gain medium of the laser, and two pair of fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) which define the lasing wavelength (being different in each cavity). Finally, a variable optical coupler (VOC) is employed to couple both cavities. Experimental characterization of the system performance is made analyzing the effects of the coupling coefficient between the two cavities and the driving current in each SOA. The properties of the hysteretic bistable curve and switching can be controlled by adjusting these parameters and the loss in the cavities. By selecting the output wavelength ({lambda}{sub 1} or {lambda}{sub 2}) with an external filter it is possible to choose either the invert or non-invert switched signal. Experiments were developed employing both optical discrete components and a photonic integrated circuit. They show that for 8 m-long cavities the maximum switching frequency is about 500 KHz, and for 4 m-long cavities a minimum rise-time about 21 ns was measured. The switching time can be reduced by shortening the cavity lengths and using photonic integrated circuits.

  13. Wavelength switching in an optical klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berryman, K.W.; Smith, T.I.

    1995-01-01

    A symmetric optical klystron consists of two identical undulator sections separated a dispersive section. For a device of a given length, an optical klystron is capable of producing much more bunching, and therefore more gain, than a traditional undulator. Another consequence of introducing dispersion between two undulator sections is that the overall spontaneous radiation pattern results from the interference between the two undulator sections, and as such resembles a standard undulator radiation pattern modulated by a sinusoidal interference term. The presence of several wavelength peaks in the spontaneous lineshape implies an equal number of peaks in the gain spectrum. If the strength of the dispersion section is adjusted to provide nearly equal gain on the two largest of these peaks, then they will compete, and the FEL may switch wavelengths based on noise, cavity length, or other perturbations. We provide the first observations of this behavior, using the FIREFLY system at the Stanford Picosecond FEL Center. In FIREFLY, relative wavelength switching by more than 3%--more than twice the laser linewidth-has been observed by varying dispersion section strength, while at intermediate points stable switching has also been observed as a function of cavity length

  14. Multiple wavelength X-ray monochromators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    An improved apparatus and method is provided for separating input x-ray radiation containing first and second x-ray wavelengths into spatially separate first and second output radiation which contain the first and second x-ray wavelengths, respectively. The apparatus includes a crystalline diffractor which includes a first set of parallel crystal planes, where each of the planes is spaced a predetermined first distance from one another. The crystalline diffractor also includes a second set of parallel crystal planes inclined at an angle with respect to the first set of crystal planes where each of the planes of the second set of parallel crystal planes is spaced a predetermined second distance from one another. In one embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a single crystal. In a second embodiment, the crystalline diffractor is comprised of a stack of two crystals. In a third embodiment, the crystalline diffractor includes a single crystal that is bent for focusing the separate first and second output x-ray radiation wavelengths into separate focal points. 3 figs

  15. Solid density, low temperature plasma formation in a capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kania, D.R.; Jones, L.A.; Maestas, M.D.; Shepherd, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    This work discusses the ability of the authors to produce solid density, low temperature plasmas in polyurethane capillary discharges. The initial capillary diameter is 20 μm. The plasma is produced by discharging a one Ohm parallel plate waterline and Marx generator system through the capillary. A peak current of 340 kA in 300 ns heats the inner wall of the capillary, and the plasma expands into the surrounding material. The authors studied the evolution of the discharge using current and voltage probes, axial and radial streak photography, axial x-ray diode array and schlieren photography, and have estimated the peak temperature of the discharge to be approximately 10 eV and the density to be near 10/sup 23/cm/sup -3/. This indicates that the plasma may approach the strongly coupled regime. They discuss their interpretation of the data and compare their results with theoretical models of the plasma dynamics

  16. TECHNIQUES WITH POTENTIAL FOR HANDLING ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES IN CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An assessment of the methods for handling environmental samples prior to capillary electrophoresis (CE) is presented for both aqueous and solid matrices. Sample handling in environmental analyses is the subject of ongoing research at the Environmental Protection Agency's National...

  17. Capillary-induced crack healing between surfaces of nanoscale roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylemez, Emrecan; de Boer, Maarten P

    2014-10-07

    Capillary forces are important in nature (granular materials, insect locomotion) and in technology (disk drives, adhesion). Although well studied in equilibrium state, the dynamics of capillary formation merit further investigation. Here, we show that microcantilever crack healing experiments are a viable experimental technique for investigating the influence of capillary nucleation on crack healing between rough surfaces. The average crack healing velocity, v̅, between clean hydrophilic polycrystalline silicon surfaces of nanoscale roughness is measured. A plot of v̅ versus energy release rate, G, reveals log-linear behavior, while the slope |d[log(v̅)]/dG| decreases with increasing relative humidity. A simplified interface model that accounts for the nucleation time of water bridges by an activated process is developed to gain insight into the crack healing trends. This methodology enables us to gain insight into capillary bridge dynamics, with a goal of attaining a predictive capability for this important microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) reliability failure mechanism.

  18. Targeted Functionalization of Nanoparticle Thin Films via Capillary Condensation

    KAUST Repository

    Gemici, Zekeriyya; Schwachulla, Patrick I.; Williamson, Erik H.; Rubner, Michael F.; Cohen, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  19. Targeted Functionalization of Nanoparticle Thin Films via Capillary Condensation

    KAUST Repository

    Gemici, Zekeriyya

    2009-03-11

    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane). © 2009 American Chemical Society.

  20. Static Response of Microbeams due to Capillary and Electrostatic Forces

    KAUST Repository

    Bataineh, Ahmad M.; Ouakad, Hassen M.; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-01-01

    Micro-sensors or micro-switches usually operate under the effect of electrostatic force and could face some environmental effects like humidity, which may lead to condensation underneath the beams and create strong capillary forces. Those tiny

  1. CAPILLARY CONDENSATION IN MMS AND PORE STRUCTURE CHARACTERIZATION. (R825959)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenomena of capillary condensation and desorption in siliceous mesoporous molecular sieves (MMS) with cylindrical channels are studied by means of the non-local density functional theory (NLDFT). The results are compared with macroscopic thermodynamic approaches based on Kelv...

  2. Targeted functionalization of nanoparticle thin films via capillary condensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemici, Zekeriyya; Schwachulla, Patrick I; Williamson, Erik H; Rubner, Michael F; Cohen, Robert E

    2009-03-01

    Capillary condensation, an often undesired natural phenomenon in nanoporous materials, was used advantageously as a universal functionalization strategy in nanoparticle thin films assembled layer-by-layer. Judicious choice of nanoparticle (and therefore pore) size allowed targeted capillary condensation of chemical vapors of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules across film thickness. Heterostructured thin films with modulated refractive index profiles produced in this manner exhibited broadband antireflection properties with an average reflectance over the visible region of the spectrum of only 0.4%. Capillary condensation was also used to modify surface chemistry and surface energy. Photosensitive capillary-condensates were UV-cross-linked in situ. Undesired adventitious condensation of humidity could be avoided by condensation of hydrophobic materials such as poly(dimethyl siloxane).

  3. Chip Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary Driven Thermal Management System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Chip-Integrated, Hybrid EHD/Capillary-Driven Thermal Management System is a two year that will leverage independently attained yet related prototype hardware...

  4. Omphalocele and alveolar capillary dysplasia: a new association.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerrits, L.C.; Mol, A.C. de; Bulten, J.; Staak, F.H.J.M. van der; Heijst, A.F.J. van

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: First report of an infant with coexistent omphalocele and alveolar capillary dysplasia. DESIGN: Descriptive case report. SETTING: Neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENT: We describe a term infant with omphalocele and respiratory insufficiency

  5. Capillary electrophoresis in the N-glycosylation analysis of biopharmaceuticals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guttman, András

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 48, JUL-AUG (2013), s. 132-143 ISSN 0165-9936 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : automated workflow * biopharmaceuticals * capillary electrophoresis Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 6.612, year: 2013

  6. Capillary Pressure-induced Lung Injury: Fact or Fiction?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    2003-05-07

    May 7, 2003 ... ing severe exercise, thus causing significant capillary hyper- tension. Pulmonary ... sponses evoked by high-pressure stress. To clarify the .... by an increased release of the vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 and thromboxane A2.

  7. Success and failure with phthalate buffers in capillary zone electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocek, P.; Gebauer, P.; Beckers, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Phthalate buffers are currently used in capillary electrophoresis as robust electrolyte systems for indirect detection. This contribution demonstrates that these buffers show regularly not only successful regions of mobilities of analytes (sample window) but also regions of failure where the

  8. Methods and instrumentation for quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Revermann, T.

    2007-01-01

    The development of novel instrumentation and analytical methodology for quantitative microchip capillary electrophoresis (MCE) is described in this thesis. Demanding only small quantities of reagents and samples, microfluidic instrumentation is highly advantageous. Fast separations at high voltages

  9. Anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in porous media

    KAUST Repository

    Shikhmurzaev, Yulii D.; Sprittles, James E.

    2012-01-01

    The anomalous dynamics of capillary rise in a porous medium discovered experimentally more than a decade ago is described. The developed theory is based on considering the principal modes of motion of the menisci that collectively form the wetting

  10. CAPILLARY BARRIERS IN UNSATURATED FRACTURED ROCKS OF YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.S.; Zhang, W.; Pan, L.; Hinds, J.; Bodvarsson, G.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents modeling studies investigating the effects of capillary barriers on fluid-flow and tracer-transport processes in the unsaturated zone of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a potential site for storing high-level radioactive waste. These studies are designed to identify factors controlling the formation of capillary barriers and to estimate their effects on the extent of possible large-scale lateral flow in unsaturated fracture rocks. The modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid and tracer transport through fractured porous rock. Flow processes in fractured porous rock are described using a dual-continuum concept. In addition, approximate analytical solutions are developed and used for assessing capillary-barrier effects in fractured rocks. This study indicates that under the current hydrogeologic conceptualization of Yucca Mountain, strong capillary-barrier effects exist for significantly diverting moisture flow

  11. Wavelength switching dynamics of two-colour semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, S; Heinricht, P; Brandonisio, N; Amann, A; O’Brien, S

    2012-01-01

    The wavelength switching dynamics of two-colour semiconductor lasers with optical injection and feedback are presented. These devices incorporate slotted regions etched into the laser ridge waveguide for tailoring the output spectrum. Experimental measurements are presented demonstrating that optical injection in one or both modes of these devices can induce wavelength bistability. Measured switching dynamics with modulated optical injection are shown to be in excellent agreement with numerical simulations based on a simple rate equation model. We also demonstrate experimentally that time-delayed optical feedback can induce wavelength bistability for short external cavity lengths. Numerical simulations indicate that this two-colour optical feedback system can provide fast optical memory functionality based on injected optical pulses without the need for an external holding beam. (paper)

  12. Pharmacology of post-irradiation damage of blood capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, J.; Pouckova, P.

    1979-01-01

    Available literature data are summed up on the effect of a number of substances on irradiation damage to blood capillaries. The substances include vitamins, bioflavonoids, serotonine, histamine, bradykinin, ACTH, adrenal hormones, vasopressin, estrogens, prostaglandins, escin 1-butanol, diisopropylfluorophosphate, phenoxybenzamine, 1,4-dihydroxybenzenesulphonic acid derivatives, and xi-aminohexanoic acid. The data include the effects of the substances administered before and after irradiation on blood capillary damage and on mortality. (Ha)

  13. Soft x-ray lasing in a capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Tong-Nyong; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Kim, Dong-Eon

    1995-01-01

    Soft x-ray lasing in the C VI Balmer α transition is observed in a capillary discharge. The capillary is made of polyethylene with a bore diameter of 1.2 mm. Plasma radiation from the discharge is analyzed using a toroidal mirror and a two-meter grazing-incidence spectrograph-monochromator. The electron temperatures are measured at both the axial and the peripheral region close to the capillary wall, using space-resolved spectra. A comparison of the branching ratio in the hot (axial) and the cool (peripheral) plasma regions indicates that there is a large population inversion between n=3 and 2 states of C 5+ ions in the cool (Te∼13 eV) region of the capillary plasma. Relative line intensities of the C VI Hα and a number of non-lasing lines are compared in this cool region as a function of capillary length. The C VI Hα line intensity increases exponentially whereas those of non-lasing transitions increase linearly with an increase of the capillary length. The gain coefficient thus measured indicates 2.8 cm -1 . The lasing line intensity does not seem to increase exponentially beyond a capillary length of 16 mm and the gain-length product, gL, obtained here is 3.9, which is a typical value one would expect for a recombination soft x-ray laser. The photoelectric signals of the lasing line indicate that the lasing takes place about 40 ns after the current peak in the first half cycle of the capillary discharge, with a lasing pulse width of 60 ns in FWHM

  14. Field-portable Capillary Electrophoresis Instrument with Conductivity Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H F; Liu, X W; Wang, W; Wang, X L; Tian, L

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a novel capillary electrophoresis chip (CEC) is presented with integrated platinum electrodes and simplified conductivity detector. CEC is fabricated by the method of mechanical modification with probe on organic glass. Capillary electrophoresis chip can rapidly completed ion separation by simulation of concentration distribution and zone-broadening. Detection circuit is simple which can detect pA order current. This system has those advantages such as small volume, low power consumption and linearity, and well suit for field analysis

  15. Geometry-induced phase transition in fluids: Capillary prewetting

    OpenAIRE

    Yatsyshin, Petr; Savva, Nikos; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2013-01-01

    We report a new first-order phase transition preceding capillary condensation and corresponding to the discontinuous formation of a curved liquid meniscus. Using a mean-field microscopic approach based on the density functional theory we compute the complete phase diagram of a prototypical two-dimensional system exhibiting capillary condensation, namely that of a fluid with long-ranged dispersion intermolecular forces which is spatially confined by a substrate forming a semi-infinite rectangu...

  16. Soft x-ray amplification in an ablative capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwek, K.H.; Low, K.S.; Tan, C.A.; Lim, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    Soft x-ray amplification in CVI 18.2 nm line is observed in an ablative UHMW-PE capillary discharge. The gain coefficient is measured to be 1.9 cm -1 . The electron density is about 2 x 10 19 cm -3 . This indicates that capillary discharge pumping device can be a source for a compact soft x-ray laser. (author)

  17. Capillary gel electrophoresis for rapid, high resolution DNA sequencing.

    OpenAIRE

    Swerdlow, H; Gesteland, R

    1990-01-01

    Capillary gel electrophoresis has been demonstrated for the separation and detection of DNA sequencing samples. Enzymatic dideoxy nucleotide chain termination was employed, using fluorescently tagged oligonucleotide primers and laser based on-column detection (limit of detection is 6,000 molecules per peak). Capillary gel separations were shown to be three times faster, with better resolution (2.4 x), and higher separation efficiency (5.4 x) than a conventional automated slab gel DNA sequenci...

  18. Possibilities of testing capillary absorption on microcores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čeh Arpad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During inspection of reinforced concrete structures from the aspect of durability evaluation of concrete, the present methods generally use the test results obtained by the sophisticated and expensive equipment, which are usually not universal purpose, ie. they can be used only for one segment of durability evaluation of the concrete. This way any additional information about the condition of concrete is valuable, especially if it is not require an additional testing with special equipment. Tests of concrete and reinforced concrete with microcore drilling is considered to be a semi- destructive method, which slightly damages the structure itself, and it is primarily used for testing carbonation, density and absorption of concrete. The paper presents the results of capillary absorption according to SRPS EN 480-5 on standard-size samples and on the microcores extracted from cube form samples with edge length of 20 cm. In the article the testing results of penetration of water under pressure are also presented on the same samples, on which we previously gained microcores. These tests were carried out on with concrete mixtures designed for the most demanding exposure classes according to EN 206-1 and using a variety of additives that are known to affect the structure of pores and consequently also the durability of a hardened concrete.

  19. Fabricating PFPE Membranes for Capillary Electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael C.; Willis, Peter A.; Greer, Frank; Rolland, Jason

    2009-01-01

    A process has been developed for fabricating perfluoropolyether (PFPE) membranes that contain microscopic holes of precise sizes at precise locations. The membranes are to be incorporated into laboratory-on-a-chip microfluidic devices to be used in performing capillary electrophoresis. The present process is a modified version of part of the process, described in the immediately preceding article, that includes a step in which a liquid PFPE layer is cured into solid (membrane) form by use of ultraviolet light. In the present process, one exploits the fact that by masking some locations to prevent exposure to ultraviolet light, one can prevent curing of the PFPE in those locations. The uncured PFPE can be washed away from those locations in the subsequent release and cleaning steps. Thus, holes are formed in the membrane in those locations. The most straightforward way to implement the modification is to use, during the ultraviolet-curing step, an ultraviolet photomask similar to the photomasks used in fabricating microelectronic devices. In lieu of such a photomask, one could use a mask made of any patternable ultraviolet-absorbing material (for example, an ink or a photoresist).

  20. Pulmonary capillary pressure in pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Rogerio; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Demarzo, Sergio Eduardo; Deheinzelin, Daniel; Barbas, Carmen Silvia Valente; Schettino, Guilherme Paula Pinto; Carvalho, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro

    2005-04-01

    Pulmonary capillary pressure (PCP), together with the time constants of the various vascular compartments, define the dynamics of the pulmonary vascular system. Our objective in the present study was to estimate PCPs and time constants of the vascular system in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), and compare them with these measures in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We conducted the study in two groups of patients with pulmonary hypertension: 12 patients with IPAH and 11 with ARDS. Four methods were used to estimate the PCP based on monoexponential and biexponential fitting of pulmonary artery pressure decay curves. PCPs in the IPAH group were considerably greater than those in the ARDS group. The PCPs measured using the four methods also differed significantly, suggesting that each method measures the pressure at a different site in the pulmonary circulation. The time constant for the slow component of the biexponential fit in the IPAH group was significantly longer than that in the ARDS group. The PCP in IPAH patients is greater than normal but methodological limitations related to the occlusion technique may limit interpretation of these data in isolation. Different disease processes may result in different times for arterial emptying, with resulting implications for the methods available for estimating PCP.

  1. Multianalyte detection using a capillary-based flow immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, U; Gauger, P R; Kusterbeck, A W; Ligler, F S

    1998-01-01

    A highly sensitive, dual-analyte detection system using capillary-based immunosensors has been designed for explosive detection. This model system consists of two capillaries, one coated with antibodies specific for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and the other specific for hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) combined into a single device. The fused silica capillaries are prepared by coating anti-TNT and anti-RDX antibodies onto the silanized inner walls using a hetero-bifunctional crosslinker. After immobilization, the antibodies are saturated with a suitable fluorophorelabeled antigen. A "T" connector is used to continuously flow the buffer solution through the individual capillaries. To perform the assay, an aliquot of TNT or RDX or a mixture of the two analytes is injected into the continuous flow stream. In each capillary, the target analyte displaces the fluorophore-labeled antigen from the binding pocket of the antibody. The labeled antigen displaced from either capillary is detected downstream using two portable spectrofluorometers. The limits of detection for TNT and RDX in the multi-analyte formate are 44 fmol (100 microliters of 0.1 ng/ml TNT solution) and 224 fmol (100 microliters of 0.5 ng/ml RDX solution), respectively. The entire assay for both analytes can be performed in less than 3 min.

  2. Factors affecting the separation performance of proteins in capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yueping; Li, Zhenqing; Wang, Ping; Shen, Lisong; Zhang, Dawei; Yamaguchi, Yoshinori

    2018-04-15

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is an effective tool for protein separation and analysis. Compared with capillary gel electrophoresis (CGE), non-gel sieving capillary electrophoresis (NGSCE) processes the superiority on operation, repeatability and automaticity. Herein, we investigated the effect of polymer molecular weight and concentration, electric field strength, and the effective length of the capillary on the separation performance of proteins, and find that (1) polymer with high molecular weight and concentration favors the separation of proteins, although concentrated polymer hinders its injection into the channel of the capillary due to its high viscosity. (2) The resolution between the adjacent proteins decreases with the increase of electric field strength. (3) When the effective length of the capillary is long, the separation performance improves at the cost of separation time. (4) 1.4% (w/v) hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), 100 V/cm voltage and 12 cm effective length offers the best separation for the proteins with molecular weight from 14,400 Da to 97,400 Da. Finally, we employed the optimal electrophoretic conditions to resolve Lysozyme, Ovalbumin, BSA and their mixtures, and found that they were baseline resolved within 15 min. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Principles of Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Applied in Pharmaceutical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Árpád Gyéresi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction capillary electrophoresis has shown great potential in areas where electrophoretic techniques have rarely been used before, including here the analysis of pharmaceutical substances. The large majority of pharmaceutical substances are neutral from electrophoretic point of view, consequently separations by the classic capillary zone electrophoresis; where separation is based on the differences between the own electrophoretic mobilities of the analytes; are hard to achieve. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, a hybrid method that combines chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles, extends the applicability of capillary electrophoretic methods to neutral analytes. In micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, surfactants are added to the buffer solution in concentration above their critical micellar concentrations, consequently micelles are formed; micelles that undergo electrophoretic migration like any other charged particle. The separation is based on the differential partitioning of an analyte between the two-phase system: the mobile aqueous phase and micellar pseudostationary phase. The present paper aims to summarize the basic aspects regarding separation principles and practical applications of micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography, with particular attention to those relevant in pharmaceutical analysis.

  4. THE CAPILLARY PATTERN IN HUMAN MASSETER MUSCLE DURING AGEING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Cvetko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ageing on the capillary network in skeletal muscles has produced conflicting results in both, human and animals studies. Some of the inconsistencies are due to non-comparable and biased methods that were applied on thin transversal sections, especially in muscles with complicated morphological structures, such as in human masseter muscle. We present a new immunohistochemical method for staining capillaries and muscle fibres in 100 µm thick sections as well as novel approach to 3D visualization of capillaries and muscle fibres. Applying confocal microscopy and virtual 3D stereological grids, or tracing capillaries in virtual reality, length of capillaries within a muscle volume or length of capillaries adjacent to muscle fibre per fibre length, fibre surface or fibre volume were evaluated in masseter muscle of young and old subjects by an unbiased approach. Our findings show that anatomic capillarity is well maintained in masseter muscle in old subjects; however, vascular remodelling occurs with age, which could be a response to changed muscle function and age-related muscle fibre type transformations.

  5. Short recovery time NMR probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramia, M.E.; Martin, C.A.; Jeandrevin, S.

    2011-01-01

    A NMR probe for low frequency and short recovery time is presented in this work. The probe contains the tuning circuit, diode expanders and quarter wavelength networks to protect the receiver from both the amplifier noise and the coil ringing following the transmitter power pulse. It also possesses a coil damper which is activated by of non active components. The probe performance shows a recovery time of about of 15μs a sensitive Q factor reduction and an increase of the signal to noise ratio of about 68% during the reception at a work frequency of 2 MHz. (author)

  6. Fast separation of enantiomers by capillary electrophoresis using a combination of two capillaries with different internal diameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šebestová, Andrea; Petr, Jan

    2017-12-01

    The combination of capillaries with different internal diameters was used to accelerate the separation of enantiomers in capillary electrophoresis. Separation of R,S-1,1'-binaphthalene-2,2'-diyl hydrogen phosphate using isopropyl derivative of cyclofructan 6 was studied as a model system. The best separation conditions included 500 mM sodium borate pH 9.5 with 60 mM concentration of the chiral selector. Separation lasted approx. 1.5 min using the combination of 50 and 100 μm id capillaries of 9.7 cm and 22.9 cm, respectively. It allowed approx. 12-fold acceleration in comparison to the traditional long-end separation mainly due to the higher electroosmotic flow generated in the connected capillaries. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Systematics of the southern African genus Ixia (Iridaceae. 2. The filiform-leaved I. capillaris complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Field study and associated examination of herbarium specimens of the filiform-leaved species of section Morphixia o f the South African genus Ixia L. have resulted in an increase in the number of species with this derived leaf type.  Ixia capillaris and  I. pauciflora have until now been the only species with such leaves and they have not been regarded as immediately related in past accounts of the genus. The two foliage leaves, typically less than 2 mm w ide, with a leathery to succulent texture, and lacking a raised central vein or margins, are specialized in the genus. Associated finely fibrous corm tunics, spikes of 1-3 flowers, and when present, short, thread-like lateral branches, usually bearing 1 or 2 flowers, provide supporting evidence that the group is monophyletic.  I. capillaris as interpreted until now. comprises four species, three of them new and described here, and the large-flowered I. pauciflora includes two species, one of these described here. While I. capillaris has a branched stem, radially symmetric flowers with a penanth tube (4—5—7(—8 mm long, tepals 11-15 mm long and thus substantially exceeding the tube, filaments typically exserted 1-2 mm. and anthers (3—4—5 mm long. I. exiliflora has a tube 8-10 mm long and ± as long as the tepals, included filaments, and anthers 3.5—4.0 mm long. The new  I. dieramoides also has included filaments but a perianth tube 13—18(—22 mm long and tepals 11-18 mm long. A third new species. I. reclinata has large flowers with a tube 13-15 mm long, tepals 16-21 mm long, and unilateral, decimate stamens with the filaments exserted 8-10 mm. and anthers 4-5 mm long. Typical  I. pauciflora has flowers with unilateral stamens and filaments exserted 2-6 mm from the flower and anthers prominently displayed, but specimens until now included in that species w ith short, included filaments 3-5 mm long and anthers half included in the tube, are here regarded as I. dieramoides. The I

  8. Wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate of the Es layer instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Cosgrove

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown, by computation of the linear growth rate, that midlatitude sporadic-E (Es layers are subject to a large scale electrodynamic instability. This instability is a logical candidate to explain certain frontal structuring events, and polarization electric fields, which have been observed in Es layers by ionosondes, by coherent scatter radars, and by rockets. However, the original growth rate derivation assumed an infinitely thin Es layer, and therefore did not address the short wavelength cutoff. Also, the same derivation ignored the effects of F region loading, which is a significant wavelength dependent effect. Herein is given a generalized derivation that remedies both these short comings, and thereby allows a computation of the wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate, as well as computations of various threshold conditions. The wavelength dependence of the linear growth rate is compared with observed periodicities, and the role of the zeroth order meridional wind is explored. A three-dimensional paper model is used to explain the instability geometry, which has been defined formally in previous works.

  9. A capillary-pumped loop (CPL) with microcone-shaped capillary structure for cooling electronic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jung-Yeul; Oh, Hoo-Suk; Kwak, Ho-Young; Lee, Dae Keun; Choi, Kyong Bin; Dong, Sang Keun

    2008-01-01

    A MEMS-based integrated capillary-pumped loop (CPL), which can be used for cooling electronic devices such as the CPU of a personal computer or notebook, was developed. The CPL consists of an evaporator and condenser both with the same size of 30 mm × 30 mm × 5.15 mm, which were fabricated using two layers of glass wafer and one layer of silicon wafer. A key element of the CPL is that the 480 ± 15 µm thickness silicon wafer where an array of 56 × 56 cone-shaped microholes that generates the capillary forces was fabricated and inserted above the compensation cavity for liquid transportation instead of a porous wick in the evaporator. The same cone-shaped microstructure was used in the condenser to create a stable interface between the liquid and vapor phases. The CPL fabricated was tested under various conditions such as different relative heights, fill ratios and heat fluxes. The operation conditions of the CPL were varied according to the relative height and fill ratios. With an allowable temperature of 110 °C on the evaporator surfaces, the CPL can handle a heat flux of about 6.22 W cm −2 for the air-cooled condenser. Steady-state operation conditions were achieved within 10 min. (note)

  10. Optical frequency-domain reflectometry using multiple wavelength-swept elements of a DFB laser array

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLazaro, Tom; Nehmetallah, Georges

    2017-02-01

    Coherent optical frequency-domain reflectometry (C-OFDR) is a distance measurement technique with significant sensitivity and detector bandwidth advantages over normal time-of-flight methods. Although several swept-wavelength laser sources exist, many exhibit short coherence lengths, or require precision mechanical tuning components. Semiconductor distributed feedback lasers (DFBs) are advantageous as a mid-to-long range OFDR source because they exhibit a narrow linewidth and can be rapidly tuned simply via injection current. However, the sweep range of an individual DFB is thermally limited. Here, we present a novel high-resolution OFDR system that uses a compact, monolithic 12-element DFB array to create a continuous, gap-free sweep over a wide wavelength range. Wavelength registration is provided by the incorporation of a HCN gas cell and reference interferometer. The wavelength-swept spectra of the 12 DFBs are combined in post-processing to achieve a continuous total wavelength sweep of more than 40 nm (5.4 THz) in the telecommunications C-Band range.

  11. Wavelength tuning of porous silicon microcavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, J.; Reece, P.; Zheng, W.H.; Lerondel, G.; Sun, B.; Gal, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last decade much attention has been given to porous silicon (PS) for optoelectronic applications, which include efficient room temperature light emission as well as microcavity formation. Due to the large specific surface area, the use of porous silicon microcavities (PSMs) has been proposed for chemical sensing. Large wavelength shifts have indicated that the optical properties of PSMs are indeed strongly dependent on the environment. In this paper, we report the shifting of the resonance frequency of high quality PSMs, with the aim of tuning a future PS device to a certain required wavelength. The PSM samples were prepared by anodically etching p + -doped (5mΩcm) bulk silicon wafer in a solution (25%) of aqueous HF and ethanol. The device structure consisted of a PS layer sandwiched between 2 stacks of thin PS layers with alternating high and low effective refractive indices (RI), i.e. distributed Bragg mirrors (DBM). The layer thickness depends on the etch time while the porosity and hence refractive index is determined by the current density as the Si is etched. The position and the width of the stop-band can be fully controlled by the design of the DBMs, with the microcavity resonance mode sitting within the stop-band. We achieved tuning of the microcavity resonance by a number of methods, including temperature dependent tuning. The temperature induced wavelength shift was found to be of the order of 10 -15 nm. Computer modeling of these changes in the reflectivity spectra allowed us to quantify the changes of the effective refractive index and the respective layer thicknesses

  12. A radiation research apparatus sensitive to wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The apparatus described is equipped with a radiation source with a tuning device for the generation of X radiation of at least two different wavelength spectra. The detector with ionisation chamber is able to discriminate between these spectra. This is done with the aid of an auxillary electrode between the entrance window and a high voltage electrode. With a lower source of voltage this electrode has a potential equal to the high voltage electrode potential and with a higher voltage source it has a potential equal to the signal electrode potential. (Th.P.)

  13. Wavelength-agnostic WDM-PON System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Christoph; Eiselt, Michael; Zou, S.

    2016-01-01

    on the standardization status of this lowcost system in the new ITU-T G.metro draft recommendation, in the context of autonomous tuning. We also discuss some low-effort implementations of the pilot-tone labels and investigate the impact of these labels on the transmission channels.......Next-generation WDM-PON solutions for metro and access systems will take advantage of remotely controlled wavelength-tunable ONUs to keep system costs as low as possible. For such a purpose, each ONU signal can be labeled by a pilot tone modulated onto the optical data stream. We report...

  14. Sub-wavelength imaging at radio frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, M C K; Pendry, J B; Hajnal, J V

    2006-01-01

    A slab of material with a negative permeability can act as a super-lens for magnetic fields and generate images with a sub-wavelength resolution. We have constructed an effective medium using a metamaterial with negative permeability in the region of 24 MHz, and used this to form images in free space of radio frequency magnetic sources. Measurements of these images show that a resolution of approximately λ/64 has been achieved, consistent with both analytical and numerical predictions. (letter to the editor)

  15. Gold Photoluminescence: Wavelength and Polarization Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Sebastian Kim Hjælm; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate engineering of the spectral content and polarization of photoluminescence (PL) from arrayed gold nanoparticles atop a subwavelength-thin dielectric spacer and optically-thick gold film, a configuration that supports gap-surface plasmon resonances (GSPRs). Choice of shapes...... and dimensions of gold nanoparticles influences the GSPR wavelength and polarization characteristics, thereby allowing us to enhance and spectrally mold the plasmon-assisted PL while simultaneously controlling its polarization. In order to understand the underlying physics behind the plasmon-enhanced PL, we...

  16. Tailoring Chirped Moiré Fiber Bragg Gratings for Wavelength-Division-Multiplexing and Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lawrence R.; Smith, Peter W. E.

    The design and fabrication of chirped Moiré fiber Bragg gratings (CMGs) are presented, which can be used in either (1) transmission as passband filters for providing wavelength selectivity in wavelength-division-multiplexed (WDM) systems or (2) reflection as encoding/decoding elements to decompose short broadband pulses in both wavelength and time in order to implement an optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system. In transmission, the fabricated CMGs have single or multiple flattened passbands ( 12 dB isolation and near constant in-band group delay. It is shown that these filters do not produce any measurable dispersion-induced power penalties when used to provide wavelength selectivity in 2.5 Gbit/s systems. It is also demonstrated how CMGs can be used in reflection to encode/decode short pulses from a wavelength-tunable mode-locked Er-doped fiber laser.

  17. Capillary Electrophoresis Artifact Due to Eosin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kathleen M.; Berg, Karin D.; Geiger, Tanya; Hafez, Michael; Flickinger, Katie A.; Cooper, Lisa; Pearson, Patrick; Eshleman, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a commonly used tool in the analysis of fluorescently labeled PCR amplification products. We have identified a CE artifact caused by the tissue stain eosin that can complicate the interpretation of CE data. The artifact was detected during routine analysis of a DNA sample isolated from a formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sample considered histologically suspicious for a B-cell neoplasm. A standard clinical PCR and CE assay for immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) gene rearrangement revealed a weak polyclonal population of rearranged IGH genes and a 71 base peak suspicious for IGH clonality. The spectral properties of the 71 base peak were unusual in that although the dominant fluorescence of the peak was blue, it also fluoresced in green and yellow (blue>green>yellow), raising the suspicion that the peak might represent an artifact. CE analysis of the genomic DNA sample without PCR amplification demonstrated the presence of the 71 base peak, suggesting that the artifact was caused by a contaminant within the DNA sample itself. We demonstrate that eosin, which was used to stain the formalin-fixed tissue during processing, yields a discrete 71 base peak of similar morphology to the contaminant peak on CE analysis. The data suggest that eosin in the fixed tissue was not completely eliminated during nucleic acid extraction, resulting in the artifact peak. We discuss the implications of this potentially common contaminant on the interpretation of CE data and demonstrate that artifacts caused by eosin can be avoided by using more stringent DNA purification steps. Histological dyes may fluoresce, and artifacts from them should be considered when primary peaks contain additional underlying peaks of other colors. PMID:15681487

  18. Wavelength converter placement in optical networks with dynamic traffic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buron, Jakob Due; Ruepp, Sarah Renée; Wessing, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    We evaluate the connection provisioning performance of GMPLS-controlled wavelength routed networks under dynamic traffic load and using three different wavelength converter placement heuristics. Results show that a simple uniform placement heuristic matches the performance of complex heuristics...

  19. Wavelength comparison for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy caries detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Marcello M.; Raele, Marcus P.; Ana, Patrícia A.; Núñez, Sílvia C.; Zamataro, Claudia B.; Zezell, Denise M.

    2018-02-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a technique capable to perform elemental analyses of a variety of samples, independent of matter state. Other spectroscopy techniques may require a destructive and time-consuming sample preparation. On the other hand, LIBS is a less destructive technique with no (or considerably less) sample preparation, using a relatively simple experimental setup. LIBS also provides a multielement analysis into one single spectrum acquisition, applying a Nd:YAG short-pulsed laser to ensure the stoichiometry between the sample and the generated plasma. LIBS have been applied on the study of carious lesions using a Nd:YAG into its fundamental emission at 1064 nm. It was shown that ratio of P/Ca and Zn/Ca can be used to monitor the cariogenic process. Another minor elements, e.g. C and Cu, associated with bacteria biofilm were also measured with the Nd:YAG laser. The fundamental wavelength emission (1064 nm) of Nd:YAG is coincident with a hydroxyapatite transmission window and it may affect the result. In order to address this issue a study used the second harmonic of the Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm. It was show that it is also possible perform LIBS on carious lesion using the Nd:YAG at 532 nm. However, there is not a work direct comparing the LIBS at 532 nm and 1064 nm for carious lesion detection. So, the aim of this work was to investigate the influence of laser wavelength on the LIBS performance for carious lesion detection. In both cases the carious lesion was detected with the advantage of no interference with hydroxyapatite at 532 nm.

  20. Effect of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on capillary filtration coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, R S; Wangensteen, O D; Jo, J K; Tsai, M Y; Bolman, R M

    2000-07-27

    We previously demonstrated that surfactant dilution and inhibition occur immediately after pulmonary artery flushing with hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution. Consequently, we speculated that increased capillary permeability contributed to these surfactant changes. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the effects of hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing on the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient (Kfc), and additionally performed a biochemical analysis of surfactant. We used a murine isolated, perfused lung model to measure the pulmonary capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamic parameters, to determine the wet to dry weight ratio, and to evaluate surfactant by biochemical analysis of lung lavage fluid. We defined three study groups. In group I (controls), we harvested lungs without hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing, and measured Kfc immediately. In group II (in situ flush), we harvested lungs after hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing with modified Euro-Collins solution, and then measured Kfc. Experiments in groups I and II were designed to evaluate persistent changes in Kfc after pulmonary artery flushing. In group III (ex vivo flush), we flushed lungs ex vivo to evaluate transient changes in Kfc during hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing. Groups I and II did not differ significantly in capillary filtration coefficient and hemodynamics. Group II showed significant alterations on biochemical surfactant analysis and a significant increase in wet-to-dry weight ratio, when compared with group I. In group III, we observed a significant transient increase in capillary filtration coefficient during pulmonary artery flushing. Hypothermic pulmonary artery flushing transiently increases the capillary filtration coefficient, leads to an increase in the wet to dry weight ratio, and induces biochemical surfactant changes. These findings could be explained by the effects of hypothermic modified Euro-Collins solution on pulmonary capillary