WorldWideScience

Sample records for short test duration

  1. Gas temperature measurements in short duration turbomachinery test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattafesta, L. N.; Epstein, A. H.

    1988-07-01

    Thermocouple rakes for use in short-duration turbomachinery test facilities have been developed using very fine thermocouples. Geometry variations were parametrically tested and showed that bare quartz junction supports (76 microns in diameter) yielded superior performance, and were rugged enough to survive considerable impact damage. Using very low cost signal conditioning electronics, temperature accuracies of 0.3 percent were realized yielding turbine efficiency measurements at the 1-percent level. Ongoing work to improve this accuracy is described.

  2. Marked exacerbation of orthostatic intolerance after long- vs. short-duration spaceflight in veteran astronauts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meck, J. V.; Reyes, C. J.; Perez, S. A.; Goldberger, A. L.; Ziegler, M. G.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The incidence of postflight orthostatic intolerance after short-duration spaceflight is about 20%. However, the incidence after long-duration spaceflight was unknown. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that orthostatic intolerance is more severe after long-duration than after short-duration flight. METHODS: We performed tilt tests on six astronauts before and after long-duration (129-190 days) spaceflights and compared these data with data obtained during stand tests before and after previous short-duration missions. RESULTS: Five of the six astronauts studied became presyncopal during tilt testing after long-duration flights. Only one had become presyncopal during stand testing after short-duration flights. We also compared the long-duration flight tilt test data to tilt test data from 20 different astronauts who flew on the short-duration Shuttle missions that delivered and recovered the astronauts to and from the Mir Space Station. Five of these 20 astronauts became presyncopal on landing day. Heart rate responses to tilt were no different between astronauts on long-duration flights and astronauts on short-duration flights, but long-duration subjects had lower stroke volumes and cardiac outputs than short-duration presyncopal subjects, suggesting a possible decrease in cardiac contractile function. One subject had subnormal norepinephrine release with upright posture after the long flight but not after the short flight. Plasma volume losses were not greater after long flights. CONCLUSION: Long-duration spaceflight markedly increases orthostatic intolerance, probably with multiple contributing factors.

  3. Relationship Between Short Sleep Duration and Preseason Concussion Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverberg, Noah D; Berkner, Paul D; Atkins, Joseph E; Zafonte, Ross; Iverson, Grant L

    2016-05-01

    Baseline, preseason assessment of cognition, symptoms, and balance has been recommended as part of a comprehensive sport concussion management program. We examined the relationship between sleep and baseline test results. We hypothesized that adolescents who slept fewer hours the night before would report more symptoms and perform more poorly on cognitive testing than students who had a full night sleep. Cross-sectional observation study. Preseason concussion testing for high school athletes. A large sample (n = 2928) of student athletes from Maine, USA, between the ages of 13 and 18 years completed preseason testing. Participants with developmental problems, a history of treatment for neurological or psychiatric problems, recent concussion, or 3 or more prior concussions were excluded. Athletes were divided into 4 groups based on their sleep duration the night before testing. Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT; ImPACT Applications, Inc, Pittsburgh, PA) cognitive composite scores and the embedded Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. Sleep was not related to any ImPACT cognitive composite score, after covarying for age and controlling for multiple comparisons. In contrast, there were sleep duration, sex, and sleep duration by sex effects on the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale. The effect of sleep duration on symptom reporting was more pronounced in girls. Supplementary analyses suggested that sleep insufficiency was associated with a diverse array of postconcussion-like symptoms. Poor sleep the night before baseline or postinjury testing may be an important confound when assessing postconcussion symptoms. Girls may be more vulnerable to experiencing and reporting symptoms following insufficient sleep. Clinicians should routinely ask how the athlete slept the night before preseason baseline testing and consider deferring the symptom assessment or later retesting athletes who slept poorly.

  4. SHORT-DURATION GAMMA-RAY BURSTS FROM OFF-AXIS COLLAPSARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzati, Davide; Morsony, Brian J.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    2010-01-01

    We present two-dimensional (2D) high-resolution hydrodynamic simulations of the relativistic outflows of long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitors. We analyze the properties of the outflows at wide off-axis angles, produced by the expansion of the hot cocoon that surrounds the jet inside the progenitor star. We find that the cocoon emission at wide angles may have properties similar to those of the subclass of short-duration GRBs with persistent X-ray emission. We compute the predicted duration distribution, redshift distribution, and afterglow brightness, and we find that they are all in agreement with the observed properties of short GRBs with persistent emission. We suggest that a supernova component, the properties of the host galaxies, and late afterglow observations can be used as a crucial test to verify this model.

  5. Effects of Short- and Long-Duration Space Flight on Neuromuscular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Roxanne E.; Spiering, Barry A.; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2010-01-01

    The Functional Task Tests (FTT) is an interdisciplinary study designed to correlate the changes in functional tasks (such as emergency egress, ladder climbing, and hatch opening) with changes in neuromuscular, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor function. One aspect of the FTT, the neuromuscular function test, is used to investigate the neuromuscular component underlying changes in the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks (representative of critical mission tasks) safely and quickly after flight. PURPOSE: To describe neuromuscular function after short- and long-duration space flight. METHODS: To date, 5 crewmembers on short-duration (10- to 15-day) missions and 3 on long-duration missions have participated. Crewmembers were assessed 30 days before flight, on landing day (short-duration subjects only) and 1, 6, and 30 days after landing. The interpolated twitch technique, which utilizes a combination of maximal voluntary contractions and electrically evoked contractions, was used to assess the maximal voluntary isometric force (MIF) and central activation capacity of the knee extensors. Leg-press and bench-press devices were used to assess MIF and maximal dynamic power of the lower and upper body respectively. Specifically, power was measured during concentric-only ballistic throws of the leg-press sled and bench-press bar loaded to 40% and 30% of MIF respectively. RESULTS: Data are currently being collected from both Shuttle and ISS crewmembers. Emerging data indicate that measures of knee extensor muscle function are decreased with long-duration flight. DISCUSSION: The relationships between flight duration, neural drive, and muscle performance are of particular interest. Ongoing research will add to the current sample size and will focus on defining changes in muscle performance measures after long-duration space flight.

  6. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Methods: Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed ...

  7. Insomnia with short sleep duration and mortality: the Penn State cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Liao, Duanping; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Calhoun, Susan; Karataraki, Maria; Basta, Maria; Fernández-Mendoza, Julio; Bixler, Edward O

    2010-09-01

    Because insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with increased morbidity, we examined the effects of this insomnia subtype on all-cause mortality. Longitudinal. Sleep laboratory. 1,741 men and women randomly selected from Central Pennsylvania. Participants were studied in the sleep laboratory and were followed-up for 14 years (men) and 10 years (women). "Insomnia" was defined by a complaint of insomnia with duration > or = 1 year. "Normal sleeping" was defined as absence of insomnia. Polysomnographic sleep duration was classified into two categories: the "normal sleep duration group" subjects who slept > or = 6 h and the "short sleep duration group" subjects who slept insomnia" group, (OR = 4.00, CI 1.14-13.99) after adjusting for diabetes, hypertension, and other confounders. Furthermore, there was a marginally significant trend (P = 0.15) towards higher mortality risk from insomnia and short sleep in patients with diabetes or hypertension (OR = 7.17, 95% CI 1.41-36.62) than in those without these comorbid conditions (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 0.13-16.14). In women, mortality was not associated with insomnia and short sleep duration. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration in men is associated with increased mortality, a risk that has been underestimated.

  8. Unveiling the Progenitors of Short-duration Gamma-ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Wen-Fai

    2016-03-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are relativistic explosions which originate at cosmological distances, and are among the most luminous transients in the universe. Following the prompt gamma-ray emission, a fading synchrotron ``afterglow'' is detectable at lower energies. While long-duration GRBs (duration >2 sec) are linked to the deaths of massive stars, the progenitors of short-duration GRBs (duration black hole. Such merging systems are also important to understand because they are premier candidates for gravitational wave detections with current facilities and are likely sites of heavy element nucleosynthesis. The launch of NASA's Swift satellite in 2004, with its rapid multi-wavelength monitoring and localization capabilities, led to the first discoveries of short GRB afterglows and therefore robust associations to host galaxies. At a detection rate of roughly 10 events per year, the growing number of well-localized short GRBs has enabled comprehensive population studies of their afterglows and environments for the first time. In this talk, I describe my multi-wavelength observational campaign to address testable predictions for the progenitors of short GRBs. My work comprises several lines of independent evidence to demonstrate that short GRBs originate from the mergers of two compact objects, and also provides the first constraints on the explosion properties for a large sample of events. With the direct detection of gravitational waves from compact object mergers on the horizon, these studies provide necessary inputs to inform the next decade of joint electromagnetic-gravitational wave search strategies.

  9. Combined approach to reduced duration integrated leakage rate testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galanti, P.J.

    1987-01-01

    Even though primary reactor containment allowable leakage rates are expressed in weight percent per day of contained air, engineers have been attempting to define acceptable methods to test in < 24 h as long as these tests have been performed. The reasons to reduce testing duration are obvious, because time not generating electricity is time not generating revenue for the utilities. The latest proposed revision to 10CFR50 Appendix J, concerning integrated leakage rate testing (ILRTs), was supplemented with a draft regulatory guide proposing yet another method. This paper proposes a method that includes elements of currently accepted concepts for short duration testing with a standard statistical check for criteria acceptance. Following presentation of the method, several cases are presented showing the results of these combined criteria

  10. A Suborbital Spaceship for Short Duration Space and Microsat Launch

    OpenAIRE

    Bahn, Pat

    2005-01-01

    The TGV Rockets corporation is working on a small Vertical Takeoff Vertical Landing Suborbital Rocketship capable of carrying 1000 kg to 100 km for low cost. This provides unique and interesting capabilities for payload test and qualification, development and short duration experimentation. Theoretical possibilities include micro-sat launch. TGV Rockets was founded in 1997 on a desire to commercialize the Delta Clipper-Experimental (DC-X)1,5,8. Subsequently TGV has been working towards th...

  11. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Kelly, Paul B. Gastin, Daniel B Dwyer, Simon Sostaric, Rodney J. Snow

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min, high intensity, interval training (HIIT in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1 and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc (n = 7 or Control (Con group (n = 7. The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH, whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH. Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% VO2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac-], heart rate (HR, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac-] (all p < 0.05 during the submaximal exercise test in the heat. Heart rate was lower (p = 0.007 after HIIT, in both groups. Heat acclimation did not influence any other measured variables. In conclusion, five short duration HIIT sessions in hot dry conditions induced limited heat acclimation responses in AF players during the in-season competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited.

  12. Steady-state pattern electroretinogram and short-duration transient visual evoked potentials in glaucomatous and healthy eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekera, Dilru C; Resende, Arthur F; Waisbourd, Michael; Puri, Sanjeev; Moster, Marlene R; Hark, Lisa A; Katz, L Jay; Fudemberg, Scott J; Mantravadi, Anand V

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluates two rapid electrophysiological glaucoma diagnostic tests that may add a functional perspective to glaucoma diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the ability of two office-based electrophysiological diagnostic tests, steady-state pattern electroretinogram and short-duration transient visual evoked potentials, to discern between glaucomatous and healthy eyes. This is a cross-sectional study in a hospital setting. Forty-one patients with glaucoma and 41 healthy volunteers participated in the study. Steady-state pattern electroretinogram and short-duration transient visual evoked potential testing was conducted in glaucomatous and healthy eyes. A 64-bar-size stimulus with both a low-contrast and high-contrast setting was used to compare steady-state pattern electroretinogram parameters in both groups. A low-contrast and high-contrast checkerboard stimulus was used to measure short-duration transient visual evoked potential parameters in both groups. Steady-state pattern electroretinogram parameters compared were MagnitudeD, MagnitudeD/Magnitude ratio, and the signal-to-noise ratio. Short-duration transient visual evoked potential parameters compared were amplitude and latency. MagnitudeD was significantly lower in glaucoma patients when using a low-contrast (P = 0.001) and high-contrast (P state pattern electroretinogram stimulus. MagnitudeD/Magnitude ratio and SNR were significantly lower in the glaucoma group when using a high-contrast 64-bar-size stimulus (P state pattern electroretinogram was effectively able to discern between glaucomatous and healthy eyes. Steady-state pattern electroretinogram may thus have a role as a clinically useful electrophysiological diagnostic tool. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  13. Speaker-Sex Discrimination for Voiced and Whispered Vowels at Short Durations

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, David R. R.

    2016-01-01

    Whispered vowels, produced with no vocal fold vibration, lack the periodic temporal fine structure which in voiced vowels underlies the perceptual attribute of pitch (a salient auditory cue to speaker sex). Voiced vowels possess no temporal fine structure at very short durations (below two glottal cycles). The prediction was that speaker-sex discrimination performance for whispered and voiced vowels would be similar for very short durations but, as stimulus duration increases, voiced vowel pe...

  14. The insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype: an update on it's importance for health and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio

    2017-01-01

    It was first proposed in the late 1990s that objective markers of sleep disturbance could serve as an index of the biological severity of insomnia. In 2013, a heuristic model of two insomnia phenotypes based on objective sleep duration was proposed. Herein, we review the studies conducted in the past 3 years on the insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype and its implications for a clinical research agenda. Studies have shown that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiologic hyperarousal and cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity, whereas insomnia with normal sleep duration is not. Both insomnia phenotypes are associated with psychiatric morbidity albeit through different psychobiological mechanisms. Novel recent studies have included occupational outcomes, developmental approaches, at-home objective sleep testing, diagnostic accuracy measures, and response to cognitive-behavioral treatment. Accumulating evidence in the past years has continued to support that insomnia with short sleep duration is a more severe phenotype of the disorder associated with physiologic changes, significant morbidity and mortality and, potentially, a differential response to treatment.

  15. Racial disparities in short sleep duration by occupation and industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chandra L; Redline, Susan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Williams, Michelle A; Hu, Frank B

    2013-11-01

    Short sleep duration, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, has been shown to vary by occupation and industry, but few studies have investigated differences between black and white populations. By using data from a nationally representative sample of US adult short sleepers (n = 41,088) in the National Health Interview Survey in 2004-2011, we estimated prevalence ratios for short sleep duration in blacks compared with whites for each of 8 industry categories by using adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance. Participants' mean age was 47 years; 50% were women and 13% were black. Blacks were more likely to report short sleep duration than whites (37% vs. 28%), and the black-white disparity was widest among those who held professional occupations. Adjusted short sleep duration was more prevalent in blacks than whites in the following industry categories: finance/information/real estate (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30, 1.59); professional/administrative/management (PR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.44); educational services (PR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.54); public administration/arts/other services (PR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.41); health care/social assistance (PR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.32); and manufacturing/construction (PR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.20). Short sleep generally increased with increasing professional responsibility within a given industry among blacks but decreased with increasing professional roles among whites. Our results suggest the need for further investigation of racial/ethnic differences in the work-sleep relationship.

  16. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiological evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mechanistically mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review aims to provide an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relationships between habitual short sleep durat...

  17. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with longer duration of insomnia in the Freiburg Insomnia Cohort compared to insomnia with normal sleep duration, but not with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Anna F; Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Kyle, Simon D; Baglioni, Chiara; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; McGinness, Alastair J; Riemann, Dieter; Spiegelhalder, Kai

    2017-01-01

    To replicate the association between insomnia with objective short sleep duration and hypertension, type 2 diabetes and duration of insomnia. Retrospective case-control study. Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center-University of Freiburg. 328 patients with primary insomnia classified according to DSM-IV criteria (125 males, 203 females, 44.3 ± 12.2 years). N/A. All participants were investigated using polysomnography, blood pressure measurements, and fasting routine laboratory. Insomnia patients with short sleep duration (insomnia compared to those with normal sleep duration (≥ 6 hours) in the first night of laboratory sleep. Insomnia patients who were categorised as short sleepers in either night were not more likely to suffer from hypertension (systolic blood pressure of ≥ 140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure of ≥ 90 mm Hg, or a previously established diagnosis). Data analysis showed that insomnia patients with objective short sleep duration were not more likely to suffer from type 2 diabetes (fasting plasma glucose level of ≥ 126 mg/dl, or a previously established diagnosis). However, the diabetes analysis was only based on a very small number of diabetes cases. As a new finding, insomnia patients who were categorised as short sleepers in either night presented with increases in liver enzyme levels. The finding on insomnia duration supports the concept of two distinct sub-groups of insomnia, namely insomnia with, and without, objectively determined short sleep duration. However, our data challenges previous findings that insomnia patients with short sleep duration are more likely to suffer from hypertension.

  18. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiologic evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review provides an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relations between habitual short sleep duration and dietary intake in a...

  19. Restoring normoglycaemia by use of a very low calorie diet in long- and short-duration Type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, S; Taylor, R

    2015-09-01

    To establish whether an 8-week very-low-calorie diet could improve glycaemic control in Type 2 diabetes of long duration. A total of 29 people with Type 2 diabetes [short-duration group (diabetes duration diabetes duration > 8 years), n = 14] completed an 8-week very-low-calorie diet, with assessments of fasting anthropometry, blood tests and blood pressure at baseline and weeks 1, 4 and 8 of the diet. Similar weight loss was achieved in the short- and long-duration groups (14.8 ± 0.8% and 14.4 ± 0.7% respectively; P = 0.662). The glucose response to acute calorie restriction was heterogeneous in the long-duration group with some responding similarly to those in the short-duration group, some responding, but only slowly, and others not responding at all. Overall, HbA1c concentration in the short- vs. long-duration groups fell to 44 ± 2 vs. 64 ± 6 mmol/l (6.2 ± 0.2 vs. 8.0 ± 0.5%; P = 0.002). Fasting plasma glucose levels decreased to 5.8 ± 0.2 vs. 8.4 ± 1.1 mmol/l (P = 0.024) respectively. A total of 87% of the short-duration group and 50% of the long-duration group achieved non-diabetic fasting plasma glucose levels at week 8. Clinically significant improvements in blood pressure and lipid profile were seen regardless of diabetes duration. In people with Type 2 diabetes of > 8 years' duration, a therapeutic trial of a very-low-calorie diet may be undertaken with a 50% chance of achieving non-diabetic fasting glucose levels off all antidiabetic therapies. © 2015 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  20. Investigation into increasing short-duration rainfall intensities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... This study explores this expectation by using historical short-duration ... weather station 5-min rainfall data were combined to extend the effective ... evidence was found of trends or indications of changes in rainfall intensities.

  1. Laser-driven short-duration heating angioplasty: dilatation performance in cadaver atherosclerotic femoral arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazaki, Natsumi; Naruse, Sho; Arai, Tsunenori; Imanishi, Nobuaki; Aiso, Sadakazu

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the artery dilatation performance of the short-duration heating balloon catheter in cadaver stenotic arteries. We designed a prototype short-duration heating balloon catheter that can heat artery media to around 60 °C in 15-25 s by a combination of laser-driven heat generation and continuous fluid irrigation in the balloon. We performed ex vivo short-duration heating dilatation in the cadaver atherosclerotic femoral arteries (initial percent diameter stenosis was 36-98%), with the maximum balloon temperature of 65+/-5 °C, laser irradiation duration of 25 s, and balloon dilatation pressure of 3.5 atm. The artery lumen configurations before and after the dilatations were assessed with a commercial IVUS system. After the short-duration heating dilatations, the percent diameter stenosis was reduced below 30% without any artery tears or dissections. We estimated that the artery media temperature was raised to around 60 °C in which plaque thickness was below 0.8 mm by a thermal conduction calculation. The estimated maximum temperature in artery adventitia and surrounding tissue was up to 45 °C. We found that the short-duration heating balloon could sufficiently dilate the cadaver stenotic arteries, without thermal injury in artery adventitia and surroundings.

  2. Applying short-duration pulses as a mean to enhance volatile organic compounds removal by air sparging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Neriah, Asaf; Paster, Amir

    2017-10-01

    Application of short-duration pulses of high air pressure, to an air sparging system for groundwater remediation, was tested in a two-dimensional laboratory setup. It was hypothesized that this injection mode, termed boxcar, can enhance the remediation efficiency due to the larger ZOI and enhanced mixing which results from the pressure pulses. To test this hypothesis, flow and transport experiments were performed. Results confirm that cyclically applying short-duration pressure pulses may enhance contaminant cleanup. Comparing the boxcar to conventional continuous air-injection shows up to a three-fold increase in the single well radius of influence, dependent on the intensity of the short-duration pressure-pulses. The cleanup efficiency of Toluene from the water was 95% higher than that achieved under continuous injection with the same average conditions. This improvement was attributed to the larger zone of influence and higher average air permeability achieved in the boxcar mode, relative to continuous sparging. Mixing enhancement resultant from recurring pressure pulses was suggested as one of the mechanisms which enhance the contaminant cleanup. The application of a boxcar mode in an existing, multiwell, air sparging setup can be relatively straightforward: it requires the installation of an on-off valve in each of the injection-wells and a central control system. Then, turning off some of the wells, for a short-duration, result in a stepwise increase in injection pressure in the rest of the wells. It is hoped that this work will stimulate the additional required research and ultimately a field scale application of this new injection mode. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Earth orientation determinations by short duration VLBI observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothnagel, Axel; Zhihan, Qian; Nicolson, George D.; Tomasi, Paolo

    1994-03-01

    In May 1989 and April 1990 the radio telescopes of the Wettzell Geodetic Fundamental Station in Germany and of the Shanghai Observatory near Seshan in China observed two series of daily VLBI experiments of short duration for precise determination of UT1. In 1990 a few experiments were complemented by the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory in South Africa and the Medicina telescope of the Bologna Istituto di Radioastronomia in Italy. Employing the South African station together with the east-west baseline formed by the observatories of Seshan and Medicina permitted simultaneous determinations of UT1 and polar motion. Here we report on the results of these observations. Comparing the UT1 results with those of the IRIS Intensive series gives a clear indication of the absolute accuracy of such short duration VLBI measurements which is estimated to be of the order of ±60 µs.

  4. Insomnia in patients on hemodialysis for a short versus long duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetsu Tomita,1 Norio Yasui-Furukori,1 Masaki Oka,1 Takaaki Shimizu,2 Aya Nagashima,2 Kento Mitsuhashi,2 Hisao Saito,3 Kazuhiko Nakamura1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, 2School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, 3Department of Urology, Oyokyo Kidney Research Institute, Hirosaki, Japan Background: Many studies have investigated insomnia and the factors associated with this condition in hemodialysis (HD patients, although the influence of HD duration has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we investigated the factors, especially the duration of HD, associated with insomnia in HD patients.Patients and methods: A total of 138 patients undergoing HD were recruited, and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was used to assess the quality of sleep. Subjects with a total PSQI score up to 4 and those with a score of at least 5 were identified as normal subjects and subjects with insomnia, respectively. Additionally, we assessed restless legs syndrome, depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and health-related quality of life (QOL using the Short Form 8 Health Survey. We divided the subjects into two groups according to the median HD duration.Results: The prevalence rate of insomnia was 54.3% among all the subjects. Twenty-one subjects (15.2% had depression, 26 (18.8% had restless legs syndrome, and 75 (54.3% had insomnia. The median HD duration was 4 years. The scores of components 1 and 4 of the PSQI, subjective sleep quality and habitual sleep efficiency, did not show a significant difference between the normal and insomnia groups. The score of component 7, daytime dysfunction, showed a significant difference between the short and long HD duration groups. In multiple regression analysis, the score of the Short Form 8 Health Survey showed a significant association with the PSQI score in the long HD duration group, but no variable showed a

  5. Effect of active warm-up duration on morning short-term maximal performance during Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, Hana; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    To examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the morning. Twelve healthy active men performed four Wingate tests for measurement of peak power and mean power before and during Ramadan at 09:00 a.m. The tests were performed on separate days, after either a 5-min or a 15-min warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. Oral temperature was measured at rest and after warming-up. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Oral temperature was higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up throughout the study. Moreover, peak power and mean power were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up before Ramadan. However, during Ramadan, there was no significant difference between the two warm-up durations. In addition, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-min warm-up than the 5-min warm-up only during Ramadan. There is no need to prolong the warm-up period before short-term maximal exercise performed during Ramadan in the morning.

  6. Globally coherent short duration magnetic field transients and their effect on ground based gravitational-wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalska-Leszczynska, Izabela; Bulik, Tomasz; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Robinet, Florent; Christensen, Nelson; Rohde, Maximilian; Coughlin, Michael; Gołkowski, Mark; Kubisz, Jerzy; Kulak, Andrzej; Mlynarczyk, Janusz

    2017-01-01

    It has been recognized that the magnetic fields from the Schumann resonances could affect the search for a stochastic gravitational-wave background by LIGO and Virgo. Presented here are the observations of short duration magnetic field transients that are coincident in the magnetometers at the LIGO and Virgo sites. Data from low-noise magnetometers in Poland and Colorado, USA, are also used and show short duration magnetic transients of global extent. We measure at least 2.3 coincident (between Poland and Colorado) magnetic transient events per day where one of the pulses exceeds 200 pT. Given the recently measured values of the magnetic coupling to differential arm motion for Advanced LIGO, there would be a few events per day that would appear simultaneously at the gravitational-wave detector sites and could move the test masses of order 10 −18 m. We confirm that in the advanced detector era short duration transient gravitational-wave searches must account for correlated magnetic field noise in the global detector network. (paper)

  7. Speaker-Sex Discrimination for Voiced and Whispered Vowels at Short Durations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R R

    2016-01-01

    Whispered vowels, produced with no vocal fold vibration, lack the periodic temporal fine structure which in voiced vowels underlies the perceptual attribute of pitch (a salient auditory cue to speaker sex). Voiced vowels possess no temporal fine structure at very short durations (below two glottal cycles). The prediction was that speaker-sex discrimination performance for whispered and voiced vowels would be similar for very short durations but, as stimulus duration increases, voiced vowel performance would improve relative to whispered vowel performance as pitch information becomes available. This pattern of results was shown for women's but not for men's voices. A whispered vowel needs to have a duration three times longer than a voiced vowel before listeners can reliably tell whether it's spoken by a man or woman (∼30 ms vs. ∼10 ms). Listeners were half as sensitive to information about speaker-sex when it is carried by whispered compared with voiced vowels.

  8. Short Duration Heat Acclimation in Australian Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Monica; Gastin, Paul B; Dwyer, Daniel B; Sostaric, Simon; Snow, Rodney J

    2016-03-01

    This study examined if five sessions of short duration (27 min), high intensity, interval training (HIIT) in the heat over a nine day period would induce heat acclimation in Australian football (AF) players. Fourteen professional AF players were matched for VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) and randomly allocated into either a heat acclimation (Acc) (n = 7) or Control (Con) group (n = 7). The Acc completed five cycle ergometer HIIT sessions within a nine day period on a cycle ergometer in the heat (38.7 ± 0.5 °C; 34.4 ± 1.3 % RH), whereas Con trained in thermo-neutral conditions (22.3 ± 0.2 °C; 35.8 ± 0. % RH). Four days prior and two days post HIIT participants undertook a 30 min constant load cycling test at 60% V̇O2peak in the heat (37.9 ± 0.1 °C; 28.5 ± 0.7 % RH) during which VO2, blood lactate concentration ([Lac(-)]), heart rate (HR), rating of perceived exertion (RPE), thermal comfort, core and skin temperatures were measured. Heat acclimation resulted in reduced RPE, thermal comfort and [Lac(-)] (all p competition phase. In practice, the heat acclimation protocol can be implemented in a professional team environment; however the physiological adaptations resulting from such a protocol were limited. Key pointsSome minor heat acclimation adaptations can be induced in professional AF players with five 27 min non-consecutive, short duration HIIT sessions in the heat.The heat acclimation protocol employed in this study was able to be implemented in a professional team sport environment during an actual competitive season.Elevating and maintaining a high core temperature sufficient for heat acclimation likely requires a longer heat training session or some pre-heating prior to exercise.

  9. Short-term memory for auditory and visual durations: evidence for selective interference effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattat, Anne-Claire; Picard, Delphine

    2012-01-01

    The present study sought to determine the format in which visual, auditory and auditory-visual durations ranging from 400 to 600 ms are encoded and maintained in short-term memory, using suppression conditions. Participants compared two stimulus durations separated by an interval of 8 s. During this time, they performed either an articulatory suppression task, a visuospatial tracking task or no specific task at all (control condition). The results showed that the articulatory suppression task decreased recognition performance for auditory durations but not for visual or bimodal ones, whereas the visuospatial task decreased recognition performance for visual durations but not for auditory or bimodal ones. These findings support the modality-specific account of short-term memory for durations.

  10. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W C; Behm, David G

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key pointsThe duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001).No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions.The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects.The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments.

  11. Short Durations of Static Stretching when Combined with Dynamic Stretching do not Impair Repeated Sprints and Agility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P.; Chaouachi, Anis; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Behm, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA) and change of direction (COD). Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s). Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total). Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. Key points The duration of combined static and dynamic stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit and reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences in RSA and COD between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. The short duration (≤ 90 s) static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments. PMID:24149890

  12. Substance use associated with short sleep duration in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Vivian K; Pato, Michele T; Sobell, Janet L; Hammond, Terese C; Valdez, Mark M; Lane, Christianne J; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    To examine the association between substance use and short sleep duration in individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, depressive type (SADD). Cross-sectional, retrospective study. Urban, suburban, and rural centers across the United States. 2,462 consented, adult individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, depressive type (SADD). Participants included inpatients in acute or chronic care settings as well as outpatients and residents in community dwellings. Substance use was assessed with 10 questions adopted from well-validated measures (e.g., CAGE questionnaire) for alcohol, marijuana, and illicit drugs. Short sleep duration was defined as <6 hr of self-reported sleep per night. Close to 100% of our sample used nicotine while 83% used substances other than nicotine. More importantly, there was a significant association between substance use and short sleep duration. Interestingly, this association was strongest among African-Americans with schizophrenia or SADD. Because psychiatric medications often target chemical receptors involved with both sleep and substance use, understanding the association between short sleep duration and substance use in individuals with schizophrenia and SADD is important. Given that the majority of premature deaths in individuals with psychotic illness are due to medical conditions associated with modifiable risk factors, prospective studies designed to examine the effect of short sleep duration on behaviors like substance use should be undertaken. Finally, analyzing genetic and environmental data in a future study might help illuminate the strong association found between short sleep duration and substance use in African-Americans with schizophrenia and SADD. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The multidimensional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia among Taiwanese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia, including individual factors, family factors, peer factors, school factors, and the problematic use of high-tech devices among a large-scale representative population of Taiwanese adolescents. Cross-sectional study. A total of 23 junior high and 29 senior high/vocational schools were randomly selected across southern Taiwan. Eight thousand four adolescent students. N/A. The multidimensional correlates associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia were examined using chi2 automatic interaction detection analysis and logistic regression analysis models. The results indicated that an older age, self-reported depression, being in the third year of school, drinking coffee at night, and problematic Internet use were significantly associated with short nocturnal sleep duration in adolescents. Furthermore, self-reported depression, low school affinity, high family conflict, low connectedness to their peer group, and problematic Internet use were associated with subjective insomnia in adolescents. The results of this study indicate that a variety of individual, family, peer, and school factors were associated with short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia in adolescents. Furthermore, the correlates of short sleep duration were not identical to those of subjective insomnia. Parents and health professionals should be wary of sleep patterns among adolescents who have the identified correlates of short nocturnal sleep duration and subjective insomnia.

  14. Prediction of long time creep rupture properties of welded joints using the results of short duration creep crack incubation tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini, E.

    2013-07-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the applicability of the LICON methodology for the prediction of long-time creep rupture strength of a dissimilar metal weld. The LICON methodology is an approach for predicting the lifetime of materials under creep loading conditions. It predicts long-time uniaxial creep strength using the results from several short duration creep crack incubation tests in conjunction with the outcome of a mechanical analysis on the test-piece. This study has re-examined the previous application of the LICON methodology for 9%Cr and 1CrMoV steels. It has shown that application of the original Lion method (based on reference stress solutions) for certain materials is not appropriate. This study therefore proposes a new development for the Lion approach which uses finite-element analysis to account for the generated multiaxial stress states within welded uniaxial test-pieces.

  15. Prediction of long time creep rupture properties of welded joints using the results of short duration creep crack incubation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini, E.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the applicability of the LICON methodology for the prediction of long-time creep rupture strength of a dissimilar metal weld. The LICON methodology is an approach for predicting the lifetime of materials under creep loading conditions. It predicts long-time uniaxial creep strength using the results from several short duration creep crack incubation tests in conjunction with the outcome of a mechanical analysis on the test-piece. This study has re-examined the previous application of the LICON methodology for 9%Cr and 1CrMoV steels. It has shown that application of the original Lion method (based on reference stress solutions) for certain materials is not appropriate. This study therefore proposes a new development for the Lion approach which uses finite-element analysis to account for the generated multiaxial stress states within welded uniaxial test-pieces

  16. Persistent insomnia: the role of objective short sleep duration and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Bixler, Edward O; Singareddy, Ravi; Shaffer, Michele L; Calhoun, Susan L; Liao, Duanping; Basta, Maria; Chrousos, George P

    2012-01-01

    Few population-based, longitudinal studies have examined risk factors for persistent insomnia, and the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, none of these studies have examined the role of polysomnographic (PSG) variables such as sleep duration or sleep apnea on the persistence of insomnia. Representative longitudinal study. Sleep laboratory. From a random, general population sample of 1741 individuals of the adult Penn State Cohort, 1395 were followed-up after 7.5 years. Individuals underwent one-night PSG and full medical evaluation at baseline and a telephone interview at follow-up. PSG sleep duration was analyzed as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable: insomnia persistence, partial remission, and full remission were 44.0%, 30.0%, and 26.0%, respectively. Objective short sleep duration significantly increased the odds of persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 3.19) and to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 4.92). Mental health problems at baseline were strongly associated with persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 9.67) and to a lesser degree compared to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 3.68). Smoking, caffeine, and alcohol consumption and sleep apnea did not predict persistent insomnia. Objective short sleep duration and mental health problems are the strongest predictors of persistent insomnia. These data further support the validity and clinical utility of objective short sleep duration as a novel marker of the biological severity of insomnia.

  17. Short Sleep Duration Among Middle School and High School Students - United States, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Jones, Sherry Everett; Cooper, Adina C; Croft, Janet B

    2018-01-26

    Insufficient sleep among children and adolescents is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, injuries, poor mental health, attention and behavior problems, and poor academic performance (1-4). The American Academy of Sleep Medicine has recommended that, for optimal health, children aged 6-12 years should regularly sleep 9-12 hours per 24 hours and teens aged 13-18 years should sleep 8-10 hours per 24 hours (1). CDC analyzed data from the 2015 national, state, and large urban school district Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBSs) to determine the prevalence of short sleep duration (school nights among middle school and high school students in the United States. In nine states that conducted the middle school YRBS and included a question about sleep duration in their questionnaire, the prevalence of short sleep duration among middle school students was 57.8%, with state-level estimates ranging from 50.2% (New Mexico) to 64.7% (Kentucky). The prevalence of short sleep duration among high school students in the national YRBS was 72.7%. State-level estimates of short sleep duration for the 30 states that conducted the high school YRBS and included a question about sleep duration in their questionnaire ranged from 61.8% (South Dakota) to 82.5% (West Virginia). The large percentage of middle school and high school students who do not get enough sleep on school nights suggests a need for promoting sleep health in schools and at home and delaying school start times to permit students adequate time for sleep.

  18. Ocular Counter Rolling in Astronauts After Short- and Long-Duration Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reschke, Millard F; Wood, Scott J; Clément, Gilles

    2018-05-17

    Ocular counter-rolling (OCR) is a reflex generated by the activation of the gravity sensors in the inner ear that stabilizes gaze and posture during head tilt. We compared the OCR measures that were obtained in 6 astronauts before, during, and after a spaceflight lasting 4-6 days with the OCR measures obtained from 6 astronauts before and after a spaceflight lasting 4-9 months. OCR in the short-duration fliers was measured using the afterimage method during head tilt at 15°, 30°, and 45°. OCR in the long-duration fliers was measured using video-oculography during whole body tilt at 25°. A control group of 7 subjects was used to compare OCR measures during head tilt and whole body tilt. No OCR occurred during head tilt in microgravity, and the response returned to normal within 2 hours of return from short-duration spaceflight. However, the amplitude of OCR was reduced for several days after return from long-duration spaceflight. This decrease in amplitude was not accompanied by changes in the asymmetry of OCR between right and left head tilt. These results indicate that the adaptation  of otolith-driven reflexes to microgravity is a long-duration process.

  19. Insomnia with Objective Short Sleep Duration: the Most Biologically Severe Phenotype of the Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Until recently, the association of chronic insomnia with significant medical morbidity was not established and its diagnosis was based solely on subjective complaints. We present evidence that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is the most biologically severe phenotype of the disorder, as it is associated with cognitive-emotional and cortical arousal, activation of both limbs of the stress system, and a higher risk for hypertension, impaired heart rate variability, diabetes, neurocognitive impairment, and mortality. Also, it appears that objective short sleep duration is a biological marker of genetic predisposition to chronic insomnia. In contrast, insomnia with objective normal sleep duration is associated with cognitive-emotional and cortical arousal and sleep misperception but not with signs of activation of both limbs of the stress system or medical complications. Furthermore, the first phenotype is associated with unremitting course, whereas the latter is more likely to remit. We propose that short sleep duration in insomnia is a reliable marker of the biological severity and medical impact of the disorder. Objective measures of sleep obtained in the home environment of the patient would become part of the routine assessment of insomnia patients in a clinician’s office setting. We speculate that insomnia with objective short sleep duration has primarily biological roots and may respond better to biological treatments, whereas insomnia with objective normal sleep duration has primarily psychological roots and may respond better to psychological interventions alone. PMID:23419741

  20. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration: the most biologically severe phenotype of the disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2013-08-01

    Until recently, the association of chronic insomnia with significant medical morbidity was not established and its diagnosis was based solely on subjective complaints. We present evidence that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is the most biologically severe phenotype of the disorder, as it is associated with cognitive-emotional and cortical arousal, activation of both limbs of the stress system, and a higher risk for hypertension, impaired heart rate variability, diabetes, neurocognitive impairment, and mortality. Also, it appears that objective short sleep duration is a biological marker of genetic predisposition to chronic insomnia. In contrast, insomnia with objective normal sleep duration is associated with cognitive-emotional and cortical arousal and sleep misperception but not with signs of activation of both limbs of the stress system or medical complications. Furthermore, the first phenotype is associated with unremitting course, whereas the latter is more likely to remit. We propose that short sleep duration in insomnia is a reliable marker of the biological severity and medical impact of the disorder. Objective measures of sleep obtained in the home environment of the patient would become part of the routine assessment of insomnia patients in a clinician's office setting. We speculate that insomnia with objective short sleep duration has primarily biological roots and may respond better to biological treatments, whereas insomnia with objective normal sleep duration has primarily psychological roots and may respond better to psychological interventions alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modelling the dispersion of radionuclides following short duration releases to rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.T.; Bowes, M.; Denison, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    This project develops a model for assessing short duration liquid discharges of radionuclides to rivers. The assessment of doses arising from discharges to rivers is normally carried out by considering annual average discharge rates. Actual authorised discharges, however, may occur unevenly during the year or relatively high short-term discharges could occur in the unlikely event of an incident. Short term radionuclide releases could potentially result in temporary increases in radionuclide activity concentrations in water and fish which are greater than those resulting from a continuous discharge. The purpose of this project is to develop a model to assess short term releases from these sites, and where possible develop generic methods of assessing short term releases. An advection-dispersion model was developed to predict the concentrations of radionuclides in the river environment, ie in river water, river bed sediment and in predatory fish. Uptake of radionuclides to fish was modelled by estimating rates of uptake of radionuclides via the aquatic food chain or across the gill, as appropriate. The model was used to predict the concentrations of the radionuclides in the river Thames and its tributaries as a result of short duration discharges into stretches of the Thames and River Colne. Model output is given as a series of graphs of activity concentration and time integrated activity concentration resulting from a 1 MBq discharge for the following release durations: 5 minutes, 1 h, 3 h, 12 h and 24 h. The five locations for which predictions are given were 100m, 300m, 1000m, 3000m and 10000m downstream. The river volumetric flow rate was shown to be the most important environmental variable determining activity concentrations in water, fish and sediments following a release. In general, the maximum and integrated activity concentrations in water and fish will be in inverse proportion to the river volumetric flow rate, for a given amount and duration of release

  2. Objective but Not Subjective Short Sleep Duration Associated with Increased Risk for Hypertension in Individuals with Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Christina J; Edinger, Jack D; Wyatt, James K; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between hypertension prevalence in individuals with insomnia who have short total sleep duration insomnia disorder (MAge = 46.2 y, SDAge = 13.7 y) participated in this study at two large university medical centers. Two nights of polysomnography, 2 w of sleep diaries, questionnaires focused on sleep, medical, psychological, and health history, including presence/absence of hypertension were collected. Logistic regressions assessed the odds ratios of hypertension among persons with insomnia with short sleep duration insomnia with a sleep duration ≥ 6 h, measured both objectively and subjectively. Consistent with previous studies using objective total sleep duration, individuals with insomnia and short sleep duration insomnia with sleep duration ≥ 6 h. Increased risk for hypertension was independent of major confounding factors frequently associated with insomnia or hypertension. No significant risk was observed using subjectively determined total sleep time groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the best balance of sensitivity and specificity using subjective total sleep time was at a 6-h cutoff, but the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed low accuracy and did not have good discriminant value. Objectively measured short sleep duration increased the odds of reporting hypertension more than threefold after adjusting for potential confounders; this relationship was not significant for subjectively measured sleep duration. This research supports emerging evidence that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of comorbid hypertension. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  3. SHORT DURATIONS OF STATIC STRETCHING WHEN COMBINED WITH DYNAMIC STRETCHING DO NOT IMPAIR REPEATED SPRINTS AND AGILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effect of different static stretching durations followed by dynamic stretching on repeated sprint ability (RSA and change of direction (COD. Twenty-five participants performed the RSA and COD tests in a randomized order. After a 5 min aerobic warm up, participants performed one of the three static stretching protocols of 30 s, 60 s or 90 s total duration (3 stretches x 10 s, 20 s or 30 s. Three dynamic stretching exercises of 30 s duration were then performed (90 s total. Sit-and-reach flexibility tests were conducted before the aerobic warm up, after the combined static and dynamic stretching, and post- RSA/COD test. The duration of static stretching had a positive effect on flexibility with 36.3% and 85.6% greater sit-and-reach scores with the 60 s and 90 s static stretching conditions respectively than with the 30 s condition (p < 0.001. However there were no significant differences in RSA and COD performance between the 3 stretching conditions. The lack of change in RSA and COD might be attributed to a counterbalancing of static and dynamic stretching effects. Furthermore, the short duration (< 90 s static stretching may not have provided sufficient stimulus to elicit performance impairments

  4. Short-Duration X-ray Transients Observed with WATCH on Granat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Brandt, Søren; Lund, Niels

    1995-01-01

    During 1990–92, the WATCH all-sky X-ray monitor on GRANAT has discovered 6 short-duration X-ray transients. We discuss their possible relationship to peculiar stars. Only one source, GRS 1100-77 seems to be related to a T Tauri star....

  5. Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration. Data from a nationally representative sample☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R.; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric illness, and performance deficits. Likewise, long sleep duration is also associated with poor physical and mental health. The role of a healthy diet in habitual sleep duration represents a largely unexplored pathway linking sleep and health. This study evaluated associations between habitual sleep parameters and dietary/nutritional variables obtained via the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007–2008. We hypothesized that habitual very short (theobromine (long sleep RR = 0.910, p < 0.05), vitamin C (short sleep RR = 0.890, p < 0.05), tap water (short sleep RR = 0.952, p < 0.001; very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.941, p < 0.05), lutein + zeaxanthin (short sleep RR = 1.123, p < 0.05), dodecanoic acid (long sleep RR = 0.812, p < 0.05), choline (long sleep RR = 0.450, p = 0.001), lycopene (very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.950, p <0.05), total carbohydrate (very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.494, p <0.05; long sleep RR = 0.509, p <0.05), selenium (short sleep RR = 0.670, p <0.01) and alcohol (long sleep RR = 1.172, p < 0.01). Overall, many nutrient variables were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, which may be explained by differences in food variety. Future studies should assess whether these associations are due to appetite dysregulation, due to short/long sleep and/or whether these nutrients have physiologic effects on sleep regulation. In addition, these data may help us better understand the complex relationship between diet and sleep and the potential role of diet in the relationship between sleep and obesity and other cardiometabolic risks. PMID:23339991

  6. The relationship between insomnia with short sleep duration is associated with hypercholesterolemia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Yu-Hsia; Yeh, Mei Chang

    2016-02-01

    To examine the association between insomnia with short sleep duration and hypercholesterolemia in Taiwanese adults. Previous studies mostly focused on the association between sleep duration and hyperlipidemia, but the results were not consistent. Besides, very few studies extensively examined the association between insomnia and hypercholesterolemia. This study hypothesized that insomnia with short sleep duration is associated with hypercholesterolemia. Secondary data analysis. This study analysed the latest database of the cross-sectional Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan which was released on 2011 (data collected between 2005-2008) and collected data using stratified three-staged probability sampling design. This study analysed 1533 participants aged between 19-64 (733 males and 800 females) and used logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratio and the 95% confidence interval of insomnia with short sleep duration to hypercholesterolemia. Controlled confounders included age, gender, sample weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hypertension and diabetes. Insomnia with 5-6 hours of sleep duration was significantly associated with hypercholesterolemia. The odds ratio of mild insomnia or moderate/severe insomnia with 5-6 hours of sleep duration to hypercholesterolemia was higher, compared with the reference group (without insomnia and >6 hours of sleep duration). Insomnia with short sleep duration was associated with increased odds of hypercholesterolemia. Caregivers in clinical practice should watch out for the effect brought by this novel factor. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2017-02-27

    We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight ( p = 0.007), body mass index ( p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures ( p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity ( p foods such as staple foods ( p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods ( p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030-1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women.

  8. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miae Doo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007, body mass index (p = 0.003, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively, prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016, and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026 and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044 than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030–1.330. However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women.

  9. Insomnia Patients With Objective Short Sleep Duration Have a Blunted Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Christina J; Edinger, Jack D; Krystal, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with insomnia and objective short sleep duration insomnia (CBT-I) when compared to individuals with insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h. Secondary analyses of a randomized, clinical trial with 60 adult participants (n = 31 women) from a single academic medical center. Outpatient treatment lasted 8 weeks, with a final follow-up conducted at 6 months. Mixed-effects models controlling for age, sex, CBT-I treatment group assignment, and treatment provider examined sleep parameters gathered via actigraphy, sleep diaries, and an Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire (ISQ) across the treatment and follow-up period. Six months post-CBT-I treatment, individuals with insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h fared significantly better on clinical improvement milestones than did those with insomnia and short sleep duration insomnia and normal sleep duration had significantly higher insomnia remission (ISQ 80%; χ2[1, N = 60] = 21, p 50% decline in MWASO (χ2[1, N = 60] = 60, p insomnia and short sleep duration. Additionally, those with insomnia and normal sleep duration had more success decreasing their total wake time (TWT) at the 6-month follow-up compared to those with insomnia and short sleep duration (χ2[2, N = 60] = 44.1, p insomnia remission, with the area under the curve = 0.986. Findings suggest that individuals with insomnia and objective short sleep duration insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h. Using an actigraphy TST cutoff of 6 hours to classify sleep duration groups was highly accurate and provided good discriminant value for determining insomnia remission. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Short sleep duration and childhood obesity: cross-sectional analysis in Peru and patterns in four developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M; Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J Jaime

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to describe the patterns of nutritional status and sleep duration in children from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam; to assess the association between short sleep duration and overweight and obesity, and if this was similar among boys and girls in Peru. Analysis of the Young Lives Study, younger cohort, third round. In Ethiopia there were 1,999 observations, 2,011, 2,052 and 2,000 in India, Peru and Vietnam, respectively. Analyses included participants with complete data for sleep duration, BMI, sex and age; missing data: 5.9% (Ethiopia), 4.1% (India), 6.0% (Peru) and 4.5% (Vietnam). Exposure was sleep duration per day: short (overweight and obesity. Multivariable analyses were conducted using a hierarchical approach to assess the effect of variables at different levels. Overweight/obesity prevalence was 0.5%/0.2% (Ethiopia), 1.3%/0.3% (India), 6.1%/2.8% (Vietnam), and 15.8%/5.4% (Peru). Only Peruvian data was considered to explore the association between short sleep duration and overweight and obesity, with 1,929 children, aged 7.9±0.3 years, 50.3% boys. Short and regular sleep duration was 41.6% and 55.6%, respectively. Multivariable models showed that obesity was 64% more prevalent among children with short sleep duration, an estimate that lost significance after controlling for individual- and family-related variables (PR: 1.15; 95%CI: 0.81-1.64). Gender was an effect modifier of the association between short sleep duration and overweight (p = 0.030) but not obesity (p = 0.533): the prevalence ratio was greater than one across all the models for boys, yet it was less than one for girls. Childhood overweight and obesity have different profiles across developing settings. In a sample of children living in resource-limited settings in Peru there is no association between short sleep duration and obesity; the crude association was slightly attenuated by children-related variables but strongly diminished by family-related variables.

  11. Selection for long and short sleep duration in Drosophila melanogaster reveals the complex genetic network underlying natural variation in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Susan T; Serrano Negron, Yazmin L; Hansen, Nancy F; Lobell, Amanda S

    2017-12-01

    Why do some individuals need more sleep than others? Forward mutagenesis screens in flies using engineered mutations have established a clear genetic component to sleep duration, revealing mutants that convey very long or short sleep. Whether such extreme long or short sleep could exist in natural populations was unknown. We applied artificial selection for high and low night sleep duration to an outbred population of Drosophila melanogaster for 13 generations. At the end of the selection procedure, night sleep duration diverged by 9.97 hours in the long and short sleeper populations, and 24-hour sleep was reduced to 3.3 hours in the short sleepers. Neither long nor short sleeper lifespan differed appreciably from controls, suggesting little physiological consequences to being an extreme long or short sleeper. Whole genome sequence data from seven generations of selection revealed several hundred thousand changes in allele frequencies at polymorphic loci across the genome. Combining the data from long and short sleeper populations across generations in a logistic regression implicated 126 polymorphisms in 80 candidate genes, and we confirmed three of these genes and a larger genomic region with mutant and chromosomal deficiency tests, respectively. Many of these genes could be connected in a single network based on previously known physical and genetic interactions. Candidate genes have known roles in several classic, highly conserved developmental and signaling pathways-EGFR, Wnt, Hippo, and MAPK. The involvement of highly pleiotropic pathway genes suggests that sleep duration in natural populations can be influenced by a wide variety of biological processes, which may be why the purpose of sleep has been so elusive.

  12. Selection for long and short sleep duration in Drosophila melanogaster reveals the complex genetic network underlying natural variation in sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan T Harbison

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Why do some individuals need more sleep than others? Forward mutagenesis screens in flies using engineered mutations have established a clear genetic component to sleep duration, revealing mutants that convey very long or short sleep. Whether such extreme long or short sleep could exist in natural populations was unknown. We applied artificial selection for high and low night sleep duration to an outbred population of Drosophila melanogaster for 13 generations. At the end of the selection procedure, night sleep duration diverged by 9.97 hours in the long and short sleeper populations, and 24-hour sleep was reduced to 3.3 hours in the short sleepers. Neither long nor short sleeper lifespan differed appreciably from controls, suggesting little physiological consequences to being an extreme long or short sleeper. Whole genome sequence data from seven generations of selection revealed several hundred thousand changes in allele frequencies at polymorphic loci across the genome. Combining the data from long and short sleeper populations across generations in a logistic regression implicated 126 polymorphisms in 80 candidate genes, and we confirmed three of these genes and a larger genomic region with mutant and chromosomal deficiency tests, respectively. Many of these genes could be connected in a single network based on previously known physical and genetic interactions. Candidate genes have known roles in several classic, highly conserved developmental and signaling pathways-EGFR, Wnt, Hippo, and MAPK. The involvement of highly pleiotropic pathway genes suggests that sleep duration in natural populations can be influenced by a wide variety of biological processes, which may be why the purpose of sleep has been so elusive.

  13. Cognitive Abilities Explaining Age-Related Changes in Time Perception of Short and Long Durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelanti, Pierre S.; Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    The current study investigated how the development of cognitive abilities explains the age-related changes in temporal judgment over short and long duration ranges from 0.5 to 30 s. Children (5- and 9-year-olds) as well as adults were given a temporal bisection task with four different duration ranges: a duration range shorter than 1 s, two…

  14. Short sleep duration and childhood obesity: cross-sectional analysis in Peru and patterns in four developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M Carrillo-Larco

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to describe the patterns of nutritional status and sleep duration in children from Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam; to assess the association between short sleep duration and overweight and obesity, and if this was similar among boys and girls in Peru. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Analysis of the Young Lives Study, younger cohort, third round. In Ethiopia there were 1,999 observations, 2,011, 2,052 and 2,000 in India, Peru and Vietnam, respectively. Analyses included participants with complete data for sleep duration, BMI, sex and age; missing data: 5.9% (Ethiopia, 4.1% (India, 6.0% (Peru and 4.5% (Vietnam. Exposure was sleep duration per day: short (<10 hours versus regular (10-11 hours. Outcome was overweight and obesity. Multivariable analyses were conducted using a hierarchical approach to assess the effect of variables at different levels. Overweight/obesity prevalence was 0.5%/0.2% (Ethiopia, 1.3%/0.3% (India, 6.1%/2.8% (Vietnam, and 15.8%/5.4% (Peru. Only Peruvian data was considered to explore the association between short sleep duration and overweight and obesity, with 1,929 children, aged 7.9±0.3 years, 50.3% boys. Short and regular sleep duration was 41.6% and 55.6%, respectively. Multivariable models showed that obesity was 64% more prevalent among children with short sleep duration, an estimate that lost significance after controlling for individual- and family-related variables (PR: 1.15; 95%CI: 0.81-1.64. Gender was an effect modifier of the association between short sleep duration and overweight (p = 0.030 but not obesity (p = 0.533: the prevalence ratio was greater than one across all the models for boys, yet it was less than one for girls. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood overweight and obesity have different profiles across developing settings. In a sample of children living in resource-limited settings in Peru there is no association between short sleep duration and obesity; the crude association was slightly

  15. Influence of condensation on heat flux and pressure measurements in a detonation-based short-duration facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, S.; Olivier, H.

    2017-10-01

    Detonation-based short-duration facilities provide hot gas with very high stagnation pressures and temperatures. Due to the short testing time, complex and expensive cooling techniques of the facility walls are not needed. Therefore, they are attractive for economical experimental investigations of high-enthalpy flows such as the flow in a rocket engine. However, cold walls can provoke condensation of the hot combustion gas at the walls. This has already been observed in detonation tubes close behind the detonation wave, resulting in a loss of tube performance. A potential influence of condensation at the wall on the experimental results, like wall heat fluxes and static pressures, has not been considered so far. Therefore, in this study the occurrence of condensation and its influence on local heat flux and pressure measurements has been investigated in the nozzle test section of a short-duration rocket-engine simulation facility. This facility provides hot water vapor with stagnation pressures up to 150 bar and stagnation temperatures up to 3800 K. A simple method has been developed to detect liquid water at the wall without direct optical access to the flow. It is shown experimentally and theoretically that condensation has a remarkable influence on local measurement values. The experimental results indicate that for the elimination of these influences the nozzle wall has to be heated to a certain temperature level, which exclusively depends on the local static pressure.

  16. Short sleep duration and obesity among Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Tiffany K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information on sleep duration and obesity among Australian children. The objective of the study is to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in Australian children aged 5 to 15 years. Methods Data were collected using the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System between January 2004 and December 2008. Each month a representative random sample of South Australians are selected from the Electronic White Pages with interviews conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI. Within each household, the person who was last to have a birthday was selected for interview. Parents reported the number of hours their children slept each day. Obesity was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF definition based on BMI calculated from reported body weight and height. Results Overall, parents of 3495 children aged 5-15 years (mean 10.7 years, 50.3% boys were interviewed. The prevalence of obesity was 7.7% (8.9% in boys, 6.6% in girls. In multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, intake of fruit and vegetables, physical activity and inactivity, the odds ratio (OR for obesity comparing sleeping Conclusion Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity in children especially among younger age groups and boys.

  17. Prevalence and impact of short sleep duration in redeployed OIF soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; Greenburg, David; Ryan, Jenny; Niven, Alexander; Wheeler, Gary; Mysliwiec, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Short sleep duration (SSD) is common among deployed soldiers. The prevalence of SSD during redeployment, however, is unknown. Cross-sectional study of a brigade combat team (n = 3152 US Army soldiers) surveyed 90-180 days after completing a 6-15 month deployment to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Survey items targeted sleep habits and comorbid medical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios of medical comorbidities associated with SSD. US Army Infantry Post. All soldiers from a redeploying brigade combat team participated in a health assessment between 90 and 180 days upon return to Ft. Lewis from Iraq. None. A total of 2738 (86.9%) soldiers answered questions regarding self-perceived sleep and were included in the analysis. Mean sleep duration was 5.8 ± 1.2 hours. Nineteen hundred fifty-nine (72%) slept ≤ 6 h, but only 16% reported a daytime nap or felt their job performance was affected due to lack of sleep. Short sleep was more common among soldiers who reported combat exposure. After controlling for combat exposure, short sleep duration (SSD) was associated with symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic syndrome, and with high-risk health behaviors such as abuse of tobacco and alcohol products, and suicide attempts. SSD is common among redeployed soldiers. Soldiers who experienced combat are at increased risk for persistent SSD and comorbidities associated with SSD. Efforts to reestablish good sleep habits and aggressive evaluation of soldiers with persistent SSD following deployment may aid in the prevention and management of associated medical conditions.

  18. Short-term memory for event duration: modality specificity and goal dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2012-11-01

    Time perception is involved in various cognitive functions. This study investigated the characteristics of short-term memory for event duration by examining how the length of the retention period affects inter- and intramodal duration judgment. On each trial, a sample stimulus was followed by a comparison stimulus, after a variable delay period (0.5-5 s). The sample and comparison stimuli were presented in the visual or auditory modality. The participants determined whether the comparison stimulus was longer or shorter than the sample stimulus. The distortion pattern of subjective duration during the delay period depended on the sensory modality of the comparison stimulus but was not affected by that of the sample stimulus. When the comparison stimulus was visually presented, the retained duration of the sample stimulus was shortened as the delay period increased. Contrarily, when the comparison stimulus was presented in the auditory modality, the delay period had little to no effect on the retained duration. Furthermore, whenever the participants did not know the sensory modality of the comparison stimulus beforehand, the effect of the delay period disappeared. These results suggest that the memory process for event duration is specific to sensory modality and that its performance is determined depending on the sensory modality in which the retained duration will be used subsequently.

  19. [Associations of the work duration, sleep duration and number of holidays with an exaggerated blood pressure response during an exercise stress test among workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Ryoma; Ohta, Masanori; Ikeda, Masaharu; Jiang, Ying; Yamato, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that an exaggerated systolic blood pressure (ESBP) response during exercise, even if resting blood pressure is normal, is associated with an increased risk of future hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationships of work duration, sleep duration and number of holidays with blood pressure response during an exercise stress test among normotensive workers. The subjects were 362 normotensive workers (79 males and 283 females; age, 49.1 years). A multi-stage graded submaximal exercise stress test was performed on each subject using an electric bicycle ergometer. The workload was increased every 3 minutes, and blood pressure was measured at rest and during the last 1 minute of each stage. In this study, an ESBP response during exercise was defined according to the criteria of the Framingham Study (peak systolic blood pressure ≥210 mmHg in males, or ≥190 mmHg in females). Working environments, work duration, sleep duration, number of holidays, and physical activity during commuting and work, and leisure time exercise duration were evaluated using a questionnaire. An ESBP response during exercise was observed in 94 (26.0%) workers. The adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of an ESBP response during exercise was found to be significantly higher with an increase in work duration, decreases in sleep duration and number of holidays (pwork duration with lowest sleep duration and number of holidays groups had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of an ESBP response during exercise than the lowest work duration with highest sleep duration and number of holidays groups (pwork duration, short sleep duration and small number of holidays.

  20. Analyses of Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics Pre and Post Short and Long-Duration Space Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperin, Noam; Barr, Yael; Lee, Sang H.; Mason,Sara; Bagci, Ahmet M.

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary results are based on analyses of data from 17 crewmembers. The initial analysis compares pre to post-flight changes in total cerebral blood flow (CBF) and craniospinal CSF flow volume. Total CBF is obtained by summation of the mean flow rates through the 4 blood vessels supplying the brain (right and left internal carotid and vertebral arteries). Volumetric flow rates were obtained using an automated lumen segmentation technique shown to have 3-4-fold improved reproducibility and accuracy over manual lumen segmentation (6). Two cohorts, 5 short-duration and 8 long-duration crewmembers, who were scanned within 3 to 8 days post landing were included (4 short-duration crewmembers with MRI scans occurring beyond 10 days post flight were excluded). The VIIP Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) classification is being used initially as a measure for VIIP syndrome severity. Median CPG scores of the short and long-duration cohorts were similar, 2. Mean preflight total CBF for the short and long-duration cohorts were similar, 863+/-144 and 747+/-119 mL/min, respectively. Percentage CBF changes for all short duration crewmembers were 11% or lower, within the range of normal physiological fluctuations in healthy individuals. In contrast, in 4 of the 8 long-duration crewmembers, the change in CBF exceeded the range of normal physiological fluctuation. In 3 of the 4 subjects an increase in CBF was measured. Large pre to post-flight changes in the craniospinal CSF flow volume were found in 6 of the 8 long-duration crewmembers. Box-Whisker plots of the CPG and the percent CBF and CSF flow changes for the two cohorts are shown in Figure 4. Examples of CSF flow waveforms for a short and two long-duration (CPG 0 and 3) are shown in Figure 5. Changes in CBF and CSF flow dynamics larger than normal physiological fluctuations were observed in the long-duration crewmembers. Changes in CSF flow were more pronounced than changes in CBF. Decreased CSF flow dynamics were observed

  1. A simple analytical infiltration model for short-duration rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiwen; Yang, Xiaohua; Liu, Xiaomang; Liu, Changming

    2017-12-01

    Many infiltration models have been proposed to simulate infiltration process. Different initial soil conditions and non-uniform initial water content can lead to infiltration simulation errors, especially for short-duration rainfall (SHR). Few infiltration models are specifically derived to eliminate the errors caused by the complex initial soil conditions. We present a simple analytical infiltration model for SHR infiltration simulation, i.e., Short-duration Infiltration Process model (SHIP model). The infiltration simulated by 5 models (i.e., SHIP (high) model, SHIP (middle) model, SHIP (low) model, Philip model and Parlange model) were compared based on numerical experiments and soil column experiments. In numerical experiments, SHIP (middle) and Parlange models had robust solutions for SHR infiltration simulation of 12 typical soils under different initial soil conditions. The absolute values of percent bias were less than 12% and the values of Nash and Sutcliffe efficiency were greater than 0.83. Additionally, in soil column experiments, infiltration rate fluctuated in a range because of non-uniform initial water content. SHIP (high) and SHIP (low) models can simulate an infiltration range, which successfully covered the fluctuation range of the observed infiltration rate. According to the robustness of solutions and the coverage of fluctuation range of infiltration rate, SHIP model can be integrated into hydrologic models to simulate SHR infiltration process and benefit the flood forecast.

  2. Short sleep duration as a possible cause of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L S; Danielsen, Karen; Sørensen, T I A

    2011-01-01

    with particular emphasis on prospective studies. The studies showed that short sleep duration is consistently associated with development of obesity in children and young adults, but not consistently so in older adults. We have identified critical aspects of the evidence, and assessed the possibility...... for interpretation of the evidence in terms of causality. We have discussed the requirement of temporal sequence between putative exposure and outcome and the implications of the time lag between them, the problems in adequate measurements of exposure and effects, the possible bidirectional causal effects......Systematic literature search for epidemiological evidence for an association of short sleep with weight gain and eventual development of obesity provided 71 original studies and seven reviews of various subsets of these studies. We have summarized the evidence for such an association...

  3. DURATION LIMIT OF LASER PULSES EMITTED FROM A Ce-DOPED CRYSTAL SHORT CAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Hoang Hai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the rate equation set for broadband cavities, the dependence of pulse duration on cavity and pumping parameters is analyzed. The cavity uses a Ce-doped crystal as a gain medium. Computation results show the variation of the pulse width with the change of cavity length, mirror reflectivity, pumping energy and pumping pulse duration. A significant influence of multiple-pulse operation in limiting pulse duration is realized and a pulse-width of the order 200 ps is found to be the limit for the direct generation of ultraviolet single picosecond pulses from a Ce:LLF short cavity.

  4. Short-duration Lensing Events: Wide-orbit Planets? Free-floating Dwarfs? Or Hypervelocity Stellar Remnants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Rosanne; Patel, B.; Kallivayalil, N.; Primini, F. A.

    2009-01-01

    Ongoing microlensing observations by OGLE and MOA regularly detect and conduct high-cadence sampling of lensing events with Einstein diameter crossing times shorter than a few days. We show that many short-duration events are likely to have been caused by planet-mass or brown-dwarf lenses. Many of these low-mass lenses are located within a kpc. Information about some individual systems can be derived through a combination of lensing, radial velocity, and transit studies. The present discovery rate is high enough that the study of short-duration events could soon become the primary channel for planet detection via microlensing. We develop a protocol for observing and modeling these events, and apply it to archived data. A small number of short events may be caused by hypervelocity (v 10^3 km/s) masses located within a kpc.

  5. Continuous analysis of parotid saliva during resting and short-duration simulated chewing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neyraud, E.; Bult, J.H.F.; Dransfield, E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Parotid saliva flow is increased by mastication and its composition is also modified. The aim of this work was to clarify the relationships between flow rate, pH and protein concentration, during resting and short-duration simulated chewing, using continuous and fractional saliva

  6. The Central Engines of Short-Duration Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Brian; Arcones, A.; Quataert, E.; Martinez-Pinedo, G.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important discoveries made with Swift is that long and short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) originate from distinct stellar progenitors. While long GRBs track ongoing star formation and result from the deaths of massive stars, short GRBs have been localized to both early and late-type galaxies, suggesting a more evolved progenitor population. Although the origin of short GRBs remains a mystery, the most popular and well-studied model is accretion following the merger of neutron star binaries. This model is qualitatively consistent with both the demographics of short GRBs and the lack of a bright associated supernova in some cases. Despite these successes, this picture has grown complex with the discovery that short GRBs are often followed by a "tail" of emission (usually soft X-rays) lasting 100 seconds after the burst. Such energetic, late-time emission from the central engine is difficult to explain in standard merger pictures. One proposed explanation is late-time "fall-back" onto the black hole of material that was ejected during the merger into highly eccentric, marginally-bound orbits. As this matter decompresses from nuclear densities, however, it undergoes rapid-neutron capture (r-process) nucleosynthesis, which can release energy comparable to the orbital binding energy. This implies that the r-process (normally thought unimportant dynamically in astrophysical contexts) has important implications for the quantity and time-dependence of fall-back and, ultimately, the source of flaring and identity of the central engine.

  7. Short sleep duration and large variability in sleep duration are independently associated with dietary risk factors for obesity in Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, J S; Hjorth, M F; Andersen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Background:Lack of sleep and increased consumption of energy-dense foods and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) have all been suggested as factors contributing to the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity.Objective:To evaluate whether objectively measured sleep duration (average and day......-to-day variability) as well as parent-reported sleep problems are independently associated with proposed dietary risk factors for overweight and obesity in 8-11 year old children.Design:In this cross-sectional study data on sleep duration and day-to-day variability in sleep duration were measured in 676 Danish...... and ethnicity).Conclusion:Our study suggests that short sleep duration, high sleep duration variability, and experiencing sleep problems are all associated with a poor, obesity-promoting diet in children.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 8 August 2013. doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.147....

  8. Muscle Adaptations Following Short-Duration Bed Rest with Integrated Resistance, Interval, and Aerobic Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle J.; Scott, Jessica M.; Buxton, Roxanne; Redd-Goetchius, Elizabeth; Crowell, J. Brent; Everett, Meghan E.; Wickwire, Jason; Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2011-01-01

    Unloading of the musculoskeletal system during space flight results in deconditioning that may impair mission-related task performance in astronauts. Exercise countermeasures have been frequently tested during bed rest (BR) and limb suspension; however, high-intensity, short-duration exercise prescriptions have not been fully explored. PURPOSE: To determine if a high intensity resistance, interval, and aerobic exercise program could protect against muscle atrophy and dysfunction when performed during short duration BR. METHODS: Nine subjects (1 female, 8 male) performed a combination of supine exercises during 2 weeks of horizontal BR. Resistance exercise (3 d / wk) consisted of squat, leg press, hamstring curl, and heel raise exercises (3 sets, 12 repetitions). Aerobic (6 d / wk) sessions alternated continuous (75% VO2 peak) and interval exercise (30 s, 2 min, and 4 min) and were completed on a supine cycle ergometer and vertical treadmill, respectively. Muscle volumes of the upper leg were calculated pre, mid, and post-BR using magnetic resonance imaging. Maximal isometric force (MIF), rate of force development (RFD), and peak power of the lower body extensors were measured twice before BR (averaged to represent pre) and once post BR. ANOVA with repeated measures and a priori planned contrasts were used to test for differences. RESULTS: There were no changes to quadriceps, hamstring, and adductor muscle volumes at mid and post BR time points compared to pre BR (Table 1). Peak power increased significantly from 1614 +/- 372 W to 1739 +/- 359 W post BR (+7.7%, p = 0.035). Neither MIF (pre: 1676 +/- 320 N vs. post: 1711 +/- 250 N, +2.1%, p = 0.333) nor RFD (pre: 7534 +/- 1265 N/ms vs. post: 6951 +/- 1241 N/ms, -7.7%, p = 0.136) were significantly impaired post BR.

  9. Impulse Force Balance for Ultrashort Duration Hypersonic Test Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the measurement of side force, pitching, and yawing moments on a model, using an accelerometer force balance, in a short duration hypersonic shock tunnel. The test model is a blunt-nosed, flapped delta wing, mounted on a support sting through a force balance. The flexible rubber bushes constituting the balance allow the model to float freely on the sting during the test. The accelerometers were located in the model to record accelerations in the directions of interest. The model was tested in shock tunnel at Mach 8 at different angles of incidence with the freestream. Dynamic calibration of the test assembly was carried out for the acquisition of impulse response functions for the above components of force and moments, using an impulse hammer. The convolution technique was applied to derive the impulse response functions. The accelerometer outputs from the model in the hypersonic freestream were processed using the respective impulse response functions to derive the unknown aerodynamic force and moments. The newly adopted convolution technique has been found very effective for data reduction from accelerometer force balances developed for shock tunnel applications.

  10. Short Duration Small Sided Football and to a Lesser Extent Whole Body Vibration Exercise Induce Acute Changes in Markers of Bone Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowtell, J. L.; Jackman, S. R.; Scott, S.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study whether short-duration vibration exercise or football sessions of two different durations acutely changed plasma markers of bone turnover and muscle strain. Inactive premenopausal women (n = 56) were randomized to complete a single bout of short (FG15) or long duration (FG60) sm...

  11. Short-term memory for spatial, sequential and duration information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manohar, Sanjay G; Pertzov, Yoni; Husain, Masud

    2017-10-01

    Space and time appear to play key roles in the way that information is organized in short-term memory (STM). Some argue that they are crucial contexts within which other stored features are embedded, allowing binding of information that belongs together within STM. Here we review recent behavioral, neurophysiological and imaging studies that have sought to investigate the nature of spatial, sequential and duration representations in STM, and how these might break down in disease. Findings from these studies point to an important role of the hippocampus and other medial temporal lobe structures in aspects of STM, challenging conventional accounts of involvement of these regions in only long-term memory.

  12. On the pressure response in the brain due to short duration blunt impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Pearce

    Full Text Available When the head is subject to non-penetrating (blunt impact, contusion-type injuries are commonly identified beneath the impact site (the coup and, in some instances, at the opposite pole (the contre-coup. This pattern of injury has long eluded satisfactory explanation and blunt head injury mechanisms in general remain poorly understood. There are only a small number of studies in the open literature investigating the head's response to short duration impacts, which can occur in collisions with light projectiles. As such, the head impact literature to date has focussed almost exclusively on impact scenarios which lead to a quasi-static pressure response in the brain. In order to investigate the response of the head to a wide range of impact durations, parametric numerical studies were performed on a highly bio-fidelic finite element model of the human head created from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan data with non-linear tissue material properties. We demonstrate that short duration head impacts can lead to potentially deleterious transients of positive and negative intra-cranial pressure over an order of magnitude larger than those observed in the quasi-static regime despite reduced impact force and energy. The onset of this phenomenon is shown to be effectively predicted by the ratio of impact duration to the period of oscillation of the first ovalling mode of the system. These findings point to dramatically different pressure distributions in the brain and hence different patterns of injury depending on projectile mass, and provide a potential explanation for dual coup/contre-coup injuries observed clinically.

  13. The free recovery of a short duration, high current discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piejak, R.

    1984-01-01

    The hold-off voltage between stainless steel electrodes has been measured as a function of time after an initial discharge. The hold-off voltage is the highest voltage that the gap will withstand without appreciable current flow. A high current (600-1200 amp), short duration (170 nsec) discharge was initiated between Rogowski profile electrodes. After a pre-determined time delay, a second pulse was applied to the discharge gap. The hold-off voltage as a function to time was determined up to the Paschen breakdown voltage. Background gas pressure between 30 and 100 torr and electrode separation of 2mm and 4mm were employed. UV preionization was introduced in some tests to create various discharge modes (glow/arc). The findings indicate significantly higher recovery rates in air than in N 2 , presumably due to attachment processes. In addition, the presence of pre-breakdown UV was found to influence the discharge mode, thus affecting the recovery rate of the gap. Hold-off voltage curves for the previously mentioned gases, background pressures and electrode spacing will be presented along with open shutter photographs of the various discharge modes

  14. Short sleep duration is associated with eating more carbohydrates and less dietary fat in Mexican American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Mechanisms are unclear, but may involve selection of high carbohydrate foods. This study examined the association between estimated sleep duration and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy among Mexican American (MA) 9-11 yea...

  15. Short sleep duration as a contributor to racial disparities in breast cancer tumor grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Allan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although African Americans (AAs are less likely to get breast cancer than European Americans (EAs, they get more aggressive forms. We previously showed that short sleep is associated with higher tumor grade. It is well documented that AAs get less sleep, on average, than EAs. We studied the contribution of short sleep to racial disparities in breast cancer aggressiveness among 809 invasive breast cancer patients who responded to a survey on their lifestyle. Multivariable regressions and mediation analyses were performed to assess the effect of sleep duration on the association of race with tumor grade. AAs reported shorter average sleep (mean [standard deviation] 6.57 [1.47] h than EAs (mean [standard deviation] 7.11 [1.16] h; P<0.0001 and were almost twice as likely to report less than 6 h of sleep per night (48.0% vs. 25.3%, P<0.0001. AA patients were more likely to have high-grade tumors (52.6% vs. 28.7% in EAs, P=0.0002. In multivariate analysis, race was associated with tumor grade (P<0.0001. On adjustment for sleep duration, the effect of race was reduced by 7.1%, but remained statistically significant (P=0.0006. However, the Sobel test did not indicate statistical significance (z=1.69, P=0.091. In other models accounting for these and additional confounders, we found similar results. Because of the conservative nature of the mediation analysis and smaller sample size, replication of our results in larger studies with more AA patients is warranted.

  16. A multi-step pathway connecting short sleep duration to daytime somnolence, reduced attention, and poor academic performance: an exploratory cross-sectional study in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Videla, Alejandro J; Richaudeau, Alba; Vigo, Daniel; Rossi, Malco; Cardinali, Daniel P; Perez-Chada, Daniel

    2013-05-15

    A multi-step causality pathway connecting short sleep duration to daytime somnolence and sleepiness leading to reduced attention and poor academic performance as the final result can be envisaged. However this hypothesis has never been explored. To explore consecutive correlations between sleep duration, daytime somnolence, attention levels, and academic performance in a sample of school-aged teenagers. We carried out a survey assessing sleep duration and daytime somnolence using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS). Sleep duration variables included week-days' total sleep time, usual bedtimes, and absolute weekday to-weekend sleep time difference. Attention was assessed by d2 test and by the coding subtest from the WISC-IV scale. Academic performance was obtained from literature and math grades. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the independent relationships between these variables, while controlling for confounding effects of other variables, in one single model. Standardized regression weights (SWR) for relationships between these variables are reported. Study sample included 1,194 teenagers (mean age: 15 years; range: 13-17 y). Sleep duration was inversely associated with daytime somnolence (SWR = -0.36, p academic results (SWR = 0.18, p academic achievements (SWR = -0.16, p sleep duration influenced attention through daytime somnolence (p academic achievements through reduced attention (p academic achievements correlated with reduced attention, which in turn was related to daytime somnolence. Somnolence correlated with short sleep duration.

  17. Does increasing active warm-up duration affect afternoon short-term maximal performance during Ramadan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baklouti, Hana; Aloui, Asma; Chtourou, Hamdi; Briki, Walid; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of active warm-up duration on short-term maximal performance assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon. Twelve healthy active men took part in the study. The experimental design consisted of four test sessions conducted at 5 p.m., before and during Ramadan, either with a 5-minute or a 15-minute warm-up. The warm-up consisted in pedaling at 50% of the power output obtained at the last stage of a submaximal multistage cycling test. During each session, the subjects performed two vertical jump tests (squat jump and counter movement jump) for measurement of vertical jump height followed by a 30-second Wingate test for measurement of peak and mean power. Oral temperature was recorded at rest and after warming-up. Moreover, ratings of perceived exertion were obtained immediately after the Wingate test. Oral temperature was higher before Ramadan than during Ramadan at rest, and was higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up both before and during Ramadan. In addition, vertical jump heights were not significantly different between the two warm-up conditions before and during Ramadan, and were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Peak and mean power were not significantly different between the two warm-up durations before Ramadan, but were significantly higher after the 5-minute warm-up than the 15-minute warm-up during Ramadan. Moreover, peak and mean power were lower during Ramadan than before Ramadan after both warm-up conditions. Furthermore, ratings of perceived exertion were higher after the 15-minute warm-up than the 5-minute warm-up only during Ramadan. The prolonged active warm-up has no effect on vertical jump height but impairs anaerobic power assessed during Ramadan in the afternoon.

  18. An exceptionally bright flare from SGR 1806-20 and the origins of short-duration gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, K; Boggs, S E; Smith, D M; Duncan, R C; Lin, R; Zoglauer, A; Krucker, S; Hurford, G; Hudson, H; Wigger, C; Hajdas, W; Thompson, C; Mitrofanov, I; Sanin, A; Boynton, W; Fellows, C; von Kienlin, A; Lichti, G; Rau, A; Cline, T

    2005-04-28

    Soft-gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are galactic X-ray stars that emit numerous short-duration (about 0.1 s) bursts of hard X-rays during sporadic active periods. They are thought to be magnetars: strongly magnetized neutron stars with emissions powered by the dissipation of magnetic energy. Here we report the detection of a long (380 s) giant flare from SGR 1806-20, which was much more luminous than any previous transient event observed in our Galaxy. (In the first 0.2 s, the flare released as much energy as the Sun radiates in a quarter of a million years.) Its power can be explained by a catastrophic instability involving global crust failure and magnetic reconnection on a magnetar, with possible large-scale untwisting of magnetic field lines outside the star. From a great distance this event would appear to be a short-duration, hard-spectrum cosmic gamma-ray burst. At least a significant fraction of the mysterious short-duration gamma-ray bursts may therefore come from extragalactic magnetars.

  19. A 'kilonova' associated with the short-duration γ-ray burst GRB 130603B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanvir, N. R.; Levan, A. J.; Fruchter, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Short-duration γ-ray bursts are intense flashes of cosmic γ-rays, lasting less than about two seconds, whose origin is unclear. The favoured hypothesis is that they are produced by a relativistic jet created by the merger of two compact stellar objects (specifically two neutron stars or a neutron...... detection of gravitational waves....

  20. Femoral Head Bone Loss Following Short and Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaber, Elizabeth A.; Cheng-Campbell, Margareth A.; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to mechanical unloading during spaceflight is known to have significant effects on the musculoskeletal system. Our ongoing studies with the mouse bone model have identified the failure of normal stem cell-based tissue regeneration, in addition to tissue degeneration, as a significant concern for long-duration spaceflight, especially in the mesenchymal and hematopoietic tissue lineages. The 30-day BionM1 and the 37-day Rodent Research 1 (RR1) missions enabled the possibility of studying these effects in long-duration microgravity experiments. We hypothesized that the inhibition of stem cell-based tissue regeneration in short-duration spaceflight would continue during long-duration spaceflight and furthermore would result in significant tissue alterations. MicroCT analysis of BionM1 femurs revealed 31 decrease in bone volume ratio, a 14 decrease in trabecular thickness, and a 20 decrease in trabecular number in the femoral head of space-flown mice. Furthermore, high-resolution MicroCT and immunohistochemical analysis of spaceflight tissues revealed a severe disruption of the epiphyseal boundary, resulting in endochondral ossification of the femoral head and perforation of articular cartilage by bone. This suggests that spaceflight in microgravity may cause rapid induction of an aging-like phenotype with signs of osteoarthritic disease in the hip joint. However, mice from RR1 exhibited significant bone loss in the femoral head but did not exhibit the severe aging and disease-like phenotype observed during BionM1. This may be due to increased physical activity in the RH hardware. Immunohistochemical analysis of the epiphyseal plate and investigation of cellular proliferation and differentiation pathways within the marrow compartment and whole bone tissue is currently being conducted to determine alterations in stem cell-based tissue regeneration between these experiments. Our results show that the observed inhibition of stem cell-based tissue regeneration

  1. Framework for human health risk assessment of non-cancer effects resulting from short-duration and intermittent exposures to chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Lynne T; Sandhu, Reena; Li-Muller, Angela; Mohapatra, Asish; Petrovic, Sanya; Meek, M E Bette

    2016-09-01

    Durations of exposure to chemicals, whether for single, repeated or intermittent periods, may vary from those upon which most guidance values are normally based. Because it is presently not feasible to conduct toxicity studies or develop toxicity reference values (TRVs) specific to each scenario of interest, methods are needed to address these various durations, drawing as much as possible on existing TRVs. A working framework was developed to address the potential for non-cancer effects resulting from continuous short-duration and intermittent exposures to chemicals. The framework presents an integrated, tiered approach that assists the user in identifying when existing TRVs can be applied directly, and the adaptations needed to assess the acceptability of short-duration or intermittent exposure scenarios. Descriptions of when and how toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic aspects need to be taken into consideration are also presented. The framework incorporates the use of TRVs based on exposure periods as similar as possible to the "actual" exposure periods and application of dose averaging under limited, specified conditions. This framework has been developed to aid in improving the scientific basis for the evaluation of short-duration and intermittent exposures in a variety of settings. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Post-Test Inspection of NASA's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster Long-Duration Test Hardware: Discharge and Neutralizer Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Rohit; Soulas, George C.

    2016-01-01

    The NEXT Long-Duration Test is part of a comprehensive thruster service life assessment intended to demonstrate overall throughput capability, validate service life models, quantify wear rates as a function of time and operating condition, and identify any unknown life-limiting mechanisms. The test was voluntarily terminated in February 2014 after demonstrating 51,184 hours of high-voltage operation, 918 kg of propellant throughput, and 35.5 MN-s of total impulse. The post-test inspection of the thruster hardware began shortly afterwards with a combination of non-destructive and destructive analysis techniques, and is presently nearing completion. This paper presents relevant results of the post-test inspection for both discharge and neutralizer cathodes. Discharge keeper erosion was found to be significantly reduced from what was observed in the NEXT 2 kh wear test and NSTAR Extended Life Test, providing adequate protection of vital cathode components throughout the test with ample lifetime remaining. The area of the discharge cathode orifice plate that was exposed by the keeper orifice exhibited net erosion, leading to cathode plate material building up in the cathode-keeper gap and causing a thermally-induced electrical short observed during the test. Significant erosion of the neutralizer cathode orifice was also found and is believed to be the root cause of an observed loss in flow margin. Deposition within the neutralizer keeper orifice as well as on the downstream surface was thicker than expected, potentially resulting in a facility-induced impact on the measured flow margin from plume mode. Neutralizer keeper wall erosion on the beam side was found to be significantly lower compared to the NEXT 2 kh wear test, likely due to the reduction in beam extraction diameter of the ion optics that resulted in decreased ion impingement. Results from the post-test inspection have led to some minor thruster design improvements.

  3. New method to extract radial acceleration of target from short-duration signal at low SNR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In order to extract target radial acceleration from radar echo signal at low SNR (signal-to-noise), this paper employed FRFT (fractional Fourier transformation) to analyze short-duration radar echo and studied the relations between signal convergence peaks in matched transformation domain and signal duration and modu- lated frequency of signal. When signal duration is specified, the method of multi- plying sampled signal by the known frequency modulated signal to alter modulated frequency was presented, which generated the new signal with larger convergence peaks than the initial signal in matched transformation domain. Thus, it could successfully estimate the radial acceleration of radar target at low SNR. Simulations were conducted to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the method.

  4. Short Sleep Duration Increases Metabolic Impact in Healthy Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Han-Bing; Tam, Tony; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying; Chung, Roger Yat-Nork; Su, Xuefen; Jin, Lei; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Lao, Xiang Qian

    2017-10-01

    The metabolic impact of inadequate sleep has not been determined in healthy individuals outside laboratories. This study aims to investigate the impact of sleep duration on five metabolic syndrome components in a healthy adult cohort. A total of 162121 adults aged 20-80 years (men 47.4%) of the MJ Health Database, who were not obese and free from major diseases, were recruited and followed up from 1996 to 2014. Sleep duration and insomnia symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Incident cases of five metabolic syndrome components were identified by follow-up medical examinations. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for three sleep duration categories " 8 hours/day (long)" with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Analyses were stratified by insomnia symptoms to assess whether insomnia symptoms modified the association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome. Compared to regular sleep duration, short sleep significantly (p sleep decreased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.89 [0.84-0.94]) and metabolic syndrome (adjusted HR 0.93 [0.88-0.99]). Insomnia symptoms did not modify the effects of sleep duration. Sleep duration may be a significant determinant of metabolic health. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Preliminary project definition for long duration. Tests of coal fired MHD generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Laken, R.A.

    1992-01-01

    In its final report the Faraday Working Group recommended the CEC amongst others to explore the possibility of a long duration test of a 'state-of-the-art', MHD-generator in order to remove uncertainties concerning the lifetime and availability of such a generator design. The duration of the test should be several thousands of hours, considerably more than the duration tests carried out until now. The scope of the present study is to prepare a project definition document for a long duration test of a coal fired, state-of-the-art MHD-generator

  6. Short Sleep Duration Is Associated With Eating More Carbohydrates and Less Dietary Fat in Mexican American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Tschann, Jeanne M; Butte, Nancy F; Gregorich, Steve E; Penilla, Carlos; Flores, Elena; Greenspan, Louise C; Pasch, Lauri A; Deardorff, Julianna

    2017-02-01

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Mechanisms are unclear, but may involve selection of high carbohydrate foods. This study examined the association between estimated sleep duration and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy among Mexican American (MA) 9-11 year olds. This cross-sectional study measured diet using two 24-hour recalls and estimated sleep duration using hip-worn accelerometry in MA children (n = 247) who were part of a cohort study. Child and maternal anthropometry were obtained; mothers reported on demographic information. Using linear regression, we examined the relationship of sleep duration with energy intake, sugar intake, and the percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates, fat, and protein. Children were 47% male; mean age was 10 (SD = 0.9) years. Mean sleep duration was 9.6 (SD = 0.8) hours; 53% were overweight/obese, with a mean energy intake of 1759 (SD = 514) calories. Longer sleep duration was independently associated with a lower percentage of energy intake from carbohydrates (β = -0.22, p fat (β = 0.19, p children who slept longer consumed diets with a lower percentage of calories from carbohydrates and a higher percentage from fat, especially from PUFA. Short sleep duration may be a risk factor for food cravings that are high in carbohydrate content and may displace heart-healthy dietary fat, and thereby increase obesity risk among children. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Short- circuit tests of circuit breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Chorovský, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with short-circuit tests of low voltage electrical devices. In the first part of this paper, there are described basic types of short- circuit tests and their principles. Direct and indirect (synthetic) tests with more details are described in the second part. Each test and principles are explained separately. Oscilogram is obtained from short-circuit tests of circuit breakers at laboratory. The aim of this research work is to propose a test circuit for performing indirect test.

  8. Pigeons exhibit higher accuracy for chosen memory tests than for forced memory tests in duration matching-to-sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Allison; Santi, Angelo

    2011-03-01

    Following training to match 2- and 8-sec durations of feederlight to red and green comparisons with a 0-sec baseline delay, pigeons were allowed to choose to take a memory test or to escape the memory test. The effects of sample omission, increases in retention interval, and variation in trial spacing on selection of the escape option and accuracy were studied. During initial testing, escaping the test did not increase as the task became more difficult, and there was no difference in accuracy between chosen and forced memory tests. However, with extended training, accuracy for chosen tests was significantly greater than for forced tests. In addition, two pigeons exhibited higher accuracy on chosen tests than on forced tests at the short retention interval and greater escape rates at the long retention interval. These results have not been obtained in previous studies with pigeons when the choice to take the test or to escape the test is given before test stimuli are presented. It appears that task-specific methodological factors may determine whether a particular species will exhibit the two behavioral effects that were initially proposed as potentially indicative of metacognition.

  9. Modification of Motion Perception and Manual Control Following Short-Durations Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Vanya, R. D.; Esteves, J. T.; Rupert, A. H.; Clement, G.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive changes during space flight in how the brain integrates vestibular cues with other sensory information can lead to impaired movement coordination and spatial disorientation following G-transitions. This ESA-NASA study was designed to examine both the physiological basis and operational implications for disorientation and tilt-translation disturbances following short-duration spaceflights. The goals of this study were to (1) examine the effects of stimulus frequency on adaptive changes in motion perception during passive tilt and translation motion, (2) quantify decrements in manual control of tilt motion, and (3) evaluate vibrotactile feedback as a sensorimotor countermeasure.

  10. Short sleep duration and longer daytime napping are associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Kui; Lin, Lin; Wang, Zhengyi; Ding, Lin; Huang, Ya; Wang, Po; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang; Wang, Weiqing; Chen, Yuhong; Ning, Guang

    2017-09-01

    Epidemiologic studies have reported conflicting results on the relationship between short sleep duration and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). There are no previous studies investigating the effect of daytime napping on NAFLD. In the present study we examined the associations between NAFLD and both nightly sleep duration and daytime napping in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. This cross-sectional community-based population study was performed on 8559 individuals aged ≥40 years. Sleep duration and the duration of daytime napping were self-reported using a standardized questionnaire; NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography. In this study sample, the overall prevalence of NAFLD was 30.4%. There was an inverse association between sleep duration and the risk of prevalent NAFLD. In multivariate analysis, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of prevalent NAFLD for decreasing sleep duration categories (≥9, 8.1-9, 7.1-8, 6.1-7, and ≤6.1 h) were 1.00 (reference), 1.38 (1.13-1.70), 1.32 (1.08-1.61), 1.29 (1.04-1.60), and 1.66 (1.28-2.15), respectively (P trend  = 0.0073). Compared with participants without a daytime napping habit, nap takers with a longer nap duration (>0.5 h) had an increased risk of prevalent NAFLD (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.06-1.41). The associations of sleep duration and daytime napping duration with NAFLD were generally consistent across different categories of age and obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance status. Short sleep duration and longer daytime napping were associated with an increased risk of prevalent NAFLD in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Pilot Field Test: Use of a Compression Garment During a Stand Test After Long-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Cerisano, J.; Kofman, I.; Reschke, M.

    2016-01-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) is a concern for astronauts returning from long-duration space flight. One countermeasure that has been used to protect against OI after short-duration bed rest and space flight is the use of lower body and abdominal compression garments. However, since the end of the Space Shuttle era we have not been able to test crewmembers during the first 24 hours after landing on Earth. NASA's Pilot Field Test provided us the opportunity to test cardiovascular responses of crewmembers wearing the Russian Kentavr compression garment during a stand test at multiple time points throughout the first 24 hours after landing. HYPOTHESIS We hypothesized that the Kentavr compression garment would prevent an increase in heart rate (HR) >15 bpm during a 3.5-min stand test. METHODS: The Pilot Field Test was conducted up to 3 times during the first 24 hours after crewmembers returned to Earth: (1) either in a tent adjacent to the Soyuz landing site in Kazakhstan (approx.1 hr) or after transportation to the Karaganda airport (approx. 4 hr); (2) during a refueling stop in Scotland (approx.12 hr); and (3) upon return to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) (approx.24 hr). We measured HR and arterial pressure (finger photoplethysmography) for 2 min while the crewmember was prone and throughout 3.5 min of quiet standing. Eleven crewmembers consented to participate; however, 2 felt too ill to start the test and 1 stopped 30 sec into the stand portion of the test. Of the remaining 8 crewmembers, 2 did not wear the Russian Kentavr compression garment. Because of inclement weather at the landing site, 5 crewmembers were flown by helicopter to the Karaganda airport before initial testing and received intravenous saline before completing the stand test. One of these crewmembers wore only the portion of the Russian Kentavr compression garment that covered the lower leg and thus lacked thigh and abdominal compression. All crewmembers continued wearing the Russian Kentavr

  12. Projected changes to short- and long-duration precipitation extremes over the Canadian Prairie Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud, M. B.; Khaliq, M. N.; Wheater, H. S.

    2017-09-01

    The effects of climate change on April-October short- and long-duration precipitation extremes over the Canadian Prairie Provinces were evaluated using a multi-Regional Climate Model (RCM) ensemble available through the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program. Simulations considered include those performed with six RCMs driven by the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis II product for the 1981-2000 period and those driven by four Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs) for the current 1971-2000 and future 2041-2070 periods (i.e. a total of 11 current-to-future period simulation pairs). A regional frequency analysis approach was used to develop 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, and 50-year return values of precipitation extremes from NCEP and AOGCM-driven current and future period simulations that respectively were used to study the performance of RCMs and projected changes for selected return values at regional, grid-cell and local scales. Performance errors due to internal dynamics and physics of RCMs studied for the 1981-2000 period reveal considerable variation in the performance of the RCMs. However, the performance errors were found to be much smaller for RCM ensemble averages than for individual RCMs. Projected changes in future climate to selected regional return values of short-duration (e.g. 15- and 30-min) precipitation extremes and for longer return periods (e.g. 50-year) were found to be mostly larger than those to the longer duration (e.g. 24- and 48-h) extremes and short return periods (e.g. 2-year). Overall, projected changes in precipitation extremes were larger for southeastern regions followed by southern and northern regions and smaller for southwestern and western regions of the study area. The changes to return values were also found to be statistically significant for the majority of the RCM-AOGCM simulation pairs. These projections might be useful as a key input for the future planning of urban

  13. Evidence for short duration of antibiotic treatment for non-severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP in children - are we there yet? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalom Ben-Shimol

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: The ideal duration of antibiotic treatment for childhood community acquired pneumonia (CAP has not yet been established. Objective: A literature search was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of shorter than 7 days duration of oral antibiotic treatment for childhood non-severe CAP. Data sources: A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database. The search was limited to randomised controlled trials (RCTs conducted between January 1996 and May 2013 in children up to 18 years old. Search terms included pneumonia, treatment, duration, child, children, days, short, respiratory infection and non-severe (nonsevere. Study selection: Only RCTs of oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe CAP in children were included. Data extraction: Independent extraction of articles was done by 3 authors using a preformed questionnaire. Data synthesis: Eight articles meeting the selection criteria were identified: 7 from 2 developing countries (India and Pakistan, and 1 from a developed country (The Netherlands. Studies from developing countries used the World Health Organization clinical criteria for diagnosing CAP, which includes mainly tachypnoea. None of those studies included fever, chest radiography or any laboratory test in their case definition. The Dutch study case definition used laboratory tests and chest radiographies (x-rays in addition to clinical criteria. Five articles concluded that 3 days of treatment are sufficient for non-severe childhood CAP, 2 articles found 5 days treatment to be sufficient, and one article found no difference between 3 days of amoxicillin treatment and placebo. Conclusions: The efficacy of short duration oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe CAP in children has not been established in developed countries. Current RCTs from developing countries used clinical criteria that may have failed to appropriately identify children with true bacterial pneumonia necessitating antibiotic treatment. More RCTs

  14. Impact of pulse duration on Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy: fragmentation and dusting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Markus J; Pongratz, Thomas; Khoder, Wael; Stief, Christian G; Herrmann, Thomas; Nagele, Udo; Sroka, Ronald

    2015-04-01

    In vitro investigations of Ho:YAG laser-induced stone fragmentation were performed to identify potential impacts of different pulse durations on stone fragmentation characteristics. A Ho:YAG laser system (Swiss LaserClast, EMS S.A., Nyon, Switzerland) with selectable long or short pulse mode was tested with regard to its fragmentation and laser hardware compatibility properties. The pulse duration is depending on the specific laser parameters. Fragmentation tests (hand-held, hands-free, single-pulse-induced crater) on artificial BEGO stones were performed under reproducible experimental conditions (fibre sizes: 365 and 200 µm; laser settings: 10 W through combinations of 0.5, 1, 2 J/pulse and 20, 10, 5 Hz, respectively). Differences in fragmentation rates between the two pulse duration regimes were detected with statistical significance for defined settings. Hand-held and motivated Ho:YAG laser-assisted fragmentation of BEGO stones showed no significant difference between short pulse mode and long pulse mode, neither in fragmentation rates nor in number of fragments and fragment sizes. Similarly, the results of the hands-free fragmentation tests (with and without anti-repulsion device) showed no statistical differences between long pulse and short pulse modes. The study showed that fragmentation rates for long and short pulse durations at identical power settings remain at a comparable level. Longer holmium laser pulse duration reduces stone pushback. Therefore, longer laser pulses may result in better clinical outcome of laser lithotripsy and more convenient handling during clinical use without compromising fragmentation effectiveness.

  15. A pilot study of short-duration sputum pretreatment procedures for optimizing smear microscopy for tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Daley

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Direct sputum smear microscopy for tuberculosis (TB lacks sensitivity for the detection of acid fast bacilli. Sputum pretreatment procedures may enhance sensitivity. We did a pilot study to compare the diagnostic accuracy and incremental yield of two short-duration (<1 hour sputum pretreatment procedures to optimize direct smears among patients with suspected TB at a referral hospital in India.Blinded laboratory comparison of bleach and universal sediment processing (USP pretreated centrifuged auramine smears to direct Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN and direct auramine smears and to solid (Loweinstein-Jensen (LJ and liquid (BACTEC 460 culture. 178 pulmonary and extrapulmonary TB suspects were prospectively recruited during a one year period. Thirty six (20.2% were positive by either solid or liquid culture. Direct ZN smear detected 22 of 36 cases and direct auramine smears detected 26 of 36 cases. Bleach and USP centrifugation detected 24 cases each, providing no incremental yield beyond direct smears. When compared to combined culture, pretreated smears were not more sensitive than direct smears (66.6% vs 61.1 (ZN or 72.2 (auramine, and were not more specific (92.3% vs 93.0 (ZN or 97.2 (auramine.Short duration sputum pretreatment with bleach and USP centrifugation did not increase yield as compared to direct sputum smears. Further work is needed to confirm this in a larger study and also determine if longer duration pre-treatment might be effective in optimizing smear microscopy for TB.

  16. Adaptation to an Illusory Duration: Nothing Like the Real Thing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Hotchkiss

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that adapting to a visual or auditory stimulus of a particular duration leads to a repulsive distortion of the perceived duration of a subsequently presented test stimulus. This distortion seems to be modality-specific and manifests itself as an expansion or contraction of perceived duration dependent upon whether the test stimulus is longer or shorter than the adapted duration. It has been shown (Berger et al 2003, Journal of Vision 3, 406–412 that perceived events can be as effective as actual events in inducing improvements in performance. In light of this, we investigated whether an illusory visual duration was capable of inducing a duration after-effect in a visual test stimulus that was actually no different in duration from the adaptor. Pairing a visual stimulus with a concurrent auditory stimulus of subtly longer or shorter duration expands or contracts the duration of the visual stimulus. We mapped out this effect and then chose two auditory durations (one long, one short that produced the maximum distortion in the perceived duration of the visual stimulus. After adapting to this bimodal stimulus, our participants were asked to reproduce a visual duration. Group data showed that participants, on average, reproduced the physical duration of the visual test stimulus accurately; in other words, there was no consistent effect of adaptation to an illusory duration.

  17. The Influence of Hand Immersion Duration on Manual Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Matthew; Sanli, Elizabeth; Brown, Robert; Ennis, Kerri Ann; Carnahan, Heather

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the effect of hand immersion duration on manipulative ability and tactile sensitivity. Individuals in maritime settings often work with hands that have been immersed in water. Although research has shown that hand immersion duration differentially impacts skin adhesion and tactile sensitivity, the effect of hand immersion on manipulative ability has not been directly tested. Given how critical manipulative ability is for the safety and performance of those working at sea, the effect of hand immersion duration on manual performance was investigated. Tests of manipulative ability (Purdue Pegboard, Grooved Pegboard, reef knot untying) and tactile sensitivity (Touch-Test) were completed following no-exposure, short-exposure, and long-exposure hand immersions in thermoneutral water. Compared to the no immersion condition, the Purdue Pegboard performance was reduced in both immersion conditions (short exposure, -11%; long exposure, -8%). A performance decrement was only observed in the short exposure condition (+15% in time to complete task) for the reef knot untying task. There were no statistical differences in the Grooved Pegboard or Touch-Test scores between exposure conditions. Immersing the hands in water decreases manipulative ability except for when object properties reduce the slipperiness between the hand and object. Manual performance in a wet environment may be conserved by designing tools and objects with edges and textures that can offset the slipperiness of wet hands. To maintain safety, the time requirements for working with wet hands needs to be considered.

  18. Short-term memory for tactile and temporal stimuli in a shared-attention recall task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, R L; Mollenhauer, M S; Luxford, J

    1990-06-01

    The present study examined short-term memory for tactile and temporal stimuli. Subjects were required to touch three-dimensional sample objects of different shapes and textures, presented for three durations: short, medium, or long. After the sample duration elapsed, a retention interval (5 sec.-20 sec.) occurred followed by a recall test for one of the sample dimensions of shape, texture, or time, across trials. Analysis showed that accuracy for shape and texture was high throughout testing (95-99%), but memory for perceived duration was relatively poor (60%). Further analysis indicated that poor recall on the time dimension was isolated to the medium and long samples; accuracy for short durations was consistently high (90%). In addition, a reliable response bias emerged; subjects recalled durations shorter than the actual duration presented. The results were discussed in terms of two lines of research, one indicating that haptic short-term memory is strong relative to other memory systems, and the other suggesting that the choose-short bias occurs across species.

  19. Duration Test Report for the SWIFT Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, I.; Hur, J.

    2013-01-01

    This test was conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. Three turbines where selected for testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of round two of the Small Wind Turbine Independent Testing project. Duration testing is one of up to 5 tests that may be performed on the turbines. Other tests include power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality. The results of the testing will provide the manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  20. Immune System Dysregulation, Viral Reactivation and Stress During Short-Duration Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Uchakin, Peter; Quiriarte, Heather; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews a study that was conducted to ascertain if the immune system dysregulation, viral reactivation and stress from short duration space flight were a result of the stress of landing and readjustment to gravity. The objectives of the study were to replace several recent immune studies with one comprehensive study that will include in-flight sampling; address lack of in-flight data: (i.e., determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation); determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight; and determine the appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures.

  1. Blood Monocyte Subsets and Selected Cardiovascular Risk Markers in Rheumatoid Arthritis of Short Duration in relation to Disease Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Klimek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate blood monocyte subsets and functional monocyte properties in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA of short duration in the context of cardiovascular (CV risk and disease activity. Methods. We studied conventional markers of CV risk, intima media thickness (IMT, and blood monocyte subsets in 27 patients aged 41 ± 10 years with RA of short duration (median 12 months and 22 healthy controls. The RA subjects were divided into low (DAS28: 2.6–5.1 and high (DAS28 > 5.1 disease activity. Results. RA patients exhibited increased levels of intermediate (CD14++CD16+ monocytes with decreased CD45RA expression compared to controls, increased counts of classical (CD14++CD16− monocytes, and decreased percentages of nonclassical (CD14+CD16++ monocytes. Patients with high disease activity had lower HLA DR expression on classical monocytes compared to low disease activity patients. There were no differences in monocyte subsets between subjects with DAS > 5.1 and DAS ≤ 5.1. There were no significant intergroup differences in IMT and the majority of classical CV risk factors. Conclusions. Patients with RA of short duration show alteration in peripheral blood monocyte subsets despite the fact that there is no evidence of subclinical atherosclerosis. Disease activity assessed with DAS28 was associated with impaired functional properties but not with a shift in monocyte subpopulations.

  2. NASA 14 Day Undersea Missions: A Short-Duration Spaceflight Analog for Immune System Dysregulation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Chouker, A.; Feuerecker, M.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper reviews the use of 14 day undersea missions as a possible analog for short duration spaceflight for the study of immune system dysregulation. Sixteen subjects from the the NASA Extreme Enviro nment Mission Operations (NEEMO) 12, 13 and 14 missions were studied for immune system dysregulation. The assays that are presented in this poster are the Virleukocyte subsets, the T Cell functions, and the intracellular/secreted cytokine profiles. Other assays were performed, but are not included in this presntation.

  3. Properties of a Small-scale Short-duration Solar Eruption with a Driven Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Beili; Feng, Li; Lu, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Magdalenic, Jasmina; Su, Yingna; Su, Yang; Gan, Weiqun

    2018-03-01

    Large-scale solar eruptions have been extensively explored over many years. However, the properties of small-scale events with associated shocks have rarely been investigated. We present analyses of a small-scale, short-duration event originating from a small region. The impulsive phase of the M1.9-class flare lasted only four minutes. The kinematic evolution of the CME hot channel reveals some exceptional characteristics, including a very short duration of the main acceleration phase (fast and impulsive kinematics subsequently results in a piston-driven shock related to a metric type II radio burst with a high starting frequency of ∼320 MHz of the fundamental band. The type II source is formed at a low height of below 1.1 R ⊙ less than ∼2 minutes after the onset of the main acceleration phase. Through the band-split of the type II burst, the shock compression ratio decreases from 2.2 to 1.3, and the magnetic field strength of the shock upstream region decreases from 13 to 0.5 Gauss at heights of 1.1–2.3 R ⊙. We find that the CME (∼4 × 1030 erg) and flare (∼1.6 × 1030 erg) consume similar amounts of magnetic energy. The same conclusion for large-scale eruptions implies that small- and large-scale events possibly share a similar relationship between CMEs and flares. The kinematic particularities of this event are possibly related to the small footpoint-separation distance of the associated magnetic flux rope, as predicted by the Erupting Flux Rope model.

  4. Impact of steep-front short-duration impulse on electric power system insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, L M; Veverka, E F; Shaw, J H [Cooper Industries, Inc., Franksville, WI (USA). Cooper Power Systems; McConnell, B W [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)

    1991-04-01

    This research effort required the performance evaluation of three specific insulation systems in common usage by electric power transmission and distribution utilities under stresses imposed by: three characteristic impulse waveforms (two waves representative of steep-front short duration (SFSD) impulses and one representative of lightning), the cumulative effect of multiple shots'' of each pulse, 60 Hz voltage, and, where appropriate, and mechanical load. The insulation systems evaluated are the cellulose-paper/oil combination typical of power transformer and condenser bushing usage, the cellulose-paper/enamel/oil combination used in distribution transformer construction, and the porcelain/air combination representing transmission and distribution line structural insulation. 4 refs., 94 figs., 11 tabs.

  5. Short-term consistency testing vs. long-term behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Bakel, A.J.; Wolf, S.F.; Strachan, D.M.

    1997-01-01

    The authors conducted Product Consistency Tests (PCTs) with a surrogate low-activity waste (LAW) glass to (1) evaluate the possible use of various test conditions in a specification test for LAW waste forms, (2) measure the reproducibility of the test at low temperatures, and (3) determine if the rates calculated from 7-day PCTs bound the rates measured in PCT conducted for longer durations, which represent more advanced corrosion. The effects of temperature and pH on the dissolution rate in PCTs are much less than the effects observed in dilute solutions due to the buildup of dissolved glass components in the PCTs. The precision of replicate 7-day tests at 20 and 40 degrees C was limited by the analytical uncertainty. The dissolution rates at all temperatures decreased with the test duration initially. However, the dissolution rates in tests at 70 and 90 degrees C increased when certain alteration phases formed after about 100 and 500 days, respectively; the rates in some tests exceeded that measured in a 7-day PCT. While the 7-day PCT does not provide a bounding rate for this glass at 70 or 90 degrees C, tests for longer durations are needed to determine if a 7-day test provides a bounding rate at lower temperatures

  6. Asian-White disparities in short sleep duration by industry of employment and occupation in the US: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Chandra L; Kawachi, Ichiro; Redline, Susan; Juon, Hee-Soon; Hu, Frank B

    2014-06-03

    Although short sleep is associated with an increased risk of morbidity as well as mortality and has been shown to vary by industry of employment and occupation, little is known about the relationship between work and sleep among Asian Americans. Using a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 125,610) in the National Health Interview Survey from 2004-2011, we estimated prevalence ratios for self-reported short sleep duration (hours) in Asians compared to Whites by industry of employment and occupation using adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance. Asians were more likely to report short sleep duration than Whites (33 vs. 28%, p Asian-White disparity was widest in finance/information and healthcare industries. Compared to Whites after adjustments, short sleep was also more prevalent among Asians employed in Public administration (PR = 1.35 [95% CI: 1.17,1.56]), Education (PR = 1.29 [95% CI: 1.08,1.53]), and Professional/Management (PR = 1.18 [95% CI: 1.03,1.36]). Short sleep, however, was lower among Asians in Accommodation/Food (PR = 0.81 [95% CI: 0.66, 0.99]) with no difference in Retail. In professional and support-service occupations, short sleep was higher among Asians, but was not different among laborers. U.S. Asian-White disparities in short sleep varied by industries, suggesting a need to consider both race and occupational characteristics to identify high-risk individuals.

  7. Do sediment type and test durations affect results of laboratory-based, accelerated testing studies of permeable pavement clogging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Peter W B; White, Richard; Lucke, Terry

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies have attempted to quantify the clogging processes of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavers (PICPs) using accelerated testing methods. However, the results have been variable. This study investigated the effects that three different sediment types (natural and silica), and different simulated rainfall intensities, and testing durations had on the observed clogging processes (and measured surface infiltration rates) of laboratory-based, accelerated PICP testing studies. Results showed that accelerated simulated laboratory testing results are highly dependent on the type, and size of sediment used in the experiments. For example, when using real stormwater sediment up to 1.18 mm in size, the results showed that neither testing duration, nor stormwater application rate had any significant effect on PICP clogging. However, the study clearly showed that shorter testing durations generally increased clogging and reduced the surface infiltration rates of the models when artificial silica sediment was used. Longer testing durations also generally increased clogging of the models when using fine sediment (<300 μm). Results from this study will help researchers and designers better anticipate when and why PICPs are susceptible to clogging, reduce maintenance and extend the useful life of these increasingly common stormwater best management practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and dietary behaviors are significant correlates of short sleep duration in the general population: the Nagahama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kimihiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Muro, Shigeo; Yamada, Ryo; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Nakayama, Takeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Chiba, Tsutomu; Chin, Kazuo; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2014-11-01

    To examine relationships among gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, dietary behaviors, and sleep duration in the general population. Cross-sectional. Community-based. There were 9,643 participants selected from the general population (54 ± 13 y). None. Sleep duration, sleep habits, and unfavorable dietary behaviors of each participant were assessed with a structured questionnaire. Participants were categorized into five groups according to their sleep duration: less than 5 h, 5 to less than 6 h, 6 to less than 7 h, 7 to less than 8 h, and 8 or more h per day. GERD was evaluated using the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD (FSSG) and participants having an FSSG score of 8 or more or those under treatment of GERD were defined as having GERD. Trend analysis showed that both the FSSG score and the number of unfavorable dietary habits increased with decreasing sleep duration. Further, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that both the presence of GERD (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.32) and the number of unfavorable dietary behaviors (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.13-1.26) were independent and potent factors to identify participants with short sleep duration even after controlling for other confounding factors. The current study showed that both GERD symptoms and unfavorable dietary behaviors were significant correlates of short sleep duration independently of each other in a large sample from the general population.

  9. Short-circuit experiments on a high Tc-superconducting cable conductor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, Ole; Jensen, E.H.; Traholt, C.

    2002-01-01

    A high temperature superconductor (HTS) cable conductor (CC) with a critical current of 2.1 kA was tested over a range of short-circuit currents up to 20 kA. The duration of the short-circuit currents is 1 s. Between each short-circuit test the critical current of the HTS CC was measured in order...

  10. Influence of test conditions and exposure duration on the result of ecotoxicological tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkrantz, Rikke Tjørnhøj

    be calculated from results of ecotoxicological tests performed according to internationally approved guidelines, such as from the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) or International Standardization Organisation (ISO). Such guidelines were originally developed to enable classification......H and exposure duration on the toxicity recorded in tests using four sulfonylurea herbicides (SUs) and the aquatic macrophyte Lemna gibba as study objects. The study showed that changing the physical and chemical test conditions influenced the toxicity of sulfonylurea herbicides towards L. gibba. Lowering...

  11. Post-Test Inspection of Nasa's Evolutionary Xenon Thruster Long Duration Test Hardware: Ion Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulas, George C.; Shastry, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    A Long Duration Test (LDT) was initiated in June 2005 as a part of NASAs Evolutionary Xenon Thruster (NEXT) service life validation approach. Testing was voluntarily terminated in February 2014, with the thruster accumulating 51,184 hours of operation, processing 918 kg of xenon propellant, and delivering 35.5 MN-s of total impulse. This presentation will present the post-test inspection results to date for the thrusters ion optics.

  12. An improved visualization-based force-measurement technique for short-duration hypersonic facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, Stuart J.; Karl, Sebastian [Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology, Spacecraft Section, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Goettingen (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    This article is concerned with describing and exploring the limitations of an improved version of a recently proposed visualization-based technique for the measurement of forces and moments in short-duration hypersonic wind tunnels. The technique is based on tracking the motion of a free-flying body over a sequence of high-speed visualizations; while this idea is not new in itself, the use of high-speed digital cinematography combined with a highly accurate least-squares tracking algorithm allows improved results over what have been previously possible with such techniques. The technique precision is estimated through the analysis of artificially constructed and experimental test images, and the resulting error in acceleration measurements is characterized. For wind-tunnel scale models, position measurements to within a few microns are shown to be readily attainable. Image data from two previous experimental studies in the T5 hypervelocity shock tunnel are then reanalyzed with the improved technique: the uncertainty in the mean drag acceleration is shown to be reduced to the order of the flow unsteadiness, 2-3%, and time-resolved acceleration measurements are also shown to be possible. The response time of the technique for the configurations studied is estimated to be {proportional_to}0.5 ms. Comparisons with computations using the DLR TAU code also yield agreement to within the overall experimental uncertainty. Measurement of the pitching moment for blunt geometries still appears challenging, however. (orig.)

  13. Duration Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-12-01

    This report summarizes the results of a duration test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  14. Use of Minute-by-Minute Cardiovascular Measurements During Tilt Tests to Strengthen Inference on the Effect of Long-Duration Space Flight on Orthostatic Hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feiveson, Alan H.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Stein, Sydney P.; Platts, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Typical methodology for evaluating the effects of spaceflight on orthostatic hypotension (OH) has been survival analysis of tolerance times from 80 head-up tilt tests. However when scheduled test durations are short, there may not be enough failures to allow survival analysis to adequately estimate and compare the effects of flight phase (e.g. pre-flight, number of days post-flight), flight duration, and their interaction, as well as interactions with effects of interventions or countermeasures. The problem is exacerbated in the presence of a repeated measures design, in which subjects participate in tilt tests during various flight phases. Here we show how it is possible to dramatically improve the efficiency of statistical inference in this setting by making use of the additional information contained in minute-by-minute observations of cardiovascular parameters thought to be reflective of progression towards presyncope during tilt testing. Methods: We retrospectively examined operational tilt test (OTT; 10 -min 80 head-up tilt) data from 20 International Space Station (ISS) and 66 Shuttle astronauts 10 d before launch (L-10), on landing day (R+0) and during recovery (R+1, R+3, R+6-10) depending on the level of participation. Data from 5 ISS astronauts tested on R+0 or R+1 who used non-standard countermeasures were excluded. In addition to OTT survival time, 8 cardiovascular parameters (CP: heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure, pulse pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance) that might be predictive of progression towards presyncope were measured every minute of each OTT. Statistical analysis was predicated on a two ]stage model of causation. In the first stage, flight duration and time from landing affect the astronauts' degree of OH, which is manifested in the time trends and variation of the above CPs during OTTs. In the second stage, the behavior of these parameters directly affects OTT survival

  15. The influence of PTSD, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress on insomnia and short sleep duration in urban, young adult, African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Brown, Tyish; Mellman, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    African Americans residing in stressful urban environments have high rates of insomnia and short sleep duration, both of which are associated with adverse health outcomes. However, limited data exist that explore factors influencing inadequate sleep in this high-risk population. This study sought to evaluate the contributions of demographics, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress to both insomnia and short sleep in urban African American young adults. Data were analyzed from self-report measures completed by 378 participants 18-35 years of age. PTSD symptom severity and sleep fears were independently associated with insomnia severity, and sleep fears was associated with sleep duration. Results have implications for preventative health intervention strategies for urban African American young adults.

  16. Factors associated with sleep duration in Brazilian high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes Felden, Érico Pereira; Barbosa, Diego Grasel; Junior, Geraldo Jose Ferrari; Santos, Manoella De Oliveira; Pelegrini, Andreia; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors associated with short sleep duration on southern Brazilian high school students. Our study was comprised of 1,132 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years, enrolled in public high schools in São José, Brazil. The students answered a questionnaire about working (work and workload), health perception, smoking, school schedule, sleep (duration and daytime sleepiness), and socio-demographics data. The results showed that more than two thirds of adolescent workers had short sleep duration (76.7%), and those with a higher workload (more than 20 hours) had a shorter sleep duration (7.07 hours) compared to non-workers (7.83 hours). In the analysis of factors associated with short sleep duration, adolescents who worked (OR = 2.12, 95% CI 1.53 to 2.95) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to those who did not work. In addition, older adolescents (17-19 years) and students with poor sleep quality were 40% and 55% more likely to have short sleep duration compared to younger adolescents (14-16 years) and students with good sleep quality, respectively. Adolescents with daytime sleepiness were more likely to have short sleep duration (OR = 1.49, 95% CI 1.06 to 2.07) compared to those without excessive daytime sleepiness. In addition students of the morning shift (OR = 6.02, 95% CI 4.23 to 8.57) and evening shift (OR = 2.16, 95% CI 1.45 to 3.22) were more likely to have short sleep duration compared to adolescents of the afternoon shift. Thereby adolescents who are workers, older, attended morning and evening classes and have excessive daytime sleepiness showed risk factors for short sleep duration. In this sense, it is pointed out the importance of raising awareness of these risk factors for short sleep duration of students from public schools from São José, located in southern Brazil.

  17. Comparing and contrasting therapeutic effects of cognitive-behavior therapy for older adults suffering from insomnia with short and long objective sleep duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Kennaway, David J

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a brief group-based program of cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTi) for older adults suffering from chronic insomnia with short objective sleep relative to those with long sleep duration. Ninety-one adults (male = 43, mean age = 63.34, standard deviation (SD) = 6.41) with sleep maintenance insomnia were selected from a community-based sample. The participants were classified as short sleepers (SS; treatment program of CBTi (N = 30 SS; N = 33 LS) or to a wait-list control condition (N = 9 SS, N = 19 LS). One-week sleep diaries, actigraphy, and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires were used to evaluate the efficacy of CBTi for those with short objective sleep relative to those with long sleep duration. Outcome measures were taken at pretreatment, posttreatment, and a 3-month follow-up. CBTi produced robust and durable improvements in quality of sleep, including reduced wake after sleep onset and improved sleep efficiency. Participants reported a reduction of scores on the Insomnia Severity Index, Flinders Fatigue Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Daytime Feeling and Functioning Scale, Sleep Anticipatory Anxiety Questionnaire, the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale, and gains on the Sleep Self-Efficacy Scale. All improvements were significant relative to their respective SS or LS wait-list group. The benefits of CBTi were comparable with those who had short and long objective sleep before the treatment. Older adults suffering from chronic insomnia with short objective sleep received comparable therapeutic benefits following CBTi relative to those with long objective sleep duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [The relationship between ischemic preconditioning-induced infarction size limitation and duration of test myocardial ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blokhin, I O; Galagudza, M M; Vlasov, T D; Nifontov, E M; Petrishchev, N N

    2008-07-01

    Traditionally infarction size reduction by ischemic preconditioning is estimated in duration of test ischemia. This approach limits the understanding of real antiischemic efficacy of ischemic preconditioning. Present study was performed in the in vivo rat model of regional myocardial ischemia-reperfusion and showed that protective effect afforded by ischemic preconditioning progressively decreased with prolongation of test ischemia. There were no statistically significant differences in infarction size between control and preconditioned animals when the duration of test ischemia was increased up to 1 hour. Preconditioning ensured maximal infarction-limiting effect in duration of test ischemia varying from 20 to 40 minutes.

  19. Insomnia Phenotypes Based on Objective Sleep Duration in Adolescents: Depression Risk and Differential Behavioral Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Fernandez-Mendoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous studies on the role of objective sleep duration in predicting morbidity in individuals with insomnia, we examined the role of objective sleep duration in differentiating behavioral profiles in adolescents with insomnia symptoms. Adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort (n = 397, ages 12–23, 54.7% male underwent a nine-hour polysomnography (PSG, clinical history, physical examination and psychometric testing, including the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist and Pediatric Behavior Scale. Insomnia symptoms were defined as a self-report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep and objective “short” sleep duration as a PSG total sleep time ≤7 h. A significant interaction showed that objective short sleep duration modified the association of insomnia symptoms with internalizing problems. Consistently, adolescents with insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration were characterized by depression, rumination, mood dysregulation and social isolation, while adolescents with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration were characterized by rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors and, to a lesser extent, rumination. These findings indicate that objective sleep duration is useful in differentiating behavioral profiles among adolescents with insomnia symptoms. The insomnia with objective short sleep duration phenotype is associated with an increased risk of depression earlier in the lifespan than previously believed.

  20. Prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among adolescents 15- to 19-year olds: A cross-sectional study from three major cities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate sleep has been considered important for the adolescent′s health and well being. On the other hand, self-imposed sleep curtailment is now recognized as a potentially important and novel risk factor for obesity. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among Saudi adolescents. Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study with self-reported sleep questionnaires. It was conducted during the years 2009/2010 in three cities in Saudi Arabia; Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants were 2868 secondary-school males (1379 and females (1389 aged 15 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, BMI, and sleeping duration. Logistic regression analysis while adjusted for age, gender, and location was used to examine the associations between sleep duration and obesity measures. Results: The mean (SD of sleep duration was 7.2 (1.6 hours/day with no significant differences between males and females. About 31% of the participants obtain less than 7 hours of sleep per day, while approximately 50% of the sample gets less than 8 hours of daily sleep. Two-way ANCOVA results while controlling for the effect of age revealed a significant gender by school-type interaction (P<0.001. In addition, adequate sleep duration increased the odds of having normal weight (adjusted odds ratios = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.50, P = 0.003. Conclusion: The present study observed a high prevalence of short sleep duration among Saudi adolescents 15- to 19-year olds and that short sleep duration was significantly associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. Future interventions should investigate whether adopting a healthy lifestyle by adolescents with short sleep duration would improve their sleeping habits or not.

  1. Space Station CMIF extended duration metabolic control test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, Richard G.; Bagdigian, Robert M.; Carrasquillo, Robyn L.; Ogle, Kathryn Y.; Wieland, Paul O.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Extended Duration Metabolic Control Test (EMCT) was conducted at the MSFC Core Module Integration Facility. The primary objective of the EMCT was to gather performance data from a partially-closed regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system functioning under steady-state conditions. Included is a description of the EMCT configuration, a summary of events, a discussion of anomalies that occurred during the test, and detailed results and analysis from individual measurements of water and gas samples taken during the test. A comparison of the physical, chemical, and microbiological methods used in the post test laboratory analyses of the water samples is included. The preprototype ECLS hardware used in the test, providing an overall process description and theory of operation for each hardware item. Analytical results pertaining to a system level mass balance and selected system power estimates are also included.

  2. Short sleep duration, complaints of vital exhaustion and perceived stress are prevalent among pregnant women with mood and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Chunfang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric disorders have been associated with sleep disorders in men and non-pregnant women, but little is known about sleep complaints and disorders among pregnant women with psychiatric disorders. Methods A cohort of 1,332 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained psychiatric diagnosis status and collect information about sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, vital exhaustion and perceived stress. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Approximately 5.1% of the cohort (n=68 reported having a physician-diagnosis of mood or anxiety disorder before interview. Compared with women without a psychiatric diagnosis, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI for short sleep duration in early pregnancy (≤6 hours were 1.95 (1.03-3.69. The corresponding OR (95%CI for long sleep duration (≥9 hours during early pregnancy was 1.13 (0.63-2.03. Women with psychiatric disorders had an increased risk of vital exhaustion (OR=2.41; 95%CI 1.46-4.00 and elevated perceived stress (OR=3.33; 95%CI 1.89-5.88. Observed associations were more pronounced among overweight/obese women. Conclusions Women with a psychiatric disorder were more likely to report short sleep durations, vital exhaustion and elevated perceived stress. Prospective studies are needed to more thoroughly explore factors that mediate the apparent mood/anxiety-sleep comorbidity among pregnant women.

  3. Recovery of dynamic balance after general anesthesia with sevoflurane in short-duration oral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Toshiaki; Miyamoto, Eriko; Takuma, Shigeru; Shibuya, Makiko; Kurozumi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yukifumi; Kamekura, Nobuhito; Fukushima, Kazuaki

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of dynamic balance, involving adjustment of the center of gravity, is essential for safe discharge on foot after ambulatory anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to assess the recovery of dynamic balance after general anesthesia with sevoflurane, using two computerized dynamic posturographies. Nine hospitalized patients undergoing oral surgery of less than 2 h duration under general anesthesia (air-oxygensevoflurane) were studied. A dynamic balance test, assessing the ability of postural control against unpredictable perturbation stimuli (Stability System; Biodex Medical), a walking analysis test using sheets with foot pressure sensors (Walk Way-MG1000; Anima), and two simple psychomotor function tests were performed before anesthesia (baseline), and 150 and 210 min after the emergence from anesthesia. Only the double-stance phase in the walking analysis test showed a significant difference between baseline and results at 150 min. None of the other variables showed any differences among results at baseline and at 150 and 210 min. The recovery times for dynamic balance and psychomotor function seem to be within 150 min after emergence from general anesthesia with sevoflurane in patients undergoing oral surgery of less than 2-h duration.

  4. Local short-duration precipitation extremes in Sweden: observations, forecasts and projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Jonas; Berg, Peter; Simonsson, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    Local short-duration precipitation extremes (LSPEs) are a key driver of hydrological hazards, notably in steep catchments with thin soils and in urban environments. The triggered floodings, landslides, etc., have large consequences for society in terms of both economy and health. Accurate estimations of LSPEs on both climatological time-scales (past, present, future) and in real-time is thus of great importance for improved hydrological predictions as well as design of constructions and infrastructure affected by hydrological fluxes. Analysis of LSPEs is, however, associated with various limitations and uncertainties. These are to a large degree associated with the small-scale nature of the meteorological processes behind LSPEs and the associated requirements on observation sensors as well as model descriptions. Some examples of causes for the limitations involved are given in the following. - Observations: High-resolution data sets available for LSPE analyses are often limited to either relatively long series from one or a few stations or relatively short series from larger station networks. Radar data have excellent resolutions in both time and space but the estimated local precipitation intensity is still highly uncertain. New and promising techniques (e.g. microwave links) are still in their infancy. - Weather forecasts (short-range): Although forecasts with the required spatial resolution for potential generation of LSPEs (around 2-4 km) are becoming operationally available, the actual forecast precision of LSPEs is largely unknown. Forecasted LSPEs may be displaced in time or, more critically, in space which strongly affects the possibility to assess hydrological risk. - Climate projections: The spatial resolution of the current RCM generation (around 25 km) is not sufficient for proper description of LSPEs. Statistical post-processing (i.e. downscaling) is required which adds substantial uncertainty to the final result. Ensemble generation of sufficiently

  5. Tester Detects Steady-Short Or Intermittent-Open Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bobby L.

    1990-01-01

    Momentary open circuits or steady short circuits trigger buzzer. Simple, portable, lightweight testing circuit sounds long-duration alarm when it detects steady short circuit or momentary open circuit in coaxial cable or other two-conductor transmission line. Tester sensitive to discontinuities lasting 10 microseconds or longer. Used extensively for detecting intermittent open shorts in accelerometer and extensometer cables. Also used as ordinary buzzer-type continuity checker to detect steady short or open circuits.

  6. Short Duration Small Sided Football and to a Lesser Extent Whole Body Vibration Exercise Induce Acute Changes in Markers of Bone Turnover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bowtell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to study whether short-duration vibration exercise or football sessions of two different durations acutely changed plasma markers of bone turnover and muscle strain. Inactive premenopausal women (n=56 were randomized to complete a single bout of short (FG15 or long duration (FG60 small sided football or low magnitude whole body vibration training (VIB. Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP was increased during exercise for FG15 (51.6±23.0 to 56.5±22.5 μg·L−1, mean ± SD, P0.05. An increase in osteocalcin was observed 48 h after exercise (P<0.05, which did not differ between exercise groups. C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen was not affected by exercise. Blood lactate concentration increased during exercise for FG15 (0.6±0.2 to 3.4±1.2 mM and FG60 (0.6±0.2 to 3.3±2.0 mM, but not for VIB (0.6±0.2 to 0.8±0.4 mM (P<0.05. Plasma creatine kinase increased by 55±63% and 137±119% 48 h after FG15 and FG60 (P<0.05, but not after VIB (26±54%, NS. In contrast to the minor elevation in osteocalcin in response to a single session of vibration exercise, both short and longer durations of small sided football acutely increased plasma P1NP, osteocalcin, and creatine kinase. This may contribute to favorable effects of chronic training on musculoskeletal health.

  7. Short-duration Electron Precipitation Studied by Test Particle Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaejin Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Energy spectra of electron microbursts from 170 keV to 340 keV have been measured by the solid-state detectors aboard the low-altitude (680 km polar-orbiting Korean STSAT-1 (Science and Technology SATellite. These measurements have revealed two important characteristics unique to the microbursts: (1 They are produced by a fast-loss cone-filling process in which the interaction time for pitch-angle scattering is less than 50 ms and (2 The e-folding energy of the perpendicular component is larger than that of the parallel component, and the loss cone is not completely filled by electrons. To understand how wave-particle interactions could generate microbursts, we performed a test particle simulation and investigated how the waves scattered electron pitch angles within the timescale required for microburst precipitation. The application of rising-frequency whistler-mode waves to electrons of different energies moving in a dipole magnetic field showed that chorus magnetic wave fields, rather than electric fields, were the main cause of microburst events, which implied that microbursts could be produced by a quasi-adiabatic process. In addition, the simulation results showed that high-energy electrons could resonate with chorus waves at high magnetic latitudes where the loss cone was larger, which might explain the decreased e-folding energy of precipitated microbursts compared to that of trapped electrons.

  8. Acute effects of short and long duration dynamic stretching protocols on muscle strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiano Francisco dos Santos

    Full Text Available Objective Compare the acute effects of dynamic stretching protocols on the isokinetic performance of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles at two velocities in adult males.Methodology Included the participation of 14 males (21 ± 2.6 years; 178 ± 0.4 cm; 73.2 ± 20.9 kg were assessed using an isokinetic dynamometer before and after following a short or long-duration dynamic stretching protocol or a control protocol. The results were assessed by a two-way ANOVA and a Scheffé’s post hoc test at a 5% significance level.Results No difference was found in the variables assessed at 180°/s after LDDS. At 60°/s, LDDS reduced the power of the knee flexors. The control protocol reduced the power of the knee flexors and increased the power of the extensors. At 60°/s, the work of the knee flexors exhibited a reduction after LDDS. The control protocol resulted in a reduction in the work of the flexors. The peak torque angle exhibited a reduction in the extensors and flexors after LDDS and SDDS.Conclusion Dynamic stretching did not cause any change in the peak torque, which points to its possible use in activities involving velocity and muscle strength. The executing dynamic stretching before physical activities such as running and high-intensity sports might be beneficial by promoting increases in heart rate and in body temperature.

  9. Duration Adaptation Occurs Across the Sub- and Supra-Second Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shima, Shuhei; Murai, Yuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    After repetitive exposure to a stimulus of relatively short duration, a subsequent stimulus of long duration is perceived as being even longer, and after repetitive exposure to a stimulus of relatively long duration, a subsequent stimulus of short duration is perceived as being even shorter. This phenomenon is called duration adaptation, and has been reported only for sub-second durations. We examined whether duration adaptation also occurs for supra-second durations (Experiment 1) and whether duration adaptation occurs across sub- and supra-second durations (Experiment 2). Duration adaptation occurred not only for sub-second durations, but also for supra-second durations and across sub- and supra-second durations. These results suggest that duration adaptation involves an interval-independent system or two functionally related systems that are associated with both the sub- and supra-second durations.

  10. Plasma processes in water under effect of short duration pulse discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbanov, Elchin

    2013-09-01

    It is very important to get a clear water without any impurities and bacteria by methods, that don't change the physical and chemical indicators of water now. In this article the plasma processes during the water treatment by strong electric fields and short duration pulse discharges are considered. The crown discharge around an electrode with a small radius of curvature consists of plasma leader channels with a high conductivity, where the thermo ionization processes and UV-radiation are taken place. Simultaneously the partial discharges around potential electrode lead to formation of atomic oxygen and ozone. The spark discharge arises, when plasma leader channels cross the all interelectrode gap, where the temperature and pressure are strongly grown. As a result the shock waves and dispersing liquid streams in all discharge gap are formed. The plasma channels extend, pressure inside it becomes less than hydrostatic one and the collapse and UV-radiation processes are started. The considered physical processes can be successfully used as a basis for development of pilot-industrial installations for conditioning of drinking water and to disinfecting of sewage.

  11. The afterglow of the short/intermediate-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 000301C: A jet at z=2.04

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.L.; Fynbo, J.U.; Gorosabel, J.

    2001-01-01

    We present Ulysses and NEAR data from the detection of the short or intermediate duration (2 s) gamma-ray burst GRB 000301C (2000 March 1.41 UT). The gamma-ray burst (GRB) was localised by the Inter Planetary Network (IPN) and RXTE to an area of similar to 50 arcmin(2). A fading optical counterpa...

  12. Technology-Assisted Behavioral Intervention to Extend Sleep Duration: Development and Design of the Sleep Bunny Mobile App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Kelly Glazer; Duffecy, Jennifer; Reid, Kathryn; Begale, Mark; Caccamo, Lauren

    2018-01-10

    Despite the high prevalence of short sleep duration (29.2% of adults sleep popularity of wearable sleep trackers provides an opportunity to engage users in interventions. The objective of this study was to outline the theoretical foundation and iterative process of designing the "Sleep Bunny," a technology-assisted sleep extension intervention including a mobile phone app, wearable sleep tracker, and brief telephone coaching. We conducted a two-step process in the development of this intervention, which was as follows: (1) user testing of the app and (2) a field trial that was completed by 2 participants with short sleep duration and a cardiovascular disease risk factor linked to short sleep duration (body mass index [BMI] >25). All participants had habitual sleep duration consequences of sleep loss. ©Kelly Glazer Baron, Jennifer Duffecy, Kathryn Reid, Mark Begale, Lauren Caccamo. Originally published in JMIR Mental Health (http://mental.jmir.org), 10.01.2018.

  13. Duration dependence test for rational speculative bubble: the strength and weakness

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Mahyudin

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights the strength and weakness of duration dependence test used by Mokhtar, Nassir and Hassan (2006) to detect the rational speculative bubble in the Malaysian stock market. It is found that despite the test’s strength over the other tests, it is however sensitive to different specifications and therefore may produce contrasting results.

  14. A randomized comparison study regarding the impact of short-duration, high-intensity exercise and traditional exercise on anthropometric and body composition measurement changes in post-menopausal women--A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Joan A Cebrick; Payne, Ellen K

    2016-03-01

    The mode and duration of exercise necessary to change body composition and reduce weight remains debatable. Menopause results in hormonal changes that preclude weight loss. This randomized pilot study compared the effects of short-duration, high-intensity interval training and traditional exercise on anthropometric and body composition measurement changes in post-menopausal women. To compare the effects of short-duration, high-intensity interval training and traditional methods of exercise (walking) on anthropometric, body composition and body weight change over a 12-week period. Subjects (N = 18) were post-menopausal, sedentary female volunteers, randomly assigned into one of two exercise groups. Both groups exercised five out of seven days for 12 weeks. The resistance group (n = 8) (54.3 ± 7.3 years; BMI = 28.0 ± 2.1 kg/m(2); mean ± SD) exercised for 15.0 ± 3.5 min, which consisted of five different exercise routines including upper and lower extremity, a cardio segment, yoga and abdominal exercises. The walkers (n = 10) (56.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI = 29.2 ± 2.6 kg/m(2); mean ± SD) exercised for 40.0 ± 5.0 min at 65% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate. Relative (%) body fat was measured via DEXA scan, along with five anthropometric measurements, all of which were taken prior to and after 12 weeks. Independent sample t-tests were probed for differences, p ≤ 0.05. No statistically significant changes were determined between the groups for pre-and post-measurements. The outcomes of this study provide a foundation for future comparisons of short-duration high-intensity interval training exercise and traditional exercise, or walking, on anthropometric and body composition measurement changes in sedentary, overweight, post-menopausal females over a 12-week period. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Short duration of skin-to-skin contact: effects on growth and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Nem-Yun; Jamli, Faizah Mohamed

    2007-12-01

    To compare weight gain and head growth in very-low-birthweight (VLBW, skin-to-skin contact (STSC) during their stay in a neonatal intensive care unit. Stable VLBW infants were randomised into either STSC or control group. Parents of the STSC group were encouraged to provide STSC for at least 1 h daily. One hundred and forty-six infants were randomised, but only 126 were enrolled (STSC group: n = 64; n = 62). Infants in the STSC group had better mean weekly increase in head circumference (1.0 cm (SD = 0.3) vs. 0.7 cm (SD = 0.3); P milk at enrollment (adjusted OR: 4.1; 95% CI: 1.4, 11.7; P = 0.009) and receiving expressed breast milk during intervention period (adjusted OR: 8.3; 95% CI: 2.8, 24.4; P < 0.0001); exposure to STSC and maternal education were not significant predictors. Exposure to short duration of STSC may promote head growth in VLBW infants.

  16. DEMOGRAPHY OF ALPINE SHORT-LIVED PLANTS, LONGEVITY AND ONTOGENY STAGE DURATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Kazantseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim - to evaluate lifespan (full cycle and ontogeny stage durations of nine alpine short-lived North- West Caucasus plants.Methods. For calculation we used a new method which was developed and suggested earlier by us. This method is based on a discrete ontogeny description and on the probability theory and random processes. The data on the monitoring of the marked individuals were collected during six years.Results. We found out that the lifespan of Anthyllis vulneraria is 2.6±0.3 years (hereinafter “±” is Standard error, Draba hispida – 4.5±0.3, Murbeckiella huetii – 4.6±1.1, Carum meifolium – 7.8±1.4, Eritrichium caucasicum – 9.1±1.4, Trifolium badium – 10.3±2.6, Sedum tenellum – 11±2.05, Androsace albana – 12.1±2.5, Minuartia recurva – 22.9±4.5. Also we demonstrated the matrix population models for studied plants, which show the probability of transition of individuals from one ontogeny stage to another in time interval (in our experiment – 1 year.Conclusion. Mortality of seedlings and juvenile plants, except Murbeckiella huetii, is around and more than 50%. Two years is the minimal amount of time that is necessary for full cycle of short-lived alpine plants, as it was shown for Anthyllis vulneraria, Murbeckiella huetii и Trifolium badium. A 3-12 years lifespan was calculated for other studied species. Persistence of Eritrichium caucasicum and Androsace albana populations provided by resistance of adult vegetative plants.

  17. The effect of study-test modalities on the remembrance of subjective duration from long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapproth, Florian

    2002-07-31

    It was examined whether stimulus modality (auditory vs. visual) affects the retrieval of subjective duration from memory. In two experiments the temporal generalization paradigm was used. Participants had to decide whether the previously learned standard duration (400 ms) occurred in the context of comparison stimuli. Two major results were found. (1) Discrimination was more accurate if the training and testing stimuli were of the same modality than if they were of opposite modalities. (2) If both modality of learning and modality of testing were different, subjects systematically underestimated the test durations, i.e. temporal generalization gradients (the proportion of identifications of a stimulus as the standard, plotted against stimulus duration) shifted to the right. The observed shift is interpreted as a result of a delayed timing process.

  18. ProSeal laryngeal mask airway: An alternative to endotracheal intubation in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaya Lalwani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The laryngeal mask airway (LMA is a supraglottic airway management device. The LMA is preferred for airway management in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures. The recently introduced ProSeal (PLMA, a modification of Classic LMA, has a gastric drainage tube placed lateral to main airway tube which allows the regurgitated gastric contents to bypass the glottis and prevents the pulmonary aspiration. This study was done to compare the efficacy of ProSeal LMA with an endotracheal tube in paediatric patients with respect to number of attempts for placement of devices, haemodynamic responses and perioperative respiratory complications. Sixty children, ASA I and II, weighing 10-20 kg between 2 and 8 years of age group of either sex undergoing elective ophthalmological and lower abdominal surgeries of 30-60 min duration, randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients each were studied. The number of attempts for endotracheal intubation was less than the placement of PLMA. Haemodynamic responses were significantly higher (P<0.05 after endotracheal intubation as compared to the placement of PLMA. There were no significant differences in mean SpO 2 (% and EtCO 2 levels recorded at different time intervals between the two groups. The incidence of post-operative respiratory complications cough and bronchospasm was higher after extubation than after removal of PLMA. The incidence of soft tissue trauma was noted to be higher for PLMA after its removal. There were no incidences of aspiration and hoarseness/sore throat in either group. It is concluded that ProSeal LMA can be safely considered as a suitable and effective alternative to endotracheal intubation in paediatric patients for short duration surgical procedures.

  19. A Test Bed for Short Pulse OA Detection of Optical Directors in Amphibious Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ertem, M

    1999-01-01

    ...) system to detect optical directors of potential threats in amphibious operations. The use of a short pulse duration allows discrimination of retroreflections from natural sources such as rock formations and vegetation...

  20. Duration Test Report for the Ventera VT10 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2013-06-01

    This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small wind turbines. Five turbines were tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as a part of round one of this project. Duration testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including power performance, safety and function, noise, and power quality. Test results will provide manufacturers with reports that can be used to fulfill part of the requirements for small wind turbine certification. The test equipment included a grid-connected Ventera Energy Corporation VT10 wind turbine mounted on an 18.3-m (60-ft) self-supporting lattice tower manufactured by Rohn.

  1. Parenteral nutrition in short bowel syndrome patients, regardless of its duration, increases serum proinflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizari, Letícia; da Silva Santos, Andressa Feijó; Foss, Norma Tiraboschi; Marchini, Júlio Sérgio; Suen, Vivian Marques Miguel

    2016-07-01

    Short bowel syndrome is a severe malabsorption disorder, and prolonged parenteral nutrition is essential for survival in some cases. Among the undesirable effects of long-term parenteral nutrition is an increase in proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to measure the serum levels of interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and transforming growth factor beta, in patients with short bowel syndrome on cyclic parenteral nutrition and patients who had previously received but no longer require parenteral nutrition. The study was cross-sectional and observational. Three groups were studied as follows: Parenteral nutrition group, 9 patients with short bowel syndrome that receive cyclic parenteral nutrition; Oral nutrition group, 10 patients with the same syndrome who had been weaned off parenteral nutrition for at least 1 year prior to the study; Control group, 13 healthy adults, matched for age and sex to parenteral and oral groups. The following data were collected: age, tobacco use, drug therapies, dietary intake, body weight, height, blood collection. All interleukins were significantly higher in the parenteral group compared with the control group as follows: interleukin-6: 22 ± 19 vs 1.5 ± 1.4 pg/mL, P= .0002; transforming growth factor β: 854 ± 204 vs 607 ± 280 pg/mL, P= .04; interleukin-10: 8 ± 37 vs 0.6 ± 4, P= .03; tumor necrosis factor α: 20 ± 8 vs 8 ± 4 pg/mL, Pparenteral nutrition in short bowel syndrome patients, regardless of its duration, increases serum proinflammatory cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Determinants of long-duration commuting and long-duration commuters' perceptions and attitudes toward commuting time: Evidence from Kunming, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingwei He

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the commuting patterns of long-duration commuters and the possible changes in these patterns can help policymakers adopt the more reasonable land use and transportation policies. With Kunming in China as a case study, the determinants of long-duration commuting trips were identified based on logistic regression model. The results indicated that age, education level, number of workers, presence of retirees, and residential location have a significant impact on the occurrence of long-duration commuting trips. The ideal commuting times and tolerance thresholds of commuting time of long-duration commuters were also investigated. The statistical results revealed the distributions of ideal commuting times and tolerance thresholds of commuting time of both short- and long-duration commuters. The average tolerance threshold of commuting time and the average ideal commuting time of long-duration commuters were greater than those of short-duration commuters. For 97.2% of the long-duration commuters, their actual commuting time was longer than the ideal commuting time; this finding indicates that most long-duration commuters are dissatisfied with their commuting time. The actual commuting time of 40.1% long-duration commuters exceeded their tolerance thresholds; these commuters are eager to reduce their commuting time.

  3. Reducing the duration of untreated first-episode psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melle, Ingrid; Larsen, Tor K; Haahr, Ulrik

    2004-01-01

    Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood.......Most studies on first-episode psychosis show an association between a long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and poorer short-term outcome, but the mechanisms of this relationship are poorly understood....

  4. Sleep duration and the risk of metabolic syndrome – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been stated that besides the traditional elements of lifestyle such as diet and physical activity, an additional factor, namely sleep, is involved in metabolic processes, hormonal functions, and energy homeostasis. Aim of the research: To examine relationships between self-reported sleep duration and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, both for men and women. Material and methods: The study involved 10,367 individuals, aged 37 to 66 years. The definition of MetS applied in this paper was developed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Logistic regression was applied to assess the risk (odds ratio – OR of MetS and its components. Results : There was no relationship observed between short sleep duration (≤ 6 h and the risk of MetS. Long sleep duration (≥ 9 h was connected with a higher risk of MetS only in the unadjusted model (OR = 1.11. After adjusting for confounders, a significant association was found between long sleep duration and a higher risk of abdominal obesity in the test group as a whole (OR = 1.16, as well as in the men in the group (OR = 1.22. In women, both with short (OR = 1.08 and long (OR = 1.12 sleep duration, the risk of increased concentration of glucose was found. Conclusions : Our study did not confirm the existence of an association between inadequate sleep duration and the risk of MetS, defined in accordance with IDF criteria. Sleep duration, however, is connected with some of the MetS components. It is therefore necessary to conduct further, long-term tests in this regard.

  5. Economic impact of antidepressant treatment duration in naturalistic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, M; Crott, R; Gaudron, Y; Verdoux, H

    2013-05-01

    To assess the economic impact of the duration of antidepressant drug treatment in a real-life setting. A historical fixed cohort study included 27 917 patients aged 18 and over with a new antidepressant treatment registered in the national insurance database. The economic impact concerned healthcare expenditure in the first 3 months after treatment discontinuation. Generalized linear models were used to compare two groups of treatment duration: adjustment for care costs before and during treatment episode, gender, age, chronic diseases, welfare and prescriber specialty, total healthcare costs (in log) [-0.06 (-0.14;0.01) P = 0.11] and psychiatric care costs (in square root) [-0.08 (-0.41;0.25) P = 0.6] were similar in both groups. Non-psychiatric care costs were significantly lower in the 'long treatment duration' group compared with the 'short treatment duration' group [-11.4 (-15.8; -7.0) P costs over the antidepressant treatment episode were larger in the 'long treatment duration' group compared with the 'short treatment duration' group. With regard to healthcare costs and global health, antidepressant drug treatments of short duration appear less effective than treatment of recommended duration. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Enhanced conflict monitoring via a short-duration, video-assisted deep breathing in healthy young adults: an event-related potential approach through the Go/NoGo paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok Suen Cheng

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Practitioners of mindfulness are reported to have greater cognitive control especially in conflict monitoring, response inhibition and sustained attention. However, due to the various existing methods in each mindfulness practices and also, the high commitment factor, a barrier still exists for an individual to pick up the practices. Therefore, the effect of short duration deep breathing on the cognitive control is investigated here. Methods Short duration guided deep breathing videos consisting of 5, 7 and 9 min respectively were created and used on subjects training. The effect on cognitive control was assessed using a Go/NoGo task along with event-related potential (ERP measurements at Fz, Cz, and Pz. Results From the study, the significant outcome showed at the follow-up session in which participants engaged for 5 min deep breathing group showed a profound NoGo N2 amplitude increment as compared to the control group, indicating an enhanced conflict monitoring ability. An inverse relationship between the NoGo N2 amplitude and the breathing duration is observed as well at the follow-up session. Conclusion These results indicated the possibility of performing short duration deep breathing guided by a video to achieve an enhanced conflict monitoring as an alternative to other mindfulness practices and 5 min is found to be the optimum practice duration. Significant This study is the first to establish a relationship between deep breathing and conflict monitoring through ERP. The study population of young adults taken from the same environment reduces the variance in ERP results due to age and environment. Limitation A larger sample size would provide a greater statistical power. A longer duration of deep breathing should be investigated to further clarify the relationship between the practice duration and the NoGo N2 amplitude. The result can be split by gender and analyzed separately due to the different brain structure of males

  7. Testing for Short Memory in a VARMA Process

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Timothy; Öller, Lars-Erik

    1997-01-01

    We generalize the short term memory test of an ARMA model, presented in Öller (1985), to the multivariate VARMA cases. In a study on Swedish exports and OECD demand we demonstrate how the multivariate setting extends the short memory.

  8. Sleep Duration and Breast Cancer Phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khawaja, A.; Rao, S.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that short sleep is associated with an increased risk of cancer; however, little has been done to study the role of sleep on tumor characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and tumor phenotype in 972 breast cancer patients. Sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor grade (univariate P= 0.032), particularly in postmenopausal women (univariate P= 0.018). This association did not reach statistical significance after adjustments for age, race, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy use, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity in the entire study sample (P= 0.052), but it remained statistically significant (P= 0.049) among post-menopausal patients. We did not observe a statistically significant association between sleep duration and stage at diagnosis, ER, or HER2 receptor status. These results present a modest association between short duration of sleep and higher grade breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Further work needs to be done to validate these findings.

  9. Does selection for short sleep duration explain human vulnerability to Alzheimer's disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Finch, Caleb E; Nunn, Charles L

    2017-01-16

    Compared with other primates, humans sleep less and have a much higher prevalence of Alzheimer 's disease (AD) pathology. This article reviews evidence relevant to the hypothesis that natural selection for shorter sleep time in humans has compromised the efficacy of physiological mechanisms that protect against AD during sleep. In particular, the glymphatic system drains interstitial fluid from the brain, removing extra-cellular amyloid beta (eAβ) twice as fast during sleep. In addition, melatonin - a peptide hormone that increases markedly during sleep - is an effective antioxidant that inhibits the polymerization of soluble eAβ into insoluble amyloid fibrils that are associated with AD. Sleep deprivation increases plaque formation and AD, which itself disrupts sleep, potentially creating a positive feedback cycle. These and other physiological benefits of sleep may be compromised by short sleep durations. Our hypothesis highlights possible long-term side effects of medications that reduce sleep, and may lead to potential new strategies for preventing and treating AD. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  10. Electrical short circuit and current overload tests on aircraft wiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The findings of electrical short circuit and current overload tests performed on commercial aircraft wiring are presented. A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to evaluate circuit breaker response to overcurrent and to determine if the wire showed any visible signs of thermal degradation due to overcurrent. Three types of wire used in commercial aircraft were evaluated: MIL-W-22759/34 (150 C rated), MIL-W-81381/12 (200 C rated), and BMS 1360 (260 C rated). A second series of tests evaluated circuit breaker response to short circuits and ticking faults. These tests were also meant to determine if the three test wires behaved differently under these conditions and if a short circuit or ticking fault could start a fire. It is concluded that circuit breakers provided reliable overcurrent protection. Circuit breakers may not protect wire from ticking faults but can protect wire from direct shorts. These tests indicated that the appearance of a wire subjected to a current that totally degrades the insulation looks identical to a wire subjected to a fire; however the 'fire exposed' conductor was more brittle than the conductor degraded by overcurrent. Preliminary testing indicates that direct short circuits are not likely to start a fire. Preliminary testing indicated that direct short circuits do not erode insulation and conductor to the extent that ticking faults did. Circuit breakers may not safeguard against the ignition of flammable materials by ticking faults. The flammability of materials near ticking faults is far more important than the rating of the wire insulation material.

  11. Does selection for short sleep duration explain human vulnerability to Alzheimer’s disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Randolph M; Finch, Caleb E; Nunn, Charles L

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Compared with other primates, humans sleep less and have a much higher prevalence of Alzheimer ’s disease (AD) pathology. This article reviews evidence relevant to the hypothesis that natural selection for shorter sleep time in humans has compromised the efficacy of physiological mechanisms that protect against AD during sleep. In particular, the glymphatic system drains interstitial fluid from the brain, removing extra-cellular amyloid beta (eAβ) twice as fast during sleep. In addition, melatonin—a peptide hormone that increases markedly during sleep—is an effective antioxidant that inhibits the polymerization of soluble eAβ into insoluble amyloid fibrils that are associated with AD. Sleep deprivation increases plaque formation and AD, which itself disrupts sleep, potentially creating a positive feedback cycle. These and other physiological benefits of sleep may be compromised by short sleep durations. Our hypothesis highlights possible long-term side effects of medications that reduce sleep, and may lead to potential new strategies for preventing and treating AD. PMID:28096295

  12. Duration-frequency relationships of heavy rainfall in Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro José Back

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to adjust equations that establish relationships between rainfall events with different duration and data from weather stations in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. In this study, the relationships between different duration heavy rainfalls from 13 weather stations of Santa Catarina were analyzed. From series of maximum annual rainfalls, and using the Gumbel-Chow distribution, the maximum rainfall for durations between 5 min and 24 h were estimated considering return periods from 2 to 100 years. The data fit to the Gumbel-Chow model was verified by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test at 5 % significance. The coefficients of Bell's equation were adjusted to estimate the relationship between rainfall duration t (min and the return period T (y in relation to the maximum rainfall with a duration of 1 hour and a 10 year return period. Likewise, the coefficients of Bell's equation were adjusted based on the maximum rainfall with a duration of 1 day and a 10 year return period. The results showed that these relationships are viable to estimate short-duration rainfall events at locations where there are no rainfall records.

  13. Compressibilidade de um solo sob sistemas de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado e não irrigado Soil compressibility under non-irrigated and irrigated short duration grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. R. Lima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O incremento da produtividade das pastagens tem sido associado ao comportamento à compressão dos solos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: quantificar as curvas de compressão e a pressão de preconsolidação em sistemas de pastejo intensivo rotacionado irrigado e não irrigado. Foram coletadas 96 amostras indeformadas de solo em quatro ciclos sucessivos de pastejo instalado com capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. em um Argissolo Vermelho. Após saturadas com água e equilibradas no potencial (psi: -10 kPa, as amostras foram pesadas e submetidas ao ensaio de compressão uniaxial com a aplicação sucessiva e contínua de pressões de 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000, 1.300 e 1.600 kPa. Os resultados comprovaram a hipótese de que houve diferença na compressibilidade do solo sob os sistemas de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado e não irrigado. A maior compactação inicial verificada no sistema de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado favoreceu o deslocamento das curvas de compressão uniaxial para valores superiores de densidade do solo. A pressão de preconsolidação foi significativamente superior no quarto ciclo de pastejo no sistema de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado em relação ao sistema pastejo rotacionado intensivo não irrigado.Increment in pasture productivity has been associated with the understanding of the soil behavior under compression. The objective of this research was to quantify (a the compression curves and (b the preconsolidation pressure of the soils under non-irrigated and irrigated short duration grazing systems. Ninety-six undisturbed soil samples were taken from the four successive pasture cycles of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. in a Hapludalf. The samples were saturated in water and equilibrated at the matrix potential (psi: -10 kPa and then were weighed and submitted to an uniaxial compression test, applying the following pressures: 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 1,300, and

  14. RFI flagging implications for short-duration transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendes, Y.; Prasad, P.; Rowlinson, A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Swinbank, J. D.; Law, C. J.; van der Horst, A. J.; Carbone, D.; Broderick, J. W.; Staley, T. D.; Stewart, A. J.; Huizinga, F.; Molenaar, G.; Alexov, A.; Bell, M. E.; Coenen, T.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Fender, R.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Jonker, P.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Pietka, M.; Stappers, B.; Wise, M.; Zarka, P.

    2018-04-01

    With their wide fields of view and often relatively long coverage of any position in the sky in imaging survey mode, modern radio telescopes provide a data stream that is naturally suited to searching for rare transients. However, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) can show up in the data stream in similar ways to such transients, and thus the normal pre-treatment of filtering RFI (flagging) may also remove astrophysical transients from the data stream before imaging. In this paper we investigate how standard flagging affects the detectability of such transients by examining the case of transient detection in an observing mode used for Low Frequency Array (LOFAR; van Haarlem et al., 2013) surveys. We quantify the fluence range of transients that would be detected, and the reduction of their SNR due to partial flagging. We find that transients with a duration close to the integration sampling time, as well as bright transients with durations on the order of tens of seconds, are completely flagged. For longer transients on the order of several tens of seconds to minutes, the flagging effects are not as severe, although part of the signal is lost. For these transients, we present a modified flagging strategy which mitigates the effect of flagging on transient signals. We also present a script which uses the differences between the two strategies, and known differences between transient RFI and astrophysical transients, to notify the observer when a potential transient is in the data stream.

  15. Sleep duration in elderly obese patients correlated negatively with intake fatty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santana Aline

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study objectives The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between sleep duration and dietary habits in elderly obese patients treated at an institute of cardiology. Methods The fifty-eight volunteers were elderly patients with obesity (classified as obese according to BMI of both genders, between 60 and 80 years of age. All participants were subjected to assessments of food intake, anthropometry, level of physical activity, and duration of sleep. Results The men had significantly greater weight, height, and waist circumference than women. Sleep durations were correlated with dietary nutrient compositions only in men. We found a negative association between short sleep and protein intake (r = -0.43; p = 0.02, short sleep and monounsaturated fatty acids intake (r = -0.40; p = 0.03, and short sleep and cholesterol dietary intake (r = -0.50; p = 0.01. Conclusions We conclude that mainly in men, volunteers that had short sleep duration showed a preference for high energy-density as fatty food, at least in part, may explain the relationship between short sleep duration and the development of metabolic abnormalities.

  16. Sex influence on face recognition memory moderated by presentation duration and reencoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weirich, Sebastian; Hoffmann, Ferdinand; Meissner, Lucia; Heinz, Andreas; Bengner, Thomas

    2011-11-01

    It has been suggested that women have a better face recognition memory than men. Here we analyzed whether this advantage depends on a better encoding or consolidation of information and if the advantage is visible during short-term memory (STM), only, or whether it also remains evident in long-term memory (LTM). We tested short- and long-term face recognition memory in 36 nonclinical participants (19 women). We varied the duration of item presentation (1, 5, and 10 s), the time of testing (immediately after the study phase, 1 hr, and 24 hr later), and the possibility to reencode items (none, immediately after the study phase, after 1 hr). Women showed better overall face recognition memory than men (ηp² = .15, p face recognition was visible mainly if participants had the possibility to reencode faces during former test trials. Our results suggest women do not have a better face recognition memory than men per se, but may profit more than men from longer durations of presentation during encoding or the possibility for reencoding. Future research on sex differences in face recognition memory should explicate possible causes for the better encoding of face information in women.

  17. Modeling Change in Project Duration and Completion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiltshire, Travis; Butner, Jonathan E.; Pirtle, Zachary

    2017-01-01

    In complex work domains and organizations, understanding scheduleing dynamics can ensure objectives are reached and delays are mitigated. In the current paper, we examine the scheduling dynamics for NASA’s Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) activities. For this examination, we specifically modeled...... simultaneous change in percent complete and estimated duration for a given project as they were included in monthly reports over time. In short, we utilized latent change score mixture modeling to extract the attractor dynamics within the scheduling data. We found three primarily patterns: an attractor at low...

  18. Thermotolerance and responses to short duration heat stress in tropical and temperate species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marias, D.; Meinzer, F. C.; Still, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    phenotypically plastic and representative of the environment in which plants were grown, whereas iWUE appeared to reflect ecotypic differentiation and the climate of origin. Considering leaf age, heat stress duration, methodology, functional type, and climate of origin improves our understanding of physiological responses to short term heat stress.

  19. [Sleep, work, and study: sleep duration in working and non-working students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Erico Felden; Bernardo, Maria Perpeto Socorro Leite; D'Almeida, Vânia; Louzada, Fernando Mazzilli

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the duration of sleep and associated factors in working and non-working students. Data were analyzed on the sleep-wake cycle in 863 teenage students in São Paulo, Brazil. Adjusted analyses were performed to compare sleep duration in working and non-working students. 18.4% of the group worked, and 52% of the working students slept eight hours or less per night. Prevalence of short sleep duration was higher in working students of both sexes (males, p = 0.017; females, p Working students showed short sleep duration in the analysis adjusted for socioeconomic status, but short sleep was more frequent in older adolescents (p = 0.004) and in lower (p = 0.001) and middle (p = 0.011) socioeconomic classes. Although more working students were in night school, in the model adjusted for gender and socioeconomic status, working students in afternoon courses showed higher prevalence of short sleep duration (PR = 2.53; 95%CI: 1.68-4.12).

  20. Short Sleep Duration is Associated with Obesity in Hispanic Manufacturing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, Grant; Ghaddar, Suad F; Talavera-Garza, Liza

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between obesity and sleep duration among Hispanic manufacturing workers. Two hundred and twenty eight Hispanic workers from eight manufacturing plants completed an in-person interview that included measures of demographics, health literacy, and sleep duration. Height and weight were directly assessed. A logistic regression, controlling for gender, education, age, income, physical activity levels, self-reported health status, and health literacy, indicated that workers who slept six hours or less were significantly more likely to be obese than those sleeping seven to nine hours (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.04-3.47). Our results extend previous research on the association between sleep duration and obesity to an understudied population of Hispanic workers.

  1. Use of social media is associated with short sleep duration in a dose-response manner in students aged 11 to 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    This study examined the association between social media and sleep duration among Canadian students aged 11-20. Data from 5242 students were obtained from the 2015 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a province-wide, school-based survey that has been conducted every two years since 1977. We measured the respondents' sleep duration against the recommended ranges of 9-11 h per night at 11-13 years of age, 8-10 h at 14-17 and 7-9 h per night for those aged 18 years or more. Overall, 36.4% of students met or exceeded the recommended sleep duration and 63.6% slept less than recommended, with 73.4% of students reporting that they used social media for at least one hour per day. After adjusting for various covariates, the use of social media was associated with greater odds of short sleep duration in a dose-response manner (p for linear trend fashion among Canadian students aged 11-20. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Application of Elovich equation on uptake kinetics of 137Cs by living freshwater macrophytes - a short duration laboratory study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaison, T.J.; Patra, A.K.; Ravi, P.M.; Tripathi, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Application of Elovich equation on uptake kinetics of 137 Cs by two living macrophytes during controlled experiments on short duration exposure is studied. Compliance to 2 nd order kinetics indicates the mechanism could be chemi-sorption, involving polar functional groups present on the extracelluar surface of the macrophytes. Data analysis suggests that Myriophyllum s. exhibits faster adsorption rate than Hydrilla v. As Myriophyllum s. exhibits better kinetics than Hydrilla v., former could be a better natural adsorbing media for 137 Cs. (author)

  3. Mechanisms of impaired exercise capacity in short duration experimental hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, W H; Spina, R J; Korte, E; Yarasheski, K E; Angelopoulos, T J; Nemeth, P M; Saffitz, J E

    1991-01-01

    To investigate the mechanism of reduced exercise tolerance in hyperthyroidism, we characterized cardiovascular function and determinants of skeletal muscle metabolism in 18 healthy subjects aged 26 +/- 1 yr (mean +/- SE) before and after 2 wk of daily ingestion of 100 micrograms of triiodothyronine (T3). Resting oxygen uptake, heart rate, and cardiac output increased and heart rate and cardiac output at the same submaximal exercise intensity were higher in the hyperthyroid state (P less than 0.05). However, maximal oxygen uptake decreased after T3 administration (3.08 +/- 0.17 vs. 2.94 +/- 0.19 l/min; P less than 0.001) despite increased heart rate and cardiac output at maximal exercise (P less than 0.05). Plasma lactic acid concentration at an equivalent submaximal exercise intensity was elevated 25% (P less than 0.01) and the arteriovenous oxygen difference at maximal effort was reduced (P less than 0.05) in the hyperthyroid state. These effects were associated with a 21-37% decline in activities of oxidative (P less than 0.001) and glycolytic (P less than 0.05) enzymes in skeletal muscle and a 15% decrease in type IIA muscle fiber cross-sectional area (P less than 0.05). Lean body mass was reduced (P less than 0.001) and the rates of whole body leucine oxidation and protein breakdown were enhanced (P less than 0.05). Thus, exercise tolerance is impaired in short duration hyperthyroidism because of decreased skeletal muscle mass and oxidative capacity related to accelerated protein catabolism but cardiac pump function is not reduced. PMID:1752962

  4. The clinical relevance of the duration of loss of consciousness provoked by tilt testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek; Kozluk, Edward; Agrawal, Anil Kumar; Smereka, Jacek; Checiński, Igor

    2010-04-01

    The authors assessed the relationships between the duration of loss of consciousness (dLOC) during tilt testing-induced syncope (TTS) and demographics, medical history as well as tilt testing results. Previous research focused on the relevance of the type of neurocardiogenic reaction during TTS. The importance of dLOC has not been assessed so far. The study was carried out in 274 patients with suspected neurally mediated syncope and total loss of consciousness during tilt testing. The syncope burden, demographics, and data regarding spontaneous syncope orTTS were compared between group I with dLOC > or =47 seconds and group 2 with dLOC <47 seconds. Medical history revealed that patients in group I had more syncopal spells, more frequent syncope-related traumatic injuries, urine incontinence, jerking movements and typical vasovagal history than in group 2. Moreover, group I patients had more frequently a cardioinhibitory type of reaction and a shorter active phase duration. In addition, they manifested more frequent accompanying cerebral hypoperfusion signs and reproduction of symptoms during TTS than patients in group 2. The loss of consciousness during tilt testing-induced syncope differs in terms of duration among patients with neurally mediated syncope. The dLOC during TTS is associated with medical history and tilt-testing data which confirm the vasovagal aetiology of spontaneous events. The longer dLOC suggests deeper cerebral haemodynamic disturbances during either spontaneous or provoked syncope.

  5. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an ...

  6. Antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine may depend on translocator protein activity and pretest session duration in forced swimming test in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryashov, Nikita V; Kalinina, Tatiana S; Shimshirt, Alexander A; Korolev, Anton O; Volkova, Anna V; Voronina, Tatiana A

    2018-06-01

    The antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine (20 mg/kg i.p.) has been assessed using the forced swimming test (FST) in IRC (CD-1) mice exposed or not to a pretest session of different duration (5 or 20 min). The influence of the mitochondrial translocator protein (TSPO) activity on the antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine (20 mg/kg i.p.) in the FST was also studied. The antidepressant-like effect of fluoxetine was observed only in mice subjected to a 5-min pretest session 24 h before the FST. The TSPO antagonist PK11195 [1-(2-chlorophenyl)-N-methyl-N-(1-methylpropyl)-3-isoquinolinecarboxamide; 1 or 3 mg/kg i.p.] inhibited the antidepressant activity of fluoxetine in the FST. In the present study, fluoxetine or PK11195 was administered for a short duration. We suppose that the functional activity of TSPO may depend on a pretest session and that using this procedure is necessary to detect antidepressant activity of fluoxetine-like drugs.

  7. The relationship of lightning activity and short-duration rainfall events during warm seasons over the Beijing metropolitan region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fan; Cui, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Da-Lin; Qiao, Lin

    2017-10-01

    The relationship between lightning activity and rainfall associated with 2925 short-duration rainfall (SDR) events over the Beijing metropolitan region (BMR) is examined during the warm seasons of 2006-2007, using the cloud-to-ground (CG) and intracloud (IC) lightning data from Surveillance et Alerte Foudre par Interférometrie Radioélectrique (SAFIR)-3000 and 5-min rainfall data from automatic weather stations (AWSs). An optimal radius of 10 km around selected AWSs is used to determine the lightning-rainfall relationship. The lightning-rainfall correlations vary significantly, depending upon the intensity of SDR events. That is, correlation coefficient (R 0.7) for the short-duration heavy rainfall (SDHR, i.e., ≥ 20 mm h- 1) events is found higher than that (R 0.4) for the weak SDR (i.e., 5-10 mm h- 1) events, and lower percentage of the SDHR events (< 10%) than the weak SDR events (40-50%) are observed with few flashes. Significant time-lagged correlations between lightning and rainfall are also found. About 80% of the SDR events could reach their highest correlation coefficients when the associated lightning flashes shift at time lags of < 25 min before and after rainfall begins. Those events with lightning preceding rainfall account for 50-60% of the total SDR events. Better lightning-rainfall correlations can be attained when time lags are incorporated, with the use of total (CG and IC) lightning data. These results appear to have important implications for improving the nowcast of SDHR events.

  8. Fixation distance and fixation duration to vertical road signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Marco; Simone, Andrea; Vignali, Valeria; Lantieri, Claudio; Palena, Nicola

    2018-05-01

    The distance of first-fixation to vertical road signs was assessed in 22 participants while driving a route of 8.34 km. Fixations to road signs were recorded by a mobile eye-movement-tracking device synchronized to GPS and kinematic data. The route included 75 road signs. First-fixation distance and fixation duration distributions were positively skewed. Median distance of first-fixation was 51 m. Median fixation duration was 137 ms with a modal value of 66 ms. First-fixation distance was linearly related to speed and fixation duration. Road signs were gazed at a much closer distance than their visibility distance. In a second study a staircase procedure was used to test the presentation-time threshold that lead to a 75% accuracy in road sign identification. The threshold was 35 ms, showing that short fixations to a road signs could lead to a correct identification. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Men and women with psychosis and the impact of illness-duration on sex-differences: The second Australian national survey of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, Mary-Claire; Campbell, Linda E; Single, Natalie; Coleman, Clare; Morgan, Vera A; Cotton, Susan M; Stain, Helen J; Castle, David J

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to examine and compare sex-differences in people receiving treatment for psychotic illnesses in community settings, based on long or short duration of illness; expecting association between longer illness-duration and worse outcomes in women and men. Clinical, demographic and service-use data from the Survey of High Impact Psychosis were analysed by sex and duration of illness (≤5 years; ≥6 years), using independent t-tests, chi-square tests, one-way ANOVA, and Cramer's V. Of the 1825 participants, 47% had schizophrenia, 17.5% bipolar and 16.1% schizo-affective disorders. More women than men had undertaken post-school education, maintained relationships, and been living in their own homes. Women with a shorter-illness-duration showed social functioning equivalent to non-ill women in the general population. Men tended to have an early illness onset, show premorbid dysfunction, be single, show severe disability, and to use illicit substances. Men with a longer-illness-duration were very socially disadvantaged and isolated, often experiencing homelessness and substance use. Men with a short-illness-duration were most likely to be in paid employment, but two-thirds earned less than $AUD500 per fortnight. Men with longer-illness-duration showed most disability, socially and globally. Interventions should be guided by diagnosis, but also by a person's sex and duration of illness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Exploration of Habitability Factors Influencing Short Duration Spaceflight: Structured Postflight Interviews of Shuttle Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, James; Leveton, Lauren; Keeton, Kathryn; Whitmire, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts report significant difficulties with sleep during Space missions. Psychological, physiological, and habitability factors are all thought to play a role in spaceflight insomnia. Crewmembers gain experience with the spaceflight sleep environment as their missions progress, but this knowledge is not formally collected and communicated to subsequent crews. This lack of information transfer prevents crews from optimizing their capability to sleep during mission, which leads to fatigue and its potentially deleterious effects. The goal of this project is astronauts with recent spaceflight experience to gather their knowledge of and insights into sleep in Space. Structured interviews consisting of standardized closed and open-ended questionnaires are administered to astronauts who have flown on the Space Shuttle since the Columbia disaster. It is hoped that review and analysis of the pooled responses to the interview questions will lead to greater understanding of the sleep environment during short duration spaceflight, with attention placed on problem aspects and their potential solutions.

  11. Shortened duration of untreated first episode of psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tor Ketil; McGlashan, T H; Johannessen, Jan Olav

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether duration of untreated psychosis can be shortened in patients with first episodes of DSM-IV schizophrenia spectrum disorders and whether shorted duration alters patient appearance at treatment. METHOD: Two study groups were ascertained in the same Norwegian h...

  12. Search for Transient Gravitational Waves in Coincidence with Short-Duration Radio Transients During 2007-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, B. P.; Hughey, Brennan; Zanolin, Michele; Szczepanczyk, Marek; Gill, Kiranjyot; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We present an archival search for transient gravitational-wave bursts in coincidence with 27 single-pulse triggers from Green Bank Telescope pulsar surveys, using the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory), Virgo (Variability of Solar Irradiance and Gravity Oscillations) and GEO (German-UK Interferometric Detector) interferometer network. We also discuss a check for gravitational-wave signals in coincidence with Parkes fast radio bursts using similar methods. Data analyzed in these searches were collected between 2007 and 2013. Possible sources of emission of both short-duration radio signals and transient gravitational-wave emission include star quakes on neutron stars, binary coalescence of neutron stars, and cosmic string cusps. While no evidence for gravitational-wave emission in coincidence with these radio transients was found, the current analysis serves as a prototype for similar future searches using more sensitive second-generation interferometers.

  13. CSI 2264: Characterizing Young Stars In NGC 2264 With Short-Duration Periodic Flux Dips in Their Light Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    excess presumably due to circumstellar Table 1 Basic Information for YSOs with Short Duration Flux Dips Mon IDa 2MASS ID CoRoTb CoRoTc SpTd Hα EWd FR4.5e...reported in Venuti et al. (2014); the JHKs data are from the on line 2MASS all-sky point source catalog; the IRAC data are from Sung et al. (2009), or...little additional reddening as inferred from their mean 2MASS photometry. One exception is Mon-6975, whose IR colors of H − Ks = 0.42, J −H = 0.90

  14. Effects of attention bias modification with short and long stimulus-duration: A randomized experiment with individuals with subclinical social anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chi-Wen; Hsu, Wen-Yau

    2016-06-30

    This study investigated the differential effects of two attention bias modification (ABM) with different stimulus durations. Seventy-two undergraduates with subclinical social anxiety were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: an ABM condition with either a 100-ms or a 500-ms stimulus duration (ABM-100/ ABM-500) or an attention placebo (AP) condition with either a 100-ms or a 500-ms stimulus duration (AP-100/ AP-500). Participants completed the pre-assessments, eight attentional training sessions, and post-assessments. A modified Posner paradigm was used to assess changes in attentional processing. After completion of attentional training, the ABM-100 group significantly speeded up their responses to 100-ms invalid trials, regardless of the word type. The ABM-100 group also exhibited significant reduced latencies to 500-ms invalid social threat trials and a marginally significant reduced latencies to 500-ms invalid neutral trials. The ABM-500 group showed significant reduced latencies to 500-ms invalid social threat trials. Both ABMs significantly reduced participants' fear of negative evaluations and interactional anxiousness relative to their comparative AP. The effects on social anxiety did not differ between the two ABMs. This study suggests that although both ABMs using short and long stimulus durations reduce some aspects of social anxiety, they influence participants' attentional disengagement in different ways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Duration in Production Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2006-01-01

    We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term con...

  16. Approaching Repetitive Short Circuit Tests on MW-Scale Power Modules by means of an Automatic Testing Setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Wang, Huai; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    An automatic testing system to perform repetitive short-circuit tests on megawatt-scale IGBT power modules is pre-sented and described in this paper, pointing out the advantages and features of such testing approach. The developed system is based on a non-destructive short-circuit tester, which has...

  17. The Limited Impact of Exposure Duration on Holistic Word Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Changming; Abbasi, Najam Ul Hasan; Song, Shuang; Chen, Jie; Li, Hong

    2016-01-01

    The current study explored the impact of stimuli exposure duration on holistic word processing measured by the complete composite paradigm (CPc paradigm). The participants were asked to match the cued target parts of two characters which were presented for either a long (600 ms) or a short duration (170 ms). They were also tested by two popular versions of the CPc paradigm: the "early-fixed" task where the attention cue was visible from the beginning of each trial at a fixed position, and the "delayed-random" task where the cue showed up after the study character at random locations. The holistic word effect, as indexed by the alignment × congruency interaction, was identified in both tasks and was unaffected by the stimuli duration in both tasks. Meanwhile, the "delayed-random" task did not bring about larger holistic word effect than the "early-fixed" task. These results suggest the exposure duration (from around 150 to 600 ms) has a limited impact on the holistic word effect, and have methodological implications for experiment designs in this field.

  18. A mathematical model of diffusion from a steady source of short duration in a finite mixing layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Roberto; Tamponi, Matteo

    This paper presents an analytical unsteady-state solution to the atmospheric dispersion equation for substances subject to chemical-physical decay in a finite mixing layer for releases of short duration. This solution is suitable for describing critical events relative to accidental release of toxic, flammable or explosive substances. To implement the solution, the Modello per Rilasci a Breve Termine (MRBT) code has been developed, for some characteristics parameters of which the results of the sensitivity analysis are presented. Moreover some examples of application to the calculation of exposure to toxic substances and to the determination of the ignition field of flammable substances are described. Finally, the mathematical model described can be used to interpret the phenomenon of pollutant accumulation.

  19. Selective weighting of cutaneous receptor feedback and associated balance impairments following short duration space flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzalkowski, Nicholas D J; Lowrey, Catherine R; Perry, Stephen D; Williams, David R; Wood, Scott J; Bent, Leah R

    2015-04-10

    The present study investigated the perception of low frequency (3 Hz) vibration on the foot sole and its relationship to standing balance following short duration space flight in nine astronauts. Both 3 Hz vibration perception threshold (VPT) and standing balance measures increased on landing day compared to pre-flight. Contrary to our hypothesis, a positive linear relationship between these measures was not observed; however astronauts with the most sensitive skin (lowest 3 Hz VPT) were found to have the largest sway on landing day. While the change in foot sole sensitivity does not appear to directly relate to standing balance control, an exploratory strategy may be employed by astronauts whose threshold to pressure information is lower. Understanding sensory adaptations and balance control has implications to improve balance control strategies following space flight and in sensory impaired populations on earth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prospective testing of Coulomb short-term earthquake forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, D. D.; Kagan, Y. Y.; Schorlemmer, D.; Zechar, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Wong, K.

    2009-12-01

    Earthquake induced Coulomb stresses, whether static or dynamic, suddenly change the probability of future earthquakes. Models to estimate stress and the resulting seismicity changes could help to illuminate earthquake physics and guide appropriate precautionary response. But do these models have improved forecasting power compared to empirical statistical models? The best answer lies in prospective testing in which a fully specified model, with no subsequent parameter adjustments, is evaluated against future earthquakes. The Center of Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP) facilitates such prospective testing of earthquake forecasts, including several short term forecasts. Formulating Coulomb stress models for formal testing involves several practical problems, mostly shared with other short-term models. First, earthquake probabilities must be calculated after each “perpetrator” earthquake but before the triggered earthquakes, or “victims”. The time interval between a perpetrator and its victims may be very short, as characterized by the Omori law for aftershocks. CSEP evaluates short term models daily, and allows daily updates of the models. However, lots can happen in a day. An alternative is to test and update models on the occurrence of each earthquake over a certain magnitude. To make such updates rapidly enough and to qualify as prospective, earthquake focal mechanisms, slip distributions, stress patterns, and earthquake probabilities would have to be made by computer without human intervention. This scheme would be more appropriate for evaluating scientific ideas, but it may be less useful for practical applications than daily updates. Second, triggered earthquakes are imperfectly recorded following larger events because their seismic waves are buried in the coda of the earlier event. To solve this problem, testing methods need to allow for “censoring” of early aftershock data, and a quantitative model for detection threshold as a function of

  1. Association of insomnia and short sleep duration with atherosclerosis risk in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazaki, Chie; Noda, Akiko; Koike, Yasuo; Yamada, Sumio; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-11-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, although a relationship with atherosclerosis in the elderly remains unclear. Eighty-six volunteers aged ≥65 years (mean, 73.6 ± 4.9 years) were evaluated for insomnia. Total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency were measured by actigraphy. Subjective symptoms were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Atherosclerosis was evaluated using ultrasonographic measurements of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). IMT was significantly greater and sleep efficiency was significantly lower in subjects with TST ≤5 h than those with TST >7 h (1.3 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 mm; P = 0.009; 91.0 ± 6.0 vs. 81.6 ± 11.3%, P = 0.03, respectively). IMT was also significantly greater in the insomnia group than the noninsomnia group (1.3 ± 0.5 vs. 1.1 ± 0.4 mm; P = 0.03). IMT was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and TST (SBP: r = 0.49, P insomnia were associated with atherosclerosis risk leading to cardiovascular disease in the elderly.

  2. The effect of GABAmimetics on the duration of immobility in the forced swim test in albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zahaf, Najwa Ahmed; Salem Elhwuegi, Abdalla

    2014-01-01

    Studies regarding the role of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in depression are conflicting. Therefore, it was decided to examine the effect of different drugs that enhance the GABA system on the time of immobility induced by the forced swim test (FST). Adult albino mice were divided into several groups of six animals. Each group received an intraperitoneal injection of either imipramine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg), diazepam (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg), vigabatrin (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg), zolpidem (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg), or alprazolam (1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg). Control groups received the appropriate vehicle. One hour after injection, the duration of immobility was measured for 5 min in the FST. The percentage change in the duration of immobility from the control was calculated for each group. The statistical test of the difference between the treated and the control groups was calculated using unpaired Student's t-test. Imipramine produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the duration of immobility (78, 74, and 56%, respectively). Different doses of diazepam, vigabatrin, and zolpidem produced a significant increase in the duration of immobility (119, 126, and 128%), (116, 124, and 128%), and (108, 109, and 119%), respectively. The two low doses of alprazolam produced a significant increase (115 and 120%), while the high dose produced a significant decrease in the duration of immobility (74%). Increasing central GABAergic activity by different mechanisms has resulted in a depressant-like activity measured as an increase in the duration of immobility in the FST model of depression.

  3. LS1 Report: short-circuit tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    As the LS1 draws to an end, teams move from installation projects to a phase of intense testing. Among these are the so-called 'short-circuit tests'. Currently under way at Point 7, these tests verify the cables, the interlocks, the energy extraction systems, the power converters that provide current to the superconducting magnets and the cooling system.   Thermal camera images taken during tests at point 4 (IP4). Before putting beam into the LHC, all of the machine's hardware components need to be put to the test. Out of these, the most complicated are the superconducting circuits, which have a myriad of different failure modes with interlock and control systems. While these will be tested at cold - during powering tests to be done in August - work can still be done beforehand. "While the circuits in the magnets themselves cannot be tested at warm, what we can do is verify the power converter and the circuits right up to the place the cables go into the magn...

  4. Association between sleep duration and overweight: the importance of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, E; Stocks, T; Visscher, T L S; HiraSing, R A; Seidell, J C; Renders, C M

    2012-10-01

    Sleep duration has been related to overweight in children, but determinants of sleep duration are unclear. The aims were to investigate the association between sleep duration and childhood overweight adjusted for family characteristics and unhealthy behaviours, to explore determinants of sleep duration and to determine with sleep competing activities. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 among 4072 children aged 4-13 years in the city of Zwolle, The Netherlands. In these children, data were available on measured height, weight and waist circumference, and from a parental questionnaire, on socio-demographic characteristics, child's sleep duration, nutrition, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Associations were studied in 2011 using logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders. Short sleep duration was associated with overweight for 4-8-year-old boys (odds ratio (OR):3.10; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.15-8.40), 9-13-year-old boys (OR:4.96; 95% CI:1.35-18.16) and 9-13-year-old girls (OR:4.86; 95% CI:1.59-14.88). Among 4-8-year-old girls no statistically significant association was found. Determinants for short sleep duration were viewing television during a meal, permission to have candy without asking, not being active with their caregiver and a late bedtime. For all children, short sleep duration was strongly associated with more television viewing and computer use. Association between sleep duration and overweight is not explained by socio-demographic variables, drinking sugared drinks and eating snacks. Parents have a key role in stimulating optimal sleep duration. Improving parenting skills and knowledge to offer children more structure, and possibly with that, increase sleeping hours, may be promising in prevention of overweight.

  5. Discounting the duration of bolus exposure in impedance testing underestimates acid reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikneswaran, Namasivayam; Murray, Joseph A

    2016-06-08

    Combined impedance-pH testing (MII) allows for detection of reflux episodes regardless of pH. However impedance-based diagnosis of reflux may not routinely account for duration of the reflux episode. We hypothesize that impedance testing may be less sensitive than pH-testing in detecting acid reflux off therapy as a result of discounting duration of exposure. Baseline characteristics and reflux parameters of MII studies performed off-anti-secretory medications were analyzed. Studies on acid suppressive medication and those with recording times less than 20 h or low baseline impedance were excluded. A total of 73 consecutive MII studies were analyzed of which 31 MII studies had elevated acid exposure while 16 were abnormal by impedance criteria. MII testing off-therapy was more likely to be abnormal by pH criteria (percent time pH reflux):[42 vs 22 % (p =0.02)]. Acid exposure (percent time pH acid reflux episodes [42 vs 34 % (p acid clearance time (pH-detected) was significantly longer than median bolus clearance time (impedance-detected) in the total [98.7 s vs 12.6 s (p acid clearance time (pH-detected) and the median bolus clearance time (impedance-detected) was significantly higher in the recumbent position compared to the upright position [11. vs 5.3 (p = 0.01)]. Ambulatory impedance testing underestimates acid reflux compared to esophageal acid exposure by discounting the prolonged period of mucosal contact with each acid reflux episode, particularly in the recumbent position.

  6. Short Operative Duration and Surgical Site Infection Risk in Hip and Knee Arthroplasty Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicks, Kristen V; Baker, Arthur W; Durkin, Michael J; Anderson, Deverick J; Moehring, Rebekah W; Chen, Luke F; Sexton, Daniel J; Weber, David J; Lewis, Sarah S

    2015-12-01

    To determine the association (1) between shorter operative duration and surgical site infection (SSI) and (2) between surgeon median operative duration and SSI risk among first-time hip and knee arthroplasties. Retrospective cohort study A total of 43 community hospitals located in the southeastern United States. Adults who developed SSIs according to National Healthcare Safety Network criteria within 365 days of first-time knee or hip arthroplasties performed between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2012. Log-binomial regression models estimated the association (1) between operative duration and SSI outcome and (2) between surgeon median operative duration and SSI outcome. Hip and knee arthroplasties were evaluated in separate models. Each model was adjusted for American Society of Anesthesiology score and patient age. A total of 25,531 hip arthroplasties and 42,187 knee arthroplasties were included in the study. The risk of SSI in knee arthroplasties with an operative duration shorter than the 25th percentile was 0.40 times the risk of SSI in knee arthroplasties with an operative duration between the 25th and 75th percentile (risk ratio [RR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.38-0.56; Poperative duration did not demonstrate significant association with SSI for hip arthroplasties (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.79-1.37; P=.36). Knee arthroplasty surgeons with shorter median operative durations had a lower risk of SSI than surgeons with typical median operative durations (RR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.43-0.64; Poperative durations were not associated with a higher SSI risk for knee or hip arthroplasty procedures in our analysis.

  7. Experimental investigation of steep-front short duration (SFSD) surge effects on power systems components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, D.B. (Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Results are reported from experiments in which steep-front, short- duration (SFSD) voltage impulses were imposed on various electrical distribution components. These pulses were generated by switching a section of charged, high voltage coaxial cable across the component under study. Components included underground distribution cable, terminators, insulators and arresters. SFSD voltage needed to flashover 15 kV polyethylene cable with a single pulse is approximately 625 kV peak. Strength of polyethylene cable decreases with increasing number of SFSD pulses, indicating cumulative degradation of the polymer. For 15 kV and 25 kV cable terminators, the SFSD CFO was over twice the rated standard lightning BIL for the same units. Similarly, porcelain suspension insulators required more than a doubling of voltage to decrease time to flashover from 1 microsecond to .1 microsecond. Arresters were found to respond rapidly to steep-front current pulses, but the arrester material itself was found to result in a higher discharge voltage for SFSD pulses. Arresters also showed a delay in turn-on of current following the arrival of a steep-front voltage surge.

  8. Search for gravitational waves on short duration in TAMA300 data: stellar core collapse and black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honda, R; Kanda, N; Akutsu, T; Ando, M; Tsunesada, Y

    2008-01-01

    We present in the results of TAMA300 data analysis for short duration gravitational waves. The excess power filter, alternative linear filter (ALF) and TF(time-frequency) clustering methods have been employed for burst gravitational waves from stellar-core collapse, and matched filtering method used for the ringdown gravitational waves from black hole quasi-normal oscillations. The observational range of TAMA for the burst gravitational waves is roughly ∼ 1 kpc, and the range for black hole ringdown covers most of our galaxy. We have been developed new method 'time-frequency (TF) clustering' to find the burst waves. This is a TF clustering method on spectrogram (sonogram). Using this method, we can efficiently identify some predicted gravitational wave forms and can exclude typical unstable spike like noises

  9. The effect of acupuncture duration on analgesia and peripheral sensory thresholds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulteis Gery

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acupuncture provides a means of peripheral stimulation for pain relief. However, the detailed neuronal mechanisms by which acupuncture relieves pain are still poorly understood and information regarding optimal treatment settings is still inadequate. Previous studies with a short burst of unilateral electroacupuncture (EA in the Tendinomuscular Meridians (TMM treatment model for pain demonstrated a transient dermatomally correlated bilateral analgesic effect with corresponding peripheral modality-specific sensory threshold alterations. However, the impact of EA duration on the analgesic effect in this particular treatment model is unknown. To obtain mechanistically and clinically important information regarding EA analgesia, this current prospective cross-over study assesses the effects of EA duration on analgesia and thermal sensory thresholds in the TMM treatment model. Methods Baseline peripheral sensory thresholds were measured at pre-marked testing sites along the medial aspects (liver and spleen meridians of bilateral lower extremities. A 5-second hot pain stimulation was delivered to the testing sites and the corresponding pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS scores were recorded. Three different EA (5Hz stimulation durations (5, 15 and 30 minutes were randomly tested at least one week apart. At the last 10 seconds of each EA session, 5 seconds of subject specific HP stimulation was delivered to the testing sites. The corresponding pain and EA VAS scores of de qi sensation (tingling during and after the EA were recorded. The measurements were repeated immediately, 30 and 60 minutes after the EA stimulation. A four-factor repeat measures ANOVA was used to assess the effect of stimulation duration, time, location (thigh vs. calf and side (ipsilateral vs. contralateral of EA on sensory thresholds and HP VAS scores. Results A significant (P Conclusion Longer durations of EA stimulation provide a more sustainable analgesic benefit

  10. Characteristics of Epileptiform Discharge Duration and Interdischarge Interval in Genetic Generalized Epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udaya Seneviratne

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We sought to investigate (1 the characteristics of epileptiform discharge (ED duration and interdischarge interval (IDI and (2 the influence of vigilance state on the ED duration and IDI in genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE. In a cohort of patients diagnosed with GGE, 24-h ambulatory EEG recordings were performed prospectively. We then tabulated durations, IDI, and vigilance state in relation to all EDs captured on EEGs. We used K-means cluster analysis and finite mixture modeling to quantify and characterize the groups of ED duration and IDI. To investigate the influence of sleep, we calculated the mean, median, and SEM in each population from all subjects for sleep state and wakefulness separately, followed by the Kruskal–Wallis test to compare the groups. We analyzed 4,679 EDs and corresponding IDI from 23 abnormal 24-h ambulatory EEGs. Our analysis defined two populations of ED durations and IDI: short and long. In all populations, both ED durations and IDI were significantly longer in wakefulness. Our results highlight different characteristics of ED populations in GGE and the influence by the sleep–wake cycle.

  11. Duration of Parana magmatism and implications for the evolution and source regions of continental flood basalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mantovani, M.S.M.; Stewart, K.; Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.J.

    1995-01-01

    Duration of Continental Floods Basalts magmatism has generally been considered to be extremely short. Ar-Ar data for different magma type, over a broad region within Parana, demonstrate a duration of 10 Ma, an order of magnitude greater than the usually accepted duration of magmatism. The dating method included rigorous geochemical selection tests, to discard altered samples, combined with the analysis of laser spot technique using the isochron approach. This methodology allows discrimination between rocks which yield precise ages and those which are too altered or heterogeneous. The agreement between the determined age and the relative stratigraphic position of samples supports the above statement. 4 figs

  12. Duration of Parana magmatism and implications for the evolution and source regions of continental flood basalts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantovani, M.S.M. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. Astronomico e Geofisico; Stewart, K.; Turner, S.; Hawkesworth, C.J. [Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1995-12-31

    Duration of Continental Floods Basalts magmatism has generally been considered to be extremely short. Ar-Ar data for different magma type, over a broad region within Parana, demonstrate a duration of 10 Ma, an order of magnitude greater than the usually accepted duration of magmatism. The dating method included rigorous geochemical selection tests, to discard altered samples, combined with the analysis of laser spot technique using the isochron approach. This methodology allows discrimination between rocks which yield precise ages and those which are too altered or heterogeneous. The agreement between the determined age and the relative stratigraphic position of samples supports the above statement. 4 figs.

  13. Short and longer duration effects of protective gloves on hand performance capabilities and subjective assessments in a screw-driving task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Haslegrave, Christine M; Stedmon, Alex W

    2010-12-01

    The study investigated short and longer duration effects of gloves on hand performance capabilities (muscle activity, dexterity, touch sensitivity, finger pinch and forearm torque strength) and subjective assessments of discomfort and ease of manipulation when performing a light assembly task. The independent variables were hand condition with four levels (wearing cotton, nylon or nitrile gloves as well as barehanded) and point of time within the 2 h duration of the task (with measurements taken at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min). Participants worked with a screwdriver to fit two components together using screws. Wearing gloves significantly increased the muscle activity, pinch strength and discomfort but reduced the dexterity and touch sensitivity. There was also a significant effect of task time on the muscle activity, dexterity, forearm torque strength and touch sensitivity, which indicates that the duration of the task should be an important consideration in glove evaluation studies and in the selection of work gloves. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: It is important to evaluate the effects of gloves on hand performance capabilities in a working context so that job demands can be taken into account and the most appropriate type of glove be chosen for each task. This study gives recommendations regarding the evaluation and use of gloves for screw-driving tasks.

  14. The association between mental health, chronic disease and sleep duration in Koreans: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Su; Shin, Joon-Shik; Lee, Jinho; Lee, Yoon Jae; Kim, Me-riong; Park, Ki Byung; Shin, Dongjin; Cho, Jae-Heung; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2015-12-01

    Sleep duration holds considerable importance as an indicator of mental/physical health. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between sleep duration, mental health, and chronic disease prevalence in Koreans. Of 31,596 subjects eligible for the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V (2010-2012), 17,638 participants who answered items on sleep duration (aged ≥ 19 yrs) were analyzed in a cross-sectional study. Association between sleep duration, mental health, and chronic disease prevalence was assessed using logistic regression, and adjusted for various socioeconomic and lifestyle characteristics. Short or long sleep duration showed correlations with mental health, and items of significance showed gender-specific patterns. Women displayed significant associations with stress and depressive symptoms, and men with stress, thoughts of suicide, and psychiatric counseling. While stress was related with short sleep duration in both genders, depressive symptoms showed a relationship with long duration in men, and short duration in women. Prevalence of any chronic disease was associated with ≤ 6 h sleep when adjusted for factors including mental health, and among chronic diseases, cancer and osteoarthritis showed associations with short sleep duration, while diabetes and dyslipidemia were associated with normal sleep duration. Mental health problems were associated with sleep duration with gender-specific patterns. Associations with osteoarthritis, cancer, diabetes, dyslipidemia and abnormal sleep duration persisted after adjustment for mental health.

  15. Self-reported sleep duration and weight-control strategies among U.S. high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G; Perry, Geraldine S; Chapman, Daniel P; Croft, Janet B

    2013-08-01

    To determine if self-reported sleep duration was associated with weight-control behaviors among US high school students. National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. United States, 2007. US high school students (N = 12,087). Students were asked if they had engaged in several weight-control behaviors during the 30 days before the survey to lose or maintain weight. Self-reported sleep duration categories included very short (≤ 5 h), short (6 or 7 h), referent moderate (8 or 9 h), and long (≥ 10 h). Sex-specific logistic regression analyses with race/ethnicity, grade, and body mass index category as covariates were conducted using SUDAAN to account for complex study design. Approximately half the students reported short sleep duration (51.8% of males and 54.3% of females), whereas very short sleep durations were reported by another 14.8% of males and 16.9% of females. Among males, very short sleepers were significantly (P sleep duration was associated with dieting and three unhealthy weight-control behaviors in this population. If our findings are confirmed, intervention studies should be conducted to examine the effect of educational interventions.

  16. A three-phase epidemiological study of short and long sleepers in a middle-aged Chinese population: prevalence and characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Y.L.; Zhang, B.; Jia, F.J.; Li, X.L.; Tang, Y.; Ren, Y.Z.; Liu, W.H.

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of short and long sleepers have not been conducted previously. We collected socioeconomic, psychological, and polysomnographic characteristics of 6501 parents (3252 men and 3249 women) of 4036 primary school children in Guangzhou city. The study data were collected in three phases. The overall prevalence of short (5 h or less) and long (10 h or more) sleep duration was 0.52 and 0.64%, respectively. Long sleepers had higher Eysenck Personality Questionnaire neuroticism scores [odds ratio (OR)=1.224, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.047-1.409] and lower education levels (OR=0.740, 95%CI=0.631-0.849) than short sleepers. In the polysomnographic assessment, short, long, and normal sleepers (7-8 h) shared similar durations of Stage 3 sleep (short=25.7±10.7, long=20.3±7.9, and normal=28.0±12.8 min, F=1.402, P=0.181). In daytime multiple sleep latency tests, short sleepers (10/19, 52.6%) were more prone to have a short sleep latency (≤8 min) than long sleepers (2/23, 8.7%). In addition to different sleep durations, neuroticism might also contribute to differences between short and long sleepers in social achievements. Stage 3 sleep might be essential for humans. The short sleep latency (≤8 min) of short sleepers in multiple sleep latency tests should be interpreted cautiously, since it was of the same severity as required for a diagnosis of narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia

  17. A three-phase epidemiological study of short and long sleepers in a middle-aged Chinese population: prevalence and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Y.L. [Department of Human Anatomy, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, China, Department of Human Anatomy, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Zhang, B.; Jia, F.J.; Li, X.L.; Tang, Y. [Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, Guangzhou, China, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, Guangzhou (China); Ren, Y.Z. [Zhongshan The Third People' s Hospital, Zhongshan, China, Zhongshan The Third People' s Hospital, Zhongshan (China); Liu, W.H. [Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, Guangzhou, China, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangdong Mental Health Centre, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-02-17

    Epidemiological studies of short and long sleepers have not been conducted previously. We collected socioeconomic, psychological, and polysomnographic characteristics of 6501 parents (3252 men and 3249 women) of 4036 primary school children in Guangzhou city. The study data were collected in three phases. The overall prevalence of short (5 h or less) and long (10 h or more) sleep duration was 0.52 and 0.64%, respectively. Long sleepers had higher Eysenck Personality Questionnaire neuroticism scores [odds ratio (OR)=1.224, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.047-1.409] and lower education levels (OR=0.740, 95%CI=0.631-0.849) than short sleepers. In the polysomnographic assessment, short, long, and normal sleepers (7-8 h) shared similar durations of Stage 3 sleep (short=25.7±10.7, long=20.3±7.9, and normal=28.0±12.8 min, F=1.402, P=0.181). In daytime multiple sleep latency tests, short sleepers (10/19, 52.6%) were more prone to have a short sleep latency (≤8 min) than long sleepers (2/23, 8.7%). In addition to different sleep durations, neuroticism might also contribute to differences between short and long sleepers in social achievements. Stage 3 sleep might be essential for humans. The short sleep latency (≤8 min) of short sleepers in multiple sleep latency tests should be interpreted cautiously, since it was of the same severity as required for a diagnosis of narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia.

  18. Improved attenuation correction for respiratory gated PET/CT with extended-duration cine CT: a simulation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruoqiao; Alessio, Adam M.; Pierce, Larry A.; Byrd, Darrin W.; Lee, Tzu-Cheng; De Man, Bruno; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2017-03-01

    Due to the wide variability of intra-patient respiratory motion patterns, traditional short-duration cine CT used in respiratory gated PET/CT may be insufficient to match the PET scan data, resulting in suboptimal attenuation correction that eventually compromises the PET quantitative accuracy. Thus, extending the duration of cine CT can be beneficial to address this data mismatch issue. In this work, we propose to use a long-duration cine CT for respiratory gated PET/CT, whose cine acquisition time is ten times longer than a traditional short-duration cine CT. We compare the proposed long-duration cine CT with the traditional short-duration cine CT through numerous phantom simulations with 11 respiratory traces measured during patient PET/CT scans. Experimental results show that, the long-duration cine CT reduces the motion mismatch between PET and CT by 41% and improves the overall reconstruction accuracy by 42% on average, as compared to the traditional short-duration cine CT. The long-duration cine CT also reduces artifacts in PET images caused by misalignment and mismatch between adjacent slices in phase-gated CT images. The improvement in motion matching between PET and CT by extending the cine duration depends on the patient, with potentially greater benefits for patients with irregular breathing patterns or larger diaphragm movements.

  19. Development of a precipitation-area curve for warning criteria of short-duration flash flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Deg-Hyo; Lee, Moon-Hwan; Moon, Sung-Keun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents quantitative criteria for flash flood warning that can be used to rapidly assess flash flood occurrence based on only rainfall estimates. This study was conducted for 200 small mountainous sub-catchments of the Han River basin in South Korea because South Korea has recently suffered many flash flood events. The quantitative criteria are calculated based on flash flood guidance (FFG), which is defined as the depth of rainfall of a given duration required to cause frequent flooding (1-2-year return period) at the outlet of a small stream basin and is estimated using threshold runoff (TR) and antecedent soil moisture conditions in all sub-basins. The soil moisture conditions were estimated during the flooding season, i.e., July, August and September, over 7 years (2002-2009) using the Sejong University Rainfall Runoff (SURR) model. A ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analysis was used to obtain optimum rainfall values and a generalized precipitation-area (P-A) curve was developed for flash flood warning thresholds. The threshold function was derived as a P-A curve because the precipitation threshold with a short duration is more closely related to basin area than any other variables. For a brief description of the P-A curve, generalized thresholds for flash flood warnings can be suggested for rainfall rates of 42, 32 and 20 mm h-1 in sub-basins with areas of 22-40, 40-100 and > 100 km2, respectively. The proposed P-A curve was validated based on observed flash flood events in different sub-basins. Flash flood occurrences were captured for 9 out of 12 events. This result can be used instead of FFG to identify brief flash flood (less than 1 h), and it can provide warning information to decision-makers or citizens that is relatively simple, clear and immediate.

  20. Is it Possible to Shorten the Duration of Schirmer Test I?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Faruk Recep

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: Schirmer test I is commonly used in the diagnosis of dry eye, but its longer duration is a major problem in crowded clinics. In this study, Schirmer tests shorter than 5 minutes were compared with the results of 5-min Schirmer test. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this study, 540 eyes of 270 patients having dry eye symptoms were evaluated. Those patients having lid abnormalities were not included in the study. The measurements were performed in 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th minutes using 5x37 mm Whatman No. 41 test papers. The results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Then probable wetting values were calculated for every minute and the results were compared with 5-min results. Re sults: Of the cases, 214 were female and 56 were male. The mean age was 57.62 years (range: 12-90 years, standard deviation: 14.35. We could not find any statistical significance among the measurements performed every minute (p>0.05. We found statistically significant difference between the measurements performed in the 1st and 3rd minutes, 1st and 4th minutes, and 1st and 5th minutes ( p<0,05. The same tests were applied to the cases having 9 mm or below Schirmer test results at the end of 5 minutes and the only statistical significance was found between the measurement taken in the 1st and 4th minutes (p<0.05. The probable dry eye values in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th minutes were compared with the result of 5th minute and the nearest values were obtained in the 2nd-minute measurements. Out of 114 dry eye cases according to 5-min results, 87 (76.32% were detected at the end of 2-min test. Dis cus si on: The values obtained in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th minutes did not correspond to the Schirmer test result obtained in the 5th minute. If the results obtained in the early minutes were regarded as correct, a lot of dry eye patients could not be diagnosed. So, we found inappropriate to shorten the duration of Schirmer test I. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012

  1. Low energy transvenous cardioversion of short duration atrial tachyarrhythmias in humans using a single lead system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisel, A; Jung, J; Fries, R; Stopp, M; Sen, S; Schieffer, H; Ozbek, C

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of atrial cardioversion using an endocardial single lead system presently used for ventricular defibrillation. The study population consisted of 26 recipients of an ICD in combination with a conventional endocardial single lead system with the proximal spring electrode as anode in the SVC and the distal as cathode in the apex of the RV. Atrial tachyarrhythmias were induced by right atrial burst pacing. If the arrhythmia sustained > 1 minute, biphasic shocks synchronized with the R wave were delivered using the implanted device, beginning with an energy of 4 J. If 4 J failed to terminate the arrhythmia, energy was increased stepwise, if the first shock was successful, a step-down testing was performed after reinduction of atrial tachyarrhythmias. The mean atrial defibrillation threshold was 2.3 +/- 1.2 J (range, 0.5-5 J). A total of 154 shocks were delivered and no adverse effects were observed. The mean defibrillation threshold for atrial flutter was somewhat lower than that for AF (1.8 +/- 1 J vs 2.7 +/- 1.4 J, P = 0.08). There was no correlation between the atrial defibrillation threshold and a history of previously occurring atrial tachyarrhythmias, the kind of the underlying heart disease, a prescription of antiarrhythmic drugs, the dimension of the LA, the LVEF, or the ventricular DFT. Internal atrial cardioversion of short duration atrial tachyarrhythmias using a transvenous single lead system designed for ventricular defibrillation is feasible and safe at low energies, and may have important clinical applications.

  2. Association of sleep duration with arterial blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaikh Wasim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Recently, National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey-1 data analysis found short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension in the U.S. population. However, since ethnic differences exist in the aetiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood pressure profile of Gujarati Indian adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 489 Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 16-19 years studying in school and colleges in the local population. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, physical activity status, body composition, blood pressure profile and cardiovascular reactivity. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1 Adequate Sleep Duration at Night, ASDN (≥ 7 hrs and 2 Inadequate Sleep Duration at Night, ISDN (< 7 hrs groups. Student′s unpaired t-test was used to study if any significant difference (P< 0.05 existed between the groups. Results: No significant difference was found in Systolic blood pressure, Diastolic blood pressure, Pulse pressure and Mean arterial pressure between the ASDN group and the ISDN group. Physical activity status also did not differ between the two groups. However, adolescents of ISDN group showed a significantly higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity as compared to adolescents of ASDN group. Conclusion: Although short sleep duration is associated with a higher level of adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity in Gujarati Indian adolescents, it does not affect the resting blood pressure profile of these adolescents. However, longitudinal studies would be required to observe if the changes in adiposity and cardiovascular reactivity affect these adolescents in later life.

  3. Flow-duration-frequency behaviour of British rivers based on annual minima data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidman, Maxine D.; Keller, Virginie; Young, Andrew R.; Cadman, Daniel

    2003-06-01

    A comparison of different probability distribution models for describing the flow-duration-frequency behaviour of annual minima flow events in British rivers is reported. Twenty-five catchments were included in the study, each having stable and natural flow records of at least 30 years in length. Time series of annual minima D-day average flows were derived for each record using durations ( D) of 1, 7, 30, 60, 90, and 365 days and used to construct low flow frequency curves. In each case the Gringorten plotting position formula was used to determine probabilities (of non-exceedance). Four distribution types—Generalised Extreme Value (GEV), Generalised Logistic (GL), Pearson Type-3 (PE3) and Generalised Pareto (GP)—were used to model the probability distribution function for each site. L-moments were used to parameterise individual models, whilst goodness-of-fit tests were used to assess their match to the sample data. The study showed that where short durations (i.e. 60 days or less) were considered, high storage catchments tended to be best represented by GL and GEV distribution models whilst low storage catchments were best described by PE3 or GEV models. However, these models produced reasonable results only within a limited range (e.g. models for high storage catchments did not produce sensible estimates of return periods where the prescribed flow was less than 10% of the mean flow). For annual minima series derived using long duration flow averages (e.g. more than 90 days), GP and GEV models were generally more applicable. The study suggests that longer duration minima do not conform to the same distribution types as short durations, and that catchment properties can influence the type of distribution selected.

  4. A Duration Hidden Markov Model for the Identification of Regimes in Stock Market Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    This paper introduces a Duration Hidden Markov Model to model bull and bear market regime switches in the stock market; the duration of each state of the Markov Chain is a random variable that depends on a set of exogenous variables. The model not only allows the endogenous determination...... of the different regimes and but also estimates the effect of the explanatory variables on the regimes' durations. The model is estimated here on NYSE returns using the short-term interest rate and the interest rate spread as exogenous variables. The bull market regime is assigned to the identified state...... with the higher mean and lower variance; bull market duration is found to be negatively dependent on short-term interest rates and positively on the interest rate spread, while bear market duration depends positively the short-term interest rate and negatively on the interest rate spread....

  5. Sleep Duration, Mortality, and Heredity-A Prospective Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Narusyte, Jurgita; Alexanderson, Kristina; Svedberg, Pia

    2017-10-01

    A number of studies have shown a U-shaped association between sleep duration and mortality. Since sleep duration is partly genetically determined, it seems likely that its association with mortality is also genetically influenced. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence on heredity on the association between sleep duration and mortality. We used a cohort of 14267 twins from the Swedish Twin Registry. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusted for a number of covariates, confirmed a clear U shape with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.34 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.57 for a sleep duration of ≤6.5 hours and HR = 1.18 (CI = 1.07-1.30) for sleep of ≥9.5 hours. Reference value was 7.0 hours. A co-twin analysis of 1942 twins discordant on mortality showed a HR = 2.66 (CI = 1.17-6.04) for long (≥9.5 hours) sleep in monzygotic twins and an HR = 0.66 (CI = 0.20-2.14) for short (sleep. In dizygotic twins, no association was significant. The heritability for mortality was 28% for the whole group, while it was 86% for short sleepers and 42% for long sleepers. Thus, the link with mortality for long sleep appears to be more due to environmental factors than to heredity, while heritability dominates among short sleepers. We found that both long and short sleep were associated with higher total mortality, that the difference in mortality within twin pairs is associated with long sleep, and that short sleep has a higher heritability for mortality, while long sleep is associated with more environmental influences on mortality. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. A three-phase epidemiological study of short and long sleepers in a middle-aged Chinese population: prevalence and characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.L. Hao

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of short and long sleepers have not been conducted previously. We collected socioeconomic, psychological, and polysomnographic characteristics of 6501 parents (3252 men and 3249 women of 4036 primary school children in Guangzhou city. The study data were collected in three phases. The overall prevalence of short (5 h or less and long (10 h or more sleep duration was 0.52 and 0.64%, respectively. Long sleepers had higher Eysenck Personality Questionnaire neuroticism scores [odds ratio (OR=1.224, 95% confidence interval (CI=1.047-1.409] and lower education levels (OR=0.740, 95%CI=0.631-0.849 than short sleepers. In the polysomnographic assessment, short, long, and normal sleepers (7-8 h shared similar durations of Stage 3 sleep (short=25.7±10.7, long=20.3±7.9, and normal=28.0±12.8 min, F=1.402, P=0.181. In daytime multiple sleep latency tests, short sleepers (10/19, 52.6% were more prone to have a short sleep latency (≤8 min than long sleepers (2/23, 8.7%. In addition to different sleep durations, neuroticism might also contribute to differences between short and long sleepers in social achievements. Stage 3 sleep might be essential for humans. The short sleep latency (≤8 min of short sleepers in multiple sleep latency tests should be interpreted cautiously, since it was of the same severity as required for a diagnosis of narcolepsy or idiopathic hypersomnia.

  7. The sensitivity testing of Wilms' tumors to cytostatic agents with an autoradiographic in vitro short-term test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willnow, U.

    1984-01-01

    Sensitivity of 15 Wilms' tumors in children was tested towards cytostatic agents in vitro by means of an autoradiographic short-term test. Sensitivity was measured as the magnitude of the inhibition of 3 H-thymidine or 3 H-uridine incorporation. The test was performed with Adriamycin, Actinomycin D, Daunomycin, Bleomycin, Cyclophosphamide, Ifosfamide, Trenimon, and Arabinosylcytosine. None of the tumors is resistant to all substances, they are responsive against 2 or more drugs. The most effective drugs tested are Adriamycin, Actinomycin D and Cyclophosphamide. The tumors show a marked individual sensitivity pattern. This behavior is explained mainly by the usually high proliferative activity of Wilms' tumors. The possibilities and limits of long-term and short-term methods for sensitivity testing are discussed critically. For the evaluation of the results of in vitro testing and in vivo effectiveness the close correlation should be considered between the type of cytostatic agent and proliferation kinetics of the tumor, cytostatic agent and effect on tumor metabolism as well as the effect of the cytostatics and the nucleic acid precursors used for the short-term test. Despite the methodological limitations preclinical testing should be preferred to unselected chemotherapy. (author)

  8. The first DC performance test and analysis of CC conductor short sample at ASIPP conductor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yi; Wu Yu; Liu Huajun; Long Feng; Qian Li; Ren Zhibin; Li Shaolei; Liu Bo; Chen Jinglin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study the first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil conductor short sample have been carried out in ASIPP test facility. ► A CC conductor short sample was fabricated and tested to confirm the capability of this test facility for qualification tests of CC conductors. ► There is no obvious impact of cycling on DC performance measurement. ► Those measured results of current sharing temperature are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling - Abstract: The first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil (CC) conductor short sample have been carried out in the conductor test facility of Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS (ASIPP) in January this year. Those experiments aim to investigate the DC performance of ITER CC conductor. The tested conductor short sample is bended as a half circle with the diameter of 270 mm to meet the background magnetic field shape. The half circle part of sample is longer than the final twist pitch. The current sharing temperature (T cs ) in the 3.86 T external magnetic field (B ex ), ≤12 kA could be measured including the critical current (I c ) run. There is no obvious impact of 1000 cycles on DC performance. Those measured T cs results are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling.

  9. Effects of Repeated Testing on Short- and Long-Term Memory Performance across Different Test Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenlund, Tova; Sundström, Anna; Jonsson, Bert

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether practice testing with short-answer (SA) items benefits learning over time compared to practice testing with multiple-choice (MC) items, and rereading the material. More specifically, the aim was to test the hypotheses of "retrieval effort" and "transfer appropriate processing" by comparing retention…

  10. Blink frequency and duration during perimetry and their relationship to test-retest threshold variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanfang; Toor, Sonia S; Gautam, Ramesh; Henson, David B

    2011-06-28

    To describe different patterns of blinking in patients undergoing a visual field test and to establish whether the blink parameters are related to threshold variability. Thirty-nine patients with diagnosed or suspected glaucoma were recruited to undertake a perimetric task twice. Blinks were detected with a video eye-tracker system that records at a sampling rate of 60 Hz. Blink frequency, duration, and episodes of microsleep (eye closures >500 ms) were analyzed, and correlated with test-retest threshold variability. The timing of blinks with respect to stimulus presentation was analyzed and the percentage of seen stimuli for all presentations (POS(overall)) and those overlapped with blinks (POS(overlapped)) were compared. Blink frequency ranged from 0 to 58 per minute. A significant increase in blink frequency was observed in the second test (P POS(overall) and POS(overlapped) was significant (P POS(overlapped) was observed with the increase of overlap duration. A wide range of blink frequencies was observed during perimetric testing. Although no blink parameters showed significant influence on threshold variability, when the blinks overlapped with a stimulus presentation, the probability of seeing was reduced. For suprathreshold stimuli, blinks often occurred after the presentation, whereas for subthreshold presentations, there was no relationship to presentation time.

  11. Long working hours directly and indirectly (via short sleep duration) induce headache even in healthy white-collar men: cross-sectional and 1-year follow-up analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaya, Teruo; Hibino, Minoru; Kondo, Yasuaki

    2018-01-01

    Headache in employees may be linked with both overwork and sleep restriction induced by long working hours. Inter-relationships among working hours, sleep duration and headache were investigated. Cross-sectional analyses for prevalent headache (n = 35,908) and 1-year follow-up analyses for incident headache (n = 19,788) were conducted in apparently healthy white-collar men aged 25-59 years. Headache (yes/no), working hours and sleep duration were based on self-administered questionnaire. After determination of relationships between working hours and sleep duration, logistic regression analysis estimated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval for prevalent and incident headache according to working hours (35-44, 45-49, 50-59 and ≥60 h/week) and sleep duration (≥7, 6-6.9, 5-5.9 and working hours and sleep duration on OR were checked. Covariates in the analyses were age, body mass index, drinking, smoking and exercise. Prevalent and incident headache was found in 1979 (5.5%) men and 707 (3.6%) men, respectively. Working hours were inversely associated with sleep duration. OR for prevalent and incident headache rose with increasing working hours and with reducing sleep duration, regardless of influences of the covariates. Working hours and sleep duration had no interactive effects on OR for prevalent or incident headache. The results indicate that long working hours directly and indirectly (via short sleep duration) induce headache even in apparently healthy white-collar men. Headache in employees may be useful for early detection of adverse health effects by long working hours.

  12. Behavioral Profiles Associated with Objective Sleep Duration in Young Children with Insomnia Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Susan L; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Mayes, Susan D; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2017-02-01

    Based on previous studies reporting on the association of objective sleep duration and physiologic changes (i.e., increased cortisol) in children, we examined the role of objective sleep duration on differentiating behavioral profiles in children with insomnia symptoms. Seven hundred children (ages 5-12, 47.8% male) from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a nine-hour polysomnography and parent completed Pediatric Behavior Scale. Insomnia symptoms were defined as parent report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep, sleep disordered breathing as an AHI of ≥1, and objective short sleep duration as a total sleep time insomnia symptoms demonstrated more overall behavioral problems than controls. Significant interactions between insomnia symptoms and objective sleep duration on scores of externalizing behaviors, mood variability and school problems were found. Profile analyses showed that children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration were associated with clinically elevated externalizing behaviors, inattention, mood variability, and school problems, while children with insomnia and short sleep duration were associated with an overall elevated profile in which internalizing behaviors were more prominent. Childhood insomnia symptoms are associated with a wide array of behavioral problems, for which objective sleep duration is useful in differentiating behavioral profiles. Children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration had a behavioral profile consistent with limit-setting and rule-breaking behaviors, while children with insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration had a behavioral profile more consistent with internalizing behaviors resembling that of psychophysiological disorders.

  13. Detecting long-duration cloud contamination in hyper-temporal NDVI imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, A.; de Bie, C.A.J.M.; Skidmore, A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Cloud contamination impacts on the quality of hyper-temporal NDVI imagery and its subsequent interpretation. Short-duration cloud impacts are easily removed by using quality flags and an upper envelope filter, but long-duration cloud contamination of NDVI imagery remains. In this paper, an approach

  14. The influence of game duration and playing position on intensity of exercise during match-play in elite water polo players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platanou, T; Geladas, N

    2006-11-01

    In this study, we assessed exercise intensity in 20 water polo games of different duration. The hypothesis that right wing players perform at a higher intensity than back and forward central players was also tested. Thirty water polo players, equally split between three field positions, participated in the study. Initially, their performance-related physiological capabilities were evaluated. Subsequently, during water polo games of short (4 x 7-min periods) or long duration (4 x 9-min periods), heart rate was monitored continuously and blood lactate concentration was measured at the end of each period. Activity patterns were also recorded using a video camera. Mean heart rate over the entire game was 156 +/- 18 beats x min(-1). Overall exercise intensity fluctuated around a value corresponding to the lactate threshold (4.03 +/- 0.96 mmol x l(-1), 86 +/- 5% of peak heart rate) and decreased (P game time (4.22 +/- 1.8 and 3.47 +/- 1.9 mmol x l(-1) in the second and fourth quarter, respectively). During the last 6 min, heart rate was higher (P games of short duration (156 +/- 3 beats x min(-1)) than in games of long duration (152 +/- 8 beats x min(-1)). Video analysis showed that the percentage of time spent in low-intensity activities (i.e. "out of game") was lower (23 vs. 26%), whereas that in high-intensity activities (i.e. "sprinting crawl") was higher (21 vs. 19%), in games of short compared with long duration. No difference was observed among players of various field positions in any of the variables examined. Thus during match-play, games of long duration produced significantly lower heart rate responses than games of short duration, and the physiological response exhibited by the players was not affected by field position. The water polo authorities should consider these results before changing game duration and coaches should prepare their athletes accordingly.

  15. Regional trends in short-duration precipitation extremes: a flexible multivariate monotone quantile regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Alex

    2017-04-01

    Estimating historical trends in short-duration rainfall extremes at regional and local scales is challenging due to low signal-to-noise ratios and the limited availability of homogenized observational data. In addition to being of scientific interest, trends in rainfall extremes are of practical importance, as their presence calls into question the stationarity assumptions that underpin traditional engineering and infrastructure design practice. Even with these fundamental challenges, increasingly complex questions are being asked about time series of extremes. For instance, users may not only want to know whether or not rainfall extremes have changed over time, they may also want information on the modulation of trends by large-scale climate modes or on the nonstationarity of trends (e.g., identifying hiatus periods or periods of accelerating positive trends). Efforts have thus been devoted to the development and application of more robust and powerful statistical estimators for regional and local scale trends. While a standard nonparametric method like the regional Mann-Kendall test, which tests for the presence of monotonic trends (i.e., strictly non-decreasing or non-increasing changes), makes fewer assumptions than parametric methods and pools information from stations within a region, it is not designed to visualize detected trends, include information from covariates, or answer questions about the rate of change in trends. As a remedy, monotone quantile regression (MQR) has been developed as a nonparametric alternative that can be used to estimate a common monotonic trend in extremes at multiple stations. Quantile regression makes efficient use of data by directly estimating conditional quantiles based on information from all rainfall data in a region, i.e., without having to precompute the sample quantiles. The MQR method is also flexible and can be used to visualize and analyze the nonlinearity of the detected trend. However, it is fundamentally a

  16. Association Between Sleep Duration and Health Outcome in Elderly Taiwanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ting Tsou

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: A U-shaped relationship was observed between the self-reported sleep duration with risk prevalence and health outcome in the elderly population, although not all results showed a significant difference. A progressively higher change was observed during short and long sleep durations in our study.

  17. Associations between sleep duration, sleep quality and diabetic retinopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Y Q Tan

    Full Text Available Abnormal durations of sleep have been associated with risk of diabetes. However, it is not clear if sleep duration is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR.In a cross-sectional study, we included 1,231 (Malay, n = 395; Indian, n = 836 adults (mean age 64.4 ± 9.0 years, 50.4% female with diabetes from the second visit of two independent population-based cohort studies (2011-15 in Singapore. Self-reported habitual sleep duration was categorized as short (<6 h, normal (6≤ h <8, and long (≥8 h. Questionnaires were administered to detect risk of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, excessive daytime sleepiness, and insomnia, all of which may indicate poor quality of sleep. The associations between sleep-related characteristics with moderate DR and vision-threatening DR (VTDR were analysed using logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders.Prevalence of moderate DR and VTDR in the study population were 10.5% and 6.3% respectively. The mean duration of sleep was 6.4 ± 1.5 h. Compared to normal sleep duration, both short and long sleep durations were associated with moderate DR with multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of 1.73 (1.03-2.89 and 2.17 (1.28-3.66 respectively. Long sleep duration (2.37 [1.16-4.89], high risk of OSA (2.24 [1.09-4.75], and excessive daytime sleepiness (3.27 [1.02-10.30] were separately associated with VTDR.Sleep duration had a U-shaped association with moderate DR; long sleep duration, excessive daytime sleepiness and high risk of OSA were positively associated with VTDR.

  18. Creel survey sampling designs for estimating effort in short-duration Chinook salmon fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sport fisheries in the Columbia River basin are commonly monitored using roving creel survey designs and require precise, unbiased catch estimates. The objective of this study was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates using various sampling designs to estimate angling effort under the assumption that mean catch rate was known. We obtained information on angling populations based on direct visual observations of portions of Chinook Salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over a 23-d period. Based on the angling population, Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the properties of effort and catch estimates for each sampling design. All sampling designs evaluated were relatively unbiased. Systematic random sampling (SYS) resulted in the most precise estimates. The SYS and simple random sampling designs had mean square error (MSE) estimates that were generally half of those observed with cluster sampling designs. The SYS design was more efficient (i.e., higher accuracy per unit cost) than a two-cluster design. Increasing the number of clusters available for sampling within a day decreased the MSE of estimates of daily angling effort, but the MSE of total catch estimates was variable depending on the fishery. The results of our simulations provide guidelines on the relative influence of sample sizes and sampling designs on parameters of interest in short-duration Chinook Salmon fisheries.

  19. Kilohertz and Low-Frequency Electrical Stimulation With the Same Pulse Duration Have Similar Efficiency for Inducing Isometric Knee Extension Torque and Discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Flávia Vanessa; Bottaro, Martim; Vieira, Amilton; Lucas, Tiago Pires; Modesto, Karenina Arrais; Bo, Antonio Padilha L; Cipriano, Gerson; Babault, Nicolas; Durigan, João Luiz Quagliotti

    2017-06-01

    To test the hypotheses that, as compared with pulsed current with the same pulse duration, kilohertz frequency alternating current would not differ in terms of evoked-torque production and perceived discomfort, and as a result, it would show the same current efficiency. A repeated-measures design with 4 stimuli presented in random order was used to test 25 women: (1) 500-microsecond pulse duration, (2) 250-microsecond pulse duration, (3) 500-microsecond pulse duration and low carrier frequency (1 kHz), (4) 250-microsecond pulse duration and high carrier frequency (4 kHz). Isometric peak torque of quadriceps muscle was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Discomfort was measured using a visual analog scale. Currents with long pulse durations induced approximately 21% higher evoked torque than short pulse durations. In addition, currents with 500 microseconds delivered greater amounts of charge than stimulation patterns using 250-microsecond pulse durations (P torque and discomfort. However, neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) with longer pulse duration induces higher NMES-evoked torque, regardless of the carrier frequency. Pulse duration is an important variable that should receive more attention for an optimal application of NMES in clinical settings.

  20. Factores que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia por mujeres trabajadoras Factors associated with short duration of breast-feeding in Mexican working women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Navarro-Estrella

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar los factores maternos, laborales y de los servicios de salud que influyen en el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna en madres trabajadoras. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre noviembre de 1998 y marzo de 1999 se efectuó un estudio transversal comparativo con madres derechohabientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de Ensenada, Baja California, México. A 265 madres se les aplicó un cuestionario entre los tres y nueve meses posparto. Se distribuyeron en: grupo I: madres con abandono temprano de la lactancia materna; grupo II: madres que prolongaron la lactancia materna por más de tres meses. Para identificar los factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna, se utilizó regresión logística. RESULTADOS: El 42.3% (112 de las madres abandonaron temprano la lactancia materna. Los factores de riesgo fueron: tener conocimientos malos sobre lactancia materna, OR 5.97 (IC 95% 1.67-20.67, la ausencia del antecedente de haberla practicado en un hijo previo OR 2.98 (IC 95% 1.66-5.36, tener un plan de duración de la misma de 0 a 3 meses, OR 16.24 (IC 95% 5.37-49.12, y la falta de facilidades en el trabajo para efectuarla, OR 1.99 (IC 95% 1.12-3.56. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores asociados con el abandono temprano de la lactancia materna fueron maternos. El único factor laboral fue la ausencia de facilidades para amamantar. Es probable que la calidad de los conocimientos, la experiencia previa con ella y tener facilidades laborales influyan en la decisión de prolongarla.OBJECTIVE:To identify the maternal, work, and health services factors associated with a short duration of breast-feeding in working mothers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out between November 1998 and March 1999, among 265 mothers medically insured by (Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, IMSS Mexican Institute of Social Security, who completed a questionnaire when their babies were 3 to 9 months old

  1. Examining Duration of Binge Eating Episodes in Binge Eating Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gregory, Deanna N.; Lavender, Jason M.; Engel, Scott G.; Wonderlich, Steve A.; Crosby, Ross D.; Peterson, Carol B.; Simonich, Heather; Crow, Scott; Durkin, Nora; Mitchell, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The primary goal of this paper is to examine and clarify characteristics of binge eating in individuals with binge eating disorder (BED), particularly the duration of binge eating episodes, as well as potential differences between individuals with shorter compared to longer binge eating episodes. Method Two studies exploring binge eating characteristics in BED were conducted. Study 1 examined differences in clinical variables among individuals (N = 139) with BED who reported a short (binge duration. Study 2 utilized an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) design to examine the duration and temporal pattern of binge eating episodes in the natural environment in a separate sample of nine women with BED. Results Participants in Study 1 who were classified as having long duration binge eating episodes displayed greater symptoms of depression and lower self-esteem, but did not differ on other measures of eating disorder symptoms, compared to those with short duration binge eating episodes. In Study 2, the average binge episode duration was approximately 42 minutes, and binge eating episodes were most common during the early afternoon and evening hours, as well as more common on weekdays versus weekends. Discussion Past research on binge episode characteristics, particularly duration, has been limited to studies of binge eating episodes in BN. This study contributes to the existing literature on characteristics of binge eating in BED. PMID:23881639

  2. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saritas, Emine U., E-mail: saritas@ee.bilkent.edu.tr [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); National Magnetic Resonance Research Center (UMRAM), Bilkent University, Bilkent, Ankara 06800 (Turkey); Goodwill, Patrick W. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Conolly, Steven M. [Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States); Department of EECS, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720-1762 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    . Results: The magnetostimulation limits decreased with increasing pulse duration (T{sub pulse}). For T{sub pulse} < 18 ms, the thresholds were significantly higher than at the longest pulse durations (p < 0.01, paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The normalized magnetostimulation threshold (B{sub Norm}) vs duration curve at all three frequencies agreed almost identically, indicating that the observed effect is independent of the operating frequency. At the shortest pulse duration (T{sub pulse} ≈ 2 ms), the thresholds were approximately 24% higher than at the asymptotes. The thresholds decreased to within 4% of their asymptotic values for T{sub pulse} > 20 ms. These trends were well characterized (R{sup 2} = 0.78) by a stretched exponential function given by B{sub Norm}=1+αe{sup −(T{sub p}{sub u}{sub l}{sub s}{sub e}/β){sup γ}}, where the fitted parameters were α = 0.44, β = 4.32, and γ = 0.60. Conclusions: This work shows for the first time that the magnetostimulation thresholds decrease with increasing pulse duration, and that this effect is independent of the operating frequency. Normalized threshold vs duration trends are almost identical for a 20-fold range of frequencies: the thresholds are significantly higher at short pulse durations and settle to within 4% of their asymptotic values for durations longer than 20 ms. These results emphasize the importance of matching the human-subject experiments to the imaging conditions of a particular setup. Knowing the dependence of the safety limits to all contributing factors is critical for increasing the time-efficiency of imaging systems that utilize time-varying magnetic fields.

  3. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-01-01

    . Results: The magnetostimulation limits decreased with increasing pulse duration (T pulse ). For T pulse < 18 ms, the thresholds were significantly higher than at the longest pulse durations (p < 0.01, paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The normalized magnetostimulation threshold (B Norm ) vs duration curve at all three frequencies agreed almost identically, indicating that the observed effect is independent of the operating frequency. At the shortest pulse duration (T pulse ≈ 2 ms), the thresholds were approximately 24% higher than at the asymptotes. The thresholds decreased to within 4% of their asymptotic values for T pulse > 20 ms. These trends were well characterized (R 2 = 0.78) by a stretched exponential function given by B Norm =1+αe −(T pulse /β) γ , where the fitted parameters were α = 0.44, β = 4.32, and γ = 0.60. Conclusions: This work shows for the first time that the magnetostimulation thresholds decrease with increasing pulse duration, and that this effect is independent of the operating frequency. Normalized threshold vs duration trends are almost identical for a 20-fold range of frequencies: the thresholds are significantly higher at short pulse durations and settle to within 4% of their asymptotic values for durations longer than 20 ms. These results emphasize the importance of matching the human-subject experiments to the imaging conditions of a particular setup. Knowing the dependence of the safety limits to all contributing factors is critical for increasing the time-efficiency of imaging systems that utilize time-varying magnetic fields

  4. Effects of Muscle Strength and Balance Control on Sit-to-Walk and Turn Durations in the Timed Up and Go Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzurei; Chou, Li-Shan

    2017-12-01

    To examine the association of muscle strength and balance control with the amount of time taken to perform sit-to-walk (STW) or turning components of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test in older adults. Correlations; multiple regression models. General community. Older adults (N=60) age >70 years recruited from the community. Not applicable. Muscle strength, balance control, and TUG test performance time. Muscle strength was quantified by peak joint moments during the isometric maximal voluntary contraction test for bilateral hip abductors, knee extensors, and ankle plantar flexors. Balance control was assessed with the Berg Balance Scale, Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale, and center of mass and ankle inclination angle derived during the TUG test performance. We found that balance control measures were significantly associated with both STW and turning durations even after controlling for muscle strength and other confounders (STW duration: Pbalance control is an important factor that contributes to longer STW and turning durations on the TUG test. Furthermore, strength has a higher association with STW than turning duration. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A cross-sectional study of the association between working hours and sleep duration among the Japanese working population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Aritake, Sayaka; Mishima, Kazuo; Uchiyama, Makoto; Akashiba, Tsuneto; Uchimura, Naohisa; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Munezawa, Takeshi; Kokaze, Akatsuki; Ohida, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to clarify the association between long working hours and short sleep duration among Japanese workers. We selected 4,000 households from across Japan by stratified random sampling and conducted an interview survey of a total of 662 participants (372 men; 290 women) in November 2009. Logistic regression analyses were performed using "sleep duration hours per day" as a dependent variable to examine the association between working hours/overtime hours and short sleep duration. When male participants who worked for ≥7 but hours per day were used as a reference, the odds ratio (OR) for short sleep duration in those who worked for ≥ 11 hours was 8.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.94-18.86). With regard to overtime hours among men, when participants without overtime were used as a reference, the OR for those whose period of overtime was ≥ 3 hours but hours was 3.59 (95% CI: 1.42-9.08). For both men and women, those with long weekday working hours tended to have a short sleep duration during weekdays and holidays. It is essential to avoid working long hours in order to prevent short sleep duration.

  6. Passive Repetitive Stretching for a Short Duration within a Week Increases Myogenic Regulatory Factors and Myosin Heavy Chain mRNA in Rats' Skeletal Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurie Kamikawa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Stretching is a stimulation of muscle growth. Stretching for hours or days has an effect on muscle hypertrophy. However, differences of continuous stretching and repetitive stretching to affect muscle growth are not well known. To clarify the difference of continuous and repetitive stretching within a short duration, we investigated the gene expression of muscle-related genes on stretched skeletal muscles. We used 8-week-old male Wistar rats ( for this study. Animals medial gastrocnemius muscle was stretched continuously or repetitively for 15 min daily and 4 times/week under anesthesia. After stretching, muscles were removed and total RNA was extracted. Then, reverse transcriptional quantitative real-time PCR was done to evaluate the mRNA expression of MyoD, myogenin, and embryonic myosin heavy chain (MyHC. Muscles, either stretched continuously or repetitively, increased mRNA expression of MyoD, myogenin, and embryonic MyHC more than unstretched muscles. Notably, repetitive stretching resulted in more substantial effects on embryonic MyHC gene expression than continuous stretching. In conclusion, passive stretching for a short duration within a week is effective in increasing myogenic factor expression, and repetitive stretching had more effects than continuous stretching for skeletal muscle on muscle growth. These findings are applicable in clinical muscle-strengthening therapy.

  7. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile.Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7, 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status. We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Main outcomes were short- (<6 h and long-sleep duration (≥ 9 h.Results. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0] on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1] during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%] and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%], respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%; both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to <9 h, short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment.Conclusions. In this

  8. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  9. Sleep duration of underserved minority children in a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration has been shown to associate with increased risk of obesity. Childhood obesity is more prevalent among underserved minority children. The study measured the sleep duration of underserved minority children living in a large US urban environment using accelerometry and its relation...

  10. Regional frequency analysis of short duration rainfall extremes using gridded daily rainfall data as co-variate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, H.; Gregersen, Ida Bülow; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2017-01-01

    with daily measurements. The Poisson rate is positively correlated to the mean annual precipitation for all durations considered (1 min to 48 hours). The mean intensity can be assumed constant over Denmark for durations up to 1 hour. For durations larger than 1 hour the mean intensity is significantly...... correlated to the mean extreme daily precipitation. A Generalised Pareto distribution with a regional constant shape parameter is adopted. Compared to previous regional studies in Denmark a general increase in extreme rainfall intensity for durations up to 1 hour is found, whereas for larger durations both...

  11. Biochemical and hematologic changes after short-term space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, C. S.

    1992-01-01

    Clinical laboratory data from blood samples obtained from astronauts before and after 28 flights (average duration = 6 days) of the Space Shuttle were analyzed by the paired t-test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test and compared with data from the Skylab flights (duration approximately 28, 59, and 84 days). Angiotensin I and aldosterone were elevated immediately after short-term space flights, but the response of angiotensin I was delayed after Skylab flights. Serum calcium was not elevated after Shuttle flights, but magnesium and uric acid decreased after both Shuttle and Skylab. Creatine phosphokinase in serum was reduced after Shuttle but not Skylab flights, probably because exercises to prevent deconditioning were not performed on the Shuttle. Total cholesterol was unchanged after Shuttle flights, but low density lipoprotein cholesterol increased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol decreased. The concentration of red blood cells was elevated after Shuttle flights and reduced after Skylab flights. Reticulocyte count was decreased after both short- and long-term flights, indicating that a reduction in red blood cell mass is probably more closely related to suppression of red cell production than to an increase in destruction of erythrocytes. Serum ferritin and number of platelets were also elevated after Shuttle flights. In determining the reasons for postflight differences between the shorter and longer flights, it is important to consider not only duration but also countermeasures, differences between spacecraft, and procedures for landing and egress.

  12. Long-Duration Testing of a Temperature-Swing Adsorption Compressor for Carbon Dioxide for Closed-Loop Air Revitalization Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Micha; Mulloth, Lila; Varghese, Mini

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the results of long-duration testing of a temperature-swing adsorption compressor that has application in the International Space Station (ISS) and future spacecraft for closing the air revitalization loop. The air revitalization system of the ISS operates in an open loop mode and relies on the resupply of oxygen and other consumables from Earth for the life support of astronauts. A compressor is required for delivering the carbon dioxide from a removal assembly to a reduction unit to recover oxygen and thereby closing the air-loop. The TSAC is a solid-state compressor that has the capability to remove CO2 from a low-pressure source, and subsequently store, compress, and deliver at a higher pressure as required by a processor. The TSAC is an ideal interface device for CO2 removal and reduction units in the air revitalization loop of a spacecraft for oxygen recovery. The TSAC was developed and its operation was successfully verified in integration tests with the flight-like Carbon Dioxide Removal Assembly (CDRA) at Marshall Space Flight Center prior to the long-duration tests. Long-duration tests reveal the impacts of repeated thermal cycling on the compressor components and the adsorbent material.

  13. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Bamshad, Michael; Noonan, Carolyn; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Watson, Nathaniel F

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins. Academic clinical research center. 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a "normal" (7-9 h/24) and "short" (sleeping twin. Fasting peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was assessed for mtDNA copy number via the n-fold difference between qPCR measured mtDNA and nuclear DNA creating an mtDNA measure without absolute units. We used generalized estimating equation linear regression models accounting for the correlated data structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.06, 0.95; P sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.51. Reduced sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number in sleep duration discordant monozygotic twins offering a potential mechanism whereby short sleep impairs health and longevity through mitochondrial stress. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Working multiple jobs over a day or a week: Short-term effects on sleep duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen R; Lombardi, David A; Willetts, Joanna L

    Approximately 10% of the employed population in the United States works in multiple jobs. They are more likely to work long hours and in nonstandard work schedules, factors known to impact sleep duration and quality, and increase the risk of injury. In this study we used multivariate regression models to compare the duration of sleep in a 24-hour period between workers working in multiple jobs (MJHs) with single job holders (SJHs) controlling for other work schedule and demographic factors. We used data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics US American Time Use Survey (ATUS) pooled over a 9-year period (2003-2011). We found that MJHs had significantly reduced sleep duration compared with SJHs due to a number of independent factors, such as working longer hours and more often late at night. Male MJHs, working in their primary job or more than one job on the diary day, also had significantly shorter sleep durations (up to 40 minutes less on a weekend day) than male SJHs, even after controlling for all other factors. Therefore, duration of work hours, time of day working and duration of travel for work may not be the only factors to consider when understanding if male MJHs are able to fit in enough recuperative rest from their busy schedule. Work at night had the greatest impact on sleep duration for females, reducing sleep time by almost an hour compared with females who did not work at night. We also hypothesize that the high frequency or fragmentation of non-leisure activities (e.g. work and travel for work) throughout the day and between jobs may have an additional impact on the duration and quality of sleep for MJHs.

  15. Regional contextual influences on short sleep duration: a 50 universities population-based multilevel study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Peng, Sihui; Barnett, Ross; Zhang, Chichen

    2018-01-01

    Ecological models have emphasized that short sleep duration (SSD) is influenced by both individual and environmental variables. However, few studies have considered the latter. The present study explores the influence of urban and regional contextual factors, net of individual characteristics, on the prevalence of SSD among university students in China. Participants were 11,954 students, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 universities. Individual data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire, and contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine urban and regional variations in high and moderate levels of SSD. Overall the prevalence of high SSD (individual- and city-level covariates. Students attending high-level universities also recorded the highest levels of SSD. Of the individual characteristcs, only mother's occupation and student mental health status were related to SSD. The results of this study add important insights about the role of contextual factors affecting SSD among young adults and indicate the need to take into account both past, as well as present, environmental influences to control SSD.

  16. Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality predict next-day suicidal ideation: an ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlewood, Donna L; Kyle, Simon D; Carter, Lesley-Anne; Peters, Sarah; Pratt, Daniel; Gooding, Patricia

    2018-04-26

    Sleep problems are a modifiable risk factor for suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Yet, sparse research has examined temporal relationships between sleep disturbance, suicidal ideation, and psychological factors implicated in suicide, such as entrapment. This is the first in-the-moment investigation of relationships between suicidal ideation, objective and subjective sleep parameters, and perceptions of entrapment. Fifty-one participants with current suicidal ideation completed week-long ecological momentary assessments. An actigraph watch was worn for the duration of the study, which monitored total sleep time, sleep efficiency, and sleep latency. Daily sleep diaries captured subjective ratings of the same sleep parameters, with the addition of sleep quality. Suicidal ideation and entrapment were measured at six quasi-random time points each day. Multi-level random intercept models and moderation analyses were conducted to examine the links between sleep, entrapment, and suicidal ideation, adjusting for anxiety and depression severity. Analyses revealed a unidirectional relationship whereby short sleep duration (both objective and subjective measures), and poor sleep quality, predicted the higher severity of next-day suicidal ideation. However, there was no significant association between daytime suicidal ideation and sleep the following night. Sleep quality moderated the relationship between pre-sleep entrapment and awakening levels of suicidal ideation. This is the first study to report night-to-day relationships between sleep disturbance, suicidal ideation, and entrapment. Findings suggest that sleep quality may alter the strength of the relationship between pre-sleep entrapment and awakening suicidal ideation. Clinically, results underscore the importance of assessing and treating sleep disturbance when working with those experiencing suicidal ideation.

  17. On-Farm Study on Intercropping of Hybrid Maize with Different Short Duration Vegetables in the Charland of Tangail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Rahaman, MM Rahman, S Roy, M Ahmed, MS Bhuyan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in charland at the Multi Location Testing (MLT site Bhuapur, Tangail during 2012-13 and 2013-14 under AEZ-8 to find out the suitable intercropping system of hybrid maize with different short duration vegetables with economic return. The experiment was laid out in RCB design with six dispersed (six farmers’ field replications. The hybrid maize (ver. BARI Hybrid maize-7, potato (Diamant, spinach (local, red amaranth (BARI Lalsak-1, Radish (BARI Mula-1 were used as the planting materials. Five treatment combinations viz. T1= Sole Maize, T2= 100% Maize (maize paired row + Potato (var. Diamant, T3= 100% Maize (maize paired row + Spinach (var. local, T4= 100% Maize (maize paired row + Red amaranth (var. BARI Lalshak-1 and T5= 100% Maize (Maize paired row + Radish (var. BARI Mula-1 were studied. Maize grain yield in intercropped combination varied from 5.59-7.62 t ha-1. But the highest grain yield (8.17 t ha-1 was obtained from sole maize. Maize equivalent yields in the intercrops situation ranged from 11.39-19.68 t ha-1 where highest maize equivalent yield 19.68 t ha-1 was recorded from the treatment T3 (100 % maize + spinach. The same combinations also gave highest gross return (Tk. 373930 ha-1 and gross margin (Tk. 258585 ha-1 as well as benefit cost ratio (3.24. Though highest grain yield was recorded from sole maize but equivalent yield and economic return was much lower than the treatment T3.

  18. Heart rate variability and short duration spaceflight: relationship to post-flight orthostatic intolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaber Andrew P

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upon return from space many astronauts experience symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Research has implicated altered autonomic cardiovascular regulation due to spaceflight with further evidence to suggest that there might be pre-flight autonomic indicators of post-flight orthostatic intolerance. We used heart rate variability (HRV to determine whether autonomic regulation of the heart in astronauts who did or did not experience post-flight orthostatic intolerance was different pre-flight and/or was differentially affected by short duration (8 – 16 days spaceflight. HRV data from ten-minute stand tests collected from the 29 astronauts 10 days pre-flight, on landing day and three days post-flight were analysed using coarse graining spectral analysis. From the total power (PTOT, the harmonic component was extracted and divided into high (PHI: >0.15 Hz and low (PLO: = 0.15 Hz frequency power regions. Given the distribution of autonomic nervous system activity with frequency at the sinus node, PHI/PTOT was used as an indicator of parasympathetic activity; PLO/PTOT as an indicator of sympathetic activity; and, PLO/PHI as an estimate of sympathovagal balance. Results Twenty-one astronauts were classified as finishers, and eight as non-finishers, based on their ability to remain standing for 10 minutes on landing day. Pre-flight, non-finishers had a higher supine PHI/PTOT than finishers. Supine PHI/PTOT was the same pre-flight and on landing day in the finishers; whereas, in the non-finishers it was reduced. The ratio PLO/PHI was lower in non-finishers compared to finishers and was unaffected by spaceflight. Pre-flight, both finishers and non-finishers had similar supine values of PLO/PTOT, which increased from supine to stand. Following spaceflight, only the finishers had an increase in PLO/PTOT from supine to stand. Conclusions Both finishers and non-finishers had an increase in sympathetic activity with stand on pre

  19. Calibration of a four-hole pyramid probe and area traverse measurements in a short-duration transonic turbine cascade tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, A. J.; Day, C. R. B.; Lock, G. D.; Oldfield, M. L. G.

    1996-08-01

    A four-hole pyramid probe has been calibrated for use in a short-duration transonic turbine cascade tunnel. The probe is used to create area traverse maps of total and static pressure, and pitch and yaw angles of the flow downstream of a transonic annular cascade. This data is unusual in that it was acquired in a short-duration (5 s of run time) annular cascade blowdown tunnel. A four-hole pyramid probe was used which has a 2.5 mm section head, and has the side faces inclined at 60° to the flow to improve transonic performance. The probe was calibrated in an ejector driven, perforated wall transonic tunnel over the Mach number range 0.5 1.2, with pitch angles from -20° to + 20° and yaw angles from-23° to +23°. A computer driven automatic traversing mechanism and data collection system was used to acquire a large probe calibration matrix (˜ 10,000 readings) of non dimensional pitch, yaw, Mach number, and total pressure calibration coefficients. A novel method was used to transform the probe calibration matrix of the raw coefficients into a probe application matrix of the physical flow variables (pitch, yaw, Mach number etc.). The probe application matrix is then used as a fast look-up table to process probe results. With negligible loss of accuracy, this method is faster by two orders of magnitude than the alternative of global interpolation on the raw probe calibration matrix. The blowdown tunnel (mean nozzle guide vane blade ring diameter 1.1 m) creates engine representative Reynolds numbers, transonic Mach numbers and high levels (≈ 13%) of inlet turbulence intensity. Contours of experimental measurements at three different engine relevant conditions and two axial positions have been obtained. An analysis of the data is presented which includes a necessary correction for the finite velocity of the probe. Such a correction is non trivial for the case of fast moving probes in compressible flow.

  20. Bond portfolio's duration and investment term-structure management problem

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Daobai

    2006-01-01

    In the considered bond market, there are N zero-coupon bonds transacted continuously, which will mature at equally spaced dates. A duration of bond portfolios under stochastic interest rate model is introduced, which provides a measurement for the interest rate risk. Then we consider an optimal bond investment term-structure management problem using this duration as a performance index, and with the short-term interest rate process satisfying some stochastic differential ...

  1. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé-Ortiz, Antonio; Miranda, J. Jaime; Rey de Castro, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile. Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7), 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status). We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Main outcomes were short- (Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0]) on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1]) during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%]) and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%]), respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%); both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment. Conclusions. In this nationally representative sample, the sociodemographic profile of short-sleep contrasts the long-sleep. These scenarios in Peru, as depicted by sleeping

  2. Sleep Apnea, Sleep Duration and Brain MRI Markers of Cerebral Vascular Disease and Alzheimer's Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsey, Pamela L; Norby, Faye L; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Mosley, Thomas; MacLehose, Richard F; Punjabi, Naresh M; Shahar, Eyal; Jack, Clifford R; Alonso, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of literature has suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and habitual short sleep duration are linked to poor cognitive function. Neuroimaging studies may provide insight into this relation. We tested the hypotheses that OSA and habitual short sleep duration, measured at ages 54-73 years, would be associated with adverse brain morphology at ages 67-89 years. Included in this analysis are 312 ARIC study participants who underwent in-home overnight polysomnography in 1996-1998 and brain MRI scans about 15 years later (2012-2013). Sleep apnea was quantified by the apnea-hypopnea index and categorized as moderate/severe (≥15.0 events/hour), mild (5.0-14.9 events/hour), or normal (sleep duration was categorized, in hours, as sleep study participants were 61.7 (SD: 5.0) years old and 54% female; 19% had moderate/severe sleep apnea. MRI imaging took place 14.8 (SD: 1.0) years later, when participants were 76.5 (SD: 5.2) years old. In multivariable models which accounted for body mass index, neither OSA nor abnormal sleep duration were statistically significantly associated with odds of cerebral infarcts, WMH brain volumes or regional brain volumes. In this community-based sample, mid-life OSA and habitually short sleep duration were not associated with later-life cerebral markers of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However, selection bias may have influenced our results and the modest sample size led to relatively imprecise associations.

  3. Duration of sleep inertia after napping during simulated night work and in extended operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Tracey Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Gander, Philippa H

    2012-07-01

    Due to the mixed findings of previous studies, it is still difficult to provide guidance on how to best manage sleep inertia after waking from naps in operational settings. One of the few factors that can be manipulated is the duration of the nap opportunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the magnitude and time course of sleep inertia after waking from short (20-, 40- or 60-min) naps during simulated night work and extended operations. In addition, the effect of sleep stage on awakening and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) on sleep inertia was assessed. Two within-subject protocols were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Twenty-four healthy young men (Protocol 1: n = 12, mean age = 25.1 yrs; Protocol 2: n = 12, mean age = 23.2 yrs) were provided with nap opportunities of 20-, 40-, and 60-min (and a control condition of no nap) ending at 02:00 h after ∼20 h of wakefulness (Protocol 1 [P1]: simulated night work) or ending at 12:00 h after ∼30 h of wakefulness (Protocol 2 [P2]: simulated extended operations). A 6-min test battery, including the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the 4-min 2-Back Working Memory Task (WMT), was repeated every 15 min the first hour after waking. Nap sleep was recorded polysomnographically, and in all nap opportunities sleep onset latency was short and sleep efficiency high. Mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures were calculated and included the factors time (time post-nap), nap opportunity (duration of nap provided), order (order in which the four protocols were completed), and the interaction of these terms. Results showed no test x nap opportunity effect (i.e., no effect of sleep inertia) on KSS. However, WMT performance was impaired (slower reaction time, fewer correct responses, and increased omissions) on the first test post-nap, primarily after a 40- or 60-min nap. In P2 only, performance improvement was evident 45 min post-awakening for naps of 40 min or more. In ANOVAs

  4. Dose-Response Effects of Exercise Duration and Recovery on Cognitive Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Elizabeth A; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-12-01

    We examined the effects of different acute exercise durations and recovery periods on cognitive function in a counterbalanced, cross-over randomized controlled experiment. We placed 352 participants, aged 18 to 35 years into one of 16 experimental groups. Each participant visited the laboratory twice, separated by a 1-week washout period. Either Visit 1 or 2 consisted of an acute bout of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise (10, 20, 30, 45, or 60 minutes) followed by a period of rest (5, 15, or 30 minutes) before taking a set of five cognitive tests; the other visit consisted only of completing the cognitive tests (no exercise). Cognitive tests sampled multiple cognitive parameters, including reasoning, concentration, memory, attention, and planning. We found that a short recovery period (i.e., 5 minutes) may have a less favorable effect on planning ability but may be beneficial for memory. In addition, for various exercise durations and recovery periods, a Group × Time × Resting (nonexercise) A cognitive interaction effect was observed such that for both memory and inhibitory cognitive ability, acute exercise (vs. no exercise) had an enhancement effect for those with lower resting cognitive functioning. The length of the acute exercise recovery period and resting cognitive ability most influenced the association between exercise and cognitive function.

  5. Accelerated corrosion test for metal drainage pipes : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    This study represents an attempt to develop an accelerated test which would assist the highway engineer in evaluating the usefulness of a new type of coated steel culvert. The test method was to be short in duration (in the order of days), and the re...

  6. Sleep duration and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and energy drinks among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    To examine the relationship between sleep duration and consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy drinks (EDs) among adolescents. Data on 9,473 adolescents aged 11-20 years were obtained from the 2015 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a province-wide and cross-sectional school based survey of students in middle and high school. Respondents self-reported their sleep duration and consumption of SSBs and EDs. Those who did not meet the age-appropriate sleep duration recommendation were considered short sleepers. Overall, 81.4% and 12.0% of respondents reported that they had at least one SSBs and EDs in the past week, respectively. Males were more likely than females to consume SSBs and EDs. High school students were more likely than those in middle school to report drinking EDs. After adjusting for multiple covariates, results from logistic regression analyses indicated that short sleep duration was associated with greater odds of SSB consumption in middle school students (odd ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-2.11), but not those in high school (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.86-1.31). Short sleep duration was associated with greater odds of ED consumption in both middle (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10-2.34) and high school (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.38-2.30) students. Short sleep duration was associated with consumption of EDs in middle and high school students and with SSBs in middle school students only. Future studies are needed to establish causality and to determine whether improving sleep patterns can reduce the consumption of SSBs and EDs among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between sleep duration and sarcopenia among community-dwelling older adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Wang, Haozhong; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Birong; Yang, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Both sleep disorders and sarcopenia are common among older adults. However, little is known about the relationship between these 2 conditions.This study aimed to investigate the possible association between sleep duration and sarcopenia in a population of Chinese community-dwelling older adults.Community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years or older were recruited. Self-reported sleep duration, anthropometric data, gait speed, and handgrip strength were collected by face-to-face interviews. Sarcopenia was defined according to the recommended algorithm of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS).We included 607 participants aged 70.6 ± 6.6 years (range, 60-90 years) in the analyses. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the whole study population was 18.5%. In women, the prevalence of sarcopenia was significantly higher in the short sleep duration group (hours) and long sleep duration group (>8 hours) compared with women in the normal sleep duration group (6-8 hours; 27.5%, 22.2% and 13.9%, respectively; P = .014). Similar results were found in men; however, the differences between groups were not statistically significant (18.5%, 20.6%, and 13.0%, respectively; P = .356). After adjustments for the potential confounding factors, older women having short sleep duration (OR: 4.34; 95% CI: 1.74-10.85) or having long sleep duration (OR: 2.50; 95% CI: 1.05-6.99) had greater risk of sarcopenia compared with women having normal sleep duration. With comparison to men with normal sleep duration, the adjusted OR for sarcopenia was 2.12 (0.96-8.39) in the short sleep duration group and 2.25 (0.88-6.87) in the long sleep duration group, respectively.A U-shape relationship between self-reported sleep duration and sarcopenia was identified in a population of Chinese community-dwelling older adults, especially in women.

  8. A comparison of discriminant logistic regression and Item Response Theory Likelihood-Ratio Tests for Differential Item Functioning (IRTLRDIF) in polytomous short tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, María D; López-Martínez, María D; Gómez-Benito, Juana; Guilera, Georgina

    2016-01-01

    Short scales are typically used in the social, behavioural and health sciences. This is relevant since test length can influence whether items showing DIF are correctly flagged. This paper compares the relative effectiveness of discriminant logistic regression (DLR) and IRTLRDIF for detecting DIF in polytomous short tests. A simulation study was designed. Test length, sample size, DIF amount and item response categories number were manipulated. Type I error and power were evaluated. IRTLRDIF and DLR yielded Type I error rates close to nominal level in no-DIF conditions. Under DIF conditions, Type I error rates were affected by test length DIF amount, degree of test contamination, sample size and number of item response categories. DLR showed a higher Type I error rate than did IRTLRDIF. Power rates were affected by DIF amount and sample size, but not by test length. DLR achieved higher power rates than did IRTLRDIF in very short tests, although the high Type I error rate involved means that this result cannot be taken into account. Test length had an important impact on the Type I error rate. IRTLRDIF and DLR showed a low power rate in short tests and with small sample sizes.

  9. Sociosexuality, Morningness–Eveningness, and Sleep Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morningness–eveningness is the preference for different times of day for activity and sleep. Here, we addressed the effects of sleep behavior and morningness–eveningness on sociosexuality. Three hundred students (M age = 22.75 years, with 95% between 18 and 28 participated online, answering questions about morningness–eveningness (rMEQ [Reduced Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire], midpoint of sleep on free days (MSF, sleep duration, and the Sociosexuality Orientation Inventory–Revised (SOI-R. The SOI-R contains three subscales, Behavior, Attitude, and Desire. Evening orientation and short sleep duration were related to a higher total SOI-R and to the three subscales. Based on the linear models, the strongest effect on sociosexuality was produced by gender (27% explained variance while age accounted for 6% of variance. Nonadditive variance explained by sleep–wake behavior was 7% (MSF, 4% (sleep duration, and 4% (rMEQ scores; 3% rMEQ-based typology. Older age was related to less-restricted sociosexuality, and men were less restricted than women in Attitude and Desire. Sleep duration and rMEQ scores were associated with Attitude and Desire; but only MSF was significantly related to Behavior. The data show that sleep–wake variables are associated with sociosexuality, with evening orientation and shorter sleep duration being related to a less-restricted sociosexuality.

  10. Fourteen years of test experience with short-circuit withstand capability of large power transformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.P.P.; Paske, te L.H.

    2010-01-01

    Experience is reported of short-circuit testing of large power transformers during the past 14 years by KEMA in the Netherlands. In total, 119 transformers > 25 MVA participated in the survey. KEMA shows that at initial access to standard IEC short-circuit tests, 28% failed initially in a wide range

  11. Sixteen years of test experiences with short-circuit withstand capability of large power transformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.P.P.; Paske, te L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Experience is reported of short-circuit testing of large power transformers during the past 16 years by KEMA in the Netherlands. In total, 174 transformers > 25 MVA participated in the survey. KEMA shows that at initial access to standard IEC short-circuit tests, 24% failed initially in a wide range

  12. Validation of a Short Form of an Indecision Test: The Vocational Assessment Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, France; Frenette, Éric; Guay, Frédéric; Labrosse, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to validate the scores of a short form of a new instrument, "l'Épreuve de décision vocationnelle, forme scolaire" (EDV-9S; vocational assessment test), which measures six indecision-related problems (lack of self-knowledge, lack of readiness, lack of method in decision making, lack of information,…

  13. A feasibility test to estimate the duration of phytoextraction of heavy metals from polluted soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japenga, J; Koopmans, G F; Song, J; Römkens, P F A M

    2007-01-01

    The practical applicability of heavy metal (HM) phytoextraction depends heavily on its duration. Phytoextraction duration is the main cost factorfor phytoextraction, both referring to recurring economic costs during phytoextraction and to the cost of the soil having no economic value during phytoextraction. An experiment is described here, which is meant as a preliminary feasibility test before starting a phytoextraction scheme in practice, to obtain a more realistic estimate of the phytoextraction duration of a specific HM-polluted soil. In the experiment, HM-polluted soil is mixed at different ratios with unpolluted soil of comparable composition to mimic the gradual decrease of the HM content in the target HM-polluted soil during phytoextraction. After equilibrating the soil mixtures, one cropping cycle is carried out with the plant species of interest. At harvest, the adsorbed HM contents in the soil and the HM contents in the plant shoots are determined. The adsorbed HM contents in the soil are then related to the HM contents in the plant shoots by a log-log linear relationship that can then be used to estimate the phytoextraction duration of a specific HM-polluted soil. This article describes and evaluates the merits of such a feasibility experiment. Potential drawbacks regarding the accuracy of the described approach are discussed and a greenhouse-field extrapolation procedure is proposed.

  14. A narrative review of manual muscle testing and implications for muscle testing research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conable, Katharine M; Rosner, Anthony L

    2011-09-01

    Manual muscle testing (MMT) is used for a variety of purposes in health care by medical, osteopathic, chiropractic, physical therapy, rehabilitation, and athletic training professionals. The purpose of this study is to provide a narrative review of variations in techniques, durations, and forces used in MMT putting applied kinesiology (AK) muscle testing in context and highlighting aspects of muscle testing important to report in MMT research. PubMed, the Collected Papers of the International College of Applied Kinesiology-USA, and related texts were searched on the subjects of MMT, maximum voluntary isometric contraction testing, and make/break testing. Force parameters (magnitude, duration, timing of application), testing variations of MMT, and normative data were collected and evaluated. "Break" tests aim to evaluate the muscle's ability to resist a gradually increasing pressure and may test different aspects of neuromuscular control than tests against fixed resistances. Applied kinesiologists use submaximal manual break tests and a binary grading scale to test short-term changes in muscle function in response to challenges. Many of the studies reviewed were not consistent in reporting parameters for testing. To increase the chances for replication, studies using MMT should specify parameters of the tests used, such as exact procedures and instrumentation, duration of test, peak force, and timing of application of force. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Short sleep duration is associated with poor performance on IQ measures in healthy school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Laviolette, Rachelle; Deluca, Paolo; Monson, Eva; Cornish, Kim; Carrier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    To examine the associations between habitual sleep duration and intellectual functioning in healthy, well-rested, school-age children. The study group consisted of 39 healthy children, aged 7-11 years old. Nightly actigraphic sleep recordings were taken for four consecutive nights to determine habitual week-night sleep duration in the home environment. Objective measures of cognitive functioning and sleepiness were used to measure daytime functioning. Longer habitual sleep duration in healthy school-age participants was associated with better performance on measures of perceptual reasoning and overall IQ, as measured by the WISC-IV, and on reported measures of competence and academic performance. No association between sleep duration and the studied behavioral measures was found. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is differentially related to some components of cognitive functioning, even in the absence of evidence for sleep deprivation or attention deficits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Socioeconomic differentials in divorce risk by duration of marriage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Using register-based data on Finnish first marriages that were intact at the end of 1990 (about 2.1 million marriage-years and followed up for divorce in 1991-1993 (n = 21,204, this research explored the possibility that the effect of spouses' socioeconomic position on divorce risk varies according to duration of marriage. The comparatively high divorce risks for spouses with little formal education and for spouses in manual worker occupations were found to be specific to marriages of relatively short duration. In contrast, such factors as unemployment, wife's high income, and living in a rented dwelling were found to increase divorce risk at all marital durations.

  17. One-dimensional "atom" with zero-range potential perturbed by finite sequence of zero-duration laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, A. A.; Chuluunbaatar, O.; Popov, Yu. V.; Vinitsky, S. I.; Derbov, V. L.; Lovetskiy, K. P.

    2018-04-01

    The exactly soluble model of a train of zero-duration electromagnetic pulses interacting with a 1D atom with short-range interaction potential modelled by a δ-function is considered. The model is related to the up-to-date laser techniques providing the duration of pulses as short as a few attoseconds and the intensities higher than 1014 W/cm2.

  18. Association between sleep duration and obesity is modified by dietary macronutrients intake in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2016-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been reported to be inversely associated with risk of obesity. The effects of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and the interaction of sleep duration and dietary macronutrients consumption on risk of obesity were analysed in 14,111 subjects aged 20-79 from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Sleep restriction to less than 7h per day resulted in higher body mass index, plasma triglyceride level, and obesity prevalence for women, but not for men. Protein intake was significantly lower in subjects with lower sleep duration for both men and women. The subjects with short sleep duration were significantly higher fat consumption for men, whereas carbohydrate consumption for women. Among subjects whose carbohydrate consumption was above the median, subjects with sleep duration of less than 7h per day increased their odds of being obese (OR=1.255, 95% CI: 1.073-1.476, Pmacronutrients consumption in women subjects. Copyright © 2015 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sex-Specific Associations Between Self-reported Sleep Duration, Cardiovascular Disease, Hypertension, and Mortality in an Elderly Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Wahlin, Ake; Alehagen, Urban; Ulander, Martin; Johansson, Peter

    2017-01-05

    Both short and long sleep durations have been associated to increased mortality. Knowledge about sex-specific differences among elderly regarding associations between sleep duration, cardiovascular health, and mortality is sparse. The aims of this study are to examine the association between self-reported sleep duration and mortality and to investigate whether this association is sex specific and/or moderated by cardiovascular morbidity, and also to explore potential mediators of sleep duration effects on mortality. A population-based, observational, cross-sectional design with 6-year follow-up with mortality as primary outcome was conducted. Self-rated sleep duration, clinical examinations, echocardiography, and blood samples (N-terminal fragment of proBNP) were collected. A total of 675 persons (50% women; mean age, 78 years) were divided into short sleepers (≤6 hours; n = 231), normal sleepers (7-8 hours; n = 338), and long sleepers (≥9 hours; n = 61). Data were subjected to principal component analyses. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension factors were extracted and used as moderators and as mediators in the regression analyses. During follow-up, 55 short sleepers (24%), 68 normal sleepers (20%), and 21 long sleepers (34%) died. Mediator analyses showed that long sleep was associated with mortality in men (hazard ratio [HR], 1.8; P = .049), independently of CVD and hypertension. In men with short sleep, CVD acted as a moderator of the association with mortality (HR, 4.1; P = .025). However, when using N-terminal fragment of proBNP, this effect became nonsignificant (HR, 3.1; P = .06). In woman, a trend to moderation involving the hypertension factor and short sleep was found (HR, 4.6; P = .09). Short and long sleep duration may be seen as risk markers, particularly among older men with cardiovascular morbidity.

  20. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.

  1. Word-length effect in verbal short-term memory in individuals with Down's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, K; Ikeda, Y

    2002-11-01

    Many studies have indicated that individuals with Down's syndrome (DS) show a specific deficit in short-term memory for verbal information. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the length of words on verbal short-term memory in individuals with DS. Twenty-eight children with DS and 10 control participants matched for memory span were tested on verbal serial recall and speech rate, which are thought to involve rehearsal and output speed. Although a significant word-length effect was observed in both groups for the recall of a larger number of items with a shorter spoken duration than for those with a longer spoken duration, the number of correct recalls in the group with DS was reduced compared to the control subjects. The results demonstrating poor short-term memory in children with DS were irrelevant to speech rate. In addition, the proportion of repetition-gained errors in serial recall was higher in children with DS than in control subjects. The present findings suggest that poor access to long-term lexical knowledge, rather than overt articulation speed, constrains verbal short-term memory functions in individuals with DS.

  2. X-ray testing for short-time dynamic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurfiss, Malte; Moser, Stefan; Popko, Gregor; Nau, Siegfried

    2017-01-01

    For nondestructive testing purposes new challenges are short-time dynamic processes. The application of x-ray flash tubes and modern high-speed cameras allows the observation of the opening of air-bags or the energy absorption of compressed tubes as occurring during a vehicle crash. Special algorithms designed for computerized tomography analyses allow the 3D reconstruction at individual time points of the dynamic process. Possibilities and limitations of the actual techniques are discussed.

  3. Illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W F; Hall, M D; Pressing, J

    2001-02-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined short-term memory for pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences. Participants were presented a target sequence consisting of 2 tones (Experiment 1) or 7 tones (Experiments 2 and 3) and then a probe tone. Participants indicated whether the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones in both pitch and duration. Error rates were relatively low if the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones or if it differed from target tones in pitch, duration, or both. Error rates were remarkably high, however, if the probe tone combined the pitch of 1 target tone with the duration of a different target tone. The results suggest that illusory conjunctions of these dimensions frequently occur. A mathematical model is presented that accounts for the relative contribution of pitch errors, duration errors, and illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration.

  4. Duration of surgical-orthodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häll, Birgitta; Jämsä, Tapio; Soukka, Tero; Peltomäki, Timo

    2008-10-01

    To study the duration of surgical-orthodontic treatment with special reference to patients' age and the type of tooth movements, i.e. extraction vs. non-extraction and intrusion before or extrusion after surgery to level the curve of Spee. The material consisted files of 37 consecutive surgical-orthodontic patients. The files were reviewed and gender, diagnosis, type of malocclusion, age at the initiation of treatment, duration of treatment, type of tooth movements (extraction vs. non-extraction and levelling of the curve of Spee before or after operation) and type of operation were retrieved. For statistical analyses two sample t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman rank correlation tests were used. Mean treatment duration of the sample was 26.8 months, of which pre-surgical orthodontics took on average 17.5 months. Patients with extractions as part of the treatment had statistically and clinically significantly longer treatment duration, on average 8 months, than those without extractions. No other studied variable seemed to have an impact on the treatment time. The present small sample size prevents reliable conclusions to be made. However, the findings suggest, and patients should be informed, that extractions included in the treatment plan increase chances of longer duration of surgical-orthodontic treatment.

  5. Neuropeptides and social behavior of rats tested in dyadic encounters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niesink, R.J.M.; Ree, J.M. van

    1984-01-01

    The effects of various neuropeptides on social behavior was studied in a test procedure in which 7-day isolated animals were tested together with non-isolated partners in dyadic encounters. The short-term isolation procedure increased the frequency and duration of social activities of the rats, but

  6. No relation between sleep duration and adiposity indicators in 9-36 months old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Christensen, Line Brinch; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in adults and children have repeatedly reported an association between short sleep duration and the risk of obesity. Studies using both objective measurements of sleep and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children aged three are, however, lacking.......Epidemiological studies in adults and children have repeatedly reported an association between short sleep duration and the risk of obesity. Studies using both objective measurements of sleep and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children aged three are, however, lacking....

  7. Thirteen years test experience with short-circuit withstand capability of large power transformers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, R.P.P.; Paske, te L.H.; Leufkens, P.P.; Fogelberg, T.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to withstand a short circuit is recognised more and more as an essential characteristic of power transformers. IEC and IEEE Standards, as well as other national standards specify short-circuit testing and how to check the withstand capability. Unfortunately, however, there is extensive

  8. Associations between insomnia, sleep duration and poor work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Yan; Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Li, Fuye; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint effect of insomnia and objective sleep duration on poor work ability. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2820 Chinese manufacturing workers were categorized as insomnia patients and individuals with normal sleeping pattern by interview according to DSM-IV criteria. Sleep duration was classified into four categories: ≥7h, 6-7h, 5-6h, and Work ability was assessed using the Chinese Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Regression analysis examined the independent and joint association of sleep duration and insomnia with poor work ability, after adjusting for various confounding factors. Insomnia and objective short sleep duration were both independently associated with poor work ability. Compared with the normal sleeping and ≥7h sleep duration group, the highest risk of poor work ability was in the insomnia patients with work ability. Objective sleep duration should be taken into consideration when assessing the work ability of people with insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants to the Relationship between Sleep Duration and Cardiometabolic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I

    2015-12-01

    To explore the interrelationship and mediating effect of factors that are beneficial (i.e., antioxidants) and harmful (i.e., inflammation and oxidative stress) to the relationship between sleep and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nationally representative population sample from the US. Age ≥ 20 y with sleep data; final analytical sample of n = 2,079. N/A. Metabolic syndrome was classified according to the Joint Interim Statement, and sleep duration was categorized as very short, short, adequate, and long sleepers (≤ 4, 5-6, 7-8, and ≥ 9 h per night, respectively). The indirect mediation effect was quantified as large (≥ 0.25), moderate (≥ 0.09), modest (≥ 0.01), and weak (sleep duration categories, whereas oxidative stress was elevated among short and very short sleepers. Select sleep duration- cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carotenoids, uric acid, and vitamins C and D, and were moderated by sex. Specifically, moderate-to-large indirect mediation by GGT, carotenoids, uric acid, and vitamin D were found for sleep duration-waist circumference and -systolic blood pressure relationships, whereas vitamin C was a moderate mediator of the sleep duration-diastolic blood pressure relationship. Several factors related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status were found to lie on the casual pathway of the sleep duration-cardiometabolic health relationship. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our results. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Call Duration Characteristics based on Customers Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žvinys Karolis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays a lot of different researches are performed based on call duration distributions (CDD analysis. However, the majority of studies are linked with social relationships between the people. Therefore the scarcity of information, how the call duration is associated with a user's location, is appreciable. The goal of this paper is to reveal the ties between user's voice call duration and the location of call. For this reason we analyzed more than 5 million calls from real mobile network, which were made over the base stations located in rural areas, roads, small towns, business and entertainment centers, residential districts. According to these site types CDD’s and characteristic features for call durations are given and discussed. Submitted analysis presents the users habits and behavior as a group (not an individual. The research showed that CDD’s of customers being them in different locations are not equal. It has been found that users at entertainment, business centers are tend to talk much shortly, than people being at home. Even more CDD can be distorted strongly, when machinery calls are evaluated. Hence to apply a common CDD for a whole network it is not recommended. The study also deals with specific parameters of call duration for distinguished user groups, the influence of network technology for call duration is considered.

  11. Through-thickness thermal conductivity enhancement of graphite film/epoxy composite via short duration acidizing modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Shaokai; Lu, Weibang; Li, Min; Gu, Yizhou; Zhang, Yongyi; Zhang, Zuoguang

    2018-06-01

    Graphite films have excellent in-plane thermal conductivity but extremely low through-thickness thermal conductivity because of their intrinsic inter-layer spaces. To improve the inter-layer heat transfer of graphite films, we developed a simple interfacial modification with a short duration mixed-acid treatment. The effects of the mixture ratio of sulfuric and nitric acids and treatment time on the through-thickness thermal properties of graphite films were studied. The modification increased the through-thickness thermal conductivity by 27% and 42% for the graphite film and its composite, respectively. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy results indicated that the acidification process had two competing effects: the positive contribution made by the enhanced interaction between the graphite layers induced by the functional groups and the negative effect from the destruction of the graphite layers. As a result, an optimal acidification method was found to be sulfuric/nitric acid treatment with a mixture ratio of 3:1 for 15 min. The resultant through-thickness thermal conductivity of the graphite film could be improved to 0.674 W/mK, and the corresponding graphite/epoxy composite shows a through-thickness thermal conductivity of 0.587 W/mK. This method can be directly used for graphite films and their composite fabrication to improve through-thickness thermal conductivity.

  12. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Loh, Kep Kee; Zheng, Hui; Sim, Sam K Y; Chee, Michael W L

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the contribution of sleep duration and quality to age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance in relatively healthy older adults. Community-based longitudinal brain and cognitive aging study using a convenience sample. Participants were studied in a research laboratory. Relatively healthy adults aged 55 y and older at study commencement. N/A. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment every 2 y. Subjective assessments of sleep duration and quality and blood samples were obtained. Each hour of reduced sleep duration at baseline augmented the annual expansion rate of the ventricles by 0.59% (P = 0.007) and the annual decline rate in global cognitive performance by 0.67% (P = 0.050) in the subsequent 2 y after controlling for the effects of age, sex, education, and body mass index. In contrast, global sleep quality at baseline did not modulate either brain or cognitive aging. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, showed no correlation with baseline sleep duration, brain structure, or cognitive performance. In healthy older adults, short sleep duration is associated with greater age-related brain atrophy and cognitive decline. These associations are not associated with elevated inflammatory responses among short sleepers. Lo JC, Loh KK, Zheng H, Sim SK, Chee MW. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance.

  13. Testing the Conditional Mean Function of Autoregressive Conditional Duration Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hautsch, Nikolaus

    be subject to censoring structures. In an empirical study based on financial transaction data we present an application of the model to estimate conditional asset price change probabilities. Evaluating the forecasting properties of the model, it is shown that the proposed approach is a promising competitor......This paper proposes a dynamic proportional hazard (PH) model with non-specified baseline hazard for the modelling of autoregressive duration processes. A categorization of the durations allows us to reformulate the PH model as an ordered response model based on extreme value distributed errors...

  14. Phase II investigation of the response of columns to short duration loadings: scaling report. Mark I Program, Task 3.2.1. Teledyne report TR-2488(e)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    Phase II of a two-phase column testing program which will determine short-term load capacities for the Mark I containment columns is now under way. The scaling report is submitted to outline the scaling procedures and also to present the scaled quantities such as geometry, load eccentricity, and load time duration. Dimensional analysis and similarity techniques were applied to the experimental models to obtain a set of twelve scaling laws. These scaling laws provide a rational basis for modeling the columns. The scaling laws give nondimensional relationships which are common to both the model and prototype. Parameters which are known to be important in column buckling and which were found to be important during Phase I testing were used as the independent variables in the scaling laws. Column specimens for Phase II testing have been designed to be representative of the prototype columns. Combined bending and compression are characteristic of the Mark I columns with the maximum moment applied at the column-ring girder junction. The experimental columns reflect these characteristics, even though special fixtures and equipment will be required to perform the tests. The column specimens include the scaled rotational stiffness of the ring girder as well as the boundary condition of the pinned or sliding end. To properly incorporate the effects of residual stress, the models will be constructed from ''off-the-shelf', carbon steel pipe and rolled sections, and built-up sections will be fabricated from standard plate. The column geometries scale almost exactly, even though ''replica'' modeling was not used

  15. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  16. Decreases in self-reported sleep duration among U.S. adolescents 2009-2015 and association with new media screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Krizan, Zlatan; Hisler, Garrett

    2017-11-01

    Insufficient sleep among adolescents carries significant health risks, making it important to determine social factors that change sleep duration. We sought to determine whether the self-reported sleep duration of U.S. adolescents changed between 2009 and 2015 and examine whether new media screen time (relative to other factors) might be responsible for changes in sleep. We drew from yearly, nationally representative surveys of sleep duration and time use among adolescents conducted since 1991 (Monitoring the Future) and 2007 (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control; total N = 369,595). Compared to 2009, adolescents in 2015 were 16%-17% more likely to report sleeping less than 7 h a night on most nights, with an increase in short sleep duration after 2011-2013. New media screen time (electronic device use, social media, and reading news online) increased over this time period and was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration, with a clear exposure-response relationship for electronic devices after 2 or more hours of use per day. Other activities associated with short sleep duration, such as homework time, working for pay, and TV watching, were relatively stable or reduced over this time period, making it unlikely that these activities caused the sudden increase in short sleep duration. Increased new media screen time may be involved in the recent increases (from 35% to 41% and from 37% to 43%) in short sleep among adolescents. Public health interventions should consider electronic device use as a target of intervention to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tensile properties of duplex UNS S32205 and lean duplex UNS S32304 steels and the influence of short duration 475 ºC aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Souto Maior Tavares

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Duplex stainless steels are high strength and corrosion resistant steels extensively used in the petrochemical and chemical industries. The aging at 475 ºC for long periods of time provokes embrittlement and deterioration of corrosion resistance. However, short duration aging at 475 ºC may be used as heat treatment to improve mechanical resistance with small decrease in the other properties. In this work the flow stress curves of lean duplex UNS S32304 and duplex UNS S32205 steels were modeled with Hollomon's equation and work hardening exponents (n were determined. The analyses were conducted in specimens annealed and heat treated at 475 ºC for short periods of time. The aging at 475 ºC for 4 hours, 8 hours and 12 hours promoted significant hardening with small decrease of ductility. The work hardening exponents of both steels were compared, being higher in the duplex steel than in the lean duplex grade.

  18. Insomnia, Sleep Duration, Depressive Symptoms, and the Onset of Chronic Multisite Musculoskeletal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generaal, Ellen; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Dekker, Joost

    2017-01-01

    The temporal relationships among sleep, depressive symptoms, and pain are unclear. This longitudinal study examines whether insomnia and sleep duration predict the onset of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain over 6 years and whether this association is mediated by depressive symptoms. 1860 subjects of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, free from chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain at baseline, were followed up for the onset of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain over 6 years (Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire). We determined baseline insomnia (Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale ≥9) and sleep duration (short: ≤6 hr, normal: 7-9 hr, long: ≥10 hr). Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and as a change score over time (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology). Insomnia (hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval, 95%CI] = 1.60 [1.30-1.96], p insomnia and short sleep with chronic pain onset (∆B = 40% and 26%, respectively). Adding the change score of depressive symptoms further weakened the association for insomnia (∆B = 16%) but not for short sleep. All direct effects for sleep measures with chronic pain onset remained statistically significant (p insomnia and short sleep duration are risk factors for developing chronic pain. Depressive symptoms partially mediate the effect for insomnia and short sleep with developing chronic pain. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Sleep duration and risk of stroke mortality among Chinese adults: Singapore Chinese health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; De Silva, Deidre Anne; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-06-01

    Prospective relation between sleep duration and stroke risk is less studied, particularly in Asians. We examined the association between sleep duration and stroke mortality among Chinese adults. The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort of 63 257 Chinese adults aged 45 to 74 years enrolled during 1993 through 1998. Sleep duration at baseline was assessed via in-person interview, and death information during follow-up was ascertained via record linkage with the death registry up to December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios with adjustment for other comorbidities and lifestyle risk factors of stroke mortality. During 926 752 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1381 stroke deaths (322 from hemorrhagic and 1059 from ischemic or nonspecified strokes). Compared with individuals with 7 hours per day of sleep, the multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of total stroke mortality was 1.25 (1.05-1.50) for ≤5 hours per day (short duration), 1.01 (0.87-1.18) for 6 hours per day, 1.09 (0.95-1.26) for 8 hours per day, and 1.54 (1.28-1.85) for ≥9 hours per day (long duration). The increased risk of stroke death with short (1.54; 1.16-2.03) and long durations of sleep (1.95; 1.48-2.57) was seen among subjects with a history of hypertension, but not in those without hypertension. These findings were limited to risk of death from ischemic or nonspecified stroke, but not observed for hemorrhagic stroke. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with increased risk of stroke mortality in a Chinese population, particularly among those with a history of hypertension. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Self-Rated Health in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Štefan, Lovro; Juranko, Dora; Prosoli, Rebeka; Barić, Renata; Sporiš, Goran

    2017-07-15

    This study aimed to determine the associations between the self-reported sleep duration and self-rated health in young adults. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 689 young adults (mean age 20 ± 1.35 years, 49.8% female). Sleep duration and self-rated health, as the main outcome of interest, were measured as self-reported. As potential covariates, we included sex, age, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity, sedentary behavior, psychological distress, and body mass index. Approximately 30% of participants slept 7-8 hours, 17.4% were short sleepers (categories 10 hours of sleep). In an unadjusted model, compared with the reference category (7-8 hours of sleep), those who slept health. In an adjusted model, short (sleep (> 10 hours) were both associated with poor self-rated health. Our results suggest that both short ( 10 hours) sleepers have lower odds of having good self-rated health after adjusting for potential covariates. Health professionals should pay more attention to young adults, who have both short and long period of sleep, in order to prevent health problems and potential acute or chronic diseases. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  1. Availability and night-time use of electronic entertainment and communication devices are associated with short sleep duration and obesity among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, H; Fung, C; Kuhle, S; Veugelers, P J

    2013-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity. Television (TV) in the bedroom has been shown to be associated with excess body weight in children. Children increasingly use other electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) such as video games, computers, and smart phones. What this study adds Access to and night-time use of EECDs are associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels. Our findings reinforce existing recommendations pertaining to TV and Internet access by the American Academy of Pediatrics and suggest to have these expanded to restricted availability of video games and smart phones in children's bedrooms. While the prevalence of childhood obesity and access to and use of electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) have increased in the past decades, no earlier study has examined their interrelationship. To examine whether night-time access to and use of EECDs are associated with sleep duration, body weights, diet quality, and physical activity of Canadian children. A representative sample of 3398 grade 5 children in Alberta, Canada, was surveyed. The survey included questions on children's lifestyles and health behaviours, the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency questionnaire, a validated questionnaire on physical activity, and measurements of heights and weights. Random effect models were used to assess the associations of night-time access to and use of EECDs with sleep, diet quality, physical activity, and body weights. Sixty-four percent of parents reported that their child had access to one or more EECDs in their bedroom. Access to and night-time use of EECDs were associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels in a statistically significant manner. Limiting the availability of EECDs in children's bedrooms and discouraging their

  2. Sleep Duration Trajectories and Systemic Inflammation in Young Adults: Results From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Chighaf; Schwartz, Skai; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Wang, Wei; Sappenfield, William; Couluris, Marisa; Chen, Henian

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the effects of short and long sleep duration patterns in young adults on the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as the potential effect modification by sex. Using data from waves III (age 18-26) and IV (age 24-32) of the National Longitudinal study of adolescent to adult health, we examined the association between sleep trajectories in young adults, and the risk of elevated high sensitivity-CRP (hs-CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. Short sleep trajectories were associated with significantly elevated log-transformed hs-CRP (coefficient = 0.11, p-value .03) and with significantly higher odds of having hs-CRP levels > 3 mg/L (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.29, 2.67). The association was modified by sex, with the association between short sleep duration and hs-CRP limited to males. Both the continuous (coefficient 0.117, p-value = .0362) and the categorized hs-CRP (OR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.48, 3.30) were significantly elevated with short sleep durations in males, whereas no significant associations were seen in females with short sleep durations. By contrast, log hs-CRP was significantly elevated in females with long sleep durations (coefficient = 0.232, p-value = .0296), with a nonsignificant increase in the odds of having hs-CRP levels greater than 3 mg/L (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 0.75, 2.93), whereas there were no associations with long sleep duration in males. Systemic inflammation, measured by an elevated level of hs-CRP, is seen with persistent short sleep duration in young adult men and persistent long sleep duration in young adult women. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Long sleep duration is associated with lower cognitive function among middle-age adults – the Doetinchem Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oostrom, Sandra H.; Nooyens, Astrid C.J.; van Boxtel, Martin P.J.; Verschuren, W. M.Monique

    2018-01-01

    Objectives In older adults, both short and long sleep duration are associated with lower cognitive function, suggesting an inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration and cognitive outcomes. This study examined whether sleep duration is associated with (changes in) cognitive function in a

  4. Background music as a quasi clock in retrospective duration judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nicole; Areni, Charles S

    2006-04-01

    The segmentation-change model of time perception proposes that individuals engaged in cognitive tasks during a given interval of time retrospectively estimate duration by recalling events that occurred during the interval and inferring each event's duration. Previous research suggests that individuals can recall the number of songs heard during an interval and infer the length of each song, exactly the conditions that foster estimates of duration based on the segmentation-change model. The results of a laboratory experiment indicated that subjects who solved word-search puzzles for 20 min. estimated the duration of the interval to be longer when 8 short songs (background, regardless of whether the musical format was Contemporary Dance or New Age. Assuming each song represented a distinct segment in memory, these results are consistent with the segmentation-change model. These results suggest that background music may not always reduce estimates of duration by drawing attention away from the passage of time. Instead, background music may actually expand the subjective length of an interval by creating accessible traces in memory, which are retrospectively used to infer duration.

  5. [Interaction between quality and duration of sleep on the prevalence of type 2 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pan; Lou, Peian; Chang, Guiqiu; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Peipei; Li, Ting; Qiao, Cheng; Dong, Zongmei

    2014-09-01

    To explore the effects related to quality and duration of sleep and their interactions on the prevalence of type-2 diabetes (T2DM). 9 622 people aged 18 years and over were recruited for our cross-sectional study during March 2013 to May 2013. Unconditional logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between quality and duration of sleep on T2DM. Bootstrap was used to calculate the relative excess risk of interaction (RERI), the attributable proportion (AP) of interaction and the synergy index (SI). 95% confidence intervals (CI) of RERI, AP and SI were estimated. Concerning the comparison between cases and controls on both individual and total scores, other scores were all significantly different (P quality was higher than that in volunteers with good sleeping quality (P quality and short duration (OR = 4.78, 95% CI:3.32-6.99; P quality and 6-8 h sleep duration. The risk of T2DM still increased in people who had poor sleep or long duration (OR = 1.92, 95% CI:1.18-3.31; P interaction between poor sleep quality and short sleep duration, while 0.33 (-0.12-1.13), 0.17 (-0.03-0.51), 1.56 (0.76-2.74) for the interaction between good sleep quality and long sleep duration. Our results suggested that there were additive interactions between poor quality and shorter duration of sleep.

  6. DSM-5 Insomnia and Short Sleep: Comorbidity Landscape and Racial Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-12-01

    We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification ( never vs. remitted vs. current ) and self-reported habitual sleep duration ( normal vs. short ). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease and psychiatric illness. © 2016 Associated

  7. Device for testing continuity and/or short circuits in a cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Arthur R. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A device for testing current paths is attachable to a conductor. The device automatically checks the current paths of the conductor for continuity of a center conductor, continuity of a shield and a short circuit between the shield and the center conductor. The device includes a pair of connectors and a circuit to provide for testing of the conductive paths of the cable. The pair of connectors electrically connects the conductive paths of a cable to be tested with the circuit paths of the circuit. The circuit paths in the circuit include indicators to simultaneously indicate the results of the testing.

  8. Association between Visual Impairment and Low Vision and Sleep Duration and Quality among Older Adults in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2017-07-19

    This study aims to estimate the association between visual impairment and low vision and sleep duration and poor sleep quality in a national sample of older adults in South Africa. A national population-based cross-sectional Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) wave 1 was conducted in 2008 with a sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older in South Africa. The interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, sleep duration, quality, visual impairment, and vision. Results indicate that 10.0% of the sample reported short sleep duration (≤5 h), 46.6% long sleep (≥9 h), 9.3% poor sleep quality, 8.4% self-reported and visual impairment (near and/or far vision); and 43.2% measured low vision (near and/or far vision) (0.01-0.25 decimal) and 7.5% low vision (0.01-0.125 decimal). In fully adjusted logistic regression models, self-reported visual impairment was associated with short sleep duration and poor sleep quality, separately and together. Low vision was only associated with long sleep duration and poor sleep quality in unadjusted models. Self-reported visual impairment was related to both short sleep duration and poor sleep quality. Population data on sleep patterns may want to include visual impairment measures.

  9. Influence of the duration of breastfeeding on quality of muscle function during mastication in preschoolers: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There is some evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding to masticatory function, but no studies have evaluated the influence of breastfeeding duration on the quality of this function. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between duration of breastfeeding and quality of masticatory function in preschoolers. Methods Cross-sectional study nested in a contemporary cohort of 144 randomly selected Brazilian infants. Data on sociodemographic, dietary, and sucking-related parameters were collected shortly after birth and at 7, 30, 60, 120, and 180 days of life. Masticatory function was assessed between the ages of 3 and 5 years, using a standardized procedure involving three foodstuffs of different consistencies, for evaluation of incision, lip competence, masticatory patterns, masticatory movements, and perioral muscle use. The quality of masticatory function was scored, and multiple linear regression was used to test for association between this score and the duration of breastfeeding. Results A positive correlation was found between duration of breastfeeding and masticatory function scores (rs = 0.473; p mastication. In our sample, duration of breastfeeding was positively associated with the quality of masticatory function at preschool age. PMID:23114410

  10. DYNAMIC SOFTWARE TESTING MODELS WITH PROBABILISTIC PARAMETERS FOR FAULT DETECTION AND ERLANG DISTRIBUTION FOR FAULT RESOLUTION DURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Khomonenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research.Software reliability and test planning models are studied taking into account the probabilistic nature of error detection and discovering. Modeling of software testing enables to plan the resources and final quality at early stages of project execution. Methods. Two dynamic models of processes (strategies are suggested for software testing, using error detection probability for each software module. The Erlang distribution is used for arbitrary distribution approximation of fault resolution duration. The exponential distribution is used for approximation of fault resolution discovering. For each strategy, modified labeled graphs are built, along with differential equation systems and their numerical solutions. The latter makes it possible to compute probabilistic characteristics of the test processes and states: probability states, distribution functions for fault detection and elimination, mathematical expectations of random variables, amount of detected or fixed errors. Evaluation of Results. Probabilistic characteristics for software development projects were calculated using suggested models. The strategies have been compared by their quality indexes. Required debugging time to achieve the specified quality goals was calculated. The calculation results are used for time and resources planning for new projects. Practical Relevance. The proposed models give the possibility to use the reliability estimates for each individual module. The Erlang approximation removes restrictions on the use of arbitrary time distribution for fault resolution duration. It improves the accuracy of software test process modeling and helps to take into account the viability (power of the tests. With the use of these models we can search for ways to improve software reliability by generating tests which detect errors with the highest probability.

  11. [Processing acoustically presented time intervals of seconds duration: an expression of the phonological loop of the working memory?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grube, D

    1996-01-01

    Working memory has been proposed to contribute to the processing of time, rhythm and music; the question which component of working memory is involved is under discussion. The present study tests the hypothesis that the phonological loop component (Baddeley, 1986) is involved in the processing of auditorily presented time intervals of a few seconds' duration. Typical effects well known with short-term retention of verbal material could be replicated with short-term retention of temporal intervals: The immediate reproduction of time intervals was impaired under conditions of background music and articulatory suppression. Neither the accuracy nor the speed of responses in a (non-phonological) mental rotation task were diminished under these conditions. Processing of auditorily presented time intervals seems to be constrained by the capacity of the phonological loop: The immediate serial recall of sequences of time intervals was shown to be related to the immediate serial recall of words (memory span). The results confirm the notion that working memory resources, and especially the phonological loop component, underlie the processing of auditorily presented temporal information with a duration of a few seconds.

  12. Actigraphic sleep fragmentation, efficiency and duration associate with dietary intake in the Rotterdam study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short self-reported sleep duration is associated with dietary intake and this association may partly mediate the link between short sleep and metabolic abnormalities. Subjective sleep measures, however, may be inaccurate and biased. The objective of this study was to evaluate the associations betwee...

  13. Sleep duration and its association with demographics, lifestyle factors, poor mental health and chronic diseases in older Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Wu, Yanhua; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Forester, Brent P; Gatchel, Jennifer R; Chiu, Helen F K; Kou, Changgui; Fu, Yingli; Qi, Yue; Yu, Yaqin; Li, Bo; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the total sleep time (TST) and its associated factors in an older Chinese adult population. Multistage stratified cluster sampling was used in this cross-sectional study. A total of 4,115 older adults aged 60 to 79 years were selected and interviewed. Sleep duration was classified as short (8h per day) and medium sleep (7-8h per day). The total mean sleep time was 6.86±1.75h. Short and long sleepers accounted for 45.2% and 14.8% of the sample, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that inadequate fruit intake and poor mental health were positively associated with short sleep, and married/cohabitation status and living in rural areas was negatively associated with short sleep. In addition, aged 75-79 years old, inadequate fruit intake, poor mental health and multi-morbidity were positively associated with long sleep. Ischemic heart disease, COPD and chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcer were positively associated with short sleep duration, while hyperlipidemia, hypertension, cerebrovascular diseases, and urolithiasis were positively associated with long sleep duration. Given the high frequency of aberrant sleep duration and its negative health impact, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in older people. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of an Inquiry-Based Short Intervention on State Test Anxiety in Comparison to Alternative Coping Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Krispenz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Test anxiety can have undesirable consequences for learning and academic achievement. The control-value theory of achievement emotions assumes that test anxiety is experienced if a student appraises an achievement situation as important (value appraisal, but feels that the situation and its outcome are not fully under his or her control (control appraisal. Accordingly, modification of cognitive appraisals is assumed to reduce test anxiety. One method aiming at the modification of appraisals is inquiry-based stress reduction. In the present study (N = 162, we assessed the effects of an inquiry-based short intervention on test anxiety.Design: Short-term longitudinal, randomized control trial.Methods: Focusing on an individual worry thought, 53 university students received an inquiry-based short intervention. Control participants reflected on their worry thought (n = 55 or were distracted (n = 52. Thought related test anxiety was assessed before, immediately after, and 2 days after the experimental treatment.Results: After the intervention as well as 2 days later, individuals who had received the inquiry-based intervention demonstrated significantly lower test anxiety than participants from the pooled control groups. Further analyses showed that the inquiry-based short intervention was more effective than reflecting on a worry thought but had no advantage over distraction.Conclusions: Our findings provide first experimental evidence for the effectiveness of an inquiry-based short intervention in reducing students’ test anxiety.

  15. Distribution of motor unit potential velocities in short static and prolongd dynamic contractions at low forces: Use of the within-subject's skewness and standard deviation variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver-Krol, E.G.; Henriquez, N.R.; Oosterloo, Sebe J.; Klaver, P.; Bos, J.M.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Behaviour of motor unit potential (MUP) velocities in relation to (low) force and duration was investigated in biceps brachii muscle using a surface electrode array. Short static tests of 3.8 s (41 subjects) and prolonged dynamic tests (prolonged tests) of 4 min (30 subjects) were performed as

  16. Sleep Apnea, Sleep Duration and Brain MRI Markers of Cerebral Vascular Disease and Alzheimer's Disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela L Lutsey

    Full Text Available A growing body of literature has suggested that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and habitual short sleep duration are linked to poor cognitive function. Neuroimaging studies may provide insight into this relation.We tested the hypotheses that OSA and habitual short sleep duration, measured at ages 54-73 years, would be associated with adverse brain morphology at ages 67-89 years.Included in this analysis are 312 ARIC study participants who underwent in-home overnight polysomnography in 1996-1998 and brain MRI scans about 15 years later (2012-2013. Sleep apnea was quantified by the apnea-hypopnea index and categorized as moderate/severe (≥15.0 events/hour, mild (5.0-14.9 events/hour, or normal (<5.0 events/hour. Habitual sleep duration was categorized, in hours, as <7, 7 to <8, ≥8. MRI outcomes included number of infarcts (total, subcortical, and cortical and white matter hyperintensity (WMH and Alzheimer's disease signature region volumes. Multivariable adjusted logistic and linear regression models were used. All models incorporated inverse probability weighting, to adjust for potential selection bias.At the time of the sleep study participants were 61.7 (SD: 5.0 years old and 54% female; 19% had moderate/severe sleep apnea. MRI imaging took place 14.8 (SD: 1.0 years later, when participants were 76.5 (SD: 5.2 years old. In multivariable models which accounted for body mass index, neither OSA nor abnormal sleep duration were statistically significantly associated with odds of cerebral infarcts, WMH brain volumes or regional brain volumes.In this community-based sample, mid-life OSA and habitually short sleep duration were not associated with later-life cerebral markers of vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However, selection bias may have influenced our results and the modest sample size led to relatively imprecise associations.

  17. On measuring charged particle bunch duration in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomize, L.G.; Malykh, N.I.; Khizhnyj, V.I.; Yampol'skij, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The process of measuring short bunches is simulated by means of cavity resonators in which HF fields are excited by both positive and negative ion bunches flying through them. The simulation is aimed to assess optimum operation of a linear accelerator. A set of bunches of chance form and duration is simulated. Then the simulation of the process of restoring the duration and shape of a bunch according to data obtained from a limited number of resonators is realized. The use of 3-4 resonators tuned to 3, 6, 9 and 12-th harmonics of bunch repetition rate is shown to be sufficient for determining bunch duration with an accuracy of several per cent. When data on harmonic phases is available, one can obtain information on beam asymmetry

  18. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2017-05-09

    The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women). The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women) and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women), and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women) and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women). The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women), and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women). In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  19. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women. The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women, and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women. The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women, and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women. In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  20. Sleep duration and risk of stroke mortality among Chinese adults: the Singapore Chinese Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, An; De Silva, Deidre Anne; Yuan, Jian-Min; Koh, Woon-Puay

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prospective relation between sleep duration and stroke risk is less studied, particularly in Asians. We examined the association between sleep duration and stroke mortality among Chinese adults. Methods The Singapore Chinese Health Study is a population-based cohort of 63,257 Chinese adults aged 45-74 years enrolled during 1993 through 1998. Sleep duration at baseline was assessed via in-person interview, and death information during follow-up was ascertained via record linkage with the death registry up to December 31, 2011. Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with adjustment for other comorbidities and lifestyle risk factors of stroke mortality. Results During 926,752 person-years of follow-up, we documented 1,381 stroke deaths (322 from hemorrhagic and 1,059 from ischemic or non-specified strokes). Compared to individuals with 7 hours/day of sleep, the multivariate-adjusted HR (95% confidence interval) of total stroke mortality was 1.25 (1.05-1.50) for ≤5 hours/day (short duration), 1.01 (0.87-1.18) for 6 hours/day, 1.09 (0.95-1.26) for 8 hours/day, and 1.54 (1.28-1.85) for ≥9 hours/day (long duration). The increased risk of stroke death with short (1.54; 1.16-2.03) and long duration of sleep (1.95; 1.48-2.57) was seen among subjects with a history of hypertension, but not in those without hypertension. These findings were limited to risk of death from ischemic or non-specified stroke, but not observed for hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusions Both short and long sleep durations are associated with increased risk of stroke mortality in a Chinese population, particularly among those with a history of hypertension. PMID:24743442

  1. Sleep duration and obesity in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian; Zhang, Shuang; Huang, Yubei; Chen, Kexin

    2017-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public problem worldwide, and sleep duration may be associated with childhood obesity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to estimate the associations between sleep duration and obesity/body mass index (BMI) in children. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. For the meta-analysis, the pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated to reveal the association between short sleep duration and obesity. For the review, the outcomes focused on BMI change or subsequent BMI status. A total of 12 studies (15 populations) met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Short sleep duration was significantly associated with obesity (RR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.14-1.85). After excluding two cohorts that substantially affected the heterogeneity, the pooled results remained significant (RR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.20-1.42), and the association was not substantially altered in the subgroup analysis. In addition, we summarised 24 studies that met the criteria for our review of the relationship between sleeping and BMI. The present meta-analysis indicated that short sleep duration increased the risk of childhood obesity. Public health efforts that encourage children to have sufficient sleep time may be important in combating obesity. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  2. Isotopic test of capillary permeability to albumin in diabetic patients: effects of hypertension, microangiopathy, and duration of diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valensi, P.; Attali, J.R.; Behar, A.; Sebaoun, J.

    1987-01-01

    Capillary permeability to albumin (CPA) was studied by performing an isotopic noninvasive test with venous compression on 87 nonselected diabetics with no edema, no cardiac failure, and no peripheral vascular disease. Excessive albumin retention (AR greater than or equal to 8%) ten minutes after removal of the compression was found in 27 patients (31%). The radioactivity disappearance curve was then analyzed using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). An abnormal isotopic CPA test was thus found in at least 45 out of the 87 patients. The prevalence of an abnormal test was not different in type 1 and type 2 diabetics. We studied the independent effects of hypertension, presence of specific clinical signs of microangiopathy (retinopathy and/or significant proteinuria), and duration of diabetes. Among diabetics free of specific clinical signs of microangiopathy, the prevalence of an AR greater than or equal to 8% was significantly higher in those with hypertension (11/19) than in those with normal blood pressure (2/28) and in nondiabetic hypertensive patients (0/16). Among normotensive diabetics, the prevalence of an abnormal test was higher, but not significantly, in patients with specific clinical signs of microangiopathy (8/11) than in those free of them (7/18). Seven normotensive diabetics without specific clinical signs of microangiopathy had an abnormal test; five of them had had diabetes for more than five years. The prevalence of diabetes of more than five years duration was significantly higher in patients with an abnormal test (35/45) than in normotensive diabetics free of specific clinical signs of microangiopathy with a normal test (4/11)

  3. Duration of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, Mariana; Lopez, Ivana; Gülmezoglu, A Metin; Mignini, Luciano; Roganti, Ariel

    2015-11-11

    A previous Cochrane systematic review has shown that antibiotic drug treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women substantially decreases the risk of pyelonephritis and reduces the risk of preterm delivery. However, it is not clear whether single-dose therapy is as effective as longer conventional antibiotic treatment. To assess the effects of different durations of treatment for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 August 2015) and reference lists of identified articles. Randomized and quasi-randomized trials comparing antimicrobial therapeutic regimens that differed in duration (particularly comparing single dose with longer duration regimens) in pregnant women diagnosed with asymptomatic bacteriuria. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion and risk of bias, extracted data and checked them for accuracy. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We included 13 studies, involving 1622 women. All were comparisons of single-dose treatment with short-course (four- to seven-day) treatments. The risk of bias of trials included in this review was largely unclear, and most trials were at high risk of performance bias. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach. When the any antibiotic agent was used, the 'no cure' rate for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant women was slightly lower for the short-course treatment over the single-dose treatment, although there was evidence of statistical heterogeneity (average risk ratio (RR) 1.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87 to 1.88; women = 1502, studies = 13; I² = 56%; very low quality evidence). Data from only good quality trials also showed better cure rates with short (four- to seven-day) regimens of the same microbial agent (average RR 1.72, 95% CI 1.27 to 2.33; women = 803, studies = two; I² = 0%; high quality evidence). There was no clear difference in the

  4. Ultra-short laser pulses. Petawatt and femtosecond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, P.

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with a series of new results obtained thanks to the use of ultra-short laser pulses. This branch of physics has made incredible progresses during the last 25 years. Ultra-short laser pulses offer the opportunity to explore the domain of ultra-high energies and of ultra-short duration events. Applications are various, from controlled nuclear fusion to eye surgery and to more familiar industrial applications such as electronics. (J.S.)

  5. DSM-5 Insomnia and Short Sleep: Comorbidity Landscape and Racial Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A.; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J. Todd; Drake, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. Methods: This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification (never vs. remitted vs. current) and self-reported habitual sleep duration (normal vs. short). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Results: Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Conclusions: Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease

  6. Long-Duration Space Flight and Bed Rest Effects on Testosterone and Other Steroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heer, Martina; Wang, Zuwei; Huntoon, Carolyn L.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Limited data suggest that testosterone is decreased during space flight, which could contribute to bone and muscle loss. Objective: The main objective was to assess testosterone and hormone status in long- and short-duration space flight and bed rest environments and to determine relationships with other physiological systems, including bone and muscle. Design: Blood and urine samples were collected before, during, and after long-duration space flight. Samples were also collected before and after 12- to 14-d missions and from participants in 30- to 90-d bed rest studies. Setting: Space flight studies were conducted on the International Space Station and before and after Space Shuttle missions. Bed rest studies were conducted in a clinical research center setting. Data from Skylab missions are also presented. Participants: All of the participants were male, and they included 15 long-duration and nine short-duration mission crew members and 30 bed rest subjects. Main Outcome Measures: Serum total, free, and bioavailable testosterone were measured along with serum and urinary cortisol, serum dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, and SHBG. Results: Total, free, and bioavailable testosterone was not changed during long-duration space flight but were decreased (P space flight. There were no changes in other hormones measured. Testosterone concentrations dropped before and soon after bed rest, but bed rest itself had no effect on testosterone. Conclusions: There was no evidence for decrements in testosterone during long-duration space flight or bed rest. PMID:22049169

  7. Short-time, high-dosage penicillin infusion therapy of syphilis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Hans; Poulsen, Asmus; Brandrup, Flemming

    2003-01-01

    The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G intraven......The optimal dosage and duration of penicillin treatment for the various stages of syphilis are not known. We present data on 20 patients with syphilis (primary, secondary or latent) treated with high-dose, short-time penicillin infusion therapy. Patients were given 10 MIU of penicillin G...

  8. Positive Feedback Keeps Duration of Mitosis Temporally Insulated from Upstream Cell-Cycle Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Ana Rita; Gelens, Lendert; Sheriff, Rahuman S M; Santos, Silvia D M

    2016-10-20

    Cell division is characterized by a sequence of events by which a cell gives rise to two daughter cells. Quantitative measurements of cell-cycle dynamics in single cells showed that despite variability in G1-, S-, and G2 phases, duration of mitosis is short and remarkably constant. Surprisingly, there is no correlation between cell-cycle length and mitotic duration, suggesting that mitosis is temporally insulated from variability in earlier cell-cycle phases. By combining live cell imaging and computational modeling, we showed that positive feedback is the molecular mechanism underlying the temporal insulation of mitosis. Perturbing positive feedback gave rise to a sluggish, variable entry and progression through mitosis and uncoupled duration of mitosis from variability in cell cycle length. We show that positive feedback is important to keep mitosis short, constant, and temporally insulated and anticipate it might be a commonly used regulatory strategy to create modularity in other biological systems. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship of Sleep Duration with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Lifestyle, Mental Health, and Chronic Diseases in a Large Chinese Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Li, Bo; Wu, Yanhua; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-03-15

    Pattern of sleep duration and its correlates have rarely been reported in China. This study examined the sleep duration and its relationship with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, mental health, and chronic diseases in a large Chinese adult population. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster sampling. A total of 17,320 participants from Jilin province were selected and interviewed using standardized assessment tools. Basic socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Sleep duration was classified as short ( 9 h per day) and medium sleep (7-9 h per day). The mean age of the sample was 42.60 ± 10.60 y, with 51.4% being female. The mean sleep duration was 7.31 ± 1.44 h. Short and long sleepers accounted for 30.9% and 6.9% of the sample, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, current smoking, irregular meal pattern, lack of physical exercise, poor mental health, and chronic diseases or multimorbidity were positively associated with short sleep. Being married and living in rural areas were, however, negatively associated with short sleep. In addition, living in rural area, current smoking, current alcohol use and lack of physical exercise were positively associated with long sleep, while older age and lower education were negatively associated with long sleep. Given the high frequency of short sleep and its negative effect on health, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in general health care. Nationwide epidemiologic surveys in China are needed to further explore the relationship between sleep duration and health. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  10. Main Propulsion Test Article (MPTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoddy, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Scope: The Main Propulsion Test Article integrated the main propulsion subsystem with the clustered Space Shuttle Main Engines, the External Tank and associated GSE. The test program consisted of cryogenic tanking tests and short- and long duration static firings including gimbaling and throttling. The test program was conducted on the S1-C test stand (Position B-2) at the National Space Technology Laboratories (NSTL)/Stennis Space Center. 3 tanking tests and 20 hot fire tests conducted between December 21 1 1977 and December 17, 1980 Configuration: The main propulsion test article consisted of the three space shuttle main engines, flightweight external tank, flightweight aft fuselage, interface section and a boilerplate mid/fwd fuselage truss structure.

  11. Cerebral responses to across- and within-category change of vowel durations measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa-Kawai, Yasuyo; Mori, Koichi; Furuya, Izumi; Hayashi, Ryoko; Sato, Yutaka

    2002-05-01

    The present study examined cerebral responses to phoneme categories, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) by measuring the concentration and oxygenation of hemoglobin accompanying local brain activities. Targeted phonemes used here are Japanese long and short vowel categories realized only by durational differences. Results of NIRS and behavioral test revealed NIRS could capture phoneme-specific information. The left side of the auditory area showed large hemodynamic changes only for contrasting stimuli between which phonemic boundary was estimated (across-category condition), but not for stimuli differing by an equal duration but belonging to the same phoneme category (within-category condition). Left dominance in phoneme processing was also confirmed for the across-category stimuli. These findings indicate that the Japanese vowel contrast based only on duration is dealt with in the same language-dominant hemisphere as the other phonemic categories as studied with MEG and PET, and that the cortical activities related to its processing can be detected with NIRS. [Work supported by Japan Society for Promotion of Science (No. 8484) and a grant from Ministry of Health and Welfare of Japan.

  12. Association between visual impairment and sleep duration: analysis of the 2009 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Alberto R; Wallace, Douglas M; Williams, Natasha J; Spence, David Warren; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu Ratnas; Zizi, Ferdinand; Jean-Louis, Girardin

    2014-10-01

    Visual impairment (VI) is associated with increased mortality and health factors such as depression and cardiovascular disease. Epidemiologic studies consistently show associations between sleep duration with adverse health outcomes, but these have not systematically considered the influence of VI. The aim of this study was to ascertain the independent association between VI and sleep duration using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) data. We also examined whether race/ethnicity influenced these associations independently of sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Our analysis was based on the 2009 NHIS, providing valid sleep and vision data for 29,815 participants. The NHIS is a cross-sectional household interview survey utilizing a multistage area probability design. Trained personnel from the US census bureau gathered data during face-to-face interview and obtained socio-demographic, self-reported habitual sleep duration and physician-diagnosed chronic conditions. The mean age of the sample was 48 years and 56% were female. Short sleep and long sleep durations were reported by 49% and 23% of the participants, respectively. Visual impairment was observed in 10%. Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression models showed significant associations between VI and short sleep (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.5-1.9 and long sleep durations (OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3-1.9). These associations persisted in multivariate models stratified by race-ethnic groups. Visual impairment was associated with both short and long sleep durations. Analysis of epidemiologic sleep data should consider visual impairment as an important factor likely to influence the amount of sleep experienced habitually.

  13. Prediction in Partial Duration Series With Generalized Pareto-Distributed Exceedances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosbjerg, Dan; Madsen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Peter Funder

    1992-01-01

    As a generalization of the common assumption of exponential distribution of the exceedances in Partial duration series the generalized Pareto distribution has been adopted. Estimators for the parameters are presented using estimation by both method of moments and probability-weighted moments......-weighted moments. Maintaining the generalized Pareto distribution as the parent exceedance distribution the T-year event is estimated assuming the exceedances to be exponentially distributed. For moderately long-tailed exceedance distributions and small to moderate sample sizes it is found, by comparing mean...... square errors of the T-year event estimators, that the exponential distribution is preferable to the correct generalized Pareto distribution despite the introduced model error and despite a possible rejection of the exponential hypothesis by a test of significance. For moderately short-tailed exceedance...

  14. Development of a Short Form of the Boston Naming Test for Individuals with Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Toro, Christina M.; Bislick, Lauren P.; Comer, Matthew; Velozo, Craig; Romero, Sergio; Rothi, Leslie J. Gonzalez; Kendall, Diane L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a short form of the Boston Naming Test (BNT; Kaplan, Goodglass, & Weintraub, 2001) for individuals with aphasia and compare it with 2 existing short forms originally analyzed with responses from people with dementia and neurologically healthy adults. Method: Development of the new BNT-Aphasia Short…

  15. Reliability-Based Modeling of Moisture and Load-Duration Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Svensson, Staffan

    2005-01-01

    Load duration effects with respect to reduction of load bearing capacity are very important for structural timber. This paper describes how the load duration effects combined with moisture content and variations c an be determined on basis of simulation of realizations of the time varying load...... and moisture processes. Permanent and snow load sand moisture variations are considered and stochastic models are formulated in accordance with the load models in the Danish structural codes. A damage accumulation model based on fracture mechanics that accounts for both load duration and moisture effects...... is derived. The parameters in the model are fitted to data relevant for Nordic structural timber using the Maximum Likelihood method. The probability of failure as function of time is estimated for representative limit states based on: a) short term strength and b) long term damage accumulation...

  16. Modeling off-frequency binaural masking for short- and long-duration signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitschmann, Marc; Yasin, Ifat; Henning, G Bruce; Verhey, Jesko L

    2017-08-01

    Experimental binaural masking-pattern data are presented together with model simulations for 12- and 600-ms signals. The masker was a diotic 11-Hz wide noise centered on 500 Hz. The tonal signal was presented either diotically or dichotically (180° interaural phase difference) with frequencies ranging from 400 to 600 Hz. The results and the modeling agree with previous data and hypotheses; simulations with a binaural model sensitive to monaural modulation cues show that the effect of duration on off-frequency binaural masking-level differences is mainly a result of modulation cues which are only available in the monaural detection of long signals.

  17. Microstructure and elemental distribution of americium containing MOX fuel under the short term irradiation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Hirosawa, Takashi; Obayashi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shin Ichi; Yoshimochi, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kenya

    2008-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of americium addition to MOX fuels on the irradiation behavior, the 'Am-1' program is being conducted in JAEA. The Am-1 program consists of two short term irradiation tests of 10-minute and 24 hour irradiations and a steady-state irradiation test. The short-term irradiation tests were successfully completed and the post irradiation examinations (PIEs) are in progress. The PIEs for Am-containing MOX fuels focused on the microstructural evolution and redistribution behavior of Am at the initial stage of irradiation and the results to date are reported

  18. Sleep duration and its correlates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese women: the Shanghai Women's Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Xiangdong; Cai, Hui; Gao, Yu-Tang; Wu, Xiaoyan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao Ou

    2012-10-01

    Abnormal sleep duration, either long or short, is associated with disease risk and mortality. Little information is available on sleep duration and its correlates among Chinese women. Using information collected from 68,832 women who participated in the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS), we evaluated sleep duration and its correlations with sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, health status, and anthropometric measurements and their indexes using polynomial logistic regression. The mean age of the study population was 59.6 years (SD=9.0; range: 44.6-79.9 years) at time of sleep duration assessment. Approximately 80% of women reported sleeping 6-8 h/day, 11.5% slept 5h or less, and 8.7% slept 9h or more. As expected, age was the strongest predictor for sleep duration and was negatively correlated with sleep duration. In general, sleep duration was positively associated with energy intake, intakes of total meat and fruits, body mass index (BMI), waist-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC) after adjustment for age and other factors. Both short and long sleep duration were negatively associated with education level, family income, and leisure-time physical activity and positively associated with number of live births, history of night shift work, and certain chronic diseases, compared to sleep duration around 7 h/day (6.5-7.4h/day). Short sleep duration was related to tea consumption and passive smoking. Long sleep duration was related to menopausal status and marital status. In this large, population-based study, we found that sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Chinese women was associated with several sociodemographic and lifestyle factors and with disease status. The main limitation of the study is the cross-sectional design that does not allow us to draw any causal inference. However, this study provides information for future investigation into the nature of these associations so that recommendations can be developed to reduce sleep

  19. Lethality of Bacillus Anthracis Spores Due to Short Duration Heating Measured Using Infrared Spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goetz, Kristina M

    2005-01-01

    In this research, Bacillus anthracis spores were subjected to bursts of heat lasting on the order of one second in duration using a laser system to simulate the explosive environment from an agent defeat weapon...

  20. The Association Between Insomnia and Sleep Duration in Adults With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Results From a General Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynchank, Dora; ten Have, Margreet; Bijlenga, Denise; Penninx, Brenda W.; Beekman, Aartjan T.; Lamers, Femke; de Graaf, Ron; Kooij, J.J. Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia and short or long sleep duration are important comorbid conditions in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but reports of the association vary. In a general population study, we evaluated the relationship between ADHD symptom severity, insomnia symptoms, and sleep duration in adults. Methods: Data were from the third wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2; n = 4,618). ADHD symptom severity and symptom dimensions (hyperactivity and inattention) were assessed using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale screener. Self-reported insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Rating Scale; IRS) were defined as clinically relevant if IRS ≥ 9. Self-reported short sleep duration was defined as ≤ 6 hours, and long sleep duration as ≥ 10 hours. Results: Within the group with clinically relevant ADHD symptoms, 43% reported significant insomnia symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74–4.07); 41% short sleep duration (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.94, 95% CI 1.31–2.85) and 6% long sleep (RRR = 5.87, 95% CI 1.97–17.45). Increased inattention symptoms were associated with IRS ≥ 9, short and long sleep duration in fully adjusted models (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14; RRR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.09; RRR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.05–1.28, respectively). Increased hyperactivity symptoms were associated with IRS ≥ 9 (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.11–1.23) and short sleep duration (RRR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.05–1.19). Conclusions: Both clinically significant ADHD symptoms and inattention and hyperactivity symptom dimensions were consistently associated with insomnia symptoms and altered sleep duration. These associations confirm that sleep disturbances should be assessed and given appropriate clinical attention in adults with ADHD. Citation: Wynchank D, ten Have M, Bijlenga D, Penninx BW, Beekman AT, Lamers F, de Graaf R, Kooij JJ. The association between insomnia and sleep duration in adults with

  1. Sleep duration, insomnia, and coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands-Lincoln, Megan; Loucks, Eric B; Lu, Bing; Carskadon, Mary A; Sharkey, Katherine; Stefanick, Marcia L; Ockene, Judith; Shah, Neomi; Hairston, Kristen G; Robinson, Jennifer G; Limacher, Marian; Hale, Lauren; Eaton, Charles B

    2013-06-01

    Long and short sleep duration are associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, evidence is inconsistent. We sought to identify whether self-reported sleep duration and insomnia, based on a validated questionnaire, are associated with increased incident CHD and CVD among postmenopausal women. Women's Health Initiative Observational Study Participants (N=86,329; 50-79 years) who reported on sleep at baseline were followed for incident CVD events. Associations of sleep duration and insomnia with incident CHD and CVD were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models over 10.3 years. Women with high insomnia scores had elevated risk of CHD (38%) and CVD (27%) after adjustment for age and race, and in fully adjusted models (hazard ratio [HR]=1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.30; 1.11 95% CI 1.03-2.00). Shorter (≤5 hours) and longer (≥10 hours) sleep duration demonstrated significantly higher incident CHD (25%) and CVD (19%) in age- and race-adjusted models, but this was not significant in fully adjusted models. Formal tests for interaction indicated significant interactions between sleep duration and insomnia for risk of CHD (pinsomnia scores and long sleep demonstrated the greatest risk of incident CHD compared to midrange sleep duration (HR=1.93, 95% CI 1.06-3.51) in fully adjusted models. Sleep duration and insomnia are associated with CHD and CVD risk, and may interact to cause almost double the risk of CHD and CVD. Additional research is needed to understand how sleep quality modifies the association between prolonged sleep and cardiovascular outcomes.

  2. Within-day variability on short and long walking tests in persons with multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feys, P.; Bibby, B.; Romberg, A.; Santoyo, C.; Gebara, B.; de Noordhout, B.M.; Knuts, K.; Bethoux, F.; Skjerbaek, A.; Jensen, E.; Baert, I.; Vaney, C.; de Groot, V.; Dalgas, U.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare within-day variability of short (10 m walking test at usual and fastest speed; 10MWT) and long (2 and 6-minute walking test; 2MWT/6MWT) tests in persons with multiple sclerosis. Design Observational study. Setting MS rehabilitation and research centers in Europe and US within

  3. Pulmonary function tests in type 2 diabetes mellitus and their association with glycemic control and duration of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati H Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary complications of diabetes mellitus (DM have been poorly characterized. Some authors have reported normal pulmonary functions and even concluded that spirometry is not at all necessary in diabetic patients. Some studies have shown abnormal respiratory parameters in patients of DM. Moreover, the duration of DM and glycemic control have varied impact on the pulmonary functions. Aims and Objectives: The study was undertaken to analyze the pulmonary function parameters in diabetic patients and compare them with age and gender matched healthy subjects. We correlated forced vital capacity (FVC and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV 1 in diabetic patients with duration of the disease and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c. Materials and Methods: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs were recorded in 60 type 2 diabetic male patients and 60 normal healthy male controls aged 40-60 years by using Helios 702 spirometer. The PFTs recorded were - FVC, FEV 1 , FEV 1 /FVC, FEF 25 , FEF 50 , FEF 75 , FEF 25-75 , FEF 0.2-1.2 , and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR. HbA1c of all the patients was estimated by ion exchange resin method, which is a very standard method of estimation. PFTs of diabetic patients and controls were compared by applying Student′s unpaired t test. Associations between FVC and FEV 1 and HbA1c and duration of illness in diabetic patients were analyzed by applying Pearson′s coefficient. Results: The PFTs were significantly decreased in diabetic patients compared with the healthy controls except FEV 1 /FVC. There was no correlation found between FVC and FEV 1 and duration of illness as well as HbA1c. Conclusion: DM being a systemic disease, which also affects lungs causing restrictive type of ventilatory changes probably because of glycosylation of connective tissues, reduced pulmonary elastic recoil and inflammatory changes in lungs. We found glycemic levels and duration of disease are probably not the major determinants of

  4. Cultural and Gender Issues in Long-Duration Flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Session TA5 includes short reports concerning: (1) Psychological Issues During Long-Duration International Space Missions; (2) Psychosocial Issues in Crew Selection: Finding the Right Mix of the Right Stuff; (3) Culture, Gender and Mission Accomplishment: Operational Experience; (4) Interpersonal Tension in Multicultural Crews; (5) Personality and Coping in Extreme Environments; and (6) Application of Expedition and Polar Work Group Findings for Enhancing Performance in Space.

  5. Analysis and modelization of short-duration windows of seismic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berriani, B.; Lacoume, J.L.; Martin, N.; Cliet, C.; Dubesset, M.

    1987-01-01

    The spectral analysis of a seismic arrival is of a great interest, but unfortunately the common Fourier analysis is unserviceable on short-time windows. So, in order to obtain the spectral characteristics of the dominant components of a seismic signal on a short-time interval, the authors study parametric methods. At first, the autoregressive methods are able to localize a small number of non-stationary pure frequencies. But the amplitude determination is impossible with these methods. So, they develop a combination of AR and Capon's methods. In the Capon's method, the amplitude is conserved for a given frequency, at the very time when the contribution of the other frequencies is minimized. Finally, to characterize completely the different pure-frequency dominant components of the signal and to be able to reconstruct the signal and to be able to reconstruct the signal with these elements, the authors need also the phase and the attenuation; for that, they use the Prony's method where the signal is represented by a sum of damped sinusoids. This last method is used to modelize an offset VSP. It is shown that, using four frequencies and their attributes (amplitude, phase, attenuation), it is possible to modelize quasi-exactly the section. When reconstructing the signal, if one (or more) frequency is eliminated, an efficient filtering can be applied. The AR methods, and Prony's in particular, are efficient tools for signal component decomposition and information compression

  6. Local magnitude, duration magnitude and seismic moment of Dahshour 1992 earthquakes

    OpenAIRE

    M. F. Abdelwahed; E. M. Abdelrahman; H. M. Hussein; M. M. Dessokey

    2000-01-01

    Local magnitudes ML have been calculated for 56 earthquakes of the Dahshour 1992 sequence using simulated records of the KEG broadband station and the estimated calibration function of the Dahshour area. These were compared with their corresponding values of duration magnitudes obtained from the analog short period seismograms of the HLW station. The local magnitudes M L and the duration magnitudes M D for this region imply a linear relation as follows: M L = 1.2988 (± 0.04) M D – 0.9032 (± 0...

  7. Duration of U.S. stay and body mass index among Latino and Asian immigrants: A test of theoretical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Annie; Bostean, Georgiana

    2015-11-01

    Studies find that longer-term immigrants have higher body mass index (BMI) than their more recently arrived counterparts. Most interpretations of these health patterns by duration of U.S. residence rely on theories of immigrant integration; they posit that with increasing time in the United States, immigrants incorporate economically, socially, and culturally into aspects of U.S. society, and that these changes impact health. Few studies empirically examine whether these aspects of integration are indeed mediators of the association between duration of U.S. stay and BMI, and if their patterns differ across immigrant subgroups. This study examines data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey, using path analytic methods to simultaneously test six hypothesized mediators between duration and BMI: household income, English language ability, ethnic identity, family cohesion, acculturative stress and discrimination for both Latino and Asian immigrants, stratified by gender. We find little evidence for an association between duration and BMI for either Latino or Asian men. For women, duration and BMI have a significant and positive relationship, although the pathways differ between the two ethnic groups. For Latina women, household income and acculturative stress are significant indirect pathways, although they work in opposing directions. For Asian women, English proficiency and discrimination are significant indirect pathways. Our findings reveal complex pathways between duration and BMI that vary by ethnicity and gender and highlight limitations in the negative acculturation theory, which suggests that exposure to the United States should have a net negative impact on health. In contrast, our findings suggest that not all groups show declining health with longer duration, as measured by BMI, and that integration processes do not always translate into health differences in the expected directions. Future research on duration patterns may need to consider

  8. Anxiety sensitivity and racial differences in sleep duration: Results from a national survey of adults with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Carmela; Giorgio Cosenzo, Luciana Andrea; Fan, Weijia; Doyle, David Matthew; Shaffer, Jonathan A

    2017-05-01

    Although Blacks sleep between 37 and 75min less per night than non-Hispanic Whites, research into what drives racial differences in sleep duration is limited. We examined the association of anxiety sensitivity, a cognitive vulnerability, and race (Blacks vs. White) with short sleep duration (anxiety sensitivity mediated race differences in sleep duration in a nationally representative sample of adults with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 1289 adults (115 Black, 1174 White) with a self-reported physician/health professional diagnosis of ≥1 myocardial infarction completed an online survey. Weighted multivariable logistic regressions and mediation analyses with bootstrapping and case resampling were conducted. Anxiety sensitivity and Black vs. White race were associated with 4%-84% increased odds, respectively, of short sleep duration. Anxiety sensitivity mediated Black-White differences in sleep duration. Each anxiety sensitivity subscale was also a significant mediator. Implications for future intervention science to address sleep disparities are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Survey of On-Orbit Sleep Quality: Short-Duration Flyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, J.; Leveton, L.; Keeton, K.; Whitmire, A.; Patterson, H.; Faulk, J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP), in conjunction with the NASA Space Medicine Division, is currently completing the largest systematic, subjective assessment of shuttle astronauts sleep behaviors and sleep quality on Earth, during training periods, and during space flight missions. Since July 2009, a total of 66 astronauts have completed a secure online survey regarding specific sleep strategies, crew policies, and mitigation effectiveness. In addition to the survey, each astronaut participant met individually with trained BHP and SD representatives for a structured, follow-up interview. Data are currently being assessed and the study s principal investigator will be providing some preliminary findings at the Investigators Workshop. Additional analyses will be conducted in the following months to examine predictors of optimal sleep in space, and to evaluate the differences in countermeasure effectiveness between groups based on their sleep experience on the ground and on orbit. A revised survey for a subsequent investigation on the experiences of long-duration flyers will be developed in the Spring and implemented in the Summer of 2010. Findings from both of these investigations will inform countermeasure strategies for astronauts, medical operations, and habitat designers for future exploration missions, as well as upcoming shuttle and ISS missions.

  10. Interest Rate Risk Management using Duration Gap Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Armeanu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a good understanding of duration gap model used for managing interest rate risk. The article starts with a overview of interest rate risk and explain how this type of risk should be measured and managed within an asset-liability management. Then the articles takes a short look at methods for measuring interest rate risk and after that explains and demonstrates how can be used Duration Gap Model for managing interest rate risk in banks.The world for financial institutions has changed during the last 20 years, and become riskier and more competitive-driven. After the deregulation of the financial market, banks had to take on extensive risk in order to earn sufficient returns. Interest rate volatility has increased dramatically over the past twenty-five years and for that an efficient management of this interest rate risk is strong required. In the last years banks developed a variety of methods for measuring and managing interest rate risk. From these the most frequently used in real banking life and recommended by Basel Committee are based on: Reprising Model or Funding Gap Model, Maturity Gap Model, Duration Gap Model, Static and Dynamic Simulation. The purpose of this article is to give a

  11. Sleep quality, duration and behavioral symptoms among 5?6-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to examine whether parent-reported short sleep duration and sleeping difficulties are related to behavioral symptoms among pre-school aged children. The study is a cross-sectional survey of 297 families with 5?6-year-old children. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for children was used to measure sleep duration and sleeping difficulties, and the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher?s Report Form were used to measure attention problems, and ...

  12. Comparative study in LTC Combustion between a short HP EGR loop without cooler and a variable lift and duration system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bression, Guillaume; Pacaud, Pierre; Soleri, Dominique; Cessou, Jerome [IFP (France); Azoulay, David [Renault Powertrain Div. (France); Lawrence, David [Mechadyne (United Kingdom); Doradoux, Laurent; Guerrassi, Noureddine [Delphi Diesel Systems (France)

    2008-07-01

    In order to reach future Diesel emission standards such as Euro 6 or Tier 2 Bin 5, NO{sub x} emissions need to be dramatically reduced. Advanced technologies and engine settings such as higher EGR rates, reduced compression ratio, EGR cooler and low-pressure EGR loop - depending on vehicle application - may help to reach this target whilst maintaining low CO{sub 2} emissions and fuel consumption. However, the resulting low combustion temperatures and the low air-fuel ratios lead to a significant increase in HC and CO emissions, especially during the start-up phase prior to catalyst light-off. Moreover, high levels of EGR make transient operation even more difficult. So HC-CO emissions and EGR transient operation represent two key issues that could limit the extension of this alternative combustion mode. Consequently, an in-depth investigation of a variable lift and duration (VLD) system was performed to overcome these problems on a 4-cylinder engine, which was also equipped with a dual HP-LP EGR loop. The VLD system tested in this paper produces a variable camshaft-operated exhaust valve re-opening, which is controlled by a hydraulic rotary actuator, ensuring quick and accurate regulation of the internal gas recirculation (IGR). By increasing gas temperature in the combustion chamber, this advanced technology allows us to reduce HC-CO emissions by 50% under 3 bar BMEP. Although efficient, this technology has to be compared with other solutions from a cost-to-value point of view. The aim of this paper is firstly to compare the double lift exhaust system with a short route high-performance EGR loop without cooler by quantifying their respective gains on steady state points of the NEDC cycle, then by evaluating their potential performances during transient conditions. With the short-route EGR, the potential in HC-CO emission reduction remains significant on a large scale of engine temperatures representative of engine warm up. However, the VLD system allows us to

  13. Short-lasting headache syndromes and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Todd D

    2004-08-01

    A number of primary headache syndromes are marked by their short duration of pain. Many of these syndromes have their own unique treatment, so they must be recognized by practicing physicians. In this article, a number of the short-lasting headache disorders are reviewed, including chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT syndrome, hypnic headache, exploding head syndrome, primary stabbing headache, and cough headache.

  14. Laser-accelerated particle beams for stress testing of materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberio, M; Scisciò, M; Vallières, S; Cardelli, F; Chen, S N; Famulari, G; Gangolf, T; Revet, G; Schiavi, A; Senzacqua, M; Antici, P

    2018-01-25

    Laser-driven particle acceleration, obtained by irradiation of a solid target using an ultra-intense (I > 10 18  W/cm 2 ) short-pulse (duration testing materials and are particularly suited for identifying materials to be used in harsh conditions. We show that these laser-generated protons can produce, in a very short time scale, a strong mechanical and thermal damage, that, given the short irradiation time, does not allow for recovery of the material. We confirm this by analyzing changes in the mechanical, optical, electrical, and morphological properties of five materials of interest to be used in harsh conditions.

  15. A comparison of computerized adaptive testing and fixed-length short forms for the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-MTM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amtmann, Dagmar; Bamer, Alyssa M; Kim, Jiseon; Bocell, Fraser; Chung, Hyewon; Park, Ryoungsun; Salem, Rana; Hafner, Brian J

    2017-09-01

    New health status instruments can be administered by computerized adaptive test or short forms. The Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M TM ) is a self-report measure of mobility for prosthesis users with lower limb loss. This study used the PLUS-M to examine advantages and disadvantages of computerized adaptive test and short forms. To compare scores obtained from computerized adaptive test to scores obtained from fixed-length short forms (7-item and 12-item) in order to provide guidance to researchers and clinicians on how to select the best form of administration for different uses. Cross-sectional, observational study. Individuals with lower limb loss completed the PLUS-M by computerized adaptive test and short forms. Administration time, correlations between the scores, and standard errors were compared. Scores and standard errors from the computerized adaptive test, 7-item short form, and 12-item short form were highly correlated and all forms of administration were efficient. Computerized adaptive test required less time to administer than either paper or electronic short forms; however, time savings were minimal compared to the 7-item short form. Results indicate that the PLUS-M computerized adaptive test is most efficient, and differences in scores between administration methods are minimal. The main advantage of the computerized adaptive test was more reliable scores at higher levels of mobility compared to short forms. Clinical relevance Health-related item banks, like the Prosthetic Limb Users Survey of Mobility (PLUS-M TM ), can be administered by computerized adaptive testing (CAT) or as fixed-length short forms (SFs). Results of this study will help clinicians and researchers decide whether they should invest in a CAT administration system or whether SFs are more appropriate.

  16. Short-Term Dosage Regimen for Stimulation-Induced Long-Lasting Desynchronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanos Manos

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we computationally generate hypotheses for dose-finding studies in the context of desynchronizing neuromodulation techniques. Abnormally strong neuronal synchronization is a hallmark of several brain disorders. Coordinated Reset (CR stimulation is a spatio-temporally patterned stimulation technique that specifically aims at disrupting abnormal neuronal synchrony. In networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may ultimately cause an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. This long-lasting desynchronization was theoretically predicted and verified in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. We have shown that CR stimulation with rapidly varying sequences (RVS robustly induces an anti-kindling at low intensities e.g., if the CR stimulation frequency (i.e., stimulus pattern repetition rate is in the range of the frequency of the neuronal oscillation. In contrast, CR stimulation with slowly varying sequences (SVS turned out to induce an anti-kindling more strongly, but less robustly with respect to variations of the CR stimulation frequency. Motivated by clinical constraints and inspired by the spacing principle of learning theory, in this computational study we propose a short-term dosage regimen that enables a robust anti-kindling effect of both RVS and SVS CR stimulation, also for those parameter values where RVS and SVS CR stimulation previously turned out to be ineffective. Intriguingly, for the vast majority of parameter values tested, spaced multishot CR stimulation with demand-controlled variation of stimulation frequency and intensity caused a robust and pronounced anti-kindling. In contrast, spaced CR stimulation with fixed stimulation parameters as well as singleshot CR stimulation of equal integral duration failed to improve the stimulation outcome. In the model network under consideration, our short-term dosage regimen enables to robustly induce

  17. Short-Term Dosage Regimen for Stimulation-Induced Long-Lasting Desynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Thanos; Zeitler, Magteld; Tass, Peter A

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we computationally generate hypotheses for dose-finding studies in the context of desynchronizing neuromodulation techniques. Abnormally strong neuronal synchronization is a hallmark of several brain disorders. Coordinated Reset (CR) stimulation is a spatio-temporally patterned stimulation technique that specifically aims at disrupting abnormal neuronal synchrony. In networks with spike-timing-dependent plasticity CR stimulation may ultimately cause an anti-kindling, i.e., an unlearning of abnormal synaptic connectivity and neuronal synchrony. This long-lasting desynchronization was theoretically predicted and verified in several pre-clinical and clinical studies. We have shown that CR stimulation with rapidly varying sequences (RVS) robustly induces an anti-kindling at low intensities e.g., if the CR stimulation frequency (i.e., stimulus pattern repetition rate) is in the range of the frequency of the neuronal oscillation. In contrast, CR stimulation with slowly varying sequences (SVS) turned out to induce an anti-kindling more strongly, but less robustly with respect to variations of the CR stimulation frequency. Motivated by clinical constraints and inspired by the spacing principle of learning theory, in this computational study we propose a short-term dosage regimen that enables a robust anti-kindling effect of both RVS and SVS CR stimulation, also for those parameter values where RVS and SVS CR stimulation previously turned out to be ineffective. Intriguingly, for the vast majority of parameter values tested, spaced multishot CR stimulation with demand-controlled variation of stimulation frequency and intensity caused a robust and pronounced anti-kindling. In contrast, spaced CR stimulation with fixed stimulation parameters as well as singleshot CR stimulation of equal integral duration failed to improve the stimulation outcome. In the model network under consideration, our short-term dosage regimen enables to robustly induce long

  18. Predicting the duration of the Syrian insurgency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Pilster

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While there were several relatively short uprisings in Northern Africa and the Middle East during the Arab Spring, the dispute between the rebels and government forces in Syria has evolved into a full-scale civil war. We try to predict the length of the Syrian insurgency with a three-stage technique. Using out-of-sample techniques, we first assess the predictive capacity of 69 explanatory variables for insurgency duration. After determining the model with the highest predictive power, we categorize Syria according to the variables in this final model. Based on in-sample approaches, we then predict the duration of the Syrian uprising for three different scenarios. The most realistic point prediction is 5.12 years from the insurgency’s start, which suggests an end date between the end of 2016 and early 2017.

  19. Dissociable effects of inter-stimulus interval and presentation duration on rapid face categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retter, Talia L; Jiang, Fang; Webster, Michael A; Rossion, Bruno

    2018-04-01

    Fast periodic visual stimulation combined with electroencephalography (FPVS-EEG) has unique sensitivity and objectivity in measuring rapid visual categorization processes. It constrains image processing time by presenting stimuli rapidly through brief stimulus presentation durations and short inter-stimulus intervals. However, the selective impact of these temporal parameters on visual categorization is largely unknown. Here, we presented natural images of objects at a rate of 10 or 20 per second (10 or 20 Hz), with faces appearing once per second (1 Hz), leading to two distinct frequency-tagged EEG responses. Twelve observers were tested with three squarewave image presentation conditions: 1) with an ISI, a traditional 50% duty cycle at 10 Hz (50-ms stimulus duration separated by a 50-ms ISI); 2) removing the ISI and matching the rate, a 100% duty cycle at 10 Hz (100-ms duration with 0-ms ISI); 3) removing the ISI and matching the stimulus presentation duration, a 100% duty cycle at 20 Hz (50-ms duration with 0-ms ISI). The face categorization response was significantly decreased in the 20 Hz 100% condition. The conditions at 10 Hz showed similar face-categorization responses, peaking maximally over the right occipito-temporal (ROT) cortex. However, the onset of the 10 Hz 100% response was delayed by about 20 ms over the ROT region relative to the 10 Hz 50% condition, likely due to immediate forward-masking by preceding images. Taken together, these results help to interpret how the FPVS-EEG paradigm sets temporal constraints on visual image categorization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    A duration of load study representing 13 years of testing was recently terminated. Preliminary results have been published over the years. This paper represents the final account of the study, which was focused on the influ-ence of moisture content on time to failure for structural timber subject...

  1. An investigation of the spatial selectivity of the duration after-effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarseveen, Jim; Hogendoorn, Hinze; Verstraten, Frans A J; Paffen, Chris L E

    2017-01-01

    Adaptation to the duration of a visual stimulus causes the perceived duration of a subsequently presented stimulus with a slightly different duration to be skewed away from the adapted duration. This pattern of repulsion following adaptation is similar to that observed for other visual properties, such as orientation, and is considered evidence for the involvement of duration-selective mechanisms in duration encoding. Here, we investigated whether the encoding of duration - by duration-selective mechanisms - occurs early on in the visual processing hierarchy. To this end, we investigated the spatial specificity of the duration after-effect in two experiments. We measured the duration after-effect at adapter-test distances ranging between 0 and 15° of visual angle and for within- and between-hemifield presentations. We replicated the duration after-effect: the test stimulus was perceived to have a longer duration following adaptation to a shorter duration, and a shorter duration following adaptation to a longer duration. Importantly, this duration after-effect occurred at all measured distances, with no evidence for a decrease in the magnitude of the after-effect at larger distances or across hemifields. This shows that adaptation to duration does not result from adaptation occurring early on in the visual processing hierarchy. Instead, it seems likely that duration information is a high-level stimulus property that is encoded later on in the visual processing hierarchy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. 'Imported risk' or 'health transition'? Smoking prevalence among ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union by duration of stay in Germany - analysis of microcensus data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spallek Jacob

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It can be assumed that resettlers (ethnic German immigrants from the Former Soviet Union show similar smoking patterns as persons in their countries of origin at the time of migration. We analysed how the smoking prevalence among resettlers differs from that among the general population of Germany and whether the prevalence differs between groups with increasing duration of stay. Methods To estimate the smoking prevalence we used the scientific-use-file (n = 477,239 of the German 2005 microcensus, an annual census representing 1% of all German households. Participation in the microcensus is obligatory (unit-nonresponse resettlers and the comparison group (population of Germany without resettlers by age, sex, educational level and duration of stay. In total, 14,373 (3% of the total persons were identified as resettlers. Results Female resettlers with short duration of stay had a significantly lower smoking prevalence than women in the comparison group. With increasing duration of stay their smoking prevalence appears to converge to that of the comparison group (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 15%, long duration of stay 24%, comparison group 28%. In contrast, the smoking prevalence among male resettlers with short duration of stay was significantly higher than that among men in the comparison group, but also with a trend towards converging (e.g.: high educational level, age group 25-44 years: short duration of stay 44%, long duration of stay 35%, comparison group 36%. Except for female resettlers with short duration of stay, the participants with low educational level had on average a higher smoking prevalence than those with a high educational level. Conclusions This is the first study estimating the smoking prevalence among resettlers by duration of stay. The results support the hypothesis that resettlers brought different smoking habits from their countries of origin shortly after

  3. Stimulus number, duration and intensity encoding in randomly connected attractor networks with synaptic depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eMiller

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Randomly connected recurrent networks of excitatory groups of neurons can possess a multitude of attractor states. When the internal excitatory synapses of these networks are depressing, the attractor states can be destabilized with increasing input. This leads to an itinerancy, where with either repeated transient stimuli, or increasing duration of a single stimulus, the network activity advances through sequences of attractor states. We find that the resulting network state, which persists beyond stimulus offset, can encode the number of stimuli presented via a distributed representation of neural activity with non-monotonic tuning curves for most neurons. Increased duration of a single stimulus is encoded via different distributed representations, so unlike an integrator, the network distinguishes separate successive presentations of a short stimulus from a single presentation of a longer stimulus with equal total duration. Moreover, different amplitudes of stimulus cause new, distinct activity patterns, such that changes in stimulus number, duration and amplitude can be distinguished from each other. These properties of the network depend on dynamic depressing synapses, as they disappear if synapses are static. Thus short-term synaptic depression allows a network to store separately the different dynamic properties of a spatially constant stimulus.

  4. Effects of Emotional Eating and Short Sleep Duration on Weight Gain in Female Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Koenders, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether there is an interaction between emotional eating and sleep duration on weight change and whether this effect is stronger in women. Design: One-year follow-up study. Setting: Banking environment. Participants: 553 women and 911 men. Measurements and Results:

  5. Effects of emotional eating and short sleep duration on weight gain in female employees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, T.; Koenders, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To investigate whether there is an interaction between emotional eating and sleep duration on weight change and whether this effect is stronger in women. DESIGN:: One-year follow-up study. SETTING:: Banking environment. PARTICIPANTS:: 553 women and 911 men. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS::

  6. Association between sleep duration, suicidal ideation, and suicidal attempts among Chinese adolescents: The moderating role of depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lan; Xu, Yan; Deng, Jianxiong; Huang, Jinghui; Huang, Guoliang; Gao, Xue; Li, Pengsheng; Wu, Hong; Pan, Siyuan; Zhang, Wei-Hong; Lu, Ciyong

    2017-01-15

    Suicidal ideation and attempts are still currently serious problems among adolescents worldwide, and there is evidence that sleep problem may be associated with increased rates of mental disorder. This study aimed to examine the associations between sleep duration and suicidal ideation and attempts among adolescents and to test whether depressive symptoms have moderating effects on the associations. A 3-stage, stratified cluster, random sampling method was used to collect data from 20,130 high school students in southeast China. The weighted prevalence of short sleep among Chinese adolescents was 5.6% (95% CI, 5.3-6.0%), and the weighted prevalence of long sleep was 2.7% (95% CI, 2.5-3.0%). The final results demonstrated that short sleep was positively associated with suicidal ideation (AOR=2.28, 95% CI=1.96-2.66) and suicidal attempts (AOR=3.20, 95% CI=2.46-4.16), and long sleep was only significantly associated with suicidal attempts (AOR=2.47, 95% CI=1.70-3.58). Stratification analyses conducted separately for students with and without depressive symptoms demonstrated that depressive symptoms may have moderating effects on the associations between sleep duration and suicidality. Our study sample only included school students, and causal inference could not be examined due to the cross-sectional design. Sleep duration was associated with suicidal ideation and attempts, and the association between sleep duration and suicidal attempts was U-shaped. These findings support that proper treatments services with the potential to restore adolescent normal sleep would be helpful in preventing suicidality among adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. School-Based Sleep Education Programs for Short Sleep Duration in Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Chan, Man-Sum; Lam, Ying-Yin; Lai, Cindy Sin-Yee; Yeung, Wing-Fai

    2017-06-01

    Insufficient sleep among students is a major school health problem. School-based sleep education programs tailored to reach large number of students may be one of the solutions. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the programs' effectiveness and current status. Electronic databases were searched up until May 2015. Randomized controlled trials of school-based sleep intervention among 10- to 19-year-old students with outcome on total sleep duration were included. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane's risk of bias assessment. Seven studies were included, involving 1876 students receiving sleep education programs and 2483 attending classes-as-usual. Four weekly 50-minute sleep education classes were most commonly provided. Methodological quality was only moderate, with a high or an uncertain risk of bias in several domains. Compared to classes-as-usual, sleep education programs produced significantly longer weekday and weekend total sleep time and better mood among students at immediate post-treatment, but the improvements were not maintained at follow-up. Limited by the small number of studies and methodological limitations, the preliminary data showed that school-based sleep education programs produced short-term benefits. Future studies should explore integrating sleep education with delayed school start time or other more effective approaches. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  8. Q-switched all-fiber laser with short pulse duration based on tungsten diselenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyi; OuYang, Yuyi; Ma, Guoli; Liu, Mengli; Liu, Wenjun

    2018-05-01

    Fiber lasers are widely used in industrial processing, sensing, medical and communications applications due to their simple structure, good stability and low cost. With the rapid development of fiber lasers and the sustained improvement of industrial laser quality requirements, researchers in ultrafast optics focus on how to get laser pulses with high output power and narrow pulse duration. Q-switched technology is one of the most effective techniques to generate ultrashort pulses. In this paper, a tungsten diselenide saturable absorber with 16.82% modulation depth is prepared by chemical vapor deposition. Experimental results show that when the pump power changes from 115.7 mW to 630 mW, the all-fiber laser can achieve a stable Q-switched pulse output. The repetition rate of the output pulse varies from 80.32 kHz to 204.2 kHz, the pulse duration is 581 ns, the maximum output power is 17.1 mW and the maximum pulse energy is 83.7 nJ. Results in this paper show that tungsten diselenide can be applied to ultrafast optics, which is a kind of saturable absorption material with excellent properties.

  9. Maternal prepregnant body mass index, duration of breastfeeding, and timing of complementary food introduction are associated with infant weight gain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Michaelsen, Kim F; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2004-01-01

    ). In this sample, prepregnant obesity (BMI > or = 30.0), short durations of breastfeeding, and earlier introduction of complementary food were associated with 0.7 kg of additional weight gain during infancy. CONCLUSIONS: Infant weight gain is associated with maternal prepregnant BMI and with an interaction between...... these associations among 3768 mother-infant dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort. RESULTS: In multiple regression analyses, increasing maternal prepregnant BMI, decreasing durations of breastfeeding, and earlier complementary food introduction were associated with increased infant weight gain. An interaction...... was identified for short durations of breastfeeding (food introduction (associated with greater infant weight gain; however, the timing of complementary food introduction did not increase infant weight gain at longer durations of breastfeeding (> or =20 wk...

  10. Unusual plasticity and strength of metals at ultra-short load durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanel, G. I.; Zaretsky, E. B.; Razorenov, S. V.; Ashitkov, S. I.; Fortov, V. E.

    2017-08-01

    This paper briefly reviews recent experimental results on the temperature-rate dependences of flow and fracture stresses in metals under high strain rate conditions for pulsed shock-wave loads with durations from tens of picoseconds up to microseconds. In the experiments, ultimate (‘ideal’) values of the shear and tensile strengths have been approached and anomalous growth of the yield stress with temperature at high strain rates has been confirmed for some metals. New evidence is obtained for the intense dislocation multiplication immediately originating in the elastic precursor of a compression shock wave. It is found that under these conditions inclusions and other strengthening factors may have a softening effect. Novel and unexpected features are observed in the evolution of elastoplastic compression shock waves.

  11. The role of emotional eating and stress in the influence of short sleep on food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweck, Julia S; Jenkins, Steve M; Nolan, Laurence J

    2014-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and increased energy consumption. The present studies were conducted to determine what role emotional eating and stress might play in these relationships. The first was an exploratory questionnaire study in which sleep quality and duration were measured in conjunction with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 184 women. Emotional and external eating scores were significantly higher in those who reported poor sleep quality (but were not related to sleep duration). In a second study of 64 women who were provided with snacks in the laboratory under stressed and control conditions, elevated food consumption was observed in those who scored high on emotional eating and who reported short sleep (a significant stress × emotional eating × sleep duration interaction) but not in those who reported poor sleep quality. No effects were found in liking or wanting of food and few effects were found on appetite. BMI was not related to sleep duration or sleep quality in either study. The results suggest that the relationship between short sleep and elevated food consumption exists in those who are prone to emotional eating. An external stressor elevated consumption in normal sleepers to the level observed in short sleepers, however, it did not significantly elevate consumption in short sleepers. Future examinations of the effects of sleep duration and quality on food consumption should examine emotional eating status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Short-term sleep deprivation stimulates hippocampal neurogenesis in rats following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oumei Cheng

    Full Text Available Sleep deprivation (SD plays a complex role in central nervous system (CNS diseases. Recent studies indicate that short-term SD can affect the extent of ischemic damage. The aim of this study was to investigate whether short-term SD could stimulate hippocampal neurogenesis in a rat model of global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (GCIR.One hundred Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into Sham, GCIR and short-term SD groups based on different durations of SD; the short-term SD group was randomly divided into three subgroups: the GCIR+6hSD*3d-treated, GCIR+12hSD-treated and GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated groups. The GCIR rat model was induced via the bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries and hemorrhagic hypotension. The rats were sleep-deprived starting at 48 h following GCIR. A Morris water maze test was used to assess learning and memory ability; cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed via 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and neuron-specific enolase (NSE, respectively, at 14 and 28 d; the expression of hippocampal BDNF was measured after 7 d.The different durations of short-term SD designed in our experiment exhibited improvement in cognitive function as well as increased hippocampal BDNF expression. Additionally, the short-term SD groups also showed an increased number of BrdU- and BrdU/NSE-positive cells compared with the GCIR group. Of the three short-term SD groups, the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated group experienced the most substantial beneficial effects.Short-term SD, especially the GCIR+12hSD*3d-treated method, stimulates neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG of rats that undergo GCIR, and BDNF may be an underlying mechanism in this process.

  13. How may short-duration GRBs form? A review of progenitor theories.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szécsi, Dorottya

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 108-115 ISSN 1335-1842. [INTEGRAL/BART Workshop /14./. Karlovy Vary, 03.04.2017-07.04.2017] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10589S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : short GRB progenitor * TWUIN stars * chemically homogeneous evolution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  14. Sleep duration and risk of all-cause mortality: A flexible, non-linear, meta-regression of 40 prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Zu; Xu, Chang; Rota, Matteo; Cai, Hui; Zhang, Chao; Shi, Ming-Jun; Yuan, Rui-Xia; Weng, Hong; Meng, Xiang-Yu; Kwong, Joey S W; Sun, Xin

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 27-37% of the general population experience prolonged sleep duration and 12-16% report shortened sleep duration. However, prolonged or shortened sleep duration may be associated with serious health problems. A comprehensive, flexible, non-linear meta-regression with restricted cubic spline (RCS) was used to investigate the dose-response relationship between sleep duration and all-cause mortality in adults. Medline (Ovid), Embase, EBSCOhost-PsycINFO, and EBSCOhost-CINAHL Plus databases, reference lists of relevant review articles, and included studies were searched up to Nov. 29, 2015. Prospective cohort studies investigating the association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality in adults with at least three categories of sleep duration were eligible for inclusion. We eventually included in our study 40 cohort studies enrolling 2,200,425 participants with 271,507 deaths. A J-shaped association between sleep duration and all-cause mortality was present: compared with 7 h of sleep (reference for 24-h sleep duration), both shortened and prolonged sleep durations were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (4 h: relative risk [RR] = 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02-1.07; 5 h: RR = 1.06; 95% CI = 1.03-1.09; 6 h: RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.03-1.06; 8 h: RR = 1.03; 95% CI = 1.02-1.05; 9 h: RR = 1.13; 95% CI = 1.10-1.16; 10 h: RR = 1.25; 95% CI = 1.22-1.28; 11 h: RR = 1.38; 95% CI = 1.33-1.44; n = 29; P < 0.01 for non-linear test). With regard to the night-sleep duration, prolonged night-sleep duration was associated with increased all-cause mortality (8 h: RR = 1.01; 95% CI = 0.99-1.02; 9 h: RR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.05-1.11; 10 h: RR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.21-1.28; n = 13; P < 0.01 for non-linear test). Subgroup analysis showed females with short sleep duration a day (<7 h) were at high risk of all-cause mortality (4 h: RR = 1.07; 95% CI = 1.02-1.13; 5 h: RR = 1.08; 95

  15. Amsterdam Short-Term Memory test: a new procedure for the detection of feigned memory deficits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, S.; Schmand, B.; de Sterke, S.; Lindeboom, J.

    1997-01-01

    The validity of two malingering tests, the newly developed Amsterdam Short-Term Memory (ASTM) test and the Distraction test (Baker, Hanley, Jackson, Kimmance, & Slade, 1993) was examined in a group of patients with closed-head injury (CHI), a normal control group, and a control group with

  16. Shorter sleep duration is associated with social impairment and comorbidities in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Olivia J; Sutcliffe, James S; Warren, Zachary E; Keenan, Brendan T; Potter, Melissa H; Malow, Beth A

    2017-07-01

    Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, disturbed sleep affects core symptoms and other related comorbidities. Understanding the causes and consequences of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is an important step toward mitigating these symptoms. To better understand the connection between sleep duration and ASD severity, we analyzed ASD-related symptoms using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), IQ scores, and parent reports of the average amount of time slept per night that were available in the medical histories of 2,714 children with ASD in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC). The mean (SD) sleep duration was 555 minutes. Sleep duration and severity of core ASD symptoms were negatively correlated, and sleep duration and IQ scores were positively correlated. Regression results indicated that more severe social impairment, primarily a failure to develop peer relationships, is the core symptom most strongly associated with short sleep duration. Furthermore, increased severity for numerous maladaptive behaviors assessed on the Child Behavior Checklist, as well as reports of attention deficit disorder, depressive disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder were associated with short sleep duration. Severity scores for social/communication impairment and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) were increased, and IQ scores were decreased, for children reported to sleep ≤420 minutes per night (lower 5th percentile) compared to children sleeping ≥660 minutes (upper 95th percentile). Our results indicate that reduced amounts of sleep are related to more severe symptoms in children with ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1221-1238. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism

  17. A Short Submaximal test to determine the fatigue threshold of knee extensors in young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Ruiter, C.J.; Hamacher, P.; Wolfs, B.G.A.

    Purpose Recently, a fatigue threshold obtained during submaximal repetitive isometric knee extensor contractions was related to VO 2max measured during cycling and to exercise endurance. However, test duration is quite long (20-30 min in young people) to be of practical and possibly clinical use.

  18. Working hours and sleep duration in midlife as determinants of health-related quality of life among older businessmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bonsdorff, Mikaela Birgitta; Strandberg, Arto; von Bonsdorff, Monika; Törmäkangas, Timo; Pitkälä, Kaisu H; Strandberg, Timo E

    2017-01-25

    Long working hours and short sleep duration are associated with a range of adverse health consequences. However, the combined effect of these two exposures on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) has not been investigated. We studied white men born between 1919 and 1934 in the Helsinki Businessmen Study (HBS, initial n = 3,490). Data on clinical variables, self-rated health (SRH), working hours and sleep duration in 1974, and RAND-36 (SF-36) HRQoL survey in the year 2000 were available for 1,527 men. Follow-up time was 26 years. By combining working hours and sleep duration, four categories were formed: (i) normal work (≤50 hours/week) and normal sleep (>47 hours/week); (ii) long work (>50 hours/week) and normal sleep; (iii) normal work and short sleep (≤47 hours/week); and (iv) long work and short sleep. The association with RAND-36 domains was examined using multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, smoking and SRH. Compared to those with normal work and sleep in midlife, men with long work and short sleep had poorer RAND-36 scores for physical functioning, vitality and general health, and those with long work and normal sleep had poorer scores for physical functioning in old age. Adjustment for midlife smoking and SRH attenuated the associations, but the one for long work and short sleep and physical functioning remained significant (difference in mean physical functioning score −4.58, 95% confidence interval −9.00 to −0.15). Businessmen who had long working hours coupled with short sleep duration in midlife had poorer physical health in old age. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with subsequent sickness absence: the Helsinki Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Haaramo, Peija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to examine the joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with subsequent sickness absence of various lengths while considering several covariates. Baseline surveys among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, (N = 6535) were prospectively linked with employer's personnel register data comprising short self-certified (1-3 days), medically-certified intermediate (4-14 days) and long (15 days or more) sickness absence spells. Average follow-up time was 4.1 years. Sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, sociodemographics, working conditions, health behaviours and health were self-reported in the surveys. Poisson regression analysis was used. Insomnia symptoms were associated with sickness absence at all levels of sleep duration. Adjusting for gender and age, U-shaped associations regarding sleep hours were found. Thus, those reporting short or long sleep and reporting insomnia symptoms had a higher risk for medically-certified intermediate and long sickness absence as compared to those reporting 7 hours of sleep without insomnia symptoms. Also, those reporting 6, 7, and 8 hours of sleep had a higher risk for such sickness absence, if they reported insomnia. Weak associations were also found for self-certified sickness absence, and for those reporting short and long sleep without insomnia. Adjustments attenuated the associations, but they mainly remained. These results suggest primacy of the effects of insomnia symptoms over sleep duration on sickness absence. Although insomnia dominated the joint association, U-shaped associations suggest that both sleep duration and insomnia symptoms need to be considered to promote work ability.

  20. Short-term static corrosion tests in lead-bismuth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler Crespo, L.; Martín Muñoz, F. J.; Gómez Briceño, D.

    2001-07-01

    Martensitic steels have been proposed to be used as structural materials and as spallation target window in hybrid systems devoted to the transmutation of radioactive waste of long life and high activity. However, their compatibility with lead-bismuth in the operating conditions of these systems depends on the existence of a protective layer such as an oxide film. The feasibility of forming and maintaining an oxide layer or maintaining a pre-oxidised one has been studied. Martensitic steel F82Hmod. (8% Cr) has been tested in lead-bismuth under static and isothermal conditions at 400°C and 600°C. In order to study the first stages of the interaction between the steel and the eutectic, short-term tests (100 and 665 h) have been carried out. Pre-oxidised and as-received samples have been tested in atmospheres with different oxidant potential. For low oxygen concentration in lead-bismuth due to unexpected oxygen consumption in the experimental device, dissolution of as-received F82Hmod. occurs and pre-oxidation does not prevent the material dissolution. For high oxygen concentration, the pre-oxidation layer seems to improve the feasibility of protecting stainless steels controlling the oxygen potential of lead-bismuth with a gas phase.

  1. Short-term static corrosion tests in lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soler Crespo, L.; Martin Munoz, F.J.; Gomez Briceno, D.

    2001-01-01

    Martensitic steels have been proposed to be used as structural materials and as spallation target window in hybrid systems devoted to the transmutation of radioactive waste of long life and high activity. However, their compatibility with lead-bismuth in the operating conditions of these systems depends on the existence of a protective layer such as an oxide film. The feasibility of forming and maintaining an oxide layer or maintaining a pre-oxidised one has been studied. Martensitic steel F82Hmod. (8% Cr) has been tested in lead-bismuth under static and isothermal conditions at 400 o C and 600 o C. In order to study the first stages of the interaction between the steel and the eutectic, short-term tests (100 and 665 h) have been carried out. Pre-oxidised and as-received samples have been tested in atmospheres with different oxidant potential. For low oxygen concentration in lead-bismuth due to unexpected oxygen consumption in the experimental device, dissolution of as-received F82Hmod. occurs and pre-oxidation does not prevent the material dissolution. For high oxygen concentration, the pre-oxidation layer seems to improve the feasibility of protecting stainless steels controlling the oxygen potential of lead-bismuth with a gas phase

  2. Evaluation of the effect of duration of diabetes mellitus on peripheral neuropathy using the United Kingdom screening test scoring system, bio-thesiometry and aesthesiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguejiofor, O C; Odenigbo, C U; Oguejiofor, C B N

    2010-09-01

    Risk factors predisposing to foot ulceration in diabetic subjects are multiple. Long duration of diabetes mellitus is a major risk factor, likewise peripheral neuropathy (PN), which globally, is recognized as the commonest risk factor for foot disease in diabetic subjects. To evaluate the effect of duration of diabetes mellitus on peripheral neuropathy using the United Kingdom Screening Test (UKST) Scoring System, Bio-thesiometry and Aesthesiometry, in Nigerian diabetic subjects without current or previous foot ulceration. One hundred and twenty (120) diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects with and without symptoms of peripheral neuropathy receiving care at the medical outpatient department (MOPD) and the diabetic clinic of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital Nnewi, Nigeria, were recruited consecutively as they presented. Data collected included subjects age (years), gender, age at first diagnosis of DM, duration of DM (years) and baseline fasting venous plasma glucose. The United Kingdom Screening Test (UKST) symptom score was used to separate the participants into two groups those with symptoms of PN and those without and the subjects further assessed by three methods the UKST Signs score, Bio-thesiometry and Aesthesiometry to determine the presence . of PN. Among the 120 diabetic participants, 83(69.2%) had neuropathic symptoms (the symptomatic participants) while 37 (30.8%) were asymptomatic (the asymptomatic participants). The different methods of diagnosing PN increasingly detected PN with increasing duration of diabetes. For the symptomatic group, the UKST method detected PN least in those with duration of DM 15 years while for the asymptomatic group, it detected PN in 25.0% of those with duration of DM 15 years. For the symptomatic group, Aesthesiometry detected PN in 65.2% of those with duration of DM 15 years. For the asymptomatic group, it detected PN in 29.2% of those with duration of DM 15 years. Likewise, for the symptomatic group, Bio

  3. Short-term and long-term sick-leave in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, N; Diderichsen, Finn

    1995-01-01

    The primary aim of the study was to analyse similarities and differences between repeated spells of short-term sick-leave (more than 3 spells of less than 7 days' duration in a 12-month period) and long-term absence through sickness (at least 1 spell of more than 59 days' duration in a 12-month p...

  4. SUPER-CAPACITOR APPLICATION IN ELECTRICAL POWER CABLE TESTING FACILITIES IN THERMAL ENDURANCE AND MECHANICAL BRACING TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Oleksyuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The current-carrying cores of the electrical power cables should be resistant to effects of short-circuit currents whose values depend on the material of the core, its cross-sectional area, cable insulation properties, environment temperature, and the duration of the short-circuit current flow (1 and 3–4 sec. when tested for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The facilities for testing the 10 kV aluminum core cables with short-circuit current shall provide mechanical-bracing current 56,82 kA and thermal endurance current 11,16 kA. Although capacitors provide such values of the testing currents to the best advantage, utilizing conventional capacitor-units will involve large expenditures for erecting and  running a separate building. It is expedient to apply super-capacitors qua the electric power supply for testing facilities, as they are capacitors with double-electrical layer and involve the current values of tens of kilo-amperes.The insulation voltage during short-circuit current testing being not-standardized, it is not banned to apply voltages less than 10 kV when performing short-circuit thermal endurance and mechanical bracing tests for electrical power cables of 10 kV. The super-capacitor voltage variation-in-time graph consists of two regions: capacitive and resistive. The capacitive part corresponds to the voltage change consequent on the energy change in the super-capacitors. The resistive part shows the voltage variation due to the active resistance presence in the super-capacitor.The author offers the algorithm determining the number of super capacitors requisite for testing 10 kV-electrical power cables with short-circuit currents for thermal endurance and mechanical bracing. The paper shows that installation of super-capacitors in the facilities testing the cables with short-circuit currents reduces the area needed for the super-capacitors in comparison with conventional capacitors more than by one order of magnitude.

  5. Vietnamese validation of the short version of Internet Addiction Test

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Bach Xuan; Mai, Hue Thi; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Nguyen, Cuong Tat; Latkin, Carl A.; Zhang, Melvyn W.B.; Ho, Roger C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims: The main goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Vietnamese version of the short-version of Internet Addiction Test (s-IAT) and to assess the relationship between s-IAT scores and demographics, health related qualify of life and perceived stress scores in young Vietnamese. Methods: The Vietnamese version of s-IAT was administered to a sample of 589 participants. Exploratory factor and reliability analyses were performed. Regression analys...

  6. Temporal stability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form: test-retest data over one week.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Christopher Alan; Cruise, Sharon Mary; McGuckin, Conor

    2005-04-01

    This study evaluated the test-retest reliability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form. 39 Northern Irish undergraduate students completed the measure on two occasions separated by one week. Stability across the two administrations was high, r = .92, and there was no significant change between Time 1(M = 25.2, SD = 5.4) and Time 2 (M = 25.7, SD = 6.2). These data support the short-term test-retest reliability of the Francis Scale of Attitude toward Christianity short-form.

  7. Comparison of short term mortality in ischemic stroke patients with or without stress hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raja, W; Zaidi, S.B.H.; Waheed, S.; Khan, M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare short term mortality in non-diabetic ischemic stroke patients with or without stress hyperglycemia. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at Neurology Department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from Jan 2010 to Jul 2012 for a total duration of six months. Material and Methods: Non-diabetic ischemic stroke patients were included in the study and they were divided in two groups. Each group had 75 patients. Group 'I' (Normoglycemic or control group) had normal blood glucose level while group 'II' (Hyperglycaemic or cohort) had hyperglycaemia on presentation or over next 72 hours. Prognosis in terms of patient either being dead or alive was determined within or at 4 weeks of admission in both groups. Data were entered and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS version 10. Descriptive statistics were calculated for both qualitative and quantitative variables. For comparison of short term mortality in hyperglycaemic and normoglycemic stroke patients, chi-square test was applied. p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Short term mortality was higher in cohort (hyperglycemic) group as compared to control (normoglycemic) group (34.7 percent vs. 14.7 percent). Relative risk was 2.36. The groups had a statistically significant difference in the short term mortality within four weeks with a Chi-Square 'p' value of 0.004 (p=0.004). Conclusion: Short term mortality in non-diabetic ischemic stroke patients with stress hyperglycemia is higher than those patients who do not have stress hyperglycemia. (author)

  8. Randomised clinical trial of cryoballoon versus irrigated radio frequency catheter ablation for atrial fibrillation-the effect of double short versus standard exposure cryoablation duration during pulmonary vein isolation (CIRCA-DOSE): methods and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jason G; Deyell, Marc W; Badra, Mariano; Champagne, Jean; Dubuc, Marc; Leong-Sit, Peter; Macle, Laurent; Novak, Paul; Roux, Jean-Francois; Sapp, John; Tang, Anthony; Verma, Atul; Wells, George A; Khairy, Paul

    2017-10-05

    Pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an effective therapy for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF), but it has limitations. The two most significant recent advances have centred on the integration of real-time quantitative assessment of catheter contact force into focal radio frequency (RF) ablation catheters and the development of dedicated ablation tools capable of achieving PVI with a single ablation lesion (Arctic Front cryoballoon, Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA). Although each of these holds promise for improving the clinical success of catheter ablation of AF, there has not been a rigorous comparison of these advanced ablation technologies. Moreover, the optimal duration of cryoablation (freezing time) has not been determined. Patients undergoing an initial PVI procedure for paroxysmal AF will be recruited. Patients will be randomised 1:1:1 between contact-force irrigated RF ablation, short duration cryoballoon ablation (2 min applications) and standard duration cryoballoon ablation (4 min applications). The primary outcome is time to first documented AF recurrence on implantable loop recorder. With a sample size of 111 per group and a two-sided 0.025 significance level (to account for the two main comparisons), the study will have 80% power (using a log-rank test) to detect a difference of 20% between contact force RF catheter ablation and either of the two cryoballoon ablation groups. Factoring in a 4% loss to follow-up, 116 patients per group should be randomised and followed for a year (total study population of 348). The study was approved by the University of British Columbia Office of Research (Services) Ethics Clinical Research Ethics Board. Results of the study will be submitted for publication in a peer-reviewed journal. NCT01913522; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Effects of long or short duration stimulus during high-intensity interval training on physical performance, energy intake, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Elaine Domingues; Salermo, Gabriela Pires; Panissa, Valéria Leme Gonçalves; Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Yuri

    2017-08-01

    To compare the effects of 6 weeks of long or short high-intensity interval training (long- or short-HIIT) on body composition, hunger perception, food intake and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Twenty previously untrained women (25±5 years) were randomly assigned to do a long-HIIT (n=10) or a short-HIIT (n=10). The long-HIIT group performed fifteen 1-min bouts at 90% of maximum heart rate (HRmax), interspersed by 30-sec active recovery (60% HRmax). The short-HIIT group performed forty-five 20-sec bouts at 90% of HRmax, interspersed by 10-sec active recovery (60% HRmax). The training for both groups was conducted 3 times a week for 6 weeks. All subjects performed the Astrand cycle ergometer test to estimate maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2max ) 1 week before and after the training period, as well as body composition, which was estimated through circumferences and skinfold thicknesses. For all training sessions, the heart rate, visual scale of hunger, internal load, and RPE were recorded. In the first and last week of training, subjects were asked to record a 24-hr food diary for 3 days. Both training induced significant pre to post decreases for fat mass, fat percentage, waist circumference, sum of seven skinfolds and RPE. As expected estimated, the VO 2max increased in both groups. There were no differences for hunger perception, energy intake, and body mass. Long and short-HIIT resulted in fat loss, without altering the energy intake.

  10. Experimental tests of induced spatial incoherence using short laser wavelength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obenschain, S.P.; Grun, J.; Herbst, M.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have developed a laser beam smoothing technique called induced spatial incoherence (ISI), which can produce the highly uniform focal profiles required for direct-drive laser fusion. Uniform well-controlled focal profiles are required to obtain the highly symmetric pellet implosions needed for high-energy gain. In recent experiments, the authors' tested the effects of ISI on high-power laser-target interaction. With short laser wavelength, the coupling physics dramatically improved over that obtained with an ordinary laser beam

  11. Short-circuit tests of 1650 and 96 MVA transformers for 1300 MW french nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mailhot, M.

    1989-01-01

    Power evacuation and feeding of the auxiliaries directly from the 400 kV grid are sensitive points governing the security of 1300 MW PWR Nuclear Power Plants of the French Program. These two different functions are provided by two specific types of transformers. - Banks of 3 single-phase 550 MVA - 400 kV/20 kV transformers. - Three-phase 96 MVA - 400 kV / 3 x 6.8 kV transformers. These passive elements must have a never failing reliability and assure a continuous service in spite of electric, thermal and mechanical stresses that may occur during the lifetime of the power plant. Dielectric and thermal tests carried out in the manufacturers test floors insure these stresses withstand capabilities of transformers. In France, high short-circuit power for the 400 kV network added to often low impedance voltages for transformers impose on them very high stresses during short-circuits. Calculation and experimentation on scale or partial models are not sufficient to insure short-circuit currents withstand capabilities of transformers. The margin of uncertainty dependent on obligatory extrapolations for this kind of complex systems [steel, magnetic sheets, copper, oil, paper and transformerboard] can be reduced in a significant way only by real scale tests on prototypes. These tests that need both high power and voltage cannot be performed in manufacturers test floors. So, in France they are carried out at the EDF Les Renardieres Laboratory. Following paper deals with SHELL TYPE TRANSFORMERS which, particularly thanks to their interleaved rectangular windings display a great resistance to short-circuit stresses

  12. Short term mutagenicity tests and their application to irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, B.J.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Although traditional long-term animal tests are likely to continue to be required, these are not only extremely costly but are coming more and more to be recognised as an imprecise and unsatisfactory method of testing the safety of irradiated foods for human consumption. It is therefore clearly advisable to include a selection of quicker and more direct testing methods in any toxicological assessment procedures. The International Project has therefore undertaken a study of the feasibility of using the newer systems for investigation of irradiated foodstuffs. Although some work in this field has already been carried out, some shortcomings in the published work can be identified which justify a more detailed and intensive research programme. As expected, little difficulty has been encountered in testing food by methods involving mammals, but considerable effort has been required to adapt in vitro systems. The use of enzymatic digestion in vitro to provide food samples for testing in mammalian cell cultures has never been attempted before and the procedures developed by the Project represent a positive contribution to methodology in this field. A series of foodstuffs is being tested by a wide spectrum of short-term tests and the first results are now being obtained. (orig./MG) [de

  13. The short-circuit test results of 6.9 kV/2.3 kV 400 kVA-class YBCO model transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomioka, A.; Otonari, T.; Ogata, T.; Iwakuma, M.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Iijima, Y.; Saito, T.; Gosho, Y.; Tanabe, K.; Izumi, T.; Shiohara, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The 6.9 kV/2.3 kV 400 kVA-class single-phase YBCO model transformer with the YBCO tape with copper tape was manufactured for short-circuit current test. Short-circuit test was performed and the short-circuit current of primary winding was 346 A which was about six times larger than the rated current. The I-V characteristics of the winding did not change before and after the test. The transformer withstood short-circuit current. We are planning to turn the result into a consideration of a 66 kV/6.9 kV-20 MVA-class three-phase superconducting transformer. We are developing an elemental technology for 66 kV/6.9 kV 20 MVA-class power transformer with YBCO conductors. The protection of short-circuit technology is one of the elemental technologies for HTS transformer. Since short-circuit current is much higher than critical current of YBCO tape, there is a possibility that superconducting characteristics may be damaged during short-circuit period. We made a conductor to compose the YBCO tape with copper tape. We manufactured 6.9 kV/2.3 kV 400 kVA-class YBCO model transformer using this conductor and performed short-circuit current test. The short-circuit current of primary winding was 346 A which was about six times larger than the rated current. The I-V characteristics of the winding did not change before and after the test. We may consider this conductor withstands short-circuit current.

  14. Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of High Dose Short Duration Enrofloxacin Treatment Regimen for Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westropp, JL; Sykes, JE; Irom, S; Daniels, JB; Smith, A; Keil, D; Settje, T; Wang, Y; Chew, DJ

    2012-01-01

    Background Uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTI) in dogs usually are treated with antimicrobial drugs for 10–14 days. Shorter duration antimicrobial regimens have been evaluated in human patients. Hypothesis A high dose short duration (HDSD) enrofloxacin protocol administered to dogs with uncomplicated UTI will not be inferior to a 14-day treatment regimen with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Animals Client-owned adult, otherwise healthy dogs with aerobic bacterial urine culture yielding ≥103 CFU/mL of bacteria after cystocentesis. Methods Prospective, multicenter, controlled, randomized blinded clinical trial. Enrolled dogs were randomized to group 1 (enrofloxacin 18–20 mg/kg PO q24h for 3 days) or group 2 (amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 13.75–25 mg/kg PO q12h for 14 days). Urine cultures were obtained at days 0, 10, and 21. Microbiologic and clinical cure rates were evaluated 7 days after antimicrobial treatment was discontinued. Lower urinary tract signs and adverse events also were recorded. Results There were 35 dogs in group 1 and 33 in group 2. The microbiologic cure rate was 77.1 and 81.2% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. The clinical cure rate was 88.6 and 87.9% for groups 1 and 2, respectively. Cure rates between groups did not differ according to the selected margin of noninferiority. Conclusions and Clinical Importance HDSD enrofloxacin treatment was not inferior to a conventional amoxicillin-clavulanic acid protocol for the treatment of uncomplicated bacterial UTI in dogs. Further research is warranted to determine if this protocol will positively impact owner compliance and decrease the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. PMID:22486931

  15. What is the place of empirical proton pump inhibitor testing in the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease? (Description, duration, and dosage).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardar, Rukiye; Keskin, Muharrem

    2017-12-01

    Empirical acid suppression tests that are performed with proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are used to detect both the presence of acid-related gastrointestinal symptoms and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In comparison to other diagnostic methods, it is non-invasive, easily applicable, and cost-effective in the diagnosis of GERD. In addition to typical reflux symptoms, it can also be used for diagnostic purposes in patients with non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP). If the symptom response is 50% and above when obtained using the PPI test in patients with NCCP, it can be considered as positive and the treatment should be continued sensitivity of the PPI test in patients with typical symptoms of GERD is 27%-89%, while its specificity is 35%-83%. Although there are differences related to the duration and dosage of the PPI test, a significant difference has not been found according to the type of PPI. When PPI test sensitivity and specificity were calculated by cumulatively evaluating the data regarding the PPI test in the literature, a sensitivity of 82.3% and specificity of 51.5% was obtained. It has been found that high doses of PPI were mostly used in studies, and the duration of the median test was 14 days. As a result, the sensitivity of PPI trial test is good, but the specificity is low in the diagnosis of GERD in patients with typical reflux symptoms.

  16. Field Test: Results of Tandem Walk Performance Following Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, M. J. F.; Reschke, M. F.; Cerisano, J. M.; Kofman, I. S.; Fisher, E. A.; Gadd, N. E.; May-Phillips, T. R.; Lee, S. M. C.; Laurie, S. S.; Stenger, M. B.; hide

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coordinated locomotion has proven to be challenging for many astronauts following long duration spaceflight. As NASA's vision for spaceflight points toward interplanetary travel, we must prepare for unassisted landings, where crewmembers may need to perform mission critical tasks within minutes of landing. Thus, it is vital to develop a knowledge base from which operational guidelines can be written that define when astronauts can be expected to safely perform certain tasks. Data obtained during the Field Test experiment (FT) will add important insight to this knowledge base. Specifically, we aim to develop a recovery timeline of functional sensorimotor performance during the first 24 hours and several days after landing. METHODS: FT is an ongoing study of 30 long-duration ISS crewmembers. Thus far, 9 have completed the full FT (5 U.S. Orbital Segment [USOS] astronauts and 4 Russian cosmonauts) and 4 more consented and launching within the next year. This is in addition to the eighteen crewmembers that participated in the pilot FT (11 USOS and 7 Russian crewmembers). The FT is conducted three times preflight and three times during the first 24 hours after landing. All crewmembers were tested in Kazakhstan in either the medical tent at the Soyuz landing site (one hour post-landing), or at the airport (four hours post-landing). The USOS crewmembers were also tested at the refueling stop (12 hours post-landing) and at the NASA Johnson Space Center (24 hours post-landing) and a final session 7 days post-landing. Crewmembers are instrumented with 9 inertial measurement unit sensors that measure acceleration and angular displacement (APDM's Emerald Sensors) and foot pressure-sensing insoles that measure force, acceleration, and center of pressure (Moticon GmbH, Munich, Germany) along with heart rate and blood pressure recording instrumentation. The FT consists of 12 tasks, but here we will focus on the most challenging task, the Tandem Walk, which was also

  17. Detecting Temporal Change in Dynamic Sounds: On the Role of Stimulus Duration, Speed, and Emotion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett eSchirmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For dynamic sounds, such as vocal expressions, duration often varies alongside speed. Compared to longer sounds, shorter sounds unfold more quickly. Here, we asked whether listeners implicitly use this confound when representing temporal regularities in their environment. In addition, we explored the role of emotions in this process. Using a mismatch negativity (MMN paradigm, we asked participants to watch a silent movie while passively listening to a stream of task-irrelevant sounds. In Experiment 1, one surprised and one neutral vocalization were compressed and stretched to create stimuli of 378 and 600 ms duration. Stimuli were presented in four blocks, two of which used surprised and two of which used neutral expressions. In one surprised and one neutral block, short and long stimuli served as standards and deviants, respectively. In the other two blocks, the assignment of standards and deviants was reversed. We observed a climbing MMN-like negativity shortly after deviant onset, which suggests that listeners implicitly track sound speed and detect speed changes. Additionally, this MMN-like effect emerged earlier and was larger for long than short deviants, suggesting greater sensitivity to duration increments or slowing down than to decrements or speeding up. Last, deviance detection was facilitated in surprised relative to neutral blocks, indicating that emotion enhances temporal processing. Experiment 2 was comparable to Experiment 1 with the exception that sounds were spectrally rotated to remove vocal emotional content. This abolished the emotional processing benefit, but preserved the other effects. Together, these results provide insights into listener sensitivity to sound speed and raise the possibility that speed biases duration judgments implicitly in a feed-forward manner. Moreover, this bias may be amplified for duration increments relative to decrements and within an emotional relative to a neutral stimulus context.

  18. Auditory stimulus timing influences perceived duration of co-occurring visual stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eRomei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in multisensory influences upon sensory-specific judgements, such as when auditory stimuli affect visual perception. Here we studied whether the duration of an auditory event can objectively affect the perceived duration of a co-occurring visual event. On each trial, participants were presented with a pair of successive flashes and had to judge whether the first or second was longer. Two beeps were presented with the flashes. The order of short and long stimuli could be the same across audition and vision (audiovisual congruent or reversed, so that the longer flash was accompanied by the shorter beep and vice versa (audiovisual incongruent; or the two beeps could have the same duration as each other. Beeps and flashes could onset synchronously or asynchronously. In a further control experiment, the beep durations were much longer (tripled than the flashes. Results showed that visual duration-discrimination sensitivity (d' was significantly higher for congruent (and significantly lower for incongruent audiovisual synchronous combinations, relative to the visual only presentation. This effect was abolished when auditory and visual stimuli were presented asynchronously, or when sound durations tripled those of flashes. We conclude that the temporal properties of co-occurring auditory stimuli influence the perceived duration of visual stimuli and that this can reflect genuine changes in visual sensitivity rather than mere response bias.

  19. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallukka Tea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. Methods We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000–2001 among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30–79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-related symptoms over the previous month as well as average sleep duration were collected by questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression models were adjusted first for gender and age, second for sociodemographic factors, third additionally for socioeconomic factors, and fourth for all covariates and self-perceived health simultaneously. Results On average 70% of Finnish adults slept 7–8 hours a day. Frequent insomnia-related symptoms were more prevalent among women (14% than men (10%. Not being married, not having children, having low education, low income, being unemployed, and being a disability retiree were associated with frequent insomnia-related symptoms. Similar factors were associated with short and long sleep duration. However, childhood socioeconomic position was mostly unrelated to sleep in adulthood except parental education had some associations with short sleep duration. Conclusions Disadvantaged socioeconomic position in adulthood, in particular income and employment status, is associated with poorer sleep. When promoting optimal sleep duration and better sleep quality, families with low incomes, unemployed people, and disability retirees should be targeted.

  20. Review of short-term screening tests for mutagens, toxigens, and carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carney, H.J.; Hass, B.S.

    1979-07-01

    In order to test the thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment for carcinogenic and genetic hazards, a multitude of short-term screening tests has been developed to complement long-term mammalian bioassays and epidemiological studies. These tests cover a broad spectrum of organisms, and include the use of naked and viral nucleic acids, bacteria, fungi, higher plants, insects in vitro mammalian cell cultures (cell transformation, cell-mediated mutagenesis, DNA repair, and chromosome aberration tests) and live mammals. Assay end points include effects on nucleic acids, DNA repair synthesis, point or gene mutation, structural and numerical chromosome aberrations, cytological alterations, and in vitro cell transformation. The present review describes and compares these assays. In addition, it discusses their historical development, the problems and limitations associated with their use, and their implementation in comprehensive testing programs. It is intended to provide overview and specific information to the laboratory that is in the process of establishing genetic toxicological systems. (The literature is reviewed to January 1978.)

  1. Development of a radionuclide short-test for the evaluation of engine oils in respect to cam- and cylinder linear wear by using OM 616 Kombi-Test conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volz, J.; Lausch, W.

    1980-05-01

    A survey is given on the studies performed since 1973 on the development of radionuclide short-test procedure, based on the test procedure of the OM 616 Kombi-Test, for the evaluation of engine oils in respect to cam- and cylinder liner wear (deuteron activated Co-56). Out of the results of these studies on experimental short test procedure has been elaborated to evaluate cylinder liner wear. With this experimental procedure some round robin testing has been carried out by three laboratories using a well-known reference oil and two test oils. The results of this round robin test led to further improvements in the test procedure. This improved test procedure has become a suitable screening-test for the development of engine oils in respect to cylinder liner wear. It never can replace the OM 616-Kombi-Test as a whole, but it will complete it. The radionuclide short test gets results quicker and at lower costs than the Kombi-Test, discriminates between hot test and cold-warm test results, and gives results even with correlation to the Kombi-Test by comparison to an approved reference oil. For such screening work, the repeatability of the test is also sufficient. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Short rendezvous missions for advanced Russian human spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murtazin, Rafail F.; Budylov, Sergey G.

    2010-10-01

    The two-day stay of crew in a limited inhabited volume of the Soyuz-TMA spacecraft till docking to ISS is one of the most stressful parts of space flight. In this paper a number of possible ways to reduce the duration of the free flight phase are considered. The duration is defined by phasing strategy that is necessary for reduction of the phase angle between the chaser and target spacecraft. Some short phasing strategies could be developed. The use of such strategies creates more comfortable flight conditions for crew thanks to short duration and additionally it allows saving spacecraft's life support resources. The transition from the methods of direct spacecraft rendezvous using one orbit phasing (first flights of " Vostok" and " Soyuz" vehicles) to the currently used methods of two-day rendezvous mission can be observed in the history of Soviet manned space program. For an advanced Russian human rated spacecraft the short phasing strategy is recommended, which can be considered as a combination between the direct and two-day rendezvous missions. The following state of the art technologies are assumed available: onboard accurate navigation; onboard computations of phasing maneuvers; launch vehicle with high accuracy injection orbit, etc. Some operational requirements and constraints for the strategies are briefly discussed. In order to provide acceptable phase angles for possible launch dates the experience of the ISS altitude profile control can be used. As examples of the short phasing strategies, the following rendezvous missions are considered: direct ascent, short mission with the phasing during 3-7 orbits depending on the launch date (nominal or backup). For each option statistical modeling of the rendezvous mission is fulfilled, as well as an admissible phase angle range, accuracy of target state vector and addition fuel consumption coming out of emergency is defined. In this paper an estimation of pros and cons of all options is conducted.

  3. Influence of Short Austenitization Treatments on the Mechanical Properties of Low-Alloy Steels for Hot Forming Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzweissig, Martin Joachim; Lackmann, Jan; Konrad, Stefan; Schaper, Mirko; Niendorf, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    The current work elucidates an improvement of the mechanical properties of tool-quenched low-alloy steel by employing extremely short austenitization durations utilizing a press heating arrangement. Specifically, the influence of different austenitization treatments—involving austenitization durations ranging from three to 15 seconds—on the mechanical properties of low-alloy steel in comparison to an industrial standard furnace process was examined. A thorough set of experiments was conducted to investigate the role of different austenitization durations and temperatures on the resulting mechanical properties such as hardness, bending angle, tensile strength, and strain at fracture. The most important finding is that the hardness, the bending angle as well as the tensile strength increase with shortened austenitization durations. Furthermore, the ductility of the steels exhibits almost no difference following the short austenitization durations and the standard furnace process. The enhancement of the mechanical properties imposed by the short heat treatments investigated, is related to a refinement of microstructural features as compared to the standard furnace process.

  4. Verification of the validity of the short-pulse approximation for one-dimensional Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyciuk, T; Grajek, M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the short-pulse approximation (SPA) for one-dimensional Rydberg atoms. We analyse the limits that SPA has to fulfil in order to be applicable. These concern the shape, the duration and the displacement caused by the pulse. The correctness of SPA is tested by comparing the results obtained using SPA with a numerical solution of the set of time-dependent Schroedinger equations. We show that the limit for the displacement caused by the pulse is of greatest importance. Violation of the limit for the duration of the pulse is shown to lead to concurrent violation of the limit for the displacement. We also show that the shape of the pulse has no influence on the created wave packet.

  5. Parabolic Flights @ Home. An Unmanned Air Vehicle for Short-Duration Low-Gravity Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeister, Paul Gerke; Blum, Jürgen

    2011-02-01

    We developed an unmanned air vehicle (UAV) suitable for small parabolic-flight experiments. The flight speed of 100 m s - 1 is sufficient for zero-gravity parabolas of 16 s duration. The flight path's length of slightly more than 1 km and 400 m difference in altitude is suitable for ground controlled or supervised flights. Since this fits within the limits set for model aircraft, no additional clearance is required for operation. Our UAV provides a cost-effective platform readily available for low-g experiments, which can be performed locally without major preparation. A payload with a size of up to 0.9 ×0.3 ×0.3 m3 and a mass of ˜5 kg can be exposed to 0 g 0-5 g 0, with g 0 being the gravitational acceleration of the Earth. Flight-duration depends on the desired acceleration level, e.g. 17 s at 0.17 g 0 (lunar surface level) or 21 s at 0.38 g 0 (Martian surface level). The aircraft has a mass of 25 kg (including payload) and a wingspan of 2 m. It is powered by a jet engine with an exhaust speed of 450 m s - 1 providing a thrust of 180 N. The parabolic-flight curves are automated by exploiting the advantages of sophisticated micro-electronics to minimize acceleration errors.

  6. Detection of pseudo gamma-ray bursts of long duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frontera, F.; Fuligni, F.; Morelli, E.; Pizzichini, G.; Ventura, G.

    1981-01-01

    It is known that the counting rate of both Na I and Cs I hard X-ray detectors can have intense enhancements of brief (< 1 s) duration, which appear like very short cosmic gamma-ray bursts but probably are due to phosphorescence in the detector itself. Unfortunately, this problem is not limited to short bursts. We present here three much longer (up to 80 s) pseudo-gamma-ray bursts observed during a transatlantic balloon flight. We conclude that detections of gamma-ray bursts (and probably also of hard X-ray source flares) based only on a rate increase by a single scintillator should always be confirmed by at least one other instrument. (orig.)

  7. Association of sleep duration with blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Minal C; Shaikh, Wasim A; Singh, S K

    2012-01-01

    Recently studies conducted in various parts of the world indicate short sleep duration as a novel risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes. However, ethnic differences exist in the etiopathogenesis of diseases, the current study was undertaken to study the effect of sleep duration on the blood glucose level of Gujarati Indian adolescents. A randomized, non-experimental, cross-sectional study was done on the voluntary participants n = 332 Gujarati adolescent boys and girls of age group 13-20 years studying at the schools and colleges in the Anand district. The participants were assessed for their sleep duration, body composition and blood glucose level. The sleep duration was reported by the subjects as the number of hours they slept on most of the nights in a week over the last one-year. The observations of the study were then analyzed after grouping them into: 1) Adequate sleep duration at night, ASDN (> or = 7 hrs) and 2) Inadequate sleep duration at night, ISDN (blood glucose level between the ASDN group and ISDN group in both boys and girls. However, gender difference exists in the body composition and blood glucose level. The current study indicates that inadequate sleep duration at night (blood glucose level of the Gujarati Indian adolescents of age group 13-20 years.

  8. Short Circuit Tests First Step of LHC Hardware Commissioning Completion

    CERN Document Server

    Barbero-Soto, E; Bordry, Frederick; Casas Lino, M P; Coelingh, G J; Cumer, G; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Guillaume, J C; Inigo-Golfin, J; Montabonnet, V; Nisbet, D; Pojer, M; Principe, R; Rodríguez-Mateos, F; Saban, R; Schmidt, R; Thiesen, H; Vergara-Fernández, A; Zerlauth, M; Castaneda Serra, A; Romera Ramirez, I

    2008-01-01

    For the two counter rotating beams in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) about 8000 magnets (main dipole and quadrupole magnets, corrector magnets, separation dipoles, matching section quadrupoles etc.) are powered in about 1500 superconducting electrical circuits. The magnets are powered by power converters that have been designed for the LHC with a current between 60 and 13000A. Between October 2005 and September 2007 the so-called Short Circuit Tests were carried-out in 15 underground zones where the power converters of the superconducting circuits are placed. The tests aimed to qualify the normal conducting equipments of the circuits such as power converters and normal conducting high current cables. The correct operation of interlock and energy extraction systems was validated. The infrastructure systems including AC distribution, water and air cooling and the control systems was also commissioned. In this paper the results of the two year test campaign are summarized with particular attention to problems e...

  9. Interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with under-dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodov, A.

    2000-12-01

    Different aspects of interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with underdense plasmas are studied analytically and numerically. These studies can be interesting for laser-driven electron acceleration in plasma, X-ray lasers, high-order harmonic generation, initial confinement fusion with fast ignition. For numerical simulations a fully-relativistic particle code WAKE was used, developed earlier at Ecole Polytechnique. It was modified during the work on the thesis in the part of simulation of ion motion, test electron motion, diagnostics for the field and plasma. The studies in the thesis cover the problems of photon acceleration in the plasma wake of a short intense laser pulse, phase velocity of the plasma wave in the Self-Modulated Laser Wake-Field Accelerator (SM LWFA), relativistic channeling of laser pulses with duration of the order of a plasma period, ion dynamics in the wake of a short intense laser pulse, plasma wave breaking. Simulation of three experiments on the laser pulse propagation in plasma and electron acceleration were performed. Among the main results of the thesis, it was found that reduction of the plasma wave phase velocity in the SM LWFA is crucial for electron acceleration, only if a plasma channel is used for the laser pulse guiding. Self-similar structures describing relativistic guiding of short laser pulses in plasmas were found and relativistic channeling of initially Gaussian laser pulses of a few plasma periods in duration was demonstrated. It was shown that ponderomotive force of a plasma wake excited by a short laser pulse forms a channel in plasma and plasma wave breaking in the channel was analyzed in detail. Effectiveness of electron acceleration by the laser field and plasma wave was compared and frequency shift of probe laser pulses by the plasma waves was found in conditions relevant to the current experiments. (author)

  10. Change in sleep duration and proposed dietary risk factors for obesity in Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M. F.; Quist, J. S.; Andersen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent cross-sectional studies found higher consumption of energy-dense foods among children with short sleep duration; however, longitudinal studies examining changes in sleep and diet over time are needed. Objective This study aimed to investigate prospective associations between...... with no change in energy density of the diet (P = 0.78). Conclusion Our results suggest that a negative change in sleep duration is associated with higher intakes of sugar containing foods/beverages....... changes in objectively measured sleep duration and alterations in proposed dietary risk factors for obesity in 8–11-year-old Danish children. Methods Four hundred forty-one children recorded dietary intake during seven consecutive days, along with accelerometer measurements estimating sleep duration...

  11. Sleep Duration and Patterns in Chinese Older Adults: a Comprehensive Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Li; Wang, Shi-Bin; Rao, Wen-Wang; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Chiu, Helen F K; Zhang, Juan; Kou, Changgui; Jia, Fu-Jun; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the mean sleep duration and patterns in Chinese older adult population. A literature search was systematically conducted covering major English (PubMed, Embase and PsycINFO) and Chinese (Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), WanFang and SinoMed) databases. Data in studies with the mean and standard deviation of sleep duration and/or the proportion of short and long sleep durations in Chinese older adults were extracted and pooled using random-effects models. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to gender, region, area, survey time and sample size. A total of 36 studies with 150,616 subjects were included for analyses. The pooled mean sleep duration of 21 studies with available data was 6.82 hours/day (95% CI: 6.59-7.05 hours/day). The estimated proportions of sleep duration 8 hours/day) and 17.6% (95% CI: 12.4%-22.9%) (>9 hours/day). Given the adverse effects of unhealthy sleep patterns, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in this population in China.

  12. Alternations of White Matter Structural Networks in First Episode Untreated Major Depressive Disorder with Short Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is crucial to explore the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD at the early stage for the better diagnostic and treatment strategies. It was suggested that MDD might be involving in functional or structural alternations at the brain network level. However, at the onset of MDD, whether the whole brain white matter (WM alterations at network level are already evident still remains unclear. In the present study, diffusion MRI scanning was adopt to depict the unique WM structural network topology across the entire brain at the early stage of MDD. Twenty-one first episode, short duration (<1 year and drug-naïve depression patients, and 25 healthy control (HC subjects were recruited. To construct the WM structural network, atlas-based brain regions were used for nodes, and the value of multiplying fiber number by the mean fractional anisotropy along the fiber bundles connected a pair of brain regions were used for edges. The structural network was analyzed by graph theoretic and network-based statistic methods. Pearson partial correlation analysis was also performed to evaluate their correlation with the clinical variables. Compared with HCs, the MDD patients had a significant decrease in the small-worldness (σ. Meanwhile, the MDD patients presented a significantly decreased subnetwork, which mainly involved in the frontal–subcortical and limbic regions. Our results suggested that the abnormal structural network of the orbitofrontal cortex and thalamus, involving the imbalance with the limbic system, might be a key pathology in early stage drug-naive depression. And the structural network analysis might be potential in early detection and diagnosis of MDD.

  13. Vietnamese validation of the short version of Internet Addiction Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach Xuan Tran

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: The main goal of the present study was to examine the psychometric properties of a Vietnamese version of the short-version of Internet Addiction Test (s-IAT and to assess the relationship between s-IAT scores and demographics, health related qualify of life and perceived stress scores in young Vietnamese. Methods: The Vietnamese version of s-IAT was administered to a sample of 589 participants. Exploratory factor and reliability analyses were performed. Regression analysis was used to identify the associated factors. Results: The two-factor model of Vietnamese version of s-IAT demonstrated good psychometric properties. The internal consistency of Factor 1 (loss of control/time management was high (Cronbach's alpha=0.82 and Factor 2 (craving/social problems was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha=0.75. Findings indicated that 20.9% youths were addicted to the Internet. Regression analysis revealed significant associations between Internet addiction and having problems in self-care, lower quality of life and high perceived stress scores. Discussion and conclusions: The Vietnamese version of s-IAT is a valid and reliable instrument to assess IA in Vietnamese population. Due to the high prevalence of IA among Vietnamese youths, IA should be paid attention in future intervention programs. s-IAT can be a useful screening tool for IA to promptly inform and treat the IA among Vietnamese youths. Keywords: Factor analysis, Short-version, Internet Addiction Test, Psychometric properties, Vietnamese

  14. Statistical analysis of random duration times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report presents basic statistical methods for analyzing data obtained by observing random time durations. It gives nonparametric estimates of the cumulative distribution function, reliability function and cumulative hazard function. These results can be applied with either complete or censored data. Several models which are commonly used with time data are discussed, and methods for model checking and goodness-of-fit tests are discussed. Maximum likelihood estimates and confidence limits are given for the various models considered. Some results for situations where repeated durations such as repairable systems are also discussed

  15. [Sleep duration and functional limitations in older adult].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eumann Mesas, Arthur; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2011-04-30

    To examine the association between sleep duration and functional limitation in older adults from Spain. Cross-sectional study with 3,708 individuals representative of the non-institutionalized population aged ≥ 60 years in Spain. Sleep duration was self-reported, and the functional limitations in the instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) were assessed. Functional limitations in IADL were identified in 1,424 (38.4%) participants. In analyses adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle variables, the percentage of participants with limitation in IADL was higher in those who slept ≤ 5 hours (odds ratio [OR]=1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.18-2.06) or ≥ 10 hours (OR=2.08; 95%CI=1.67-2.60; p for trendlimitations held even after adjustment for comorbidity and sleep quality (OR=1.77; 95%CI=1.38-2.28) while the association between short sleep (≤ 5 hours) and functional limitation no longer held after this adjustment (OR=1.10; 95%CI=0.80-1.50). In older adults, long sleep duration is a marker of functional limitations independent of comorbidity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. MK-801 and memantine act differently on short-term memory tested with different time-intervals in the Morris water maze test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Weronika; Wesierska, Malgorzata; Ostaszewski, Pawel; Vales, Karel; Nekovarova, Tereza; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-09-15

    N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) play a crucial role in spatial memory formation. In neuropharmacological studies their functioning strongly depends on testing conditions and the dosage of NMDAR antagonists. The aim of this study was to assess the immediate effects of NMDAR block by (+)MK-801 or memantine on short-term allothetic memory. Memory was tested in a working memory version of the Morris water maze test. In our version of the test, rats underwent one day of training with 8 trials, and then three experimental days when rats were injected intraperitoneally with low- 5 (MeL), high - 20 (MeH) mg/kg memantine, 0.1mg/kg MK-801 or 1ml/kg saline (SAL) 30min before testing, for three consecutive days. On each experimental day there was just one acquisition and one test trial, with an inter-trial interval of 5 or 15min. During training the hidden platform was relocated after each trial and during the experiment after each day. The follow-up effect was assessed on day 9. Intact rats improved their spatial memory across the one training day. With a 5min interval MeH rats had longer latency then all rats during retrieval. With a 15min interval the MeH rats presented worse working memory measured as retrieval minus acquisition trial for path than SAL and MeL and for latency than MeL rats. MK-801 rats had longer latency than SAL during retrieval. Thus, the high dose of memantine, contrary to low dose of MK-801 disrupts short-term memory independent on the time interval between acquisition and retrieval. This shows that short-term memory tested in a working memory version of water maze is sensitive to several parameters: i.e., NMDA receptor antagonist type, dosage and the time interval between learning and testing. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The perception of lexical stress in German: effects of segmental duration and vowel quality in different prosodic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Klaus J

    2012-01-01

    Several decades of research, focusing on English, Dutch and German, have set up a hierarchy of acoustic properties for cueing lexical stress. It attributes the strongest cue to criterial-level f0 change, followed by duration, but low weight to energy and to stressed-vowel spectra. This paper re-examines the established view with new data from German. In the natural productions of the German word pair Kaffee 'coffee' - Café 'locality' (with initial vs. final stress in a North German pronunciation), vowel duration was manipulated in a complementary fashion across the two syllables in five steps, spanning the continuum from initial to final stress on each word. The two base words provided different vowel qualities as the second variable, the intervocalic fricative was varied in two values, long and short, taken from Café and Kaffee, and the generated test words were inserted in a low f0 tail and in a high f0 hat-pattern plateau, which both eliminated f0 change as a cue to lexical stress. The sentence stimuli were judged in two listening experiments by 16 listeners in each as to whether the first or the second syllable of the test word was stressed. The results show highly significant effects of vowel duration, vowel quality and fricative duration. The combined vowel-quality and fricative variable can outweigh vowel duration as a cue to lexical stress. The effect of the prosodic frame is only marginal, especially related to a rhythmic factor. The paper concludes that there is no general hierarchy with a fixed ranking of the variables traditionally adduced to signal lexical stress. Every prosodic embedding of segmental sequences defines the hierarchy afresh. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Repeated rat-forced swim test: reducing the number of animals to evaluate gradual effects of antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezadri, T J; Batista, G M; Portes, A C; Marino-Neto, J; Lino-de-Oliveira, C

    2011-02-15

    The forced swim test (FST) is a pre-clinical test to short and long term treatment with antidepressant drugs (ADT), which requires between-subject designs. Herein a modified protocol of the FST using within-subject design (repeated rat-FST) was evaluated. Male Wistar rats were submitted to 15 min of swimming (Day 1: pretest) followed by three subsequent 5 min-swimming tests one week apart (Day 2: test, Day 7: retest 1, Day 14: retest 2). To determine the temporal and factorial characteristics of the variables scored in the repeated rat-FST, the protocol was carried out in untreated animals (E1). To validate the method, daily injections of Fluoxetine (FLX, 2.5mg/kg, i.p.) or saline were given over a 2-week period (E2). Tests and retests have been videotaped for further register of the latency, frequency and duration of behaviors. Over retesting the latency to immobility decreased whereas duration of immobility tended to increase. Factorial analysis revealed that the test, the retest 1 as well as the retest 2 have variables suitable to detection of antidepressant-like effects of ADT. Compared to saline, FLX chronically administrated reduced duration of immobility whereas increased duration of swimming in retest 2. The data suggest that repeated rat-FST detected the gradual increase in the efficacy of low doses of FLX over time. Therefore, repeated rat-FST seemed suitable to detect short and long term effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or other ADT, thus reducing the number of animals used in the screenings of this type of compounds. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Duration of Disease on Gait Parameters in Parkinson’s Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygün Özşahin

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Posture and gait disturbances are major components which cause functional disability in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Three dimensional gait and motion analysis systems provide quantitative data of gait. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to correlate between duration of disease and gait parameters of Parkinson patients during the on-phase. METHODS: We investigated temporospatial and kinematics variables of gait in 23 subjects with PD as measured in the on-phase of their medication cycle using motion analysis. We evaluated the correlation between all gait parameters and Gait and Balance Scale (GABS, unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale (UPDRS total-motor scores, Hoehn&Yahr (H&Y stages and duration of the disease. RESULTS: We found positive correlation between cadance and duration of disease. Patients had negative correlation between stride time and duration of disease. And also there was positive correlation between UPDRS total score and duration of disease. CONCLUSION: Increasing of cadance and decreasing of stride time exhibited by PD subjects is a compensatory mechanism for the difficulty in regulating stride lenght. It was reported that stride lenght control mediate by basal ganglia. Scaling of lower limb amplitude during locomotion can be controlled by higher levels of the Central Nervous System. Patients tend to increase pelvic rotation to keep their center of mass stabilised because of shortness of stride lenght. We thought that reduction pelvic and hip ROMs in coronal plane are impaired muscles of leg in the swing phase. These findings possibly indicate that shortness of stride lenght with the progression of disease is related to cortical centers. Three dimentional analysis systems provide detailed gait examination in PD patients to assess of progression and efficacy for therapies. Also, this method will guide us to explain physiopathologic mechanisms of PD

  20. Experimental investigation of electron beam wave interactions utilising short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggins, Samuel Mark

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have investigated the production of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses and their interaction with electrons in various resonant structures. Diagnostic systems used in the measurements included large bandwidth detection systems for capturing the short pulses. Deconvolution techniques have been applied to account for bandwidth limitation of the detection systems and to extract the actual pulse amplitudes and durations from the data. A Martin-Puplett interferometer has been constructed for use as a Fourier transform spectrometer. The growth of superradiant electromagnetic spikes from short duration (0.5-1.0 ns), high current (0.6-2.0 kA) electron pulses has been investigated in a Ka-band Cherenkov maser and Ka- and W-band backward wave oscillators (BWO). In the Cherenkov maser, radiation spikes were produced with a peak power ≤ 3 MW, a duration ≥ 70 ps and a bandwidth ≤ 19 %. It is shown that coherent spontaneous emission from the leading edge of the electron pulse drives these interactions, giving rise to self-amplified coherent spontaneous emission (SACSE). BWO spikes were produced with a peak power ≤ 63 MW and a pulse duration ∼ 250 ps in the Ka-band and ≤ 12 MW and ∼ 170 ps in the W-band. Evidence of superradiant evolution has been observed in the measurements of scaling laws such as power scaling with the current squared and duration scaling inversely with the fourth root of the power. An X-band free-electron maser amplifier, in which a short (1.0ns) injected radiation pulse interacts with a long (∼ 140 ns) electron beam, has been investigated. The interaction is shown to evolve in the linear regime. The peak output power was 320 kW, which corresponded to a gain, approximately constant across the band, of 42 dB. Changes to the spectrum, that occur when the input radiation pulse is injected into electrons with an energy gradient, have been analysed. (author)

  1. Frequency domain analysis of piping systems under short duration loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, K.; Sand, H.; Lockau, J.

    1981-01-01

    In piping analysis two procedures are used almost exclusively: the modal superposition method for relatively long input time histories (e.g., earthquake) and direct integration of the equations of motion for short input time histories. A third possibility, frequency domain analysis, has only rarely been applied to piping systems to date. This paper suggests the use of frequency domain analysis for specific piping problems for which only direct integration could be used in the past. Direct integration and frequency domain analysis are compared, and it is shown that the frequency domain method is less costly if more than four or five load cases are considered. In addition, this method offers technical advantages, such as more accurate representation of modal damping and greater insight into the structural behavior of the system. (orig.)

  2. Short-Run Contexts and Imperfect Testing for Continuous Sampling Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Rodriguez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuous sampling plans are used to ensure a high level of quality for items produced in long-run contexts. The basic idea of these plans is to alternate between 100% inspection and a reduced rate of inspection frequency. Any inspected item that is found to be defective is replaced with a non-defective item. Because not all items are inspected, some defective items will escape to the customer. Analytical formulas have been developed that measure both the customer perceived quality and also the level of inspection effort. The analysis of continuous sampling plans does not apply to short-run contexts, where only a finite-size batch of items is to be produced. In this paper, a simulation algorithm is designed and implemented to analyze the customer perceived quality and the level of inspection effort for short-run contexts. A parameter representing the effectiveness of the test used during inspection is introduced to the analysis, and an analytical approximation is discussed. An application of the simulation algorithm that helped answer questions for the U.S. Navy is discussed.

  3. Interaction of sleep quality and sleep duration on impaired fasting glucose: a population-based cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Peian; Chen, Peipei; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Pan; Chang, Guiqiu; Zhang, Ning; Li, Ting; Qiao, Cheng

    2014-03-13

    To explore the interactions of sleep quality and sleep duration and their effects on impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Chinese adults. Cross-sectional survey. Community-based investigation in Xuzhou, China. 15 145 Chinese men and women aged 18-75 years old who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to produce sleep quality categories of good, common and poor. Fasting blood glucose levels were assessed for IFG. Sleep duration was measured by average hours of sleep per night, with categories of 8 h. The products of sleep and family history of diabetes, obesity and age were added to the logistic regression model to evaluate the addictive interaction and relative excess risk of interaction (RERI) on IFG. The attributable proportion (AP) of the interaction and the synergy index (S) were applied to evaluate the additive interaction of two factors. Bootstrap measures were used to calculate 95% CI of RERI, AP and S. The prevalence of IFG was greatest in those with poor sleep quality and short sleep duration (OR 6.37, 95% CI 4.66 to 8.67; pquality and 6-8 h sleep duration, after adjusting for confounders. After adjusting for potential confounders RERI, AP and S values (and their 95% CI) were 1.69 (0.31 to 3.76), 0.42 (0.15 to 0.61) and 2.85 (2.14 to 3.92), respectively, for the interaction between poor sleep quality and short sleep duration, and 0.78 (0.12 to 1.43), 0.61 (0.26 to 0.87) and -65 (-0.94 to -0.27) for the interaction between good sleep quality and long sleep duration. The results suggest that there are additive interactions between poor sleep quality and short sleep duration.

  4. Functional Task Test: 3. Skeletal Muscle Performance Adaptations to Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Jeffrey W.; Wickwire, P. J.; Buxton, R. E.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.

    2011-01-01

    The functional task test is a multi-disciplinary study investigating how space-flight induced changes to physiological systems impacts functional task performance. Impairment of neuromuscular function would be expected to negatively affect functional performance of crewmembers following exposure to microgravity. This presentation reports the results for muscle performance testing in crewmembers. Functional task performance will be presented in the abstract "Functional Task Test 1: sensory motor adaptations associated with postflight alternations in astronaut functional task performance." METHODS: Muscle performance measures were obtained in crewmembers before and after short-duration space flight aboard the Space Shuttle and long-duration International Space Station (ISS) missions. The battery of muscle performance tests included leg press and bench press measures of isometric force, isotonic power and total work. Knee extension was used for the measurement of central activation and maximal isometric force. Upper and lower body force steadiness control were measured on the bench press and knee extension machine, respectively. Tests were implemented 60 and 30 days before launch, on landing day (Shuttle crew only), and 6, 10 and 30 days after landing. Seven Space Shuttle crew and four ISS crew have completed the muscle performance testing to date. RESULTS: Preliminary results for Space Shuttle crew reveal significant reductions in the leg press performance metrics of maximal isometric force, power and total work on R+0 (pperformance metrics were observed in returning Shuttle crew and these adaptations are likely contributors to impaired functional tasks that are ambulatory in nature (See abstract Functional Task Test: 1). Interestingly, no significant changes in central activation capacity were detected. Therefore, impairments in muscle function in response to short-duration space flight are likely myocellular rather than neuromotor in nature.

  5. Short-term preoperative octreotide treatment for TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Noriaki; Horiguchi, Kentaro; Nishioka, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Hisanori; Takeshita, Akira; Takeuchi, Yasuhiro; Inoshita, Naoko; Yamada, Shozo

    2015-01-01

    Preoperative control of hyperthyroidism in patients with TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas (TSHoma) may avoid perioperative thyroid storm. Perioperative administration of octreotide may control hyperthyroidism, as well as shrink tumor size. The effects of preoperative octreotide treatment were assessed in a large number of patients with TSHomas. Of 81 patients who underwent surgery for TSHoma at Toranomon Hospital between January 2001 and May 2013, 44 received preoperative short-term octreotide. After excluding one patient because of side effects, 19 received octreotide as a subcutaneous injection, and 24 as a long-acting release (LAR) injection. Median duration between initiation of octreotide treatment and surgery was 33.5 days. Octreotide normalized free T4 in 36 of 43 patients (84%) and shrank tumors in 23 of 38 (61%). Length of octreotide treatment did not differ significantly in patients with and without hormonal normalization (p=0.09) and with and without tumor shrinkage (p=0.84). Serum TSH and free T4 concentrations, duration of treatment, incidence of growth hormone (GH) co-secretion, results of octreotide loading tests, form of administration (subcutaneous injection or LAR), tumor volume, and tumor consistency did not differ significantly in patients with and without hormonal normalization and with and without tumor shrinkage. Short-term preoperative octreotide administration was highly effective for TSHoma shrinkage and normalization of excess hormone concentrations, with tolerable side effects.

  6. Preliminary test Results for a 25K Sorption Cryocooler Designed for the UCSB Long Duration Balloon Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, L. A.; Levy, A. R.

    1996-01-01

    A continuous operation, vibration-free, long-life 25K sorption cryocooler has been built and is now in final integration and performance testing. This cooler wil be flown on the University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB) Long Duration Balloon (LDB) Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Experiment.

  7. Empirical versus Random Item Selection in the Design of Intelligence Test Short Forms--The WISC-R Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, David S.

    1979-01-01

    The advantages of using psychometric thoery to design short forms of intelligence tests are demonstrated by comparing such usage to a systematic random procedure that has previously been used. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) Short Form is presented as an example. (JKS)

  8. Associations of sleep duration and quality with disinhibited eating behaviors in adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Radin, Rachel M; Thompson, Katherine A; Cassidy, Omni L; Brady, Sheila; Mehari, Rim; Courville, Amber B; Chen, Kong Y; Galescu, Ovidiu A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2016-08-01

    Short sleep duration and daytime sleepiness have been associated with an increased risk for the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults. There has been far less attention to the characterization of sleep in adolescents at-risk for diabetes or to the possible behavioral mechanisms, such as disinhibited eating, through which sleep may affect metabolic functioning. We evaluated the associations of sleep duration and daytime sleepiness with a multi-modal assessment of disinhibited eating in 119 adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes based upon being overweight/obese and having a family history of diabetes. Girls also endorsed mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms. Adolescents reported sleep duration and daytime sleepiness with the Sleep Habits Survey and Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. They were administered a series of successive test meals to measure total energy intake and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). Adolescent binge eating was assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination interview. Accounting for age, race, puberty, body composition, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress, reported sleep duration was positively related to test meal total energy intake (p=0.04), but not to EAH. Adjusting for the same covariates, daytime sleepiness was associated with a greater odds of objective binge eating in the previous month (p=0.009). In adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes, reported sleep characteristics are associated with disinhibited eating behaviors that have been linked to excessive weight and adverse metabolic outcomes. Future studies are called for to evaluate these links using objective measures of sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of duration of untreated psychosis and treatment delay on the outcomes of prolonged early intervention in psychotic disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    to the prolonged treatment with regards to disorganized and negative dimension. For participants with short duration from first symptom until start of SEI treatment there was a significant difference on the negative dimension favoring the prolonged OPUS treatment. The finding of an effect of prolonged treatment......The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been shown to have an effect on outcome after first-episode psychosis. The premise of specialized early intervention (SEI) services is that intervention in the early years of illness can affect long-term outcomes. In this study, we investigate whether...... DUP affects treatment response after 5 years of SEI treatment compared to 2 years of SEI treatment. As part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effect of prolonged SEI treatment 400 participants diagnosed within the schizophrenia spectrum were recruited. For this specific study participants...

  10. An investigation of the genetic toxicology of irradiated foodstuffs using short-term test systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, B.J.; Kranz, E.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    As part of a programme of short-term tests used to detect possible genetic toxicity in irradiated foodstuffs, cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells were exposed to extracts and digests of irradiated and unirradiated dates, fish and chicken and subjected to tests for cytotoxicity, sister chromatid exchange induction and mutation to thioguanine resistance. The results showed no evidence of genetic toxicity induced in food by irradiation. The general applicability of cell culture tests to the detection of mutagens in food is discussed. (author)

  11. The current duration design for estimating the time to pregnancy distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasbarra, Dario; Arjas, Elja; Vehtari, Aki

    2015-01-01

    This paper was inspired by the studies of Niels Keiding and co-authors on estimating the waiting time-to-pregnancy (TTP) distribution, and in particular on using the current duration design in that context. In this design, a cross-sectional sample of women is collected from those who are currently...... attempting to become pregnant, and then by recording from each the time she has been attempting. Our aim here is to study the identifiability and the estimation of the waiting time distribution on the basis of current duration data. The main difficulty in this stems from the fact that very short waiting...... times are only rarely selected into the sample of current durations, and this renders their estimation unstable. We introduce here a Bayesian method for this estimation problem, prove its asymptotic consistency, and compare the method to some variants of the non-parametric maximum likelihood estimators...

  12. NASA 14 Day Undersea Missions: A Short-Duration Spaceflight Analog for Immune System Dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, B. E.; Stowe, R. P.; Mehta, S. K.; Quiriarte, H.; Pierson, D. L.; Sams, C. F.

    2010-01-01

    immunity and viral reactivation are similar to those observed during or following spaceflight. The NEEMO platform may thus have utility for short-duration, ground-based spaceflight-immune research, such as investigations of mechanism or countermeasures validation.

  13. Eating behavior by sleep duration in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Jung, Molly; Patel, Sanjay R; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Arens, Raanan; Ramos, Alberto; Redline, Susan; Rock, Cheryl L; Van Horn, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Sleep is an important pillar of health and a modifiable risk factor for diabetes, stroke and obesity. Little is known of diet and sleep patterns of Hispanics/Latinos in the US. Here we examine eating behavior as a function of sleep duration in a sub-sample of 11,888 participants from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a community-based cohort study of Hispanics aged 18-74 years in four US cities. Using a cross-sectional probability sample with self-report data on habitual sleep duration and up to two 24-h dietary recalls, we quantified the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) score, a measure of diet quality, and intake of selected nutrients related to cardiovascular health. Linear regression models were fit to estimate least-square means of usual nutrient intake of saturated fats, potassium density, fiber, calcium, caffeine and the AHEI-2010 score by sleep duration adjusting for age, sex, Hispanic/Latino background, income, employment status, education, depressive symptomology, and years lived in the US. Distribution of calories over the day and association with sleep duration and BMI were also examined. Short sleepers (≤6 h) had significantly lower intake of potassium, fiber and calcium and long sleepers (≥9 h) had significantly lower intake of caffeine compared to others sleepers after adjusting for covariates. However no difference in the AHEI-2010 score was seen by sleep duration. Significantly more long sleepers, compared to intermediate and short sleepers, reported having ≥30% total daily calories before bedtime. Not consuming a snack or meal within 3 h before bedtime was associated with higher AHEI-2010 scores. These findings identify novel differences in dietary patterns by sleep duration in a Hispanic/Latino cohort in the U.S. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02060344. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep Duration and Diet Quality Among Women Within 5 Years of Childbirth in the United States: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui S; Moore Simas, Tiffany A; Pagoto, Sherry L; Person, Sharina D; Rosal, Milagros C; Waring, Molly E

    2016-09-01

    Objective Only 9 % of women with young children consume a high quality diet. The association between sleep duration and health may be U-shaped. We examined diet quality in relation to sleep duration among US women within 5 years of childbirth. Methods Data were from non-pregnant women aged 20-44 years within 5 years of childbirth who completed two 24-h dietary recalls (N = 896) in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012. Self-reported weekday/workday sleep duration was categorized as short (≤6 h), adequate (7-8 h), or long (≥9 h). The Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010, range 0-100) estimated overall and components of diet quality. Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models estimated the association between sleep duration and diet quality, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and education. Results Thirty-four percent of women reported short, 57.1 % adequate, and 8.6 % long sleep duration. The average diet quality total score was 47.4 out of 100. Short sleep duration was not associated with diet quality. Long sleep duration was associated with lower quality diet (β = -4.3; 95 % CI -8.1 to -0.4), lower consumption of total fruit (β = -0.7; 95 % CI -1.3 to -0.1), whole fruit (β = -0.9; 95 % CI -1.6 to -0.2), and total protein (β = -0.7; 95 % CI -1.3 to -0.03), and higher consumption of empty calories (β = 2.2; 95 % CI -4.3 to -0.1). Conclusions for practice Future studies should examine the longitudinal association between sleep duration and diet quality among women following childbirth and whether interventions to improve sleep can enhance diet quality.

  15. Are Soft Short Tests Good Indicators of Internal Li-ion Cell Defects?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevarajan, J.; Chung, J.-S.; Jung, K.; Park, J.

    2013-01-01

    The self discharge test at full state of charge, may not be a good one to detect subtle defects since the li-ion chemistry has the highest self discharge at full state of charge. One should characterize self discharge versus storage time for each cell manufacturer/design to differentiate between normal self discharge and that due to a subtle manufacturing defect. The various soft short test methods indicate that if this test is carried out at full discharge (0% SOC) with all capacity removed (by lowering the current load in a stepwise manner to the same end of discharge voltage), then the cells need to be placed in storage for more than 72 hours to get a good analysis on the presence of subtle defects since it takes more than 72 hours to achieve voltage stabilization. If the cells are to be charged up even to a small percentage (ex. 1%), 72 hours are sufficient to determine issues. However, the pass/fail criteria should be based on a valid OCV decline. Less than 10 mV voltage decline is not a good method to detect subtle defects. As mentioned in the first bullet, self discharge is a competing reaction when a charge is introduced and hence a characterization of the self discharge versus storage time is required to fully correlate voltage decline to a failure due to a subtle defect. Soft short test method cannot be relied on for defect detection because cells with and without voltage decline seemed to have similar defects and characteristics. Screening methods such as internal resistance and capacity as well as a 3-sigma range for OCV, mass and dimensions should be used to screen out outliers. A very critical aspect in the understanding of subtle defects is to carry out destructive analysis of cells from every lot to confirm the quality of production and screen all cells and batteries in a stringent manner to have a high quality set of flight cells. Self Discharge Test: Fully charged cells shall be placed in Open circuit stand for 72 hours (OCV measurement twice a

  16. DISCOVERY OF THE VERY RED NEAR-INFRARED AND OPTICAL AFTERGLOW OF THE SHORT-DURATION GRB 070724A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.; Cenko, S. B.; Fox, D. B.; Cucchiara, A.

    2009-01-01

    We report the discovery of the near-infrared and optical afterglow of the short-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 070724A. The afterglow is detected in iJHK s observations starting 2.3 hr after the burst with K s = 19.59 ± 0.16 mag and i = 23.79 ± 0.07 mag, but is absent in images obtained 1.3 yr later. Fading is also detected in the K s band between 2.8 and 3.7 hr at a 4σ significance level. The optical/near-IR spectral index, β O,NIR ∼ -2, is much redder than expected in the standard afterglow model, pointing to either significant dust extinction, A host V ∼ 2 mag, or a non-afterglow origin for the near-IR emission. The case for extinction is supported by a shallow optical to X-ray spectral index, consistent with the definition for 'dark bursts', and a normal near-IR to X-ray spectral index. Moreover, a comparison to the optical discovery magnitudes of all short GRBs with optical afterglows indicates that the near-IR counterpart of GRB 070724A is one of the brightest to date, while its observed optical emission is one of the faintest. In the context of a non-afterglow origin, the near-IR emission may be dominated by a mini-supernova (mini-SN), leading to an estimated ejected mass of M ∼ 10 -4 M sun and a radioactive energy release efficiency of f ∼ 5 x 10 -3 (for v ∼ 0.3c). However, the mini-SN model predicts a spectral peak in the UV rather than near-IR, suggesting that this is either not the correct interpretation or that the mini-SN models need to be revised. Finally, the afterglow coincides with a star-forming galaxy at z = 0.457, previously identified as the host based on its coincidence with the X-ray afterglow position (∼2'' radius). Our discovery of the optical/near-IR afterglow makes this association secure, and furthermore localizes the burst to the outskirts of the galaxy, with an offset of 4.8 ± 0.1 kpc relative to the host center. At such a large offset, the possible large extinction points to a dusty environment local to the burst and

  17. Changes in ambient temperature and oxygenation during the proestrus do not affect duration, regularity and repeatability of the estrus cycle in female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyna Wójcik

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There are a lot of factors affecting the release of hormones from the anterior part of pituitary gland and their interactions with other parts of the endocrine, nervous and immune systems. The special significance of the proestrus phase of the estrous cycle of the rat, during which LH and FSH levels increase, followed by ovulation is known. The short length of the estrous cycle and the well recognized sequence of vaginal lavage cytology make it useful for investigating the influence of a stressful environment on the reproductive function. Short duration and mild changes in environmental conditions is considered as a factor analogous to psychological stress. The study was undertaken to determine the effects of a short duration change in the ambient temperature and oxygenation (30 minutes on the proestrus phase of reproductive cycle and on the repeatability and regularity of phases of the reproductive cycle of Wistar strain rats. The animals were kept under standard conditions and had food and water available ad libitum. The climatic chamber with automatically adjustable and monitored internal parameters (temperature, oxygenation, humidity was used to develop stress conditions. An estimation of the vaginal lavage using the microscope was done to determine the estrous cycle. The animals were divided into 6 groups. On the day of experiment: the control group (CG stayed in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes (ambient temperature 21 degrees C, normoxia - 21% O(2, the five test groups (TG - I - V remained in the climatic chamber for 30 minutes, in the established environmental conditions (I - 21 degrees C, 10% O(2; II - 10 degrees C, 21% O(2; III - 10 degrees C, 10% O(2; IV - 35 degrees C, 21% O(2; V - 35 degrees C, 10% O(2. During the following days after the experiment, a microscopic estimation of vaginal lavage was collected over again. There were no changes of duration and sequence of the present estrous cycle and repeatability of the next cycles

  18. The Galaxy Hosts And Large-Scale Environments of Short-Hard Gamma-Ray Bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prochaska, Jason X.; Bloom, J.S.; Chen, H.-W.; Foley, R.J.; Perley, D.A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Granot, J.; Lee, W.H.; Pooley, D.; Alatalo, K.; Hurley, K.; Cooper, M.C.; Dupree, A.K.; Gerke, B.F.; Hansen, B.M.S.; Kalirai, J.S.; Newman, J.A.; Rich, R.M.; Richer, H.; Stanford, S.A.; Stern, D.

    2005-01-01

    The rapid succession of discovery of short-duration hard-spectrum GRBs has led to unprecedented insights into the energetics of the explosion and nature of the progenitors. Yet short of the detection of a smoking gun, like a burst of coincident gravitational radiation or a Li-Paczynski mini-supernova, it is unlikely that a definitive claim can be made for the progenitors. As was the case with long-duration soft-spectrum GRBs, however, the expectation is that a systematic study of the hosts and the locations of short GRBs could begin to yield fundamental clues about their nature. We present the first aggregate study of the host galaxies of short-duration hard-spectrum GRBs. In particular, we present the Gemini-North and Keck discovery spectra of the galaxies that hosted three short GRBs and a moderate-resolution (R ∼ 6000) spectrum of a fourth host. We find that these short-hard GRBs originate in a variety of low-redshift (z # circle d ot# yr -1 ) or recent star formation. Two of these galaxies are located within a cluster environment. These observations support an origin from the merger of compact stellar remnants, such as double neutron stars of a neutron star-black hole binary. The fourth event, in contrast, occurred within a dwarf galaxy with a star formation rate exceeding 0.5 M # circle d ot# yr -1 . Therefore, it appears that like supernovae of Type Ia, the progenitors of short-hard bursts are created in all galaxy types, suggesting a corresponding class with a wide distribution of delay times between formation and explosion

  19. Short and long term variation in ultraviolet radiation and multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Menni, Cristina; Lowell, Walter E; Bentzen, Joan

    2012-01-01

    We examined the role of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in persons diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) in four different populations, Italians, Danish, White and African Americans. We tested whether variation in UVR as determined by seasons (short term variation) and solar cycles (long term...... to study the pattern of month of birth distribution in patients with MS comparing with general population data. T-tests were employed to study solar cycles association with lifespan. A surplus of births was observed in June for White Americans. A decrease of births in October and November, though...... not significant after multiple testing correction, was observed in the three populations. In White American with MS overall, males and females, we found that solar cycle is associated with lifespan. We found that season and solar cycles have some role in MS susceptibility and life duration. However...

  20. The Association of Sleep Duration and Morbid Obesity in a Working Population: The Baptist Health South Florida Employee Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Osondu, Chukwuemeka U; Younus, Adnan; Malik, Rehan; Rouseff, Maribeth; Das, Sankalp; Guzman, Henry; Maziak, Wasim; Virani, Salim; Feldman, Theodore; Agatston, Arthur S; Veledar, Emir; Aneni, Ehimen C; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-03-01

    The current study aimed to determine the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and morbid obesity in an employee population. Baptist Health South Florida conducts an annual Health Risk Assessment (HRA) for its employees. Data for this cross-sectional study was collected via this HRA in 2014, and included information on self-reported sleep duration, height and weight for body mass index (BMI), and other biometric measures. Average sleep duration was categorized as short sleep (employees who were sleeping for less than 6 hr compared to 13% and 14% among those sleeping for 6-7.9 hours, and 8 or more hours respectively. In regression analyses, persons who slept less than 6 hr had almost twice the odds of morbid obesity compared to those who slept 6-7.9 hr (odds ratio = 1.8; 1.5-2.2). Our finding that short sleep duration (employees, especially those who work in shift duties to reduce the risk of morbid obesity and other comorbid conditions. Future studies are needed to further explore the relationship of sleep duration and morbid obesity in employee populations.

  1. Effect of the Duration of Meteorological Data Collection on the Atmospheric Dispersion Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yoo-mi; Kim, Eun-hee

    2017-01-01

    This study regards the duration of meteorological data record for a prospective assessment of the environmental impact of gas release from Kori nuclear power plant under normal operation. We compared the atmospheric dispersion factors obtained by employing the meteorological data from 2- and 5-year durations with the corresponding values obtained by employing yearly meteorological data in the period of 2001 to 2008. Influence of the duration of meteorological data collection on short-term atmospheric dispersion factors was previously studied. In this study, long-term dispersion factors were assessed to investigate the influence of the duration of meteorological data collection on the assessment of environmental impact by gas release from Kori nuclear power plant under normal operation. We counted how many yearly meteorological conditions would be represented by 2 or 5 years of long-term data collection. The distribution of shaded cells in Tables I and II indicated that some of the yearly meteorological condition could be properly represented by the conditions averaged over 2- or 5-year durations.

  2. Two-photon collisions and short-distance tests of quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1978-12-01

    The physics of two-photon collisions in e +- storage rings is reviewed with emphasis on the predictions of perturbative quantum chromodynamics for high transverse momentum reactions. It is noted that because of the remarkable scaling properties predicted by the theory, two-photon collisions may be proved one of the cleanest tests of the quantum chromodynamics picture of short distance hadron dynamics. In order to contrast these predictions for photon-induced reactions with those for incident hadrons, predictions from quantum chromodynamics for hadron structure functions and form factors at large momentum transfer are also discussed. 55 references

  3. Determinants of Sleep Duration among High School Students in Part-Time Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Luc; Ledoux, Élise; Auclair, Julie; Gaudreault, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who work while attending school are reported to sleep less than those who do not. This study aimed to identify factors associated with short sleep duration in students who work during the school year. A cross-sectional survey aiming to describe working conditions and occupational safety and health was completed by representative…

  4. A feasibility test to estimate the duration of phytoextraction of heavy metals from polluted soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Japenga, J.; Koopmans, G.F.; Song, J.; Romkens, P.F.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The practical applicability of heavy metal (HM) phytoextraction depends heavily on its duration. Phytoextraction duration is the main cost factor for phytoextraction, both referring to recurring economic costs during phytoextraction and to the cost of the soil having no economic value during

  5. What is the optimal duration of tilt testing for the assessment of patients with suspected postural tachycardia syndrome?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Carew, Sheila

    2012-01-31

    AIMS: The aim of this study is to define the optimal duration of tilt testing for the assessment of patients with suspected postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS). METHODS AND RESULTS: This was a case-control study. Cases were identified retrospectively from a database of patients referred with orthostatic intolerance (OI). All met the diagnostic criteria for POTS. Controls were enrolled prospectively. All subjects underwent tilting to 70 degrees for 40 min if tolerated. Continuous monitoring was provided by a Finometer. Analysis of responses to tilting was performed on 28 cases and 28 controls. The mean age in the case group was 23.6 and in the control group was 26.2. The majority was female in both groups (cases = 4F:3M, controls = 2F:1M). All cases met the criteria for POTS within 7 min of orthostasis. No controls demonstrated a sustained tachycardia. The prevalence of vasovagal syncope (VVS) was 36% in cases vs. 7% in controls (P = 0.02) and 25% in the remaining patients (n = 233) on the OI database (P = 0.259). CONCLUSION: A 10 min tilt will diagnose POTS in the majority of patients. It will not, however, be sufficient to identify the overlap that exists between POTS and VVS. The optimal duration of tilt testing in patients suspected of POTS is 40 min.

  6. Laser-fired contact formation on metallized and passivated silicon wafers under short pulse durations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ashwin S.

    The objective of this work is to develop a comprehensive understanding of the physical processes governing laser-fired contact (LFC) formation under microsecond pulse durations. Primary emphasis is placed on understanding how processing parameters influence contact morphology, passivation layer quality, alloying of Al and Si, and contact resistance. In addition, the research seeks to develop a quantitative method to accurately predict the contact geometry, thermal cycles, heat and mass transfer phenomena, and the influence of contact pitch distance on substrate temperatures in order to improve the physical understanding of the underlying processes. Finally, the work seeks to predict how geometry for LFCs produced with microsecond pulses will influence fabrication and performance factors, such as the rear side contacting scheme, rear surface series resistance and effective rear surface recombination rates. The characterization of LFC cross-sections reveals that the use of microsecond pulse durations results in the formation of three-dimensional hemispherical or half-ellipsoidal contact geometries. The LFC is heavily alloyed with Al and Si and is composed of a two-phase Al-Si microstructure that grows from the Si wafer during resolidification. As a result of forming a large three-dimensional contact geometry, the total contact resistance is governed by the interfacial contact area between the LFC and the wafer rather than the planar contact area at the original Al-Si interface within an opening in the passivation layer. By forming three-dimensional LFCs, the total contact resistance is significantly reduced in comparison to that predicted for planar contacts. In addition, despite the high energy densities associated with microsecond pulse durations, the passivation layer is well preserved outside of the immediate contact region. Therefore, the use of microsecond pulse durations can be used to improve device performance by leading to lower total contact resistances

  7. Psychometric testing of the properties of the spiritual health scale short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Chu; Chiang, Yi-Chien; Lee, Hsiang-Chun; Han, Chin-Yen

    2013-11-01

    To further examine the psychometric properties of the spiritual health scale short form, including its reliability and validity. Spirituality is one of the main factors associated with good health outcomes. A reliable and valid instrument to measure spirituality is essential to identify the spiritual needs of an individual and to evaluate the effect of spiritual care. A cross-sectional study design was used. The study was conducted in six nursing schools in northern, central and southern Taiwan. The inclusion criterion for participants was nursing students with clinical practice experience. Initially, 1141 participants were recruited for the study, but 67 were absent and 48 did not complete the questionnaires. A total of 1026 participants were finally recruited, indicating a response rate of 89·9%. The psychometric testing of the spiritual health scale short form included construct validity with confirmatory factor analysis, known-group validity and internal consistency reliability. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis supported the five-factor model as an acceptable model fit. In the known-group validity, the results indicated that people who are in the category of primary religious affiliation have better spiritual health than people in the category of secondary religious affiliation and atheism. The result also indicated that the 24-item spiritual health scale short form achieved an acceptable internal consistency coefficient. The findings suggest that the spiritual health scale short form is a valid and reliable instrument for the appraisal of individual spiritual health. The spiritual health scale short form could provide useful information to guide clinical practice in assessing and managing people's spiritual health in Taiwan. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. The Effect of Ketamine and Dexamethasone in Combination with Lidocaine on the Onset and Duration of Axillary Block in Hand and Forearm Soft Tissue Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, Behrooz; Hojjati Ashrafi, Siavash; Seyed Siamdoust, Seyedalireza; Hassani, Valiollah; Mohamad Taheri, Siavash; Noorizad, Samad

    2017-10-01

    Using peripheral nerve block compared to general anesthesia has gained more popularity due to reduced postoperative pain, less need for post-surgery analgesic drugs, reduced incidence of nausea, shortness of PACU time, and increased patient satisfaction. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of ketamine and dexamethasone as additives to lidocaine on duration and onset of axillary block action. In this clinical trial, all patients who referred to Hazrat-e-Fatemeh hospital for forearm and hand soft tissue surgery with informed consent were randomly divided into three groups in order to examine the onset and duration of axillary block: lidocaine + ketamine, lidocaine + dexamethasone in axillary block, and lidocaine alone (control). Then, the onset and duration of sensory and motor blocks were measured and recorded every three minutes and after the surgery. Quantitative and qualitative variables were analyzed using ANOVA or Kruskal-Wallis test and Chi-square or Fisher exact test in SPSS v.22. Duration of sensory and motor block axillary was significantly higher in lidocaine + dexamethasone group than in lidocaine + ketamine group (P block axillary between the three groups (P > 0.05). According to the results of our study, we can conclude that adding dexamethasone or ketamine to lidocaine could improve duration of sensory and motor axillary block in patients undergoing forearm and hand soft tissue surgery. However, dexamethasone had the highest effect on duration of block axillary. We proved that dexamethasone or ketamine added to lidocaine had no effect on the onset of block axillary.

  9. Effects of Combining Running and Practical Duration Stretching on Proprioceptive Skills of National Sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Franco, Natalia; Párraga-Montilla, Juan Antonio; Molina-Flores, Enrique M; Jiménez-Reyes, Pedro

    2018-06-01

    Romero-Franco, N, Párraga-Montilla, JA, Molina-Flores, EM, and Jiménez-Reyes, P. Effects of combining running and practical duration stretching on proprioceptive skills of national sprinters. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Practical duration stretching after aerobic activities is a recommended component of the first part of warm-up because of its effects on performance. However, its effects on proprioceptive skills are unknown. This study aimed to analyze the effects of running and practical duration static stretching (SS) and dynamic stretching (DS) on postural balance and the joint position sense (JPS) of national sprinters. Thirty-two national sprinters were randomly classified into a SS group (n = 11), DS group (n = 11), or control group (n = 10). Static stretching performed 5 minutes of running and short-duration (20 seconds) static stretches; DS performed 5 minutes of running and short-duration dynamic (20 seconds) stretches; and the control group performed 5 minutes of running. Before and after the intervention, unipedal static postural balance and knee JPS were evaluated. Static stretching exhibited a more centralized center of pressure in the medial-lateral plane for unipedal static postural balance in right-leg support after stretching (p = 0.005, d = 1.24), whereas DS showed values further from the center after stretching for the same unipedal support compared with baseline (p = 0.042, d = 0.49), and the control group remained stable (p > 0.05). Joint position sense did not show significant differences in any group (p > 0.05). In conclusion, combining running and practical duration SS may be beneficial for right-leg postural stabilization, whereas DS may be partly and slightly deleterious. Both SS and DS combined with running and running alone have neutral effects on knee JPS. Sports professionals should consider running and practical duration SS as part of the warm-up of sprinters to partly improve unipedal static postural balance.

  10. P wave duration and dispersion in patients with hyperthyroidism and the short-term effects of antithyroid treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntekin, Unal; Gunes, Yilmaz; Simsek, Hakki; Tuncer, Mustafa; Arslan, Sevket

    2009-09-01

    Prolonged P wave duration and P wave dispersion (PWD) have been associated with an increased risk for atrial fibrillation (AF). Hyperthytodism is a frequent cause of atrial fibrillation (AF). Forty-two patients with newly diagnosed overt hyperthyroidism and 20 healthy people were enrolled in the study. Transthoracic echocardiography, 12 lead surface ECG and thyroid hormone levels were studied at the time of enrollment and after achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment. Maximum P wave duration (Pmax) (97.4+/-14.6 vs. 84.2+/-9.5 msec, phyperthyroid patients compared to control group. Pmax and PWD were significantly correlated with the presence of hyperthyroidism. Pmax (97.4+/-14.6 to 84.3+/-8.6 msec, phyperthyroidism. Diastolic dyfunction was seen in 5 patients at hyperthroid state but only in one patient at euthyroid state. Hyperthyroidism is associated with prolonged P wave duration and dispersion. Achievement of euthyroid state with propylthiouracil treatment results in shortening of P wave variables. Diastolic function may have a partial effect for the increased Pmax and PWD. Shortening of Pmax and PWD may be a marker for the prevention of AF with the anti-thyroid treatment.

  11. Concurrent Validity and Feasibility of Short Tests Currently Used to Measure Early Childhood Development in Large Scale Studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Rubio-Codina

    Full Text Available In low- and middle-income countries (LIMCs, measuring early childhood development (ECD with standard tests in large scale surveys and evaluations of interventions is difficult and expensive. Multi-dimensional screeners and single-domain tests ('short tests' are frequently used as alternatives. However, their validity in these circumstances is unknown. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and concurrent validity of three multi-dimensional screeners (Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ-3, Denver Developmental Screening Test (Denver-II, Battelle Developmental Inventory screener (BDI-2 and two single-domain tests (MacArthur-Bates Short-Forms (SFI and SFII, WHO Motor Milestones (WHO-Motor in 1,311 children 6-42 months in Bogota, Colombia. The scores were compared with those on the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Bayley-III, taken as the 'gold standard'. The Bayley-III was given at a center by psychologists; whereas the short tests were administered in the home by interviewers, as in a survey setting. Findings indicated good internal validity of all short tests except the ASQ-3. The BDI-2 took long to administer and was expensive, while the single-domain tests were quickest and cheapest and the Denver-II and ASQ-3 were intermediate. Concurrent validity of the multi-dimensional tests' cognitive, language, and fine motor scales with the corresponding Bayley-III scale was low below 19 months. However, it increased with age, becoming moderate-to-high over 30 months. In contrast, gross motor scales' concurrence was high under 19 months and then decreased. Of the single-domain tests, the WHO-Motor had high validity with gross motor under 16 months, and the SFI and SFII expressive scales showed moderate correlations with language under 30 months. Overall, the Denver-II was the most feasible and valid multi-dimensional test and the ASQ-3 performed poorly under 31 months. By domain, gross motor development had the highest concurrence

  12. Perceived duration of visual and tactile stimuli depends on perceived speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice eTomassini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the perceived duration of visual stimuli is strongly influenced by speed: faster moving stimuli appear to last longer. To test whether this is a general property of sensory systems we asked participants to reproduce the duration of visual and tactile gratings, and visuo-tactile gratings moving at a variable speed (3.5 – 15 cm/s for three different durations (400, 600 and 800 ms. For both modalities, the apparent duration of the stimulus increased strongly with stimulus speed, more so for tactile than for visual stimuli. In addition, visual stimuli were perceived to last approximately 200 ms longer than tactile stimuli. The apparent duration of visuo-tactile stimuli lay between the unimodal estimates, as the Bayesian account predicts, but the bimodal precision of the reproduction did not show the theoretical improvement. A cross-modal speed-matching task revealed that visual stimuli were perceived to move faster than tactile stimuli. To test whether the large difference in the perceived duration of visual and tactile stimuli resulted from the difference in their perceived speed, we repeated the time reproduction task with visual and tactile stimuli matched in apparent speed. This reduced, but did not completely eliminate the difference in apparent duration. These results show that for both vision and touch, perceived duration depends on speed, pointing to common strategies of time perception.

  13. Activity enhances dopaminergic long-duration response in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auinger, Peggy; Fahn, Stanley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Kieburtz, Karl; Rudolph, Alice; Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John; Lang, Anthony; Olanow, C. Warren; Tanner, Caroline; Schifitto, Giovanni; Zhao, Hongwei; Reyes, Lydia; Shinaman, Aileen; Comella, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Christopher; Blasucci, Lucia M.; Samanta, Johan; Stacy, Mark; Williamson, Kelli; Harrigan, Mary; Greene, Paul; Ford, Blair; Moskowitz, Carol; Truong, Daniel D.; Pathak, Mayank; Jankovic, Joseph; Ondo, William; Atassi, Farah; Hunter, Christine; Jacques, Carol; Friedman, Joseph H.; Lannon, Margaret; Russell, David S.; Jennings, Danna; Fussell, Barbara; Standaert, David; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Growdon, John H.; Tennis, Marsha; Gauthier, Serge; Panisset, Michel; Hall, Jean; Gancher, Stephen; Hammerstad, John P.; Stone, Claudia; Alexander-Brown, Barbara; Factor, Stewart A.; Molho, Eric; Brown, Diane; Evans, Sharon; Clark, Jeffrey; Manyam, Bala; Simpson, Patricia; Wulbrecht, Brian; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Martin, Wayne; Roberts, Ted; King, Pamela; Hauser, Robert; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Gauger, Lisa; Trugman, Joel; Wooten, G. Frederick; Rost-Ruffner, Elke; Perlmutter, Joel; Racette, Brad A.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Ranawaya, Ranjit; Wood, Susan; Pantella, Carol; Kurlan, Roger; Richard, Irene; Pearson, Nancy; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles; Lind, Marlene; Simuni, Tanya; Siderowf, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Lloyd, Mary; Weiner, William; Shulman, Lisa; Koller, William; Lyons, Kelly; Feldman, Robert G.; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Ellias, Samuel; Thomas, Cathi-Ann; Juncos, Jorge; Watts, Ray; Partlow, Anna; Tetrud, James; Togasaki, Daniel M.; Stewart, Tracy; Mark, Margery H.; Sage, Jacob I.; Caputo, Debbie; Gould, Harry; Rao, Jayaraman; McKendrick, Ann; Brin, Mitchell; Danisi, Fabio; Benabou, Reina; Hubble, Jean; Paulson, George W.; Reider, Carson; Birnbaum, Alex; Miyasaki, Janis; Johnston, Lisa; So, Julie; Pahwa, Rajesh; Dubinsky, Richard M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew; Uitti, Ryan; Turk, Margaret; Tuite, Paul; Rottenberg, David; Hansen, Joy; Ramos, Serrano; Waters, Cheryl; Lew, Mark; Welsh, Mickie; Kawai, Connie; O'Brien, Christopher; Kumar, Rajeev; Seeberger, Lauren; Judd, Deborah; Barclay, C. Lynn; Grimes, David A.; Sutherland, Laura; Dawson, Ted; Reich, Stephen; Dunlop, Rebecca; Albin, Roger; Frey, Kirk; Wernette, Kristine; Fahn, Stanley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Kieburtz, Karl; Rudolph, Alice; Marek, Kenneth; Seibyl, John; Lang, Anthony; Olanow, C. Warren; Tanner, Caroline; Schifitto, Giovanni; Zhao, Hongwei; Reyes, Lydia; Shinaman, Aileen; Comella, Cynthia L.; Goetz, Christopher; Blasucci, Lucia M.; Samanta, Johan; Stacy, Mark; Williamson, Kelli; Harrigan, Mary; Greene, Paul; Ford, Blair; Moskowitz, Carol; Truong, Daniel D.; Pathak, Mayank; Jankovic, Joseph; Ondo, William; Atassi, Farah; Hunter, Christine; Jacques, Carol; Friedman, Joseph H.; Lannon, Margaret; Russell, David S.; Jennings, Danna; Fussell, Barbara; Standaert, David; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Growdon, John H.; Tennis, Marsha; Gauthier, Serge; Panisset, Michel; Hall, Jean; Gancher, Stephen; Hammerstad, John P.; Stone, Claudia; Alexander-Brown, Barbara; Factor, Stewart A.; Molho, Eric; Brown, Diane; Evans, Sharon; Clark, Jeffrey; Manyam, Bala; Simpson, Patricia; Wulbrecht, Brian; Whetteckey, Jacqueline; Martin, Wayne; Roberts, Ted; King, Pamela; Hauser, Robert; Zesiewicz, Theresa; Gauger, Lisa; Trugman, Joel; Wooten, G. Frederick; Rost-Ruffner, Elke; Perlmutter, Joel; Racette, Brad A.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Ranawaya, Ranjit; Wood, Susan; Pantella, Carol; Kurlan, Roger; Richard, Irene; Pearson, Nancy; Caviness, John N.; Adler, Charles; Lind, Marlene; Simuni, Tanya; Siderowf, Andrew; Colcher, Amy; Lloyd, Mary; Weiner, William; Shulman, Lisa; Koller, William; Lyons, Kelly; Feldman, Robert G.; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Ellias, Samuel; Thomas, Cathi-Ann; Juncos, Jorge; Watts, Ray; Partlow, Anna; Tetrud, James; Togasaki, Daniel M.; Stewart, Tracy; Mark, Margery H.; Sage, Jacob I.; Caputo, Debbie; Gould, Harry; Rao, Jayaraman; McKendrick, Ann; Brin, Mitchell; Danisi, Fabio; Benabou, Reina; Hubble, Jean; Paulson, George W.; Reider, Carson; Birnbaum, Alex; Miyasaki, Janis; Johnston, Lisa; So, Julie; Pahwa, Rajesh; Dubinsky, Richard M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew; Uitti, Ryan; Turk, Margaret; Tuite, Paul; Rottenberg, David; Hansen, Joy; Ramos, Serrano; Waters, Cheryl; Lew, Mark; Welsh, Mickie; Kawai, Connie; O'Brien, Christopher; Kumar, Rajeev; Seeberger, Lauren; Judd, Deborah; Barclay, C. Lynn; Grimes, David A.; Sutherland, Laura; Dawson, Ted; Reich, Stephen; Dunlop, Rebecca; Albin, Roger; Frey, Kirk; Wernette, Kristine; Mendis, Tilak

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We tested the hypothesis that dopamine-dependent motor learning mechanism underlies the long-duration response to levodopa in Parkinson disease (PD) based on our studies in a mouse model. By data-mining the motor task performance in dominant and nondominant hands of the subjects in a double-blind randomized trial of levodopa therapy, the effects of activity and dopamine therapy were examined. Methods: We data-mined the Earlier versus Later Levodopa Therapy in Parkinson's Disease (ELLDOPA) study published in 2005 and performed statistical analysis comparing the effects of levodopa and dominance of handedness over 42 weeks. Results: The mean change in finger-tapping counts from baseline before the initiation of therapy to predose at 9 weeks and 40 weeks increased more in the dominant compared to nondominant hand in levodopa-treated subjects in a dose-dependent fashion. There was no significant difference in dominant vs nondominant hands in the placebo group. The short-duration response assessed by the difference of postdose performance compared to predose performance at the same visit did not show any significant difference between dominant vs nondominant hands. Conclusions: Active use of the dominant hand and dopamine replacement therapy produces synergistic effect on long-lasting motor task performance during “off” medication state. Such effect was confined to dopamine-responsive symptoms and not seen in dopamine-resistant symptoms such as gait and balance. We propose that long-lasting motor learning facilitated by activity and dopamine is a form of disease modification that is often seen in trials of medications that have symptomatic effects. PMID:22459675

  14. Effect of prior warm-up duration on the time limit at peak speed in untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Victor H; Peserico, Cecília S; Machado, Fabiana A

    2017-10-01

    The peak speed (Vpeak) and its time limit (tlim) are variables used to prescribe training loads and the intervals durations during interval training, respectively. The aim of this study was to test different warm-up durations (5, 10 and 15 minutes), adapted from the protocol proposed by Billat et al.,1 to determine tlim in untrained men. Fifteen untrained men were submitted to the following laboratory evaluations: 1) an incremental running exercise test on a treadmill starting with a speed of 8 km/h, after a warm-up of walking at 6 km/h for three minutes, and increased by 1 km/h between each successive 3-minute stage until volitional exhaustion to determine Vpeak; 2) three rectangular tests, performed in randomized order, with warm-up durations of 5, 10, and 15 minutes at 60% of Vpeak to determine the tlim5, tlim10, and tlim15; after the warm-up the tests were performed at the speed of the individual Vpeak until volitional exhaustion. It was demonstrated that the duration of the warm-up affected the test duration (tlim). Significant differences were observed between tlim5 and tlim15, and between tlim10 and tlim15. However, tlim15 and tlim10 did not differ. Additionally, duration of the warm-up did not influence other variables (HRmax, RPEmax and post lactate concentrations). Therefore, it was concluded that the duration of the warm-up in tlim tests modifies the test duration in untrained men.

  15. Self-Reported Sleep Duration, Napping, and Incident Heart Failure: Prospective Associations in the British Regional Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannamethee, S Goya; Papacosta, Olia; Lennon, Lucy; Whincup, Peter H

    2016-09-01

    To examine the associations between self-reported nighttime sleep duration and daytime sleep and incident heart failure (HF) in men with and without preexisting cardiovascular disease (CVD). Population-based prospective study. General practices in 24 British towns. Men aged 60-79 without prevalent HF followed for 9 years (N = 3,723). Information on incident HF cases was obtained from primary care records. Assessment of sleep was based on self-reported sleep duration at night and daytime napping. Self-reported short nighttime sleep duration and daytime sleep of longer than 1 hour were associated with preexisting CVD, breathlessness, depression, poor health, physical inactivity, and manual social class. In all men, self-reported daytime sleep of longer than 1 hour duration was associated with significantly greater risk of HF after adjustment for potential confounders (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.06-2.71) than in those who reported no daytime napping. Self-reported nighttime sleep duration was not associated with HF risk except in men with preexisting CVD (napping of longer than 1 hour is associated with greater risk of HF in older men. Self-reported short sleep (<6 hours) in men with CVD is associated with particularly high risk of developing HF. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of the American Geriatrics Society published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. The effect of duration of untreated psychosis and treatment delay on the outcomes of prolonged early intervention in psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-09-26

    The duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) has been shown to have an effect on outcome after first-episode psychosis. The premise of specialized early intervention (SEI) services is that intervention in the early years of illness can affect long-term outcomes. In this study, we investigate whether DUP affects treatment response after 5 years of SEI treatment compared to 2 years of SEI treatment. As part of a randomized controlled trial testing the effect of prolonged SEI treatment 400 participants diagnosed within the schizophrenia spectrum were recruited. For this specific study participants were dichotomized based on DUP, treatment delay, and time from first symptom until start of SEI treatment. The groups were analyzed with regard to treatment response on psychopathology, level of functioning, and cognitive functioning. The participants with a short DUP had a tendency to respond better to the prolonged treatment with regards to disorganized and negative dimension. For participants with short duration from first symptom until start of SEI treatment there was a significant difference on the negative dimension favoring the prolonged OPUS treatment. The finding of an effect of prolonged treatment for participants with a short total treatment delay could mean that prolonged SEI treatment is more beneficial than treatment as usual (TAU) so long as it is provided in the early years of illness and not just in the early years after diagnosis. THE EARLIER THE BETTER: The duration of untreated psychosis influences the long-term outcomes of treatment. Nikolai Albert, at the Copenhagen Mental Health Centre, and a team of Danish researchers have investigated the effects of a specialized early intervention program (OPUS) in 400 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and compared the effects of OPUS after two and five years. Their findings suggest that five years of specialized early intervention was most beneficial when the total duration from symptom start to

  17. Traffic background level and signal duration effects on aircraft noise judgment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, G W; Haasz, A A

    1977-04-22

    The effects of background traffic noise level and signal duration on perceived aircraft noise levels during a flyover event are investigated. Tapes of traffic noise at different levels on which aircraft flyover noise events of different durations were superimposed were played to groups of observers in a room simulating indoor conditions. It is found that the presence of steady background traffic noise reduces the perceived noisiness of aircraft flyovers provided that the duration of the flyover event is sufficiently short in relation to flyover time. For a given event level, a reduction of 21 dB(A) in background noise level leads to the perception of a 5.5 dB(A) increase in peak event level. Regressions of observer response with the noise pollution index show a lower correlation than those with variables based on background noise level and peak signal level, although the data are found to exhibit a number of significant trends associated with noise pollution index variations.

  18. The role of sleep duration and sleep disordered breathing in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Gooley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many women experience sleep problems during pregnancy. This includes difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep due to physiologic changes that occur as pregnancy progresses, as well as increased symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB. Growing evidence indicates that sleep deficiency alters glucose metabolism and increases risk of diabetes. Poor sleep may exacerbate the progressive increase in insulin resistance that normally occurs during pregnancy, thus contributing to the development of maternal hyperglycemia. Here, we critically review evidence that exposure to short sleep duration or SDB during pregnancy is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Several studies have found that the frequency of GDM is higher in women exposed to short sleep compared with longer sleep durations. Despite mixed evidence regarding whether symptoms of SDB (e.g., frequent snoring are associated with GDM after adjusting for BMI or obesity, it has been shown that clinically-diagnosed SDB is prospectively associated with GDM. There are multiple mechanisms that may link sleep deprivation and SDB with insulin resistance, including increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, sympathetic activity, and cortisol. Despite emerging evidence that sleep deficiency and SDB are associated with increased risk of GDM, it has yet to be demonstrated that improving sleep in pregnant women (e.g., by extending sleep duration or treating SDB protects against the development of hyperglycemia. If a causal relationship can be established, behavioral therapies for improving sleep can potentially be used to reduce the risk and burden of GDM. Keywords: Pregnancy, Sleep duration, Sleep disordered breathing, Gestational diabetes, Women, Metabolism

  19. Sleep duration and quality in relation to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in middle-aged workers and their spouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Won; Yun, Kyung Eun; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Chang, Yoosoo; Choi, Eun-Suk; Kwon, Min-Jung; Lee, Eun-Hyun; Woo, Eui Jeong; Kim, Nan Hee; Shin, Hocheol; Ryu, Seungho

    2013-08-01

    Although accumulated evidence implies that short sleep duration and poor sleep quality may lead to an altered metabolic milieu, potentially triggering the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), no studies have explored this association. This study sought to examine whether short sleep duration or poor sleep quality is associated with NAFLD in the general population. We assessed sleep duration and quality using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in 69,463 middle-aged workers and their spouses and carried out biochemical and anthropometric measurements. The presence of fatty liver was determined using ultrasonographic findings. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association of sleep duration and quality with NAFLD, after adjusting for potential confounders. After controlling for the relevant confounding factors (age, alcohol intake, smoking, physical activity, systolic blood pressure, education level, marital status, presence of job, sleep apnea, and loud snoring), the adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for NAFLD comparing sleep duration ≤5 h to the reference (>7h) was 1.28 (1.13-1.44) in men and 1.71 (1.38-2.13) in women. After further adjustments for BMI, this association was not significant in men (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 0.90-1.19) but remained significant in women (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.23-2.05). The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio comparing participants with poor sleep quality vs. participants with good sleep quality was 1.10 (95% CI 1.02-1.19) and 1.36 (95% CI 1.17-1.59) in men and women, respectively. In the middle-aged, general population, short sleep duration, and poor sleep quality were significantly associated with an increased risk of NAFLD. Prospective studies are required to confirm this association. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatiotemporal discrimination in neural networks with short-term synaptic plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlaer, Benjamin; Miller, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Cells in recurrently connected neural networks exhibit bistability, which allows for stimulus information to persist in a circuit even after stimulus offset, i.e. short-term memory. However, such a system does not have enough hysteresis to encode temporal information about the stimuli. The biophysically described phenomenon of synaptic depression decreases synaptic transmission strengths due to increased presynaptic activity. This short-term reduction in synaptic strengths can destabilize attractor states in excitatory recurrent neural networks, causing the network to move along stimulus dependent dynamical trajectories. Such a network can successfully separate amplitudes and durations of stimuli from the number of successive stimuli. Stimulus number, duration and intensity encoding in randomly connected attractor networks with synaptic depression. Front. Comput. Neurosci. 7:59., and so provides a strong candidate network for the encoding of spatiotemporal information. Here we explicitly demonstrate the capability of a recurrent neural network with short-term synaptic depression to discriminate between the temporal sequences in which spatial stimuli are presented.

  1. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of approx 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts - the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width - continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (approx 6 X 10(exp -10) erg / sq cm/ s) is approx > 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (approx 60,000 s) is approx 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into more dense environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently p()wers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  2. HETEROGENEITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels, Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample is comprised of 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales-durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals-for EE bursts are factors of ∼2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts-the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width-continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition, we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (∼6x10 -10 erg cm -2 s -1 ) is ∼>20x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (∼60,000 s) is ∼30x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into denser environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently powers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  3. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ≥45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (≥30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ≥30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ≥10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (Psmoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ≥30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  4. Are late-night eating habits and sleep duration associated with glycemic control in adult type 1 diabetes patients treated with insulin pumps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matejko, Bartlomiej; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Szopa, Magdalena; Trznadel Morawska, Iwona; Malecki, Maciej T; Klupa, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of sleep duration and late-night snacking on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes using insulin pumps. The aim of the present study was to examine whether late-night eating habits and short sleep duration are associated with glycemic control in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion-treated type 1 diabetic patients. We included 148 consecutive adult type 1 diabetic subjects using an insulin pump (100 women and 48 men). Participants completed a questionnaire regarding sleep duration (classified as short if ≤6 h) and late-night snacking. Other sources of information included medical records and data from blood glucose meters. Glycemic control was assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and mean self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) readings. The mean age of patients was 26 years, mean type 1 diabetes duration was 13.4 years and mean HbA1c level was 7.2%. In a univariate regression analysis, sleep duration was a predictor of both HbA1c (β = 0.51, P = 0.01) and SMBG levels (β = 11.4, P = 0.02). Additionally, an association was found between frequent late-night snacking and higher SMBG readings (often snacking β = 18.1, P = 0.05), but not with increased HbA1c levels. In the multivariate linear regression, independent predictors for HbA1c and SMBG were sleep duration and patient age. In a univariate logistic regression, sleep duration and frequency of late-night snacking were not predictors of whether HbA1c target levels were achieved. Short sleep duration, but not late-night snacking, seems to be associated with poorer glycemic control in type 1 diabetic patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.

  5. Modified SPC for short run test and measurement process in multi-stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, C. K.; Chin, J. F.; Kamaruddin, S.

    2018-03-01

    Due to short production runs and measurement error inherent in electronic test and measurement (T&M) processes, continuous quality monitoring through real-time statistical process control (SPC) is challenging. Industry practice allows the installation of guard band using measurement uncertainty to reduce the width of acceptance limit, as an indirect way to compensate the measurement errors. This paper presents a new SPC model combining modified guard band and control charts (\\bar{\\text{Z}} chart and W chart) for short runs in T&M process in multi-stations. The proposed model standardizes the observed value with measurement target (T) and rationed measurement uncertainty (U). S-factor (S f) is introduced to the control limits to improve the sensitivity in detecting small shifts. The model was embedded in automated quality control system and verified with a case study in real industry.

  6. Short GRB afterglows observed with GROND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Klose, S.; Rossi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on follow-up observations of 20 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (T90 < 2s) performed in g′r′i′z′JHK s with the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) between mid-2007 and the end of 2010. This is the most homogeneous and comprehensive data set on GRB afterglow observatio...

  7. Divided attention can enhance early-phase memory encoding: the attentional boost effect and study trial duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Neil W; Spataro, Pietro

    2015-07-01

    Divided attention during encoding typically produces marked reductions in later memory. The attentional boost effect (ABE) is a surprising variation on this phenomenon. In this paradigm, each study stimulus (e.g., a word) is presented along with a target or a distractor (e.g., different colored circles) in a detection task. Later memory is better for stimuli co-occurring with targets. The present experiments indicate that the ABE arises during an early phase of memory encoding that involves initial stimulus perception and comprehension rather than at a later phase entailing controlled, elaborative rehearsal. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the ABE was robust at a short study duration (700 ms) and did not increase with increasing study trial durations (1,500 ms and 4,000 ms). Furthermore, the target condition is boosted to the level of memory performance in a full-attention condition for the short duration but not the long duration. Both results followed from the early-phase account. This account also predicts that for very short study times (limiting the influence of late-phase controlled encoding and thus minimizing the usual negative effect of divided attention), the target condition will produce better memory than will the full-attention condition. Experiment 2 used a study time of 400 ms and found that words presented with targets lead to greater recognition accuracy than do either words presented with distractors or words in the full-attention condition. Consistent with the early-phase account, a divided attention condition actually produced superior memory than did the full-attention condition, a very unusual but theoretically predicted result. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  8. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2014-01-01

    Following an application from Natural Alternative International, Inc. (NAI), submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the United Kingdom, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...... on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to beta-alanine and increase in physical performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim is beta-alanine, which is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that an increase in physical...... performance during short-duration, high-intensity exercise is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence the Panel took into account that only one out of 11 pertinent human intervention studies (including 14 pertinent outcomes) from which conclusions could be drawn showed an effect of beta...

  9. The Functional Task Test (FTT): An Interdisciplinary Testing Protocol to Investigate the Factors Underlying Changes in Astronaut Functional Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Lawrence, E. L.; Arzeno, N. M.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Platts. S. H.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to space flight causes adaptations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. To achieve this goal we developed an interdisciplinary testing protocol (Functional Task Test, FTT) that evaluates both astronaut functional performance and related physiological changes. Functional tests include ladder climbing, hatch opening, jump down, manual manipulation of objects and tool use, seat egress and obstacle avoidance, recovery from a fall and object translation tasks. Physiological measures include assessments of postural and gait control, dynamic visual acuity, fine motor control, plasma volume, orthostatic intolerance, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, power, endurance, control, and neuromuscular drive. Crewmembers perform this integrated test protocol before and after short (Shuttle) and long-duration (ISS) space flight. Data are collected on two sessions before flight, on landing day (Shuttle only) and 1, 6 and 30 days after landing. Preliminary results from both Shuttle and ISS crewmembers indicate decrement in performance of the functional tasks after both short and long-duration space flight. On-going data collection continues to improve the statistical power required to map changes in functional task performance to alterations in physiological systems. The information obtained from this study will be used to design and implement countermeasures that specifically target the physiological systems most responsible for the altered functional performance associated with space flight.

  10. Rainfall Characteristic on the Slopes of Mount Merapi Region (Empirical Formula, Duration, Distribution, And Critical Line Woro River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudak Juni Laksana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Debris flow on the slopes of Mount Merapi area became a serious natural disasters because it has great destructive force and velocity. Rainfall with a certain intensity and duration is one component triggering debris flow. Rainfall has variability of the temporal and spatial characteristics influenced by various factors, such as topography and climate. Dharma (2012 suggested to define the characteristics of the intensity of rainfall using rainfall data with a shorter duration with statistical tests to establish the best empirical IDF formula.  This research was using of 30 minutes rainfall data for short duration (<3 hours and a spreadsheet software representing duration and distribution of the rainfall. The most appropriate rainfall intensity formula was done by the empirical IDF formula, i.e. Sherman, Kimijima, Hasper and Mononobe. Rainfall intensity analysis applied Frequency Analysis Software (based on Microsoft Excel. Debris flow occurrence was analyzed using MLIT for method A to establish standard rainfall index.  Sherman formula performed the best fit to the IDF characteristics of rainfall in the region of the slopes of Mount Merapi. Rainfall distribution pattern showed high intensity rainfall in the first hour and then decreased in the next hour which means distribution for the duration of 3 hours, 12%, 28%, 25%, 16%, 12%, and 7%, respectively with an interval of 30 minutes. Based on critical line, 5 mm of standard rainfall index was gained in the case of warning (R1 and 28 mm in the case of evacuation (R2.

  11. Association between Sleep Duration and Perceived Stress: Salaried Worker in Circumstances of High Workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Woo Choi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to find the association between sleep duration and perceived stress in salaried workers according to occupational categories and which lifestyle factors affected those correlations in South Korea. This study used data from the 2015 Community Health Survey (CHS. The self-reported sleep duration was used as the dependent variable in this study. We explored sleep duration and stress awareness among salaried workers, as well as household income and educational level with multiple logistic regression analysis. Salaried workers who slept for five or less hours had a higher odds ratio for high-stress awareness (OR: 1.86, 95% CI: 1.74–1.98. Stress awareness is associated with short sleep duration; specialized workers, office workers, those with above mid-high household income and graduate, university, or college level workers especially need to sleep adequately to manage stress.

  12. Duration of Acute and Chronic Toxicity Testing in Animals (ICH S4A and S4B)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spindler, Per; Van Cauteren, Herman

    2013-01-01

    regions in 1991; whereas the process of harmonising the duration of non-rodent studies was initiated. The US FDA originally required studies of at least 12 months duration, whereas in Japan and EU studies of 6 months duration were considered acceptable as an ICH objective. In this chapter, the background...

  13. Change in sleep duration and proposed dietary risk factors for obesity in Danish school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, M F; Quist, J S; Andersen, R; Michaelsen, K F; Tetens, I; Astrup, A; Chaput, J-P; Sjödin, A

    2014-12-01

    Recent cross-sectional studies found higher consumption of energy-dense foods among children with short sleep duration; however, longitudinal studies examining changes in sleep and diet over time are needed. This study aimed to investigate prospective associations between changes in objectively measured sleep duration and alterations in proposed dietary risk factors for obesity in 8-11-year-old Danish children. Four hundred forty-one children recorded dietary intake during seven consecutive days, along with accelerometer measurements estimating sleep duration at baseline and after ∼200 days. Baseline sleep duration did not predict changes in dietary intake or vice versa (all P ≥ 0.69). However, 1-h lower sleep duration was associated with higher intake of added sugar (1.59 E%; P = 0.001) and sugar-sweetened beverages (0.90 E%; P = 0.002) after 200 days with no change in energy density of the diet (P = 0.78). Our results suggest that a negative change in sleep duration is associated with higher intakes of sugar containing foods/beverages. © 2014 World Obesity.

  14. Revision to dedicated short range communication roadside equipment specification - RSU 4.1.Bench Test Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    The document describes the overall process for evaluating Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) Roadside Units (RSU) against USDOT RSU Specification 4.1 in preparation for field evaluation. The Test Cases contained in this document only evaluate...

  15. Associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and duration with academic failure in community-dwelling Swedish adolescents: sleep and academic performance at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Olga E; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Jacobsson, Josefin A; Feldman, Inna; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To examine associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and short sleep duration with the risk for academic failure. A cohort of ~40,000 adolescents (age range: 12-19 years) who were attending high school grades 7, 9, and 2nd year of upper secondary school in the Swedish Uppsala County were invited to participate in the Life and Health Young Survey (conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Uppsala County, Sweden). In addition to the question how many subjects they failed during the school year (outcome variable), subsamples of adolescents also answered questions related to subjective sleep disturbance (n = 20,026) and habitual sleep duration (n = 4736) (exposure variables). Binary logistic regression analysis was utilized to explore if self-reported sleep disturbances and habitual short sleep duration (defined as less than 7-8 h sleep per night) increase the relative risk to fail subjects during the school year (controlled for possible confounders, e.g. body-mass-index). Adolescents with self-reported sleep disturbances had an increased risk for academic failure (i.e., they failed at least one subject during the school year; OR: boys, 1.68; girls, 2.05, both P sleep disturbances. In addition, adolescents who reported short sleep duration on both working and weekend days were more likely to fail at least one subject at school than those who slept at least 7-8 h per night (OR: boys, 4.1; girls, 5.0, both P sleep disturbance and short sleep duration are linked to academic failure in adolescents. Based on our data, causality cannot be established. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The optical afterglow of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050709.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens; Watson, Darach; Fynbo, Johan P U; Price, Paul A; Jensen, Brian L; Jørgensen, Uffe G; Kubas, Daniel; Gorosabel, Javier; Jakobsson, Páll; Sollerman, Jesper; Pedersen, Kristian; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2005-10-06

    It has long been known that there are two classes of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), mainly distinguished by their durations. The breakthrough in our understanding of long-duration GRBs (those lasting more than approximately 2 s), which ultimately linked them with energetic type Ic supernovae, came from the discovery of their long-lived X-ray and optical 'afterglows', when precise and rapid localizations of the sources could finally be obtained. X-ray localizations have recently become available for short (duration burst: GRB 050709. The optical afterglow was localized with subarcsecond accuracy, and lies in the outskirts of a blue dwarf galaxy. The optical and X-ray afterglow properties 34 h after the GRB are reminiscent of the afterglows of long GRBs, which are attributable to synchrotron emission from ultrarelativistic ejecta. We did not, however, detect a supernova, as found in most nearby long GRB afterglows, which suggests a different origin for the short GRBs.

  17. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for acoustic test signals of short duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Daugaard, Carsten

    1998-01-01

    . The measurements were performed with two types of headphones, Telephonics TDH-39 and Sennheiser HDA-200. The sound pressure levels were measured in an IEC 318 ear simulator with Type 1 adapter (a flat plate) and a conical ring. The audiometric methods used in the experiments were the ascending method (ISO 8253...

  18. X-ray testing for short-time dynamic applications; Roentgenuntersuchungen fuer kurzzeitdynamische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurfiss, Malte; Moser, Stefan; Popko, Gregor; Nau, Siegfried [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Kurzzeitdynamik, Efringen-Kirchen (Germany). Ernst-Mach-Inst. (EMI)

    2017-08-01

    For nondestructive testing purposes new challenges are short-time dynamic processes. The application of x-ray flash tubes and modern high-speed cameras allows the observation of the opening of air-bags or the energy absorption of compressed tubes as occurring during a vehicle crash. Special algorithms designed for computerized tomography analyses allow the 3D reconstruction at individual time points of the dynamic process. Possibilities and limitations of the actual techniques are discussed.

  19. Fundamental tests and measures of the structure of matter at short distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    Recent progress in gauge field theories has led to a new perspective on the structure of matter and basic interactions at short distances. It is clear that at very high energies quantum electrodynamics, together with the weak and strong interactions, are part of a unified theory with new fundamental constants, new symmetries, and new conservation laws. A non-technical introduction to these topics is given, with emphasis on fundamental tests and measurements. 21 references

  20. Control over Permissible Short Emergency Overloads in Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for determination a permissible duration of short intermittent overloads of power transformers that permits to avoid non-permissible over-heating of winding insulation and fully utilize overloading transformer ability.

  1. Pulse duration discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosakovskij, L.F.

    1980-01-01

    Basic circuits of a discriminator for discrimination of pulses with the duration greater than the preset one, and of a multifunctional discriminator allowing to discriminate pulses with the duration greater (tsub(p)>tsub(s)) and lesser (tsub(p) tsub(s) and with the duration tsub(p) [ru

  2. Noise frame duration, masking potency and whiteness of temporal noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukkonen, Heljä; Rovamo, Jyrki; Donner, Kristian; Tammikallio, Marja; Raninen, Antti

    2002-09-01

    Because of the limited contrast range, increasing the duration of the noise frame is often the only option for increasing the masking potency of external, white temporal noise. This, however, reduces the high-frequency cutoff beyond which noise is no longer white. This study was conducted to determine the longest noise frame duration that produces the strongest masking effect and still mimics white noise on the detection of sinusoidal flicker. Contrast energy thresholds (E(th)) were measured for flicker at 1.25 to 20 Hz in strong, purely temporal (spatially uniform), additive, external noise. The masking power of white external noise, characterized by its spectral density at zero frequency N0, increases with the duration of the noise frame. For short noise frame durations, E(th) increased in direct proportion to N0, keeping the nominal signal-to-noise ratio [SNR = (E(th)/N0)(0.5)] constant at threshold. The masking effect thus increased with the duration of the noise frame and the noise mimicked white noise. When noise frame duration and N0 increased further, the nominal SNR at threshold started to decrease, indicating that noise no longer mimicked white noise. The minimum number of noise frames per flicker cycle needed to mimic white noise decreased with increasing flicker frequency from 8.3 at 1.25 Hz to 1.6 at 20 Hz. The critical high-frequency cutoff of detection-limiting temporal noise in terms of noise frames per signal cycle depends on the temporal frequency of the signal. This is opposite to the situation in the spatial domain and must be taken into consideration when temporal signals are masked with temporal noise.

  3. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In contrast, the goal of this research is to address the problem of evaluating the utility of the short-term tests for hazard assessment using an alternative method of investigation. Chemicals were selected mostly from the list of carcinogens published by the International Agency for Research on Carcinogens (IARC); a few other chemicals commonly recognized as hazardous were included. Tumorigenicity and mutagenicity data on 52 chemicals were obtained from the Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances (RTECS) and were analyzed using a relative potency approach. The data were evaluated in a format which allowed for a comparison of the ranking of the mutagenic relative potencies of the compounds (as estimated using short-term data) vs. the ranking of the tumorigenic relative potencies (as estimated from the chronic bioassays). Although this was a preliminary investigation, it offers evidence that the short-term tests systems may be of utility in ranking the hazards represented by chemicals which may contribute to increased carcinogenesis in humans as a result of occupational or environmental exposures. 177 refs., 8 tabs.

  4. Use of short-term test systems for the prediction of the hazard represented by potential chemical carcinogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, L.R.; Jones, T.D.; Easterly, C.E.; Walsh, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that results from short-term bioassays will ultimately provide information that will be useful for human health hazard assessment. Historically, the validity of the short-term tests has been assessed using the framework of the epidemiologic/medical screens. In this context, the results of the carcinogen (long-term) bioassay is generally used as the standard. However, this approach is widely recognized as being biased and, because it employs qualitative data, cannot be used to assist in isolating those compounds which may represent a more significant toxicologic hazard than others. In cont