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Sample records for short stature iss

  1. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  2. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  3. Imaging in short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-09-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  4. Imaging in short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  5. Clinical and molecular evaluation of SHOX/PAR1 duplications in Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Sanz, S; Barroso, E; Heine-Suñer, D; Hisado-Oliva, A; Romanelli, V; Rosell, J; Aragones, A; Caimari, M; Argente, J; Ross, J L; Zinn, A R; Gracia, R; Lapunzina, P; Campos-Barros, A; Heath, K E

    2011-02-01

    Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature and the Madelung deformity of the forearm. SHOX mutations and pseudoautosomal region 1 deletions encompassing SHOX or its enhancers have been identified in approximately 60% of LWD and approximately 15% of idiopathic short stature (ISS) individuals. Recently SHOX duplications have been described in LWD/ISS but also in individuals with other clinical manifestations, thus questioning their pathogenicity. The objective of the study was to investigate the pathogenicity of SHOX duplications in LWD and ISS. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification is routinely used in our unit to analyze for SHOX/pseudoautosomal region 1 copy number changes in LWD/ISS referrals. Quantitative PCR, microsatellite marker, and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis were undertaken to confirm all identified duplications. During the routine analysis of 122 LWD and 613 ISS referrals, a total of four complete and 10 partial SHOX duplications or multiple copy number (n > 3) as well as one duplication of the SHOX 5' flanking region were identified in nine LWD and six ISS cases. Partial SHOX duplications appeared to have a more deleterious effect on skeletal dysplasia and height gain than complete SHOX duplications. Importantly, no increase in SHOX copy number was identified in 340 individuals with normal stature or 104 overgrowth referrals. MLPA analysis of SHOX/PAR1 led to the identification of partial and complete SHOX duplications or multiple copies associated with LWD or ISS, suggesting that they may represent an additional class of mutations implicated in the molecular etiology of these clinical entities.

  6. Imaging in short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano

    2012-01-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions ...

  7. Growth hormone responsiveness: peak stimulated growth hormone levels and other variables in idiopathic short stature (ISS): data from the National Cooperative Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wayne V; Dana, Ken; Frane, James; Lippe, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    In children with idiopathic short stature (ISS), growth hormone (GH) response to a provocative test will be inversely related to the first year response to hGH and be a variable accounting for a degree of responsiveness. Because high levels of GH are a characteristic of GH insensitivity, such as in Laron syndrome, it is possible that a high stimulated GH is associated with a lower first year height velocity among children diagnosed as having ISS. We examined the relationship between the peak stimulated GH levels in 3 ISS groups; GH >10 -40 ng/mL and the first year growth response to rhGH therapy. We also looked at 8 other predictor variables (age, sex, height SDS, height age, body mass index (BMI), bone age, dose, and SDS deficit from target parental height. Multiple regression analysis with the first year height as the dependent variable and peak stimulated GH was the primary endpoint. The predictive value of adding each of the other variables was then assessed. Mean change in height velocity was similar among the three groups, with a maximum difference among the groups of 0.6 cm/yr. There was a small but statistically significant correlation (r=-0.12) between the stimulated GH and first year height velocity. The small correlation between first year growth response and peak GH is not clinically relevant in defining GH resistance. No cut off level by peak GH could be determined to enhance the usefulness of this measure to predict response. Baseline age was the only clinically significant predictor, R-squared, 6.4%. All other variables contributed less than an additional 2% to the R-squared.

  8. Short stature caused by isolated SHOX gene haploinsufficiency: update on the diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Alexander A L; Funari, Mariana Fa; Nishi, Mirian Y; Mendonca, Berenice B

    2010-12-01

    Heterozygous SHOX defects are observed in about 50 to 90% of patients with Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), a common dominant inherited skeletal dysplasia; and in 2 to 15% of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS), indicating that SHOX defects are the most important monogenetic cause of short stature. In addition, children selected by disproportionate idiopathic short stature had a higher frequency of SHOX mutations (22%). A careful clinical evaluation of family members with short stature is recommended since it usually revealed LWD patients in families first classified as having ISS or familial short stature. SHOX-molecular analysis is indicated in families with LWD and ISS children with disproportionate short stature. Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone is considered an accepted approach to treat short stature associated with isolated SHOX defect. Here we review clinical, molecular and therapeutic aspects of SHOX haploinsufficiency.

  9. Ghrelin plasma levels in patients with idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iñiguez, Germán; Román, Rossana; Youlton, Ronald; Cassorla, Fernando; Mericq, Verónica

    2011-02-01

    Novel molecular insights have suggested that ghrelin may be involved in the pathogenesis of some forms of short stature. Recently, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) mutations that segregate with short stature have been reported. To study plasma ghrelin levels in prepubertal patients with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Fasting total plasma ghrelin levels (radioimmunoassay) in 41 prepubertal patients with ISS (18 females, age 7.9 ± 0.5 years) compared with 42 age- and sex-matched controls (27 females, age 8.0 ± 0.3 years) with normal height. In a subset of 28 patients, the ghrelin receptor was sequenced. ISS patients exhibited a higher level of ghrelin (1,458 ± 137 vs. 935 ± 55 pg/ml, p ghrelin levels greater than +2 SDS compared to controls. These patients did not differ in height, BMI or IGF-I SDS compared to ISS patients with ghrelin levels within the normal range. Molecular analysis of GHSR did not show any mutations, but showed some polymorphisms. These results suggest that in ISS patients, short stature does not appear to be frequently caused by abnormalities in ghrelin signaling. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Maghnie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The “360° GH in Europe” meeting, which examined various aspects of GH diseases, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2016. The Merck KGaA (Germany funded meeting comprised three sessions entitled “Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral,” “Optimizing Patient Management,” and “Managing Transition.” Each session had three speaker presentations, followed by a discussion period, and is reported as a manuscript, authored by the speakers. The first session examined current processes of diagnosis and referral by endocrine specialists for pediatric patients with short stature. Requirements for referral vary widely, by country and by patient characteristics such as age. A balance must be made to ensure eligible patients get referred while healthcare systems are not over-burdened by excessive referrals. Late referral and diagnosis of non-GH deficiency conditions can result in increased morbidity and mortality. The consequent delays in making a diagnosis may compromise the effectiveness of GH treatment. Algorithms for growth monitoring and evaluation of skeletal disproportions can improve identification of non-GH deficiency conditions. Performance and validation of guidelines for diagnosis of GH deficiency have not been sufficiently tested. Provocative tests for investigation of GH deficiency remain equivocal, with insufficient information on variations due to patient characteristics, and cutoff values for definition differ not only by country but also by the assay used. When referring and diagnosing causes of short stature in pediatric patients, clinicians need to rely on many factors, but the most essential is clinical experience.

  11. Hypogonadotrophic short statured with anosmia: kallmann's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarique, S.; Abaidullah, S.; Cheema, T.M.; Iqbal, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Short stature with loss of secondary sex characters can occur due to genetic disorders. One of them is Kallmann's syndrome. The condition has been noted to be present in families. It is associated with anosmia and hypogonadism. We are presenting a case of young boy who was short statured and had anosmia with multiple hormonal deficiencies. (author)

  12. Quality of life and self-esteem in children treated for idiopathic short stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Kamp, G.A.; Koopman, H.M.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Vogels, T.; Wit, J.-M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-esteem were studied in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) participating in a study on the effect of growth hormone treatment. Study design: Prepubertal children (n = 36) with ISS were randomly assigned to a treatment or

  13. Screening of SHOX gene sequence variants in Saudi Arabian children with idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharthi, Abdulla A; El-Hallous, Ehab I; Talaat, Iman M; Alghamdi, Hamed A; Almalki, Matar I; Gaber, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Short stature affects approximately 2%-3% of children, representing one of the most frequent disorders for which clinical attention is sought during childhood. Despite assumed genetic heterogeneity, mutations or deletions in the short stature homeobox-containing gene ( SHOX ) are frequently detected in subjects with short stature. Idiopathic short stature (ISS) refers to patients with short stature for various unknown reasons. The goal of this study was to screen all the exons of SHOX to identify related mutations. We screened all the exons of SHOX for mutations analysis in 105 ISS children patients (57 girls and 48 boys) living in Taif governorate, KSA using a direct DNA sequencing method. Height, arm span, and sitting height were recorded, and subischial leg length was calculated. A total of 30 of 105 ISS patients (28%) contained six polymorphic variants in exons 1, 2, 4, and 6. One mutation was found in the DNA domain binding region of exon 4. Three of these polymorphic variants were novel, while the others were reported previously. There were no significant differences in anthropometric measures in ISS patients with and without identifiable polymorphic variants in SHOX . In Saudi Arabia ISS patients, rather than SHOX , it is possible that new genes are involved in longitudinal growth. Additional molecular analysis is required to diagnose and understand the etiology of this disease.

  14. Etiology of short stature in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, M.; Afzal, M.; Ali, S.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the causes of short stature in children with special emphasis on growth hormone deficiency. Two hundred and fourteen children (140 boys and 74 girls), ranging from 02 to 15 years presenting with short stature were studied. Height and weight were plotted on appropriate growth charts and centiles determined. Relevant hematological and biochemical investigations including thyroid profile were done. Bone age was determined in all cases. Growth hormone axis was investigated after excluding other causes. Karyotyping was done in selected cases. Data was analyzed by SPSS 10.0 by descriptive statistics. Mean values were compared using t-test. In this study, the five most common etiological factors in order of frequency were Constitutional Growth Delay (CGD), Familial Short Stature (FSS), malnutrition, coeliac disease and Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD). In 37.4% of patients, the study revealed normal variants of growth - CGD, FSS or combination of both, 46.7% cases had nonendocrinological and 15.9% had endocrinological etiology. CGD (22.1%) in males and FSS (27%) in females were the most common etiology. GHD was found in 6.1% children and it comprised 38.2% of all endocrinological causes. Children with height falling below 0.4th centile were more likely to have a pathological short stature (79.2%) compared to 39.3% whose height was below 3rd centile but above 0.4th centile (p<0.05). CGD and FSS are most common causes of short stature in boys and girls respectively, whereas, GHD is a relatively uncommon etiology. (author)

  15. Growing up with short stature : Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-van Balen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Growing up with short stature. Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment To enhance height in children with short stature, growth hormone (GH) can be used. In short children without a detectable pathology underlying their short stature, there is no medical rationale for growth hormone

  16. Acquired alopecia, mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly, and optic atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Renckens-Wennen, E. G.

    1990-01-01

    We report on a female patient who had acquired total alopecia, short stature, microcephaly, optic atrophy, severe myopia, and mental retardation. A survey of published reports failed to show an identical patient, despite various similar cases

  17. Debate: idiopathic short stature should be treated with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Geoffrey R; Fairchild, Jan; Wilkinson, Dominic J C

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we outline the case for and against the treatment of idiopathic short stature with growth hormone. Drs Ambler and Fairchild argue that many of those with 'idiopathic' short stature are not 'short, normal children' and will ultimately receive molecular diagnoses. They also argue that there is a subset of children who suffer negative psychosocial consequences of their stature for whom growth hormone therapy is effective. Growth hormone has a very good safety record and is likely to be as cost-effective in idiopathic short-stature as in some other conditions that are currently funded. Dr Wilkinson counters that short stature is not associated with physical or psychological illness, and that there is no evidence that growth hormone improves psychological or physical wellbeing. Moreover, growth hormone for idiopathic short stature represents a form of enhancement rather than treatment, and is not a fair use of resources. Socially mediated disadvantage should be treated by attention to prejudice and not by hormone treatment. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  18. Heterozygous NPR2 Mutations Cause Disproportionate Short Stature, Similar to Léri-Weill Dyschondrosteosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisado-Oliva, Alfonso; Garre-Vázquez, Ana I; Santaolalla-Caballero, Fabiola; Belinchón, Alberta; Barreda-Bonis, Ana C; Vasques, Gabriela A; Ramirez, Joaquin; Luzuriaga, Cristina; Carlone, Gianni; González-Casado, Isabel; Benito-Sanz, Sara; Jorge, Alexander A; Campos-Barros, Angel; Heath, Karen E

    2015-08-01

    SHOX mutations have been detected in approximately 70% of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and approximately 2.5% of idiopathic short stature (ISS) cases, suggesting the implication of other genes or loci. The recent identification of NPR2 mutations in ISS suggested that NPR2 mutations may also be involved in disproportionate short stature. The objective of the study was to investigate whether NPR2 mutations can account for a proportion of the cases referred for LWD and ISS in whom no SHOX mutation was detected. We undertook NPR2 mutation screening in 173 individuals referred for suspected LWD and 95 for ISS, with no known defect in SHOX or its enhancers. Intracellular localization and natriuretic peptide precursor C-dependent guanylate cyclase activity were determined for the identified NPR2 variants. Eight NPR2 variants were identified in nine individuals, seven referred for suspected LWD and two for ISS. Six were demonstrated to affect NPR-B cell trafficking and/or its ability to synthesize cyclic GMP (cGMP) under response to natriuretic peptide precursor C/brain natriuretic peptide stimulation. All pathogenic mutations were detected in the suspected LWD referral group (∼3%). Interestingly, one of these patients is currently being treated with recombinant human GH and in contrast to previous reports is showing a positive response to the treatment. NPR2 mutations account for approximately 3% of patients with disproportionate short stature and/or clinical or radiographic indicators of SHOX deficiency and in whom no SHOX defect has been identified. However, no patient has yet presented with Madelung deformity. Thus, NPR2 should be screened in the SHOX-negative LWD referrals.

  19. Identification of the first PAR1 deletion encompassing upstream SHOX enhancers in a family with idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Sanz, Sara; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Rodríguez-Estevez, Amaya; Rica-Etxebarria, Ixaso; Gracia, Ricardo; Campos-Barros, Angel; Heath, Karen E

    2012-01-01

    Short stature homeobox-containing gene, MIM 312865 (SHOX) is located within the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of the sex chromosomes. Mutations in SHOX or its downstream transcriptional regulatory elements represent the underlying molecular defect in ~60% of Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and ~5-15% of idiopathic short stature (ISS) patients. Recently, three novel enhancer elements have been identified upstream of SHOX but to date, no PAR1 deletions upstream of SHOX have been observed that only encompass these enhancers in LWD or ISS patients. We set out to search for genetic alterations of the upstream SHOX regulatory elements in 63 LWD and 100 ISS patients with no known alteration in SHOX or the downstream enhancer regions using a specifically designed MLPA assay, which covers the PAR1 upstream of SHOX. An upstream SHOX deletion was identified in an ISS proband and her affected father. The deletion was confirmed and delimited by array-CGH, to extend ~286 kb. The deletion included two of the upstream SHOX enhancers without affecting SHOX. The 13.3-year-old proband had proportionate short stature with normal GH and IGF-I levels. In conclusion, we have identified the first PAR1 deletion encompassing only the upstream SHOX transcription regulatory elements in a family with ISS. The loss of these elements may result in SHOX haploinsufficiency because of decreased SHOX transcription. Therefore, this upstream region should be included in the routine analysis of PAR1 in patients with LWD, LMD and ISS.

  20. A rare cause of short stature: transsphenoidal encephalocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Özhan; Sebahat, Ağladıoğlu Yılmaz; Kadir, Ağladıoğlu; Ali, Koçyiğit

    2014-12-01

    Basal encephaloceles are rare, accounting for about 1.5% of all encephaloceles. Transsphenoidal encephaloceles represent less than 5% of basal encephaloceles. Respiratory and feeding difficulties due to mass effect in the oral or nasal cavity and episodes of recurrent meningitis are the main clinical features. Diagnosis is established in the first year of life, but without characteristic facies, the diagnosis can be delayed to adolescence or adulthood. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy who presented with short stature and eventually was diagnosed with a growth hormone deficiency because of mass effect of transsphenoidal encephalocele. Unusual presentation of an encephalocele as a short stature is described.

  1. A rare case of short stature: Say Meyer syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Karthik, T. S.; Prasad, N. Rajendra; Rani, P. Radha; Maheshwari, Rushikesh; Reddy, P. Amaresh; Chakradhar, B. V. S.; Menon, Bindu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Say Meyer syndrome is rare X linked condition characterized by developmental delay, short stature and metopic suture synostosis. We are reporting a case of Say Meyer syndrome presented to our hospital for short stature and developmental delay at age 3½ years. Case Report: A 3½-year-old boy presented to our hospital for decreased growth velocity from the age of 1 year. History revealed the boy had a birth weight of 2.3 kg, had an episode of seizures in the neonatal period. He was...

  2. Frequency of short stature in - thalassemia major patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.S.; Roshan, E.; Shahid, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of short stature in children with - thalassemia major receiving multiple transfusions at Military Hospital Rawalpindi. Study Design: Descriptive cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Military Hospital from 1st January 2010 to 30th June 2010. Subjects and Methods: Total 100 multi-transfused cases of - thalassemia major were included in the study. The height of every child was measured in centimeters using the same free-standing standard stadiometer, and the same technique by a single pediatrician. Results: Out of 100 patients of - thalassemia major 57.0% (n=57) were male while 43% (n=43) were female. Mean age was 9.94 years (SD +- 2.93) with range of 6 to 14 years. Mean height was 115.77 cm (SD +- 13.79) with range of 72.00 to 148.00 cm. 57.0% (n=57) were found to be short statured while 43.0% (n=43) were with normal height. Mean age of short statured patients was 11.61 +- 2.34 years and mean age of patients with normal height was 7.73 +- 2.05 years. Conclusion: The frequency of short stature in our patients with - thalassemia major receiving multiple transfusions is high. There is need to monitor the height of thalassemic children regularly and to improve the quality of care being provided to them so as to improve their quality of life. (author)

  3. Genetic evaluation of proportionate short stature in Alexandria, Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Compared with a genetically relevant population, short stature (ss) is defined as a standing height more than 2 standard deviations below the mean (or below the third percentile) for gender. SS is a common problem for children and adolescents worldwide. The Aim: This study was conducted to reveal the ...

  4. Initiation of growth hormone therapy in idiopathic short stature: do gender differences exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tal; Lebenthal, Yael; Phillip, Moshe; Lazar, Liora

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) registries indicate that boys receive preferential GH treatment for idiopathic short stature (ISS). The aim was to determine whether age, auxological parameters, pubertal status, and target height differ between genders at GH initiation. Review of the computerized files of the endocrine department of a tertiary pediatric medical center identified 184 patients who started GH therapy for ISS between 2003-2011. Data on auxologic parameters, predicted height, parental height, and pubertal status were collected and compared between boys and girls. Boys accounted for a significantly higher percentage of the study group (65.8%, pdeficit, and pubertal status at onset of GH treatment in boys and girls suggests that gender differences do not exist. Male predominance may stem from family preferences to treat boys. Future studies are warranted to assess the psychosocial aspects in the decision to initiate therapy.

  5. Hyperphagic short stature: A case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Varsha S.; Sarathi, Vijaya; Lila, Anurag R.; Bukan, Amol P.; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    A 5½-year-old adopted girl was referred to us in view of short stature. After ruling out systemic illness, she was evaluated for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) by stimulation tests. The peak value was 3.47 ng/ml. She was then started on growth hormone (GH). At the end of 6 months of GH therapy, her height velocity was only 3 cm/year. There was a lack of attachment between the mother and the child. She had history of hyperphagia, stealing, and hoarding food. Psychiatry consultation confirmed that the child had appetite disorder, and hence was diagnosed as hyperphagic short stature (HSS). The girl and her parents are undergoing psychiatric therapy for the same. Psychosocial dwarfism seems to originate from serious disturbances in the mother–child relationship. These children mimic patients with GHD, but have poor response to GH therapy. This case underscores the importance of social environment in the growth of the individual. PMID:22837929

  6. A rare case of short stature: Say Meyer syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Karthik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Say Meyer syndrome is rare X linked condition characterized by developmental delay, short stature and metopic suture synostosis. We are reporting a case of Say Meyer syndrome presented to our hospital for short stature and developmental delay at age 3½ years. Case Report: A 3½-year-old boy presented to our hospital for decreased growth velocity from the age of 1 year. History revealed the boy had a birth weight of 2.3 kg, had an episode of seizures in the neonatal period. He was born to non-consanguineous marriage. He had global developmental delay and there was a lack of bowel and bladder control. History did not reveal any hearing or visual impairment. No history of any chronic systemic illnesses. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI brain revealed mild diffuse frontotemporal atrophy with multiple irregular gliotic areas in bilateral frontal lobes. Diffuse white matter volume loss in bilateral cerebral hemispheres. Diffuse thinning of corpus callosum. Diffuse periventricular hyper intensity on T2W and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Conclusion: Say Meyer syndrome is rare X linked condition characterized by developmental delay, short stature and metopic suture synostosis. Characteristic MRI brain findings include diffuse frontotemporal atrophy with multiple gliotic areas in frontal lobes. Diffuse white matter volume loss in bilateral cerebral hemispheres.

  7. A rare case of short stature: Say Meyer syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthik, T S; Prasad, N Rajendra; Rani, P Radha; Maheshwari, Rushikesh; Reddy, P Amaresh; Chakradhar, B V S; Menon, Bindu

    2013-10-01

    Say Meyer syndrome is rare X linked condition characterized by developmental delay, short stature and metopic suture synostosis. We are reporting a case of Say Meyer syndrome presented to our hospital for short stature and developmental delay at age 3½ years. A 3½-year-old boy presented to our hospital for decreased growth velocity from the age of 1 year. History revealed the boy had a birth weight of 2.3 kg, had an episode of seizures in the neonatal period. He was born to non-consanguineous marriage. He had global developmental delay and there was a lack of bowel and bladder control. History did not reveal any hearing or visual impairment. No history of any chronic systemic illnesses. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain revealed mild diffuse frontotemporal atrophy with multiple irregular gliotic areas in bilateral frontal lobes. Diffuse white matter volume loss in bilateral cerebral hemispheres. Diffuse thinning of corpus callosum. Diffuse periventricular hyper intensity on T2W and fluid attenuated inversion recovery sequences. Say Meyer syndrome is rare X linked condition characterized by developmental delay, short stature and metopic suture synostosis. Characteristic MRI brain findings include diffuse frontotemporal atrophy with multiple gliotic areas in frontal lobes. Diffuse white matter volume loss in bilateral cerebral hemispheres.

  8. SHOX gene defects and selected dysmorphic signs in patients of idiopathic short stature and Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeldova, K; Solc, R; Baxova, A; Zapletalova, J; Kebrdlova, V; Gaillyova, R; Prasilova, S; Soukalova, J; Mihalova, R; Lnenicka, P; Florianova, M; Stekrova, J

    2012-01-10

    The aim of the study was to analyze frequency of SHOX gene defects and selected dysmorphic signs in patients of both idiopathic short stature (ISS) and Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), all derived from the Czech population. Overall, 98 subjects were analyzed in the study. Inclusion criteria were the presence of short stature (-2.0 SD), in combination with at least one of the selected dysmorphic signs for the ISS+ group; and the presence of Madelung deformity, without positive karyotyping for the LWD+ group. Each proband was analyzed by use of P018 MLPA kit, which covers SHOX and its regulatory sequences. Additionally, mutational analysis was done of the coding portions of the SHOX. Both extent and breakpoint localizations in the deletions/duplications found were quite variable. Some PAR1 rearrangements were detected, without obvious phenotypic association. In the ISS+ group, MLPA analysis detected four PAR1 deletions associated with a SHOX gene defect, PAR1 duplication with an ambiguous effect, and two SHOX mutations (13.7%). In the LWD+ group, MLPA analysis detected nine deletions in PAR1 region, with a deleterious effect on SHOX, first reported case of isolated SHOX enhancer duplication, and SHOX mutation (68.8%). In both ISS+ and LWD+ groups were positivity associated with a disproportionately short stature; in the ISS+ group, in combination with muscular hypertrophy. It seems that small PAR1 rearrangements might be quite frequent in the population. Our study suggests disproportionateness, especially in combination with muscular hypertrophy, as relevant indicators of ISS to be the effect of SHOX defect. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Orphan disease: Cherubism, optic atrophy, and short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Jeevanandham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A 12-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive visual impairment in both her eyes. On clinical examination, she was short for her age and her ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy. Computed tomography of the patient revealed multiple expansile lytic lesions of mandible suggesting cherubism. The optic atrophy was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, which additionally revealed bilateral retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts. This association of cherubism with optic atrophy and short stature was grouped as orphan disease by National Institutes of Health and only one case was reported in the literature so far.

  10. Orphan disease: Cherubism, optic atrophy, and short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevanandham, Balaji; Ramachandran, Rajoo; Dhanapal, Vignesh; Subramanian, Ilanchezhian; Sai, Venkata

    2018-01-01

    A 12-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive visual impairment in both her eyes. On clinical examination, she was short for her age and her ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy. Computed tomography of the patient revealed multiple expansile lytic lesions of mandible suggesting cherubism. The optic atrophy was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, which additionally revealed bilateral retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts. This association of cherubism with optic atrophy and short stature was grouped as orphan disease by National Institutes of Health and only one case was reported in the literature so far.

  11. Prevalence of SHOX Haploinsufficiency among Short Statured Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marstrand-Joergensen, Maja Rou; Beck Jensen, Rikke; Aksglaede, Lise

    2017-01-01

    were recorded for patients with SHOX haploinsufficiency. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients were excluded due to Turner syndrome (n=28), SRY-positive 46,XX male karyotype (n=1), or lacked clinical follow-up information (n=3).The prevalence of SHOX haploinsufficiency was nine out of 542 (1.7%). The nine......=0.046, after one year of GH treatment. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of SHOX haploinsufficiency was 1.7%. The clinical findings indicating SHOX haploinsufficiency among the nine children were disproportionate short stature and forearm anomalies....

  12. Hyperphagic short stature: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha S Jagtap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 5½-year-old adopted girl was referred to us in view of short stature. After ruling out systemic illness, she was evaluated for growth hormone deficiency (GHD by stimulation tests. The peak value was 3.47 ng/ml. She was then started on growth hormone (GH. At the end of 6 months of GH therapy, her height velocity was only 3 cm/year. There was a lack of attachment between the mother and the child. She had history of hyperphagia, stealing, and hoarding food. Psychiatry consultation confirmed that the child had appetite disorder, and hence was diagnosed as hyperphagic short stature (HSS. The girl and her parents are undergoing psychiatric therapy for the same. Psychosocial dwarfism seems to originate from serious disturbances in the mother-child relationship. These children mimic patients with GHD, but have poor response to GH therapy. This case underscores the importance of social environment in the growth of the individual.

  13. Pituitary volume in children with growth hormone deficiency, idiopathic short stature and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Marion; Tenner, Michael; Frey, Michael; Noto, Richard

    2016-10-01

    The objective of the study was to describe the pituitary volume (PV) in pediatric patients with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), idiopathic short stature (ISS) and normal controls. Sixty-nine patients (57 male, 12 female), with a mean age of 11.9 (±2.0), were determined to have IGHD. ISS was identified in 29 patients (20 male, 9 female), with a mean age of 12.7 (±3.7). Sixty-six controls (28 female, 38 male), mean age 9.8 (±4.7) were also included. Three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance images with contrast were obtained to accurately measure PV. There was a significant difference in the mean PV among the three groups. The IGHD patients had a mean PV 230.8 (±89.6), for ISS patients it was 286.8 (±108.2) and for controls it was 343.7 (±145.9) (pimaging (MRI) could assist in the diagnostic evaluation of the slowly growing child.

  14. 45,X/47,XXX Mosaicism and Short Stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everest, Erica; Tsilianidis, Laurie A; Haider, Anzar; Rogers, Douglas G; Raissouni, Nouhad; Schweiger, Bahareh

    2015-01-01

    We describe the case of a ten-year-old girl with short stature and 45,X/47,XXX genotype. She also suffered from vesicoureteric reflux and kidney dysfunction prior to having surgery on her ureters. Otherwise, she does not have any of the characteristics of Turner nor Triple X syndrome. It has been shown that this mosaic condition as well as other varieties creates a milder phenotype than typical Turner syndrome, which is what we mostly see in our patient. However, this patient is a special case, because she is exceptionally short. Overall, one cannot predict the resultant phenotype in these mosaic conditions. This creates difficulty in counseling parents whose children or fetuses have these karyotypes.

  15. Polymorphisms of the ghrelin/obestatin gene and ghrelin levels in Chinese children with short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Chao Chun; Huang, Ke; Liang, Li; Zhao, Zheng Yan

    2008-07-01

    To investigate the role of ghrelin and polymorphisms of ghrelin/obestatin gene in children with short stature. A total of 117 GH deficient (GHD) and 81 idiopathic short stature (ISS) children were studied. The controls consisted of 125 age and gender-matched healthy children. The Arg51Gln, Leu72Met and Gln90Leu polymorphisms were genotyped using MassArray and total plasma ghrelin was measured by radioimmunoassay. In this study, the frequency of the Arg51Gln polymorphism was very low (0% in controls and 1.0% in patients). The frequency of the Gln90Leu polymorphism was 1.6% in controls and 0.5% in patients, respectively. Higher frequencies of Leu72Met (34.4% in controls and 39.9% in patients) and Met72Met genotypes (4.0% in controls and 2.0% in patients) were found. The differences in the Arg51Gln, Leu72Met or Gln90Leu genotypes and allele frequencies between patients and controls were not significant. Also, there were no significant differences in the Leu72Met genotypes and allele frequencies between GHD and ISS subgroups. There were no significant differences in clinical characteristics and biochemistry markers (including ghrelin levels) among the different genotypes of Leu72Met. However, plasma ghrelin levels in the GHD group were significantly lower than those of controls (P = 0.001). These results suggest that ghrelin may have a role in GH secretion and controlling growth. Lower ghrelin levels, but not ghrelin/obestatin polymorphism, might contribute to GHD.

  16. The Effect of Recombinant Growth Hormone Treatment in Children with Idiopathic Short Stature and Low Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şıklar, Zeynep; Kocaay, Pınar; Çamtosun, Emine; İsakoca, Mehmet; Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Savaş Erdeve, Şenay; Berberoğlu, Merih

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic short stature (ISS) constitutes a heterogeneous group of short stature which is not associated with an endocrine or other identifiable cause. Some ISS patients may have varying degrees of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) deficiency. Recombinant growth hormone (rGH) treatment has been used by some authors with variable results. Reports on long-term rGH treatment are limited. In this study, 21 slowly growing, non-GH-deficient ISS children who received rGH treatment for 3.62±0.92 years were evaluated at the end of a 5.42±1.67-year follow-up period. The study group included patients with low IGF-1 levels who also responded well to an IGF generation test. The patients were divided into two groups as good responders [height increment >1 standard deviation (SD)] and poor responders (height increment deficit and almost 40% of patients may reach their target height.

  17. Short stature in children: Pattern and frequency in a pediatric clinic, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jurayyan N, Nasir A; Mohamed, Sarar H; Al Otaibi, Hessah M; Al Issa, Sharifah T; Omer, Hala G

    2012-01-01

    Longitudinal growth assessment is essential in child care. Short stature can be promptly recognized only with accurate measurements of growth and critical analysis of growth data. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of short stature among patients referred to an endocrine pediatric clinic, King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and to ascertain the aetiological profile of short stature. This is a retrospective review of patients referred to a pediatric endocrine clinic with short stature during the period January 1990 and December 2009. After a proper detailed medical history, growth analysis and physical examination, followed by a radiological (bone age) and laboratory screening (complete blood count and thyroid function). Growth hormone stimulation tests were performed when indicated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary was performed when necessary. As well, celiac screening and small bowel biopsy were performed when appropriate. During the period under review, hundred and ten patients were evaluated for short stature. Their age ranged from 2 years and six months to 4 years. The male to female ratio was 1.3:1. The commonest etiology was genetic short stature found in 57 (51.8%) patients, while in the other 53 (48.2%) patients, variable endocrine and nutritional causes were noted. Short stature was a common referral. A wide variety of etiological diagnosis was noticed with genetic short stature being the commonest. A wide variety of endocrine causes were evident, with growth hormone deficiency, as a results of different etiologies, being the commonest.

  18. Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis: An under-recognised cause of short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E G Lemire

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Short stature is a frequent presenting problem in the pediatric population. Various causes including endocrinopathies, skeletal dysplasias, dysmorphic syndromes and malabsorption have been implicated. In girls with short stature, Turner syndrome is frequently considered in the differential diagnosis and can easily be ruled out with chromosome analysis. However, it is not uncommon for a child to have no identifiable cause of their short stature. ?FOR Advances in the field of genetics have estimated that about 2% of idiopathic short stature is related to haploinsufficiency of the Short stature homeobox (SHOX gene, which is found on the short arm of the X and Y chromosomes in the pseudoautosomal region. Heterozygous carriers of SHOX mutations may be minimally affected or may present with disproportionate short stature, Madelung deformity and other radiographic findings as in Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD. In this article, we report on a 14-year old girl with mesomelic short stature and bilateral Madelung deformities caused by LWD and describe the radiographic findings.

  19. Diagnostic Accuracy of Growth Rate in Differentiating Etiologies of Short Stature in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Alaei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background  Short stature is a manifestation of a wide variety of conditions that some of which may be amenable to timely treatment and a suboptimal growth rate may be an early marker pointing to the cause of growth retardation. This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic utility of growth rate in differential diagnosis of children with short stature. Materials and Methods All children between the ages of 2 and 18 years who visited in pediatric endocrinology clinic in a five years period were recruited in a prospective cohort study. Children with standing height Results One hundred forty three patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Mean follow up period was 14.4±10.9 months. Etiologies of short stature were: constitutional growth delay (CGD 46.9%, familial short stature (FSS 28.7%, hypothyroidism 4.2%, growth hormone deficiency (GHD 4.2% and miscellaneous causes in 16% of patients.  Mean Z- score for children with constitutional growth delay was -2.3±0.69, in familial short stature was -2.3±0.65 and for other condition was -2.7±1.49. There was a meaningful statistical correlation between growth rate and etiology of short stature (P0.05. Conclusion There was significant difference in growth rate between children with constitutional growth delay and familial short stature in comparing to short stature due to endocrine problem and other etiologies. Assessment of growth rate has some utility in diagnosing the etiology of short stature.

  20. Metacarpal index in short stature before and during growth hormone treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bettendorf, M.; Graf, K.; Nelle, M.; Heinrich, U.; Troger, J.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the usefulness of the metacarpal index (MCI) as a radiographic measure of the proportions of the metacarpals in the differential diagnosis of short stature. To investigate the significance of the MCI in following the longitudinal growth and proportions of individual long bones during growth hormone stimulated catch up growth in children with short stature with and without growth hormone deficiency.
SUBJECTS—124 children, including 65 children with short sta...

  1. STUDY OF CLINICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH SHORT STATURE VISITING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Choudhury

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Short stature is one of the common causes of referral of children to endocrine unit. It may result due to various causes and elucidating the exact cause is necessary to formulate the right therapy. OBJECTIVE To study the various aetiologies and clinical presentation of patients presenting with short to a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Cross sectional study MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected and analysed the clinical, biochemical, radiological and hormonal data of 104 consecutive patients who presented to our department from January 2015 to March 2016 for evaluation of short stature. RESULTS Majority of the subjects studied belonged to 10-15 years group (44.23% followed by 5-10 years age group (31.73%. The most common cause in our population was due to familial short stature (29.80%. The next common causes included chronic medical illness (23.08% followed by hypothyroidism (13.46%. Majority of patients presenting for evaluation of short stature were males (60.58%. CONCLUSIONS Short stature is caused due to a multitude of causes. In our population, familial short stature was the most common aetiology

  2. MRI features of growth hormone deficiency in children with short stature caused by pituitary lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Chao; Zhang, Xinxian; Dong, Lina; Zhu, Bin; Xin, Tao

    2017-01-01

    We verified the advantages of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving the diagnostic quality of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children with short stature caused by pituitary lesions. Clinical data obtained from 577 GHD patients with short stature caused by pituitary lesions were retrospectively analyzed. There were 354 cases (61.3%) with anterior pituitary dysplasia; 45 cases (7.8%) of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS); 15 cases (2.6%) of pituitary hyperplasia due...

  3. Marked increase of final height by long-term aromatase inhibition in a boy with idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Andreas; Moske-Eick, Olaf; Doerfer, Jürgen; Roemer-Pergher, Cordula; van der Werf-Grohmann, Natascha; Schwab, Karl Otfried

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is the most frequently used treatment in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy is still in an experimental state, and both final height (FH) and long-term efficacy data in ISS have not been published. We present a 14.5-year-old boy with ISS and a height of 142.7 cm [standard deviation score (SDS) -2.79]. Based on the baseline bone age (BA) of 13.5-14 years, his predicted adult height (PAH) by Bayley/Pinneau was 154 cm (SDS -3.77)-158.2 (SDS -3.15). After a 5-year letrozole monotherapy, FH was 169 cm (SDS -1.57) showing a height difference between PAH and FH from 10.8 to 15 cm. No permanent side effects of the medication have been observed. Both a transient occurrence and a spontaneous recovery of decreased bone mineral apparent density were seen, verified by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging revealed no vertebral abnormalities. All therapy might be an effective and low-cost alternative to the use of GH. Further controlled trials should prove efficacy and safety of long-term AI therapy in boys with ISS.

  4. De novo mutations in ARID1B associated with both syndromic and non-syndromic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongguo; Yao, RuEn; Wang, Lili; Fan, Yanjie; Huang, Xiaodong; Hirschhorn, Joel; Dauber, Andrew; Shen, Yiping

    2015-09-16

    Human height is a complex trait with a strong genetic basis. Recently, a significant association between rare copy number variations (CNVs) and short stature has been identified, and candidate genes in these rare CNVs are being explored. This study aims to evaluate the association between mutations in ARID1B gene and short stature, both the syndromic and non-syndromic form. Based on a case-control study of whole genome chromosome microarray analysis (CMA), three overlapping CNVs were identified in patients with developmental disorders who exhibited short stature. ARID1B, a causal gene for Coffin Siris syndrome, is the only gene encompassed by all three CNVs. A following retrospective genotype-phenotype analysis based on a literature review confirmed that short stature is a frequent feature in those Coffin-Siris syndrome patients with ARID1B mutations. Mutation screening of ARID1B coding regions was further conducted in a cohort of 48 non-syndromic short stature patients,andfour novel missense variants including two de novo mutations were found. These results suggest that haploinsufficient mutations of ARID1B are associated with syndromic short stature including Coffin-Siris syndrome and intellectual disability, while rare missense variants in ARID1B are associated with non-syndromic short stature. This study supports the notion that mutations in genes related to syndromic short stature may exert milder effect and contribute to short stature in the general population.

  5. Magnetic resonance and the diagnosis of short stature of hypothalamic-hypophyseal origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vannelli, S.; Avataneo, T.; Benso, L.; Potenzoni, F.; Cirillo, S.; Mostert, M.; Bona, G.

    1993-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 23 patients with short stature (7 had multiple pituitary hormone defect, 11 had isolated growth hormone deficiency and 5 had normal variant short stature) to investigate if there is a relation between magnetic resonance findings and results of endocrine tests. Magnetic resonance imaging of patients with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency or with serious isolated growth hormone deficiency (growth hormone 3μg/l) or with normal variant short stature, the technique revealed a normal or hypoplastic hypophysis. Magnetic resonance appears to be a useful second-level diagnostic tool in defining the type of alteration in growth defects of endocrine origin. 26 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  6. IHH Gene Mutations Causing Short Stature With Nonspecific Skeletal Abnormalities and Response to Growth Hormone Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasques, Gabriela A; Funari, Mariana F A; Ferreira, Frederico M; Aza-Carmona, Miriam; Sentchordi-Montané, Lucia; Barraza-García, Jimena; Lerario, Antonio M; Yamamoto, Guilherme L; Naslavsky, Michel S; Duarte, Yeda A O; Bertola, Debora R; Heath, Karen E; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2018-02-01

    Genetic evaluation has been recognized as an important tool to elucidate the causes of growth disorders. To investigate the cause of short stature and to determine the phenotype of patients with IHH mutations, including the response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. We studied 17 families with autosomal-dominant short stature by using whole exome sequencing and screened IHH defects in 290 patients with growth disorders. Molecular analyses were performed to evaluate the potential impact of N-terminal IHH variants. We identified 10 pathogenic or possibly pathogenic variants in IHH, an important regulator of endochondral ossification. Molecular analyses revealed a smaller potential energy of mutated IHH molecules. The allele frequency of rare, predicted to be deleterious IHH variants found in short-stature samples (1.6%) was higher than that observed in two control cohorts (0.017% and 0.08%; P IHH variants segregate with short stature in a dominant inheritance pattern. Affected individuals typically manifest mild disproportional short stature with a frequent finding of shortening of the middle phalanx of the fifth finger. None of them have classic features of brachydactyly type A1, which was previously associated with IHH mutations. Five patients heterozygous for IHH variants had a good response to rhGH therapy. The mean change in height standard deviation score in 1 year was 0.6. Our study demonstrated the association of pathogenic variants in IHH with short stature with nonspecific skeletal abnormalities and established a frequent cause of growth disorder, with a preliminary good response to rhGH. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  7. Identification of the first recurrent PAR1 deletion in Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis and idiopathic short stature reveals the presence of a novel SHOX enhancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Sanz, Sara; Royo, Jose Luis; Barroso, Eva; Paumard-Hernández, Beatriz; Barreda-Bonis, Ana C; Liu, Pengfei; Gracía, Ricardo; Lupski, James R; Campos-Barros, Ángel; Gómez-Skarmeta, José Luis; Heath, Karen Elise

    2012-07-01

    SHOX, located in the pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) of the sexual chromosomes, encodes a transcription factor implicated in human growth. Defects in SHOX or its enhancers have been observed in ∼60% of Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) patients, a skeletal dysplasia characterised by short stature and/or the characteristic Madelung deformity, and in 2-5% of idiopathic short stature (ISS). To identify the molecular defect in the remaining genetically undiagnosed LWD and ISS patients, this study screened previously unanalysed PAR1 regions in 124 LWD and 576 ISS probands. PAR1 screening was undertaken by multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA). Copy number alterations were subsequently confirmed and delimited by locus-specific custom-designed MLPA, array comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH) and breakpoint junction PCR/sequencing. A recurrent PAR1 deletion downstream of SHOX spanning 47543 bp with identical breakpoints was identified in 19 LWD (15.3%) and 11 ISS (1.9%) probands, from 30 unrelated families. Eight evolutionarily conserved regions (ECRs 1-8) identified within the deleted sequence were evaluated for SHOX regulatory activity by means of chromosome conformation capture (3C) in chicken embryo limbs and luciferase reporter assays in human U2OS osteosarcoma cells. The 3C assay indicated potential SHOX regulatory activity by ECR1, which was subsequently confirmed to act as a SHOX enhancer, operating in an orientation and position independent manner, in human U2OS cells. This study has identified the first recurrent PAR1 deletion in LWD and ISS, which results in the loss of a previously uncharacterised SHOX enhancer. The loss of this enhancer may decrease SHOX transcription, resulting in LWD or ISS due to SHOX haploinsufficiency.

  8. Three-dimensional magnetic resonance volumetry of the pituitary gland is effective in detecting short stature in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Xiu, Jianjun; Huang, Zhaoqin; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Zhonghe; Dong, Yin; Yuan, Xianshun; Liu, Qingwei

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to obtain standard reference values for the pituitary gland volumes of healthy children and to analyze the potential diagnostic values of pituitary gland volumetry for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS). The volume of the pituitary gland was measured using a thin-section three-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequence of magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo imaging with a section thickness of 1 mm. A group of 75 healthy children aged between 1 and 19 years were recruited to obtain normal volumetry values of the pituitary gland. These individuals demonstrated no evidence of abnormalities to the central nervous or endocrine systems prior to the study. An additional group of 55 children with GHD (n=32) or ISS (n=23) aged between 0 and 14 years were included in the measurement of pituitary gland volume and height. The Student's t-test was used to evaluate the repetition test, while Pearson's correlation coefficient and regression analyses were performed to examine the correlations between the volume and height of the pituitary glands. Pituitary gland volume and height demonstrated an increasing trend with age in the healthy children. In addition, the pituitary gland volume exhibited a growth spurt in the early teenage years (10-14 years-old), which was more prominent in females. The growth spurt was not observed for pituitary gland height. When compared with the healthy children, 65.6% of the children with GHD and 34.8% of the children with ISS had smaller pituitary gland volumes. Similarly, 37.5% of the children with GHD and 26.1% of the children with ISS had a smaller pituitary gland height compared with the healthy children. The pituitary gland volume performed significantly better compared with height with regard to the detection rate. Therefore, the results indicated that 3D MRI volumetry was useful for understanding the developmental characteristics of the pituitary gland in

  9. Orthodontic treatment for a mandibular prognathic girl of short stature under growth hormone therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yun Pan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of a 12-year-old girl with maxillary deficiency, mandibular prognathism, and facial asymmetry, undergoing growth hormone (GH therapy due to idiopathic short stature. Children of short stature with or without GH deficiency have a deviating craniofacial morphology with overall smaller dimensions; facial retrognathism, especially mandibular retrognathism; and increased facial convexity. However, a complete opposite craniofacial pattern was presented in our case of a skeletal Class III girl with idiopathic short stature. The orthodontic treatment goal was to inhibit or change the direction of mandibular growth and stimulate the maxillary growth of the girl during a course of GH therapy. Maxillary protraction and mandibular retraction were achieved using occipitomental anchorage (OMA orthopedic appliance in the first stage of treatment. In the second stage, the patient was treated with a fixed orthodontic appliance using a modified multiple-loop edgewise archwire technique of asymmetric mechanics and an active retainer of vertical chin-cup. The treatment led to an acceptable facial profile and obvious facial asymmetry improvement. Class I dental occlusion and coincident dental midline were also achieved. A 3½-year follow-up of the girl at age 18 showed a stable result of the orthodontic and dentofacial orthopedic treatment. Our case shows that the OMA orthopedic appliance of maxillary protraction combined with mandibular retraction is effective for correcting skeletal Class III malocclusion with midface deficiency and mandibular prognathism in growing children with idiopathic short stature undergoing GH therapy.

  10. Endocrinological Assessment Of Children With Significant Short Stature Using Radioimmunoassay Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaly, Isis; Hafez, Mona; Shousha, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of clinical diagnosis in a group of children with significant short stature, height <-2.5 standard deviation below the mean for age and sex. Forty-nine children-l 8 female and 31 males-were included, mean age was 11.14 yr. (range 1.18 to 19 yr.). Clinical diagnosis, axiological measurements, thyroid profile, growth hormone, autoantibody screening for celiac disease were assessed. The patients were classified into 5 groups: Group I. familial short stature (FSS)and constitutional delay in growth and puberty (CDGP), (12%); group II. growth hormone deficiency (GHD), 54%; group III. Laron type of dwarfism (LTD) (10%); group IV. growth hormone neurosecretory disorder (GHND, 16%); group V. celiac disease (GSE, 8%). From this study the group with short normal variant (FSS-CDGP), uncommonly presents with significant short stature. Cranial CT scan should performed in any child with the diagnosis of GHD to exclude organic causes of GHD. In the group of GHND, a normal GH values to provocative tests does not guarantee sufficient GH secretion and should not be used to exclude these children from hGH treatment. Further investigations by measurement of integrated GH and IGFI may aid in the diagnosis of this disorder. Celiac disease may present only by short stature, therefore antibody screening tests should be a routine investigation for all children presented with unexplained short stature. Patient with GHD showed significant improvement of their GV SDS during treatment with hGH (p=0.021). Also children with GSE showed significant catch up growth after gluten withdrawal from the diet (p=0.029). (Authors)

  11. Isolated short stature as a presentation of celiac disease in Saudi children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asaad Mohamed Assiri

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of isolated short stature as a clinical presentation of celiac disease in Saudi Arab children and whether some of the routine labora-tory tests performed to determine the cause of short stature could suggest the diagnosis of celiac disease. A total of 91 children with short stature were included in the study. Extensive endocrine and biochemical assessments, including total protein, serum albumin, calcium phosphate and alkaline phosphatase assays; renal function tests; coagulation profile; anti-endomysial antibodies and anti-tissue transglutaminase antibody, growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, free-thyroxin (FT4 assays; stool tests for giardiasis; bone age; and endoscopic intestinal biopsies, were done for all children. Ten of the 91 children had positive intestinal biopsies in the form of total villous atrophy, an increase in crypt height, and an increase in intra-epithelial lymphocyte (IEL numbers up to >40 IEL/100 EC (Type 3C according to the Oberhuber classification, confirming the diagnosis of celiac disease. Five children had mild villous atrophy according to this classification (Type 3A, and they were considered to have potential celiac disease. Seventy-six children had normal intestinal biopsies. Therefore, the prevalence of celiac disease among Saudi children with short stature was 10.9%, and 4.3% of the children were diagnosed as having potential celiac disease. After confirming the diagnosis of celiac disease, all children were kept on a gluten-free diet and all of them showed improvement in their growth rate. We concluded that celiac disease is a very important cause of short stature in children without gastrointestinal complaints in Saudi Arabia. We highly recommend anti-tissue transglutaminase and anti-endomysial antibody screening tests, and a small bowel biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of celiac disease irrespective of the results of the antibody assays, in children with

  12. Improved short-stature rice created by radiation-induced mutation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A new mutant variety of rice, named Calrose 76, has recently been released to farmers in California. The mutant was the result of irradiating seeds of the rice variety Calrose with gamma rays from a cobalt-60 source. The variety is the result of co-operative research between Dr. J.N. Rutger, U.S. Department of Agriculture research geneticist at Davis, California, Prof. M.L. Peterson, University of California, and Dr. Chao-Hwa Hu, an IAEA fellow. The mutant that was ultimately released as a new variety was selected in the second generation following irradiation of the Calrose seeds. Selections were also made in a non-irradiated control population, but none proved to be desirable. After its selection in 1971, the mutant was subsequently tested for several years for agronomic performance, grain yield and quality characteristics. It was found to have the same yielding capacity as the widely grown check variety, CS-M3. It also did not differ in seedling vigour or in heading date, but its mature stem is about 35 cm shorter and less susceptible to lodging. Therefore, it yields more grain under conditions of high soil fertility. The short stature is inherited by a single recessive gene, allelic to the gene for short stature widely used in rice cultivars of the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines (IRRI). The radiation-induced mutant has the advantage that the gene for short stature now exists in a genotype which is adapted to Californian conditions and which possesses the required cold tolerance and grain qualities. Attempts to transfer short stature from the tropical variety IR8 (produced by IRRI) have been complicated by sterility, cold susceptibility, and unacceptable grain quality. The radiation-induced mutant is used now also in crosses to confer the desired short stature to other rice varieties. (author)

  13. Improved short-stature rice created by radiation-induced mutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-06-15

    A new mutant variety of rice, named Calrose 76, has recently been released to farmers in California. The mutant was the result of irradiating seeds of the rice variety Calrose with gamma rays from a cobalt-60 source. The variety is the result of co-operative research between Dr. J.N. Rutger, U.S. Department of Agriculture research geneticist at Davis, California, Prof. M.L. Peterson, University of California, and Dr. Chao-Hwa Hu, an IAEA fellow. The mutant that was ultimately released as a new variety was selected in the second generation following irradiation of the Calrose seeds. Selections were also made in a non-irradiated control population, but none proved to be desirable. After its selection in 1971, the mutant was subsequently tested for several years for agronomic performance, grain yield and quality characteristics. It was found to have the same yielding capacity as the widely grown check variety, CS-M3. It also did not differ in seedling vigour or in heading date, but its mature stem is about 35 cm shorter and less susceptible to lodging. Therefore, it yields more grain under conditions of high soil fertility. The short stature is inherited by a single recessive gene, allelic to the gene for short stature widely used in rice cultivars of the International Rice Research Institute in the Philippines (IRRI). The radiation-induced mutant has the advantage that the gene for short stature now exists in a genotype which is adapted to Californian conditions and which possesses the required cold tolerance and grain qualities. Attempts to transfer short stature from the tropical variety IR8 (produced by IRRI) have been complicated by sterility, cold susceptibility, and unacceptable grain quality. The radiation-induced mutant is used now also in crosses to confer the desired short stature to other rice varieties. (author)

  14. Short stature and hypothyroidism in a child with Nail-Patella Syndrome. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goecke, C; Mellado, C; García, C; García, H

    2018-02-01

    Nail-Patella syndrome (NPS) (OMIM: 161200) or hereditary onycho-osteodysplasia is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by skeletal anomalies, nail dysplasia, renal and ocular abnor malities. The diagnosis is based on clinical and radiological findings and confirmed by the identification of a heterozygous pathogenic variant in the LMX1B gene. Management of these patients involves conti nuous follow-up and treatment ofthe orthopedical, ocular and renal problems that mayoccur. To describe a case of NPS with short stature and hypothyroidism, an association that has not been described in the literature. An eleven-year-old boy with a height of 130 cm (-2.01 Stan dard Deviations [SD]) was referred to the Endocrine Unit at the age of 2 years due to altered thyroid tests. At that time, dysplastic nails and disproportionate short stature were detected. Radiological abnormalities initially suggested a skeletal dysplasia. A primary hypothyroidism was confirmed, without anti-thyroid antibodies and with a normal thyroid ultrasound. Levothyroxine treatment was initiated. The diagnosis of NPS was confirmed by a genetic study with a single pathogenic variant in the LMX1B gene. His father presented a similar phenotype with normal stature. His bone age was equivalent to his chronological age. Laboratory screening for short stature and a GH stimulation test were normal. We present a child with proven NPS with short stature and hypothyroi dism. We did not find publications that described this triple association. It can't be ruled out that there could be a relationship between NPS and the thyroid alterations found in this patient.

  15. Orphan disease: Cherubism, optic atrophy, and short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Balaji Jeevanandham; Rajoo Ramachandran; Vignesh Dhanapal; Ilanchezhian Subramanian; Venkata Sai

    2018-01-01

    A 12-year-old female presented with complaints of progressive visual impairment in both her eyes. On clinical examination, she was short for her age and her ophthalmoscopic examination revealed bilateral optic atrophy. Computed tomography of the patient revealed multiple expansile lytic lesions of mandible suggesting cherubism. The optic atrophy was confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging, which additionally revealed bilateral retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts. This association of cherubism wit...

  16. Spinal anesthesia using Taylor's approach helps avoid general anesthesia in short stature asthmatic patient

    OpenAIRE

    Patil, Amarjeet Dnyandeo; Bapat, Manasi; Patil, Sunita A.; Gogna, Roshan Lal

    2015-01-01

    The case history of a 35-year-old female patient with short stature is presented. She was posted for rectopexy in view of rectal prolapse. She was a known case of bronchial asthma. She had crowding of intervertebral spaces, which made administration of spinal anesthesia via the normal route very difficult. Taylor′s approach for administration of the same was tried and proved successful, thus saving the patient from receiving general anesthesia in the presence of bronchial asthma, for a perine...

  17. Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism and Short Stature in Patients with Diabetes Due to Neurogenin 3 Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar; G?mez, Jos? Luis; Gleisner, Andrea; Hattersley, Andrew T.; Codner, Ethel

    2016-01-01

    Context: Biallelic mutations in NEUROG3 are known to cause early-onset malabsorptive diarrhea due to congenital anendocrinosis and diabetes mellitus at a variable age. No other endocrine disorders have been described so far. We report four patients with homozygous NEUROG3 mutations who presented with short stature and failed to show any signs of pubertal development. Case Description: Four patients (two males, two females) were diagnosed with homozygous mutations in NEUROG3 on the basis of co...

  18. Rathke′s cyst with ectopic neurohypophysis presenting as severe short stature with delayed puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Deep Dutta; Ajitesh Roy; Sujoy Ghosh; Pradip Mukhopadhyay; Ranen Dasgupta; Satinath Mukhopadhyay; Subhankar Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic neurohypophysis (EN) is found in nearly half of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Rathke's cyst (RC) is uncommon in children and when present, hypopituitarism is found in nearly half of them. We present a fourteen and half-year-old girl with severe short stature and delayed puberty who on evaluation was found to have GHD, secondary hypocortisolism, and hypogonadism. Imaging revealed hypoplastic anterior pituitary, stalk agenesis, EN at tuber cinereum and intrapituitary RC...

  19. Maternal short stature: A risk factor for low birth weight in neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Chandra Kamathi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW is the most common cause of perinatal mortality, causing almost 30 percent of neonatal deaths. On the other hand, maternal short stature is known to cause a lot of obstetric complications like cephalopelvic disproportion and arrest of labor, intrauterine asphyxia, intrauterine growth retardation. The objective of our study was to find out whether there was any significant statistical association between maternal height and the birth weight of the neonate. We identified a group of low birth weight neonates (n=54 and a control group (n=51 of normal weight neonates at term in Mediciti Hospital over a period of 1 year and retrospectively looked the maternal heights for both groups. Inclusion criteria being mothers who delivered at term, mothers who had a hemoglobin level more than 10 gm/dl, mothers with relatively uneventful antenatal without any significant obstetric or medical complications during the pregnancy, and neonates with relatively uneventful post-natal periods without any significant pediatric or medical complications. The odds of having been born of a mother of short stature are more than three times greater for a low birth weight baby than a normal weight baby. The mean of birth weights of babies born to mothers of normal height is more than the mean of birth weights of babies born to mothers of short stature by 277.01 gm. This study reaffirms the observation that maternal height has a direct effect on the weight of the newborn and we propose that maternal short stature be identified as an independent risk factor for low birth weight.

  20. GROWTH HORMONE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH SHORT STATURE LIVED IN SAMARA REGION

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    E.G. Mikhailova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth inhibition in children is heterogeneous state, and it may accompany many endocrine, somatic, genetic and chromosome diseases. Generally recognized medications for treatment of somatotropic insufficiency in present times are biosynthetic analogs of human growth hormone (hGH, obtained with DNA-recombinant technology. This article presents the results of estimation of effectiveness of hGH in treatment of children with short stature (n=77 with isolated deficiency of growth hormone, panhypopituitarism, Turner's syndrome, treated with hGH during 3 years. All patients had significant positive dynamics of clinical status, the velocity of grouth increased from 1.9 cm (initial per year to 11.0 cm (the end of first year, with following decrease to 5.3 cm per year. SDS index of growth had stable tendency to increase: medium SDS index of growth initially was -3.9 SD, on the end of third year – -2.0 SD. It was shown, that treatment with hGH is effective in any types of short stature.Key words: children, short stature, treatment, human growth hormone.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:108-113

  1. Dietary Zinc Intake and Plasma Zinc Concentrations in Children with Short Stature and Failure to Thrive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazbeck, Nadine; Hanna-Wakim, Rima; El Rafei, Rym; Barhoumi, Abir; Farra, Chantal; Daher, Rose T; Majdalani, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    The burden of zinc deficiency on children includes an increased incidence of diarrhea, failure to thrive (FTT) and short stature. The aim of this study was to assess whether children with FTT and/or short stature have lower dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations compared to controls. A case-control study conducted at the American University of Beirut Medical Center included 161 subjects from 1 to 10 years of age. Cases had a statistically significant lower energy intake (960.9 vs. 1,135.2 kcal for controls, p = 0.010), lower level of fat (30.3 vs. 36.5 g/day, p = 0.0043) and iron intake (7.4 vs. 9.1 mg/day, p = 0.034). There was no difference in zinc, copper, carbohydrate and protein intake between the 2 groups. The plasma zinc concentration did not differ between the cases and controls (97.4 vs. 98.2 μg/dl, p = 0.882). More cases had mild-to-moderate zinc deficiency when compared to controls with 10.3 vs. 3.6%, p = 0.095. Our study did not show statistically significant difference in dietary zinc intake and plasma zinc concentrations between children with FTT and/or short stature compared to healthy controls. A prospective study is planned to assess the effect of zinc supplementation on growth parameters in FTT children. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Hypogonadotropic Hypogonadism and Short Stature in Patients with Diabetes Due to Neurogenin 3 Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Cabezas, Oscar; Gómez, José Luis; Gleisner, Andrea; Hattersley, Andrew T; Codner, Ethel

    2016-10-01

    Biallelic mutations in NEUROG3 are known to cause early-onset malabsorptive diarrhea due to congenital anendocrinosis and diabetes mellitus at a variable age. No other endocrine disorders have been described so far. We report four patients with homozygous NEUROG3 mutations who presented with short stature and failed to show any signs of pubertal development. Four patients (two males, two females) were diagnosed with homozygous mutations in NEUROG3 on the basis of congenital malabsorptive diarrhea and diabetes. All four had severe short stature and failed to develop secondary sexual characteristics at an appropriate age, despite some having normal body mass index. The absence of gonadal function persisted into the third decade in one patient. Upon testing, both basal and stimulated LH and FSH levels were low, with the remaining pituitary hormones within the normal range. Magnetic resonance imaging scans of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis did not reveal structural abnormalities. A diagnosis of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism was made, and replacement therapy with sex hormones was started. The high reproducibility of this novel phenotype suggests that central hypogonadism and short stature are common findings in patients with mutations in NEUROG3. Growth rate needs to be carefully monitored in these patients, who also should be routinely screened for hypogonadism when they reach the appropriate age. NEUROG3 mutations expand on the growing number of genetic causes of acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  3. Short stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as tall as her parents. Providers call this "constitutional growth delay." If one or both parents are ... about A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  4. Parents' perception about child's height and psychopathology in community children with relatively short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Hwang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThis study investigated the relationship between height and psychopathology in community children with relatively short stature according to the parents' reports. Also, the matter of parental concern about child's height was explored.MethodsThe child behavior checklist (CBCL, the Brief Encounter Psychosocial Instrument (BEPSI, and the child-health questionnaire-parent form 50 (CHQ-PF50 were administered to 423 parents (from elementary and middle school children's in Gangnam, South Korea. Subjects were divided into three groups; (1 relatively short (n=30, (2 average stature (n=131, (3 relatively tall (n=153. CBCL, BEPSI, and CHQ-PF50 scores were compared among three groups.ResultsThere were no significant differences in psychosocial burden associated with relatively short stature measured by Korean version of the BEPSI and Korean version of the CBCL scores among three groups. But general health perception score of relatively short was significantly lower than that of nonshort on the CHQ-PF50. Also, they were more used complementary medicines, milk and growth hormone compared to the nonshort. The parents' expected height of their children was 180.6±3.5 cm for boys and 166.7±3.5 cm for girls. This is respectively 90 percentile and 75-90 percentile for the Korean standard adult height.ConclusionOur study shows that in Korea, Parents tended to regard relatively short children as having health problems. Also, the parental expectation for their child's attainable height is unrealistically tall, mostly due to lack of correct medical information.

  5. Comparison of SHOX and associated elements duplications distribution between patients (Lėri-Weill dyschondrosteosis/idiopathic short stature) and population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeldova, Katerina; Solc, Roman

    2017-09-05

    The effect of heterozygous duplications of SHOX and associated elements on Lėri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS) development is less distinct when compared to reciprocal deletions. The aim of our study was to compare frequency and distribution of duplications within SHOX and associated elements between population sample and LWD (ISS) patients. A preliminary analysis conducted on Czech population sample of 250 individuals compared to our previously reported sample of 352 ISS/LWD Czech patients indicated that rather than the difference in frequency of duplications it is the difference in their distribution. Particularly, there was an increased frequency of duplications residing to the CNE-9 enhancer in our LWD/ISS sample. To see whether the obtained data are consistent across published studies we made a literature survey to get published cases with SHOX or associated elements duplication and formed the merged LWD, the merged ISS, and the merged population samples. Relative frequency of particular region duplication in each of those merged samples were calculated. There was a significant difference in the relative frequency of CNE-9 enhancer duplications (11 vs. 3) and complete SHOX (exon1-6b) duplications (4 vs. 24) (p-value 0.0139 and p-value 0.000014, respectively) between the merged LWD sample and the merged population sample. We thus propose that partial SHOX duplications and small duplications encompassing CNE-9 enhancer could be highly penetrant alleles associated with ISS and LWD development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Growth hormone treatment for childhood short stature and risk of stroke in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poidvin, Amélie; Touzé, Emmanuel; Ecosse, Emmanuel; Landier, Fabienne; Béjot, Yannick; Giroud, Maurice; Rothwell, Peter M; Carel, Jean-Claude; Coste, Joël

    2014-08-26

    We investigated the incidence of stroke and stroke subtypes in a population-based cohort of patients in France treated with growth hormone (GH) for short stature in childhood. Adult morbidity data were obtained in 2008-2010 for 6,874 children with idiopathic isolated GH deficiency or short stature who started GH treatment between 1985 and 1996. Cerebrovascular events were validated using medical reports and imaging data and classified according to standard definitions of subarachnoid hemorrhage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and ischemic stroke. Case ascertainment completeness was estimated with capture-recapture methods. The incidence of stroke and of stroke subtypes was calculated and compared with population values extracted from registries in Dijon and Oxford, between 2000 and 2012. Using both Dijon and Oxford population-based registries as references, there was a significantly higher risk of stroke among patients treated with GH in childhood. The excess risk of stroke was mainly attributable to a very substantially and significantly higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke (standardized incidence ratio from 3.5 to 7.0 according to the registry rates considered, and accounting or not accounting for missed cases), and particularly subarachnoid hemorrhage (standardized incidence ratio from 5.7 to 9.3). We report a strong relationship between hemorrhagic stroke and GH treatment in childhood for isolated growth hormone deficiency or childhood short stature. Patients treated with GH worldwide should be advised about this association and further studies should evaluate the potentially causal role of GH treatment in these findings. © 2014 American Academy of Neurology.

  7. MRI features of growth hormone deficiency in children with short stature caused by pituitary lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chao; Zhang, Xinxian; Dong, Lina; Zhu, Bin; Xin, Tao

    2017-06-01

    We verified the advantages of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for improving the diagnostic quality of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children with short stature caused by pituitary lesions. Clinical data obtained from 577 GHD patients with short stature caused by pituitary lesions were retrospectively analyzed. There were 354 cases (61.3%) with anterior pituitary dysplasia; 45 cases (7.8%) of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS); 15 cases (2.6%) of pituitary hyperplasia due to primary hypothyroidism; 38 cases (6.6%) of Rathke cleft cyst; 68 cases (11.8%) of empty sella syndrome; 16 cases (2.8%) of pituitary invasion from Langerhans cell histiocytosis; 2 cases (0.3%) of sellar regional arachnoid cyst and 39 cases (6.8%) of craniopharyngioma. MRI results showed that the height of anterior pituitary in patients was less than normal. Location, size and signals of posterior pituitary and pituitary stalk were normal in anterior pituitary dysplasia. In all cases pituitary hyperplasia was caused by hypothyroidism. MRI results showed that anterior pituitary was enlarged, and we detected upward apophysis and obvious homogeneous enhancement. There were no pituitary stalk interruption and abnormal signal. We also observed that after hormone replacement therapy the size of pituitary gland was reduced. Anterior pituitary atrophy was observed in Rathke cleft cyst, empty sella syndrome, sellar regional arachnoid cyst and craniopharyngioma. The microstructure of hypophysis and sellar region was studied with MRI. We detected pituitary lesions, and the characteristics of various pituitary diseases of GHD in children with short stature. It was concluded that in children with GHD caused by pituitary lesions, MRI was an excellent method for early diagnosis. This method offers clinical practicability and we believe it can be used for differential diagnosis and to monitor the therapeutic effects.

  8. Impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodati, Annalisa; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2011-03-11

    To systematically determine the impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature. Systematic review. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and the bibliographic references from retrieved articles of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials from 1985 to April 2010. Height in adulthood (standard deviation score) and overall gain in height (SD score) from baseline measurement in childhood. Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials with height measurements for adults. Inclusion criteria were initial short stature (defined as height >2 SD score below the mean), peak growth hormone responses >10 μg/L, prepubertal stage, no previous growth hormone therapy, and no comorbid conditions that would impair growth. Adult height was considered achieved when growth rate was growth hormone treated children exceeded that of the controls by 0.65 SD score (about 4 cm). The mean height gain in treated children was 1.2 SD score compared with 0.34 SD score in untreated children. A slight difference of about 1.2 cm in adult height was observed between the two growth hormone dose regimens. In the seven non-randomised controlled trials the adult height of the growth hormone treated group exceeded that of the controls by 0.45 SD score (about 3 cm). Growth hormone therapy in children with idiopathic short stature seems to be effective in partially reducing the deficit in height as adults, although the magnitude of effectiveness is on average less than that achieved in other conditions for which growth hormone is licensed. The individual response to therapy is highly variable, and additional studies are needed to identify the responders.

  9. Spinal anesthesia using Taylor′s approach helps avoid general anesthesia in short stature asthmatic patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Dnyandeo Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The case history of a 35-year-old female patient with short stature is presented. She was posted for rectopexy in view of rectal prolapse. She was a known case of bronchial asthma. She had crowding of intervertebral spaces, which made administration of spinal anesthesia via the normal route very difficult. Taylor′s approach for administration of the same was tried and proved successful, thus saving the patient from receiving general anesthesia in the presence of bronchial asthma, for a perineal surgery. The possible cause for the difficulty in administration of spinal anesthesia and the Taylor′s approach are discussed, and reports of similar cases reviewed.

  10. Stickler Syndrome Type 1 with Short Stature and Atypical Ocular Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Goyal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stickler syndrome or hereditary progressive arthroophthalmopathy is a heterogeneous group of collagen tissue disorders, characterized by orofacial features, ophthalmological features (high myopia, vitreoretinal degeneration, retinal detachment, and presenile cataracts, hearing impairment, mild spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, and/or early onset arthritis. Stickler syndrome type I (ocular form is caused by mutation in the COL2A1 gene. Ptosis and uveitis are relatively rare ophthalmological manifestations of this syndrome. We report an Indian boy having 2710C>T mutation in COL2A1 gene demonstrating short stature, ptosis, and uveitis with Stickler syndrome.

  11. Short Stature in Chronic Kidney Disease Treated with Growth Hormone and an Aromatase Inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan R. Mendley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an alternative strategy for management of severe growth failure in a 14-year-old child who presented with advanced chronic kidney disease close to puberty. The patient was initially treated with growth hormone for a year until kidney transplantation, followed immediately by a year-long course of an aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, to prevent epiphyseal fusion and prolong the period of linear growth. Outcome was excellent, with successful transplant and anticipated complete correction of height deficit. This strategy may be appropriate for children with chronic kidney disease and short stature who are in puberty.

  12. [Short stature in children of Karapotó ethnic background, São Sebastião, Alagoas, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Samara Bonfim Gomes; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Silva, Danielle Alice Vieira da; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Asakura, Leiko; Costa, Emília Chagas; Leal, Vanessa Sá

    2016-06-01

    To describe the prevalence of short stature among children of Karapotó ethnic background. Cross-sectional, population-based study that included children between 6 and 59 months of age from the Plak-Ô native village and the Terra Nova settlement, São Sebastião, Alagoas, carried out between 2008 and 2009. Short stature was evaluated by the Height/Age index, using as cutoff z score ≤-2. The prevalence of short stature was determined by comparing simple and relative frequencies. The population growth curves were compared to the WHO reference curves. Data analysis included the outcome variable: Height/Age and the predictor variables: place of residence, gender, age, anemia, birth weight, family income, maternal literacy. The chi-square test was used to compare the categorical variables, whereas the chi-square test with Yates correction was used for dichotomous variables, considering as statistically significant p-values≤0.05. The prevalence of short stature was 15.6% for children from the Terra Nova settlement and 9.1% for those from Plak-Ô native village. The prevalence of short stature among the Karapotó ethnicity was 13.4%. The variables: maternal literacy, family income and low birth weight were statistically associated with short stature. The observed short stature prevalence rates are significant, being characterized as a public health problem. Among the associated factors, the following are noteworthy: unfavorable conditions of maternal literacy, family income and low birth weight. The planning of strategies to reverse the situation must take such factors into consideration. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  13. Short stature with umbilical hernia - Not always due to cretinism: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharvil S Gadve

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 7-year-old boy presented with umbilical hernia and short stature. Growth retardation, recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and delayed developmental milestones were present from infancy. Umbilical hernia was diagnosed at the age of 5 years. On examination, he had short-trunk dwarfism, large head circumference, coarse facial features, joint stiffness, hepatosplenomegaly, and mild mental retardation. He had normal biochemical parameters, thyroid function tests and arterial blood gas analysis. Radiological evaluation showed that the child had Hunter syndrome with findings of J-shaped sellaturcica, proximal bulleting of metacarpals, spatulated ribs and anterior beaking of lumbar vertebrae. The second case was a 6-year-old girl with umbilical hernia, short stature, normal biochemistry and radiological findings of mucopolysaccharidosis. However, she also had corneal opacity; confirmed by slit-lamp examination, which led to the diagnosis of Hurler-Scheie syndrome. Enzymatic studies could not be done in both the cases, as they are not available at most centers.

  14. Prevalence of short stature, underweight, overweight, and obesity among school children in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Beano, Abdallah M; Haddadin, Faris I; Radwan, Sohab S; Allauzy, Suhaib A; Alkhayyat, Motasem M; Al-Dahabrah, Zaid A; Al-Hasan, Yanal G; Yousef, Al-Motassem F

    2016-10-03

    The prevalence of short stature (SS) and underweight in Jordan on a national level is unknown. This study aimed to investigate, on a national level, the prevalence of short stature (SS), underweight, overweight, and obesity among school aged children in Jordan. This cross-sectional study was conducted from May 2015 to January 2016 and included 2702 subjects aged 6-17 years. Jordan was classified into 3 regions; North, Center (urban), and South (rural). Public and private schools were randomly selected from a random sample of cities from each region. The socioeconomic status of the sampling locations was assessed using several indicators including education, income, healthcare and housing conditions. For each participating subject, anthropometrics were obtained. SS, underweight, overweight and obesity were defined using Center of Disease Control's (CDC) growth charts. Median Z-scores for each region, age and gender were calculated. The Central and Northern regions enjoyed higher socioeconomic status compared to rural Southern regions. The overall prevalence of SS, underweight, overweight, and obesity were 4.9 %, 5.7 %, 17.3 %, and 15.7 %, respectively. SS and underweight were most prevalent in the rural South, while obesity was highest in the Central region. Females were more likely to be overweight, while males were more likely to be obese. Private schools had higher prevalence of obesity and overweight than public ones. Variations in height and weight among Jordanian school children might be affected by socioeconomic status.

  15. Molecular cytogenetic characterization of a familial pericentric inversion 3 associated with short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Usha R; Hansmann, Ingo; Schlote, Dietmar

    2015-03-01

    Short stature refers to the height of an individual which is below expected. The causes are heterogenous and influenced by several genetic and environmental factors. Chromosomal abnormalities are a major cause of diseases and cytogenetic mapping is one of the powerful tools for the identification of novel disease genes. Here we report a three generation family with a heterozygous pericentric inversion of 46, XX, inv(3) (p24.1q26.1) associated with Short stature. Positional cloning strategy was used to physically map the breakpoint regions by Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Fine mapping was performed with Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) clones spanning the breakpoint regions. In order to further characterize the breakpoint regions extensive molecular mapping was carried out with the breakpoint spanning BACs which narrowed down the breakpoint region to 2.9 kb and 5.3 kb regions on p and q arm respectively. Although these breakpoints did not disrupt any validated genes, we had identified a novel putative gene in the vicinity of 3q26.1 breakpoint region by in silico analysis. Trying to find the presence of any transcripts of this putative gene we analyzed human total RNA by RT-PCR and identified transcripts containing three new exons confirming the existence of a so far unknown gene close to the 3q breakpoint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. [How do Affected Children and Adolescents Experience their Short Stature, and what is the Point of View of their Parents?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sommer, Rachel; Petzold, Sophie; Bullinger-Naber, Monika

    2014-01-01

    How do Affected Children and Adolescents Experience their Short Stature, and what is the Point of View of their Parents? Despite a large number of publications on the psychosocial situation of short statured children and their parents only a few qualitative studies focus on the perspective of the affected families. Within the European QoLISSY study ("Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth") an instrument to assess the health related quality of life of short statured children was developed. The aim of this project was to examine the self-perceived quality of life of the children themselves in comparison to their parents' perspective. During the development of the QoLISSY instrument, focus groups were conducted as a first step of this study. A total of 23 short statured children and 31 parents participated and discussed their experiences in separate groups with trained moderators. The discussions were analyzed qualitatively und results were used to generate a first list of items for the questionnaire to be developed. While parents focused on socio-emotional problems, children talked much more about their growth hormone treatment and problems in their social environment. In comparison to other studies children rated their quality of life worse than their parents. Not only medical treatment but also a psychological and socio-emotional intervention seems to be indicated.

  17. Severe Short Stature in an Adolescent Male with Prader-Willi Syndrome and Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: A Therapeutic Conundrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith Wasserman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency results in excess androgen production which can lead to early epiphyseal fusion and short stature. Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is a genetic disorder resulting from a defect on chromosome 15 due to paternal deletion, maternal uniparental disomy, or imprinting defect. Ninety percent of patients with PWS have short stature. In this article we report a patient with simple-virilizing CAH and PWS who was overtreated with glucocorticoids for CAH and not supplemented with growth hormone for PWS, resulting in a significantly short adult height.

  18. A boy with 46,X,+mar presenting gynecomastia and short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Eun Kim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old boy was referred due to gynecomastia and short stature. He was overweight and showed the knuckle-dimple sign on the left hand, a short fourth toe on the left foot, and male external genitalia with a small phallus. His levels of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone were increased, and his testosterone concentration was normal. Other hormonal tests were within the normal range. Radiographs showed short fourth and fifth metacarpals and fourth metatarsal bones. The karyotype was reported as 46,X,+mar, and the marker chromosome was shown to originate from the Y chromosome, which was identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing were used to clarify the deleted loci of the Y chromosome by making use of Y-specific sequence-tagged sites (STSs. The sex-determining region Y and centromere were verified, and there were microdeletions on the long arm of the Y chromosome. The azoospermia factor (AZF b region was partially deleted, and AZFa and AZFc were completely deleted. Two STS probes of sY143 and the Y chromosome RNA recognition motif in AZFb showed positive signals corresponding to Yq11.223. The karyotype of the patient was interpreted as 46,X,der(Ydel(Y(q11.21q11.222del(Y(q11.23qter. Herein, we report a rare case of a boy presenting with gynecomastia and short stature with 46, X, +mar, which originated from the Y chromosome, which was identified to have Yq microdeletions.

  19. [Short stature treatment by lower limb lengthening--multicenter study from five centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczewski, Paweł; Shadi, Milud; Napiontek, Marek; Dorman, T; Faflik, J; Grzegorzewski, A; Jasiewicz, B; Kacki, W; Kucharski, R; Niedzielski, K; Synder, M; Tesiorowski, M; Zarzycka, M; Zarek, S

    2002-01-01

    26 patients (17 female, 9 male) from 5 centers were evaluated. The age at the beginning of treatment ranged from 6 to 29 years (mean 13.8). The cause of short stature in 19 patients was achondroplasia or pseudoachondroplasia, in next 2--other bone dysplasias. The other 5 patients had not bone pathology and were treated because of cosmetic indications. Preoperative body height ranged from 90 to 149 cm (mean 120). Axial deviations of the lower extremities were noted in 11 patients. Mean follow-up was 3.7 years. METHOD OF TREATMENT: Most of patients were treated with Ilizarov device using cross lengthening strategy (2 stages--opposite femur and tibia lengthening). Mean duration of treatment including interval between two stages (mean 12 months) was 29 months. Planned increase of body height ranged from 10 to 26 cm (mean 16.4). Planned or greater lengthening (mean 14.8 cm) was achieved in 14 patients. Partial planned lengthening (mean 65% of planned lengthening) was achieved in 8 patients (mean 11.8 cm) including two patients who resigned the second stage of treatment. In two patients lengthening was stopped during first month of treatment because of great complications. In 2 patients treatment was not completed (interval between first and second stage). Mean increase of body height of patients with complete treatment was 13.1 cm (from 2 to 28). Problems, obstacles and complications were analyzed according to Paley classification. There were 24 problems in 15 patient (inflammation process around K wires--15 patients, bone healing disturbances--3, regenerate fracture--2, transient foot equinus--2 and axial deviation of the lower extremity--1). There were 31 obstacles in 19 patients (regenerate's defect--7 patients, premature bone consolidation--6, foot equinus--4 and other--14). There were 26 complications in 18 patients (axial deviation of the lengthened segment--8, foot equinus--6, paresis of the peroneal nerve--3, fractures--2 and other--5). The most serious

  20. Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of GH in Japanese Children with Down Syndrome Short Stature Accompanied by GH Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Meguri, Kyoko; Inoue, Masaru; Narahara, Koji; Sato, Takahiro; Takata, Ami; Ohki, Nobuhiko; Ozono, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of GH treatment in children with Down syndrome who had been diagnosed with GH deficiency (GHD). A total of 20 subjects were investigated in this study. Fourteen Down syndrome children (5 boys and 9 girls) with short stature due to GHD were treated with GH at Okayama Red Cross General Hospital, and 6 Down syndrome children (4 boys and 2 girls) with short stature due to GHD were registered in the Pfizer International Growth Database (KIGS). Height SD s...

  1. Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome presenting as short stature: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Nanik; Ali, Syed Ahsan; Hussain, Syed Zubair

    2014-12-19

    Pituitary stalk interruption syndrome is a rare congenital abnormality of the pituitary that is responsible for anterior pituitary deficiency. It is characterized by a classic triad of interrupted pituitary stalk, absent or ectopic posterior pituitary, and anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. Clinical presentation varies according to age. In adults it presents as short stature and anterior pituitary deficiency. Without early diagnosis and treatment, mortality and morbidity in these patients is high. Early diagnosis and treatment of this rare disease can prevent permanent short statue of the patient. We report the first case of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome from Pakistan. A 17-year-old Pakistani young man presented with short stature and underdeveloped secondary sexual characters. His siblings and parents were healthy, with normal height. An examination showed his blood pressure was 90/60 mmHg, and his height, weight, and body mass index were 142 cm, 34.5 kg, and 17.10 kg/m2, respectively. He had no hair growth on his face, axilla, or pubis. His testes were between 1 and 2 mL in size, with a 4 cm-at-stretch micropenis. His lab investigations showed that his thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was 8.58 uIU/mL (0.4 to 4.2), his free thyroid hormone level FT4 was 0.46 ng/dL (0.89 to 1.76), his prolactin was 21.1 ng/mL (3.0 to 14.7), and his baseline cortisol was 0.30 ug/dL (4.3 to 22.4). His cortisol level after 60 minutes of cosyntropin injection was 3.5 ug/dL (4.3 to 22.4), his insulin like growth factor IGF-1 was 31.56 ng/mL (247.3 to 481.7), his testosterone level was under 2.5 ng/dL (2 to 800), his follicle stimulating hormone FSH was 0.41 uIU/mL (0.0 to 10.0), and his leutinizing hormone LH was under 0.1 uIU/mL (1.2 to 7.8). His bone age was 10 years according to the Greulich and Pyle method, as shown by X-rays. The results from his pituitary magnetic resonance imaging scan were consistent with pituitary stalk interruption syndrome. We describe a young

  2. Rathke's cyst with ectopic neurohypophysis presenting as severe short stature with delayed puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Deep; Roy, Ajitesh; Ghosh, Sujoy; Mukhopadhyay, Pradip; Dasgupta, Ranen; Mukhopadhyay, Satinath; Chowdhury, Subhankar

    2012-12-01

    Ectopic neurohypophysis (EN) is found in nearly half of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Rathke's cyst (RC) is uncommon in children and when present, hypopituitarism is found in nearly half of them. We present a fourteen and half-year-old girl with severe short stature and delayed puberty who on evaluation was found to have GHD, secondary hypocortisolism, and hypogonadism. Imaging revealed hypoplastic anterior pituitary, stalk agenesis, EN at tuber cinereum and intrapituitary RC. This is perhaps the first report of simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC, which was seen in a girl with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. A primary defect in pituitary development may explain this simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC and hence this severe anterior pituitary function deficit.

  3. Rathke′s cyst with ectopic neurohypophysis presenting as severe short stature with delayed puberty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deep Dutta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic neurohypophysis (EN is found in nearly half of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Rathke′s cyst (RC is uncommon in children and when present, hypopituitarism is found in nearly half of them. We present a fourteen and half-year-old girl with severe short stature and delayed puberty who on evaluation was found to have GHD, secondary hypocortisolism, and hypogonadism. Imaging revealed hypoplastic anterior pituitary, stalk agenesis, EN at tuber cinereum and intrapituitary RC. This is perhaps the first report of simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC, which was seen in a girl with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency. A primary defect in pituitary development may explain this simultaneous occurrence of EN and RC and hence this severe anterior pituitary function deficit.

  4. Evaluation of short stature mutants of Basmati-370 for yield and grain quality characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awan, M.A.; Ahmad, M.; Cheema, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    Three short stature mutants were induced in an indica rice cultivar by gamma irradiation. The mutants were assessed for their yielding ability and grain quality characteristics. All the mutants out yielded the parent variety, Basmati-370. The increase in yield of the mutants ranged from 19.37% to 29.66%. DM-2 gave the highest yield (3587.96 kg/ha) among the mutants. As regards physical, cooking and eating quality characteristics, there was no significant difference in water absorption, volume expansion ratios and stickiness among the mutants and Basmati-370. However, Basmati-370 was scored best for flavour as this variety had strong aroma as compared to its mutants which were scored for moderately strong aroma. (authors)

  5. Disorders of childhood growth and development: failure to thrive versus short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    Failure to thrive (FTT) describes retarded growth in height and weight, whereas short stature (SS) involves comparison of a child or adolescent's height to that of a reference group or to his or her own height across time. To identify either condition in infants, children, and adolescents, the family physician should focus on accurate measurement of length/height and weight as well as careful plotting and assessment of the rate of linear growth and weight gain based on World Health Organization standards (from birth to 2 years) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention charts (from age 2 years). Identification of the etiologies of FTT and SS is complex, requiring consideration of such factors as birth weight, prematurity, and familial height. FTT can result from inadequate caloric intake (eg, caused by difficulties with nursing, limited food availability, or incorrect formula preparation), inadequate caloric absorption (eg, resulting from metabolic, gastrointestinal, or other medical conditions), or excessive caloric expenditure/ineffective utilization (eg, due to hyperthyroidism, diabetes, pulmonary or cardiac conditions). Short stature can be due to a primary growth disorder, such as bone disease or chromosomal syndrome; a secondary factor, such as a chronic medical or endocrine disorder; or an undetermined etiology. The management of FTT and SS requires attention to a combination of medical and behavioral/social issues (eg, treating underlying conditions, assisting with the feeding process, addressing stress and social functioning), and often requires a multidisciplinary approach. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  6. Steel syndrome: dislocated hips and radial heads, carpal coalition, scoliosis, short stature, and characteristic facial features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, John M; Ramirez, Norman; Betz, Randal; Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Pino, Franz; Herrera-Soto, Jose A; Carlo, Simon; Cornier, Alberto S

    2010-01-01

    A syndrome of children with short stature, bilateral hip dislocations, radial head dislocations, carpal coalitions, scoliosis, and cavus feet in Puerto Rican children, was reported by Steel et al in 1993. The syndrome was described as a unique entity with dismal results after conventional treatment of dislocated hips. The purpose of this study is to reevaluate this patient population with a longer follow-up and delineate the clinical and radiologic features, treatment outcomes, and the genetic characteristics. This is a retrospective cohort study of 32 patients in whom we evaluated the clinical, imaging data, and genetic characteristics. We compare the findings and quality of life in patients with this syndrome who have had attempts at reduction of the hips versus those who did not have the treatment. Congenital hip dislocations were present in 100% of the patients. There was no attempt at reduction in 39% (25/64) of the hips. In the remaining 61% (39/64), the hips were treated with a variety of modalities fraught with complications. Of those treated, 85% (33/39) remain dislocated, the rest of the hips continue subluxated with acetabular dysplasia and pain. The group of hips that were not treated reported fewer complaints and limitation in daily activities compared with the hips that had attempts at reduction. Steel syndrome is a distinct clinical entity characterized by short stature, bilateral hip and radial head dislocation, carpal coalition, scoliosis, cavus feet, and characteristic facial features with dismal results for attempts at reduction of the hips. Prognostic Study Level II.

  7. Alström syndrome is associated with short stature and reduced GH reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, S; Maffei, P; Bettini, V; Milan, G; Favaretto, F; Gardiman, M; Marshall, J D; Greggio, N A; Pozzan, G B; Collin, G B; Naggert, J K; Bronson, R; Vettor, R

    2013-10-01

    Alström syndrome (ALMS) is a rare autosomal recessive monogenic disease included in an emerging class of genetic disorders called 'ciliopathies' and is likely to impact the central nervous system as well as metabolic and endocrine function. Individuals with ALMS present clinical features resembling a growth hormone deficiency (GHD) condition, but thus far no study has specifically investigated this aspect in a large population. Twenty-three patients with ALMS (age, 1-52 years; 11 males, 12 females) were evaluated for anthropometric parameters (growth charts and standard deviation score (SDS) of height, weight, BMI), GH secretion by growth hormone-releasing hormone + arginine test (GHRH-arg), bone age, and hypothalamic-pituitary magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A group of 17 healthy subjects served as controls in the GH secretion study. Longitudinal retrospective and prospective data were utilized. The length-for-age measurements from birth to 36 months showed normal growth with most values falling within -0·67 SDS to +1·28 SDS. A progressive decrease in stature-for-age was observed after 10 years of age, with a low final height in almost all ALMS subjects (>16-20 years; mean SDS, -2·22 ± 1·16). The subset of 12 patients with ALMS tested for GHRH-arg showed a significantly shorter stature than age-matched controls (154·7 ± 10·6 cm vs 162·9 ± 4·8 cm, P = 0·009) and a mild increase in BMI (Kg/m(2) ) (27·8 ± 4·8 vs 24·1 ± 2·5, P = 0·007). Peak GH after GHRH-arg was significantly lower in patients with ALMS in comparison with controls (11·9 ± 6·9 μg/l vs 86·1 ± 33·2 μg/l, P short stature reported in ALMS may be at least partially influenced by impairment of GH secretion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Mutations in COA3 cause isolated complex IV deficiency associated with neuropathy, exercise intolerance, obesity, and short stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Weraarpachai, Woranontee; Ravn, Kirstine Johanne Theresia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated a subject with an isolated cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency presenting with an unusual phenotype characterised by neuropathy, exercise intolerance, obesity, and short stature. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) analysis s...

  9. Clinical application of automated Greulich-Pyle bone age determination in children with short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, David D.; Deusch, Dorothee; Schweizer, Roland; Binder, Gerhard; Ranke, Michael B.; Thodberg, Hans Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Bone age (BA) rating is time consuming and highly rater dependent. To adjust the fully automated BoneXpert method to agree with the manual Greulich and Pyle BA (GP BA) ratings of five raters and to validate the accuracy for short children. A total of 1,097 left hand radiographs from 188 children with short stature, including growth hormone deficiency (44%) and Turner syndrome (29%) were evaluated. BoneXpert rejected 14 of the 1,097 radiographs, and deviated by more than 1.9 years from the operator BA for 27 radiographs. These were rerated blindly by four operators. Of the 27 new ratings, 26 were within 1.9 years of the automatic BA values. The root mean square deviation between manual and automatic rating was 0.72 years (95% CI 0.69-0.75). BoneXpert's ability to process 99% of images automatically without errors, and to obtain good agreement with an operator suggests that the method is efficient and reliable for short children. (orig.)

  10. Clinical application of automated Greulich-Pyle bone age determination in children with short stature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, David D.; Deusch, Dorothee; Schweizer, Roland; Binder, Gerhard; Ranke, Michael B. [University Children' s Hospital, Paediatric Endocrinology Section, Tuebingen (Germany); Thodberg, Hans Henrik [Visiana, Holte (Denmark)

    2009-06-15

    Bone age (BA) rating is time consuming and highly rater dependent. To adjust the fully automated BoneXpert method to agree with the manual Greulich and Pyle BA (GP BA) ratings of five raters and to validate the accuracy for short children. A total of 1,097 left hand radiographs from 188 children with short stature, including growth hormone deficiency (44%) and Turner syndrome (29%) were evaluated. BoneXpert rejected 14 of the 1,097 radiographs, and deviated by more than 1.9 years from the operator BA for 27 radiographs. These were rerated blindly by four operators. Of the 27 new ratings, 26 were within 1.9 years of the automatic BA values. The root mean square deviation between manual and automatic rating was 0.72 years (95% CI 0.69-0.75). BoneXpert's ability to process 99% of images automatically without errors, and to obtain good agreement with an operator suggests that the method is efficient and reliable for short children. (orig.)

  11. Associations between Psychological Problems and Quality of Life in Pediatric Short Stature from Patients’ and Parents’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Monika; Sommer, Rachel; Rohenkohl, Anja Christine; Bernardino Da Silva, Neuza Maria

    2016-01-01

    Short stature has been associated with psychosocial impairments, but whether treatments and achieved height impact on health-related quality of life (HrQoL) and psychological functioning of children/adolescents is still controversial. This study aimed to examine the effects of height deviation and treatment status on psychosocial adaptation outcomes and to identify clinical and psychosocial determinants of internalizing/externalizing problems in a large cohort of short statured children/adolescents from seven European countries. Participants were 345 children aged 8–18 years with a clinical diagnosis of short stature and 421 parents of 4–18 year-old patients. Children and parents reported on psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), generic (KIDSCREEN) and condition-specific HrQoL (QoLISSY). According to analyses of covariance, children/adolescents with current short stature presented more parent-reported internalizing problems and lower self- and parent-reported condition-specific HrQoL, compared to patients with an achieved height above -2SD. Treated children self-reported better HrQoL than the untreated group. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that, rather than height–related clinical variables, children’s sex, younger age and poorer HrQoL were the best predictors of psychological problems, explaining 39% of the variance in patient- and 42% in parent-reported internalizing problems, and 22% of the variance in patient- and 24% in parent-reported externalizing problems. Treatment status also moderated the negative links between patient-reported HrQoL and internalizing problems, explaining 2% of additional variance. These results suggest that children with current short stature are at greater risk for internalizing problems. Routine assessment of HrQoL in pediatric healthcare may help identify children for referral to specialized psychological assessment and intervention. PMID:27097033

  12. Radiologic anthropometry of the hand in patients with familial short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cervantes, C.D.; Lifshitz, F.; Levenbrown, J.; North Shore Univ. Hospital, Manhasset, NY; Cornell Univ., New York

    1988-01-01

    Fifth metacarpal bone shortening (brachymetacarpia V) was recently described to be highly prevalent in children with familial short stature (FSS). To characterize the hand bones of FSS patients with and without brachymetacarpia V, the left hand bone age radiographs of 26 FSS children were reviewed. In 16/19 patients with clinical brachymetacarpia V radiographs revealed fifth metacarpal bone shortening with a gap of 2 mm or more between the distal end of the fifth metacarpal bone and a tangential line connecting the distal ends of the third and fourth metacarpal bones. Only one of 7 patients without clinical brachymetacarpia V had a gap of 2 mm. Radiologic anthropometry revealed that FSS patients with clinically shortened fifth metacarpal bone frequently had shortened first metacarpal bones, second and third proximal phalanges, and fifth distal phalanx as well. FSS patients without clinical fifth metacarpal bone shortening had shortened 3rd and 4th metacarpal bones, fifth proximal phalanx, and fifth distal phalanx. Fifth metacarpal bone shortening was only detected clinically if the fourth metacarpal bone was not short as well. Reduction in height correlated more with reduction in metacarpal bone length than with that of the other hand bones. These peculiar tubular bone alterations commonly seen in FSS suggest a disturbance in endochondral ossification, the process primarily involved in tubular bone elongation. (orig.)

  13. Effect of growth hormone therapy and puberty on bone and body composition in children with idiopathic short stature and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Högler, Wolfgang; Briody, Julie; Moore, Bin; Lu, Pei Wen; Cowell, Christopher T

    2005-11-01

    The state of bone health and the effect of growth hormone (GH) therapy on bone and body composition in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) are largely unknown. A direct role of GH deficiency (GHD) on bone density is controversial. Using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, this study measured total body bone mineral content (TB BMC), body composition, and volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) at the lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) in 77 children (aged 3-17 years) with ISS (n = 57) and GHD (n = 20). Fifty-five children (GHD = 13) receiving GH were followed over 24 months including measurement of bone turnover. At diagnosis, size-corrected TB BMC SDS was greater (P bone relation, as assessed by the BMC/lean mass (LTM) ratio SDS was not different between groups. During GH therapy, prepubertal GHD children gained more height (1.58 [0.9] SDS) and LTM (0.87 [0.63] SDS) compared to prepubertal ISS children (0.75 [0.27] and 0.17 [0.25] SDS, respectively). Percent body fat decreased in GHD (-5.94% [4.29]) but not in ISS children. Total body BMC accrual was less than predicted in all groups accompanied by an increase in bone turnover. Puberty led to the greatest absolute, but not relative, increments in weight, LTM, BMI, bone mass, and LSvBMD. Our results show that children with ISS and GHD differ in their response to GH therapy in anthropometry, body composition, and bone measures. Despite low vBMD values at diagnosis in both prepubertal groups, size-corrected regional or TB bone data were generally within the normal range and did not increase during GH therapy in GHD or ISS children. Growth hormone had great effects on the growth plate and body composition with subsequent gains in height, LTM, bone turnover, and bone mass accrual, but no benefit for volumetric bone density over 2 years.

  14. Autologous fat graft as treatment of post short stature surgical correction scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maione, Luca; Memeo, Antonio; Pedretti, Leopoldo; Verdoni, Fabio; Lisa, Andrea; Bandi, Valeria; Giannasi, Silvia; Vinci, Valeriano; Mambretti, Andrea; Klinger, Marco

    2014-12-01

    Surgical limb lengthening is undertaken to correct pathological short stature. Among the possible complications related to this procedure, painful and retractile scars are a cause for both functional and cosmetic concern. Our team has already shown the efficacy of autologous fat grafting in the treatment of scars with varying aetiology, so we decided to apply this technique to scars related to surgical correction of dwarfism. A prospective study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of autologous fat grafting in the treatment of post-surgical scars in patients with short-limb dwarfism using durometer measurements and a modified patient and observer scar assessment scale (POSAS), to which was added a parameter to evaluate movement impairment. Between January 2009 and September 2012, 36 children (28 female and 8 male) who presented retractile and painful post-surgical scars came to our unit and were treated with autologous fat grafting. Preoperative and postoperative mean durometer measurements were analysed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and POSAS parameters were studied using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. There was a statistically significant reduction in all durometer measurements (p-value treatment with autologous fat grafting. Surgical procedures to camouflage scars on lower limbs are not often used as a first approach and non-surgical treatments often lead to unsatisfactory results. In contrast, our autologous fat grafting technique in the treatment of post-surgical scars has been shown to be a valuable option in patients with short-limb dwarfism. There was a reduction of skin hardness and a clinical improvement of all POSAS parameters in all patients treated. Moreover, the newly introduced POSAS parameter appears to be reliable and we recommend that it is included to give a more complete evaluation of patient perception. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Unconsciousness due to hyponatremia in a patient with short stature with panhypopituitarism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notsu, K; Takagi, C; Umaki, I

    1995-03-20

    An unconscious woman of short stature (141 cm) was admitted to our hospital in March, 1994. She had hyponatremia (120 mEq/l) and had experienced massive bleeding during delivery. No increment of either plasma ACTH or cortisol levels was observed after insulin-induced hypoglycemia. However, urinary 17OHCS levels gradually increased after repeated intramuscular injections of ACTH. Plasma free T3 and free T4 levels were low. Neither plasma TSH nor prolactin (PRL) levels increased after an intravenous injection of TRH. Basal plasma LH, FSH and growth hormone (GH) levels were low and there were no observable responses to any of the stimulation tests. A magnetic resonance image (MRI) of her pituitary gland showed an empty sella. These results showed that she had a panhypopituitarism with primary empty sella. Replacement therapy with glucocorticoid was started and serum sodium levels normalized immediately. Levothyroxine was also administered. The possibility of pituitary dwarfism during her youth and a gradual postpartum reduction of other pituitary hormones may have caused an impairment of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  16. Measuring agreement between cervical vertebrae and hand-wrist maturation in determining skeletal age: reassessing the theory in patients with short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaei, Shahla Momeni; Karamifar, Amirali; Sardarian, Ahmadreza; Shahidi, Shoaleh; Karamifar, Hamdollah; Alipour, Abbas; Ghodsi Boushehri, Sahar

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the degree of agreement between hand-wrist radiography and cervical vertebral maturation analysis in patients diagnosed with short stature. A cross-sectional study was designed; 178 patients (90 girls, 88 boys) diagnosed with short stature and seeking treatment were selected. The patients were divided into 2 groups (76 with familial short stature, 102 with nonfamilial short stature). Hand-wrist and lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained from the patients. The hand-wrist radiographs were analyzed using the Fishman method, and the lateral cephalometric views were categorized according to the method of Hassel and Farman. The degree of agreement between the 2 methods of predicting skeletal maturation was measured by calculating the contingency coefficient and the weighted kappa statistic. A high degree of agreement was observed between the 2 methods of analyzing skeletal maturation. It was also observed that agreement was higher in girls in the familial short-stature group, whereas boys had higher agreement in the nonfamilial short-stature group. Cervical vertebral maturation can be a valuable substitute for hand-wrist radiography in patients with short stature. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Lactose intolerance: lack of evidence for short stature or vitamin D deficiency in prepubertal children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Setty-Shah

    Full Text Available The health consequences of lactose intolerance (LI are unclear.To investigate the effects of LI on stature and vitamin D status.LI subjects will have similar heights and vitamin D status as controls.Prepubertal children of ages 3-12 years with LI (n=38, age 8.61 ± 3.08y, male/female 19/19 were compared to healthy, age- and gender-matched controls (n=49, age 7.95±2.64, male/female 28/21.prepubertal status (boys: testicular volume <3cc; girls: Tanner 1 breasts, diagnosis of LI by hydrogen breath test, and no history of calcium or vitamin D supplementation. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] <50 nmol/L. Gender-adjusted midparental target height (MPTH z-score was calculated using NCHS data for 18 year-old adults. Data were expressed as mean ± SD.There was no significant difference in 25(OHD between the LI and non-LI subjects (60.1±21.1, vs. 65.4 ± 26.1 nmol/L, p = 0.29. Upon stratification into normal weight (BMI <85(th percentile vs. overweight/obese (BMI ≥85(th percentile, the normal weight controls had significantly higher 25(OHD level than both the normal weight LI children (78.3 ± 32.6 vs. 62.9 ± 23.2, p = 0.025, and the overweight/obese LI children (78.3±32.6 vs. 55.3±16.5, p = 0.004. Secondly, there was no overall difference in height z-score between the LI children and controls. The normal weight LI patients had similar height as normal controls (-0.46 ± 0.89 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.53, while the overweight/obese LI group was taller than the normal weight controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. -0.71 ± 1.67, p = 0.049, and of similar height as the overweight/obese controls (0.36 ± 1.41 vs. 0.87 ± 1.45, p = 0.28. MPTH z-score was similar between the groups.Short stature and vitamin D deficiency are not features of LI in prepubertal children.

  18. Explaining parent-child (dis)agreement in generic and short stature-specific health-related quality of life reports: do family and social relationships matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sommer, Rachel; Bullinger, Monika; Silva, Neuza

    2016-10-21

    In the context of health-related quality of life (HrQoL) assessment in pediatric short stature, the present study aimed to examine the levels of agreement/disagreement between parents' and children's reports of generic and condition-specific HrQoL, and to identify socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables associated with the extent and direction of parent-child discrepancies. This study was part of the retest phase of the QoLISSY project, which was a multicenter study conducted simultaneously in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and UK. The sample comprised 137 dyads of children/adolescents between 8 and 18 years of age, diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS), and one of their parents. The participants completed child- and parent-reported questionnaires on generic (KIDSCREEN-10 Index) and condition-specific HrQoL (QoLISSY Core Module). Children/adolescents also reported on social support (Oslo 3-items Social Support Scale) and parents assessed the parent-child relationships (Parental Role subscale of the Social Adjustment Scale) and burden of short stature on parents (QoLISSY- additional module). The parent-child agreement on reported HrQoL was strong (intraclass correlation coefficients between .59 and .80). The rates of parent-child discrepancies were 61.5 % for generic and 35.2 % for condition-specific HrQoL, with the parents being more prone to report lower generic (42.3 %) and condition-specific HrQoL (23.7 %) than their children. The extent of discrepancies was better explained by family and social relationships than by clinical and socio-demographic variables: poorer parent-child relationships and better children's social support were associated with larger discrepancies in generic HrQoL, while more parental burden was associated with larger discrepancies in condition-specific HrQoL reports. Regarding the direction of discrepancies, higher parental burden was significantly associated with parents

  19. Selecting short-statured children needing growth hormone testing: Derivation and validation of a clinical decision rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bréart Gérard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous short-statured children are evaluated for growth hormone (GH deficiency (GHD. In most patients, GH provocative tests are normal and are thus in retrospect unnecessary. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify predictors of growth hormone (GH deficiency (GHD in children seen for short stature, and to construct a very sensitive and fairly specific predictive tool to avoid unnecessary GH provocative tests. GHD was defined by the presence of 2 GH concentration peaks Results The initial study included 167 patients, 36 (22% of whom had GHD, including 5 (3% with certain GHD. Independent predictors of GHD were: growth rate Conclusion We have derived and performed an internal validation of a highly sensitive decision rule that could safely help to avoid more than 2/3 of the unnecessary GH tests. External validation of this rule is needed before any application.

  20. Severe short stature and Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: response to growth hormone in two cases without growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Devon E; Gunn, Alistair J; Jefferies, Craig A

    2015-02-01

    Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is a rare congenital disorder occurring in approximately 1/50 000 births, with marked pre- and postnatal growth failure. WHS results from the hemizygous deletion encompassing the 4p16.3 region. This report of two children with WHS shows that growth hormone treatment in selected children with WHS and severe short stature may have a substantial effect on long-term growth.

  1. Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of GH in Japanese Children with Down Syndrome Short Stature Accompanied by GH Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meguri, Kyoko; Inoue, Masaru; Narahara, Koji; Sato, Takahiro; Takata, Ami; Ohki, Nobuhiko; Ozono, Keiichi

    2013-10-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of GH treatment in children with Down syndrome who had been diagnosed with GH deficiency (GHD). A total of 20 subjects were investigated in this study. Fourteen Down syndrome children (5 boys and 9 girls) with short stature due to GHD were treated with GH at Okayama Red Cross General Hospital, and 6 Down syndrome children (4 boys and 2 girls) with short stature due to GHD were registered in the Pfizer International Growth Database (KIGS). Height SD score (SDS) increased throughout the three-year GH treatment period. The overall mean height SDS increased from -3.5 at baseline to -2.5 after 3 yr of treatment. The mean change in height SDS during these 3 yr was 1.1. In addition, height assessment of SD score based on Down syndrome-specific growth data in the Japanese population revealed that the height SDS (Down syndrome) also increased across the 3-yr GH treatment period. The mean change in height SDS (Down syndrome) during these three years was 1.3. GH therapy was effective for Down syndrome short stature accompanied by GHD, and no new safety concerns were found in this study.

  2. Celiac disease, iron deficiency anaemia, grave's disease, osteopenia and short stature in single patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radaideh, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease is an intestinal immune mediated disorder, triggered by ingestion of gluten-containing diet in genetically susceptible individuals. The genetic pre-disposition is related to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class II genes, especially HLA-DQ2 positive patients. The prevalence of celiac disease in high worldwide and it has been estimated to be 1-26% in Western countries. Many auto-immune diseases can be associated with celiac disease including auto-immune thyroid disease; hashimoto thyroiditis and grave's disease. The opposite also appears to be true, celiac disease is found on persons with auto-immune thyroid disorders at high rates than the general population. Celiac disease is also associated with other extraintestinal diseases other the auto-immune diseases like anemia, short stature, metabolic bone disease and others. Screening for celiac disease should be considered in patients with auto-immune thyroid disease, anemia, short stature and metabolic bone disease. The life-long adherence to gluten-free diet is the only cure in celiac disease and can improve the quality of patients life and prevent future complications. This report describes a case of Grave's disease, Iron deficiency anemia, Short stature, Osteopenia, diagnosed to have Celiac disease. (author)

  3. A Rare Cause of Short Stature: 3M Syndrome in a Patient with Novel Mutation in OBSL1 Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Melikşah; Muratoğlu Şahin, Nursel; Kurnaz, Erdal; Bayramoğlu, Elvan; Savaş Erdeve, Şenay; Aycan, Zehra; Çetinkaya, Semra

    2017-03-01

    The Miller-McKusick-Malvaux (3M) syndrome is a rare autosomal disorder that can lead to short stature, dysmorphic features, and skeletal abnormalities with normal intelligence. A 16-month-old female patient had been referred to our clinic due to short stature. Case history revealed a birth weight of 1740 grams on the 39 th week of gestation, with a birth length of 42 cm and no prior hereditary conditions of clinical significance in her family. On physical examination, her length was 67 cm [-3.6 standard deviation (SD) score], weight 7.2 kg (-2.9 SD score), and head circumference 42 cm (below 3 rd percentile). She also had numerous characteristic physical features such as a triangular face, fleshy nose tip, a long philtrum, prominent mouth and lips, pointed chin, lumbar lordosis, and prominent heels. As her growth retardation had a prenatal onset and the physical examination results were suggestive of a characteristic profile, the diagnosis of 3M syndrome was strongly considered. Genetic assessment of the patient revealed a novel homozygous p.T45Nfs*40 mutation in the OBSL1 gene. It is recommended that physicians pay further attention to this condition in the differential diagnosis of children with severe short stature.

  4. Prevalence and etiological profile of short stature among school children in a South Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaravel Velayutham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Short stature (SS is a common pediatric problem and it might be the first sign of underlying illness. Studies documenting the burden and etiological profile of SS are scarce from India and are mostly limited to data obtained from referral centers. Due to the lack of large-scale, community-based studies utilizing a standard protocol, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence and etiological profile of SS in school children of a South Indian district. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, children aged 4–16 years from 23 schools in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, underwent anthropometric measurements and height was plotted in Khadilkar et al. growth chart. The cause of SS was assessed using clinical and laboratory evaluations in assigned children with a height less than third centile. Results: A total of 15644 children belonging to 23 schools were evaluated, and 448 (2.86% children had SS. Etiological evaluation was further performed in 87 randomly assigned children, and it is identified that familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS in the study population (66.67%. Hypothyroidism and growth hormone deficiency were the two most common pathological causes of SS seen in 12 (13.79% and 8 (9.20% children, respectively. Malnutrition was the cause of SS in 6 (6.9% children and cardiac disorders, psychogenic SS, and skeletal dysplasia were other identified causes of SS in the study. Interpretation and Conclusions: The overall prevalence of SS in school children was 2.86% and familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS. As a significant percentage of children with SS had correctable causes, monitoring growth with a standard growth chart should be mandatory in all schools.

  5. Consensus statement on the diagnosis and treatment of children with idiopathic short stature: a summary of the Growth Hormone Research Society, the Lawson Wilkins Pediatric Endocrine Society, and the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, P; Rogol, A D; Deal, C L; Saenger, P; Reiter, E O; Ross, J L; Chernausek, S D; Savage, M O; Wit, J M

    2008-11-01

    Our objective was to summarize important advances in the management of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Participants were 32 invited leaders in the field. Evidence was obtained by extensive literature review and from clinical experience. Participants reviewed discussion summaries, voted, and reached a majority decision on each document section. ISS is defined auxologically by a height below -2 sd score (SDS) without findings of disease as evident by a complete evaluation by a pediatric endocrinologist including stimulated GH levels. Magnetic resonance imaging is not necessary in patients with ISS. ISS may be a risk factor for psychosocial problems, but true psychopathology is rare. In the United States and seven other countries, the regulatory authorities approved GH treatment (at doses up to 53 microg/kg.d) for children shorter than -2.25 SDS, whereas in other countries, lower cutoffs are proposed. Aromatase inhibition increases predicted adult height in males with ISS, but adult-height data are not available. Psychological counseling is worthwhile to consider instead of or as an adjunct to hormone treatment. The predicted height may be inaccurate and is not an absolute criterion for GH treatment decisions. The shorter the child, the more consideration should be given to GH. Successful first-year response to GH treatment includes an increase in height SDS of more than 0.3-0.5. The mean increase in adult height in children with ISS attributable to GH therapy (average duration of 4-7 yr) is 3.5-7.5 cm. Responses are highly variable. IGF-I levels may be helpful in assessing compliance and GH sensitivity; levels that are consistently elevated (>2.5 SDS) should prompt consideration of GH dose reduction. GH therapy for children with ISS has a similar safety profile to other GH indications.

  6. The prevalence of isolated growth hormone deficiency among children of short stature in Jordan and its relationship with consanguinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zayed, Ayman A; Mustafa Ali, Moaath K; Al-Ani, Mohammad A; Momani, Munther S; Yousef, Al-Motassem F

    2014-12-01

    The prevalence of isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) among short-statured children in Jordan, where consanguineous marriage (CM) is common, is unknown. No studies have investigated the relationship between degrees of consanguinity and IGHD. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of IGHD among short-statured children referred to a university hospital in Jordan and its relationship with different degrees of consanguinity. We conducted a 24-month cross-sectional observational trial at an outpatient tertiary care center in Amman, Jordan. We obtained detailed family histories, medical evaluations and laboratory tests for 94 short-statured children (50 boys and 44 girls aged 6-16 years). Complete and partial GHD were defined as peak GH responses of 5 and 7 μg/l (15 and 21 mIU/l) [IRMA/DiaSorin®], respectively, in both exercise and insulin tolerance tests. GHD was diagnosed in 69·1% of the short children, including 86% (43/50) of the children of consanguineous parents (83·3%, 93·8% and 81·8% of children of first cousins, first cousins once removed and second cousins, respectively) and 50% (20/44) of the children of nonconsanguineous parents (P = 0·039, 0·002 and 0·013, respectively). However, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of small pituitary MRI between GH-deficient children of consanguineous parents and those of nonconsanguineous parents (28·6% vs 13·6%, P = 0·3). The prevalence of IGHD among referred short children in Jordan was exceptionally high and significantly higher in the children of CM. In countries where CM is common, preconception counselling and rigorous surveillance for GHD in short children may be indicated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Maternal short stature does not predict their children's fatness indicators in a nutritional dual-burden sample of urban Mexican Maya.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, HJ; Dickinson, F; Griffiths, PL; Bogin, B; Hobbs, M; Varela-Silva, MI

    2014-01-01

    The co-existence of very short stature due to poor chronic environment in early life and obesity is becoming a public health concern in rapidly transitioning populations with high levels of poverty. Individuals who have very short stature seem to be at an increased risk of obesity in times of relative caloric abundance. Increasing evidence shows that an individual is influenced by exposures in previous generations. This study assesses whether maternal poor early life environment predicts her ...

  8. Height-reducing variants and selection for short stature in Sardinia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoledziewska, Magdalena; Sidore, Carlo; Chiang, Charleston W K; Sanna, Serena; Mulas, Antonella; Steri, Maristella; Busonero, Fabio; Marcus, Joseph H; Marongiu, Michele; Maschio, Andrea; Ortega Del Vecchyo, Diego; Floris, Matteo; Meloni, Antonella; Delitala, Alessandro; Concas, Maria Pina; Murgia, Federico; Biino, Ginevra; Vaccargiu, Simona; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Lohmueller, Kirk E; Timpson, Nicholas J; Soranzo, Nicole; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Dedoussis, George; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Uzzau, Sergio; Jones, Chris; Lyons, Robert; Angius, Andrea; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Novembre, John; Schlessinger, David; Cucca, Francesco

    We report sequencing-based whole-genome association analyses to evaluate the impact of rare and founder variants on stature in 6,307 individuals on the island of Sardinia. We identify two variants with large effects. One variant, which introduces a stop codon in the GHR gene, is relatively frequent

  9. Waist-to-Height Gain and Triiodothyronine Concentrations in a Cohort of Socially Vulnerable Short-Stature Women: A Four-Year Follow-Up Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florêncio, Telma M M T; Bueno, Nassib B; Britto, Revilane A P; Albuquerque, Fabiana C A; Lins, Isabela L L; Sawaya, Ana L

    2016-01-01

    Short stature that results from undernourishment during perinatal period is associated with an increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood, particularly in poor populations. The present study investigated changes on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of socially vulnerable women with short stature. A prospective study with 48 women (19-45 years) who were mothers of undernourished children was conducted. Twenty-five of them were short (height ≤150 cm), and 23 were not short, to serve as a control (height >159 cm). Biochemical, anthropometric and dietary intake data were collected, before and after 4 years of follow-up. A mixed within-between analysis of covariance was used to assess the interaction between 'group' and 'time'. Waist-to-height ratio increased only in the short stature group, with significant interaction (+0.03 ± 0.03 in short group vs. +0.01 ± 0.03 in control; p for interaction = 0.04). The short stature group showed a significant decrease in the plasma triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, without significant interaction (-0.16 ± 0.23 ng/ml in short group vs. -0.04 ± 0.29 ng/ml in control; p for interaction = 0.20). Women of short stature presented an increase in waist-to-height ratio, with a simultaneous decrease in total plasma T3. These alterations may lead them to increased risk of comorbidities. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Psychosocial profiles of children with achondroplasia in terms of their short stature-related stress: a nationwide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Naoko; Hanaki, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To assess psychosocial profiles of children with achondroplasia using a nationwide survey. Achondroplasia, showing short stature and disproportionately short limbs, causes physical inconvenience such as difficulty in reaching high objects. It is, however, still controversial whether the condition is associated with psychological problems, especially in childhood. A cross-sectional descriptive design was employed. To evaluate psychosocial profiles and adaptation processes in children with achondroplasia, we developed an inventory of scales based on the psychological stress model of which conceptual framework was comprised of stressor, coping process, coping resource and adaptation outcome domains. Participants were recruited nationwide through the largest advocacy support group for achondroplasia in Japan. Of the 130 group members, 73 X-ray-diagnosed patients, aged 8-18 years, completed the inventory of questionnaires to be analysed. As for the stressor domain, patients experienced short stature-related unpleasant experiences more frequently (z-score: +1·3 in average, +3·9 in physical inconvenience). Nevertheless, these experiences had little effect on the coping process (threat appraisal: -0·2, control appraisal: +0·1) and the adaptation outcome (stress response: +0·3, self-concept: 0·0). Interestingly, self-efficacy in the coping resource domain was noticeably increased (+3·1) and was strongly correlated with most variables in the coping process and in adaptation outcome domains. Although the children with achondroplasia experienced more short stature-related stressors, there was no evidence of any psychosocial maladaptation. This finding suggests that coping process as well as coping resources such as self-efficacy could be important targets for promoting psychological adjustment in children with achondroplasia. To help children with achondroplasia adapt socially, nurses and other healthcare providers should routinely assess their psychological adaptation

  11. Parental perception of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with short stature: literature review and introduction of the parent-reported QoLISSY instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Bullinger, Monika; Chaplin, John E; Herdman, Michael; Sanz, Dolores; Mimoun, Emmanuelle; Feigerlova, Eva; DeBusk, Kendra; Power, Michael; Wollmann, Hartmut; Pleil, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Health-related quality of life (HrQoL) of the child diagnosed with short stature is an important outcome to be assessed both from the patient as well as from the parental perspective. The objective of this study was to review the literature on parent-reported HrQoL and to subsequently develop and psychometrically test the parent-reported version of the Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) instrument for use in clinical and epidemiologic research. A review of the literature on parental assessment of child HrQoL via PUBMED was followed by a psychometric analysis of data collected within the European QoLISSY study, in which 686 eligible parents of short statured children/adolescents (aged 4-18 years) meeting inclusion criteria participated. Patient inclusion criteria were a height below -2 SD, a diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS), and treatment status in terms of receiving or not receiving recombinant human growth hormone therapy. Focus groups eliciting parental HrQoL statements, pilot testing with cognitive debriefing, and a field test in 317 parents with a retest in 148 parents were conducted simultaneously in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK. The psychometric performance of the parent-reported instrument, developed in parallel to the child/ adolescent self-report version, was assessed using standard tests of reliability and validity. Literature search failed to identify a cross-culturally developed height specific instrument available for both patient self-report and parental observer report. Analysis of the QoLISSY focus group phase conducted separately in children, adolescents and parents yielded 169 items generated from parent focus groups. A cognitive debriefing exercise followed by a pilot test of preliminary psychometric characteristics resulted in deleting poorly performing items. Field testing of the parent-reported version suggested a three-domain core HrQoL structure with 22 items

  12. Auxological criteria for the diagnosis of GH-dependent short stature and prescription of rGH: problems and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Gilli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant growth hormone (rGH administration is a cornerstone in the treatment of short stature secondary to GH deficit. Since its introduction in the 80s, the population of short patients with an indication to rGH therapy has clearly broadened, probably because of increased awareness by patients and physicians. Since rGH therapy is demanding for patients and expensive, the Italian National Health Service, like other third payers and regulatory authorities, regulates its prescription according to criteria listed in the Nota AIFA 39. This paper illustrates pitfalls and difficulties paediatricians may encounter when assessing short stature patients in order to decide upon the opportunity and possibility to initiate rGH therapy through the exposition of four emblematic, though hypothetical, clinical histories. In the discussion, the Authors highlight some of the most critical points in the formulation of the Nota 39, among which are the lack of clear reference values, neglecting of parental height targets and therapeutic responses, as well as some omissions in methodology specifications.

  13. Novel Splicing Mutation in B3GAT3 Associated with Short Stature, GH Deficiency, Hypoglycaemia, Developmental Delay, and Multiple Congenital Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bloor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available B3GAT3, encoding β-1,3-glucuronyltransferase 3, has an important role in proteoglycan biosynthesis. Homozygous B3GAT3 mutations have been associated with short stature, skeletal deformities, and congenital heart defects. We describe for the first time a novel heterozygous splice site mutation in B3GAT3 contributing to severe short stature, growth hormone (GH deficiency, recurrent ketotic hypoglycaemia, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. A female infant, born at 34 weeks’ gestation to nonconsanguineous Caucasian parents with a birth weight of 1.9 kg, was noted to have cloacal abnormality, ventricular septal defect, pulmonary stenosis, and congenital sensorineural deafness. At 4 years of age, she was diagnosed with GH deficiency due to her short stature (height G in the invariant “GT” splice donor site was identified. This variant is considered to be pathogenic as it decreases the splicing efficiency in the mRNA.

  14. Combined effect of short stature and socioeconomic status on body mass index and weight gain during reproductive age in Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sichieri R.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature, a marker for undernutrition early in life, has been associated with obesity in Brazilian women, but not in men. We tested the hypothesis that weight gain during the reproductive years could explain this gender difference. A national two-stage household survey of mothers with one or more children under five years of age was conducted in Brazil in 1996. The subjects were women aged 20 to 45 years (N = 2297, with last delivery seven months or more prior to the interview. The regions of the country were divided into rural, North/Northeast (urban underdeveloped and South/Southeast/Midwest (urban developed. The dependent variables were current body mass index (BMI measured, BMI prior to childbearing (reported, and BMI change. Socioeconomic variables included mother's years of education and family purchasing power score. A secondary analysis was restricted to primiparous women. The prevalence of current overweight and overweight prior to childbearing (BMI > or = 25 kg/m² was higher among shorter women (<1.50 m compared to normal stature women only in the urban developed region (P < 0.05. After adjustment for socioeconomic variables, age, parity, BMI prior to childbearing, and age at first birth, current BMI was 2.39 units higher (P = 0.008 for short stature women living in the urban developed area compared with short stature women living in the urban underdeveloped area. For both multiparous and primiparous women, BMI gain compared to the value prior to childbearing was significantly higher among short stature women living in the urban developed region (P <= 0.04. These results provide clear evidence that short stature was associated with a higher BMI and with an increased risk of weight gain/retention with pregnancy in the developed areas of Brazil, but not in the underdeveloped ones.

  15. Influence of gestational weight gain on low birth weight in short-statured South Indian pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Nirupama; Dwarkanath, Pratibha; Bosch, Ronald; Duggan, Christopher; Kurpad, Anura V; Thomas, Tinku

    2018-05-01

    India contributes to one-third of the global burden of low birth weight (LBW) neonates, which is associated with increased risk of mortality and adverse consequences on long-term health. Factors leading to LBW are multidimensional and maternal short stature is an important component with an inter-generational effect. On the contrary gestational weight gain (GWG) shows an independent positive influence on birth weight. The aim of the present study therefore was to determine the influence of GWG on birth weight in short pregnant women. A prospective observational cohort of 1254 pregnant women was studied. Total, second and third trimester GWG per week were computed. Women were divided into two groups, "short" and "not-short", using a cut off of 152 cm that corresponded to the 25th percentile for height in the cohort. Association of tertiles of GWG with LBW was examined using log binomial regression analysis. "Short" women in highest tertile of total GWG had a significantly reduced adjusted relative risk (ARR 0.37, 95% confidence interval 0.16-0.83, P = 0.016) for LBW, compared to the lowest tertile. However, there was no significant increase in risk for cesarean section (CS) with increasing tertiles of total GWG. In women with height women may be beneficial for the birth weight of the offspring.

  16. Growth and adult height in GH-treated children with nonacquired GH deficiency and idiopathic short stature: the influence of pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutant, R; Rouleau, S; Despert, F; Magontier, N; Loisel, D; Limal, J M

    2001-10-01

    We analyzed the final height of 146 short children with either nonacquired GH deficiency or idiopathic short stature. Our purpose was 1) to assess growth according to the pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings in the 63 GH-treated children with GH deficiency and 2) to compare the growth of the GH-deficient patients with normal magnetic resonance imaging (n = 48) to that of 32 treated and 51 untreated children with idiopathic short stature (GH peak to provocative tests >10 microg/liter). The mean GH dose was 0.44 IU/kg.wk (0.15 mg/kg.wk), given for a mean duration of 4.6 yr. Among the GH-deficient children, 15 had hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities (stalk agenesis), all with total GH deficiency (GH peak imaging, had better catch-up growth (+2.7 +/- 0.9 vs. +1.3 +/- 0.8 SD score; P imaging, there was no difference in catch-up growth and final height between partial and total GH deficiencies. GH-deficient subjects with normal magnetic resonance imaging and treated and untreated patients with idiopathic short stature had comparable auxological characteristics, age at evaluation, and target height. Although they had different catch-up growth (+1.3 +/- 0.8, +0.9 +/- 0.6, and +0.7 +/- 0.9 SD score, respectively; P imaging findings show the heterogeneity within the group of nonacquired GH deficiency and help to predict the response to GH treatment in these patients. The similarities in growth between the GH-deficient children with normal magnetic resonance imaging and those with idiopathic short stature suggest that the short stature in the former subjects is at least partly due to factors other than GH deficiency.

  17. Combined effect of short stature and socioeconomic status on body mass index and weight gain during reproductive age in Brazilian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichieri, R; Silva, C V C; Moura, A S

    2003-10-01

    Short stature, a marker for undernutrition early in life, has been associated with obesity in Brazilian women, but not in men. We tested the hypothesis that weight gain during the reproductive years could explain this gender difference. A national two-stage household survey of mothers with one or more children under five years of age was conducted in Brazil in 1996. The subjects were women aged 20 to 45 years (N = 2297), with last delivery seven months or more prior to the interview. The regions of the country were divided into rural, North/Northeast (urban underdeveloped) and South/Southeast/Midwest (urban developed). The dependent variables were current body mass index (BMI) measured, BMI prior to childbearing (reported), and BMI change. Socioeconomic variables included mother's years of education and family purchasing power score. A secondary analysis was restricted to primiparous women. The prevalence of current overweight and overweight prior to childbearing (BMI > or = 25 kg/m2) was higher among shorter women (parity, BMI prior to childbearing, and age at first birth, current BMI was 2.39 units higher (P = 0.008) for short stature women living in the urban developed area compared with short stature women living in the urban underdeveloped area. For both multiparous and primiparous women, BMI gain compared to the value prior to childbearing was significantly higher among short stature women living in the urban developed region (P <= 0.04). These results provide clear evidence that short stature was associated with a higher BMI and with an increased risk of weight gain/retention with pregnancy in the developed areas of Brazil, but not in the underdeveloped ones.

  18. Health status of adults with Short Stature: A comparison with the normal population and one well-known chronic disease (Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naess Eva E

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the subjective health status of adults with short stature (ShSt and compare with the general population (GP and one well-known chronic disease, rheumatoid artritis (RA. In addition, to explore the association between age, gender, height, educational level and different aspects of health status of adults with short stature. Methods A questionnaire was mailed to 72 subjects with short stature registered in the database of a Norwegian resource centre for rare disorders, response rate 61% (n = 44, age 16–61. Health status was assessed with SF-36 version 2. Comparison was done with age and gender matched samples from the general population in Norway (n = 264 and from subjects with RA (n = 88. Results The ShSt sample reported statistically significant impaired health status in all SF-36 subscales compared with the GP sample, most in the physical functioning, Mean Difference (MD 34 (95% Confidence Interval (CI 25–44. The ShSt reported poorer health status in mental health, MD 11 (95% CI 4–18 and social functioning, MD 11 (95% CI 2–20 but better in role physical MD 13 (95% CI 1–25 than the RA sample. On the other subscales there were minor difference between the ShSt and the RA sample. Within the short stature group there was a significant association between age and all SF-36 physical subcales, height was significantly associated with physical functioning while level of education was significantly associated with mental health. Conclusion People with short stature reported impaired health status in all SF-36 subscales indicating that they have health problems that influence their daily living. Health status seems to decline with increasing age, and earlier than in the general population.

  19. Patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy are significantly shorter than those with Becker muscular dystrophy, with the higher incidence of short stature in Dp71 mutated subgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Masaaki; Awano, Hiroyuki; Lee, Tomoko; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Matsuo, Masafumi; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2017-11-01

    Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD) are caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene and are characterized by severe and mild progressive muscle wasting, respectively. Short stature has been reported as a feature of DMD in the Western hemisphere, but not yet confirmed in Orientals. Height of young BMD has not been fully characterized. Here, height of ambulant and steroid naive Japanese 179 DMD and 42 BMD patients between 4 and 10 years of age was retrospectively examined using height standard deviation score (SDS). The mean height SDS of DMD was -1.08 SD that was significantly smaller than normal (p < 0.001), indicating short stature of Japanese DMD. Furthermore, the mean height SDS of BMD was -0.27 SD, suggesting shorter stature than normal. Remarkably, the mean height SDS of DMD was significantly smaller than that of BMD (p < 0.0001). In DMD higher incidence of short stature (height SDS < -2.5 SD) was observed in Dp71 subgroup having mutations in dystrophin exons 63-79 than others having mutations in exons 1-62 (27.8% vs. 7.5%, p = 0.017). These suggested that height is influenced by dystrophin in not only DMD but also BMD and that dystrophin Dp71 has a role in height regulation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Motives for choosing growth-enhancing hormone treatment in adolescents with idiopathic short stature: a questionnaire and structured interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser-van Balen, Hanneke; Geenen, Rinie; Kamp, Gerdine A; Huisman, Jaap; Wit, Jan M; Sinnema, Gerben

    2005-06-08

    Growth-enhancing hormone treatment is considered a possible intervention in short but otherwise healthy adolescents. Although height gain is an obvious measure for evaluating hormone treatment, this may not be the ultimate goal for the person, but rather a means to reach other goals such as the amelioration of current height-related psychosocial problems or the enhancement of future prospects in life and society. The aim of our study was to clarify the motives of adolescents and their parents when choosing to participate in a growth-enhancing trial combining growth hormone and puberty-delaying hormone treatment. Participants were early pubertal adolescents (25 girls, 13 boys) aged from 11 to 13 years (mean age 11.5 years) with a height standard deviation score (SDS) ranging from -1.03 to -3.43. All had been classified as idiopathic short stature or persistent short stature born small for the gestational age (intrauterine growth retardation) on the basis of a height SDS below -2, or had a height SDS between -1 and -2 and a predicted adult height SDS below -2. The adolescents and their parents completed questionnaires and a structured interview on the presence of height-related stressors, parental worries about their child's behavior and future prospects, problems in psychosocial functioning, and treatment expectations. Questionnaire scores were compared to norms of the general Dutch population. The adolescents reported normal psychosocial functioning and highly positive expectations of the treatment in terms of height gain, whereas the parents reported that their children encountered some behavioral problems (being anxious/depressed, and social and attention problems) and height-related stressors (being teased and juvenilized). About 40% of the parents were worried about their children's future prospects for finding a spouse or job. The motives of the adolescents and their parents exhibited rather different profiles. The most prevalent parental worries related to

  1. Genetics Home Reference: short stature, hyperextensibility, hernia, ocular depression, Rieger anomaly, and teething ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diabetes. Most people with SHORT syndrome have normal intelligence, although a few have been reported with mild ... is important for many cell activities, including cell growth and division, movement (migration) of cells, production of ...

  2. Use of magnetic resonance imaging in short stature: data from National Cooperative Growth Study (NCGS) Substudy 8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Stephen F; Alter, Craig A; Dana, Ken; Baptista, Joyce; Blethen, Sandra L

    2002-05-01

    The primary use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of children with short stature (SS) is to discover lesions in the central nervous system (CNS), particularly tumors that may require intervention. MRI has a secondary role in identifying structural abnormalities responsible for growth hormone deficiency (GHD). We examined data from the National Cooperative Growth Study (NCGS) Substudy 8 to determine how American physicians are using MRI in evaluating children with SS. Of the 21,738 short children enrolled in NCGS, 5% underwent MRI during their follow-up. Children who had GH stimulation testing were more likely to have had an MRI than those in whom no GH stimulation test was performed (19% vs 2%, p 10 ng/ml), respectively. Abnormalities unrelated to the hypothalamus or pituitary represented 30% of these findings, while disorders in pituitary anatomy, including pituitary hypoplasia, pituitary stalk interruption, and ectopic posterior pituitary, represented an additional 30% of abnormal MRI examinations. CNS tumors comprised 23% of abnormal findings in these patients. We conclude that MRI provides significant value in the evaluation of children with SS, by identifying CNS tumors associated with growth failure as well as anatomical abnormalities of the pituitary. These findings are useful in confirming the diagnosis of GHD in children and identifying potential candidates for continued GH replacement in adulthood.

  3. Recessive VARS2 mutation underlies a novel syndrome with epilepsy, mental retardation, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, and hypogonadism

    KAUST Repository

    Alsemari, Abdulaziz

    2017-11-14

    Most mitochondrial and cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are encoded by nuclear genes. Syndromic disorders resulting from mutation of aaRSs genes display significant phenotypic heterogeneity. We expand aaRSs-related phenotypes through characterization of the clinical and molecular basis of a novel autosomal-recessive syndrome manifesting severe mental retardation, ataxia, speech impairment, epilepsy, short stature, microcephaly, hypogonadism, and growth hormone deficiency.A G>A variant in exon 29 of VARS2 (c.3650G>A) (NM_006295) was identified in the index case. This homozygous variant was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and segregated with disease in the family studied. The c.3650G>A change results in alteration of arginine to histidine at residue 1217 (R1217H) of the mature protein and is predicted to be pathogenic.These findings contribute to a growing list of aaRSs disorders, broadens the spectrum of phenotypes attributable to VARS2 mutations, and provides new insight into genotype-phenotype correlations among the mitochondrial synthetase genes.

  4. The glucagon test in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in children with short stature younger than 6 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secco, Andrea; di Iorgi, Natascia; Napoli, Flavia; Calandra, Erika; Ghezzi, Michele; Frassinetti, Costanza; Parodi, Stefano; Casini, Maria Rosaria; Lorini, Renata; Loche, Sandro; Maghnie, Mohamad

    2009-11-01

    Few studies have addressed the diagnostic role of the glucagon test in children with suspected GH deficiency (GHD). The objective of the study was to investigate the diagnostic value of the glucagon test as an alternative test to insulin tolerance test (ITT) and arginine in GHD children younger than 6 yr. This study was conducted in two pediatric endocrinology centers. Forty-eight children (median age 4.2 yr, median height -3.0 sd score) with GHD confirmed by a peak GH to ITT and arginine less than 10 microg/liter (median 4.7 and 3.4 microg/liter, respectively) underwent a glucagon stimulation test. Magnetic resonance imaging showed normal hypothalamic-pituitary anatomy in 24 children, isolated anterior pituitary hypoplasia in seven, and structural hypothalamic-pituitary abnormalities in 17. Median GH peak response to glucagon (13.5 microg/liter) was significantly higher than that observed after ITT and arginine (P short stature. Normative data for this test in young children need to be established before its use in clinical practice.

  5. Children with severe Osteogenesis imperfecta and short stature present on average with normal IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer-Kuhn, Heike; Höbing, Laura; Cassens, Julia; Schoenau, Eckhard; Semler, Oliver

    2016-07-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is characterized by bone fragility and short stature. Data about IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels are rare in OI. Therefore IGF-I/IGFBP-3 levels in children with different types of OI were investigated. IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels of 60 children (male n=38) were assessed in a retrospective cross-sectional setting. Height/weight was significant different [height z-score type 3 versus type 4: p=0.0011 and weight (p≤0.0001)] between OI type 3 and 4. Mean IGF-I levels were in the lower normal range (mean±SD level 137.4±109.1 μg/L). Mean IGFBP-3 measurements were in the normal range (mean±SD 3.105±1.175 mg/L). No significant differences between OI type 3 and 4 children have been observed (IGF-I: p=0.0906; IGFBP-3: p=0.2042). Patients with different severities of OI have IGF-I and IGFBP-3 levels in the lower normal range. The type of OI does not significantly influence these growth factors.

  6. Growth rates and the prevalence and progression of scoliosis in short-statured children on Australian growth hormone treatment programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McPhee Ian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design and aim This was a longitudinal chart review of a diverse group (cohort of patients undergoing HGH (Human Growth Hormone treatment. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed with the aim to identify the presence and progression of scoliosis. Methods and cohort 185 patients were recruited and a database incorporating the age at commencement, dose and frequency of growth hormone treatment and growth charts was compiled from their Medical Records. The presence of any known syndrome and the clinical presence of scoliosis were included for analysis. Subsequently, skeletally immature patients identified with scoliosis were followed up over a period of a minimum four years and the radiologic type, progression and severity (Cobb angle of scoliosis were recorded. Results Four (3.6% of the 109 with idiopathic short stature or hormone deficiency had idiopathic scoliosis (within normal limits for a control population and scoliosis progression was not prospectively observed. 13 (28.8% of 45 with Turner syndrome had scoliosis radiologically similar to idiopathic scoliosis. 11 (48% of 23 with varying syndromes, had scoliosis. In the entire cohort, the growth rates of those with and without scoliosis were not statistically different and HGH treatment was not ceased because of progression of scoliosis. Conclusion In this study, there was no evidence of HGH treatment being responsible for progression of scoliosis in a small number of non-syndromic patients (four. An incidental finding was that scoliosis, similar to the idiopathic type, appears to be more prevalent in Turner syndrome than previously believed.

  7. Recessive VARS2 mutation underlies a novel syndrome with epilepsy, mental retardation, short stature, growth hormone deficiency, and hypogonadism

    KAUST Repository

    Alsemari, Abdulaziz; Al-Younes, Banan; Goljan, Ewa; Jaroudi, Dyala; BinHumaid, Faisal; Meyer, Brian F.; Arold, Stefan T.; Monies, Dorota

    2017-01-01

    Most mitochondrial and cytoplasmic aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are encoded by nuclear genes. Syndromic disorders resulting from mutation of aaRSs genes display significant phenotypic heterogeneity. We expand aaRSs-related phenotypes through characterization of the clinical and molecular basis of a novel autosomal-recessive syndrome manifesting severe mental retardation, ataxia, speech impairment, epilepsy, short stature, microcephaly, hypogonadism, and growth hormone deficiency.A G>A variant in exon 29 of VARS2 (c.3650G>A) (NM_006295) was identified in the index case. This homozygous variant was confirmed by Sanger sequencing and segregated with disease in the family studied. The c.3650G>A change results in alteration of arginine to histidine at residue 1217 (R1217H) of the mature protein and is predicted to be pathogenic.These findings contribute to a growing list of aaRSs disorders, broadens the spectrum of phenotypes attributable to VARS2 mutations, and provides new insight into genotype-phenotype correlations among the mitochondrial synthetase genes.

  8. Lower limb lengthening in patients with disproportionate short stature with achondroplasia: a systematic review of the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiedel, Frank; Rödl, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Parents of children suffering from disproportionate short stature due to achondroplasia may wish to have surgical leg lengthening carried out for the child. The aim is not to increase height, but rather to achieve physiological proportions in the body. In a systematic review of the literature on the topic dating from the last 20 years, the surgical approaches used for this purpose were analyzed in accordance with the Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria. Twelve studies show that to date, involvement of the child in decision-making at the start of treatment has been expected and that it is recommended from the age of 12. In highly heterogeneous patient groups, with varying factors involved and different techniques being used, lengthening (often by more than 10 cm) is described. High complication rates are reported, with many setbacks often requiring repeat surgery. Using PALEY'S multiplier method, the expected standing height, sitting height, and leg length can be predicted and an individualized treatment approach can be planned and operative procedures could be started in early childhood as PERETTI suggests. As the patients are unable to be involved in decision-making as young children, these data may provide a basis for offering differentiated advice to parents, who usually consult a pediatric orthopedist at a very early stage in the child's life.

  9. Two Patients with Severe Short Stature due to a FBN1 Mutation (p.Ala1728Val) with a Mild Form of Acromicric Dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Christiaan; Finlayson, Courtney; Funari, Mariana F A; Vasques, Gabriela A; Lucheze Freire, Bruna; Lerario, Antonio M; Andrew, Melissa; Hwa, Vivian; Dauber, Andrew; Jorge, Alexander A L

    2016-01-01

    Acromicric dysplasia (AD) and geleophysic dysplasia 2 (GD2) belong to the category of acromelic dysplasia syndromes, consisting of severe short stature, short hands and feet and skin thickening. Both can result from missense mutations in the transforming growth factor beta 5 domain of the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). Two patients (P1 age 10, and P2 age 7) from unrelated families presented to their endocrinologist with severe short stature (approx. -4 SDS). They were otherwise asymptomatic and only had mild facial dysmorphisms. Extensive endocrine work-up did not reveal an underlying etiology. Exome sequencing was performed in each family. Exome sequencing identified the presence of the same heterozygous missense variant c.C5183T (p.Ala1728Val) in the FBN1 gene in both P1 and P2. This variant was previously reported in a patient with GD2 and associated cardiac valvulopathy and hepatomegaly. Detailed clinical re-examination, cardiac and skeletal imaging did not reveal any abnormalities in P1 or P2 other than mild hip dysplasia. This report broadens the phenotypic spectrum of growth disorders associated with FBN1 mutations. Identical mutations give rise to a wide phenotypic spectrum, ranging from isolated short stature to a more classic picture of GD2 with cardiac involvement, distinct facial dysmorphisms and various skeletal anomalies. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Do IGF-I concentrations better reflect growth hormone (GH action in children with short stature than the results of GH stimulating tests? Evidence from the simultaneous assessment of thyroid function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyczyńska Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of growth hormone (GH deficiency (GHD in short children seems unquestionable when both GH peak in stimulating tests (GHST and IGF-I concentration are decreased. However, the discrepancies between the results of GHST and IGF-I secretion are observed. It seems purposeful to determine the significance of GHST and IGF-I assessment in diagnosing GHD. The relationship between GH secretion and thyroid function, as well as GH influence on the peripheral thyroxine (T4 to triiodothyronine (T3 deiodination, mediated by IGF-I, were identified. Thus, clear differences in thyroid function between GH-deficient and non-GH-deficient subjects should exist. Methods Analysis comprised 800 children (541 boys, age 11.6 ± 3.1 years (mean ± SD, with short stature, in whom two (2 standard GHST (with clonidine and with glucagon were performed and IGF-I, free T4 (FT4, free T3 (FT3 and TSH serum concentrations were assessed. The patients were qualified to the following groups: GHD - decreased GH peak in GHST and IGF-I SDS (n = 81, ISS - normal GH peak and IGF-I SDS (n = 347, low GH - normal IGF-I SDS, and decreased GH peak (n = 212, low IGF - decreased IGF-I SDS, and normal GH peak (n = 160. The relationships among the results of particular tests were evaluated. Results In the groups with decreased IGF-I concentrations (GHD Group and low IGF Group, the more severe deficit of height was observed, together with higher TSH and FT4 but lower FT3 levels than in groups with normal IGF-I concentrations (ISS Group and low GH Group, independently of the results of GHST. TSH, FT4 and FT3 concentrations were - respectively - similar in two groups with decreased IGF-I secretion, as well as in two groups with normal IGF-I levels. Significant correlations were found between patients' height SDS and IGF-I SDS, between FT3 and IGF-I SDS (positive, and between FT4 and IGF-I SDS (negative, with no correlation between GH peak and any of the parameters

  11. The clinical study on the relationship between growth hormone secretion and pituitary magnetic resonance imaging findings in children with short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Ryuji

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between pituitary size evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and pituitary function was studied in 104 boys and 81 girls with short stature. Eighteen boys and 10 girls had normal secretion of growth hormone (GH) based on growth hormone provocative tests. Their height and volume of pituitary gland with normal anatomy were significantly correlated with their age. The pituitary height of girls was higher than that of boys. Sixty boys and 29 girls had growth hormone deficiency (GHD), and 3 boys of them had multiple pituitary deficiencies (MPHD) with pituitary interruption syndrome (transected pituitary stalk, severe small anterior lobe, ectopic posterior lobe). Pituitary height of the groups with GHD were almost less than normal groups. Thirteen girls with Turner syndrome out of 81 girls with short stature showed no difference in pituitary height compared to normal girls. (author)

  12. Short Maternal Stature Increases Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne Cc

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm births are associated with adverse health consequences, including neonatal and infant mortality, childhood undernutrition, and adulthood chronic disease. OBJECTIVES: The specific aims of this study were to estimate the association between...... short maternal stature and outcomes of SGA alone, preterm birth alone, or both, and to calculate the population attributable fraction of SGA and preterm birth associated with short maternal stature. METHODS: We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis with the use of data sets from 12...... population-based cohort studies and the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (13 of 24 available data sets used) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We included those with weight taken within 72 h of birth, gestational age, and maternal height data (n = 177,000). For each...

  13. Baseline Body Composition in Prepubertal Short Stature Children with Severe and Moderate Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Matusik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare body composition parameters in short children with severe versus moderate and no growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Design and Method. 61 children (40 boys were studied. Height SDS, BMI Z-score, waist/height ratio (W/HtR, and body composition parameters (BIA as fat tissue (FAT%, fat-free mass (FFM%, predicted muscle mass (PMM%, and total body water (TBW% were evaluated. GH secretion in the overnight profile and two stimulation tests and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 level were measured. Results. Overall, in 16 (26% moderate (7.0 > peak GH < 10 ng/mL and in 11 (18% severe (GH ≤ 7.0 ng/mL GHD was diagnosed. In children with sGHD BMI Z-score, W/HtR and FAT% were significantly higher, while FFM%, PMM%, and TBW% were significantly lower versus mGHD and versus noGHD subgroups. No significant differences between mGHD and noGHD were found. There were no differences in height SDS and IGF-1 SDS between evaluated subgroups. Night GH peak level correlated significantly with FAT%, FFM%, PMM%, and TBW%, (p<0.05 in the entire group. Conclusions. Only sGHD is associated with significant impairment of body composition. Body composition analysis may be a useful tool in distinguishing between its severe and moderate form of GHD.

  14. Motives for choosing growth-enhancing hormone treatment in adolescents with idiopathic short stature: a questionnaire and structured interview study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huisman Jaap

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth-enhancing hormone treatment is considered a possible intervention in short but otherwise healthy adolescents. Although height gain is an obvious measure for evaluating hormone treatment, this may not be the ultimate goal for the person, but rather a means to reach other goals such as the amelioration of current height-related psychosocial problems or the enhancement of future prospects in life and society. The aim of our study was to clarify the motives of adolescents and their parents when choosing to participate in a growth-enhancing trial combining growth hormone and puberty-delaying hormone treatment. Methods Participants were early pubertal adolescents (25 girls, 13 boys aged from 11 to 13 years (mean age 11.5 years with a height standard deviation score (SDS ranging from -1.03 to -3.43. All had been classified as idiopathic short stature or persistent short stature born small for the gestational age (intrauterine growth retardation on the basis of a height SDS below -2, or had a height SDS between -1 and -2 and a predicted adult height SDS below -2. The adolescents and their parents completed questionnaires and a structured interview on the presence of height-related stressors, parental worries about their child's behavior and future prospects, problems in psychosocial functioning, and treatment expectations. Questionnaire scores were compared to norms of the general Dutch population. Results The adolescents reported normal psychosocial functioning and highly positive expectations of the treatment in terms of height gain, whereas the parents reported that their children encountered some behavioral problems (being anxious/depressed, and social and attention problems and height-related stressors (being teased and juvenilized. About 40% of the parents were worried about their children's future prospects for finding a spouse or job. The motives of the adolescents and their parents exhibited rather different profiles

  15. Mutations in COA3 cause isolated complex IV deficiency associated with neuropathy, exercise intolerance, obesity, and short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostergaard, Elsebet; Weraarpachai, Woranontee; Ravn, Kirstine; Born, Alfred Peter; Jønson, Lars; Duno, Morten; Wibrand, Flemming; Shoubridge, Eric A; Vissing, John

    2015-03-01

    We investigated a subject with an isolated cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency presenting with an unusual phenotype characterised by neuropathy, exercise intolerance, obesity, and short stature. Blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) analysis showed an almost complete lack of COX assembly in subject fibroblasts, consistent with the very low enzymatic activity, and pulse-labelling mitochondrial translation experiments showed a specific decrease in synthesis of the COX1 subunit, the core catalytic subunit that nucleates assembly of the holoenzyme. Whole exome sequencing identified compound heterozygous mutations (c.199dupC, c.215A>G) in COA3, a small inner membrane COX assembly factor, resulting in a pronounced decrease in the steady-state levels of COA3 protein. Retroviral expression of a wild-type COA3 cDNA completely rescued the COX assembly and mitochondrial translation defects, confirming the pathogenicity of the mutations, and resulted in increased steady-state levels of COX1 in control cells, demonstrating a role for COA3 in the stabilisation of this subunit. COA3 exists in an early COX assembly complex that contains COX1 and other COX assembly factors including COX14 (C12orf62), another single pass transmembrane protein that also plays a role in coupling COX1 synthesis with holoenzyme assembly. Immunoblot analysis showed that COX14 was undetectable in COA3 subject fibroblasts, and that COA3 was undetectable in fibroblasts from a COX14 subject, demonstrating the interdependence of these two COX assembly factors. The mild clinical course in this patient contrasts with nearly all other cases of severe COX assembly defects that are usually fatal early in life, and underscores the marked tissue-specific involvement in mitochondrial diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Growth hormone treatment before the age of 4 years prevents short stature in young girls with Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linglart, A; Cabrol, S; Berlier, P; Stuckens, C; Wagner, K; de Kerdanet, M; Limoni, C; Carel, J-C; Chaussain, J-L

    2011-06-01

    Adult height deficit seen in Turner syndrome (TS) originates, in part, from growth retardation in utero and throughout the first 3 years of life. Earlier diagnosis enables earlier therapeutic intervention, such as with recombinant human GH (r-hGH), which may help to prevent growth retardation. In this open-label, multicentre phase III study, we investigated efficacy and safety in r-hGH treatment in young girls with TS. Girls (n=61) aged <4 years with TS receiving 0.035-0.05 mg/kg per day r-hGH for 4 years were compared with an historical control group (n=51) comprising untreated, age- and height-matched girls with TS. The main outcome measure was change in height SDS (H-SDS). Other measures included changes in height velocity SDS, IGF1 levels and glucose metabolism. After 4 years, a gain in mean H-SDS of 1.0 SDS (from -2.33±0.73 to -1.35±0.86 SDS) was observed with r-hGH treatment, in contrast to the decrease in mean H-SDS of 0.3 SDS in the control group (from -2.09±0.81 to -2.44±0.73 SDS; P<0.0001). r-hGH treatment was the main predictor of H-SDS gain and accounted for 52% of variability (multivariate analysis). r-hGH was well tolerated. As expected, IGF1 levels rose with treatment. A case of transient glucose intolerance resolved after dietary adaptation. Early treatment with r-hGH helps to prevent natural evolution towards short stature in most girls with TS. IGF1 levels and glucose metabolism should be monitored routinely during r-hGH therapy.

  17. Short-term effect of superficial heat treatment on paraspinal muscle activity, stature recovery, and psychological factors in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sandra E; Holmes, Paul S; Woby, Steve R; Hindle, Jackie; Fowler, Neil E

    2012-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP) would have reduced paraspinal muscle activity when wearing a heat wrap and that this would be associated with increased stature recovery and short-term improvements in psychological factors. A within-subject repeated-measures design. Muscle activity and stature recovery were assessed before and after a 40-minute unloading period, both without a heat wrap and after 2 hours of wear. Questionnaires were completed after both sessions. Hospital physiotherapy department. Patients with CLBP (n=24; age, 48.0±9.0 y; height, 166.6±7.3 cm; body mass, 80.2±12.9 kg) and asymptomatic participants (n=11; age, 47.9±15.4 y; height, 168.7±11.6 cm; body mass, 69.3±13.1 kg) took part in the investigation. Patients on the waiting list for 2 physiotherapist-led rehabilitation programs, and those who had attended the programs during the previous 2 years, were invited to participate. Superficial heat wrap. Paraspinal muscle activity, stature recovery over a 40-minute unloading period, pain, disability, and psychological factors. For the CLBP patients only, the heat wrap was associated with a reduction in nonnormalized muscle activity and a positive short-term effect on self-report of disability, pain-related anxiety, catastrophizing, and self-efficacy. Changes in muscle activity were correlated with changes in stature recovery, and both were also correlated to changes in psychological factors. Use of the heat wrap was associated with a decrease in muscle activity and a short-term improvement in certain aspects of well-being for the CLBP patients. The results confirm the link between the biomechanical and psychological outcome measures. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Long-term efficacy of recombinant human growth hormone therapy in short-statured patients with Noonan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insook Jeong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PurposeNoonan syndrome (NS is characterized by short stature, heart anomalies, developmental delays, dysmorphic features, cryptorchidism, and coagulation defects. Several studies reported the short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH treatment on the improvement of height. This study was performed to evaluate the long-term efficacy of rhGH in children with NS in Korea.MethodsThis study included 15 prepubertal NS children who received rhGH subcutaneously at a dose of 50–75 µg/kg/day for 6 days a week for at least >3 years. Preand posttreatment data, such as height, weight, bone age, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3 levels, were collected every 6 months.ResultsChronologic age and bone age at the start of treatment were 7.97±1.81 and 5.09±2.12 years, respectively. Height standard deviation score (SDS was increased from –2.64±0.64 to –1.54±1.24 years after 3 years (P<0.001. Serum IGF-1 SDS levels were elevated from –1.28±1.03 to –0.10±0.94 (P<0.001. Height SDS was more increased in subjects without PTPN11 mutations compared to those with mutations after 3 years (P=0.012. However, the other parameters, including bone age, IGF-1 SDS, and IGFBP-3 SDS, were not significantly different between patients with and without PTPN11 mutations.ConclusionAlthough this study included a relatively small number of patients, long-term rhGH therapy in NS patients was safe and effective at improving height, growth velocity, and serum IGF-1 levels, in accordance with previous studies. However, the meticulous monitoring of potential adverse events is still needed because of high dose of rhGH and preexisting hyperactivity of RAS-MAPK pathway. Patients with PTPN11 mutations demonstrated a decreased response to rhGH therapy compared to those without mutations.

  19. Early anthropometric indices predict short stature and overweight status in a cohort of Peruvians in early adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Robie; Miranda, J Jaime; Gilman, Robert H; Cabrera, Lilia; Sterling, Charles R; Bern, Caryn; Checkley, William

    2014-01-01

    While childhood malnutrition is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, less well understood is how early childhood growth influences height and body composition later in life. We revisited 152 Peruvian children who participated in a birth cohort study between 1995 and 1998, and obtained anthropometric and bioimpedance measurements 11 to 14 years later. We used multivariable regression models to study the effects of childhood anthropometric indices on height and body composition in early adolescence. Each standard deviation decrease in length-for-age at birth was associated with a decrease in adolescent height-for-age of 0.7 SD in both boys and girls (all poverweight in early adolescence. Linear growth retardation in early childhood is a strong determinant of adolescent stature, indicating that, in developing countries, growth failure in height during early childhood persists through early adolescence. Interventions addressing linear growth retardation in childhood are likely to improve adolescent stature and related-health outcomes in adulthood. PMID:22552904

  20. EPHA4 haploinsufficiency is responsible for the short stature of a patient with 2q35-q36.2 deletion and Waardenburg syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuan; Chen, Rongyu; Fan, Xin; Luo, Jingsi; Qian, Jiale; Wang, Jin; Xie, Bobo; Shen, Yiping; Chen, Shaoke

    2015-04-11

    Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1), an auditory-pigmentary genetic disorder, is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in PAX3. Abnormal physical signs such as dystopia canthorum, patchy hypopigmentation and sensorineural hearing loss are common, but short stature is not associated with WS1. We reported a 4-year and 6 month-old boy with a rare combination of WS1 and severe short stature (83.5 cm (-5.8SD)). His facial features include dystopia canthorum, mild synophrys, slightly up-slanted palpebral fissure, posteriorly rotated ears, alae nasi hypoplasia and micrognathia. No heterochromia was noticed. He had a normal intelligence quotient and hearing. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) was 52.7 ng/ml, lower than the normal range (55 ~ 452 ng/ml) and the peak growth hormone level was 7.57 ng/ml at 90 minutes after taking moderate levodopa and pyridostigmine bromide. The patient exhibited a good response to human growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy, showing a 9.2 cm/year growth rate and an improvement of 1 standard deviation (SD) of height after one year treatment. CMA test of patient's DNA revealed a 4.46 Mb de novo deletion at 2q35-q36.2 (hg19; chr2:221,234,146-225,697,363). PAX3 haploinsufficiency is known to cause Waardenburg syndrome. Examining overlapping deletions in patients led to the conclusion that EPHA4 is a novel short stature gene. The finding is supported by the splotch-retarded and epha4 knockout mouse models which both showed growth retardation. We believe this rare condition is caused by the haploinsufficiency of both PAX3 and EPH4 genes. We further reported a growth response to recombinant human growth hormone treatment in this patient.

  1. Premature ovarian failure, short stature, and Hashimoto's disease in an 18-year-old adolescent girl with 46, X, i(X)(q10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiang; Zhang, Qiao; Gao, Feng; Chen, Lu-Lu

    2018-04-22

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a heterogeneous condition affecting girls and women. We detected a previously healthy 18-year-old adolescent girl, presented with amenorrhea over six months, as well as circulating levels of estradiol lower decreased and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) increased. She was 138 cm tall. Results of laboratory tests and/or ultrasound investigations showed 46, X, i(X)(q10) karyotype and Hashimoto's disease. This case suggests that pubertal onset and progression, as well as karyotype analysis, should be evaluated in girls with Hashimoto's disease and short stature.

  2. Optic nerve size evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging in children with optic nerve hypoplasia, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, isolated growth hormone deficiency, and idiopathic short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkebaek, Niels Holtum; Patel, Leena; Wright, Neville Bryce; Grigg, John Russell; Sinha, Smeeta; Hall, Catherine Margaret; Price, David Anthony; Lloyd, Ian Christopher; Clayton, Peter Ellis

    2004-10-01

    To objectively define criteria for intracranial optic nerve (ON) size in ON hypoplasia (ONH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Intracranial ON sizes from MRI were compared between 46 children with ONH diagnosed by ophthalmoscopy (group 1, isolated ONH, 8 children; and group 2, ONH associated with abnormalities of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis and septum pellucidum, 38 children) and children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (group 3, multiple pituitary hormone deficiency, 14 children), isolated growth hormone deficiency (group 4, isolated growth hormone deficiency, 15 children), and idiopathic short stature (group 5, idiopathic short stature, 10 children). Intracranial ON size was determined by the cross-sectional area, calculated as [pi x (1/2) height x (1/2) width]. Groups 1 and 2 had lower intracranial ON size than did groups 3, 4, and 5 (P imaging of the ONs with cross-sectional area short child more than 12 months of age, with or without hypothalamic-pituitary axis abnormalities, confirms the clinical diagnosis of ONH.

  3. [Living with achondroplasia- how do young persons with disproportional short stature rate their quality of life and which factors are associated with quality of life?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohenkohl, Anja C; Sommer, Rachel; Bestges, Stephanie; Kahrs, Sabine; Klingebiel, Karl-Heinz; Bullinger, Monika; Quitmann, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Presently, little is known aqout the quality of life (QoL) as well as the strengths and difficulties of young people with achondroplasia. This study describes these patient-reported indicators and identifies possible correlates. At the invitation of a patient organization, a total of 89 short-statured patients aged 8 to 28 years and their parents participated in this study. QoL was assessed cross-sectionally with both generic and disease-specific instruments and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as a brief behavioral screening. In addition to descriptive analyses, patient data were compared with a reference population. Hierarchical regression analyses reflecting sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological variables were conducted to identify correlates of QoL. QoL and the strengths and difficulties of young patients with achondroplasia did not differ substantially from a healthy norm sample. However, the participants reported more behavioral problems and limitations in their physical and social QoL compared to patients with another short stature diagnosis. Strengths and difficulties, height-related beliefs, and social support correlated significantly with QoL. Adding psychological variables to the regression model increased the proportion of variance explained in QoL. Young persons with achondroplasia did not differ in their QoL and strengths and difficulties from healthy controls. Characteristics such as height appear less important for the self-perceived QoL than are strengths and difficulties and protective psychosocia~factors.

  4. Progressive Decline in Height Standard Deviation Scores in the First 5 Years of Life Distinguished Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency from Familial Short Stature and Constitutional Delay of Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Juliane; Lass, Nina; Toschke, Christina; Reinehr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Familial short stature (FSS) and constitutional delay of growth (CDG) are the most frequent norm variants in children presenting with short stature. Knowing the growth patterns of these entities in the first years of life might be helpful to distinguish them from growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or other chronic diseases. We studied the height in the first 5 years of life in 26 children with FSS, in 38 children with CDG and in 14 children with idiopathic GHD. Height standard deviation scores (SDS) did not change between birth and 6 months of life, while height SDS decreased significantly afterwards in GHD, FSS, and CDG. The loss of height SDS was higher in the first 2 years of life than between 2 and 5 years of life in children with CDG (-0.92 vs. -0.11; p = 0.003) or FSS (-0.79 vs. -0.01; p = 0.002). In idiopathic GHD, the loss of height SDS did not differ between the first 2 years of life and the next 3 years (-0.78 vs. -0.77; p = 0.821). Children with FSS and CDG showed a decline in height SDS mainly in the first 2 years of life, whereas the height SDS of children with idiopathic GHD decreased almost continuously over the first 5 years of life. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Cross-cultural equivalence of the patient- and parent-reported quality of life in short stature youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Monika; Quitmann, Julia; Silva, Neuza; Rohenkohl, Anja; Chaplin, John E; DeBusk, Kendra; Mimoun, Emmanuelle; Feigerlova, Eva; Herdman, Michael; Sanz, Dolores; Wollmann, Hartmut; Pleil, Andreas; Power, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Testing cross-cultural equivalence of patient-reported outcomes requires sufficiently large samples per country, which is difficult to achieve in rare endocrine paediatric conditions. We describe a novel approach to cross-cultural testing of the Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire in five countries by sequentially taking one country out (TOCO) from the total sample and iteratively comparing the resulting psychometric performance. Development of the QoLISSY proceeded from focus group discussions through pilot testing to field testing in 268 short-statured patients and their parents. To explore cross-cultural equivalence, the iterative TOCO technique was used to examine and compare the validity, reliability, and convergence of patient and parent responses on QoLISSY in the field test dataset, and to predict QoLISSY scores from clinical, socio-demographic and psychosocial variables. Validity and reliability indicators were satisfactory for each sample after iteratively omitting one country. Comparisons with the total sample revealed cross-cultural equivalence in internal consistency and construct validity for patients and parents, high inter-rater agreement and a substantial proportion of QoLISSY variance explained by predictors. The TOCO technique is a powerful method to overcome problems of country-specific testing of patient-reported outcome instruments. It provides an empirical support to QoLISSY's cross-cultural equivalence and is recommended for future research.

  6. Is the association between short stature and myocardial infarction explained by childhood exposures--a population-based case referent study (SHEEP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg, Michael; Diderichsen, Finn; Hallqvist, Johan

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: This study was undertaken to examine the association between short stature and acute non-fatal myocardial infarction and to analyse causal mechanisms related to height with a focus on childhood risk factors. METHOD: The SHEEP (Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program) is a population-based case......-referent study. The outcome was incident first events of myocardial infarction. The study base included all Swedish citizens aged 45 to 70, who lived in Stockholm County during 1992-94. This analysis is based on 967 male cases, 412 female cases and 1696 referents. Exposure information was obtained through...... questionnaires, interviews, health examinations, and obstetric records. RESULTS: Adult height was inversely related to myocardial infarction. The odds ratio for men in the shortest quartile (

  7. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a pubescent boy of short stature was improved with an orthodontic mandibular advancement oral appliance: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Otake, Hironao; Tsuiki, Satoru; Miyao, Etsuko; Noda, Akiko

    2015-01-15

    We report a 16-year-old pubescent pediatric patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and short stature whose apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly reduced following the use of an orthodontic oral appliance that advances the mandible ventrally. The mandible was advanced 64% of the maximal mandibular protrusive position with use of the appliance over a 3-year period. The patient's AHI without the appliance in place decreased from 101.6/h at baseline to 11/h after treatment. Moreover, the patient's height increased 14 cm during treatment, resulting in height close to the average height for his age. Cephalometric analysis revealed an improvement in his retrognathic mandible and proclination of the upper front teeth. In conclusion, an orthodontic mandibular advancement oral appliance played an important role not only in improving the patient's OSAS but also in normalizing his physical growth during puberty. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  8. Evaluation of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin like growth factor binding protein-3 in diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in short-stature children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Hashim, R.; Khan, F.A.; Sattar, A.; Ijaz, A.; Manzoor, S.M.; Younas, M.

    2009-01-01

    Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) is conventionally diagnosed and confirmed by diminished peak Growth Hormone (GH) levels to provocative testing. Serum Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) are under the influence of GH and reflect the spontaneous endogenous GH secretion. Owing to the absence of a circadian rhythm, it is possible to take individual measurements of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 at any time of the day for evaluation of GH status instead of subjecting the individual to cumbersome provocative tests. Objectives of this study were to compare IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 assays with Exercise and L-Dopa stimulation tests in the diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in short stature children using ITT as gold standard. Methods: This validation study was conducted at Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, AFIP, Rawalpindi, from November 2005 to October 2006. Fifty-two short stature children were included in the study. Basal samples for GH levels and simultaneous IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 measurements were obtained and afterwards all children were subjected to sequential exercise and LDopa stimulation tests. Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT) was performed one week later with all the necessary precautionary measures. On the basis of ITT results, children were divided into two groups, i.e., 31 growth hormone deficient and 21 Normal Variant Short Stature (NVSS). Results: The diagnostic value of exercise stimulation test remained highest with sensitivity 90.3%, specificity 76.0%, Positive Predictive Value (PPV) 84.84%, Negative Predictive Value (NPV) 84.2% and accuracy 84.6%. The conventional L-Dopa stimulation had sensitivity 96.7%, specificity 38.0%, PPV 69.7%, NPV 88.8 % and accuracy 73.0%. The serum IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 levels were positively correlated with post ITT peak GH levels (r= 0.527, r=0.464 respectively, both p<0.001). The diagnostic value of IGF-1 had sensitivity 83.87%, specificity 76.2%, PPV 83.87%, NPV 76.2% and

  9. Mosaic compound heterozygosity of SHOX resulting in Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis with marked short stature: implications for disease mechanisms and recurrence risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reish, Orit; Huber, Céline; Altarescu, Gheona; Chapman-Shimshoni, Daphne; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Renbaum, Paul; Mashevich, Maya; Munnich, Arnold; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2010-09-01

    Mutations or deletions in the SHOX gene cause Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and Langer mesomelic dysplasia (LMD) when present in heterozygous or homozygous form, respectively. A new class of enhancer deletions was identified 30-250 kb downstream of SHOX. We identified a female patient with marked short stature, mosaic for monosomy X in 31% of her lymphocytes, and findings consistent with LWD. Additional molecular studies demonstrated segregation of 17 polymorphic markers flanking and including the SHOX locus, spanning 328 kb of pseudoautosomal region 1 (PAR1) region. A deletion up to 10 kb residing 197 kb downstream of SHOX gene was detected, which was germinally transmitted from her clinically unaffected father. This was associated with post-zygotic mosaic loss of the normal maternal X-chromosome, evidenced by fluorescent fragment analysis. Since most patients with LMD with deletions downstream of SHOX gene also have SHOX mutations in trans, it may suggest these deletions are associated with a milder phenotype. Further studies are required to elucidate the role of the former region in disease etiology. Mutations should be sought in clinically non-affected family members because of the variable expressivity in hemizygous carriers, and cytogenetic evaluation should be considered to detect possible X-chromosome rearrangements underlying the haploinsufficiency for the PAR1 when deletion is detected by molecular analysis. Similarly, when LWD and marked short stature occur in a patient with mosaic Turner syndrome, the possibility of mutations in SHOX and the downstream of SHOX gene should be considered. Copyright 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Partial isodisomy for maternal chromosome 7 and short stature in an individual with a mutation at the COL1A2 locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotila, L.D.; Sereda, L.; Prockop, D.J. (Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Uniparental disomy for chromosome 7 has been described previously in two individuals with cystic fibrosis. Here, the authors describe a third case that was discovered because the proband was homozygous for a mutation in the COL1A2 gene for type I procollagen, although his mother was heterozygous and his father did not have the mutation. Phenotypically, the proband was similar to the two previously reported cases with uniparental disomy for chromosome 7, in that he was short in stature and growth retarded. Paternity was assessed with five polymorphic markers. Chromosome 7 inheritance in the proband was analyzed using 12 polymorphic markers distributed along the entire chromosome. Similar analysis of the proband's two brothers established the phase of the alleles at the various loci, assuming minimal recombination. The proband inherited only maternal alleles at five loci and was homozygous at all loci examined, except one. He was heterozygous for an RFLP at the IGBP-1 locus at 7p13-p12. The results suggest that the isodisomy was not complete because of a recombination event involving the proximal short arms of two maternal chromosomes. In addition, the phenotype of proportional dwarfism in the proband suggests imprinting of one or more growth-related genes on chromosome 7. 42 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Motives for choosing growth-enhancing hormone treatment in adolescents with idiopathic short stature: a questionnaire and structured interview study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-van Balen, J.; Geenen, R.; Kamp, G.A.; Huisman, J.; Wit, J.M.; Sinnema, G.

    2005-01-01

    Background Growth-enhancing hormone treatment is considered a possible intervention in short but otherwise healthy adolescents. Although height gain is an obvious measure for evaluating hormone treatment, this may not be the ultimate goal for the person, but rather a means to reach other goals such

  12. Four siblings with distal renal tubular acidosis and nephrocalcinosis, neurobehavioral impairment, short stature, and distinctive facial appearance: a possible new autosomal recessive syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faqeih, Eissa; Al-Akash, Samhar I; Sakati, Nadia; Teebi, Prof Ahmad S

    2007-09-01

    We report on four siblings (three males, one female) born to first cousin Arab parents with the constellation of distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), small kidneys, nephrocalcinosis, neurobehavioral impairment, short stature, and distinctive facial features. They presented with early developmental delay with subsequent severe mental, behavioral and social impairment and autistic-like features. Their facial features are unique with prominent cheeks, well-defined philtrum, large bulbous nose, V-shaped upper lip border, full lower lip, open mouth with protruded tongue, and pits on the ear lobule. All had proteinuria, hypercalciuria, hypercalcemia, and normal anion-gap metabolic acidosis. Renal ultrasound examinations revealed small kidneys, with varying degrees of hyperechogenicity and nephrocalcinosis. Additional findings included dilated ventricles and cerebral demyelination on brain imaging studies. Other than distal RTA, common causes of nephrocalcinosis were excluded. The constellation of features in this family currently likely represents a possibly new autosomal recessive syndrome providing further evidence of heterogeneity of nephrocalcinosis syndromes. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Subglottic stenosis in short-statured children: a case for further investigation of airway symptoms in patients with skeletal dysplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonathan H; Ellison, Jay W; Schears, Gregory J; Thompson, Dana M

    2006-01-01

    Clinical evaluation of children with skeletal dysplasias is often concentrated on morphologic and radiographic assessments, but many of these patients also have disease processes of the ear, nose, and throat. We report a case of an 11-month-old girl with an unknown short-limbed dwarfism, similar to acromicric dysplasia, with grade II subglottic stenosis. Laryngotracheoplasty with anterior autologous costal cartilage graft and posterior cricoid split was performed at age 13 months, with subsequent improvement of her airway status. In cases of children with skeletal dysplasias and obstructive airway symptoms, formal otolaryngologic evaluation is warranted for definitive diagnosis and treatment.

  14. Evaluation of growth hormone release and human growth hormone treatment in children with cranial irradiation-associated short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romshe, C.A.; Zipf, W.B.; Miser, A.; Miser, J.; Sotos, J.F.; Newton, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    We studied nine children who had received cranial irradiation for various malignancies and subsequently experienced decreased growth velocity. Their response to standard growth hormone stimulation and release tests were compared with that in seven children with classic GH deficiency and in 24 short normal control subjects. With arginine and L-dopa stimulation, six of nine patients who received radiation had a normal GH response (greater than 7 ng/ml), whereas by design none of the GH deficient and all of the normal children had a positive response. Only two of nine patients had a normal response to insulin hypoglycemia, with no significant differences in the mean maximal response of the radiation and the GH-deficient groups. Pulsatile secretion was not significantly different in the radiation and GH-deficient groups, but was different in the radiation and normal groups. All subjects in the GH-deficient and radiation groups were given human growth hormone for 1 year. Growth velocity increased in all, with no significant difference in the response of the two groups when comparing the z scores for growth velocity of each subject's bone age. We recommend a 6-month trial of hGH in children who have had cranial radiation and are in prolonged remission with a decreased growth velocity, as there is no completely reliable combination of GH stimulation or release tests to determine their response

  15. Overexpression of Indian hedgehog partially rescues short stature homeobox 2-overexpression-associated congenital dysplasia of the temporomandibular joint in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xihai; Liang, Wenna; Ye, Hongzhi; Weng, Xiaping; Liu, Fayuan; Lin, Pingdong; Liu, Xianxiang

    2015-09-01

    The role of short stature homeobox 2 (shox2) in the development and homeostasis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has been well documented. Shox2 is known to be expressed in the progenitor cells and perichondrium of the developing condyle. A previous study by our group reported that overexpression of shox2 leads to congenital dysplasia of the TMJ via downregulation of the Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling pathway, which is essential for embryonic disc primordium formation and mandibular condylar growth. To determine whether overexpression of Ihh may rescue the overexpression of shox2 leading to congenital dysplasia of the TMJ, a mouse model in which Ihh and shox2 were overexpressed (Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop shox2; pMes-stop Ihh mice) was utilized to assess the consequences of this overexpression on TMJ development during post-natal life. The results showed that the developmental process and expression levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 and sex determining region Y-box 9 in the TMJ of the Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop shox2; pMes-stop Ihh mice were similar to those in wild‑type mice. Overexpression of Ihh rescued shox2 overexpression-associated reduction of extracellular matrix components. However, overexpression of Ihh did not inhibit the shox2 overexpression-associated increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP9, MMP13 and apoptosis in the TMJ. These combinatory cellular and molecular defects appeared to account for the observed congenital dysplasia of TMJ, suggesting that overexpression of Ihh partially rescued shox2 overexpression‑associated congenital dysplasia of the TMJ in mice.

  16. Overexpression of Indian hedgehog partially rescues short stature homeobox 2-overexpression-associated congenital dysplasia of the temporomandibular joint in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, XIHAI; LIANG, WENNA; YE, HONGZHI; WENG, XIAPING; LIU, FAYUAN; LIN, PINGDONG; LIU, XIANXIANG

    2015-01-01

    The role of short stature homeobox 2 (shox2) in the development and homeostasis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) has been well documented. Shox2 is known to be expressed in the progenitor cells and perichondrium of the developing condyle. A previous study by our group reported that overexpression of shox2 leads to congenital dysplasia of the TMJ via downregulation of the Indian hedgehog (Ihh) signaling pathway, which is essential for embryonic disc primordium formation and mandibular condylar growth. To determine whether overexpression of Ihh may rescue the overexpression of shox2 leading to congenital dysplasia of the TMJ, a mouse model in which Ihh and shox2 were overexpressed (Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop shox2; pMes-stop Ihh mice) was utilized to assess the consequences of this overexpression on TMJ development during post-natal life. The results showed that the developmental process and expression levels of runt-related transcription factor 2 and sex determining region Y-box 9 in the TMJ of the Wnt1-Cre; pMes-stop shox2; pMes-stop Ihh mice were similar to those in wild-type mice. Overexpression of Ihh rescued shox2 overexpression-associated reduction of extracellular matrix components. However, overexpression of Ihh did not inhibit the shox2 overexpression-associated increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP9, MMP13 and apoptosis in the TMJ. These combinatory cellular and molecular defects appeared to account for the observed congenital dysplasia of TMJ, suggesting that overexpression of Ihh partially rescued shox2 overexpression-associated congenital dysplasia of the TMJ in mice. PMID:26096903

  17. Short Maternal Stature Increases Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age and Preterm Births in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis and Population Attributable Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozuki, Naoko; Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne C C; Vogel, Joshua P; Silveira, Mariangela F; Sania, Ayesha; Stevens, Gretchen A; Cousens, Simon; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Huybregts, Lieven; Roberfroid, Dominique; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Adair, Linda S; Barros, Fernando C; Cowan, Melanie; Fawzi, Wafaie; Kolsteren, Patrick; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Saville, Naomi; Victora, Cesar G; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Blencowe, Hannah; Ezzati, Majid; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2015-11-01

    Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and preterm births are associated with adverse health consequences, including neonatal and infant mortality, childhood undernutrition, and adulthood chronic disease. The specific aims of this study were to estimate the association between short maternal stature and outcomes of SGA alone, preterm birth alone, or both, and to calculate the population attributable fraction of SGA and preterm birth associated with short maternal stature. We conducted an individual participant data meta-analysis with the use of data sets from 12 population-based cohort studies and the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (13 of 24 available data sets used) from low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). We included those with weight taken within 72 h of birth, gestational age, and maternal height data (n = 177,000). For each of these studies, we individually calculated RRs between height exposure categories of < 145 cm, 145 to < 150 cm, and 150 to < 155 cm (reference: ≥ 155 cm) and outcomes of SGA, preterm birth, and their combination categories. SGA was defined with the use of both the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) birth weight standard and the 1991 US birth weight reference. The associations were then meta-analyzed. All short stature categories were statistically significantly associated with term SGA, preterm appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA), and preterm SGA births (reference: term AGA). When using the INTERGROWTH-21st standard to define SGA, women < 145 cm had the highest adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) (term SGA-aRR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.76, 2.35; preterm AGA-aRR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.26, 1.66; preterm SGA-aRR: 2.13; 95% CI: 1.42, 3.21). Similar associations were seen for SGA defined by the US reference. Annually, 5.5 million term SGA (18.6% of the global total), 550,800 preterm AGA (5.0% of the global total), and 458,000 preterm SGA (16.5% of the global total) births may be associated

  18. Premature Epiphyseal Closure of the Lower Extremities Contributing to Short Stature after cis-Retinoic Acid Therapy in Medulloblastoma: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noyes, Jessica J; Levine, Michael A; Belasco, Jean B; Mostoufi-Moab, Sogol

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged cis-retinoic acid (RA) exposure contributes to premature epiphyseal closure. cis-RA is administered in various treatment regimens for pediatric cancers, thus increasing the risk for bone deformities and compromised growth. We present a case of premature epiphyseal closure in a 9-year-old female with a history of medulloblastoma and treatment with a multimodal regimen including cis-RA. She was subsequently diagnosed with radiation-induced endocrine late effects including hypothyroidism and growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Seven months after initiation of GH therapy, an increased prominence of the wrists and knees combined with a deceleration in growth velocity prompted further evaluation; radiographs revealed bilateral premature closure of the distal femur and proximal tibia growth plates despite normal left wrist bone age. High doses of vitamin A and its analogs are linked to premature closure of the lower-extremity growth plates in animals and children. Pediatric brain tumor patients are at increased risk of growth failure due to concurrent radiation-induced GHD, damage to the spinal bones, and cis-RA-associated premature closure of the lower-extremity growth plates, with significant reduction in adult stature. A better appreciation of the detrimental effect of cis-RA on the growing skeleton is needed to monitor at-risk patients and to provide timely interventions. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. ISS & Nordea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    on the core business of banking. In Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, some services had been outsourced to one of the leaders in the facility management (FM) market, the global service provider ISS. The relationship between Nordea and ISS on the delivery of facility services had a long history, but a new contract......Nordea Bank had emerged as the largest financial group in the Nordic region. As part of its consolidated approach, Nordea’s top management had made the strategic decision to outsource a number of the company’s peripheral activities, such as catering, security, and cleaning, in order to focus...

  20. Indivíduo do sexo masculino XYY com retorno venoso pulmonar anômalo total e baixa estatura XYY male with total anomalous pulmonary venous return and short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Nagasawa

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: relatar o caso de um neonato masculino 47 XYY com doença cardíaca congênita e baixa estatura. Resultados: este é o primeiro relato de caso de um neonato masculino 47 XYY, pequeno para a idade, com doença cardíaca congênita (retorno venoso pulmonar anômalo total. O neonato nasceu com 32 semanas de gestação e peso de 1.134 g. Uma hemorragia intracraniana e um alto fluxo pulmonar foram descobertos no período neonatal inicial. Havia grande retardo de desenvolvimento neuromotor. A criança recebeu uma ligadura paliativa do ductus arteriosus e a colocação de um shunt ventriculoperitoneal, mas morreu com 19 meses de vida de insuficiência cardíaca. Comentários: esta combinação de menino XYY e doença cardíaca congênita pode ser fortuita. Entretanto, pensamos que é importante relatar que houve este caso de prognóstico pobre de um indivíduo XYY do sexo masculino com doença cardíaca congênita e baixa estatura.Objective: to report a case of a 47 XYY male neonate with congenital heart disease and short stature. Description: this is the first case report of a 47 XYY male neonate associated with congenital heart disease (total anomalous pulmonary venous return and small for gestational age. The infant was born at around 32 weeks of gestation with 1,134g. Intracranial hemorrhage and pulmonary high flow were discovered in the early neonatal period. Retarded physical and mental development was observed. The infant underwent a palliative ligation of the ductus arteriosus and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt operation, but died due to consequent heart failure at 19 months of age. Comments: this combination of XYY male and congenital heart disease may be fortuitous. However, we think it is important to report that there was a poor prognosis case of XYY male with congenital heart disease and short stature.

  1. Hypermobility and short stature in Friesian horses is associated with an Ehlers-Danlos linkeropathy splice site mutation in B4GALT7

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leegwater, Peter A.J.; Vos-Loohuis, Manon; Ducro, B.J.; Boegheim, Iris J.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Dibbits, B.W.; Schurink, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inbreeding and population bottlenecks in the ancestry of Friesian horses has led to health issues such as dwarfism. The limbs of dwarfs are short, ribs are dented, while the head looks adult-like at young age and the back appears as relatively normal. A striking feature of the condition

  2. Hypermobility and short stature in Friesian horses is associated with an Ehlers-Danlos linkeropathy splice site mutation in B4GALT7

    OpenAIRE

    Leegwater, Peter A.J.; Vos-Loohuis, Manon; Ducro, B.J.; Boegheim, Iris J.; Bastiaansen, J.W.M.; Dibbits, B.W.; Schurink, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Inbreeding and population bottlenecks in the ancestry of Friesian horses has led to health issues such as dwarfism. The limbs of dwarfs are short, ribs are dented, while the head looks adult-like at young age and the back appears as relatively normal. A striking feature of the condition is the flexor tendon laxity that leads to hyperextension of the fetlock joints. The growth plates of dwarfs display disorganized and thickened chondrocyte columns. The aim of this study was to ident...

  3. Efficacy and safety of two doses of Norditropin® (somatropin) in short stature due to Noonan syndrome: a 2-year randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial in Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozono, Keiichi; Ogata, Tsutomu; Horikawa, Reiko; Matsubara, Yoichi; Ogawa, Yoshihisa; Nishijima, Keiji; Yokoya, Susumu

    2018-02-26

    This randomized double-blind multicenter trial (NCT01927861) evaluated the growth-promoting effect and safety of Norditropin ® (NN220; somatropin) in Japanese children with short stature due to Noonan syndrome. Prepubertal children aged 3-Noonan syndrome were randomized to receive GH 0.033 mg/kg/day (n = 25, mean age 6.57 years, 11 females) or 0.066 mg/kg/day (n = 26, mean age 6.06 years, eight females) for 104 weeks. Change in height standard deviation score (HSDS) from baseline was analyzed based on an ANCOVA model. Baseline HSDS was -3.24. Estimated change in HSDS [95% CI] after 104 weeks' treatment was 0.84 [0.66, 1.02] and 1.47 [1.29, 1.64] for the lower and higher doses, respectively; estimated mean difference 0.63 [0.38, 0.88], p Noonan syndrome, with a favorable safety profile. The effect was greater with 0.066 mg/kg/day compared with 0.033 mg/kg/day.

  4. Growth hormone (GH) secretion and pituitary size in children with short stature. Efficacy of GH therapy in GH-deficient children, depending on the pituitary size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilczer, Maciej; Szalecki, Mieczysław; Smyczynska, Joanna; Stawerska, Renata; Kaniewska, Danuta; Lewinski, Andrzej

    2005-10-01

    Certain relationships between pituitary size and growth hormone (GH) secretion have previously been observed, however they are still a matter of controversy. Organic abnormalities of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal region are important for predicting growth response to GH therapy. Evaluation of relations between GH secretion and the pituitary size in short children and estimation of the efficacy of GH therapy in children with GH deficiency (GHD). The analysis comprised 216 short children (159 boys). Two GH stimulation tests, as well as magnetic resonance image (MRI) examination, were performed in each patient. All the patients with GHD were treated with GH for, at least, one year. Significant correlations were found between pituitary height and GH secretion (p < 0.05). Patients were classified into three (3) groups: 1) pituitary hypoplasia (HP) for height age; 2) HP for the chronological age but not for the height age; 3) normal pituitary size. Significant differences in GH secretion were observed among the groups (6.1+/-5.3 vs. 8.1+/-4.4 vs. 12.3+/-9.1 ng/mL, respectively). There was a negative correlation between GH peak and height gain during GH therapy (r = -0.34). The highest growth improvement was noticed in patients with HP for the height age. Pituitary hypoplasia for the height age is related to more severe GH deficiency and the best response to GH therapy.

  5. Automated ISS Flight Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offermann, Jan Tuzlic

    2016-01-01

    During my internship at NASA Johnson Space Center, I worked in the Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), where I was tasked with a number of projects focused on the automation of tasks and activities related to the operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As I worked on a number of projects, I have written short sections below to give a description for each, followed by more general remarks on the internship experience. My first project is titled "General Exposure Representation EVADOSE", also known as "GEnEVADOSE". This project involved the design and development of a C++/ ROOT framework focused on radiation exposure for extravehicular activity (EVA) planning for the ISS. The utility helps mission managers plan EVAs by displaying information on the cumulative radiation doses that crew will receive during an EVA as a function of the egress time and duration of the activity. SRAG uses a utility called EVADOSE, employing a model of the space radiation environment in low Earth orbit to predict these doses, as while outside the ISS the astronauts will have less shielding from charged particles such as electrons and protons. However, EVADOSE output is cumbersome to work with, and prior to GEnEVADOSE, querying data and producing graphs of ISS trajectories and cumulative doses versus egress time required manual work in Microsoft Excel. GEnEVADOSE automates all this work, reading in EVADOSE output file(s) along with a plaintext file input by the user providing input parameters. GEnEVADOSE will output a text file containing all the necessary dosimetry for each proposed EVA egress time, for each specified EVADOSE file. It also plots cumulative dose versus egress time and the ISS trajectory, and displays all of this information in an auto-generated presentation made in LaTeX. New features have also been added, such as best-case scenarios (egress times corresponding to the least dose), interpolated curves for trajectories, and the ability to query any time in the

  6. ESTIMATION OF STATURE BASED ON FOOT LENGTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyullatha Shetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Stature is the height of the person in the upright posture. It is an important measure of physical identity. Estimation of body height from its segments or dismember parts has important considerations for identifications of living or dead human body or remains recovered from disasters or other similar conditions. OBJECTIVE : Stature is an important indicator for identification. There are numerous means to establish stature and their significance lies in the simplicity of measurement, applicability and accuracy in prediction. Our aim of the study was to review the relationship between foot length and body height. METHODS : The present study reviews various prospective studies which were done to estimate the stature. All the measurements were taken by using standard measuring devices and standard anthropometric techniques. RESULTS : This review shows there is a correlation between stature and foot dimensions it is found to be positive and statistically highly significant. Prediction of stature was found to be most accurate by multiple regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS : Stature and gender estimation can be done by using foot measurements and stud y will help in medico - legal cases in establishing identity of an individual and this would be useful for Anatomists and Anthropologists to calculate stature based on foot length

  7. Analyzing an Aging ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, R.

    2014-01-01

    The ISS External Survey integrates the requirements for photographic and video imagery of the International Space Station (ISS) for the engineering, operations, and science communities. An extensive photographic survey was performed on all Space Shuttle flights to the ISS and continues to be performed daily, though on a level much reduced by the limited available imagery. The acquired video and photo imagery is used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of external deposition and contamination, surface degradation, dynamic events, and MMOD strikes. Many of these assessments provide important information about ISS surfaces and structural integrity as the ISS ages. The imagery is also used to assess and verify the physical configuration of ISS structure, appendages, and components.

  8. Evaluation of stature estimation from the database for forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rebecca J; Herrmann, Nicholas P; Jantz, Lee Meadows

    2010-05-01

    Trotter and Gleser's (1-3) stature equations, conventionally used to estimate stature, are not appropriate to use in the modern forensic context. In this study, stature is assessed with a modern (birth years after 1944) American sample (N = 242) derived from the National Institute of Justice Database for Forensic Anthropology in the United States and the Forensic Anthropology Databank. New stature formulae have been calculated using forensic stature (FSTAT) and a combined dataset of forensic, cadaver, and measured statures referred to as Any Stature (ASTAT). The new FSTAT-based equations had an improved accuracy in Blacks with little improvement over Ousley's (4) equations for Whites. ASTAT-based equations performed equal to those of FSTAT equations and may be more appropriate, because they reflect both the variation in reported statures and in cadaver statures. It is essential to use not only equations based on forensic statures, but also equations based on modern samples.

  9. Selection of Leafy Green Vegetable Varieties for a Pick-and-Eat Diet Supplement on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Stutte, Gary W.; Richards, Jeffrey T.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Douglas, Grace L.; Sirmons, Takiyah

    2015-01-01

    Several varieties of leafy vegetables were evaluated with the goal of selecting those with the best growth, nutrition, and organoleptic acceptability for ISS. Candidate species were narrowed to commercially available cultivars with desirable growth attributes for space (e.g., short stature and rapid growth). Seeds were germinated in controlled environment chambers under conditions similar to what might be found in the Veggie plant growth chamber on ISS. Eight varieties of leafy greens were grown: 'Tyee' spinach, 'Flamingo' spinach, 'Outredgeous' Red Romaine lettuce, 'Waldmann's Dark Green' leaf lettuce, 'Bull's Blood' beet, 'Rhubarb' Swiss chard, 'Tokyo Bekana' Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna. Plants were harvested at maturity and biometric data on plant height, diameter, chlorophyll content, and fresh mass were obtained. Tissue was ground and extractions were performed to determine the tissue elemental content of Potassium (K), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca) and Iron (Fe). Following the biometric/elemental evaluation, four of the eight varieties were tested further for levels of anthocyanins, antioxidant (ORAC-fluorescein) capacity, lutein, zeaxanthin, and Vitamin K. For sensory evaluation, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, Swiss chard, Chinese cabbage, and Mizuna plants were grown, harvested when mature, packaged under refrigerated conditions, and sent to the JSC Space Food Systems Laboratory. Tasters evaluated overall acceptability, appearance, color intensity, bitterness, flavor, texture, crispness and tenderness. All varieties received acceptable scores with overall ratings greater than 6 on a 9-point hedonic scale. Chinese cabbage was the highest rated, followed by Mizuna, 'Outredgeous' lettuce, and Swiss chard. Based on our results, the selected varieties of Chinese cabbage, lettuce, Swiss chard and Mizuna seem suitable for a pick-and-eat scenario on ISS with a ranking based on all factors analyzed to help establish priority.

  10. KSC ISS Logistics Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellado, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    The presentation contains a status of KSC ISS Logistics Operations. It basically presents current top level ISS Logistics tasks being conducted at KSC, current International Partner activities, hardware processing flow focussing on late Stow operations, list of KSC Logistics POC's, and a backup list of Logistics launch site services. This presentation is being given at the annual International Space Station (ISS) Multi-lateral Logistics Maintenance Control Panel meeting to be held in Turin, Italy during the week of May 13-16. The presentatiuon content doesn't contain any potential lessons learned.

  11. Hipertensão, obesidade abdominal e baixa estatura: aspectos da transição nutricional em uma população favelada Hypertension, abdominal obesity and short stature: aspects of nutritional transition within a shantytown in the city of Maceió (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo da Silva Ferreira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar, em mulheres de muito baixa renda, a prevalência e a associação entre a baixa estatura, o sobrepeso, a obesidade abdominal e a hipertensão arterial, discutindo os achados, segundo o processo de transição nutricional e a hipótese da programação fetal (hipótese Barker. MÉTODOS: Foram estudadas 223 mulheres de 18 a 65 anos, por meio dos seguintes indicadores: índice de massa corporal (kg/m² >25 para sobrepeso + obesidade ou 0,8 para obesidade abdominal; pressão arterial sistólica e/ou diastólica >140/90mmHg para hipertensão; percentil 25 (1º quartil para baixa estatura. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de sobrepeso + obesidade (35,9% foi superior à de magreza (9,4%. A pressão diastólica associou-se com o índice de massa corporal (r=0,37; IC 95%: 0,01 OBJECTIVE: To investigate the frequency of occurrence of short stature, overweight, abdominal obesity and arterial hypertension, and the possible correlations among such factors, in women of very low income. The findings were considered in terms of nutrition transition and the Barker's programming hypothesis. METHODS: A group of 223 women, 18 to 65 years of age, were studied with respect to the following parameters: for body mass index (kg/m², values >25 indicated overweight and obesity, whilst values 0.8 indicated abdominal adiposity; for systolic/diastolic blood pressure, values >140/90 mm Hg indicated hypertension; and for height, values within the 25th percentile (1st quartile indicated short stature. RESULTS: The frequency of occurrence of overweight and obesity (present in 35.9% of the group was greater than that of underweight (9.4% of the group. The diastolic blood pressure was positively associated with body mass index (r= 0.37; CI 95,0%: 0.01

  12. Valor del pesquisaje de la enfermedad celíaca en niños con baja talla. Métodos serológicos: una opción eficaz Value of celiac disease screening in children with short stature. Serological methods: an efficient option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Espinosa Reyes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio sistemático de los niños con retraso del crecimiento constituye un pilar clave en el quehacer del endocrinólogo pediatra. Múltiples han sido las causas identificadas para la baja estatura a lo largo de los años, y a la inmensa lista de enfermedades de origen genético, endocrino, osteomioarticular, cardiovascular, respiratorio y gastrointestinal, por recordar un grupo de ellas, se suma la enfermedad celíaca (EC, y se ha demostrado que es de vital importancia su pesquisa activa en estos pacientes, aunque no existan manifestaciones de tipo gastrointestinales. Programas de screening en la población indican que existe un subregistro de EC, y estudios recientes han permitido confirmar que es mucho más frecuente de lo que se suponía. Aunque la biopsia de yeyuno continúa siendo la regla de oro para su diagnóstico, la búsqueda incesante de métodos menos cruentos ha llegado al desarrollo de métodos serológicos, especialmente la determinación de anticuerpos anti-gliadina y anti-transglutaminasa, este último con un método desarrollado por investigadores nuestros. Con el propósito de analizar algunos estudios realizados con este fin, presentamos la siguiente revisión, lo que ha originado un protocolo de investigación que se llevará a cabo en nuestros pacientes con baja estatura.The systematic study of children with growth retardation is essential in the work of the paediatric endocrinologist. There have been identified multiple causes of short stature along the years, and the celiac disease (CD is added to the immense list of disease of genetic, endocrine, osteomyoarticular, cardiovascular respiratory and gastrointestinal origin, just to remember some of them. It has been proved that the active search of CD in these patients is very important, even when there are no gastrointestinal manifestations. Screening programs carried out in the population show that there is a subregister of CD, and recent studies have allowed to

  13. Non-linear associations between stature and mate choice characteristics for American men and their spouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, G.; Mills, M.; Pollet, T.V.; Barrett, L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Although male height is positively associated with many aspects of mate quality, average height men attain higher reproductive success in US populations. We hypothesize that this is because the advantages associated with taller stature accrue mainly from not being short, rather than from

  14. Non-Linear Associations between Stature and Mate Choice Characteristics for American Men and their Spouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stulp, Gert; Mills, Melinda; Pollet, Thomas V.; Barrett, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Although male height is positively associated with many aspects of mate quality, average height men attain higher reproductive success in US populations. We hypothesize that this is because the advantages associated with taller stature accrue mainly from not being short, rather than from

  15. Dose response association of pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure, childhood stature, overweight and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshy, Gibby; Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    The combined dose response effects of pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure on childhood overweight, obesity and short stature have not been reported. A community based cross-sectional survey of 3038 children aged 5-11 years from 15 primary schools in Merseyside, UK. Self-completed parental

  16. Size Matters Stature Is Related to Diagnoses of Depression in Young Military Men

    OpenAIRE

    Valery Krupnik; Mariya V. Cherkasova

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary theories suggest that depression has evolved as an adaptation to insurmountable adversity or defeat. One prediction stemming from these models is that individual attributes associated with defeat in a given social environment could be risk factors for depression. We hypothesized that in young military men, where physical prowess was important, short stature might constitute a risk of depression and that th...

  17. Statures of 19th century Chinese males in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2007-01-01

    This study considers statures of 19th century male Chinese immigrant to the American West and assesses how their personal characteristics were related with stature variation. The subjects were 1423 male Chinese prisoners received between 1850 and 1920 in the Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah and Washington state prisons. The study compares 19th century Chinese inmate statures with other studies and employs stature regression models on time, socio-economic status and residence within the USA to account for biological variation. Between 1830 and 1870, Chinese youth male stature declined by over 2 cm. Between 1820 and 1860, Chinese adult male stature also declined by over 2 cm. Chinese stature did not vary with socio-economic status or residence. Nineteenth century Chinese emigrant statures were influenced more by political and economic events than socio-economic status, and male emigrants' biological conditions may have deteriorated throughout the 19th century.

  18. Changes in stature, weight, and nutritional status with tourism-based economic development in the Yucatan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherman, Thomas L; Goodman, Alan H; Stillman, Tobias

    2010-07-01

    Over the past 40 years, tourism-based economic development has transformed social and economic conditions in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico. We address how these changes have influenced anthropometric indicators of growth and nutritional status in Yalcoba, a Mayan farming community involved in the circular migration of labor in the tourist economy. Data are presented on stature and weight for children measured in 1938 in the Yucatan Peninsula and from 1987 to 1998 in the Mayan community of Yalcoba. In addition, stature, weight and BMI are presented for adults in Yalcoba based on clinic records. Childhood stature varied little between 1938 and 1987. Between 1987 and 1998 average male child statures increased by 2.6cm and female child statures increased by 2.7cm. Yet, 65% of children were short for their ages. Between 1987 and 1998, average child weight increased by 1.8kg. Child BMIs were similar to US reference values and 13% were considered to be above average for weight. Forty percent of adult males and 64% of females were overweight or obese. The anthropometric data from Yalcoba suggest a pattern of stunted children growing into overweight adults. This pattern is found elsewhere in the Yucatan and in much of the developing world where populations have experienced a nutrition transition toward western diets and reduced physical activity levels. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stature Estimation for Bosnian Male Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin Sarajlić

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 1996, the Trotter and Gleser formulae to determine the stature of recovered missing persons in Bosnia and Herzegovina have been used. The purpose of this study is to develop appropriate stature estimation formulae from the length of the femur, tibia and fibula for use in the Bosnia and Herzegovina to help in identifications of the victims. Research was undertaken on 50 male cadavers, of individuals who died between the ages of 23 to 54 years. The cadaver length was measured and the length of the long bones was obtained from X-ray photographs. The length of the cadavers of the individuals who died after age of 45 years was corrected according to Giles' table. This study established that using Trotter and Gleser's formulae underestimate stature of tall people in the current population of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Smallest standard error of estimate is observed in the formula that uses the sum of the length of femur and fibula. There are no statistically significant differences between the length of the bones from the left and right sides of the body. Therefore, formulae developed from the average length of bone pairs are recommended for use.

  20. Estimation of Stature from Foot Dimensions and Stature among South Indian Medical Students Using Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh D. R

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: At times fragments of soft tissues are found disposed off in the open, in ditches at the crime scene and the same are brought to forensic experts for the purpose of identification and such type of cases pose a real challenge. Objectives: This study was aimed at developing a methodology which could help in personal identification by studying the relation between foot dimensions and stature among south subjects using regression models. Material and Methods: Stature and foot length of 100 subjects (age range 18-22 years were measured. Linear regression equations for stature estimation were calculated. Result: The correlation coefficients between stature and foot lengths were found to be positive and statistically significant. Height = 98.159 + 3.746 × FLRT (r = 0.821 and Height = 91.242 + 3.284 × FLRT (r = 0.837 are the regression formulas from foot lengths for males and females respectively. Conclusion: The regression equation derived in the study can be used reliably for estimation of stature in a diverse population group thus would be of immense value in the field of personal identification especially from mutilated bodies or fragmentary remains.

  1. ISS Robotic Student Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, J.; Benavides, J.; Hanson, R.; Cortez, J.; Le Vasseur, D.; Soloway, D.; Oyadomari, K.

    2016-01-01

    The SPHERES facility is a set of three free-flying satellites launched in 2006. In addition to scientists and engineering, middle- and high-school students program the SPHERES during the annual Zero Robotics programming competition. Zero Robotics conducts virtual competitions via simulator and on SPHERES aboard the ISS, with students doing the programming. A web interface allows teams to submit code, receive results, collaborate, and compete in simulator-based initial rounds and semi-final rounds. The final round of each competition is conducted with SPHERES aboard the ISS. At the end of 2017 a new robotic platform called Astrobee will launch, providing new game elements and new ground support for even more student interaction.

  2. Unusual ISS Rate Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    On November 23, 2011 International Space Station Guidance, Navigation, and Control reported unusual pitch rate disturbance. These disturbances were an order of magnitude greater than nominal rates. The Loads and Dynamics team was asked to review and analyze current accelerometer data to investigate this disturbance. This paper will cover the investigation process under taken by the Loads and Dynamics group. It will detail the accelerometers used and analysis performed. The analysis included performing Frequency Fourier Transform of the data to identify the mode of interest. This frequency data is then reviewed with modal analysis of the ISS system model. Once this analysis is complete and the disturbance quantified, a forcing function was produced to replicate the disturbance. This allows the Loads and Dynamics team to report the load limit values for the 100's of interfaces on the ISS.

  3. ISS Habitability Data Collection and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry (Principal Investigator); Greene, Maya; Schuh, Susan; Williams, Thomas; Archer, Ronald; Vasser, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Habitability is the relationship between an individual and their surroundings (i.e. the interplay of the person, machines, environment, and mission). The purpose of this study is to assess habitability and human factors on the ISS to better prepare for future long-duration space flights. Scheduled data collection sessions primarily require the use of iSHORT (iPad app) to capture near real-time habitability feedback and analyze vehicle layout and space utilization.

  4. ISS Local Environment Spectrometers (ISLES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Gilchrist, Brian E.

    2014-01-01

    In order to study the complex interactions between the space environment surrounding the ISS and the ISS surface materials, we propose to use lowcost, high-TRL plasma sensors on the ISS robotic arm to probe the ISS space environment. During many years of ISS operation, we have been able to condut effective (but not perfect) extravehicular activities (both human and robotic) within the perturbed local ISS space environment. Because of the complexity of the interaction between the ISS and the LEO space environment, there remain important questions, such as differential charging at solar panel junctions (the so-called "triple point" between conductor, dielectric, and space plasma), increased chemical contamination due to ISS surface charging and/or thruster activation, water dumps, etc, and "bootstrap" charging of insulating surfaces. Some compelling questions could synergistically draw upon a common sensor suite, which also leverages previous and current MSFC investments. Specific questions address ISS surface charging, plasma contactor plume expansion in a magnetized drifting plasma, and possible localized contamination effects across the ISS.

  5. Changes in intervertebral disk dimensions after a loading task and the relationship with stature change measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sandra E; Fowler, Neil E

    2009-10-01

    Lewis SE, Fowler NE. Changes in intervertebral disk dimensions after a loading task and the relationship with stature change measurements. To test the hypothesis that there would be a linear relationship between overall stature change determined by stadiometry and markers of lumbar disk height loss determined from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The short-term loading response of the lumbar spine was evaluated with both stadiometry and MRI, using a within-subject repeated-measures design. Measures were obtained both before and after 15 minutes of walking wearing a weighted vest (20% of body mass). Stature loss measured on the stadiometer was compared with change in lumbar spine length assessed from the MRI images. A university laboratory. Participants (N=13; mean age +/- SD, 28.5+/-5.2y; mean height +/- SD, 1.76+/-0.10m; mean body mass +/- SD, 76.6+/-14.9kg) were invited to take part in the investigation. The group was mixed (9 men, 4 women) and comprised people with no history of low back pain. Not applicable. Lumbar spine length assessed via MRI and stature change measured via stadiometry. A significant height loss was observed over the complete lumbar spine (Pstature loss (r=.61). The results were supportive of the use of stadiometry as an indirect measure of changes in intervertebral disk height.

  6. Why short stature is beneficial in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodor, Marko; McDonald, Craig M

    2013-09-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by a genetic defect resulting in absent dystrophin, yet children are able to walk when small and young but lose this ability as they grow. The mdx mouse has absent dystrophin yet does not exhibit significant disability. Allometric modeling of linearly increasing load per muscle fiber and stress on the sarcolemma with growth and exponential decline associated with loss of muscle fibers correlated with case studies and animal models of DMD. Smaller species or breeds are predictably less affected than large as follows: mdx mice muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs < large GRMD dogs < humans. Case reports of combined growth hormone and dystrophin deficiency show a relatively benign course of disease. Future therapeutic trials in DMD might include specific growth inhibitors in combination with standard of care treatments to delay the clinical onset and reduce the severity of disease and disability. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Unresolving Short Stature in a Possible Case of Mucopolysccharidosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-19

    The present case is about ES a 4-year-old male, an only ... on Thursday, February 19, 2015, IP: 41.135.175.131] || Click here to download free Android application for this journal .... corneal clouding, large tongue, prominent forehead, joint.

  8. Paraplegia in a thalassaemic patient with short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Saveria; Mangiagli, Antonino; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Giovannini, Michela

    2011-03-01

    Extramedullary hematopoiesis (EMH) is a normal compensatory reaction that occurs in almost all chronic hemolytic anemia, especially in transfusion independent thalassemia intermedia, and can involve many organs or tissues, including the epidural space leading to spinal cord compression syndrome. We present a case of EMH in a 29 year old woman with thalassemia major, regularly transfused since the time of diagnosis (age 21 months), who presented with sudden muscle weakness, difficulty walking and maintaining the upright position. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) of the thoracic spine showed spinal cord compression secondary to extramedullary hematopoiesis in the spinal canal, leading to early therapy. The neurosurgical treatment (decompressive laminectomy D3-D6) in our patient brought a significant and rapid recovery. The next two MRI of the spine (after 6 and 18 months) were both negative for recurrence.

  9. Developing evidence-based guidelines for referral for short stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, F.K.; Dommelen, P. van; Oostdijk, W.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Verkerk, P.H.; Wit, J.M.; Buuren, S. van

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To establish evidence based guidelines for growth monitoring on a population basis. Study design: Several auxological referral criteria were formulated and applied to longitudinal growth data from four different patient groups, as well as three samples from the general population.

  10. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  11. ISS Solar Array Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James P.; Martin, Keith D.; Thomas, Justin R.; Caro, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Solar Array Management (SAM) software toolset provides the capabilities necessary to operate a spacecraft with complex solar array constraints. It monitors spacecraft telemetry and provides interpretations of solar array constraint data in an intuitive manner. The toolset provides extensive situational awareness to ensure mission success by analyzing power generation needs, array motion constraints, and structural loading situations. The software suite consists of several components including samCS (constraint set selector), samShadyTimers (array shadowing timers), samWin (visualization GUI), samLock (array motion constraint computation), and samJet (attitude control system configuration selector). It provides high availability and uptime for extended and continuous mission support. It is able to support two-degrees-of-freedom (DOF) array positioning and supports up to ten simultaneous constraints with intuitive 1D and 2D decision support visualizations of constraint data. Display synchronization is enabled across a networked control center and multiple methods for constraint data interpolation are supported. Use of this software toolset increases flight safety, reduces mission support effort, optimizes solar array operation for achieving mission goals, and has run for weeks at a time without issues. The SAM toolset is currently used in ISS real-time mission operations.

  12. The Genetic Architecture of Barley Plant Stature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Ahmad M.; Koppolu, Ravi; Wolde, Gizaw M.; Graner, Andreas; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    Plant stature in temperate cereals is predominantly controlled by tillering and plant height as complex agronomic traits, representing important determinants of grain yield. This study was designed to reveal the genetic basis of tillering at five developmental stages and plant height at harvest in 218 worldwide spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions under greenhouse conditions. The accessions were structured based on row-type classes [two- vs. six-rowed] and photoperiod response [photoperiod-sensitive (Ppd-H1) vs. reduced photoperiod sensitivity (ppd-H1)]. Phenotypic analyses of both factors revealed profound between group effects on tiller development. To further verify the row-type effect on the studied traits, Six-rowed spike 1 (vrs1) mutants and their two-rowed progenitors were examined for tiller number per plant and plant height. Here, wild-type (Vrs1) plants were significantly taller and had more tillers than mutants suggesting a negative pleiotropic effect of this row-type locus on both traits. Our genome-wide association scans further revealed highly significant associations, thereby establishing a link between the genetic control of row-type, heading time, tillering, and plant height. We further show that associations for tillering and plant height are co-localized with chromosomal segments harboring known plant stature-related phytohormone and sugar-related genes. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the GWAS approach for identifying putative candidate genes for improving plant architecture. PMID:27446200

  13. Industry's Commercial Initiatives on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, C. E.; Kessler, C.; Lavitola, M. S.

    2002-01-01

    For more than ten years, private industry has worked to develop a commercial human space market and to create a sustainable ISS commercial utilization customer base. Before ISS assembly was underway - and long before NASA and the international space agencies began to craft ISS commercial business terms and conditions - industry planted and nurtured the seeds of interest in exploiting human space utilization for commerce. These early initiatives have yielded the impetus and framework for industry approaches to ISS commercial utilization today and for NASA's and the International Partners' planned accommodation of private sector interests and desires on the ISS. This paper chronicles major industry initiatives for commercial ISS utilization, emphasizing successful marketing and business approaches and why these approaches have a higher likelihood of success than others. It provides an overview of individual companies' initiatives, as well as collaborative efforts that cross company lines and country borders; and it assesses the relative success of each. Rather than emphasize negative issues and barriers, this paper characterizes and prioritizes actionable success factors for industry and government to make ISS commercial utilization a sustainable reality.

  14. Growth hormone for short children--whom should we be treating and why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelnar, C J

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this paper was to determine systematically the impact of growth hormone (GH)therapy on adult height of children with (so-called) 'idiopathic short stature' (ISS) using the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and the bibliographic references from retrieved articles of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-RCTs from 1985 to April 2010. Inclusion criteria were initial short stature (defined as height >2 standard deviation[SD] below the mean), peak growth hormone responses>10 micrograms per litre (μg/L), prepuberty, no previous growth hormone therapy, and no comorbid conditions that would impair growth. Data extracted were adult height and overall gain in height from baseline measurement in childhood.Three RCTs (115 children) met the inclusion criteria.The adult height of the GH treated children exceeded that of the controls by 0.65 SD score (~4 cm). The mean height gain in treated children was 1.2 SD score compared with 0.34 SD score in untreated children. A difference of ~1.2 cm in adult height was observed between two GH dose regimens. In the seven non-RCTs, adult height of the GH-treated group exceeded that of controls by 0.45 SD score (~3 cm).The authors conclude that 1) GH therapy in children with ISS seems effective in partially reducing the deficit in height as adults, although less so than in other conditions for which GH is licensed; treated individuals remain relatively short compared with normal height peers. 2)Individual responses to therapy are highly variable; further studies are needed to identify responders. 3) High quality evidence from long-term RCTs of GH therapy that continue until adult height is necessary to determine the ideal dosage and long-term safety.

  15. ISS Expedition 08 Press Kit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Press kit for ISS mission Expedition 08 from 10/2003-04/2004. Press kits contain information about each mission overview, crew, mission timeline, benefits, and media...

  16. Estimation of stature using lower limb measurements in Sudanese Arabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Altayeb Abdalla

    2013-07-01

    The estimation of stature from body parts is one of the most vital parts of personal identification in medico-legal autopsies, especially when mutilated and amputated limbs or body parts are found. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and accuracy of using lower limb measurements for stature estimations. The stature, tibial length, bimalleolar breadth, foot length and foot breadth of 160 right-handed Sudanese Arab subjects, 80 men and 80 women (25-30 years old), were measured. The reliability of measurement acquisition was tested prior to the primary data collection. The data were analysed using basic univariate analysis and linear and multiple regression analyses. The results showed acceptable standards of measurement errors and reliability. Sex differences were significant for all of the measurements. There was a positive correlation coefficient between lower-limb dimensions and stature (P-value Arabs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Metacarpal index in Marfan's syndrome and in constitutional tall stature.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelle, M; Tröger, J; Rupprath, G; Bettendorf, M

    1994-01-01

    The metacarpal index (MCI) in 54 children with constitutional tall stature was mean (SD) 8.65 (0.8) and in 55 with Marfan's syndrome 9.15 (0.9). Indices in both groups showed arachnodactyly and differed from those found in normal individuals (< 7.9). Because the MCI is a poor discriminator patients with tall stature or clinical signs of arachnodactyly should be examined for additional signs of Marfan's syndrome or other hereditary disorders of connective tissue.

  18. Stature estimation using the knee height measurement amongst Brazilian elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Siqueira Fogal, Aline; Franceschini, Sylvia do Carmo Castro; Eloiza Priore, Silvia; Cotta, Rosângela Minardi M.; Queiroz Ribeiro, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Stature is an important variable in several indices of nutritional status that are applicable to elderly persons. However, stature is difficult or impossible to measure in elderly because they are often unable to maintain the standing position. A alternative is the use of estimated height from measurements of knee height measure. Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the formula proposed by Chumlea et al. (1985) based on the knee of a Caucasian population to estimat...

  19. Estimation of stature from sternum - Exploring the quadratic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraf, Ashish; Kanchan, Tanuj; Krishan, Kewal; Ateriya, Navneet; Setia, Puneet

    2018-04-14

    Identification of the dead is significant in examination of unknown, decomposed and mutilated human remains. Establishing the biological profile is the central issue in such a scenario, and stature estimation remains one of the important criteria in this regard. The present study was undertaken to estimate stature from different parts of the sternum. A sample of 100 sterna was obtained from individuals during the medicolegal autopsies. Length of the deceased and various measurements of the sternum were measured. Student's t-test was performed to find the sex differences in stature and sternal measurements included in the study. Correlation between stature and sternal measurements were analysed using Karl Pearson's correlation, and linear and quadratic regression models were derived. All the measurements were found to be significantly larger in males than females. Stature correlated best with the combined length of sternum, among males (R = 0.894), females (R = 0.859), and for the total sample (R = 0.891). The study showed that the models derived for stature estimation from combined length of sternum are likely to give the most accurate estimates of stature in forensic case work when compared to manubrium and mesosternum. Accuracy of stature estimation further increased with quadratic models derived for the mesosternum among males and combined length of sternum among males and females when compared to linear regression models. Future studies in different geographical locations and a larger sample size are proposed to confirm the study observations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  20. Family size, the physical environment, and socioeconomic effects across the stature distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2012-04-01

    A neglected area in historical stature studies is the relationship between stature and family size. Using robust statistics and a large 19th century data set, this study documents a positive relationship between stature and family size across the stature distribution. The relationship between material inequality and health is the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between stature and wealth and an inverse relationship between stature and material inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth variables, the paper reports a positive relationship between the physical environment and stature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. A practical method of estimating stature of bedridden female nursing home patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muncie, H L; Sobal, J; Hoopes, J M; Tenney, J H; Warren, J W

    1987-04-01

    Accurate measurement of stature is important for the determination of several nutritional indices as well as body surface area (BSA) for the normalization of creatinine clearances. Direct standing measurement of stature of bedridden elderly nursing home patients is impossible, and stature as recorded in the chart may not be valid. An accurate stature obtained by summing five segmental measurements was compared to the stature recorded in the patient's chart and calculated estimates of stature from measurement of a long bone (humerus, tibia, knee height). Estimation of stature from measurement of knee height was highly correlated (r = 0.93) to the segmental measurement of stature while estimates from other long-bone measurements were less highly correlated (r = 0.71 to 0.81). Recorded chart stature was poorly correlated (r = 0.37). Measurement of knee height provides a simple, quick, and accurate means of estimating stature for bedridden females in nursing homes.

  2. Cold Stowage: An ISS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, Garen

    2018-01-01

    NASA's vision for humans pursuing deep space flight involves the collection of science in low earth orbit aboard the International Space Station (ISS). As a service to the science community, Johnson Space Center (JSC) has developed hardware and processes to preserve collected science on the ISS and transfer it safely back to the Principal Investigators. This hardware includes an array of freezers, refrigerators, and incubators. The Cold Stowage team is part of the International Space Station (ISS) program. JSC manages the operation, support and integration tasks provided by Jacobs Technology and the University of Alabama Birmingham (UAB). Cold Stowage provides controlled environments to meet temperature requirements during ascent, on-orbit operations and return, in relation to International Space Station Payload Science.

  3. Forensic anthropology casework-essential methodological considerations in stature estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Menezes, Ritesh G; Ghosh, Abhik

    2012-03-01

    The examination of skeletal remains is a challenge to the medical examiner's/coroner's office and the forensic anthropologist conducting the investigation. One of the objectives of the medico-legal investigation is to estimate stature or height from various skeletal remains and body parts brought for examination. Various skeletal remains and body parts bear a positive and linear correlation with stature and have been successfully used for stature estimation. This concept is utilized in estimation of stature in forensic anthropology casework in mass disasters and other forensic examinations. Scientists have long been involved in standardizing the anthropological data with respect to various populations of the world. This review deals with some essential methodological issues that need to be addressed in research related to estimation of stature in forensic examinations. These issues have direct relevance in the identification of commingled or unknown remains and therefore it is essential that forensic nurses are familiar with the theories and techniques used in forensic anthropology. © 2012 International Association of Forensic Nurses.

  4. Estimation of stature from hand impression: a nonconventional approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahemad, Nasir; Purkait, Ruma

    2011-05-01

    Stature is used for constructing a biological profile that assists with the identification of an individual. So far, little attention has been paid to the fact that stature can be estimated from hand impressions left at scene of crime. The present study based on practical observations adopted a new methodology of measuring hand length from the depressed area between hypothenar and thenar region on the proximal surface of the palm. Stature and bilateral hand impressions were obtained from 503 men of central India. Seventeen dimensions of hand were measured on the impression. Linear regression equations derived showed hand length followed by palm length are best estimates of stature. Testing the practical utility of the suggested method on latent prints of 137 subjects, a statistically insignificant result was obtained when known and estimated stature derived from latent prints was compared. The suggested approach points to a strong possibility of its usage in crime scene investigation, albeit the fact that validation studies in real-life scenarios are performed. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Larry; Slack, Kelley; O'Keefe, William; Huning, Therese; Sipes, Walter; Holland, Albert

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the International Space Station (ISS) Operations space flight resource management, which was adapted to the ISS from the shuttle processes. It covers crew training and behavior elements.

  6. Stature estimation from complete long bones in the Middle Pleistocene humans from the Sima de los Huesos, Sierra de Atapuerca (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero, José-Miguel; Rodríguez, Laura; García-González, Rebeca; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Lorenzo, Carlos; Bonmatí, Alejandro; Gracia, Ana; Martínez, Ignacio; Quam, Rolf

    2012-02-01

    Systematic excavations at the site of the Sima de los Huesos (SH) in the Sierra de Atapuerca (Burgos, Spain) have allowed us to reconstruct 27 complete long bones of the human species Homo heidelbergensis. The SH sample is used here, together with a sample of 39 complete Homo neanderthalensis long bones and 17 complete early Homo sapiens (Skhul/Qafzeh) long bones, to compare the stature of these three different human species. Stature is estimated for each bone using race- and sex-independent regression formulae, yielding an average stature for each bone within each taxon. The mean length of each long bone from SH is significantly greater (p Huesos hominins nor the Neandertals should be considered 'short' people. In fact, the average stature within the genus Homo seems to have changed little over the course of the last two million years, since the appearance of Homo ergaster in East Africa. It is only with the emergence of H. sapiens, whose earliest representatives were 'very tall', that a significant increase in stature can be documented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Relationship between Stature and Insolation: Evidence from Soldiers and Prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Scott A. Carson

    2009-01-01

    Nineteenth century white US statures varied with nutrition, disease exposure, and the physical environment. An additional explanation for stature growth is vitamin D production. Vitamin D is produced internally by the synthesis of cholesterol and sunlight in the epidermis. However, studies that link stature to insolation and vitamin D production rely on only one comprehensive data set. To test the relationship between insolation and stature further, this study broadens the sample to include b...

  8. Nineteenth century US African-American and white female statures: Insight from US prison records

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, Scott A.

    2010-01-01

    Using a new source of 19th century state prison records, this study contrasts the biological living conditions of comparable US African-American and white female statures during economic development. Black and white female statures varied regionally, and white Southeastern and black Southwestern females reached the tallest statures. White females were consistently taller than black females. Black and white female statures also varied over time with emancipation and were similar to black male ...

  9. CALET docked on the ISS

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    On 19 August, with a spectacular launch on board the Japanese H2-B rocket operated by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), the CALorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET) left the Tanegashima Space Center to reach the International Space Station five days later.   After berthing with the ISS, CALET was extracted by a robotic arm from the Japanese HTV-5 transfer vehicle and installed on the Japanese Exposure Facility (right) where it will start its first data-taking. (Image: NASA/JAXA.)   CALET is a space mission led by JAXA with the participation of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and NASA. It is a CERN-recognised experiment and the second high-energy astroparticle experiment to be installed on the International Space Station (ISS) after AMS-02, which has been taking data since 2011. Designed to be a space observatory for long-term observations of cosmic radiation aboard the external platform JEM-EF of the Japanese module (KIBO) on the ISS, CALET aims to identify elect...

  10. Estimation of Stature from Arm Span in Medical Students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Identification is an individual's birth right” United Nations. Declaration on ... stature from arm span (AS) for a region in Maharashtra, India. Subjects ... found correlation coefficient (R) of 0.89 in male and 0.90 in female using simple regression,.

  11. Estimation of Stature from Arm Span in Medical Students of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unpaired t.test and simple linear regression were used. Results: Stature and AS of 400 medical students (219 males and 181 females) were measured. Subjects were divided into six groups depending upon age. Simple regression equation and multiplication factor for male and female and for each age group were derived ...

  12. ISS National Laboratory Education Project: Enhancing and Innovating the ISS as an Educational Venue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Leland D.

    2011-01-01

    The vision is to develop the ISS National Laboratory Education Project (ISS NLE) as a national resource for Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) education, utilizing the unique educational venue of the International Space Station per the NASA Congressional Authorization Act of 2005. The ISS NLE will serve as an educational resource which enables educational activities onboard the ISS and in the classroom. The ISS NLE will be accessible to educators and students from kindergarten to post-doctoral studies, at primary and secondary schools, colleges and universities. Additionally, the ISS NLE will provide ISS-related STEM education opportunities and resources for learners of all ages via informal educational institutions and venues Though U.S. Congressional direction emphasized the involvement of U.S. students, many ISS-based educational activities have international student and educator participation Over 31 million students around the world have participated in several ISS-related education activities.

  13. Shared Genetic Architecture in the Relationship between Adult Stature and Subclinical Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Sheedy, Patrick F.; Turner, Stephen T.; Chu, Julia S.; Peyser, Patricia A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Short stature is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD); although the mechanisms for this relationship are unknown, shared genetic factors have been proposed. Subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by coronary artery calcification (CAC), is associated with CHD events and represents part of the biological continuum to overt CHD. Many molecular mechanisms of CAC development are shared with bone growth. Thus, we examined whether there was evidence of shared genes (pleiotropy) between adult stature and CAC. Methods 877 asymptomatic white adults (46% men) from 625 families in a community-based sample had computed tomography measures of CAC. Pleiotropy between height and CAC was determined using maximum-likelihood estimation implemented in SOLAR. Results Adult height was significantly and inversely associated with CAC score (P=0.01). After adjusting for age, sex, and CHD risk factors, the estimated genetic correlation between height and CAC score was -0.37 and was significantly different than 0 (P=0.001) and -1 (P<0.001). The environmental correlation between height and CAC score was 0.60 and was significantly different than 0 (P=0.024). Conclusions Further studies of shared genetic factors between height and CAC may provide important insight into the complex genetic architecture of CHD, in part through increased understanding of the molecular pathways underlying the process of both normal growth and disease development. Bivariate genetic linkage analysis may provide a powerful mechanism for identifying specific genomic regions associated with both height and CAC. PMID:21937044

  14. Lessons Learned from ISS Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, C.

    2002-01-01

    Forty years of human spaceflight activities are now culminating in the International Space Station program (ISS). The ISS involves fifteen nations, working together to create a permanently occupied orbital facility that will support scientific and potentially, commercial endeavours. The assembly of the ISS is scheduled to be completed later in this decade, after which it will be operated for at least ten years. At the strategic level, such a complex international project is highly dependent on the fifteen Partners' respective internal politics and foreign policies. On the operational level, Partners still have certain difficulties in issuing and agreeing to common technical procedures. As with almost all aspects of International Space Station cooperation, the Partners are going through a constant learning process, where they have to deal with complex political, legal and operational differences. Intergovernmental Agreement and the Memoranda of Understanding, the instruments forming the legal backbone of the International Space Station cooperation, are still lacking a fair number of arrangements that need to be created for completing and operating the Station. The whole endeavour is also a constant learning process at the operational level, as astronauts, cosmonauts, engineers and technicians on the ground with different cultural and educational backgrounds, learn to work together. One recent Space Shuttle mission to the Station showed the importance of standardising even trivial system components such as packaging labels, as it took the astronauts half a day more than planned to correctly unpack the equipment. This paper will provide a synthesis of some of the main lessons learned during the first few years of International Space Station's lifetime. Important political, legal and operational issues will be addressed and combined. This analysis will provide some guidelines and recommendations for future international space projects, such as an international human

  15. Multiplication factor versus regression analysis in stature estimation from hand and foot dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Sharma, Abhilasha

    2012-05-01

    Estimation of stature is an important parameter in identification of human remains in forensic examinations. The present study is aimed to compare the reliability and accuracy of stature estimation and to demonstrate the variability in estimated stature and actual stature using multiplication factor and regression analysis methods. The study is based on a sample of 246 subjects (123 males and 123 females) from North India aged between 17 and 20 years. Four anthropometric measurements; hand length, hand breadth, foot length and foot breadth taken on the left side in each subject were included in the study. Stature was measured using standard anthropometric techniques. Multiplication factors were calculated and linear regression models were derived for estimation of stature from hand and foot dimensions. Derived multiplication factors and regression formula were applied to the hand and foot measurements in the study sample. The estimated stature from the multiplication factors and regression analysis was compared with the actual stature to find the error in estimated stature. The results indicate that the range of error in estimation of stature from regression analysis method is less than that of multiplication factor method thus, confirming that the regression analysis method is better than multiplication factor analysis in stature estimation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Size Matters Stature Is Related to Diagnoses of Depression in Young Military Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valery Krupnik

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary theories suggest that depression has evolved as an adaptation to insurmountable adversity or defeat. One prediction stemming from these models is that individual attributes associated with defeat in a given social environment could be risk factors for depression. We hypothesized that in young military men, where physical prowess was important, short stature might constitute a risk of depression and that this risk would be specific to depression and not to other prevalent mental disorders such as anxiety. A preliminary analysis of the diagnostic profile of a sample of male military personnel treated for mental health indicates that men both shorter and taller than average by 1 standard deviation may be predisposed to higher rates of depressive but not anxiety disorders. Practical and theoretical implications of our findings are discussed.

  17. ETHNICITY AND INCOME IMPACT ON BMI AND STATURE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN LIVING IN URBAN SOUTHERN MEXICO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Nina; Barrera-Pérez, The Late Mario; Palma-Solis, Marco; Zavala-Castro, Jorge; Dickinson, Federico; Azcorra, Hugo; Prelip, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Obesity affects quality of life and increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Mexico, a middle-income country, has a high prevalence of overweight and obesity among urban children. Merida is the most populated and growing city in southern Mexico with a mixed Mayan and non-Maya population. Local urbanization and access to industrialized foods have impacted the eating habits and physical activity of children, increasing the risk of overweight and obesity. This study aimed to contribute to the existing literature on the global prevalence of overweight and obesity and examined the association of parental income, ethnicity and nutritional status with body mass index (BMI) and height in primary school children in Merida. The heights and weights of 3243 children aged 6-12 from sixteen randomly selected schools in the city were collected between April and December 2012. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine differences in the prevalence of BMI and height categories (based on WHO reference values) by ethnicity and income levels. Of the total students, 1648 (50.9%) were overweight or obese. Stunting was found in 227 children (7%), while 755 (23.3%) were defined as having short stature. Combined stunting and overweight/obesity was found in 301 students (9.3%) and twelve (0.4%) were classified as stunted and of low weight. Having two Mayan surnames was inversely associated with having adequate height (OR=0.69, pobese. Overweight, obesity and short stature were frequent among the studied children. A significant proportion of Meridan children could face an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease and its associated negative economic and social outcomes unless healthier habits are adopted. Action is needed to reduce the prevalence of obesity among southern Mexican families of all ethnic groups, particularly those of lower income.

  18. Reliability on ISS Talk Outline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiora, Mike

    2015-01-01

    1. Overview of ISS 2. Space Environment and it effects a. Radiation b. Microgravity 3. How we ensure reliability a. Requirements b. Component Selection i. Note: I plan to stay away from talk about Rad Hardened components and talk about why we use older processors because they are less susceptible to SEUs. c. Testing d. Redundancy / Failure Tolerance e. Sparing strategies 4. Operational Examples a. Multiple MDM Failures on 6A due to hard drive failure In general, my plan is to only talk about data that is currently available via normal internet sources to ensure that I stay away from any topics that would be Export Controlled, ITAR, or NDA-controlled. The operational example has been well-reported on in the media and those are the details that I plan to cover. Additionally I am not planning on using any slides or showing any photos during the talk.

  19. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  20. Alternatives to the ISS Plasma Contacting Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2002-01-01

    A spacecraft in a high-density equatorial LEO plasma will float negative relative to the ambient plasma. Because of the electron collection of exposed conductors on its solar arrays, it may float negative by up to its array voltage. The floating potential depends on the relative areas of electron and ion collection of the spacecraft. Early estimates of the International Space Station (ISS) potential were about -140 V relative to the surrounding plasma, because of its 160 V solar array string voltage. Because of the possibility of arcing of ISS structures and astronaut EMUs (spacesuits) into the space plasma, Plasma Contacting Units (PCUs) were added to the ISS design, to reduce the highly negative floating potentials by emitting electrons (effectively increasing the ion collecting area). In addition to the now-operating ISS PCUs, safety rules require another independent arc-hazard control method. In this paper, I discuss alternatives to the ISS PCUs for keeping the ISS floating potential at values below the arc-thresholds of ISS and EMU surface materials. Advantages and disadvantages of all of the recline loss will be presented.

  1. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Takada, Kevin; Gazda, Daniel; Brown, Christopher; Bazley, Jesse; Schaezler, Ryan; Bankers, Lyndsey

    2017-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2017 and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  2. Status of ISS Water Management and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Layne; Brown, Christopher; Orozco, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Water management on ISS is responsible for the provision of water to the crew for drinking water, food preparation, and hygiene, to the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) for oxygen production via electrolysis, to the Waste & Hygiene Compartment (WHC) for flush water, and for experiments on ISS. This paper summarizes water management activities on the ISS US Segment, and provides a status of the performance and issues related to the operation of the Water Processor Assembly (WPA) and Urine Processor Assembly (UPA). This paper summarizes the on-orbit status as of June 2013, and describes the technical challenges encountered and lessons learned over the past year.

  3. Childhood Stature and Growth in Relation to First Ischemic Stroke or Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjærde, Line Klingen; Truelsen, Thomas Clement; Baker, Jennifer Lyn

    2018-03-01

    Attained height, an indicator of genetic potential and childhood growth environment, is inversely associated with stroke, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. We investigated whether childhood height and growth are associated with ischemic stroke (IS) and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In a cohort of Danish schoolchildren born 1930 to 1989, with measured height from 7 to 13 years, we investigated associations of childhood stature and growth with risks of adult IS and ICH. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with CIs separately for women and men. Among 311 009 individuals, 10 412 were diagnosed with IS and 2546 with ICH. Height at 7 years was inversely and significantly associated with IS in both sexes (per z score, equivalent to ≈5.2 cm in women and 5.1 cm in men; women: HR=0.89 [95% CI: 0.87-0.92]; men: HR=0.90 [95% CI: 0.88-0.92]) and with ICH in men (HR=0.89 [95% CI: 0.84-0.94]) but not in women (HR=0.97 [95% CI: 0.91-1.04]). Associations were similar at older childhood ages and were stable throughout the study period. No statistically significant associations for growth from 7 to 13 years were observed for IS or ICH. Short stature at 7 to 13 years is significantly associated with increased risks of IS in both sexes and with ICH in men. Growth during this period of childhood is not significantly associated with either of these stroke subtypes, suggesting that underlying mechanisms linking height with risks of stroke may exert their influence already by early childhood. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. ISS qualified thermal carrier equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuser, Mark S.; Vellinger, John C.; Jennings, Wm. M.

    2000-01-01

    Biotechnology is undergoing a period of rapid and sustained growth, a trend which is expected to continue as the general population ages and as new medical treatments and products are conceived. As pharmaceutical and biomedical companies continue to search for improved methods of production and, for answers to basic research questions, they will seek out new avenues of research. Space processing on the International Space Station (ISS) offers such an opportunity! Space is rapidly becoming an industrial laboratory for biotechnology research and processing. Space bioprocessing offers exciting possibilities for developing new pharmaceuticals and medical treatments, which can be used to benefit mankind on Earth. It also represents a new economic frontier for the private sector. For over eight years, the thermal carrier development team at SHOT has been working with government and commercial sector scientists who are conducting microgravity experiments that require thermal control. SHOT realized several years ago that the hardware currently being used for microgravity thermal control was becoming obsolete. It is likely that the government, academic, and industrial bioscience community members could utilize SHOT's hardware as a replacement to their current microgravity thermal carrier equipment. Moreover, SHOT is aware of several international scientists interested in utilizing our space qualified thermal carrier. SHOT's economic financing concept could be extremely beneficial to the international participant, while providing a source of geographic return for their particular region. Beginning in 2000, flight qualified thermal carriers are expected to be available to both the private and government sectors. .

  5. Would Current International Space Station (ISS) Recycling Life Support Systems Save Mass on a Mars Transit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2017-01-01

    The oxygen and water are recycled on the International Space Station (ISS) to save the cost of launching their mass into orbit. Usually recycling systems are justified by showing that their launch mass would be much lower than the mass of the oxygen or water they produce. Short missions such as Apollo or space shuttle directly provide stored oxygen and water, since the needed total mass of oxygen and water is much less than that of there cycling equipment. Ten year or longer missions such as the ISS or a future moon base easily save mass by recycling while short missions of days or weeks do not. Mars transit and long Mars surface missions have an intermediate duration, typically one to one and a half years. Some of the current ISS recycling systems would save mass if used on a Mars transit but others would not.

  6. Space Flight Resource Management for ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lacey L.; Slack, Kelley; Holland, Albert; Huning, Therese; O'Keefe, William; Sipes, Walter E.

    2010-01-01

    Although the astronaut training flow for the International Space Station (ISS) spans 2 years, each astronaut or cosmonaut often spends most of their training alone. Rarely is it operationally feasible for all six ISS crewmembers to train together, even more unlikely that crewmembers can practice living together before launch. Likewise, ISS Flight Controller training spans 18 months of learning to manage incredibly complex systems remotely in plug-and-play ground teams that have little to no exposure to crewmembers before a mission. How then do all of these people quickly become a team - a team that must respond flexibly yet decisively to a variety of situations? The answer implemented at NASA is Space Flight Resource Management (SFRM), the so-called "soft skills" or team performance skills. Based on Crew Resource Management, SFRM was developed first for shuttle astronauts and focused on managing human errors during time-critical events (Rogers, et al. 2002). Given the nature of life on ISS, the scope of SFRM for ISS broadened to include teamwork during prolonged and routine operations (O'Keefe, 2008). The ISS SFRM model resembles a star with one competency for each point: Communication, Cross-Culture, Teamwork, Decision Making, Team Care, Leadership/Followership, Conflict Management, and Situation Awareness. These eight competencies were developed with international participation by the Human Behavior and Performance Training Working Group. Over the last two years, these competencies have been used to build a multi-modal SFRM training flow for astronaut candidates and flight controllers that integrates team performance skills into the practice of technical skills. Preliminary results show trainee skill increases as the flow progresses; and participants find the training invaluable to performing well and staying healthy during ISS operations. Future development of SFRM training will aim to help support indirect handovers as ISS operations evolve further with the

  7. Early Communication System (ECOMM) for ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylor, Kent; Tu, Kwei

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Early Communications System (ECOMM) was a Johnson Space Center (JSC) Avionic Systems Division (ASD) in-house developed communication system to provide early communications between the ISS and the Mission Control Center-Houston (MCC-H). This system allows for low rate commands (link rate of 6 kbps) to be transmitted through the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) from MCC-H to the ISS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Forward (SSA/) link service. This system also allows for low rate telemetry (link rate of 20.48 kbps) to be transmitted from ISS to MCC-H through the TDRSS using TDRSS's S-band Single Access Return (SSAR) link service. In addition this system supports a JSC developed Onboard Communications Adapter (OCA) that allows for a two-way data exchange of 128 kbps between MCC-H and the ISS through TDRSS. This OCA data can be digital video/audio (two-way videoconference), and/or file transfers, and/or "white board". The key components of the system, the data formats used by the system to insure compatibility with the future ISS S-Band System, as well as how other vehicles may be able to use this system for their needs are discussed in this paper.

  8. Loci associated with adult stature also affect calf birth survival in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Höglund, Johanna; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt

    2015-01-01

    growth and adult stature in several species. The QTL exhibited large effects on calf size and stature in Nordic Red cattle. Two deviant haplotypes (HAP1 and HAP2) were resolved which increased calf size at birth, and affected adult body conformation. However, the haplotypes also resulted in increased...

  9. Do group-specific equations provide the best estimates of stature?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, John; Osley, Stephanie E; Tuck, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    An estimate of stature can be used by a forensic anthropologist with the preliminary identification of an unknown individual when human skeletal remains are recovered. Fordisc is a computer application that can be used to estimate stature; like many other methods it requires the user to assign an unknown individual to a specific group defined by sex, race/ancestry, and century of birth before an equation is applied. The assumption is that a group-specific equation controls for group differences and should provide the best results most often. In this paper we assess the utility and benefits of using group-specific equations to estimate stature using Fordisc. Using the maximum length of the humerus and the maximum length of the femur from individuals with documented stature, we address the question: Do sex-, race/ancestry- and century-specific stature equations provide the best results when estimating stature? The data for our sample of 19th Century White males (n=28) were entered into Fordisc and stature was estimated using 22 different equation options for a total of 616 trials: 19th and 20th Century Black males, 19th and 20th Century Black females, 19th and 20th Century White females, 19th and 20th Century White males, 19th and 20th Century any, and 20th Century Hispanic males. The equations were assessed for utility in any one case (how many times the estimated range bracketed the documented stature) and in aggregate using 1-way ANOVA and other approaches. This group-specific equation that should have provided the best results was outperformed by several other equations for both the femur and humerus. These results suggest that group-specific equations do not provide better results for estimating stature while at the same time are more difficult to apply because an unknown must be allocated to a given group before stature can be estimated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS), jealousy and mate retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Riley, Charlene

    2010-10-02

    Previous research has investigated the manner in which absolute height impacts on jealousy and mate retention. Although relative height is also important, little information exists about the potential influence of sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS) within established relationships. The current study investigated the relationship between SDS and the satisfaction, jealousy and mate retention behaviors reported by men and women. Heterosexual men (n = 98) and women (n = 102) completed a questionnaire. Men in high SDS relationships reported the lowest levels of cognitive and behavioral jealousy, although the impact of SDS on relationship satisfaction was less clear. SDS was not associated with the overall use of mate retention strategies; SDS did however affect the use of three specific strategies (vigilance, monopolization of time, love and care). SDS did not affect women's relationship satisfaction, jealousy (cognitive, behavioral, or emotional) or the use of mate retention strategies (with the exception of resource display).

  11. Liquid Structures and Physical Properties -- Ground Based Studies for ISS Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelton, K. F.; Bendert, J. C.; Mauro, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of electrostatically-levitated supercooled liquids have demonstrated strong short- and medium-range ordering in transition metal and alloy liquids, which can influence phase transitions like crystal nucleation and the glass transition. The structure is also related to the liquid properties. Planned ISS experiments will allow a deeper investigation of these results as well as the first investigations of a new type of coupling in crystal nucleation in primary crystallizing liquids, resulting from a linking of the stochastic processes of diffusion with interfacial-attachment. A brief description of the techniques used for ground-based studies and some results relevant to planned ISS investigations are discussed.

  12. NASA ISS Portable Fan Assembly Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Andrew; Allen, Christopher S.; Hess, Linda F.

    2018-01-01

    The Portable Fan Assembly (PFA) is a variable speed fan that can be used to provide additional ventilation inside International Space Station (ISS) modules as needed for crew comfort or for enhanced mixing of the ISS atmosphere. This fan can also be configured with a Shuttle era lithium hydroxide (LiOH) canister for CO2 removal in confined areas partially of fully isolated from the primary Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) on ISS which is responsible for CO2 removal. This report documents noise emission levels of the PFA at various speed settings and configurations. It also documents the acoustic attenuation effects realized when circulating air through the PFA inlet and outlet mufflers and when operating in its CO2 removal configuration (CRK) with a LiOH canister (sorbent bed) installed over the fan outlet.

  13. Clinical and molecular characterization of duplications encompassing the human SHOX gene reveal a variable effect on stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N Simon; Harvey, John F; Bunyan, David J; Rankin, Julia; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Bruno, Damien L; Tan, Tiong Y; Tomkins, Susan; Hastings, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Deletions of the SHOX gene are well documented and cause disproportionate short stature and variable skeletal abnormalities. In contrast interstitial SHOX duplications limited to PAR1 appear to be very rare and the clinical significance of the only case report in the literature is unclear. Mapping of this duplication has now shown that it includes the entire SHOX gene but little flanking sequence and so will not encompass any of the long-range enhancers required for SHOX transcription. We now describe the clinical and molecular characterization of three additional cases. The duplications all included the SHOX coding sequence but varied in the amount of flanking sequence involved. The probands were ascertained for a variety of reasons: hypotonia and features of Asperger syndrome, Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), and a family history of cleft palate. However, the presence of a duplication did not correlate with any of these features or with evidence of skeletal abnormality. Remarkably, the proband with LWD had inherited both a SHOX deletion and a duplication. The effect of the duplications on stature was variable: height appeared to be elevated in some carriers, particularly in those with the largest duplications, but was still within the normal range. SHOX duplications are likely to be under ascertained and more cases need to be identified and characterized in detail in order to accurately determine their phenotypic consequences.

  14. ISS Asset Tracking Using SAW RFID Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellhase, Amy; Powers, Annie

    2004-01-01

    A team at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is undergoing final preparations to test Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology to track assets aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Currently, almost 10,000 U.S. items onboard the ISS are tracked within a database maintained by both the JSC ground teams and crew onboard the ISS. This barcode-based inventory management system has successfully tracked the location of 97% of the items onboard, but its accuracy is dependant on the crew to report hardware movements, taking valuable time away from science and other activities. With the addition of future modules, the volume of inventory to be tracked is expected to increase significantly. The first test of RFID technology on ISS, which will be conducted by the Expedition 16 crew later this year, will evaluate the ability of RFID technology to track consumable items. These consumables, which include office supplies and clothing, are regularly supplied to ISS and can be tagged on the ground. Automation will eliminate line-of-sight auditing requirements, directly saving crew time. This first step in automating an inventory tracking system will pave the way for future uses of RFID for inventory tracking in space. Not only are there immediate benefits for ISS applications, it is a crucial step to ensure efficient logistics support for future vehicles and exploration missions where resupplies are not readily available. Following a successful initial test, the team plans to execute additional tests for new technology, expanded operations concepts, and increased automation.

  15. Opals: Mission System Operations Architecture for an Optical Communications Demonstration on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Sindiy, Oleg V.; Oaida, Bogdan V.; Fregoso, Santos; Bowles-Martinez, Jessica N.; Kokorowski, Michael; Wilkerson, Marcus W.; Konyha, Alexander L.

    2014-01-01

    In April of 2014, the Optical PAyload for Lasercomm Science (OPALS) Flight System (FS) launched to the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate space-to-ground optical communications. During a planned 90-day baseline mission, the OPALS FS will downlink high quality, short duration videos to the Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) ground station in Wrightwood, California. Interfaces to the ISS payload operations infrastructure have been established to facilitate activity planning, hazardous laser operations, commanding, and telemetry transmission. In addition, internal processes, such as pointing prediction and data processing, satisfy the technical requirements of the mission. The OPALS operations team participates in Operational Readiness Tests (ORTs) with external partners to exercise coordination processes and train for the overall mission. The ORTs have provided valuable insight into operational considerations for the instrument on the ISS.

  16. Corporate sponsored education initiatives on board the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Ian T.; Durham, Alyson S.; Pawelczyk, James A.; Brod, Lawrence B.; Durham, Thomas F.

    1999-01-01

    This paper proposes the creation of a corporate sponsored ``Lecture from Space'' program on board the International Space Station (ISS) with funding coming from a host of new technology and marketing spin-offs. This program would meld existing education initiatives in NASA with new corporate marketing techniques. Astronauts in residence on board the ISS would conduct short ten to fifteen minute live presentations and/or conduct interactive discussions carried out by a teacher in the classroom. This concept is similar to a program already carried out during the Neurolab mission on Shuttle flight STS-90. Building on that concept, the interactive simulcasts would be broadcast over the Internet and linked directly to computers and televisions in classrooms worldwide. In addition to the live broadcasts, educational programs and demonstrations can be recorded in space, and marketed and sold for inclusion in television programs, computer software, and other forms of media. Programs can be distributed directly into classrooms as an additional presentation supplement, as well as over the Internet or through cable and broadcast television, similar to the Canadian Discovery Channel's broadcasts of the Neurolab mission. Successful marketing and advertisement can eventually lead to the creation of an entirely new, privately run cottage industry involving the distribution and sale of educationally related material associated with the ISS that would have the potential to become truly global in scope. By targeting areas of expertise and research interest in microgravity, a large curriculum could be developed using space exploration as a unifying theme. Expansion of this concept could enhance objectives already initiated through the International Space University to include elementary and secondary school students. The ultimate goal would be to stimulate interest in space and space related sciences in today's youth through creative educational marketing initiatives while at the

  17. ISS Has an Attitude! Determining ISS Attitude at the ISS Window Observational Research Facility (WORF) Using Landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runco, Susan K.; Pickard,Henry; Kowtha, Vijayanand; Jackson, Dan

    2011-01-01

    Universities and secondary schools can help solve a real issue for remote sensing from the ISS WORF through hands-on engineering and activities. Remote sensing technology is providing scientists with higher resolution, higher sensitivity sensors. Where is it pointing? - To take full advantage of these improved sensors, space platforms must provide commensurate improvements in attitude determination

  18. Combined genome scans for body stature in 6,602 European twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perola, Markus; Sammalisto, Sampo; Hiekkalinna, Tero

    2007-01-01

    combined and related to the sequence positions using software developed by us, which is publicly available (https://apps.bioinfo.helsinki.fi/software/cartographer.aspx). Variance component linkage analysis was performed with age, sex, and country of origin as covariates. The covariate adjusted heritability....... Several cohorts contributed to the identified loci, suggesting an evolutionarily old genetic variant having effects on stature in European-based populations. To facilitate the genetic studies of stature we have also set up a website that lists all stature genome scans published and their most significant...

  19. Shuttle and ISS Food Systems Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeris, Vickie

    2000-01-01

    Russia and the U.S. provide the current International Space Station (ISS) food system. Each country contributes half of the food supply in their respective flight food packaging. All of the packaged flight food is stowed in Russian provided containers, which interface with the Service Module galley. Each country accepts the other's flight worthiness inspections and qualifications. Some of the food for the first ISS crew was launched to ISS inside the Service Module in July of 2000, and STS-106 in September 2000 delivered more food to the ISS. All subsequent food deliveries will be made by Progress, the Russian re-supply vehicle. The U.S. will ship their portion of food to Moscow for loading onto the Progress. Delivery schedules vary, but the goal is to maintain at least a 45-day supply onboard ISS at all times. The shelf life for ISS food must be at least one year, in order to accommodate the long delivery cycle and onboard storage. Preservation techniques utilized in the US food system include dehydration, thermo stabilization, intermediate moisture, and irradiation. Additional fresh fruits and vegetables will be sent with each Progress and Shuttle flights as permitted by volume allotments. There is limited refrigeration available on the Service Module to store fresh fruits and vegetables. Astronauts and cosmonauts eat half U.S. and half Russian food. Menu planning begins 1 year before a planned launch. The flight crews taste food in the U.S. and in Russia and rate the acceptability. A preliminary menu is planned, based on these ratings and the nutritional requirements. The preliminary menu is then evaluated by the crews while training in Russia. Inputs from this evaluation are used to finalize the menu and flight packaging is initiated. Flight food is delivered 6 weeks before launch. The current challenge for the food system is meeting the nutritional requirements, especially no more than 10 mg iron, and 3500 mg sodium. Experience from Shuttle[Mir also indicated

  20. Patterns of ancestry, signatures of natural selection, and genetic association with stature in Western African pygmies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph P Jarvis

    Full Text Available African Pygmy groups show a distinctive pattern of phenotypic variation, including short stature, which is thought to reflect past adaptation to a tropical environment. Here, we analyze Illumina 1M SNP array data in three Western Pygmy populations from Cameroon and three neighboring Bantu-speaking agricultural populations with whom they have admixed. We infer genome-wide ancestry, scan for signals of positive selection, and perform targeted genetic association with measured height variation. We identify multiple regions throughout the genome that may have played a role in adaptive evolution, many of which contain loci with roles in growth hormone, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways, as well as immunity and neuroendocrine signaling involved in reproduction and metabolism. The most striking results are found on chromosome 3, which harbors a cluster of selection and association signals between approximately 45 and 60 Mb. This region also includes the positional candidate genes DOCK3, which is known to be associated with height variation in Europeans, and CISH, a negative regulator of cytokine signaling known to inhibit growth hormone-stimulated STAT5 signaling. Finally, pathway analysis for genes near the strongest signals of association with height indicates enrichment for loci involved in insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling.

  1. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index 123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Background Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. Objective We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity–body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). Design This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n = 411; organs = 76) and the other a larger DXA database (n = 1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Results Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of ≈2 (all P 2 (2.31–2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (P short and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies. PMID:17616766

  2. Photography of Coral Reefs from ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the uses of photography from the International Space Station (ISS) in studying Earth's coral reefs. The photographs include reefs in various oceans . The photographs have uses for science in assisting NASA mapping initiatives, distribution worldwide through ReefBase, and by biologist in the field.

  3. ISS Logistics Hardware Disposition and Metrics Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Toneka R.

    2010-01-01

    I was assigned to the Logistics Division of the International Space Station (ISS)/Spacecraft Processing Directorate. The Division consists of eight NASA engineers and specialists that oversee the logistics portion of the Checkout, Assembly, and Payload Processing Services (CAPPS) contract. Boeing, their sub-contractors and the Boeing Prime contract out of Johnson Space Center, provide the Integrated Logistics Support for the ISS activities at Kennedy Space Center. Essentially they ensure that spares are available to support flight hardware processing and the associated ground support equipment (GSE). Boeing maintains a Depot for electrical, mechanical and structural modifications and/or repair capability as required. My assigned task was to learn project management techniques utilized by NASA and its' contractors to provide an efficient and effective logistics support infrastructure to the ISS program. Within the Space Station Processing Facility (SSPF) I was exposed to Logistics support components, such as, the NASA Spacecraft Services Depot (NSSD) capabilities, Mission Processing tools, techniques and Warehouse support issues, required for integrating Space Station elements at the Kennedy Space Center. I also supported the identification of near-term ISS Hardware and Ground Support Equipment (GSE) candidates for excessing/disposition prior to October 2010; and the validation of several Logistics Metrics used by the contractor to measure logistics support effectiveness.

  4. ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayt, Robert L. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2016-01-01

    The ISS Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130) contains all technical, safety, and crew health medical requirements that are mandatory for achieving a Crew Transportation System Certification that will allow for International Space Station delivery and return of NASA crew and limited cargo. Previously approved on TN23183.

  5. ISS Hygiene Activities - Issues and Resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Kimberlee S.; Feldman, Brienne; Walker, Stephanie; Bruce, Rebekah

    2009-01-01

    Hygiene is something that is usually taken for granted by those of us on the Earth. The ability to perform hygiene satisfactorily during long duration space flight is crucial for the crew's ability to function. Besides preserving the basic health of the crew, crew members have expressed that the ability to clean up on-orbit is vital for mental health. Providing this functionality involves more than supplying hygiene items such as soap and toothpaste. On the International Space Station (ISS), the details on where and how to perform hygiene were left to the crew discretion for the first seventeen increments. Without clear guidance, the methods implemented on-orbit have resulted in some unintended consequences to the ISS environment. This paper will outline the issues encountered regarding hygiene activities on-board the ISS, and the lessons that have been learned in addressing those issues. Additionally, the paper will address the resolutions that have been put into place to protect the ISS environment while providing the crew sufficient means to perform hygiene.

  6. Preventing Precipitation in the ISS Urine Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muirhead, Dean; Carter, Layne; Williamson, Jill; Chambers, Antja

    2017-01-01

    The ISS Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) was initially designed to achieve 85% recovery of water from pretreated urine on ISS. Pretreated urine is comprised of crew urine treated with flush water, an oxidant (chromium trioxide), and an inorganic acid (sulfuric acid) to control microbial growth and inhibit precipitation. Unfortunately, initial operation of the UPA on ISS resulted in the precipitation of calcium sulfate at 85% recovery. This occurred because the calcium concentration in the crew urine was elevated in microgravity due to bone loss. The higher calcium concentration precipitated with sulfate from the pretreatment acid, resulting in a failure of the UPA due to the accumulation of solids in the Distillation Assembly. Since this failure, the UPA has been limited to a reduced recovery of water from urine to prevent calcium sulfate from reaching the solubility limit. NASA personnel have worked to identify a solution that would allow the UPA to return to a nominal recovery rate of 85%. This effort has culminated with the development of a pretreatment based on phosphoric acid instead of sulfuric acid. By eliminating the sulfate associated with the pretreatment, the brine can be concentrated to a much higher concentration before calcium sulfate reach the solubility limit. This paper summarizes the development of this pretreatment and the testing performed to verify its implementation on ISS.

  7. ITER ISS system alternative specification study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kveton, O.K.

    1990-08-01

    Recent comments suggested that the fuel systems, in particular the ISS, could be simplified if the ITER specifications were relaxed from the data specified for ITER. This interim report addresses the first part of the analysis, which considers the impact of design specifications on fuel systems design

  8. Spheres: from Ground Development to ISS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterhagen, A.

    2016-01-01

    SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) is an internal International Space Station (ISS) Facility that supports multiple investigations for the development of multi-spacecraft and robotic control algorithms. The SPHERES National Lab Facility aboard ISS is managed and operated by NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) at Moffett Field California. The SPHERES Facility on ISS consists of three self-contained eight-inch diameter free-floating satellites which perform the various flight algorithms and serve as a platform to support the integration of experimental hardware. SPHERES has served to mature the adaptability of control algorithms of future formation flight missions in microgravity (6 DOF (Degrees of Freedom) / long duration microgravity), demonstrate key close-proximity formation flight and rendezvous and docking maneuvers, understand fault diagnosis and recovery, improve the field of human telerobotic operation and control, and lessons learned on ISS have significant impact on ground robotics, mapping, localization, and sensing in three-dimensions - among several other areas of study.

  9. Age, Sex and Stature Estimation from Footprint Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paurbhi Singh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was carried out to evaluate the utility and reliability of footprint dimensions in age, sex and stature determination in the North Indian population. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out using a sample of 400 people (146 female and 254 male aged 10-65 years in Uttar Pradesh, North Western state of India. Footprints of both feet were taken bilaterally, and thus a total of 800 prints were obtained. A cluster of 7 measurements were taken carefully with the help of a scientific scale ruler. Five measurements were length dimensions from the most anterior part of the toe (T1–T5 to the mid rear heel point and two were breadth dimensions from both left and right footprints: breadth at ball (BBAL, breadth at heel (BHEL and 2 indexes: heel-ball Index (HBI and footprint index (FPI. All data were analyzed statistically using Student’s t-test, regression coefficient and Pearson’s correlation for the estimation of sex on the basis of footprint dimensions. Results: The T1 in left footprints was greater than right footprints in males, while T1 and BBAL were both found to be greater in left footprints than right footprints in females. All the seven foot dimensions were higher in males than females. Conclusion: There were statistically significant differences observed in all footprint dimensions between the male and female footprints except LFPI, LHBI, and RHBI.

  10. Value of pituitary MRI in children with short stat

    OpenAIRE

    Huan ZHOU; Ya-ling NIE; Wei FAN; Cong-ying WANG; An-sheng LI; Hong WANG; Meng-meng WU

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the value of pituitary MRI in diagnosis of etiology and prognosis in children with short stature. Methods The MRI data of 130 children with short stature admitted from Jan. to Dec. 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 130 children, 79 were males and 51 were females, aged 3 to 18 years with mean of 9.8 years. Results Of the 130 children, 82 cases (63.1%) were shown to have normal pituitary morphology and signal manifestation, and in 48 cases (36.9%) pituitary morphol...

  11. A combined morphometric analysis of foot form and its association with sex, stature, and body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domjanic, Jacqueline; Seidler, Horst; Mitteroecker, Philipp

    2015-08-01

    Morphometric analysis of footprints is a classic means for orthopedic diagnosis. In forensics and physical anthropology, it is commonly used for the estimation of stature and body mass. We studied individual variation and sexual dimorphism of foot dimensions and footprint shape by a combination of classic foot measurements and geometric morphometric methods. Left and right feet of 134 healthy adult males and females were scanned twice with a 3D optical laser scanner, and stature as well as body mass were recorded. Foot length and width were measured on the 3D scans. The 2D footprints were extracted as the plantar-most 2 mm of the 3D scans and measured with 85 landmarks and semilandmarks. Both foot size and footprint shape are sexually dimorphic and relate to stature and body mass. While dimorphism in foot length largely results from dimorphism in stature, dimorphism in footprint shape partly owes to the dimorphism in BMI. Stature could be estimated well based on foot length (R(2)  = 0.76), whereas body mass was more closely related to foot width (R(2)  = 0.62). Sex could be estimated correctly for 95% of the individuals based on a combination of foot width and length. Geometric morphometrics proved to be an effective tool for the detailed analysis of footprint shape. However, for the estimation of stature, body mass, and sex, shape variables did not considerably improve estimates based on foot length and width. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Stature estimation from body segment lengths in young adults--application to people with physical disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canda, Alicia

    2009-03-01

    Knowledge of stature is necessary for evaluating nutritional status and for correcting certain functional parameters. Measuring stature is difficult or impossible in bedridden or wheelchair-bound persons and may also be diminished by disorders of the spinal column or extremities. The purpose of this work is to develop estimation equations for young adult athletes for their subsequent application to disabled persons. The main sample comprised 445 male and 401 female sportspersons. Cross validation was also performed on 100 males and 101 females. All were Caucasian, the males being over 21 and the females over 18, and all practiced some kind of sport. The following variables were included: stature, sitting height, arm span, and lengths of upper arm, forearm, hand, thigh, lower leg, and foot. Simple and multiple regression analyses were performed using stature as a dependent variable and the others as predictive variables. The best equation for males (R(2)=0.978; RMSE=1.41 cm; PE=1.54 cm) was stature: 1.346+1.023 * lower leg+0.957 * sitting height+0.530 * thigh+0.493 * upper arm+0.228 * forearm. For females (R(2)=0.959; RMSE=1.57 cm; PE=1.25 cm) it was stature: 1.772+0.159 * arm span+0.957 * sitting height+0.424 * thigh+0.966 * lower leg. Alternative equations were developed for when a particular variable cannot be included for reasons of mobility, technical difficulty, or segment loss.

  13. A Case With Short Stature, Growth Hormone Deficiency and 46, XX, Xq27-qter Deletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Şule; Topaloğlu, Naci; Tekin, Mustafa; Sılan, Fatma

    2017-10-01

    We report a case of 11-year-old girl with growth retardation and 46, XX, Xq27-qter deletion. The endocrinologic evaluation revealed growth hormone deficiency. In karyotype analysis  46, XX, Xq27-qter deletion was determined. The deletion of terminal region of chromosome 27 is most commonly being detected during the evaluation of infertility, premature ovarian insufficiency or in screening for fragile X carrier status. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case with 46, XX, Xq27-qter deletion and growth hormone deficiency. Furthermore, this case might facilitate future search for candidate genes involved in growth hormone deficiency.

  14. Assessment of short stature in children : auxological screening and diagnostic work-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, Floor Katelijn

    2007-01-01

    Growth impairment is considered a relatively early sign of poor health in children. Depending on its setting and the age of the child the impairment is expressed in several ways. In industrialized countries, where malnutrition is rare, the major purpose of growth monitoring, implying regular

  15. Short Stature in Chronic Kidney Disease Treated with Growth Hormone and an Aromatase Inhibitor

    OpenAIRE

    Mendley, Susan R.; Spyropoulos, Fotios; Counts, Debra R.

    2015-01-01

    We describe an alternative strategy for management of severe growth failure in a 14-year-old child who presented with advanced chronic kidney disease close to puberty. The patient was initially treated with growth hormone for a year until kidney transplantation, followed immediately by a year-long course of an aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, to prevent epiphyseal fusion and prolong the period of linear growth. Outcome was excellent, with successful transplant and anticipated complete correc...

  16. Service on demand for ISS users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüser, Detlev; Berg, Marco; Körtge, Nicole; Mildner, Wolfgang; Salmen, Frank; Strauch, Karsten

    2002-07-01

    Since the ISS started its operational phase, the need of logistics scenarios and solutions, supporting the utilisation of the station and its facilities, becomes increasingly important. Our contribution to this challenge is a SERVICE On DEMAND for ISS users, which offers a business friendly engineering and logistics support for the resupply of the station. Especially the utilisation by commercial and industrial users is supported and simplified by this service. Our industrial team, consisting of OHB-System and BEOS, provides experience and development support for space dedicated hard- and software elements, their transportation and operation. Furthermore, we operate as the interface between customer and the envisaged space authorities. Due to a variety of tailored service elements and the ongoing servicing, customers can concentrate on their payload content or mission objectives and don't have to deal with space-specific techniques and regulations. The SERVICE On DEMAND includes the following elements: ITR is our in-orbit platform service. ITR is a transport rack, used in the SPACEHAB logistics double module, for active and passive payloads on subrack- and drawer level of different standards. Due to its unique late access and early retrieval capability, ITR increases the flexibility concerning transport capabilities to and from the ISS. RIST is our multi-functional test facility for ISPR-based experiment drawer and locker payloads. The test program concentrates on physical and functional interface and performance testing at the payload developers site prior to the shipment to the integration and launch. The RIST service program comprises consulting, planning and engineering as well. The RIST test suitcase is planned to be available for lease or rent to users, too. AMTSS is an advanced multimedia terminal consulting service for communication with the space station scientific facilities, as part of the user home-base. This unique ISS multimedia kit combines

  17. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  18. Stature in archeological samples from central Italy: methodological issues and diachronic changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannecchini, Monica; Moggi-Cecchi, Jacopo

    2008-03-01

    Stature reconstructions from skeletal remains are usually obtained through regression equations based on the relationship between height and limb bone length. Different equations have been employed to reconstruct stature in skeletal samples, but this is the first study to provide a systematic analysis of the reliability of the different methods for Italian historical samples. Aims of this article are: 1) to analyze the reliability of different regression methods to estimate stature for populations living in Central Italy from the Iron Age to Medieval times; 2) to search for trends in stature over this time period by applying the most reliable regression method. Long bone measurements were collected from 1,021 individuals (560 males, 461 females), from 66 archeological sites for males and 54 for females. Three time periods were identified: Iron Age, Roman period, and Medieval period. To determine the most appropriate equation to reconstruct stature the Delta parameter of Gini (Memorie di metodologia statistica. Milano: Giuffre A. 1939), in which stature estimates derived from different limb bones are compared, was employed. The equations proposed by Pearson (Philos Trans R Soc London 192 (1899) 169-244) and Trotter and Gleser for Afro-Americans (Am J Phys Anthropol 10 (1952) 463-514; Am J Phys Anthropol 47 (1977) 355-356) provided the most consistent estimates when applied to our sample. We then used the equation by Pearson for further analyses. Results indicate a reduction in stature in the transition from the Iron Age to the Roman period, and a subsequent increase in the transition from the Roman period to the Medieval period. Changes of limb lengths over time were more pronounced in the distal than in the proximal elements in both limbs. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT

  20. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.; Bateman, M. G.; Stewart, M. F.; O'Brien, S.; Wilson, T. O.; Pavelitz, S. D.; Coker, C.

    2016-12-01

    observations from LIS on ISS can be quickly delivered to science and applications users soon after routine operations are underway. Also real-time data, available for the first time with this mission, are being provided to interested users in partnership with NASA's Short Term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) center, also located at the NSSTC.

  1. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For t....... Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females....

  2. Stature estimation equations for South Asian skeletons based on DXA scans of contemporary adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Mushrif-Tripathy, Veena; Wells, Jonathan C K; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kinra, Sanjay; Stock, Jay T

    2018-05-03

    Stature estimation from the skeleton is a classic anthropological problem, and recent years have seen the proliferation of population-specific regression equations. Many rely on the anatomical reconstruction of stature from archaeological skeletons to derive regression equations based on long bone lengths, but this requires a collection with very good preservation. In some regions, for example, South Asia, typical environmental conditions preclude the sufficient preservation of skeletal remains. Large-scale epidemiological studies that include medical imaging of the skeleton by techniques such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) offer new potential datasets for developing such equations. We derived estimation equations based on known height and bone lengths measured from DXA scans from the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (Hyderabad, India). Given debates on the most appropriate regression model to use, multiple methods were compared, and the performance of the equations was tested on a published skeletal dataset of individuals with known stature. The equations have standard errors of estimates and prediction errors similar to those derived using anatomical reconstruction or from cadaveric datasets. As measured by the number of significant differences between true and estimated stature, and the prediction errors, the new equations perform as well as, and generally better than, published equations commonly used on South Asian skeletons or based on Indian cadaveric datasets. This study demonstrates the utility of DXA scans as a data source for developing stature estimation equations and offer a new set of equations for use with South Asian datasets. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Estimation of stature from different anthropometric measurements in Kori population of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Kamal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In medico-legal cases, most often the personal identity of the deceased is a mystery. The stature, sex and other parameters in such scenarios are ascertained using the physical evidence present at the crime scene. One of the key methods of ascertaining the sex and stature is by using the human bones. The method of achieving accuracy in estimation of stature from bones has been well established in past. There are several regression formulae for conducting such estimation. However, it must be kept in mind that these regression equations can vary depending upon the population and region. Thus, it is very necessary to study a particular population thoroughly before formulating regression equations for that specific population patch. In this paper, we have penned down the study of KORI POPULATION, who are native to Kanpur region of Uttar Pradesh state, in India. In this study, we have observed the statistics of 202 individuals (106 females and 96 males. In totality, eight bone dimensions including stature, total arm length, length of the middle finger, knee length, foot length, foot breadth, maximum head length and maximum head breadth have been recorded in this research paper. The regression formulae for females and males have been derived separately. Further, there are various parameters that have been compared to find which parameter provides the best results in terms of accuracy in stature estimation.

  4. Validation of a self-reported HIV symptoms list: the ISS-HIV symptoms scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciardini, Raffaella; Pugliese, Katherina; Francisci, Daniela; Costantini, Andrea; Schiaroli, Elisabetta; Cognigni, Miriam; Tontini, Chiara; Lucattini, Stefano; Fucili, Luca; Di Gregorio, Massimiliano; Mirra, Marco; Fragola, Vincenzo; Pompili, Sara; Murri, Rita; Vella, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    To describe the development and the psychometric properties of the Istituto Superiore di Sanità-HIV symptoms scale (lSS-HIV symptoms scale). The ISS-HIV symptom scale was developed by an Italian working team including researchers, physicians and people living with HIV. The development process went through the following steps: (1) review of HIV/AIDS literature; (2) focus group; (3) pre-test analysis; (4) scale validation. The 22 symptoms of HIV-ISS symptoms scale were clustered in five factors: pain/general discomfort (7 items); depression/anxiety (4 items); emotional reaction/psychological distress (5 items); gastrointestinal discomfort (4 items); sexual discomfort (2 items). The internal consistence reliability was for all factors within the minimum accepted standard of 0.70. The results of this study provide a preliminary evidence of the reliability and validity of the ISS-HIV symptoms scale. In the new era where HIV infection has been transformed into a chronic diseases and patients are experiencing a complex range of symptoms, the ISS-HIV symptoms scale may represent an useful tool for a comprehensive symptom assessment with the advantage of being easy to fill out by patients and potentially attractive to physicians mainly because it is easy to understand and requires short time to interpret the results.

  5. A commercial space technology testbed on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David R.

    2000-01-01

    There is a significant and growing commercial market for new, more capable communications and remote sensing satellites. Competition in this market strongly motivates satellite manufacturers and spacecraft component developers to test and demonstrate new space hardware in a realistic environment. External attach points on the International Space Station allow it to function uniquely as a space technology testbed to satisfy this market need. However, space industry officials have identified three critical barriers to their commercial use of the ISS: unpredictable access, cost risk, and schedule uncertainty. Appropriate NASA policy initiatives and business/technical assistance for industry from the Commercial Space Center for Engineering can overcome these barriers. .

  6. Siivouksen laadunhallinta asuinkiinteistöissä

    OpenAIRE

    Huhmarkangas, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    Työssäni kehitettiin siivouksen laadunhallintaa VTS-kotien asuinkiinteistöissä. Pääpaino oli VTS Kiinteistöpalvelu Oy:n käytössä olevan laadunarviointiohjelman kehittämisessä. Työssäni kartoitettiin, mitä ja miten pitää kehittää asuinkiinteistösiivouksen laadunhallintaa myös tulevaisuudessa. Lähtökohtana oli se, että siivouksen taso tulee saada samalle linjalle kaikkien palveluntuottajien kanssa riippumatta siitä, kuka palvelua tuottaa. Jokaisessa VTS-kodissa tulisi siivouksen lopputulos ...

  7. Temporary and lasting effects of childhood deprivation on male stature. Late adolescent stature and catch-up growth in Woerden (The Netherlands) in the first half of the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekink, E.; Kok, J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper compares the statures of men during late adolescence, measured at age 19, with the stature in adulthood, measured at age 25, specially focusing on the influences of household situation and family stress. On average, the men studied became five centimeters taller in the interval, but there

  8. Neutron production in a spherical phantom aboard ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasbaz, A.; Machrafi, R.

    2012-01-01

    As part of an ongoing research program on radiation monitoring on International Space Station (ISS) that was established to analyze the radiation exposure levels onboard the ISS using different radiation instruments and a spherical phantom to simulate human body. Monte Carlo transport code was used to simulate the interaction of high energy protons and neutrons with the spherical phantom currently onboard ISS. The phantom has been exposed to individual proton energies and to a spectrum of neutrons. The internal to external neutron flux ratio was calculated and compared to the experimental data, recently, measured on the ISS. (author)

  9. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Antimicrobial resistance genes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The environmental samples were collected with the polyester wipes from eight different locations in the International Space Station (ISS) during two consecutive...

  10. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), Space Science's Past, Present and Future Aboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Reggie; Spearing, Scott; Jordan, Lee

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility aboard the International Space Station (ISS), which accommodates science and technology investigations in a "workbench' type environment. The MSG has been operating on the ISS since July 2002 and is currently located in the US Laboratory Module. In fact, the MSG has been used for over 10,000 hours of scientific payload operations and plans to continue for the life of ISS. The facility has an enclosed working volume that is held at a negative pressure with respect to the crew living area. This allows the facility to provide two levels of containment for small parts, particulates, fluids, and gases. This containment approach protects the crew from possible hazardous operations that take place inside the MSG work volume and allows researchers a controlled pristine environment for their needs. Research investigations operating inside the MSG are provided a large 255 liter enclosed work space, 1000 watts of dc power via a versatile supply interface (120, 28, + 12, and 5 Vdc), 1000 watts of cooling capability, video and data recording and real time downlink, ground commanding capabilities, access to ISS Vacuum Exhaust and Vacuum Resource Systems, and gaseous nitrogen supply. These capabilities make the MSG one of the most utilized facilities on ISS. MSG investigations have involved research in cryogenic fluid management, fluid physics, spacecraft fire safety, materials science, combustion, and plant growth technologies. Modifications to the MSG facility are currently under way to expand the capabilities and provide for investigations involving Life Science and Biological research. In addition, the MSG video system is being replaced with a state-of-the-art, digital video system with high definition/high speed capabilities, and with near real-time downlink capabilities. This paper will provide an overview of the MSG facility, a synopsis of the research that has already been accomplished in the MSG, and an

  11. Using ISS to develop telescope technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Miller, David W.

    2005-08-01

    Future space telescope missions concepts have introduced new technologies such as precision formation flight, optical metrology, and segmented mirrors. These new technologies require demonstration and validation prior to deployment in final missions such as the James Webb Space Telescope, Terrestrial Planet Finder, and Darwin. Ground based demonstrations do not provide the precision necessary to obtain a high level of confidence in the technology; precursor free flyer space missions suffer from the same problems as the final missions. Therefore, this paper proposes the use of the International Space Station as an intermediate research environment where these technologies can be developed, demonstrated, and validated. The ISS provides special resources, such as human presence, communications, power, and a benign atmosphere which directly reduce the major challenges of space technology maturation: risk, complexity, cost, remote operations, and visibility. Successful design of experiments for use aboard the space station, by enabling iterative research and supporting multiple scientists, can further reduce the effects of these challenges of space technology maturation. This paper presents results of five previous MIT Space Systems Laboratory experiments aboard the Space Shuttle, MIR, and the ISS to illustrate successful technology maturation aboard these facilities.

  12. ISS protocol for EPR tooth dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onori, S.; Aragno, D.; Fattibene, P.; Petetti, E.; Pressello, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The accuracy in Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) dose reconstruction with tooth enamel is affected by sample preparation, dosimetric signal amplitude evaluation and unknown dose estimate. Worldwide efforts in the field of EPR dose reconstruction with tooth enamel are focused on the optimization of the three mentioned steps in dose assessment. In the present work, the protocol implemented at ISS in the framework of the European Community Nuclear Fission Safety project 'Dose Reconstruction' is presented. A combined mechanical-chemical procedure for ground enamel sample preparation is used. The signal intensity evaluation is carried out with powder spectra simulation program. Finally, the unknown dose is evaluated individually for each sample with the additive dose method. The unknown dose is obtained by subtracting a mean native dose from the back-extrapolated dose. As an example of the capability of the ISS protocol in unknown dose evaluation, the results obtained in the framework of the 2nd International Intercomparison on EPR tooth enamel dosimetry are reported

  13. Gas monitoring onboard ISS using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisi, Michael; Stettner, Armin; Seurig, Roland; Honne, Atle; Witt, Johannes; Rebeyre, Pierre

    2017-06-01

    In the confined, enclosed environment of a spacecraft, the air quality must be monitored continuously in order to safeguard the crew's health. For this reason, OHB builds the ANITA2 (Analysing Interferometer for Ambient Air) technology demonstrator for trace gas monitoring onboard the International Space Station (ISS). The measurement principle of ANITA2 is based on the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) technology with dedicated gas analysis software from the Norwegian partner SINTEF. This combination proved to provide high sensitivity, accuracy and precision for parallel measurements of 33 trace gases simultaneously onboard ISS by the precursor instrument ANITA1. The paper gives a technical overview about the opto-mechanical components of ANITA2, such as the interferometer, the reference Laser, the infrared source and the gas cell design and a quick overview about the gas analysis. ANITA2 is very well suited for measuring gas concentrations specifically but not limited to usage onboard spacecraft, as no consumables are required and measurements are performed autonomously. ANITA2 is a programme under the contract of the European Space Agency, and the air quality monitoring system is a stepping stone into the future, as a precursor system for manned exploration missions.

  14. ISS External Payload Platform - a new opportunity for research in the space environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimle, Christian; Pape, Uwe

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a widely accepted platform for research activities in low Earth orbit. To a wide extent these activities are conducted in the pressurised laboratories of the station and less in the outside environment. Suitable locations outside the ISS are rare, existing facilities fully booked for the coming years. To overcome this limitation, an external payload platform accessible for small size payloads on a commercial basis will be launched to the ISS and installed on the Japanese Experiment Module External Facility (JEM-EF) in the third quarter of 2014 and will be ready to be used by the scientific community on a fully commercial basis. The new External Payload Platform (EPP) and its opportunities and constraints assessed regarding future research activities on-board the ISS. The small size platform is realised in a cooperation between the companies NanoRacks, Astrium North America in the United States, and Airbus Defence and Space in Germany. The hardware allows the fully robotic installation and operation of payloads. In the nominal mission scenario payload items are installed not later than one year after the signature of the contract, stay in operation for 15 weeks, and can be returned to the scientist thereafter. Payload items are transported among the pressurised cargo usually delivered to the station with various supply vehicles. Due to the high frequency of flights and the flexibility of the vehicle manifests the risk of a delay in the payload readiness can be mitigated by delaying to the next flight opportunity which on average is available not more than two months later. The mission is extra-ordinarily fast and of low cost in comparison to traditional research conducted on-board the ISS and can fit into short-term funding cycles available on national and multi-national levels. The size of the payload items is limited by handling constraints on-board the ISS. Therefore, the standard experiment payload size is a multiple of a

  15. Architecture of 53 rain forest tree species differing in adult stature and shade tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Bongers, F.J.J.M.; Sterck, F.J.; Wöll, H.

    2003-01-01

    Tree architecture determines a tree's light capture, stability, and efficiency of crown growth. The hypothesis that light demand and adult stature of tree species within a community, independently of each other, determine species' architectural traits was tested by comparing 53 Liberian rain forest

  16. Estimation of stature from hand and foot dimensions in a Korean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Wonjoon; Kim, Yong Min; Yun, Myung Hwan

    2018-04-01

    The estimation of stature using foot and hand dimensions is essential in the process of personal identification. The shapes of feet and hands vary depending on races and gender, and it is of great importance to design an adequate equation in consideration of variances to estimate stature. This study is based on a total of 5,195 South Korean males and females, aged from 20 to 59 years. Body dimensions of stature, hand length, hand breadth, foot length, and foot breadth were measured according to standard anthropometric procedures. The independent t-test was performed in order to verify significant gender-induced differences and the results showed that there was significant difference between males and females for all the foot-hand dimensions (pfoot length showed highest correlation, whereas the hand breadth showed least correlation. The stepwise regression analysis was conducted, and the results showed that males had the highest prediction accuracy in the regression equation consisting of foot length and hand length (R 2 =0.532), whereas females had the highest accuracy in the regression model consisting of foot length and hand breadth (R 2 =0.437) The findings of this study indicated that hand and foot dimensions can be used to predict the stature of South Korean in the forensic science field. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  17. Studies on the Estimation of Stature from Hand and Foot Length of an Individual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Saka

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies on the estimation of stature from hand and foot length of an individual are essential study in personal identification. Aim and Objectives: This study is to find out correlation between statures with hand and foot dimensions in both sexes and gender comparison from an individual in Lautech Staff College in Ogbomoso and College ogbomoso and College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Material and Methods: A sample of 140 students and staff; 70 male and 70 female Students and staff of Lautech Staff College in Ogbomoso and College ogbomoso and College of Health Sciences, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, between 16-35years were considered and measurements were taken for each of the parameters. Gender differences for the two parameters were determined using Student t-test. Pearson's correlation coefficient (r was used to examine the relationship between two anthropometric parameters and standing height (stature. All these measurements were done by using standard anthropometric instruments and standard anthropometric techniques. Results: The findings of the study indicated that the males mean values are not significantly difference when compared with females mean values in all measured parameters. The study showed significant (p<0.001 positive correlation between the stature with hand lengths and foot lengths. The hand and foot length provide accurate and reliable means in establishing the height of an individual. Conclusion: This study will be useful for forensic scientists and anthropologists as well as anatomists in ascertain medico-legal cases

  18. Head-body ratio as a visual cue for stature in people and sculptural art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, George

    2010-01-01

    Body size is crucial for determining the outcome of competition for resources and mates. Many species use acoustic cues to measure caller body size. Vision is the pre-eminent sense for humans, but visual depth cues are of limited utility in judgments of absolute body size. The reliability of internal body proportion as a potential cue to stature was assessed with a large sample of anthropometric data, and the ratio of head height to body height (HBR) was found to be highly correlated with stature. A psychophysical experiment was carried out to investigate whether the cue actually influences stature judgments. Participants were shown pairs of photographs of human figures in which HBR had been manipulated systematically, and asked to select the figure that appeared taller. Results showed that figures with a relatively small HBR were consistently perceived as taller than figures with a relatively large HBR. Many classical statues such as Michelangelo's David depart from the classical proportions defined in Leonardo's Vitruvian Man. A supplementary experiment showed that perceived stature in classical statues also depends on HBR. Michelangelo's David was created with the HBR of a man 165 cm (5 ft 5 in) tall.

  19. Physical stature of Jewish Dutchmen: an overview of three cases from the nineteenth century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassenaar, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    I investigated the changes in stature of Jewish and Non-Jewish conscripts in Amsterdam (northern Holland) and Groningen (Groningen) during the second half of the nineteenth century. In the middle of the nineteenth century the position of the Jewish population was rather weak from an economic

  20. Cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation in peripheral lymphocytes of ISS crew members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra; Obe, Günter; Horstmann, Markus

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). The effect of the increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required.The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second sample was drawn within 3 days after return from their flights. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Metaphases were Giemsa stained or hybridised using multicolour FISH probes. All types of chromosome changes were scored in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to cosmic radiation exposure. Overall significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed in long-term crew members. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short-term stays on-board the ISS.

  1. Tipprežissöör Leni / Tiit Tuumalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuumalu, Tiit, 1971-

    2004-01-01

    Eesti Televisioon näitab kaht legendaarse Leni Riefenstahli (1902-2003) osalusega dokumentaalfilmi - "Leni Riefenstahl : Unistus Aafrikast" : režissöör Ray Müller : Saksamaa 2000 ja "Vetesügavuste lummus" : režissöör Leni Riefenstahl : Saksamaa 2002

  2. Development of the ISS EMU Dashboard Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Craig; Hill, Terry R.

    2011-01-01

    The EMU (Extra-Vehicular Mobility Unit) Dashboard was developed at NASA s Johnson Space Center to aid in real-time mission support for the ISS (International Space Station) and Shuttle EMU space suit by time synchronizing down-linked video, space suit data and audio from the mission control audio loops. Once the input streams are synchronized and recorded, the data can be replayed almost instantly and has proven invaluable in understanding in-flight hardware anomalies and playing back information conveyed by the crew to missions control and the back room support. This paper will walk through the development from an engineer s idea brought to life by an intern to real time mission support and how this tool is evolving today and its challenges to support EVAs (Extra-Vehicular Activities) and human exploration in the 21st century.

  3. ISS Destiny Laboratory Smoke Detection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, John E.; Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2007-01-01

    Smoke transport and detection were modeled numerically in the ISS Destiny module using the NIST, Fire Dynamics Simulator code. The airflows in Destiny were modeled using the existing flow conditions and the module geometry included obstructions that simulate the currently installed hardware on orbit. The smoke source was modeled as a 0.152 by 0.152 m region that emitted smoke particulate ranging from 1.46 to 8.47 mg/s. In the module domain, the smoke source was placed in the center of each Destiny rack location and the model was run to determine the time required for the two smoke detectors to alarm. Overall the detection times were dominated by the circumferential flow, the axial flow from the intermodule ventilation and the smoke source strength.

  4. ISS Interface Mechanisms and their Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, John G.; Aksamentov, Valery; Hoffman, Thomas; Bruner, Wes

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station, by nurturing technological development of a variety of pressurized and unpressurized interface mechanisms fosters "competition at the technology level". Such redundancy and diversity allows for the development and testing of mechanisms that might be used for future exploration efforts. The International Space Station, as a test-bed for exploration, has 4 types of pressurized interfaces between elements and 6 unpressurized attachment mechanisms. Lessons learned from the design, test and operations of these mechanisms will help inform the design for a new international standard pressurized docking mechanism for the NASA Docking System. This paper will examine the attachment mechanisms on the ISS and their attributes. It will also look ahead at the new NASA docking system and trace its lineage to heritage mechanisms.

  5. A planetary telescope at the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korablev, O.; Moroz, V.; Avanesov, G.; Rodin, V.; Bellucci, G.; Vid Machenko, A.; Tejfel, V.

    We present the development of a 40-cm telescope to be deployed at the Russian segment of International Space Station (ISS) dedicated to the observations of planets of Solar system, which primary goal will be tracking climate-related changes and other variable phenomena on planets. The most effective will be the observations of Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and comets, while other interesting targets will be certainly considered. This space-based observatory will perform monitoring of Solar System objects on regular basis The observatory includes the 40-cm narrow-field (f:20) telescope at a pointing platform with guidance system assuring pointing accuracy of ~10", and an internal tracking system with an accuracy inferior to 1" during tens of minutes. Four focal plane instruments, a camera, two spectrometers and a spectropolarimeter, will perform imaging and spectral observations in the range from ~200 nm to ~3 μm.

  6. High spatial resolution infrared camera as ISS external experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckehard, Lorenz; Frerker, Hap; Fitch, Robert Alan

    High spatial resolution infrared camera as ISS external experiment for monitoring global climate changes uses ISS internal and external resources (eg. data storage). The optical experiment will consist of an infrared camera for monitoring global climate changes from the ISS. This technology was evaluated by the German small satellite mission BIRD and further developed in different ESA projects. Compared to BIRD the presended instrument uses proven sensor advanced technologies (ISS external) and ISS on board processing and storage capabili-ties (internal). The instrument will be equipped with a serial interfaces for TM/TC and several relay commands for the power supply. For data processing and storage a mass memory is re-quired. The access to actual attitude data is highly desired to produce geo referenced maps-if possible by an on board processing.

  7. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan Kewal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively, foot breadth at ball (BBAL and foot breadth at heel (BHEL were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p p-value Conclusions The present study concluded that foot measurements have a strong relationship with stature in the sub-adult female population of North India. Hence, the stature of an individual can be successfully estimated from the foot and its segments using different regression models derived in the study. The regression models derived in the study may be applied successfully for the estimation of stature in sub-adult females, whenever foot remains are brought for forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults.

  8. The relationship between cadaver, living and forensic stature: A review of current knowledge and a test using a sample of adult Portuguese males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Marinho, Luísa; Albanese, John

    2016-01-01

    The use of cadaver length and forensic stature as a proxy for living standing height has not been scrutinized in detail. In this paper we present a brief review of the current knowledge on the relationship between cadaver, living and forensic stature; assess the magnitude and nature of the differences between these three measures of stature; and investigate the potential impact of these differences in forensic contexts. The study uses a sample of 84 males who were autopsied in 2008 at the National Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences (Porto, Portugal), where stature data were collected from three different sources: cadaver stature was obtained from the corpse prior to autopsy, living stature was obtained from military conscription records and forensic stature was obtained from national citizenship identification card records. Descriptive statistics, ANOVA and linear regression are used to analyze the data. The results show that cadaver stature is the highest measure, followed by forensic and by living stature, and the difference between cadaver and living stature is greater than expected (4.3cm). Results also show considerable individual variation in the differences between the three measures of stature and that differences decrease with stature, although only slightly. This study has shown that the difference between cadaver and living stature is greater than previously thought and suggests that previously reported correction factors are a minimum rather than a mean correction. Forensic stature is likely to be incorrectly estimated and can jeopardize identification if methods estimate living rather than forensic stature. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quality of referral of short children to the paediatric endocrinologist and impact of a fax communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiniara, Lyne; Perry, Rebecca J; Van Vliet, Guy; Huot, Céline; Deal, Cheri

    2013-12-01

    In 2001, a chart review of children referred to the authors' endocrine clinic because of short stature revealed that many were referred with insufficient baseline data, had normal height velocity and were within genetic target height. Therefore, a two-way fax communication system was implemented between referring physicians and the authors' service before the first visit. Aspects that were assessed included whether this system increased the information accompanying the patient at referral, resulted in children with nonpathological shortness not being seen in the clinic, and was used differently by paediatricians and general practitioners. Between January and December 2006, 138 referrals for short stature, diagnosed with familial short stature, constitutional delay or idiopathic short stature, were audited (69 with and 69 without previous fax communication). Data collected included source of referral, clinical information provided, available growth measurements, and results from laboratory and imaging studies. Fax communication resulted in growth curves being provided more often (95.6% of cases versus 40.5% of cases without fax communication [Pshort stature being given to 31 children based on the growth curve, laboratory and imaging results, without the children being seen in the endocrine clinic. Fax communication was also used more frequently by paediatricians (84%) than by general practitioners (15%). The fax communication system resulted in a more complete evaluation of referred patients by their physicians and reduced the number of unnecessary visits to the authors' specialty clinic while promoting medical education.

  10. STS-110/Atlantic/ISS 8A Pre-Launch On Orbit-Landing-Crew Egress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The crew of STS-110, which consists of Commander Michael Bloomfield, Pilot Stephen Frick, and Mission Specialists Rex Walheim, Ellen Ochoa, Lee Morin, Jerry Ross, and Steven Smith is introduced at the customary pre-flight meal. The narrator provides background information on the astronauts during suit-up. Each crew member is shown in the White Room before boarding Space Shuttle Atlantis, and some display signs to loved ones. Launch footage includes the following replays: Beach Tracker, VAB, Pad B, Tower 1, DLTR-3, Grandstand, Cocoa Beach DOAMS, Playalinda DOAMS, UCS-23, SLF Convoy, OTV-154, OTV-163, OTV-170 (mislabeled), and OTV-171 (mislabeled). After the launch, NASA administrator Sean O'Keefe gives a speech to the Launch Control Center, with political dignitaries present. While on-orbit, Atlantis docks with the International Space Station (ISS), and Canadarm 2 on the ISS lifts the S0 Truss out of the orbiter's payload bay. The video includes highlights of three extravehicular activities (EVAs). In the first, the S0 Truss is fastened to the Destiny Laboratory Module on the ISS. During the third EVA, Walheim and Smith assist in the checkout of the handcart on the S0 Truss. The Atlantis crew is shown gathered together with the Expedition 4 crew of the ISS, and again by itself after undocking. Replays of the landing include: VAB, Tower 1, Mid-field, Runway South End, Runway North End, Tower 2, Playalinda DOAMS, Cocoa Beach DOAMS, and Pilot Point of View (PPOV). After landing, Commander Bloomfield lets each of his crew members give a short speech.

  11. Human fertility variation, size-related obstetrical performance and the evolution of sexual stature dimorphism

    OpenAIRE

    Guégan, Jean-François; Teriokhin, A.T.; Thomas, F.

    2000-01-01

    In several animal species, change in sexual size dimorphism is a correlated response to selection on fecundity. In humans, different hypotheses have been proposed to explain the variation of sexual dimorphism in stature, but no consensus has yet emerged. In this paper, we evaluate from a theoretical and an empirical point of view the hypothesis that the extent of sexual dimorphism in human populations results from the interaction between fertility and size-related obstetric complications. We ...

  12. Evaluation of Stature Development During Childhood and Adolescence in Individuals with Familial Hypophosphatemic Rickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Mauro M.S.; Coates, Veronica; Omar, Hatim A.

    2005-01-01

    This review was conducted to study the diagnosis, treatment, and growth progression in infants and adolescents with familial hypophosphatemic rickets. The bibliographic search was carried out utilizing the electronic databases MEDLINE, OVID, and LILACS and by direct research within the last 15 years using the keywords rickets, familial hypophosphatemia, vitamin D deficiency, stature growth, childhood, and adolescence. Article selection was done by comparing the evaluation of the growth in patients with familial hypophosphatemic rickets, including the variables that might affect them, for possible future therapeutic proposals. It is concluded that the most significant fact in the treatment of familial hypophosphatemic rickets in infancy was the magnitude of the final stature. The use of growth hormone can be helpful in these patients. However, research reporting treatments with the use of the growth hormone for rickets are controversial. The majority of the authors agree that treatment using vitamin D and phosphate enables some statural growth in cases of early diagnosis, reflecting a better prognosis. PMID:16244755

  13. Changes in muscle activity and stature recovery after active rehabilitation for chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sandra; Holmes, Paul; Woby, Steve; Hindle, Jackie; Fowler, Neil

    2014-06-01

    Patients with low back pain often demonstrate elevated paraspinal muscle activity compared to asymptomatic controls. This hyperactivity has been associated with a delayed rate of stature recovery following spinal loading tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in muscle activity and stature recovery in patients with chronic low back pain following an active rehabilitation programme. The body height recovery over a 40-min unloading period was assessed via stadiometry and surface electromyograms were recorded from the paraspinal muscles during standing. The measurements were repeated after patients had attended the rehabilitation programme and again at a six-month follow-up. Analysis was based on 17 patients who completed the post-treatment analysis and 12 of these who also participated in the follow-up. By the end of the six months, patients recovered significantly more height during the unloading session than at their initial visit (ES = 1.18; P < 0.01). Greater stature recovery immediately following the programme was associated with decreased pain (r = -0.55; P = 0.01). The increased height gain after six months suggests that delayed rates of recovery are not primarily caused by disc degeneration. Muscle activity did not decrease after treatment, perhaps reflecting a period of adaptation or altered patterns of motor control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Finite temperature behaviour of the ISS-uplifted KKLT model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papineau, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    We study the static phase structure of the ISS-KKLT model for moduli stabilisation and uplifting to a zero cosmological constant. Since the supersymmetry breaking sector and the moduli sector are only gravitationally coupled, we expect negligible quantum effects of the modulus upon the ISS sector, and the other way around. Under this assumption, we show that the ISS fields end up in the metastable vacua. The reason is not only that it is thermally favoured (second order phase transition) compared to the phase transition towards the supersymmetric vacua, but rather that the metastable vacua form before the supersymmetric ones. This nice feature is exclusively due to the presence of the KKLT sector. We also show that supergravity effects are negligible around the origin of the field space. Finally, we turn to the modulus sector and show that there is no destabilisation effect coming from the ISS sector.

  15. IVA Ultrasonic and Eddy Current NDE for ISS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project intends to develop a combined Ultrasonic and Eddy Current nondestructive evaluation (NDE) instrument for IVA use on ISS. A suite of IVA and EVA NDE...

  16. Environmental Effects on ISS Materials Aging (1998 to 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alred, John; Dasgupta, Rajib; Koontz, Steve; Soares, Carlos; Golden, John

    2009-01-01

    The performance of ISS spacecraft materials and systems on prolonged exposure to the low- Earth orbit (LEO) space flight are reported in this paper. In-flight data, flight crew observations, and the results of ground-based test and analysis directly supporting programmatic and operational decision-making are described. The space flight environments definitions (both natural and induced) used for ISS design, material selection, and verification testing are shown, in most cases, to be more severe than the actual flight environment accounting, in part, for the outstanding performance of ISS as a long mission duration spacecraft. No significant ISS material or system failures have been attributed to spacecraft-environments interactions. Nonetheless, ISS materials and systems performance data is contributing to our understanding of spacecraft material interactions with the spaceflight environment so as to reduce cost and risk for future spaceflight projects and programs. Orbital inclination (51.6 deg) and altitude (nominally near 360 km) determine the set of natural environment factors affecting the functional life of materials and systems on ISS. ISS operates in an electrically conducting environment (the F2 region of Earth s ionosphere) with well-defined fluxes of atomic oxygen, other charged and neutral ionospheric plasma species, solar UV, VUV, and x-ray radiation as well as galactic cosmic rays, trapped radiation, and solar cosmic rays. The LEO micrometeoroid and orbital debris environment is an especially important determinant of spacecraft design and operations. The magnitude of several environmental factors varies dramatically with latitude and longitude as ISS orbits the Earth. The high latitude orbital environment also exposes ISS to higher fluences of trapped energetic electrons, auroral electrons, solar cosmic rays, and galactic cosmic rays than would be the case in lower inclination orbits, largely as a result of the overall shape and magnitude of the

  17. Positrusion Filament Recycling System for ISS, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Positrusion ISS Recycler enables recycling of scrap and waste plastics into high-quality filament for 3D printers to enable sustainable in-situ manufacturing on...

  18. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Geomagnetic Storm Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture geomagnetic storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of geomagnetic storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during geomagnetic storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.

  19. Long-Term International Space Station (ISS) Risk Reduction Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodroci, M. P.; Gafka, G. K.; Lutomski, M. G.; Maher, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    As the assembly of the ISS nears completion, it is worthwhile to step back and review some of the actions pursued by the Program in recent years to reduce risk and enhance the safety and health of ISS crewmembers, visitors, and space flight participants. While the initial ISS requirements and design were intended to provide the best practicable levels of safety, it is always possible to further reduce risk - given the determination, commitment, and resources to do so. The following is a summary of some of the steps taken by the ISS Program Manager, by our International Partners, by hardware and software designers, by operational specialists, and by safety personnel to continuously enhance the safety of the ISS, and to reduce risk to all crewmembers. While years of work went into the development of ISS requirements, there are many things associated with risk reduction in a Program like the ISS that can only be learned through actual operational experience. These risk reduction activities can be divided into roughly three categories: Areas that were initially noncompliant which have subsequently been brought into compliance or near compliance (i.e., Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris [MMOD] protection, acoustics) Areas where initial design requirements were eventually considered inadequate and were subsequently augmented (i.e., Toxicity Hazard Level- 4 [THL] materials, emergency procedures, emergency equipment, control of drag-throughs) Areas where risks were initially underestimated, and have subsequently been addressed through additional mitigation (i.e., Extravehicular Activity [EVA] sharp edges, plasma shock hazards) Due to the hard work and cooperation of many parties working together across the span of more than a decade, the ISS is now a safer and healthier environment for our crew, in many cases exceeding the risk reduction targets inherent in the intent of the original design. It will provide a safe and stable platform for utilization and discovery for years

  20. Stature estimation based on vertebral morphometry by dual energy X-rays absorptiometry imaging in Italian females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantal Milani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropological profile in forensic context includes the assessment of parameters as ancestry, sex, age and stature of an individual by the analysis of skeletal remains. Stature can be estimated from decomposed and fully or partially skeletonized remains by means of anatomical or mathematical methods applied on the whole skeleton or single bones. Many authors calculated regression formulae for the living stature estimation by these methods, in particular based on a population similar to the remains recovered. Long bones are commonly used for stature estimation, but, when they are missing, methods involving different parts of the skeleton are needed. In this preliminary study we measured heights of the vertebral bodies in a female Caucasian Italian population, evaluated by images of morphometric X-ray absorptiometry based on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in living subjects investigated for routine diagnostic purposes. Thoracic and lumbar segments of the spine were measured and statistical analysis was performed, thus obtaining regression formulae for estimated living stature from thoraco-lumbar spine segments (T6-T12, L1-L4 and T6-L4. We propose this method for stature evaluation in physical or forensic anthropology when the spine is available and long bones are missing.

  1. Proposed configuration for ITER hydrogen isotope separation system (ISS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, A.; Brad, S.; Sofalca, N.; Vijulie, M.; Cristescu, I.; Doer, L; Wurster, W.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The isotope separation system utilizes cryogenic distillation and catalytic reaction for isotope exchange to separate elemental hydrogen isotope gas mixtures. The ISS shall separate hydrogen isotope mixtures from two sources to produce up to five different products. These are: protium, effluent for discharge to the atmosphere, deuterium for fuelling, deuterium for NB injector (NBI) source gas, 50 % and 90% T fuelling streams. The concept of equipment 3D layout for the ISS main components were developed using the Part Design, Assembly Design, Piping Design, Equipment Arrangement and Plant Layout application from CATIA V5. The 3D conceptual layouts for ISS system were created having as reference the DDD -32-B report, the drawings 0028.0001.2D. 0100. R 'Process Flow Diagram'; 0029.0001.2D. 0200.R 'Process Instrumentation Diagram -1' (in the cold box); 0030.0001.2D. 0100. R 'Process Instrumentation Diagram -2' (in the hard shell confinement) and imputes from TLK team. The main components designed for ISS are: ISS cold box system (CB) with cryogenic distillation columns (CD) and recovery heat exchangers (HX), ISS hard shell containment (HSC) system with metals bellow pumps (MB) and chemical equilibrators (RC), valve box system, instrumentation box system, vacuum system and hydrogen expansion vessels. Work related to these topics belongs to the contract FU06-CT-2006-00508 (EFDA 06-1511) from the EFDA Technology Workprogramm 2006 and was done in collaboration with FZK Association team during the period January 2007 - September 2008. (authors)

  2. ISS Microgravity Research Payload Training Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagheck, Ronald; Geveden, Rex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Research Discipline has multiple categories of science payloads that are being planned and currently under development to operate on various ISS on-orbit increments. The current program includes six subdisciplines; Materials Science, Fluids Physics, Combustion Science, Fundamental Physics, Cellular Biology and Macromolecular Biotechnology. All of these experiment payloads will require the astronaut various degrees of crew interaction and science observation. With the current programs planning to build various facility class science racks, the crew will need to be trained on basic core operations as well as science background. In addition, many disciplines will use the Express Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) to utilize the accommodations provided by these facilities for smaller and less complex type hardware. The Microgravity disciplines will be responsible to have a training program designed to maximize the experiment and hardware throughput as well as being prepared for various contingencies both with anomalies as well as unexpected experiment observations. The crewmembers will need various levels of training from simple tasks as power on and activate to extensive training on hardware mode change out to observing the cell growth of various types of tissue cultures. Sample replacement will be required for furnaces and combustion type modules. The Fundamental Physics program will need crew EVA support to provide module change out of experiment. Training will take place various research centers and hardware development locations. It is expected that onboard training through various methods and video/digital technology as well as limited telecommunication interaction. Since hardware will be designed to operate from a few weeks to multiple research increments, flexibility must be planned in the training approach and procedure skills to optimize the output as well as the equipment maintainability. Early increment lessons learned

  3. Long-term patterns of body mass and stature evolution within the hominin lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Manuel; Pablos, Adrián; Stock, Jay T

    2017-11-01

    Body size is a central determinant of a species' biology and adaptive strategy, but the number of reliable estimates of hominin body mass and stature have been insufficient to determine long-term patterns and subtle interactions in these size components within our lineage. Here, we analyse 254 body mass and 204 stature estimates from a total of 311 hominin specimens dating from 4.4 Ma to the Holocene using multi-level chronological and taxonomic analytical categories. The results demonstrate complex temporal patterns of body size variation with phases of relative stasis intermitted by periods of rapid increases. The observed trajectories could result from punctuated increases at speciation events, but also differential proliferation of large-bodied taxa or the extinction of small-bodied populations. Combined taxonomic and temporal analyses show that in relation to australopithecines, early Homo is characterized by significantly larger average body mass and stature but retains considerable diversity, including small body sizes. Within later Homo , stature and body mass evolution follow different trajectories: average modern stature is maintained from ca 1.6 Ma, while consistently higher body masses are not established until the Middle Pleistocene at ca 0.5-0.4 Ma, likely caused by directional selection related to colonizing higher latitudes. Selection against small-bodied individuals (less than 40 kg; less than 140 cm) after 1.4 Ma is associated with a decrease in relative size variability in later Homo species compared with earlier Homo and australopithecines. The isolated small-bodied individuals of Homo naledi ( ca 0.3 Ma) and Homo floresiensis ( ca 100-60 ka) constitute important exceptions to these general patterns, adding further layers of complexity to the evolution of body size within the genus Homo . At the end of the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, body size in Homo sapiens declines on average, but also extends to lower limits not seen in

  4. Innovative Sea Surface Monitoring with GNSS-Reflectometry aboard ISS: Overview and Recent Results from GEROS-ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Bandeiras, J.

    GEROS-ISS (GEROS hereafter) stands for GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station. It is a scientific experiment, proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA)in 2011 for installation aboard the ISS. The main focus of GEROS is the dedicated use o...... of signals from the currently available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) for remote sensing of the System Earth with focus to Climate Change characterisation. The GEROS mission idea and the current status are briefly reviewed....

  5. ISS Ammonia Leak Detection Through X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Skinner, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia leaks are a significant concern for the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS has external transport lines that direct liquid ammonia to radiator panels where the ammonia is cooled and then brought back to thermal control units. These transport lines and radiator panels are subject to stress from micrometeorites and temperature variations, and have developed small leaks. The ISS can accommodate these leaks at their present rate, but if the rate increased by a factor of ten, it could potentially deplete the ammonia supply and impact the proper functioning of the ISS thermal control system, causing a serious safety risk. A proposed ISS astrophysics instrument, the Lobster X-Ray Monitor, can be used to detect and localize ISS ammonia leaks. Based on the optical design of the eye of its namesake crustacean, the Lobster detector gives simultaneously large field of view and good position resolution. The leak detection principle is that the nitrogen in the leaking ammonia will be ionized by X-rays from the Sun, and then emit its own characteristic Xray signal. The Lobster instrument, nominally facing zenith for its astrophysics observations, can be periodically pointed towards the ISS radiator panels and some sections of the transport lines to detect and localize the characteristic X-rays from the ammonia leaks. Another possibility is to use the ISS robot arm to grab the Lobster instrument and scan it across the transport lines and radiator panels. In this case the leak detection can be made more sensitive by including a focused 100-microampere electron beam to stimulate X-ray emission from the leaking nitrogen. Laboratory studies have shown that either approach can be used to locate ammonia leaks at the level of 0.1 kg/day, a threshold rate of concern for the ISS. The Lobster instrument uses two main components: (1) a microchannel plate optic (also known as a Lobster optic) that focuses the X-rays and directs them to the focal plane, and (2) a CCD (charge

  6. Space Science Investigation: NASA ISS Stowage Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Gary

    2017-01-01

    During this internship the opportunity was granted to work with the Integrated, Graphics, Operations and Analysis Laboratory (IGOAL) team. The main assignment was to create 12 achievement patches for the Space Station training simulator called the "NASA ISS Stowage Training Game." This project was built using previous IGOAL developed software. To accomplish this task, Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator were used to craft the badges and other elements required. Blender, a 3D modeling software, was used to make the required 3D elements. Blender was a useful tool to make things such as a CTB bag for the "No More Bob" patch which shows a gentleman kicking a CTB bag into the distance. It was also used to pose characters to the positions that was optimal for their patches as in the "Station Sanitation" patch which portrays and astronaut waving on a U.S module on a truck. Adobe Illustrator was the main piece of software for this task. It was used to craft the badges and upload them when they were completed. The style of the badges were flat, meaning that they shouldn't look three dimensional in any way, shape or form. Adobe Photoshop was used when any pictures need brightening and was where the texture for the CTB bag was made. In order for the patches to be ready for the game's next major release, they have to go under some critical reviewing, revising and re-editing to make sure the other artists and the rest of the staff are satisfied with the final products. Many patches were created and revamped to meet the flat setting and incorporate suggestions from the IGOAL team. After the three processes were completed, the badges were implemented into the game (reference fig1 for badges). After a month of designing badges, the finished products were placed into the final game build via the programmers. The art was the final piece in showcasing the latest build to the public for testing. Comments from the testers were often exceptional and the feedback on the badges were

  7. A Case for Hypogravity Studies Aboard ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paloski, William H.

    2014-01-01

    Future human space exploration missions being contemplated by NASA and other spacefaring nations include some that would require long stays upon bodies having gravity levels much lower than that of Earth. While we have been able to quantify the physiological effects of sustained exposure to microgravity during various spaceflight programs over the past half-century, there has been no opportunity to study the physiological adaptations to gravity levels between zero-g and one-g. We know now that the microgravity environment of spaceflight drives adaptive responses of the bone, muscle, cardiovascular, and sensorimotor systems, causing bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, reduced aerobic capacity, motion sickness, and malcoordination. All of these outcomes can affect crew health and performance, particularly after return to a one-g environment. An important question for physicians, scientists, and mission designers planning human exploration missions to Mars (3/8 g), the Moon (1/6 g), or asteroids (likely negligible g) is: What protection can be expected from gravitational levels between zero-g and one-g? Will crewmembers deconditioned by six months of microgravity exposure on their way to Mars experience continued deconditioning on the Martian surface? Or, will the 3/8 g be sufficient to arrest or even reverse these adaptive changes? The implications for countermeasure deployment, habitat accommodations, and mission design warrant further investigation into the physiological responses to hypogravity. It is not possible to fully simulate hypogravity exposure on Earth for other than transient episodes (e.g., parabolic flight). However, it would be possible to do so in low Earth orbit (LEO) using the centrifugal forces produced in a live-aboard centrifuge. As we're not likely to launch a rotating human spacecraft into LEO anytime in the near future, we could take advantage of rodent subjects aboard the ISS if we had a centrifuge that could accommodate the rodent

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for This Condition DCO dyschondrosteosis Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis LWD Related Information How are genetic conditions and genes ... of SHOX/PAR1 duplications in Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS). J Clin Endocrinol ...

  9. The International Space Station (ISS) Education Accomplishments and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alleyne, Camille W.; Blue, Regina; Mayo, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) has the unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers worldwide and thus stands as an invaluable learning platform for the advancement of proficiency in research and development and education. The presence of humans on board ISS for the past ten years has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing that interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) disciplines which will lead to an increase in quality of teachers, advancements in research and development, an increase in the global reputation for intellectual achievement, and an expanded ability to pursue unchartered avenues towards a brighter future. Over 41 million students around the world have participated in ISS-related activities since the year 2000. Projects such as the Amateur Radio on International Space Station (ARISS) and Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), among others, have allowed for global student, teacher, and public access to space through radio contacts with crewmembers and student image acquisition respectively. . With planned ISS operations at least until 2020, projects like the aforementioned and their accompanying educational materials will be available to enable increased STEM literacy around the world. Since the launch of the first ISS element, a wide range of student experiments and educational activities have been performed by each of the international partner agencies: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Canadian Space Agency (CSA), European Space Agency (ESA), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). Additionally, a number of non-participating countries, some under commercial agreements, have also participated in Station-related activities. Many of these programs still continue while others are being developed and added to the station crewmembers tasks

  10. International Space Station (ISS) Emergency Mask (EM) Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toon, Katherine P.; Hahn, Jeffrey; Fowler, Michael; Young, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The Emergency Mask (EM) is considered a secondary response emergency Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) designed to provide respiratory protection to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers in response to a post-fire event or ammonia leak. The EM is planned to be delivered to ISS in 2012 to replace the current air purifying respirator (APR) onboard ISS called the Ammonia Respirator (AR). The EM is a one ]size ]fits ]all model designed to fit any size crewmember, unlike the APR on ISS, and uses either two Fire Cartridges (FCs) or two Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) 3M(Trademark). Ammonia Cartridges (ACs) to provide the crew with a minimum of 8 hours of respiratory protection with appropriate cartridge swap ]out. The EM is designed for a single exposure event, for either post ]fire or ammonia, and is a passive device that cannot help crewmembers who cannot breathe on their own. The EM fs primary and only seal is around the wearer fs neck to prevent a crewmember from inhaling contaminants. During the development of the ISS Emergency Mask, several design challenges were faced that focused around manufacturing a leak free mask. The description of those challenges are broadly discussed but focuses on one key design challenge area: bonding EPDM gasket material to Gore(Registered Trademark) fabric hood.

  11. Head-body ratio as a visual cue for stature in people and sculptural art

    OpenAIRE

    Mather, George

    2010-01-01

    Body size is crucial for determining the outcome of competition for resources and mates. Many species use acoustic cues to measure caller body size. Vision is the pre-eminent sense for humans, but visual depth cues are of limited utility in judgments of absolute body size. The reliability of internal body proportion as a potential cue to stature was assessed with a large sample of anthropometric data, and the ratio of head height to body height (HBR) was found to be highly correlated with sta...

  12. Directional dominance on stature and cognition in diverse human populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joshi, Peter K; Esko, Tonu; Mattsson, Hannele

    2015-01-01

    is predicted for traits under directional evolutionary selection, this study provides evidence that increased stature and cognitive function have been positively selected in human evolution, whereas many important risk factors for late-onset complex diseases may not have been....... confounding, directly contributes to phenotypic variance. Contrary to earlier reports in substantially smaller samples, no evidence was seen of an influence of genome-wide homozygosity on blood pressure and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, or ten other cardio-metabolic traits. Since directional dominance...

  13. Utilizing ISS Camera Systems for Scientific Analysis of Lightning Characteristics and comparison with ISS-LIS and GLM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, C. J.; Lang, T. J.; Leake, S.; Runco, M.; Blakeslee, R. J.

    2017-12-01

    Video and still frame images from cameras aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are used to inspire, educate, and provide a unique vantage point from low-Earth orbit that is second to none; however, these cameras have overlooked capabilities for contributing to scientific analysis of the Earth and near-space environment. The goal of this project is to study how georeferenced video/images from available ISS camera systems can be useful for scientific analysis, using lightning properties as a demonstration. Camera images from the crew cameras and high definition video from the Chiba University Meteor Camera were combined with lightning data from the National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), ISS-Lightning Imaging Sensor (ISS-LIS), the Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) and lightning mapping arrays. These cameras provide significant spatial resolution advantages ( 10 times or better) over ISS-LIS and GLM, but with lower temporal resolution. Therefore, they can serve as a complementarity analysis tool for studying lightning and thunderstorm processes from space. Lightning sensor data, Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) derived city light maps, and other geographic databases were combined with the ISS attitude and position data to reverse geolocate each image or frame. An open-source Python toolkit has been developed to assist with this effort. Next, the locations and sizes of all flashes in each frame or image were computed and compared with flash characteristics from all available lightning datasets. This allowed for characterization of cloud features that are below the 4-km and 8-km resolution of ISS-LIS and GLM which may reduce the light that reaches the ISS-LIS or GLM sensor. In the case of video, consecutive frames were overlaid to determine the rate of change of the light escaping cloud top. Characterization of the rate of change in geometry, more generally the radius, of light escaping cloud top was integrated with the NLDN, ISS-LIS and

  14. Unique Capabilities of the Situational Awareness Sensor Suite for the ISS (SASSI) Mission Concept to Study the Equatorial Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habash Krause, L.; Gilchrist, B. E.; Minow, J. I.; Gallagher, D. L.; Hoegy, W. R.; Coffey, V. N.; Willis, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    the ISS Express Logistics Carrier for long-term observations and the Space Station Remote Manipulator System for short-term focused campaigns. The presentation will include a description of the instrument complement and an overview of the operations concept.

  15. Report on ISS Oxygen Production, Resupply, and Partial Pressure Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaezler, Ryan; Ghariani, Ahmed; Leonard, Daniel; Lehman, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The majority of oxygen used on International Space Station (ISS) is for metabolic support and denitrogenation procedures prior to Extra-Vehicular Activities. Oxygen is supplied by various visiting vehicles such as the Progress and Shuttle in addition to oxygen production capability on both the United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) and Russian Segment (RS). To maintain a habitable atmosphere the oxygen partial pressure is controlled between upper and lower bounds. The full range of the allowable oxygen partial pressure along with the increased ISS cabin volume is utilized as a buffer allowing days to pass between oxygen production or direct addition of oxygen to the atmosphere from reserves. This paper summarizes amount of oxygen supplied and produced from all of the sources and describes past experience of managing oxygen partial pressure along with the range of management options available to the ISS.

  16. Thermally-Constrained Fuel-Optimal ISS Maneuvers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Sagar; Svecz, Andrew; Alaniz, Abran; Jang, Jiann-Woei; Nguyen, Louis; Spanos, Pol

    2015-01-01

    Optimal Propellant Maneuvers (OPMs) are now being used to rotate the International Space Station (ISS) and have saved hundreds of kilograms of propellant over the last two years. The savings are achieved by commanding the ISS to follow a pre-planned attitude trajectory optimized to take advantage of environmental torques. The trajectory is obtained by solving an optimal control problem. Prior to use on orbit, OPM trajectories are screened to ensure a static sun vector (SSV) does not occur during the maneuver. The SSV is an indicator that the ISS hardware temperatures may exceed thermal limits, causing damage to the components. In this paper, thermally-constrained fuel-optimal trajectories are presented that avoid an SSV and can be used throughout the year while still reducing propellant consumption significantly.

  17. Value of pituitary MRI in children with short stat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan ZHOU

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the value of pituitary MRI in diagnosis of etiology and prognosis in children with short stature. Methods The MRI data of 130 children with short stature admitted from Jan. to Dec. 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 130 children, 79 were males and 51 were females, aged 3 to 18 years with mean of 9.8 years. Results Of the 130 children, 82 cases (63.1% were shown to have normal pituitary morphology and signal manifestation, and in 48 cases (36.9% pituitary morphology and signal manifestation were abnormal, and among them pituitary dysplasia was found in 30 cases, deficiency of bright signals in posterior pituitary lobe was found in 4 cases, in whom pituitary stalk deficiency was found in 2 cases. Pituitary microadenoma was found in 3 cases, and pituitary cystic lesions were found in 6 cases. Suprasellar cistern hernia was found in 4 cases, and empty sella was found in one case. The height of pituitary glands was 3.00-7.00mm in children with normal pituitary morphology and signal manifestation. Conclusion MRI pituitary examination can clearly display the anatomy and the signal of the pituitary gland, therefore MR imaging is of important value in the diagnosis of the etiology diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of children with short stature. It should be the preferred examination. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2013.11.008

  18. SPHERES: From Ground Development to Operations on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katterhagen, A.

    2015-01-01

    SPHERES (Synchronized Position Hold Engage and Reorient Experimental Satellites) is an internal International Space Station (ISS) Facility that supports multiple investigations for the development of multi-spacecraft and robotic control algorithms. The SPHERES Facility on ISS is managed and operated by the SPHERES National Lab Facility at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) at Moffett Field California. The SPHERES Facility on ISS consists of three self-contained eight-inch diameter free-floating satellites which perform the various flight algorithms and serve as a platform to support the integration of experimental hardware. To help make science a reality on the ISS, the SPHERES ARC team supports a Guest Scientist Program (GSP). This program allows anyone with new science the possibility to interface with the SPHERES team and hardware. In addition to highlighting the available SPHERES hardware on ISS and on the ground, this presentation will also highlight ground support, facilities, and resources available to guest researchers. Investigations on the ISS evolve through four main phases: Strategic, Tactical, Operations, and Post Operations. The Strategic Phase encompasses early planning beginning with initial contact by the Principle Investigator (PI) and the SPHERES program who may work with the PI to assess what assistance the PI may need. Once the basic parameters are understood, the investigation moves to the Tactical Phase which involves more detailed planning, development, and testing. Depending on the nature of the investigation, the tactical phase may be split into the Lab Tactical Phase or the ISS Tactical Phase due to the difference in requirements for the two destinations. The Operations Phase is when the actual science is performed; this can be either in the lab, or on the ISS. The Post Operations Phase encompasses data analysis and distribution, and generation of summary status and reports. The SPHERES Operations and Engineering teams at ARC is composed of

  19. Contrasting Perspectives Of Junior versus Senior NASA ISS Flight Controllers On Leadership And Cultural Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, James L.; Boyd, J. E.; Saylor, S.; Kanas, N.

    2007-01-01

    NASA flight controllers have always worked in a very demanding environment, but the International Space Station (ISS) poses even more challenges than prior missions. A recent NASA/Ames survey by Parke and Orasanu of NASA/Johnson flight controllers uncovered concerns about communications problems between American personnel and their international counterparts. To better understand these problems, we interviewed 14 senior and 12 junior ISS flight controllers at NASA/Johnson about leadership and cultural challenges they face and strategies for addressing these challenges. The qualitative interview data were coded and tabulated. Here we present quantitative analyses testing for differences between junior and senior controllers. Based on nonparametric statistical tests comparing responses across groups, the senior controllers were significantly more aware of the impact of working in dispersed teams, the context of constant change, and the upcoming multilateral challenges, while junior controllers were more aware of language and cultural issues. We consider our findings in light of other studies of controllers and other known differences between senior and junior controllers. For example, the fact that senior controllers had their formative early experience controlling pre-ISS short-duration Shuttle missions seems to have both positive and negative aspects, which are supported by our data. Our findings may also reflect gender differences, but we cannot unconfound this effect in our data because all the senior respondents were males. Many of the junior-senior differences are not only due to elapsed time on the job, but also due to a cohort effect. The findings of this study should be used for training curricula tailored differently for junior and senior controllers.

  20. Genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on growth of stature of F1 generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Toshiyuki

    1976-01-01

    On the basis of the data on stature of high school students aged from 15 to 17 in Hiroshima Prefecture, exposed group was divided into two groups. One was both-parents exposed group and the other was one-parent only exposed group. Each group was subdivided into 1 rad > exposed group and 1 rad . However, the difference of fourth central moment and correlation showed no definite tendency. Difference of mean was minus in many children of the father exposed and mother non-exposed group, but was plus in the contrary group. In other groups, no definite tendency was found. Regression analysis of exposure dose of parents from mean value of children showed no particular results, including non-exposed group or not. However, minus regression coefficient was more frequently seen on statistically significant level. Estimated value of induced mutation rate of polygene by A-bomb radiation, which effected on stature per generation, site of polygene in co-ordinate and 1 rad, was very low. As it was, however, the estimated value per 1 rad, it seemed to be not necessarily low. Concerning on the induced mutation rate, similar results were obtained in both-parents exposed group and one-parent only exposed group. (Kanao, N.)

  1. Changes in radiation dose with variations in human anatomy: larger and smaller normal-stature adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marine, Patrick M; Stabin, Michael G; Fernald, Michael J; Brill, Aaron B

    2010-05-01

    A systematic evaluation has been performed to study how specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) vary with changes in adult body size, for persons of different size but normal body stature. A review of the literature was performed to evaluate how individual organ sizes vary with changes in total body weight of normal-stature individuals. On the basis of this literature review, changes were made to our easily deformable reference adult male and female total-body models. Monte Carlo simulations of radiation transport were performed; SAFs for photons were generated for 10th, 25th, 75th, and 90th percentile adults; and comparisons were made to the reference (50th) percentile SAF values. Differences in SAFs for organs irradiating themselves were between 0.5% and 1.0%/kg difference in body weight, from 15% to 30% overall, for organs within the trunk. Differences in SAFs for organs outside the trunk were not greater than the uncertainties in the data and will not be important enough to change calculated doses. For organs irradiating other organs within the trunk, differences were significant, between 0.3% and 1.1%/kg, or about 8%-33% overall. The differences are interesting and can be used to estimate how different patients' dosimetry might vary from values reported in standard dose tables.

  2. Stature and Its Estimation Utilizing Arm Span Measurements of both gender Adolescents from Southern Region in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitim Arifi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on measurements of Southern region Kosovan adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the stature of adolescents from Southern region as well relationship between arm span and stature in both Kosovar genders. A total measured subject participated in this research was 225 out of which (105 girls and 120 boys, females average of age is 18.36±0.50 years old (range 18-20 years and for male 18.40±0.55 years old (range 18-20 years.The anthropometric measurements were done by trained people and were taken according to the ISAK manual. Relationship between stature and arm span has been analyzed by the simple correlation coeffi cient at a 95% confi dence interval. The linear regression analysis was carried out to examine extent to which arm span can reliably predict of stature. Statistical importance was placed at level p<0.05. As a result anthropometric measurements for both sexes showed that the average of stature for boys adolescents from Southern region are 178.60±5.73 centimeters and have the arm span average of 180.92±6.92 centimeters, while girls from Southern 165.33±4.45 centimeters tall, and have the arm span average of 165.60±6.03 centimeters. The results have shown that the arm span was estimated as a reliable indicator of stature assessment to the both genders adolescents from Southern region of Kosovo population. This study also confi rms the necessity for developing separate height models for each region in Kosovo.

  3. Estimation of Stature from Footprint Anthropometry Using Regression Analysis: A Study on the Bidayuh Population of East Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Nataraja Moorthy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The human foot has been studied for a variety of reasons, i.e., for forensic as well as non-forensic purposes by anatomists, forensic scientists, anthropologists, physicians, podiatrists, and numerous other groups. An aspect of human identification that has received scant attention from forensic anthropologists is the study of human feet and the footprints made by the feet. The present study, conducted during 2013-2014, aimed to derive population specific regression equations to estimate stature from the footprint anthropometry of indigenous adult Bidayuhs in the east of Malaysia. The study sample consisted of 480 bilateral footprints collected using a footprint kit from 240 Bidayuhs (120 males and 120 females, who consented to taking part in the study. Their ages ranged from 18 to 70 years. Stature was measured using a portable body meter device (SECA model 206. The data were analyzed using PASW Statistics version 20. In this investigation, better results were obtained in terms of correlation coefficient (R between stature and various footprint measurements and regression analysis in estimating the stature. The (R values showed a positive and statistically significant (p < 0.001 relationship between the two parameters. The correlation coefficients in the pooled sample (0.861–0.882 were comparatively higher than those of an individual male (0.762-0.795 and female (0.722-0.765. This study provided regression equations to estimate stature from footprints in the Bidayuh population. The result showed that the regression equations without sex indicators performed significantly better than models with gender indications. The regression equations derived for a pooled sample can be used to estimate stature, even when the sex of the footprint is unknown, as in real crime scenes.

  4. Short stature and growth hormone deficiency in a girl with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis and Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun mi Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A 9-year-old Tajikistani girl presented to Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center for evaluation of a skin lesion on her left eyelid, focal alopecia, unilateral ventricular dilatation, and aortic coarctation. She was diagnosed with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL according to Moog's diagnostic criteria. Café-au-lait spots were found on the left side of her trunk. Multiple nonossifying fibromas were found on her left proximal humerus, left distal femur, both proximal tibias, and left proximal fibula, suggesting Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome (JCS, following imaging of the extremities. Many JCS cases with multiple Café-au-lait macules, multiple nonossifying fibromas may actually have Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1. Thus, comprehensive molecular analysis to exclude NF1 mutation was performed using her blood sample. The NF1 mutation was not found. Her height was under the 3rd percentile and her bone age was delayed as compared with her chronological age. Baseline growth hormone (GH level was below the normal range. Using the insulin stimulation and levo-dihydroxyphenylalanine tests, GH deficiency was confirmed. We present a case of GH deficiency with typical features of ECCL and JCS.

  5. Short stature and growth hormone deficiency in a girl with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis and Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun Mi; Jung, Nani; Shim, Ye Jee; Choi, Hee Joung; Kim, Joon Sik; Kim, Heung Sik; Song, Kwang Soon; Lee, Hee Jung; Kim, Sang Pyo

    2016-12-01

    A 9-year-old Tajikistani girl presented to Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center for evaluation of a skin lesion on her left eyelid, focal alopecia, unilateral ventricular dilatation, and aortic coarctation. She was diagnosed with encephalocraniocutaneous lipomatosis (ECCL) according to Moog's diagnostic criteria. Café-au-lait spots were found on the left side of her trunk. Multiple nonossifying fibromas were found on her left proximal humerus, left distal femur, both proximal tibias, and left proximal fibula, suggesting Jaffe-Campanacci syndrome (JCS), following imaging of the extremities. Many JCS cases with multiple Café-au-lait macules, multiple nonossifying fibromas may actually have Neurofibromatosis type-1 (NF1). Thus, comprehensive molecular analysis to exclude NF1 mutation was performed using her blood sample. The NF1 mutation was not found. Her height was under the 3rd percentile and her bone age was delayed as compared with her chronological age. Baseline growth hormone (GH) level was below the normal range. Using the insulin stimulation and levo-dihydroxyphenylalanine tests, GH deficiency was confirmed. We present a case of GH deficiency with typical features of ECCL and JCS.

  6. The effects of socioeconomic status and short stature on overweight, obesity and the risk of metabolic complications in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Alejandro Estrada; Rueda, Juan Diego Gomez; Aguirre, Cristina Carreño; López, Lorena Patricia Mancilla

    2013-01-01

    Objective: to observe the relationship between socioeconomic status, height and nutritional problems related to obesity, overweight and risk of metabolic complications in men and women of Medellin (Colombia). Methods: cross-sectional study with a sample of 5556 adults between 18 and 69 years of age. We assessed weight, height and waist circumference. Socioeconomic variables were evaluated by family income, socioeconomic stratum and academic level achieved. Results: we found that in men and women the height reached in adulthood is associated with socioeconomic conditions as measured by the socioeconomic strata and family income. In women, height, age, and socioeconomic strata are associated with obesity, overweight and risk of obesity, and risk of metabolic complications. Conclusion: These results are not only from individual unhealthy habits, such as eating patterns based on high density foods combined with low energy expenditure, but also from the cumulative effect of food deprivation throughout life. Therefore, policies intended to prevent them should take a preventive approach that begins before birth and continues during childhood and adulthood. PMID:24892612

  7. Comparison of the clonidine test with the insulin tolerance test in the evaluation of patients with short stature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batista, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty one patients aged 2.9 to 17.5 years, with heights from 1.3 to 85 standard deviations below the mean for age and sex, are studied. Two GH provocative tests are done: (1) insulin tolerance test (ITT): intravenous regular insulin 0.1 U/kg body weight; (2) clonidine test (CLOT): oral clonidine 0.0375 mg/m 2 surface area. Serum GH is measured by a radioimmunoassay method developed in the laboratory and calibrated against a reference preparation provided by the National Institutes of Health. (M.A.C.) [pt

  8. ISS Ambient Air Quality: Updated Inventory of Known Aerosol Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft cabin air quality is of fundamental importance to crew health, with concerns encompassing both gaseous contaminants and particulate matter. Little opportunity exists for direct measurement of aerosol concentrations on the International Space Station (ISS), however, an aerosol source model was developed for the purpose of filtration and ventilation systems design. This model has successfully been applied, however, since the initial effort, an increase in the number of crewmembers from 3 to 6 and new processes on board the ISS necessitate an updated aerosol inventory to accurately reflect the current ambient aerosol conditions. Results from recent analyses of dust samples from ISS, combined with a literature review provide new predicted aerosol emission rates in terms of size-segregated mass and number concentration. Some new aerosol sources have been considered and added to the existing array of materials. The goal of this work is to provide updated filtration model inputs which can verify that the current ISS filtration system is adequate and filter lifetime targets are met. This inventory of aerosol sources is applicable to other spacecraft, and becomes more important as NASA considers future long term exploration missions, which will preclude the opportunity for resupply of filtration products.

  9. "Detsembrikuumuse" helirežissöör sai Emmy

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Hollywoodis töötav helirežissöör Solange S. Schwalbe sai septembris Los Angeleses toimunud 2007-2008 Creative Arts Primetime Emmys tseremoonial Emmy minisarja "John Adams" heliefektide eest. Tema meeskond helindas ka meie uue mängufilmi

  10. An Evidence-Based Approach To Exercise Prescriptions on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This presentation describes current exercise countermeasures and exercise equipment for astronauts onboard the ISS. Additionally, a strategy for evaluating evidence supporting spaceflight exercise is described and a new exercise prescription is proposed. The current exercise regimen is not fully effective as the ISS exercise hardware does not allow for sufficient exercise intensity, the exercise prescription is adequate and crew members are noncompliant with the prescription. New ISS hardware is proposed, Advanced Resistance Exercise Device (ARED), which allows additional exercises, is instrumented for data acquisition and offers improved loading. The new T2 hardware offers a better harness and subject loading system, is instrumented to allow ground reaction force data, and offers improved speed. A strategy for developing a spaceflight exercise prescription is described and involves identifying exercise training programs that have been shown to maximize adaptive benefits of people exercising in both 0 and 1 g environments. Exercise intensity emerged as an important factor in maintaining physiologic adaptations in the spaceflight environment and interval training is suggested. New ISS exercise hardware should allow for exercise at intensities high enough to elicit adaptive responses. Additionally, new exercise prescriptions should incorporate higher intensity exercises and seek to optimize intensity, duration and frequency for greater efficiency.

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen High Pressure Storage Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John R.; Dake, Jason; Cover, John; Leonard, Dan; Bohannon, Carl

    2004-01-01

    High pressure oxygen onboard the ISS provides support for Extra Vehicular Activities (EVA) and contingency metabolic support for the crew. This high pressure 02 is brought to the ISS by the Space Shuttle and is transferred using the Oxygen Recharge Compressor Assembly (ORCA). There are several drivers that must be considered in managing the available high pressure 02 on the ISS. The amount of O2 the Shuttle can fly up is driven by manifest mass limitations, launch slips, and on orbit Shuttle power requirements. The amount of 02 that is used from the ISS high pressure gas tanks (HPGT) is driven by the number of Shuttle docked and undocked EVAs, the type of EVA prebreath protocol that is used and contingency use of O2 for metabolic support. Also, the use of the ORCA must be managed to optimize its life on orbit and assure that it will be available to transfer the planned amount of O2 from the Shuttle. Management of this resource has required long range planning and coordination between Shuttle manifest on orbit plans. To further optimize the situation hardware options have been pursued.

  12. ISS Potable Water Quality for Expeditions 26 through 30

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.; McCoy, J. Torin

    2012-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) Expeditions 26-30 spanned a 16-month period beginning in November of 2010 wherein the final 3 flights of the Space Shuttle program finished ISS construction and delivered supplies to support the post-shuttle era of station operations. Expedition crews relied on several sources of potable water during this period, including water recovered from urine distillate and humidity condensate by the U.S. water processor, water regenerated from humidity condensate by the Russian water recovery system, and Russian ground-supplied potable water. Potable water samples collected during Expeditions 26-30 were returned on Shuttle flights STS-133 (ULF5), STS-134 (ULF6), and STS-135 (ULF7), as well as Soyuz flights 24-27. The chemical quality of the ISS potable water supplies continued to be verified by the Johnson Space Center s Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) via analyses of returned water samples. This paper presents the chemical analysis results for water samples returned from Expeditions 26-30 and discusses their compliance with ISS potable water standards. The presence or absence of dimethylsilanediol (DMSD) is specifically addressed, since DMSD was identified as the primary cause of the temporary rise and fall in total organic carbon of the U.S. product water that occurred in the summer of 2010.

  13. DSMC Simulations of Disturbance Torque to ISS During Airlock Depressurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumpkin, F. E., III; Stewart, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    The primary attitude control system on the International Space Station (ISS) is part of the United States On-orbit Segment (USOS) and uses Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMG). The secondary system is part of the Russian On orbit Segment (RSOS) and uses a combination of gyroscopes and thrusters. Historically, events with significant disturbances such as the airlock depressurizations associated with extra-vehicular activity (EVA) have been performed using the RSOS attitude control system. This avoids excessive propulsive "de-saturations" of the CMGs. However, transfer of attitude control is labor intensive and requires significant propellant. Predictions employing NASA's DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) of the disturbance torque to the ISS for depressurization of the Pirs airlock on the RSOS will be presented [1]. These predictions were performed to assess the feasibility of using USOS control during these events. The ISS Pirs airlock is vented using a device known as a "T-vent" as shown in the inset in figure 1. By orienting two equal streams of gas in opposite directions, this device is intended to have no propulsive effect. However, disturbance force and torque to the ISS do occur due to plume impingement. The disturbance torque resulting from the Pirs depressurization during EVAs is estimated by using a loosely coupled CFD/DSMC technique [2]. CFD is used to simulate the flow field in the nozzle and the near field plume. DSMC is used to simulate the remaining flow field using the CFD results to create an in flow boundary to the DSMC simulation. Due to the highly continuum nature of flow field near the T-vent, two loosely coupled DSMC domains are employed. An 88.2 cubic meter inner domain contains the Pirs airlock and the T-vent. Inner domain results are used to create an in flow boundary for an outer domain containing the remaining portions of the ISS. Several orientations of the ISS solar arrays and radiators have been investigated to find cases that result in minimal

  14. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for cattle stature identifies common genes that regulate body size in mammals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, Aniek C.; Daetwyler, Hans D.; Chamberlain, Amanda J.; Ponce, Carla Hurtado; Sargolzaei, Mehdi; Schenkel, Flavio S.; Sahana, Goutam; Govignon-Gion, Armelle; Boitard, Simon; Dolezal, Marlies; Pausch, Hubert; Brøndum, Rasmus F.; Bowman, Phil J.; Thomsen, Bo; Guldbrandtsen, Bernt; Lund, Mogens S.; Servin, Bertrand; Garrick, Dorian J.; Reecy, James; Vilkki, Johanna; Bagnato, Alessandro; Wang, Min; Hoff, Jesse L.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A.E.; Panitz, Frank; Bendixen, Christian; Holm, Lars Erik; Gredler, Birgit; Hozé, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Sanchez, Marie Pierre; Rocha, Dominique; Capitan, Aurelien; Tribout, Thierry; Barbat, Anne; Croiseau, Pascal; Drögemüller, Cord; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Vander Jagt, Christy; Crowley, John J.; Bieber, Anna; Purfield, Deirdre C.; Berry, Donagh P.; Emmerling, Reiner; Götz, Kay Uwe; Frischknecht, Mirjam; Russ, Ingolf; Sölkner, Johann; Tassell, van Curtis P.; Fries, Ruedi; Stothard, Paul; Veerkamp, Roel F.; Boichard, Didier; Goddard, Mike E.; Hayes, Ben J.

    2018-01-01

    Stature is affected by many polymorphisms of small effect in humans1. In contrast, variation in dogs, even within breeds, has been suggested to be largely due to variants in a small number of genes2,3. Here we use data from cattle to compare the genetic architecture of stature to those in humans and

  15. Meta-analysis of genome wide association studies for the stature of cattle reveals numerous common genes that regulate size in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stature is affected by many polymorphisms of small effect in humans but in contrast variation in dogs, even within breeds is largely due to variants in six genes. Here we use data from cattle to compare genetic architecture of stature to that in humans and dogs. We conducted a meta-analysis for stat...

  16. NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data Vb0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the...

  17. NRT Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Provisional Science Data Vp0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Space Station (ISS) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) datasets were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the distribution and...

  18. Dose Calibration of the ISS-RAD Fast Neutron Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, C.

    2015-01-01

    The ISS-RAD instrument has been fabricated by Southwest Research Institute and delivered to NASA for flight to the ISS in late 2015 or early 2016. ISS-RAD is essentially two instruments that share a common interface to ISS. The two instruments are the Charged Particle Detector (CPD), which is very similar to the MSL-RAD detector on Mars, and the Fast Neutron Detector (FND), which is a boron-loaded plastic scintillator with readout optimized for the 0.5 to 10 MeV energy range. As the FND is completely new, it has been necessary to develop methodology to allow it to be used to measure the neutron dose and dose equivalent. This talk will focus on the methods developed and their implementation using calibration data obtained in quasi-monoenergetic (QMN) neutron fields at the PTB facility in Braunschweig, Germany. The QMN data allow us to determine an approximate response function, from which we estimate dose and dose equivalent contributions per detected neutron as a function of the pulse height. We refer to these as the "pSv per count" curves for dose equivalent and the "pGy per count" curves for dose. The FND is required to provide a dose equivalent measurement with an accuracy of ?10% of the known value in a calibrated AmBe field. Four variants of the analysis method were developed, corresponding to two different approximations of the pSv per count curve, and two different implementations, one for real-time analysis onboard ISS and one for ground analysis. We will show that the preferred method, when applied in either real-time or ground analysis, yields good accuracy for the AmBe field. We find that the real-time algorithm is more susceptible to chance-coincidence background than is the algorithm used in ground analysis, so that the best estimates will come from the latter.

  19. ISS And Space Environment Interactions Without Operating Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Ferguson, Dale; Suggs,Rob; McCollum, Matt

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur. The details of interaction effects on spacecraft have not been addressed until driven by design. This was true for ISS. If the structure is allowed to float highly negative impinging ions can sputter exposed conductors which can degrade the primary surface and also generate contamination due to the sputtered material. Arcing has been known to occur on solar arrays that float negative of the ambient plasma. This can also generate electromagnetic interference and voltage transients. Much of the ISS structure and pressure module surfaces exposed to space is anodized aluminum. The anodization

  20. In Italy, North-South Differences in IQ Predict Differences in Income, Education, Infant Mortality, Stature, and Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…

  1. Estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population of North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Establishing personal identity is one of the main concerns in forensic investigations. Estimation of stature forms a basic domain of the investigation process in unknown and co-mingled human remains in forensic anthropology case work. The objective of the present study was to set up standards for estimation of stature from the foot and its segments in a sub-adult female population. Methods The sample for the study constituted 149 young females from the Northern part of India. The participants were aged between 13 and 18 years. Besides stature, seven anthropometric measurements that included length of the foot from each toe (T1, T2, T3, T4, and T5 respectively), foot breadth at ball (BBAL) and foot breadth at heel (BHEL) were measured on both feet in each participant using standard methods and techniques. Results The results indicated that statistically significant differences (p forensic examination. Stepwise multiple regression models tend to estimate stature more accurately than linear regression models in female sub-adults. PMID:22104433

  2. STS-105/Discovery/ISS 7A.1: Pre-Launch Activities, Launch, Orbit Activities and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    The crew of Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-105 is introduced at their pre-launch meal and at suit-up. The crew members include Commander Scott Horowitz, Pilot Rick Sturckow, and Mission Specialists Patrick Forrester and Daniel Barry, together with the Expedition 3 crew of the International Space Station (ISS). The Expedition 3 crew includes Commander Frank Culbertson, Soyuz Commander Vladimir Dezhurov, and Flight Engineer Mikhail Tyurin. When the astronauts depart for the launch pad in the Astrovan, their convoy is shown from above. Upon reaching the launch pad, they conduct a walk around of the shuttle, display signs for family members while being inspected in the White Room, and are strapped into their seats onboard Disciovery. The video includes footage of Discovery in the Orbiter Processing Facility, and some of the pre-launch procedures at the Launch Control Center are shown. The angles of launch replays include: TV-1, Beach Tracker, VAB, Pad A, Tower 1, UCS-15, Grandstand, OTV-70, Onboard, IGOR, and UCS-23. The moment of docking between Discovery and the ISS is shown from inside Discovery's cabin. While in orbit, the crew conducted extravehicular activities (EVAs) to attach an experiments container, and install handrails on the Destiny module of the ISS. The video shows the docking and unloading of the Leonardo Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) onto the ISS. The deployment of a satellite from Discovery with the coast of the Gulf of Mexico in the background is shown. Cape Canaveral is also shown from space. Landing replays include VAB, Tower 1, mid-field, South End SLF, North End SLF, Tower 2, Playalinda DOAMS, UCS-23, and Pilot Point of View (PPOV). NASA Administrator Dan Goldin meets the crew upon landing and participates in their walk around of Discovery. The video concludes with a short speech by commander Horowitz.

  3. Using the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) Is Not Feasible for Mars Transit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2016-01-01

    A review of two papers on improving the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generation Assembly (OGA) shows that it would not save substantial mass on a Mars transit. The ISS OGA requires redesign for satisfactory operation, even for the ISS. The planned improvements of the OGA for ISS would not be sufficient to make it suitable for Mars, because Mars transit life support has significantly different requirements than ISS. The OGA for Mars should have lower mass, better reliability and maintainability, greater safety, radiation hardening, and capability for quiescent operation. NASA's methodical, disciplined systems engineering process should be used to develop the appropriate system.

  4. Development of Onboard Computer Complex for Russian Segment of ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branets, V.; Brand, G.; Vlasov, R.; Graf, I.; Clubb, J.; Mikrin, E.; Samitov, R.

    1998-01-01

    Report present a description of the Onboard Computer Complex (CC) that was developed during the period of 1994-1998 for the Russian Segment of ISS. The system was developed in co-operation with NASA and ESA. ESA developed a new computation system under the RSC Energia Technical Assignment, called DMS-R. The CC also includes elements developed by Russian experts and organizations. A general architecture of the computer system and the characteristics of primary elements of this system are described. The system was integrated at RSC Energia with the participation of American and European specialists. The report contains information on software simulators, verification and de-bugging facilities witch were been developed for both stand-alone and integrated tests and verification. This CC serves as the basis for the Russian Segment Onboard Control Complex on ISS.

  5. Assessment of RFID Read Accuracy for ISS Water Kit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The Space Life Sciences Directorate/Medical Informatics and Health Care Systems Branch (SD4) is assessing the benefits Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology for tracking items flown onboard the International Space Station (ISS). As an initial study, the Avionic Systems Division Electromagnetic Systems Branch (EV4) is collaborating with SD4 to affix RFID tags to a water kit supplied by SD4 and studying the read success rate of the tagged items. The tagged water kit inside a Cargo Transfer Bag (CTB) was inventoried using three different RFID technologies, including the Johnson Space Center Building 14 Wireless Habitat Test Bed RFID portal, an RFID hand-held reader being targeted for use on board the ISS, and an RFID enclosure designed and prototyped by EV4.

  6. The ISS National Inventory of Chemical Substances (INSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binetti, Roberto; Costamagna, Francesca Marina; Ceccarelli, Federica; D'angiolini, Antonella; Fabri, Alessandra; Riva, Giovanni; Satalia, Susanna; Marcello, Ida

    2008-01-01

    The INSC (Inventario Nazionale delle Sostanze Chimiche), a factual data bank, produced by Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), consists of an electronic tool on chemical information developed for routine and emergency purposes. Historical background, current status and future perspectives of INSC are discussed. The structure and the feature of INSC are briefly examined. Aspects of information retrieval and the criteria for inclusion of data and priority selection are also considered.

  7. Viewing ISS Data in Real Time via the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Gerry; Chamberlain, Jim

    2004-01-01

    EZStream is a computer program that enables authorized users at diverse terrestrial locations to view, in real time, data generated by scientific payloads aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The only computation/communication resource needed for use of EZStream is a computer equipped with standard Web-browser software and a connection to the Internet. EZStream runs in conjunction with the TReK software, described in a prior NASA Tech Briefs article, that coordinates multiple streams of data for the ground communication system of the ISS. EZStream includes server components that interact with TReK within the ISS ground communication system and client components that reside in the users' remote computers. Once an authorized client has logged in, a server component of EZStream pulls the requested data from a TReK application-program interface and sends the data to the client. Future EZStream enhancements will include (1) extensions that enable the server to receive and process arbitrary data streams on its own and (2) a Web-based graphical-user-interface-building subprogram that enables a client who lacks programming expertise to create customized display Web pages.

  8. Updated Performance Evaluation of the ISS Water Processor Multifiltration Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carter, Layne; Carpenter, Joyce; Orozco, Nicole; Weir, Natalee; Wilson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) produces potable water from a waste stream containing humidity condensate and urine distillate. The primary treatment process is achieved in the Multifiltration Beds, which include adsorbent media and ion exchange resin for the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic contaminants. Two Multifiltration Beds (MF Beds) were replaced on ISS in July 2010 after initial indication of inorganic breakthrough of the first bed and an increasing Total Organic Carbon (TOC) trend in the product water. The first bed was sampled and analyzed Sept 2011 through March 2012. The second MF Bed was sampled and analyzed June 2012 through August 2012. The water resident in the both beds was analyzed for various parameters to evaluate adsorbent loading, performance of the ion exchange resin, microbial activity, and generation of leachates from the ion exchange resin. Portions of the adsorbent media and ion exchange resin were sampled and subsequently desorbed to identify the primary contaminants removed at various points in the bed in addition to microbial analysis. Analysis of the second bed will be compared to results from the first bed to provide a comprehensive overview of how the Multifiltration Beds function on orbit. New data from the second bed supplements the analysis of the first bed (previously reported) and gives a more complete picture of breakthrough compounds, resin breakdown products, microbial activity, and difficult to remove compounds. The results of these investigations and implications to the operation of the WPA on ISS are documented in this paper.

  9. Performance Evaluation of the ISS Water Processor Multifiltration Beds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth M.; Carter, Layne; Wilson, Mark; Cole, Harold; Orozco, Nicole; Snowdon, Doug

    2012-01-01

    The ISS Water Processor Assembly (WPA) produces potable water from a waste stream containing humidity condensate and urine distillate. The primary treatment process is achieved in the Multifiltration Bed, which includes adsorbent media and ion exchange resin for the removal of dissolved organic and inorganic contaminants. The first Multifiltration Bed was replaced on ISS in July 2010 after initial indication of inorganic breakthrough. This bed was returned to ground in July 2011 for an engineering investigation. The water resident in the bed was analyzed for various parameters to evaluate adsorbent loading, performance of the ion exchange resin, microbial activity, and generation of leachates from the ion exchange resin. Portions of the adsorbent media and ion exchange resin were sampled and subsequently desorbed to identify the primary contaminants removed at various points in the bed. In addition, an unused Multifiltration Bed was evaluated after two years in storage to assess the generation of leachates during storage. This assessment was performed to evaluate the possibility that these leachates are impacting performance of the Catalytic Reactor located downstream of the Multifiltration Bed. The results of these investigations and implications to the operation of the WPA on ISS are documented in this paper.

  10. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Thomas [German Aerospace Center - DLR, Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology, Cologne (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as 'operational' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on 'scientific' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  11. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature front that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as ''operational'' dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on ''scientific'' dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities. (orig.)

  12. The Columbus-CC—Operating the European laboratory at ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuch, T.; Sabath, D.

    2008-07-01

    The European ISS Columbus Control Center (Col-CC) joined the club of ISS mission control centers in Moscow, Houston and Huntsville. It took some time to reach that goal. In 1998 the European Space Agency (ESA) awarded the German Aerospace Center DLR to design, develop and implement the Col-CC at its premises in Oberpfaffenhofen, near Munich, Germany. In 2002 a core mission operations team was built up. An integrated team of ESA, industry and control center started to define processes and implemented first operations products and tools. This was accompanied by regular meetings with the international partners in the US and Russia. With intensive training and numerous simulations the team was able to gain experience and is now eagerly waiting for the launch of Columbus. However, thanks to the involvement in some operational activities the Col-CC staff has already been able to gain operational ISS experience. After the inauguration in October 2004 Col-CC supported the Eneide mission in April 2005 when the Italian ESA-Astronaut Roberto Vittori flew onboard a Soyuz to the ISS where he spent 10 days. Another very important milestone was the operations support for ESA's Astrolab mission. The Astrolab mission was of major importance for Europe and particularly for Germany because it implied the first long duration flight of ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter, an astronaut of German nationality. The tasks of Col-CC are described and also the experiences made with the first operational long-term mission which took place from July to December 2006. Meanwhile the Col-CC was able to reach the operational readiness status for the Columbus mission which is set for a launch date later in 2007. Despite the concentration on the challenging Columbus Assembly and Checkout phase emphasis is already laid on the following increments for the European ISS operations. Early 2006 ESA transferred the operational tasks and responsibilities to the hands of the industrial operator. This approach creates

  13. Short Adolescents Born Small for Gestational Age : Gonadal and thyroid function, bone mineral density, quality of life and adult height: The effects of growth hormone and additional postponement of puberty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Lem (Annemieke)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFrom 1991, our research group and others have been investigating children with short stature who were born small for gestational age (SGA), both before and during treatment with biosynthetic growth hormone (GH). In 2005, GH treatment was licensed for short SGA children in the

  14. Emir Kusturica - maailmakuulus režissöör või lihtne bändi bassimees?

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    26. aprillil esineb Tallinnas Serbia filmirežissöör Emir Kusturica koos Balkani ansambliga No Smoking Orchestra. Esitlusele tuleb muusika, mis kirjutatud režissööri filmile "Lubadus" ("Zavet"). Muusika autoriteks on ansambli juht Nele Karajlic ja režissöör ise. Režissöörist

  15. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  16. Transgenic Wuzhishan minipigs designed to express a dominant-negative porcine growth hormone receptor display small stature and a perturbed insulin/IGF-1 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feida; Li, Yong; Liu, Huan; Zhang, Xingju; Liu, Chuxin; Tian, Kai; Bolund, Lars; Dou, Hongwei; Yang, Wenxian; Yang, Huanming; Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Du, Yutao

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic mitogen with widespread influence on cellular growth and differentiation as well as on glucose and lipid metabolism. GH binding to the growth hormone receptor (GHR) on hepatocytes prompts expression of insulin growth factor I (IGF-1) involved in nutritionally induced compensatory hyperplasia of pancreatic β-cell islets and insulin release. A prolonged hyperactivity of the IGF-1/insulin axis in the face of insulinotropic nutrition, on the other hand, can lead to collapse of the pancreatic islets and glucose intolerance. Individuals with Laron syndrome carry mutations in the GHR gene resulting in severe congenital IGF-1 deficiency and elevated GH serum levels leading to short stature as well as perturbed lipid and glucose metabolism. However, these individuals enjoy a reduced prevalence of acne, cancer and possibly diabetes. Minipigs have become important biomedical models for human conditions due to similarities in organ anatomy, physiology, and metabolism relative to humans. The purpose of this study was to generate transgenic Wuzhishan minipigs by handmade cloning with impaired systemic GHR activity and assess their growth profile and glucose metabolism. Transgenic minipigs featuring overexpression of a dominant-negative porcine GHR (GHR(dm)) presented postnatal growth retardation and proportionate dwarfism. Molecular changes included elevated GH serum levels and mild hyperglycemia. We believe that this model may prove valuable in the study of GH functions in relation to cancer, diabetes and longevity.

  17. HAMLET -Matroshka IIA and IIB experiments aboard the ISS: comparison of organ doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Zoltan; Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Bilski, Pawel; Hajek, Michael; Sihver, Lembit; Palfalvi, Jozsef K.; Hager, Luke; Burmeister, Soenke

    The Matroshka experiments and the related FP7 HAMLET project aimed to study the dose burden of the cosmic rays in the organs of the crew working inside and outside the ISS. Two of the experiments will be discussed. They were performed in two different locations inside the ISS: during the Matroshka 2A (in 2006) the phantom was stored in the Russian Docking Module (Pirs), while during the Matroshka 2B (in 2007-08) it was inside the Russian Service Module (Zvezda). Both experiments were performed in the decreasing phase of the solar cycle. Solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) were applied to investigate the dose contribution of the high LET radiation above ˜10 keV/µm. Two configurations of SSNTDs stacks were constructed: one for the exposure in the so called organ dose boxes (in the lung and kidney), another one for the skin dose measurements, embedded in the nomex poncho of the Phantom. In addition a reference package was placed outside the phantom. After exposure the detectors were transferred to the Earth for data evaluation. Short and long etching procedures were applied to distinguish the high and low LET particles, respectively. The particle tracks were evaluated by a semi automated image analyzer. Addi-tionally manual track parameter measurements were performed on very long tracks. As the result of measurements the LET spectra were deduced. Based on these spectra, the absorbed dose, the dose equivalent and the mean quality factor were calculated. The configuration of the stacks, the methods of the calibration and evaluation and finally the results will be presented and compared. The multiple etching and the combined evaluation method allowed to determine the fraction of the dose originated from HZE particles (Z>2 and range > major axis). Further on, data eval-uation was performed to separate the secondary particles (target fragments) from the primary particles. Although the number of high LET particles above a ˜80 keV/µm was found to be higher during

  18. Feasibility Assessment of an ISS Artificial Gravity Conditioning Facility by Means of Multi-Body Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toso, Mario; Baldesi, Gianluigi; Moratto, Claudio; De Wilde, Don; Bureo Dacal, Rafael; Castellsaguer, Joaquim

    2012-07-01

    Even though human exploration of Mars is a distant objective, it is well understood that, for human space voyages of several years duration, crews would be at risk of catastrophic consequences should any of the systems that provide adequate air, water, food, or thermal protection fail. Moreover, crews will face serious health and/or safety risks resulting from severe physiologic deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. The principal ones are related to physical and functional deterioration of the regulation of the blood circulation, decreased aerobic capacity, impaired musculo-skeletal systems, and altered sensory- motor system performance. As the reliance of future space programmes on virtual modelling, simulation and justification has substantially grown together with the proto-flight hardware development approach, a range of simulation capabilities have become increasingly important in the requirements specification, design, verification, testing, launch and operation of new space systems. In this frame, multibody software is a key tool in providing a more coordinated and consistent approach from the preliminary development phases of the most complex systems. From a scientific prospective, an artificial gravity facility, such as the one evaluated in this paper, would be the first in-flight testing of the effectiveness and acceptability of short radius centrifuge as a countermeasure to human deconditioning on orbit. The ISS represents a unique opportunity to perform this research. From an engineering point of view, the preliminary assessment described in this paper, highlights the difficult engineering challenges of such a facility. The outcome proves that a human can be accommodated in the available volume, while respecting the human ergonomic basic requirements and preserving the global structural integrity of the hosting ISS module. In particular, analysis shows that, although the load capacity of the structural interfaces imposes a very low

  19. Scaling of human body composition to stature: new insights into body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heymsfield, Steven B; Gallagher, Dympna; Mayer, Laurel; Beetsch, Joel; Pietrobelli, Angelo

    2007-07-01

    Although Quetelet first reported in 1835 that adult weight scales to the square of stature, limited or no information is available on how anatomical body compartments, including adipose tissue (AT), scale to height. We examined the critical underlying assumptions of adiposity-body mass index (BMI) relations and extended these analyses to major anatomical compartments: skeletal muscle (SM), bone, residual mass, weight (AT+SM+bone), AT-free mass, and organs (liver, brain). This was a cross-sectional analysis of 2 body-composition databases: one including magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimates of evaluated components in adults (total n=411; organs=76) and the other a larger DXA database (n=1346) that included related estimates of fat, fat-free mass, and bone mineral mass. Weight, primary lean components (SM, residual mass, AT-free mass, and fat-free mass), and liver scaled to height with powers of approximately 2 (all P2 (2.31-2.48), and the fraction of weight as bone mineral mass was significantly (Pshort and tall subjects with equivalent BMIs have similar but not identical body composition, provide new insights into earlier BMI-related observations and thus establish a foundation for height-normalized indexes, and create an analytic framework for future studies.

  20. Mate choice and human stature: homogamy as a unified framework for understanding mating preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtiol, Alexandre; Raymond, Michel; Godelle, Bernard; Ferdy, Jean-Baptiste

    2010-08-01

    Assortative mating for human height has long attracted interest in evolutionary biology, and the phenomenon has been demonstrated in numerous human populations. It is often argued that mating preferences generate this pattern, but other processes can also induce trait correlations between mates. Here, we present a methodology tailored to quantify continuous preferences based on choice experiments between pairs of stimuli. In particular, it is possible to explore determinants of interindividual variations in preferences, such as the height of the chooser. We collected data from a sample of 200 individuals from France. Measurements obtained show that the perception of attractiveness depends on both the height of the stimuli and the stature of the individual who judged them. Therefore, this study demonstrates that homogamy is present at the level of preferences for both sexes. We also show that measurements of the function describing this homogamy are concordant with several distinct mating rules proposed in the literature. In addition, the quantitative approach introduced here fulfills metrics that can be used to compare groups of individuals. In particular, our results reveal an important disagreement between sexes regarding height preferences in the context of mutual mate choice. Finally, both women and men prefer individuals who are significantly taller than average. All major findings are confirmed by a reanalysis of previously published data.

  1. Hyperspectral Remote Sensing of Terrestrial Ecosystem Productivity from ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huemmrich, K. F.; Campbell, P. K. E.; Gao, B. C.; Flanagan, L. B.; Goulden, M.

    2017-12-01

    Data from the Hyperspectral Imager for Coastal Ocean (HICO), mounted on the International Space Station (ISS), were used to develop and test algorithms for remotely retrieving ecosystem productivity. The ISS orbit introduces both limitations and opportunities for observing ecosystem dynamics. Twenty six HICO images were used from four study sites representing different vegetation types: grasslands, shrubland, and forest. Gross ecosystem production (GEP) data from eddy covariance were matched with HICO-derived spectra. Multiple algorithms were successful relating spectral reflectance with GEP, including: Spectral Vegetation Indices (SVI), SVI in a light use efficiency model framework, spectral shape characteristics through spectral derivatives and absorption feature analysis, and statistical models leading to Multiband Hyperspectral Indices (MHI) from stepwise regressions and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR). Algorithms were able to achieve r2 better than 0.7 for both GEP at the overpass time and daily GEP. These algorithms were successful using a diverse set of observations combining data from multiple years, multiple times during growing season, different times of day, with different view angles, and different vegetation types. The demonstrated robustness of the algorithms presented in this study over these conditions provides some confidence in mapping spatial patterns of GEP, describing variability within fields as well as the regional patterns based only on spectral reflectance information. The ISS orbit provides periods with multiple observations collected at different times of the day within a period of a few days. Diurnal GEP patterns were estimated comparing the half-hourly average GEP from the flux tower against HICO estimates of GEP (r2=0.87) if morning, midday, and afternoon observations were available for average fluxes in the time period.

  2. Orion Handling Qualities During ISS Rendezvous and Docking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Jeremy J.; Stephens, J. P.; Spehar, P.; Bilimoria, K.; Foster, C.; Gonzalex, R.; Sullivan, K.; Jackson, B.; Brazzel, J.; Hart, J.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft was designed to rendezvous with multiple vehicles in low earth orbit (LEO) and beyond. To perform the required rendezvous and docking task, Orion must provide enough control authority to perform coarse translational maneuvers while maintaining precision to perform the delicate docking corrections. While Orion has autonomous docking capabilities, it is expected that final approach and docking operations with the International Space Station (ISS) will initially be performed in a manual mode. A series of evaluations was conducted by NASA and Lockheed Martin at the Johnson Space Center to determine the handling qualities (HQ) of the Orion spacecraft during different docking and rendezvous conditions using the Cooper-Harper scale. This paper will address the specifics of the handling qualities methodology, vehicle configuration, scenarios flown, data collection tools, and subject ratings and comments. The initial Orion HQ assessment examined Orion docking to the ISS. This scenario demonstrates the Translational Hand Controller (THC) handling qualities of Orion. During this initial assessment, two different scenarios were evaluated. The first was a nominal docking approach to a stable ISS, with Orion initializing with relative position dispersions and a closing rate of approximately 0.1 ft/sec. The second docking scenario was identical to the first, except the attitude motion of the ISS was modeled to simulate a stress case ( 1 degree deadband per axis and 0.01 deg/sec rate deadband per axis). For both scenarios, subjects started each run on final approach at a docking port-to-port range of 20 ft. Subjects used the THC in pulse mode with cues from the docking camera image, window views, and range and range rate data displayed on the Orion display units. As in the actual design, the attitude of the Orion vehicle was held by the automated flight control system at 0.5 degree deadband per axis. Several error sources were modeled including Reaction

  3. ISS External Contamination Environment for Space Science Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Carlos; Mikatarian, Ron; Steagall, Courtney; Huang, Alvin; Koontz, Steven; Worthy, Erica

    2014-01-01

    (1) The International Space Station is the largest and most complex on-orbit platform for space science utilization in low Earth orbit, (2) Multiple sites for external payloads, with exposure to the associated natural and induced environments, are available to support a variety of space science utilization objectives, (3) Contamination is one of the induced environments that can impact performance, mission success and science utilization on the vehicle, and (4)The ISS has been designed, built and integrated with strict contamination requirements to provide low levels of induced contamination on external payload assets.

  4. Reanalysis of the Trotter Tibia Quandary and its Continued Effect on Stature Estimation of Past-Conflict Service Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Jeffrey James; Brown, Carrie; Palmiotto, Andrea; Maijanen, Heli; Damann, Franklin

    2018-04-23

    Forensic casework from past-conflicts relies on the corrected historical Trotter data for stature estimation in Fordisc. For roughly 10 years', stature estimation using this data has produced point estimates for the tibia that are on average 1.25 inches less than the other long bones. This issue was identified after applying the equations derived from Fordisc to the USS Oklahoma commingled assemblage. Reevaluation of Fordisc revealed that a correction factor of 20 mm, instead of 10 mm, was mistakenly applied to the Trotter tibia data. Historical forensic anthropology reports written at the Defense POW/MIA Accounting Agency were utilized to identify that the overcorrection is isolated to Fordisc 3 with an error rate of 5% of known antemortem statures falling outside of the prediction intervals that relied on the tibia. Further evaluation of the Oklahoma sample indicates the 10 mm correction is still producing point estimates less than the other long bones. © 2018 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Productivity of Mizuna Cultivated in the Space Greenhouse Onboard the Russian Module of the Iss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    As stipulated by the science program of research into the processes of growth, development, metabolism and reproduction of higher plants in microgravity in view of their potential use in advanced life support systems, five experiments on Mizuna plants (Brassica rapa var. nipponisica) were performed using the Lada space greenhouse onboard the ISS Russian Module (RM) during Expeditions ISS-5, 17 and 20-22. One of the goals of the experiments was to evaluate the productivity of Mizuna plants grown at different levels of ISS RM air contamination. Mizuna plants were cultivated for 31 - 36 days when exposed to continuous illumination. The root growing medium was made of Turface enriched with a controlled release fertilizer Osmocote. In the course of the flight experiments major parameters of plant cultivation, total level of ISS RM air contamination and plant microbiological status were measured. The grown plants were returned to Earth as fresh or frozen samples. After the three last vegetation cycles the plants were harvested, packed and frozen at -80 0C in the MELFI freezer on the ISS U.S. Module and later returned to Earth onboard Space Shuttle. It was found that the productivity and morphometric (e.g., plant height and mass, number of leaves) parameters of the plants grown in space did not differ from those seen in ground controls. The T coefficient, which represents the total contamination level of ISS air), was 4 (ISS-5), 22 (ISS-17), 55 (ISS-20), 22 (ISS-21) and 28 (ISS-22) versus the norm of no more than 5. In summary, a significant increase in the total contamination level of the ISS RM air did not reduce the productivity of the leaf vegetable plant used in the flight experiments.

  6. GEROS-ISS: GNSS REflectometry, Radio Occultation and Scatterometry onboard the International Space Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wickert, Jens; Cardellach, Estel; Bandeiras, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    GEROS-ISS stands for GNSS REflectometry, radio occultation, and scatterometry onboard the International Space Station (ISS). It is a scientific experiment, successfully proposed to the European Space Agency in 2011. The experiment as the name indicates will be conducted on the ISS. The main focus...... of GEROS-ISS is the dedicated use of signals from the currently available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) in L-band for remote sensing of the Earth with a focus to study climate change. Prime mission objectives are the determination of the altimetric sea surface height of the oceans...

  7. Evaluation of Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for transplant-eligible multiple myeloma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Calle, Verónica; Slack, Abigail; Keane, Niamh; Luft, Susan; Pearce, Kathryn E; Ketterling, Rhett P; Jain, Tania; Chirackal, Sintosebastian; Reeder, Craig; Mikhael, Joseph; Noel, Pierre; Mayo, Angela; Adams, Roberta H; Ahmann, Gregory; Braggio, Esteban; Stewart, A Keith; Bergsagel, P Leif; Van Wier, Scott A; Fonseca, Rafael

    2018-04-06

    The International Myeloma Working Group has proposed the Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) for risk stratification of multiple myeloma (MM) patients. There are a limited number of studies that have validated this risk model in the autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) setting. In this retrospective study, we evaluated the applicability and value for predicting survival of the R-ISS model in 134 MM patients treated with new agents and ASCT at the Mayo Clinic in Arizona and the University Hospital of Salamanca in Spain. The patients were reclassified at diagnosis according to the R-ISS: 44 patients (33%) had stage I, 75 (56%) had stage II, and 15 (11%) had stage III. After a median follow-up of 60 months, R-ISS assessed at diagnosis was an independent predictor for overall survival (OS) after ASCT, with median OS not reached, 111 and 37 months for R-ISS I, II and III, respectively (P R-ISS II and having high-risk chromosomal abnormalities (CA) had a significant shorter median OS than those with R-ISS II without CA: 70 vs. 111 months, respectively. Therefore, this study lends further support for the R-ISS as a reliable prognostic tool for estimating survival in transplant myeloma patients and suggests the importance of high-risk CA in the R-ISS II group.

  8. Phase Change Material Heat Sink for an ISS Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Gregory; Stieber, Jesse; Sheth, Rubik; Ahlstrom, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    A flight experiment is being constructed to utilize the persistent microgravity environment of the International Space Station (ISS) to prove out operation of a microgravity compatible phase change material (PCM) heat sink. A PCM heat sink can help to reduce the overall mass and volume of future exploration spacecraft thermal control systems (TCS). The program is characterizing a new PCM heat sink that incorporates a novel phase management approach to prevent high pressures and structural deformation that often occur with PCM heat sinks undergoing cyclic operation in microgravity. The PCM unit was made using brazed aluminum construction with paraffin wax as the fusible material. It is designed to be installed into a propylene glycol and water cooling loop, with scaling consistent with the conceptual designs for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. This paper reports on the construction of the PCM heat sink and on initial ground test results conducted at UTC Aerospace Systems prior to delivery to NASA. The prototype will be tested later on the ground and in orbit via a self-contained experiment package developed by NASA Johnson Space Center to operate in an ISS EXPRESS rack.

  9. Human interactions in space: ISS vs. Shuttle/Mir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

    2006-07-01

    This paper compares findings from two NASA-funded studies of international long-duration missions to the Mir space station (Shuttle/Mir) and to the International Space Station (ISS). American and Russian crewmembers and mission control personnel participated. Issues examined included changes in mood and group social climate over time, displacement of group tension to outside monitoring personnel, cultural differences, and leadership roles. Findings were based on the completion of a weekly questionnaire that included items from the Profile of Mood States, the Group Environment Scale, and the Work Environment Scale. An examination of issues investigated in both studies revealed much similarity in findings. There was little support for the presence of changes in levels of mood and group climate over time, and no evidence for a "3rd quarter phenomenon". Both studies also provided evidence for the displacement of negative emotions to outside personnel in both crewmembers and mission control personnel. There were similar patterns of differences between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Finally, in both studies, the support role of the leader was related to group cohesion among crewmembers, and both the task and support roles of the leader were related to cohesion among mission control personnel. Thus, in these four areas, the ISS study substantially replicated the findings from the earlier Shuttle/Mir study, suggesting that common psychosocial issues affect people engaged in on-orbit space missions.

  10. The Mini-EUSO telescope on the ISS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scotti, Valentina, E-mail: scottiv@na.infn.it; Osteria, Giuseppe

    2017-02-11

    The Mini-EUSO project aims to perform observations of the UV-light night emission from Earth. The UV background produced in atmosphere is a key measurement for any experiment aiming at the observation of Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays (EECR) from space, the most energetic component of the cosmic radiation. The Mini-EUSO instrument will be placed within the International Space Station (ISS) in the Russian Module and measures through a UV transparent window. The instrument comprises a compact telescope with a large field of view, based on an optical system employing two Fresnel lenses for increased light collection. The light is focused onto an array of photo-multipliers and the resulting signal is converted into digital, processed and stored via the electronics subsystems on-board. The instrument is designed and built by the members of the JEM-EUSO collaboration. JEM-EUSO is a wide-angle refractive UV telescope being proposed for attachment to the ISS, which has been designed to address basic problems of fundamental physics and high-energy astrophysics investigating the nature of cosmic rays with energies above 10{sup 20} eV. Mini-EUSO will be able to study beside EECRs a wide range of scientific phenomena including atmospheric physics, strange quark matter and bioluminescence. The mission is approved by the Italian Space Agency and the Russian Space Agency. Scientific, technical and programmatic aspects of this project will be described.

  11. Analyzing Power Supply and Demand on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin; Pham, Tho; Halyard, Raymond; Conwell, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Station Power and Energy Evaluation Determiner (SPEED) is a Java application program for analyzing the supply and demand aspects of the electrical power system of the International Space Station (ISS). SPEED can be executed on any computer that supports version 1.4 or a subsequent version of the Java Runtime Environment. SPEED includes an analysis module, denoted the Simplified Battery Solar Array Model, which is a simplified engineering model of the ISS primary power system. This simplified model makes it possible to perform analyses quickly. SPEED also includes a user-friendly graphical-interface module, an input file system, a parameter-configuration module, an analysis-configuration-management subsystem, and an output subsystem. SPEED responds to input information on trajectory, shadowing, attitude, and pointing in either a state-of-charge mode or a power-availability mode. In the state-of-charge mode, SPEED calculates battery state-of-charge profiles, given a time-varying power-load profile. In the power-availability mode, SPEED determines the time-varying total available solar array and/or battery power output, given a minimum allowable battery state of charge.

  12. ISS and Shuttle Payload Research Development and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Kyle A.

    2010-01-01

    NASA's ISS and Spacecraft Processing Directorate (UB) is charged with the performance of payload development for research originating through NASA, ISS international partners, and the National Laboratory. The Payload Development sector of the Directorate takes biological research approved for on orbit experimentation from its infancy stage and finds a way to integrate and implement that research into a payload on either a Shuttle sortie or Space Station increment. From solicitation and selection, to definition, to verification, to integration and finally to operations and analysis, Payload Development is there every step of the way. My specific work as an intern this summer has consisted of investigating data received by separate flight and ground control Advanced Biological Research Systems (ABRS) units for Advanced Plant Experiments (APEX) and Cambium research. By correlation and analysis of this data and specific logbook information I have been working to explain changes in environmental conditions on both the flight and ground control unit. I have then, compiled all of that information into a form that can be presentable to the Principal Investigator (PI). This compilation allows that PI scientist to support their findings and add merit to their research. It also allows us, as the Payload Developers, to further inspect the ABRS unit and its performance

  13. ISS-NIH Collaborative Programme: final report of the projects; Programma di collaborazione ISS-NIH: relazioni conclusive dei progetti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    In July 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United States of America and the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) of Italy signed an agreement aimed at strengthening the ongoing research cooperation between USA and Italy. Over the years, the programme was able to create new partnerships and to foster the establishment of innovative synergies, the exchange of young researcher, and the merging of the best available skills, talents and know-how in different fields of biomedical sciences. This book contains the final report of the projects of the scientific cooperation between the two Countries. The report consists of two parts (in Italian and English) divided into four sections: Cancer, Neuroscience, Cardiovascular diseases, Infectious diseases. [Italian] Nel luglio 2003, i National Institutes of Health (NIH) americani e l'Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) hanno firmato un accordo mirato a rafforzare la cooperazione scientifica tra Italia e USA. Nel corso degli anni il programma ha permesso di ampliare le collaborazioni e di promuovere nuove sinergie attraverso lo scambio di giovani ricercatori e la condivisione delle migliori competenze, conoscenze e capacita in diversi campi delle scienze biomediche. Questo volume contiene le relazioni finali dei progetti del programma di cooperazione scientifica tra i due Paesi. Il rapporto e articolato in due parti (in italiano e inglese) divise in quattro sezioni: Tumori, Neuroscienze, Malattie cardiovascolari, Malattie infettive.

  14. Evaluating the Medical Kit System for the International Space Station(ISS) - A Paradigm Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailey, Melinda J.; Urbina, Michelle C.; Hughlett, Jessica L.; Gilmore, Stevan; Locke, James; Reyna, Baraquiel; Smith, Gwyn E.

    2010-01-01

    Medical capabilities aboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been packaged to help astronaut crew medical officers (CMO) mitigate both urgent and non-urgent medical issues during their 6-month expeditions. Two ISS crewmembers are designated as CMOs for each 3-crewmember mission and are typically not physicians. In addition, the ISS may have communication gaps of up to 45 minutes during each orbit, necessitating medical equipment that can be reliably operated autonomously during flight. The retirement of the space shuttle combined with ten years of manned ISS expeditions led the Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center to reassess the current ISS Medical Kit System. This reassessment led to the system being streamlined to meet future logistical considerations with current Russian space vehicles and future NASA/commercial space vehicle systems. Methods The JSC Space Medicine Division coordinated the development of requirements, fabrication of prototypes, and conducted usability testing for the new ISS Medical Kit System in concert with implementing updated versions of the ISS Medical Check List and associated in-flight software applications. The teams constructed a medical kit system with the flexibility for use on the ISS, and resupply on the Russian Progress space vehicle and future NASA/commercial space vehicles. Results Prototype systems were developed, reviewed, and tested for implementation. Completion of Preliminary and Critical Design Reviews resulted in a streamlined ISS Medical Kit System that is being used for training by ISS crews starting with Expedition 27 (June 2011). Conclusions The team will present the process for designing, developing, , implementing, and training with this new ISS Medical Kit System.

  15. 3D Printing in Zero-G ISS Technology Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mallory M.; Werkheiser, Mary J.; Cooper, Kenneth G.; Snyder, Michael P.; Edmunson, Jennifer E.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has a long term strategy to fabricate components and equipment on-demand for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. To support this strategy, NASA and Made in Space, Inc. are developing the 3D Printing In Zero-G payload as a Technology Demonstration for the International Space Station. The 3D Printing In Zero-G experiment will be the first machine to perform 3D printing in space. The greater the distance from Earth and the longer the mission duration, the more difficult resupply becomes; this requires a change from the current spares, maintenance, repair, and hardware design model that has been used on the International Space Station up until now. Given the extension of the ISS Program, which will inevitably result in replacement parts being required, the ISS is an ideal platform to begin changing the current model for resupply and repair to one that is more suitable for all exploration missions. 3D Printing, more formally known as Additive Manufacturing, is the method of building parts/ objects/tools layer-by-layer. The 3D Print experiment will use extrusion-based additive manufacturing, which involves building an object out of plastic deposited by a wire-feed via an extruder head. Parts can be printed from data files loaded on the device at launch, as well as additional files uplinked to the device while on-orbit. The plastic extrusion additive manufacturing process is a low-energy, low-mass solution to many common needs on board the ISS. The 3D Print payload will serve as the ideal first step to proving that process in space. It is unreasonable to expect NASA to launch large blocks of material from which parts or tools can be traditionally machined, and even more unreasonable to fly up specialized manufacturing hardware to perform the entire range of function traditionally machining requires. The technology to produce parts on demand, in space, offers unique design options that are not possible

  16. Tidal Control of Jet Eruptions Observed by Cassini ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurford, T. A.; Helfenstein, P.; Spitale, J. N.

    2012-01-01

    Observations by Cassini's Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) of Enceladus' south polar region at high phase angles has revealed jets of material venting into space. Observations by Cassini's Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) have also shown that the south polar region is anomalously warm with hotspots associated with geological features called the Tiger Stripes. The Tiger Stripes are large rifts near the south pole of Enceladus, which are typically about 130 km in length, 2 km wide, with a trough 500 m deep, and are l1anked on each side by 100m tall ridges. Preliminary triangulation of jets as viewed at different times and with different viewing geometries in Cassini ISS images taken between 2005 and 2007 have constrained the locations of eight major eruptions of material and found all of them associated with the south polar fractures unofficially the 'Tiger Stripes', and found four of them coincident with the hotspots reported in 2006 by CIRS. While published ISS observations of jet activity suggest that individual eruption sites stay active on the timescale of years, any shorter temporal variability (on timescales of an orbital period, or 1.3 Earth days, for example) is more difficult to establish because of the spotty temporal coverage and the difficulty of visually isolating one jet from the forest of many seen in a typical image. Consequently, it is not known whether individual jets are continuously active, randomly active, or if they erupt on a predictable, periodic schedule. One mechanism that may control the timing of eruptions is diurnal tidal stress, which oscillates between compression/tension as well as right and left lateral shear at any given location throughout Enceladus' orbit and may allow the cracks to open and close regularly. We examine the stresses on the Tiger Stripe regions to see how well diurnal tidal stress caused by Enceladus' orbital eccentricity may possibly correlate with and thus control the observed eruptions. We then identify

  17. Veggie ISS Validation Test Results and Produce Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Gioia; Hummerick, Mary; Spencer, LaShelle; Smith, Trent

    2015-01-01

    The Veggie vegetable production system flew to the International Space Station (ISS) in the spring of 2014. The first set of plants, Outredgeous red romaine lettuce, was grown, harvested, frozen, and returned to Earth in October. Ground control and flight plant tissue was sub-sectioned for microbial analysis, anthocyanin antioxidant phenolic analysis, and elemental analysis. Microbial analysis was also performed on samples swabbed on orbit from plants, Veggie bellows, and plant pillow surfaces, on water samples, and on samples of roots, media, and wick material from two returned plant pillows. Microbial levels of plants were comparable to ground controls, with some differences in community composition. The range in aerobic bacterial plate counts between individual plants was much greater in the ground controls than in flight plants. No pathogens were found. Anthocyanin concentrations were the same between ground and flight plants, while antioxidant and phenolic levels were slightly higher in flight plants. Elements varied, but key target elements for astronaut nutrition were similar between ground and flight plants. Aerobic plate counts of the flight plant pillow components were significantly higher than ground controls. Surface swab samples showed low microbial counts, with most below detection limits. Flight plant microbial levels were less than bacterial guidelines set for non-thermostabalized food and near or below those for fungi. These guidelines are not for fresh produce but are the closest approximate standards. Forward work includes the development of standards for space-grown produce. A produce consumption strategy for Veggie on ISS includes pre-flight assessments of all crops to down select candidates, wiping flight-grown plants with sanitizing food wipes, and regular Veggie hardware cleaning and microbial monitoring. Produce then could be consumed by astronauts, however some plant material would be reserved and returned for analysis. Implementation of

  18. Orbital Hub: a concept for human spaceflight beyond ISS operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahnke, Stephan S.; Maiwald, Volker; Philpot, Claudia; Quantius, Dominik; Romberg, Oliver; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Vrakking, Vincent; Zeidler, Conrad

    2018-04-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the greatest endeavour in low-Earth orbit since the beginning of the space age and the culmination of human outposts like Skylab and Mir. While a clear schedule has yet to be drafted, it is expected that ISS will cease operation in the 2020s. What could be the layout for a human outpost in LEO with lessons learnt from ISS? What are the use cases and applications of such an outpost in the future? The System Analysis Space Segment group of the German Aerospace Center investigated these and other questions and developed the Orbital Hub concept. In this paper an overview is presented of how the overall concept has been derived and its properties and layouts are described. Starting with a workshop involving the science community, the scientific requirements have been derived and Strawman payloads have been defined for use in further design activities. These design activities focused on Concurrent Engineering studies, where besides DLR employees participants from the industry and astronauts were involved. The result is an expandable concept that is composed of two main parts, the Base Platform, home for a permanent crew of up to three astronauts, and the Free Flyer, an uncrewed autonomous research platform. This modular approach provides one major advantage: the decoupling of the habitat and payload leading to increased quality of the micro-gravity environment. The former provides an environment for human physiology experiments, while the latter allows science without the perturbations caused by a crew, e.g. material experiments or Earth observation. The Free Flyer is designed to operate for up to 3 months on its own, but can dock with the space station for maintenance and experiment servicing. It also has a hybrid propulsion system, chemical and electrical, for different applications. The hub's design allows launch with just three launches, as the total mass of all the hub parts is about 60,000 kg. The main focus of the design is

  19. ISS and Space Environment Interactions in Event of Plasma Contactor Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruth, M. R., Jr.; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS), illustrated in Figure 1, will be the largest, highest power spacecraft placed in orbit. Because of this the design of the electrical power system diverged markedly from previous systems. The solar arrays will operate at 160 V and the power distribution voltage will be 120 V. The structure is grounded to the negative side of the solar arrays so under the right circumstances it is possible to drive the ISS potential very negative. A plasma contactor has been added to the ISS to provide control of the ISS structure potential relative to the ambient plasma. The ISS requirement is that the ISS structure not be greater than 40 V positive or negative of local plasma. What are the ramifications of operating large structures with such high voltage power systems? The application of a plasma contactor on ISS controls the potential between the structure and the local plasma, preventing degrading effects. It is conceivable that there can be situations where the plasma contactor might be non-functional. This might be due to lack of power, the need to turn it off during some of the build-up sequences, the loss of functionality for both plasma contactors before a replacement can be installed, and similar circumstances. A study was undertaken to understand how important it is to have the contactor functioning and how long it might be off before unacceptable degradation to ISS could occur.

  20. Potteri filmi režissöör murdis needuse

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Harry Potteri viienda filmi "Harry Potter ja Fööniksi ordu" režissöör David Yates on andnud oma nõusoleku jätkata režissöörina ka järgmise, "Harry Potter ja segavereline prints" filmi juures. Esilinastus 21. nov. 2008

  1. ISS-NIH Collaborative Programme: final report of the projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    In July 2003, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) of the United States of America and the Istituto Superiore di Sanita (ISS) of Italy signed an agreement aimed at strengthening the ongoing research cooperation between USA and Italy. Over the years, the programme was able to create new partnerships and to foster the establishment of innovative synergies, the exchange of young researcher, and the merging of the best available skills, talents and know-how in different fields of biomedical sciences. This book contains the final report of the projects of the scientific cooperation between the two Countries. The report consists of two parts (in Italian and English) divided into four sections: Cancer, Neuroscience, Cardiovascular diseases, Infectious diseases [it

  2. Simulations of MATROSHKA experiments at ISS using PHITS

    CERN Document Server

    Sihver, L; Puchalska, M; Reitz, G

    2010-01-01

    Concerns about the biological effects of space radiation are increasing rapidly due to the perspective of long-duration manned missions, both in relation to the International Space Station (ISS) and to manned interplanetary missions to Moon and Mars in the future. As a preparation for these long duration space missions it is important to ensure an excellent capability to evaluate the impact of space radiation on human health in order to secure the safety of the astronauts/cosmonauts and minimize their risks. It is therefore necessary to measure the radiation load on the personnel both inside and outside the space vehicles and certify that organ and tissue equivalent doses can be simulated as accurate as possible. In this paper we will present simulations using the three-dimensional Monte Carlo Particle and Heavy Ion Transport code System (PHITS) of long term dose measurements performed with the ESA supported experiment MATROSHKA (MTR), which is an anthropomorphic phantom containing over 6000 radiation detecto...

  3. WetLab-2: Providing Quantitative PCR Capabilities on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Macarena; Jung, Jimmy Kar Chuen; Almeida, Eduardo; Boone, Travis David; Schonfeld, Julie; Tran, Luan Hoang

    2015-01-01

    The objective of NASA Ames Research Centers WetLab-2 Project is to place on the ISS a system capable of conducting gene expression analysis via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) of biological specimens sampled or cultured on orbit. The WetLab-2 system is capable of processing sample types ranging from microbial cultures to animal tissues dissected on-orbit. The project has developed a RNA preparation module that can lyse cells and extract RNA of sufficient quality and quantity for use as templates in qRT-PCR reactions. Our protocol has the advantage that it uses non-toxic chemicals, alcohols or other organics. The resulting RNA is transferred into a pipette and then dispensed into reaction tubes that contain all lyophilized reagents needed to perform qRT-PCR reactions. These reaction tubes are mounted on rotors to centrifuge the liquid to the reaction window of the tube using a cordless drill. System operations require simple and limited crew actions including syringe pushes, valve turns and pipette dispenses. The resulting process takes less than 30 min to have tubes ready for loading into the qRT-PCR unit.The project has selected a Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) qRT-PCR unit, the Cepheid SmartCycler, that will fly in its COTS configuration. The SmartCycler has a number of advantages including modular design (16 independent PCR modules), low power consumption, rapid thermal ramp times and four-color detection. The ability to detect up to four fluorescent channels will enable multiplex assays that can be used to normalize for RNA concentration and integrity, and to study multiple genes of interest in each module. The WetLab-2 system will have the capability to downlink data from the ISS to the ground after a completed run and to uplink new programs. The ability to conduct qRT-PCR on-orbit eliminates the confounding effects on gene expression of reentry stresses and shock acting on live cells and organisms or the concern of RNA degradation of fixed samples. The

  4. Saturn's equatorial jet structure from Cassini/ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Melendo, Enrique; Legarreta, Jon; Sánchez-Lavega, Agustín.; Pérez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hueso, Ricardo

    2010-05-01

    Detailed wind observations of the equatorial regions of the gaseous giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, are crucial for understanding the basic problem of the global circulation and obtaining new detailed information on atmospheric phenomena. In this work we present high resolution data of Saturn's equatorial region wind profile from Cassini/ISS images. To retrieve wind measurements we applied an automatic cross correlator to image pairs taken by Cassini/ISS with the MT1, MT2, MT3 filters centred at the respective three methane absorbing bands of 619nm, 727nm, and 889nm, and with the adjacent continuum CB1, CB2, and CB3 filters. We obtained a complete high resolution coverage of Saturn's wind profile in the equatorial region. The equatorial jet displays an overall symmetric structure similar to that shown the by same region in Jupiter. This result suggests that, in accordance to some of the latest compressible atmosphere computer models, probably global winds in gaseous giants are deeply rooted in the molecular hydrogen layer. Wind profiles in the methane absorbing bands show the effect of strong vertical shear, ~40m/s per scale height, confirming previous results and an important decay in the wind intensity since the Voyager era (~100 m/s in the continuum and ~200 m/s in the methane absorbing band). We also report the discovery of a new feature, a very strong and narrow jet on the equator, about only 5 degrees wide, that despite the vertical shear maintains its intensity (~420 m/s) in both, the continuum and methane absorbing band filters. Acknowledgements: Work supported by the Spanish MICIIN AYA2009-10701 with FEDER and Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07.

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of the Integrated Medical Model for ISS Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenow, D. A.; Myers, J. G.; Arellano, J.; Boley, L.; Garcia, Y.; Saile, L.; Walton, M.; Kerstman, E.; Reyes, D.; Young, M.

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis estimates the relative contribution of the uncertainty in input values to the uncertainty of model outputs. Partial Rank Correlation Coefficient (PRCC) and Standardized Rank Regression Coefficient (SRRC) are methods of conducting sensitivity analysis on nonlinear simulation models like the Integrated Medical Model (IMM). The PRCC method estimates the sensitivity using partial correlation of the ranks of the generated input values to each generated output value. The partial part is so named because adjustments are made for the linear effects of all the other input values in the calculation of correlation between a particular input and each output. In SRRC, standardized regression-based coefficients measure the sensitivity of each input, adjusted for all the other inputs, on each output. Because the relative ranking of each of the inputs and outputs is used, as opposed to the values themselves, both methods accommodate the nonlinear relationship of the underlying model. As part of the IMM v4.0 validation study, simulations are available that predict 33 person-missions on ISS and 111 person-missions on STS. These simulated data predictions feed the sensitivity analysis procedures. The inputs to the sensitivity procedures include the number occurrences of each of the one hundred IMM medical conditions generated over the simulations and the associated IMM outputs: total quality time lost (QTL), number of evacuations (EVAC), and number of loss of crew lives (LOCL). The IMM team will report the results of using PRCC and SRRC on IMM v4.0 predictions of the ISS and STS missions created as part of the external validation study. Tornado plots will assist in the visualization of the condition-related input sensitivities to each of the main outcomes. The outcomes of this sensitivity analysis will drive review focus by identifying conditions where changes in uncertainty could drive changes in overall model output uncertainty. These efforts are an integral

  6. Public Participation in Earth Science from the Iss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, K. J.; Runco, S.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth (GAPE) is an online database (http://eol.jsc.nasa.gov) of terrestrial astronaut photography that enables the public to experience the astronaut’s view from orbit. This database of imagery includes all NASA human-directed missions from the Mercury program of the early 1960’s to the current International Space Station (ISS). To date, the total number of images taken by astronauts is 1,025,333. Of the total, 621,316 images have been “cataloged” (image geographic center points determined and descriptive metadata added). The remaining imagery provides an opportunity for the citizen-scientist to become directly involved with NASA through cataloging of astronaut photography, while simultaneously experiencing the wonder and majesty of our home planet as seen by astronauts on board the ISS every day. We are currently developing a public cataloging interface for the GAPE website. When complete, the citizen-scientist will be able to access a selected subset of astronaut imagery. Each candidate will be required to pass a training tutorial in order to receive certification as a cataloger. The cataloger can then choose from a selection of images with basic metadata that is sorted by difficulty levels. Some guidance will be provided (template/pull down menus) for generation of geographic metadata required from the cataloger for each photograph. Each cataloger will also be able to view other contributions and further edit that metadata if they so choose. After the public inputs their metadata the images will be posted to an internal screening site. Images with similar geographic metadata and centerpoint coordinates from multiple catalogers will be reviewed by NASA JSC Crew Earth Observations (CEO) staff. Once reviewed and verified, the metadata will be entered into the GAPE database with the contributors identified by their chosen usernames as having cataloged the frame.

  7. Discovery Of B Ring Propellers In Cassini UVIS, And ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sremcevic, Miodrag; Stewart, G. R.; Albers, N.; Esposito, L. W.

    2012-10-01

    We present evidence for the existence of propellers in Saturn's B ring by combining data from Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) and Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) experiments. We identify two propeller populations: (1) tens of degrees wide propellers in the dense B ring core, and (2) smaller, more A ring like, propellers populating the inner B ring. The prototype of the first population is an object observed at 18 different epochs between 2005 and 2010. The ubiquitous propeller "S" shape is seen both in UVIS occultations as an optical depth depletion and in ISS as a 40 degrees wide bright stripe in unlit geometries and dark in lit geometries. Combining the available Cassini data we infer that the object is a partial gap embedded in the high optical depth region of the B ring. The gap moves at orbital speed consistent with its radial location. From the radial separation of the propeller wings we estimate that the embedded body, which causes the propeller structure, is about 1.5km in size located at a=112,921km. The UVIS occultations indicate an asymmetric propeller "S" shape. Since the object is located at an edge between high and relatively low optical depth, this asymmetry is most likely a consequence of the strong surface mass density gradient. We estimate that there are possibly dozen up to 100 other propeller objects in Saturn's B ring. The location of the discovered body, at an edge of a dense ringlet within the B ring, suggests a novel mechanism for the up to now illusive B ring irregular large-scale structure of alternating high and low optical depth ringlets. We propose that this B ring irregular structure may have its cause in the presence of many embedded bodies that shepherd the individual B ring ringlets.

  8. Cassini ISS Observations of Jupiter: An Exoplanet Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert A.; Knowles, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    Understanding the optical and physical properties of planets in our solar system can guide our approach to the interpretation of observations of exoplanets. Although some work has already been done along these lines, there remain low-hanging fruit. During the Cassini Jupiter encounter, the Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) obtained an extensive set of images over a large range of phase angles (near-zero to 140 degrees) and in filters from near-UV to near-IR, including three methane bands and nearby continuum. The ISS also obtained images using polarizers. Much later in the mission we also obtained distant images while in orbit around Saturn. Some of these data have already been studied to reveal phase behavior (Dyudina et al., Astrophys. J.822, DOI: 10.3847/0004-637X/822/2/76; Mayorga et al., 2016, Astron. J. 152, DOI: 10.3847/0004-6256/152/6/209). Here we examine rotational modulation to determine wavelength and phase angle dependence, and how these may depend on cloud and haze vertical structure and optical properties. The existence of an optically thin forward-scattering and longitudinally-homogeneous haze overlying photometrically-variable cloud fields tends to suppress rotational modulation as phase angle increases, although in the strong 890-nm methane band cloud vertical structure is important. Cloud particles (non-spherical ammonia ice, mostly) have very small polarization signatures at intermediate phase angles and rotational modulation is not apparent above the noise level of our instrument. Part of this work was performed by the Jet Propulsion Lab, Cal. Inst. Of Technology.

  9. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  10. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  11. The relationships between measures of stature recovery, muscle activity and psychological factors in patients with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Sandra; Holmes, Paul; Woby, Steve; Hindle, Jackie; Fowler, Neil

    2012-02-01

    Individuals with low back pain (LBP) often exhibit elevated paraspinal muscle activity compared to asymptomatic controls during static postures such as standing. This hyperactivity has been associated with a delayed rate of stature recovery in individuals with mild LBP. This study aimed to explore this association further in a more clinically relevant population of NHS patients with LBP and to investigate if relationships exist with a number of psychological factors. Forty seven patients were recruited from waiting lists for physiotherapist-led rehabilitation programmes. Paraspinal muscle activity while standing was assessed via surface electromyogram (EMG) and stature recovery over a 40-min unloading period was measured on a precision stadiometer. Self-report of pain, disability, anxiety, depression, pain-related anxiety, fear of movement, self-efficacy and catastrophising were recorded. Correlations were found between muscle activity and both pain (r=0.48) and disability (r=0.43). Muscle activity was also correlated with self-efficacy (r=-0.45), depression (r=0.33), anxiety (r=0.31), pain-related anxiety (r=0.29) and catastrophising (r=0.29) and was a mediator between self-efficacy and pain. Pain was a mediator in the relationship between muscle activity and disability. Stature recovery was not found to be related to pain, disability, muscle activity or any of the psychological factors. The findings confirm the importance of muscle activity within LBP, in particular as a pathway by which psychological factors may impact on clinical outcome. The mediating role of muscle activity between psychological factors and pain suggests that interventions that are able to reduce muscle tension may be of particular benefit to patients demonstrating such characteristics, which may help in the targeting of treatment for LBP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. ISS Regenerative Life Support: Challenges and Success in the Quest for Long-Term Habitability in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazley, Jesse A.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation will discuss the International Space Station s (ISS) Regenerative Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) operations with discussion of the on-orbit lessons learned, specifically regarding the challenges that have been faced as the system has expanded with a growing ISS crew. Over the 10 year history of the ISS, there have been numerous challenges, failures, and triumphs in the quest to keep the crew alive and comfortable. Successful operation of the ECLSS not only requires maintenance of the hardware, but also management of the station resources in case of hardware failure or missed re-supply. This involves effective communication between the primary International Partners (NASA and Roskosmos) and the secondary partners (JAXA and ESA) in order to keep a reserve of the contingency consumables and allow for re-supply of failed hardware. The ISS ECLSS utilizes consumables storage for contingency usage as well as longer-term regenerative systems, which allow for conservation of the expensive resources brought up by re-supply vehicles. This long-term hardware, and the interactions with software, was a challenge for Systems Engineers when they were designed and require multiple operational workarounds in order to function continuously. On a day-to-day basis, the ECLSS provides big challenges to the on console controllers. Main challenges involve the utilization of the resources that have been brought up by the visiting vehicles prior to undocking, balance of contributions between the International Partners for both systems and resources, and maintaining balance between the many interdependent systems, which includes providing the resources they need when they need it. The current biggest challenge for ECLSS is the Regenerative ECLSS system, which continuously recycles urine and condensate water into drinking water and oxygen. These systems were brought to full functionality on STS-126 (ULF-2) mission. Through system failures and recovery

  13. Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data Vb0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Science Data were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to...

  14. Non-Quality Controlled Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on International Space Station (ISS) Provisional Science Data Vp0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The International Space Station (ISS) Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) datasets were collected by the LIS instrument on the ISS used to detect the distribution and...

  15. Examining the candidacy of ghrelin as a gene responsible for variation in adult stature in a United Kingdom population with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueorguiev, Maria; Wiltshire, Steven; Garcia, Edwin A; Mein, Charles; Lecoeur, Cecile; Kristen, Brigitte; Allotey, Rebecca; Hattersley, Andrew T; Walker, Mark; O'rahilly, Stephen; Froguel, Philippe; Grossman, Ashley B; McCarthy, Mark I; Hitman, Graham A; Korbonits, Márta

    2007-06-01

    Recently, a quantitative trait locus for stature was reported on chromosome 3p26 in patients with type 2 diabetes. Given that ghrelin is a peptide involved in GH release and located on 3p26, we hypothesized that variation within its gene (GHRL) may be responsible for the quantitative trait locus on 3p26. The evidence for linkage around GHRL was refined with the genotyping of an additional four microsatellites (D3S4545, D3S1537, D3S1597, and D3S3611), giving a total of 27 markers, followed by multipoint variance components linkage analysis. Probands from the linkage families were typed for five common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within GHRL and tested for association with adult stature using haplotype trend regression. The maximum multipoint evidence for linkage between adult stature and the 27 microsatellites yielded an LOD score of 2.58 (P = 0.0003) between D3S1297 and D3S1304. Five common (frequency of > or =5%) SNPs were typed in the probands [two promoter SNPs (rs27647 and rs26802), two exonic (rs696217 and rs4684677), and one intronic (rs35683)] capturing 80% of the total common variation in GHRL. No association was found between any SNP (or haplotypes thereof) and adult stature. Common genetic variation within GHRL is not responsible for variation in adult stature in this population.

  16. The ISS Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR): a Summary of Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gati, F.; Hill, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    The Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR) is a modular, multi-user scientific research facility that will fly in the U.S. laboratory module, Destiny, of the International Space Station (ISS). The FIR will be one of the two racks that will make up the Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) - the other being the Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR). The ISS will provide the FCF with the necessary resources, such as power and cooling. While the ISS crew will be available for experiment operations, their time will be limited. The FCF is, therefore, being designed for autonomous operations and remote control operations. Control of the FCF will be primarily through the Telescience Support Center (TSC) at the Glenn Research Center. The FCF is being designed to accommodate a wide range of combustion and fluids physics experiments within the ISS resources and constraints. The primary mission of the FIR, however, is to accommodate experiments from four major fluids physics disciplines: Complex Fluids; Multiphase Flow and Heat Transfer; Interfacial Phenomena; and Dynamics and Stability. The design of the FIR is flexible enough to accommodate experiments from other science disciplines such as Biotechnology. The FIR flexibility is a result of the large volume dedicated for experimental hardware, easily re-configurable diagnostics that allow for unique experiment configurations, and it's customizable software. The FIR will utilize six major subsystems to accommodate this broad scope of fluids physics experiments. The major subsystems are: structural, environmental, electrical, gaseous, command and data management, and imagers and illumination. Within the rack, the FIR's structural subsystem provides an optics bench type mechanical interface for the precise mounting of experimental hardware; including optical components. The back of the bench is populated with FIR avionics packages and light sources. The interior of the rack is isolated from the cabin through two rack doors that are hinged near

  17. Changes in body mass, stature and BMI in South African elite U18 Rugby players from different racial groups from 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durandt, Justin; Green, Mervin; Masimla, Herman; Lambert, Mike

    2018-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are differences between racial groups for body mass, stature and body mass index (BMI) in South African elite U18 rugby players and whether there were significant changes in these measurements between 2002 and 2012. Self-reported body mass and stature were obtained from U18 players (n = 4007) who attended the national tournament during this period. BMI was calculated for each player.White players were 9.8 kg heavier than black players, who were 2.3 kg heavier than coloured players (P body mass of all groups increased from 2002 to 2012 (P body mass, stature and BMI of elite under-18 rugby players in South Africa were significantly different between racial groups. This has implications for transforming the game to make it representative of the South African population.

  18. Estimation of stature from hand and handprint measurements in Iban population in Sarawak, Malaysia and its applications in forensic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulkifly, Nuranis-Raihan; Wahab, Roswanira Abd; Layang, Elizabeth; Ismail, Dzulkiflee; Desa, Wan Nur Syuhaila Mat; Hisham, Salina; Mahat, Naji A

    2018-01-01

    Handprints and dismembered hands are commonly found during crime scene investigations and disaster victim identifications, respectively. It has been indicated that the accuracy of handprint and hand measurements for estimating stature maybe population specific. Since Iban is the largest ethnic population in Sarawak, Malaysia and because the application of anthropometry of hand and handprint within this population as well as other populations within the Southeast Asian countries remain unreported, this present study that investigated the reliability and accuracy of these two anthropometric aspects acquires forensic significance. Upon measuring the height, 21 measurements were recorded on each hand and the corresponding handprint of 50 male and 52 female consented adult Iban subjects. Using univariate statistics as well as simple and multiple regression analyses, interpretation of the measurements examined here was attempted. Results revealed that lengths of hand and handprint are the more reliable traits for estimating stature in both the male and female Iban subjects (p Sarawak that may prove useful for crime scene investigations and disaster victim identifications in Malaysia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  19. An overview of NASA ISS human engineering and habitability: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitts, D; Architecture, B

    2000-09-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is the first major NASA project to provide human engineering an equal system engineering an equal system engineering status to other disciplines. The incorporation and verification of hundreds of human engineering requirements applied across-the-board to the ISS has provided for a notably more habitable environment to support long duration spaceflight missions than might otherwise have been the case. As the ISS begins to be inhabited and become operational, much work remains in monitoring the effectiveness of the Station's built environment in supporting the range of activities required of a long-duration vehicle. With international partner participation, NASA's ISS Operational Habitability Assessment intends to carry human engineering and habitability considerations into the next phase of the ISS Program with constant attention to opportunities for cost-effective improvements that need to be and can be made to the on-orbit facility. Too, during its operations the ISS must be effectively used as an on-orbit laboratory to promote and expand human engineering/habitability awareness and knowledge to support the international space faring community with the data needed to develop future space vehicles for long-duration missions. As future space mission duration increases, the rise in importance of habitation issues make it imperative that lessons are captured from the experience of human engineering's incorporation into the ISS Program and applied to future NASA programmatic processes.

  20. Vitamin D: Findings from Antarctic, Bed Rest, Houston, and ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Sara R.; Locke, J.; Pierson, D.; Mehta, S.; Bourbeau, Y.; Parsons, H.; Smith, S. M.

    2009-01-01

    Obtaining vitamin D is critical for space travelers because they lack ultraviolet light exposure and have an insufficient dietary supply of vitamin D. Despite the provision of 400 IU vitamin D supplements to International Space Station (ISS) early crewmembers, vitamin D status was consistently lower after flight than before flight, and in several crewmembers has decreased to levels considered clinically significant. Vitamin D has long been known to play a role in calcium metabolism, and more recently its non-calcitropic functions have been recognized. According to the results of several recent studies, functionally relevant measures indicate that the lower limit of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (a marker of vitamin D status) should be raised from the current 23 nmol/L to 80 nmol/L. The mean preflight serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH vit D) for U.S. ISS crewmembers to date is 63 +/- 16 nmol/L, and after a 4- to 6-mo space flight it typically decreases 25-30% despite supplementation (400 IU/d). The sub-optimal pre- and postflight vitamin D status is an issue that needs to be addressed, to allow NASA to better define the appropriate amount of supplemental vitamin D to serve as a countermeasure against vitamin D deficiency in astronaut crews. A series of ground-based and flight studies in multiple models have been conducted, including Antarctica in winter months when UV-B radiation levels are essentially zero, bed rest where subjects are not exposed to UV-B radiation for 60-90 days, in free-living individuals in Houston, and in International Space Station crewmembers. In these studies, we looked at dose regimen and efficacy, compliance issues, as well as toxicity. Preliminary results from these studies will be presented. Together, the data from these studies will enable us to provide space crews with evidence-based recommendations for vitamin D supplementation. The findings also have implications for other persons with limited UV light exposure, including polar workers and

  1. Thermal Modeling Method Improvements for SAGE III on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Kaitlin; Amundsen, Ruth; Davis, Warren; McLeod, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument is the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring aerosols and gaseous constituents in the stratosphere and troposphere. SAGE III will be delivered to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle. A detailed thermal model of the SAGE III payload, which consists of multiple subsystems, has been developed in Thermal Desktop (TD). Many innovative analysis methods have been used in developing this model; these will be described in the paper. This paper builds on a paper presented at TFAWS 2013, which described some of the initial developments of efficient methods for SAGE III. The current paper describes additional improvements that have been made since that time. To expedite the correlation of the model to thermal vacuum (TVAC) testing, the chambers and GSE for both TVAC chambers at Langley used to test the payload were incorporated within the thermal model. This allowed the runs of TVAC predictions and correlations to be run within the flight model, thus eliminating the need for separate models for TVAC. In one TVAC test, radiant lamps were used which necessitated shooting rays from the lamps, and running in both solar and IR wavebands. A new Dragon model was incorporated which entailed a change in orientation; that change was made using an assembly, so that any potential additional new Dragon orbits could be added in the future without modification of the model. The Earth orbit parameters such as albedo and Earth infrared flux were incorporated as time-varying values that change over the course of the orbit; despite being required in one of the ISS documents, this had not been done before by any previous payload. All parameters such as initial temperature, heater voltage, and location of the payload are defined based on the case definition. For one component, testing was performed in both air and vacuum; incorporating the air convection in a submodel that was

  2. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  3. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  4. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  6. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  7. Organization, Management and Function of International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, James M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    Long duration crews have inhabited the ISS since November of 2000. The favorable medical outcomes of its missions can be largely attributed to sustained collective efforts of all ISS Partners medical organizations. In-flight medical monitoring and support, although crucial, is just a component of the ISS system of Joint Medical Operations. The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the multilateral medical support of the ISS Program. The governing documents, which describe the relationships among all ISS partner medical organizations, were evaluated, followed by analysis of the roles, responsibilities, and decision-making processes of the ISS medical boards, panels, and working groups. The degree of integration of the medical support system was evaluated by reviewing the multiple levels of the status reviews and mission assurance activities carried out throughout the last six years. The Integrated Medical Group, consisting of physicians and other essential personnel in the mission control centers represents the front-line medical support of the ISS. Data from their day-to-day activities are presented weekly at the Space Medicine Operations Team (SMOT), where known or potential concerns are addressed by an international group of physicians. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month, and to determine measures to return to nominal state. Finally, a comprehensive readiness review is conducted during preparations for each ISS mission. The Multilateral Medical Policy Board (MMPB) issues medical policy decisions and oversees all health and medical matters. The Multilateral Space Medicine Board (MSMB) certifies crewmembers and visitors for training and space flight to the Station, and physicians to practice space medicine for the ISS. The Multilateral Medical Operations Panel (MMOP) develops medical requirements, defines and supervises implementation of

  8. Innovations for ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin D.

    2013-01-01

    Limited resources and increasing requirements will continue to influence decisions on ISS. The ISS Plug-In Plan (IPiP) supports power and data for utilization, systems, and daily operations through the Electrical Power System (EPS) Secondary Power/Data Subsystem. Given the fluid launch schedule, the focus of the Plug-In Plan has evolved to anticipate future requirements by judicious development and delivery of power supplies, power strips, Alternating Current (AC) power inverters, along with innovative deployment strategies. A partnership of ISS Program Office, Engineering Directorate, Mission Operations, and International Partners poses unique solutions with existing on-board equipment and resources.

  9. International Space Station (ISS) Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU) Utilization Plan Assessment Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pellerano, Amri; Iannello, Christopher J.; Garrett, Henry B.; Ging, Andrew T.; Katz, Ira; Keith, R. Lloyd; Minow, Joseph I.; Willis, Emily M.; Schneider, Todd A.; Whittlesey, Edward J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) vehicle undergoes spacecraft charging as it interacts with Earth's ionosphere and magnetic field. The interaction can result in a large potential difference developing between the ISS metal chassis and the local ionosphere plasma environment. If an astronaut conducting extravehicular activities (EVA) is exposed to the potential difference, then a possible electrical shock hazard arises. The control of this hazard was addressed by a number of documents within the ISS Program (ISSP) including Catastrophic Safety Hazard for Astronauts on EVA (ISS-EVA-312-4A_revE). The safety hazard identified the risk for an astronaut to experience an electrical shock in the event an arc was generated on an extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) surface. A catastrophic safety hazard, by the ISS requirements, necessitates mitigation by a two-fault tolerant system of hazard controls. Traditionally, the plasma contactor units (PCUs) on the ISS have been used to limit the charging and serve as a "ground strap" between the ISS structure and the surrounding ionospheric plasma. In 2009, a previous NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) team evaluated the PCU utilization plan (NESC Request #07-054-E) with the objective to assess whether leaving PCUs off during non-EVA time periods presented risk to the ISS through assembly completion. For this study, in situ measurements of ISS charging, covering the installation of three of the four photovoltaic arrays, and laboratory testing results provided key data to underpin the assessment. The conclusion stated, "there appears to be no significant risk of damage to critical equipment nor excessive ISS thermal coating damage as a result of eliminating PCU operations during non- EVA times." In 2013, the ISSP was presented with recommendations from Boeing Space Environments for the "Conditional" Marginalization of Plasma Hazard. These recommendations include a plan that would keep the PCUs off during EVAs when the

  10. SAGE III on ISS Lessons Learned on Thermal Interface Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Warren

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III (SAGE III) instrument - the fifth in a series of instruments developed for monitoring vertical distribution of aerosols, ozone, and other trace gases in the Earth's stratosphere and troposphere - is currently scheduled for delivery to the International Space Station (ISS) via the SpaceX Dragon vehicle in 2016. The Instrument Adapter Module (IAM), one of many SAGE III subsystems, continuously dissipates a considerable amount of thermal energy during mission operations. Although a portion of this energy is transferred via its large radiator surface area, the majority must be conductively transferred to the ExPRESS Payload Adapter (ExPA) to satisfy thermal mitigation requirements. The baseline IAM-ExPA mechanical interface did not afford the thermal conductance necessary to prevent the IAM from overheating in hot on-orbit cases, and high interfacial conductance was difficult to achieve given the large span between mechanical fasteners, less than stringent flatness specifications, and material usage constraints due to strict contamination requirements. This paper will examine the evolution of the IAM-ExPA thermal interface over the course of three design iterations and will include discussion on design challenges, material selection, testing successes and failures, and lessons learned.

  11. International Space Station (ISS) Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Mohammed K.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (RFTA) provides the following three primary functions for the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA): volume for concentrating/filtering pretreated urine, filtration of product distillate, and filtration of the Pressure Control and Pump Assembly (PCPA) effluent. The RFTAs, under nominal operations, are to be replaced every 30 days. This poses a significant logistical resupply problem, as well as cost in upmass and new tanks purchase. In addition, it requires significant amount of crew time. To address and resolve these challenges, NASA required Boeing to develop a design which eliminated the logistics and upmass issues and minimize recurring costs. Boeing developed the Advanced Recycle Filter Tank Assembly (ARFTA) that allowed the tanks to be emptied on-orbit into disposable tanks that eliminated the need for bringing the fully loaded tanks to earth for refurbishment and relaunch, thereby eliminating several hundred pounds of upmass and its associated costs. The ARFTA will replace the RFTA by providing the same functionality, but with reduced resupply requirements

  12. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  13. Nuclear abundance measurements inside MIR and ISS with Sileye experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casolino, M.

    In this work we present measurements of cosmic ray nuclear abundances above 150 MeV/n performed inside Mir space station between 1998 and 2000. Data have been obtained with SilEye-2 detector, a 6 plane silicon strip detector telescope designed to measure environmental radiation and investigate on the Light Flash phenomenon. In standalone mode, SilEye-2 is capable to measure LET distribution spectra and identify nuclear species with energy above 100 MeV/n: a total of 100 sessions comprising more than 1000 hours of observation were perfomed in the years 1998-2000, recording also several Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. Cosmic ray abundances inside a spacecraft can differ from the primary component due to interaction with the interposed material of the hull and the instruments. We report on LET measurements and relative abundances from Boron to Iron measured in different regions and at different geomagnetic cutoffs, in solar quiet conditions and during SEP events, showing how the composition varies in these different situations. We also report on preliminary results on cosmic ray measurements inside ISS (27/4/2002 - 4/5/2002) obtained with Sileye-3/Alteino experiment.

  14. Measuring CMB polarization from ISS: the SPOrt experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, L.P.L.

    2004-01-01

    The SPOrt (Sky Polarization Observatory) experiment aims to measure CMBP (cosmic microwave background polarization) on about 80% of the sky from space. Selected by ESA to fly on board the ISS in 2006, it is funded by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). As shown also by the recent WMAP release, CMBP data, besides of removing various degeneracies among cosmological parameters, provided new and important information on the cosmic opacity τ and, therefore, on very early cosmic objects which reionized the world at z ∼ 15. Most such information is obtained from low-l spectral components, that SPOrt, with its HPBW resolution of 7 degrees will explore with a high level of sensitivity. The 4 polarimeters of SPOrt work at 22, 32 and (2x) 90 GHz. At lower frequencies they will provide a (nearly) all-sky survey of Galactic synchrotron polarized emission, while data at the higher frequency will measure the CMBP signal. Correlating SPOrt with anisotropy data, by other experiments, shall therefore provide significant cosmological information. We performed a number of simulations of SPOrt performance, aimed to determine how far τ and/or other parameter(s) concerning reionization are constrained by the expected data. We also considered a possible interplay between reionization histories and Dark Energy nature. Besides of information on technological developments for systematics reduction, long term stability and observing time efficiency, we report here recent outputs on the expected SPOrt performance in constraining cosmological models

  15. Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator Integration with the ISS Extravehicular Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margiott, Victoria; Boyle, Robert

    2014-01-01

    NASA has developed a Solid Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) to provide cooling for the next generation spacesuit. One approach to increasing the TRL of the system is to incorporate this hardware with the existing EMU. Several integration issues were addressed to support a potential demonstration of the SWME with the existing EMU. Systems analysis was performed to assess the capability of the SWME to maintain crewmember cooling and comfort as a replacement for sublimation. The materials of the SWME were reviewed to address compatibility with the EMU. Conceptual system placement and integration with the EMU via an EVA umbilical system to ensure crew mobility and Airlock egress were performed. A concept of operation for EVA use was identified that is compatible with the existing system. This concept is extensible as a means to provide cooling for the existing EMU. The cooling system of one of the EMUs on orbit has degraded, with the root cause undetermined. Should there be a common cause resident on ISS, this integration could provide a means to recover cooling capability for EMUs on orbit.

  16. ISS Material Science Research Rack HWIL Interface Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Philip J.; Ballard, Gary H.; Crumbley, Robert T. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the first Material Science Research Rack (MSRR-1) hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) interface simulation is described. Dynamic Concepts developed this HWIL simulation system with funding and management provided by the Flight Software group (ED14) of NASA-MSFC's Avionics Department. The HWIL system has been used both as a flight software development environment and as a software qualification tool. To fulfill these roles, the HWIL simulator accurately models the system dynamics of many MSRR-1 subsystems and emulates most of the internal interface signals. The modeled subsystems include the Experiment Modules, the Thermal Environment Control System, the Vacuum Access System, the Solid State Power Controller Module, and the Active Rack Isolation Systems. The emulated signals reside on three separate MIL-STD-1553B digital communication buses, the ISS Medium Rate Data Link, and several analog controller and sensor signals. To enhance the range of testing, it was necessary to simulate several off-nominal conditions that may occur in the interfacing subsystems.

  17. Longitudinal Ionospheric Variability Observed by LITES on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, A. W.; Finn, S. C.; Cook, T.; Geddes, G.; Chakrabarti, S.; Budzien, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Limb-Imaging Ionospheric and Thermospheric Extreme-Ultraviolet Spectrograph (LITES) is an imaging spectrograph designed to measure altitude profiles (150-350 km) of extreme- and far-ultraviolet airglow emissions that originate from photochemical processes in the ionosphere and thermosphere. During the daytime, LITES observes the bright O+ 83.4 nm emission from which the ionospheric profile can be inferred. At night, recombination emissions at 91.1 and 135.6 nm provide a direct measure of the electron content along the line of sight. LITES was launched and installed on the International Space Station (ISS) in late February 2017 where it has been operating along with the highly complementary GPS Radio Occultation and Ultraviolet Photometry - Colocated (GROUP-C) experiment. We will present some of the first observations from LITES in April 2017 that show longitudinal patterns in ionospheric density and the daily variability in those patterns. LITES vertical imaging from a vantage point near 410 km enables a particularly unique perspective on the altitude of the ionospheric peak density at night that can complement and inform other ground- and space-based measurements, and track the longitude-altitude variability that is reflective of changes in equatorial electrodynamics.

  18. Radiation measured for ISS-Expedition 12 with different dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.; Semones, E.; Gaza, R.; Johnson, S.; Zapp, N.; Weyland, M.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is mainly from Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR), solar energetic particles and particles in South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). These particles' radiation impact to astronauts depends strongly on the particles' linear energy transfer (LET) and is dominated by high LET radiation. It is important to investigate the LET spectrum for the radiation field and the influence of radiation on astronauts. At present, the best active dosimeters used for all LET are the tissue equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) and silicon detectors; the best passive dosimeters are thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) or optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) for low LET and CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTDs) for high LET. TEPC, CR-39 PNTDs, TLDs and OSLDs were used to investigate the radiation for space mission Expedition 12 (ISS-11S) in LEO. LET spectra and radiation quantities (fluence, absorbed dose, dose equivalent and quality factor) were measured for the mission with these different dosimeters. This paper introduces the operation principles for these dosimeters, describes the method to combine the results measured by CR-39 PNTDs and TLDs/OSLDs, presents the experimental LET spectra and the radiation quantities

  19. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  20. Robotic, MEMS-based Multi Utility Sample Preparation Instrument for ISS Biological Workstation, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop a multi-functional, automated sample preparation instrument for biological wet-lab workstations on the ISS. The instrument is based on a...

  1. Synchronized Position and Hold Reorient Experimental Satellites - International Space Station (SPHERES-ISS), Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload Systems Inc. (PSI) and the MIT Space Systems Laboratory (MIT-SSL) propose an innovative research program entitled SPHERES-ISS that uses their satellite...

  2. Režissöör Jaini film on omasuguste seas ainus / Berit Toodo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Toodo, Berit

    2008-01-01

    Pärnu 22. dokumentaal- ja antropoloogiafilmide festivalil esilinastus india režissööri Rajele Jaini dokumentaalfilm "Silmalau üheksa liikumist". Filmis tegi oma viimase esinemise ka kuulus koreograaf Pina Bausch

  3. Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) for ISS Flight Control, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop the Intelligent, Semi-Automated Procedure Aid (ISAPA) intended for use by International Space Station (ISS) ground controllers to increase the...

  4. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and International Space Station (ISS) Coordination for Cubesat Deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, James H.; Aviles, Jorge; Myers, Ralph; Parris, Joshua; Corley, Bryan; Hehn, Garrett; Pascucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the specific problem of collision threat to GPM and risk to ISS CubeSat deployment and the process that was implemented to keep both missions safe from collision and maximize their project goals.

  5. Observation Platform for Dynamic Biomedical and Biotechnology Experiments using the ISS Light Microscopy Module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed "Observation platform for dynamic biomedical and biotechnology experiments using the ISS Light Microscopy Module" consists of a platen sized to fit the...

  6. Analysis of dust samples from the Russian part of the ISS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our study focuses on the hardiest microorganisms inhabiting the ISS in order to assess their diversity and capabilities to resist certain stresses. We specifically...

  7. Microbial Observatory (ISS-MO): Study of BSL-2 bacterial isolates from the International Space Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In an on-going Microbial Observatory experimental investigation on the International Space Station (ISS) multiple bacterial isolates of Biosafety Level 2 (BSL-2)...

  8. Dedicated Slosh Dynamics Experiment on ISS using SPHERES (Advanced Space Operations in CR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) the Launch Services Program is leading an effort to conduct an experiment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) to validate...

  9. Näitleja Tommy Lee Jonesi meditatsioon režissööritoolis / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Vestern "Melquiades Estrada kolm matust" ("The Three Burials of Melquiades Estrada") : stsenarist Guillermo Arriaga : režissöör ja osatäitja Tommy Lee Jones : operaator Chris Menges : Ameerika Ühendriigid, 2005

  10. Noorte eesti režissööride uued filmid Sõpruses / Mari Peegel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Peegel, Mari, 1978-

    2005-01-01

    Sõpruse kinos esilinastub homme kaks eesti lühimängufilmi - "Vanameeste paradiis" : stsenaristid Ove Musting, Urmas Lennuk : režissöör Ove Musting : mängivad Tõnu Aav, Aleksander Eelmaa jt ning "Ukse taga" : stsenarist Margit Keerdo : režissöör Andrus Tuisk : osades Hele Kõre, Karin Lätsim, Kirill Käro, Igor Gavrilov

  11. The ISS 2B PVTCS Ammonia Leak: An Operational History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareha, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) for the International Space Station's 2B power channel began leaking ammonia at a rate of approximately 1.5lbm/year (out of a starting approximately 53lbm system ammonia mass). Initially, the operations strategy was "feed the leak," a strategy successfully put into action via Extra Vehicular Activity during the STS-134 mission. During this mission the system was topped off with ammonia piped over from a separate thermal control system. This recharge was to have allowed for continued power channel operation into 2014 or 2015, at which point another EVA would have been required. Without these periodic EVAs to refill the 2B coolant system, the channel would eventually leak enough fluid as to risk pump cavitation and system failure, resulting in the loss of the 2B power channel - the most critical of the Space Station's 8 power channels. In mid-2012, the leak rate increased to approximately 5lbm/year. Once discovered, an EVA was planned and executed within a 5 week timeframe to drastically alter the architecture of the PVTCS via connection to a dormant thermal control system not intended to be utilized as anything other than spare components. The purpose of this rerouting of the TCS was to increase system volume and to isolate the photovoltaic radiator, thought to be the likely leak source. This EVA was successfully executed on November 1st, 2012 and left the 2B PVTCS in a configuration where the system was now being adequately cooled via a totally different radiator than what the system was designed to utilize. Unfortunately, data monitoring over the next several months showed that the isolated radiator was not leaking, and the system itself continued to leak steadily until May 9th, 2013. It was on this day that the ISS crew noticed the visible presence of ammonia crystals escaping from the 2B channel's truss segment, signifying a rapid acceleration of the leak from 5lbm/year to 5lbm/day. Within 48 hours of the

  12. International Space Station (ISS) Bacterial Filter Elements (BFEs): Filter Efficiency and Pressure Testing of Returned Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert D.; Agui, Juan H.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-01-01

    The air revitalization system aboard the International Space Station (ISS) provides the vital function of maintaining a clean cabin environment for the crew and the hardware. This becomes a serious challenge in pressurized space compartments since no outside air ventilation is possible, and a larger particulate load is imposed on the filtration system due to lack of sedimentation due to the microgravity environment in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The ISS Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) system architecture in the U.S. Segment uses a distributed particulate filtration approach consisting of traditional High-Efficiency Particulate Adsorption (HEPA) media filters deployed at multiple locations in each U.S. Segment module; these filters are referred to as Bacterial Filter Elements, or BFEs. These filters see a replacement interval, as part of maintenance, of 2-5 years dependent on location in the ISS. In this work, we present particulate removal efficiency, pressure drop, and leak test results for a sample set of 8 BFEs returned from the ISS after filter replacement. The results can potentially be utilized by the ISS Program to ascertain whether the present replacement interval can be maintained or extended to balance the on-ground filter inventory with extension of the lifetime of ISS beyond 2024. These results can also provide meaningful guidance for particulate filter designs under consideration for future deep space exploration missions.

  13. Space Environment Effects on Materials at Different Positions and Operational Periods of ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimoto, Yugo; Ichikawa, Shoichi; Miyazaki, Eiji; Matsumoto, Koji; Ishizawa, Junichiro; Shimamura, Hiroyuki; Yamanaka, Riyo; Suzuki, Mineo

    2009-01-01

    A space materials exposure experiment was condcuted on the exterior of the Russian Service Module (SM) of the International Space Station (ISS) using the Micro-Particles Capturer and Space Environment Exposure Device (MPAC&SEED) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). Results reveal artificial environment effects such as sample contamination, attitude change effects on AO fluence, and shading effects of UV on ISS. The sample contamination was coming from ISS components. The particles attributed to micrometeoroids and/or debris captured by MPAC might originate from the ISS solar array. Another MPAC&SEED will be aboard the Exposure Facility of the Japanese Experiment Module, KIBO Exposure Facility (EF) on ISS. The JEM/MPAC&SEED is attached to the Space Environment Data Acquisition Equipment-Attached Payload (SEDA-AP) and is exposed to space. Actually, SEDA-AP is a payload on EF to be launched by Space Shuttle flight 2J/A. In fact, SEDA-AP has space environment monitors such as a high-energy particle monitor, atomic oxygen monitor, and plasma monitor to measure in-situ natural space environment data during JEM/MPAC&SEED exposure. Some exposure samples for JEM/MPAC&SEED are identical to SM/MPAC&SEED samples. Consequently, effects on identical materials at different positions and operation periods of ISS will be evaluated. This report summarizes results from space environment monitoring samples for atomic oxygen analysis on SM/MPAC&SEED, along with experimental plans for JEM/MPAC&SEED.

  14. Growth of 48 built environment bacterial isolates on board the International Space Station (ISS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Coil

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. While significant attention has been paid to the potential risk of pathogenic microbes aboard crewed spacecraft, the non-pathogenic microbes in these habitats have received less consideration. Preliminary work has demonstrated that the interior of the International Space Station (ISS has a microbial community resembling those of built environments on Earth. Here we report the results of sending 48 bacterial strains, collected from built environments on Earth, for a growth experiment on the ISS. This project was a component of Project MERCCURI (Microbial Ecology Research Combining Citizen and University Researchers on ISS. Results. Of the 48 strains sent to the ISS, 45 of them showed similar growth in space and on Earth using a relative growth measurement adapted for microgravity. The vast majority of species tested in this experiment have also been found in culture-independent surveys of the ISS. Only one bacterial strain showed significantly different growth in space. Bacillus safensis JPL-MERTA-8-2 grew 60% better in space than on Earth. Conclusions. The majority of bacteria tested were not affected by conditions aboard the ISS in this experiment (e.g., microgravity, cosmic radiation. Further work on Bacillus safensis could lead to interesting insights on why this strain grew so much better in space.

  15. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasbarre, Joseph; Walker, Richard; Cisewski, Michael; Zawodny, Joseph; Cheek, Dianne; Thornton, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station (SAGE III/ISS) mission will extend the SAGE data record from the ideal vantage point of the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS orbital inclination is ideal for SAGE measurements providing coverage between 70 deg north and 70 deg south latitude. The SAGE data record includes an extensively validated data set including aerosol optical depth data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) experiments in 1975 and 1978 and stratospheric ozone profile data dating to the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) in 1979. These and subsequent data records, notably from the SAGE II experiment launched on the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite in 1984 and the SAGE III experiment launched on the Russian Meteor-3M satellite in 2001, have supported a robust, long-term assessment of key atmospheric constituents. These scientific measurements provide the basis for the analysis of five of the nine critical constituents (aerosols, ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), water vapor (H2O), and air density using O2) identified in the U.S. National Plan for Stratospheric Monitoring. SAGE III on ISS was originally scheduled to fly on the ISS in the same timeframe as the Meteor-3M mission, but was postponed due to delays in ISS construction. The project was re-established in 2009.

  16. Organization and Management of the International Space Station (ISS) Multilateral Medical Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, J. M.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Castrucci, F.; Koike, Y.; Comtois, J. M.; Sargsyan, A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this work is to review the principles, design, and function of the ISS multilateral medical authority and the medical support system of the ISS Program. Multilateral boards and panels provide operational framework, direct, and supervise the ISS joint medical operational activities. The Integrated Medical Group (IMG) provides front-line medical support of the crews. Results of ongoing activities are reviewed weekly by physician managers. A broader status review is conducted monthly to project the state of crew health and medical support for the following month. All boards, panels, and groups function effectively and without interruptions. Consensus prevails as the primary nature of decisions made by all ISS medical groups, including the ISS medical certification board. The sustained efforts of all partners have resulted in favorable medical outcomes of the initial fourteen long-duration expeditions. The medical support system appears to be mature and ready for further expansion of the roles of all Partners, and for the anticipated increase in the size of ISS crews.

  17. Tidally modulated eruptions on Enceladus: Cassini ISS observations and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nimmo, Francis; Porco, Carolyn; Mitchell, Colin

    2014-01-01

    We use images acquired by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) to investigate the temporal variation of the brightness and height of the south polar plume of Enceladus. The plume's brightness peaks around the moon's apoapse, but with no systematic variation in scale height with either plume brightness or Enceladus' orbital position. We compare our results, both alone and supplemented with Cassini near-infrared observations, with predictions obtained from models in which tidal stresses are the principal control of the eruptive behavior. There are three main ways of explaining the observations: (1) the activity is controlled by right-lateral strike slip motion; (2) the activity is driven by eccentricity tides with an apparent time delay of about 5 hr; (3) the activity is driven by eccentricity tides plus a 1:1 physical libration with an amplitude of about 0.°8 (3.5 km). The second hypothesis might imply either a delayed eruptive response, or a dissipative, viscoelastic interior. The third hypothesis requires a libration amplitude an order of magnitude larger than predicted for a solid Enceladus. While we cannot currently exclude any of these hypotheses, the third, which is plausible for an Enceladus with a subsurface ocean, is testable by using repeat imaging of the moon's surface. A dissipative interior suggests that a regional background heat source should be detectable. The lack of a systematic variation in plume scale height, despite the large variations in plume brightness, is plausibly the result of supersonic flow; the details of the eruption process are yet to be understood.

  18. Multi-User Hardware Solutions to Combustion Science ISS Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Angel M.

    2001-01-01

    In response to the budget environment and to expand on the International Space Station (ISS) Fluids and Combustion Facility (FCF) Combustion Integrated Rack (CIR), common hardware approach, the NASA Combustion Science Program shifted focus in 1999 from single investigator PI (Principal Investigator)-specific hardware to multi-user 'Minifacilities'. These mini-facilities would take the CIR common hardware philosophy to the next level. The approach that was developed re-arranged all the investigations in the program into sub-fields of research. Then common requirements within these subfields were used to develop a common system that would then be complemented by a few PI-specific components. The sub-fields of research selected were droplet combustion, solids and fire safety, and gaseous fuels. From these research areas three mini-facilities have sprung: the Multi-user Droplet Combustion Apparatus (MDCA) for droplet research, Flow Enclosure for Novel Investigations in Combustion of Solids (FEANICS) for solids and fire safety, and the Multi-user Gaseous Fuels Apparatus (MGFA) for gaseous fuels. These mini-facilities will develop common Chamber Insert Assemblies (CIA) and diagnostics for the respective investigators complementing the capability provided by CIR. Presently there are four investigators for MDCA, six for FEANICS, and four for MGFA. The goal of these multi-user facilities is to drive the cost per PI down after the initial development investment is made. Each of these mini-facilities will become a fixture of future Combustion Science NASA Research Announcements (NRAs), enabling investigators to propose against an existing capability. Additionally, an investigation is provided the opportunity to enhance the existing capability to bridge the gap between the capability and their specific science requirements. This multi-user development approach will enable the Combustion Science Program to drive cost per investigation down while drastically reducing the time

  19. Does water stress, nutrient limitation, or H-toxicity explain the differential stature among Heath Forest types in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernimmen, R.R.E.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Proctor, J.; Verhoef, H.A.; Klomp, N.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the causes of the reduced stature of heath forest compared to lowland evergreen rain forest (LERF), the quantity and quality of small litterfall (LF), the standing crop of litter on the forest floor (LSC), and the annual rates of litter decay were determined over a period of 12 months

  20. Relationship of stature to gamma and neutron exposure among atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Amano, Takako; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1982-10-01

    A reanalysis has been undertaken of the relationship of attained adult height of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb (ATB) to radiation dose based upon new dosimetry data. The present analysis aims to examine the relationship of stature to radiation dose in terms of gamma rays and neutrons, separately. The 628 individuals were selected from Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, aged less than 10 ATB, whose doses were available, and whose statures were recorded at the Adult Health Study (AHS) biennial health examination during 1970-72. To ascertain the relationship of attained adult stature to gamma and neutron doses three doseresponse models were applied to the data. The analysis revealed that the attained height is a separate function of exposure to gamma rays and neutrons. The model assuming a squared term dependence on gamma rays and a linear dependence on neutrons provides a better explanation of the data. The regression coefficient associated with the squared gamma dose is -0.00000927 and the coefficient associated with neutron dose is -0.0172. The relative biological effectiveness of neutrons in relation to gamma radiation with respect to the effect for diminished development of stature is estimated as 43.1 / √Dn in kerma (Dn=neutron dose). The 95% confidence limits are 19.3 / √Dn--96.5 / √Dn. (author)

  1. Dynamics of Saturn’s 2010 Great White Spot from high-resolution Cassini ISS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueso, Ricardo; Sánchez-Lavega, A.; del Río-Gaztelurrutia, T.

    2012-10-01

    On December 5th 2010 a storm erupted in Saturn’s North Temperate latitudes which were experiencing early spring season. The storm quickly developed to a planet-wide disturbance of the Great White Spot type. The ISS instrument onboard Cassini acquired its first images of the storm on 23th December 2010 and performed repeated observations with a variety of spatial resolutions over the nearly 10 months period the storm continued active. Here we present an analysis of two of the image sequences with better spatial resolution of the mature storm when it was fully developed and very active. We used an image correlation algorithm to measure the cloud motions obtained from images separated 20 minutes and obtained 16,000 wind tracers in a domain of 60 degrees longitude per 20 degrees in latitude. Intense zonal and meridional motions accompanied the storm and reached values of 120 m/s in particular regions of the active storm. The storm released a chain of anticyclonic and cyclonic vortices at planetocentric latitudes of 36° and 32° respectively. The short time difference between the images results in estimated wind uncertainties of 15 m/s that did not allow to perform a complete analysis of the turbulence and kinetic spectrum of the motions. We identify locations of the updrafts and link those with the morphology in different observing filters. The global behaviour of the storm was examined in images separated by 10 hours confirming the intensity of the winds and the global behaviour of the vortices. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Spanish MICIIN project AYA2009-10701 with FEDER funds, by Grupos Gobierno Vasco IT-464-07 and by Universidad País Vasco UPV/EHU through program UFI11/55.

  2. Gravity-Dependent Combustion and Fluids Research - From Drop Towers to Aircraft to the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David L.; Singh, Bhim S.; Kohl, Fred J.

    2007-01-01

    Driven by the need for knowledge related to the low-gravity environment behavior of fluids in liquid fuels management, thermal control systems and fire safety for spacecraft, NASA embarked on a decades long research program to understand, accommodate and utilize the relevant phenomena. Beginning in the 1950s, and continuing through to today, drop towers and aircraft were used to conduct an ever broadening and increasingly sophisticated suite of experiments designed to elucidate the underlying gravity-dependent physics that drive these processes. But the drop towers and aircraft afford only short time periods of continuous low gravity. Some of the earliest rocket test flights and manned space missions hosted longer duration experiments. The relatively longer duration low-g times available on the space shuttle during the 1980s and 1990s enabled many specialized experiments that provided unique data for a wide range of science and engineering disciplines. Indeed, a number of STS-based Spacelab missions were dedicated solely to basic and applied microgravity research in the biological, life and physical sciences. Between 1980 and 2000, NASA implemented a vigorous Microgravity Science Program wherein combustion science and fluid physics were major components. The current era of space stations from the MIR to the International Space Station have opened up a broad range of opportunities and facilities that are now available to support both applied research for technologies that will help to enable the future exploration missions and for a continuation of the non-exploration basic research that began over fifty years ago. The ISS-based facilities of particular value to the fluid physics and combustion/fire safety communities are the Fluids and Combustion Facility Combustion Integrated Rack and the Fluids Integrated Rack.

  3. Psychological and emotional development, intellectual capabilities, and body image in short normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, E; Sartori, A; Ceccarelli, A; Marchi, S

    2002-04-01

    It is well established that children with short stature frequently have problems in cognitive development, personality, self-esteem and social relations. This is partly due to the fact that many parents view them as more vulnerable than other children of normal stature and do not allow them to face the normal experiences that correspond to their actual age. The aim of the present study was to assess, through the administration of appropriate psychological tools, a series of psychological and cognitive characteristics [i.e. anxiety, depression, good adjustment, social functioning, feeling of guilt, interpersonal relationship, intelligence quotient (IQ)], as well as variables linked to development of body image, in a group of children suffering from normal growth variants [familial short stature (FSS), no. 10, 4 males/6 females; with constitutional growth delay (CGD), no. 4,4 males; height standard deviation score (HSDS) ranging between -2.4 and -1.9] and in a control group children of normal stature (HSDS between -0.1 and +0.1). Children with short stature significantly differed from normal statured controls as far as Colored Progressive Matrices (CPMs, centiles), IQ (IQ, obtained using the Goodenough test), "Good Adjustment" (Draw-a-Person index, DAP), "Feelings of Guilt" (DAP index), "Height" (as emerges from drawings of the body) are concerned. Significant relationships were found between the height of the subjects (in centiles) and cognitive skills, measured both using CPMs (r=0.408; p=0.017) and Draw-a-Man (DAM) (r=0.359; p=0.037) and between height and feelings of guilt (r=0.325; p=0.027), measured using DAP. CPM scores correlated positively with the "Good Adjustment" index of DAP (r=0.354; p=0.05) and negatively with Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) (r=-0.609; p=0.01), "School Anxiety" index (r=-0.427; p=0.05) and "Total Anxiety" index (r=-0.436; p=0.05) of the Anxiety Scale Questionnaire for the Age of Development, and with 2 indices of DAP, namely

  4. Epidemiology of SHOX deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolosi, A; Caruso-Nicoletti, M

    2010-06-01

    Deletion of short stature homeobox-containing (SHOX) gene, in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR1) of X and Y chromosomes, is an important cause of short stature. Homozygous loss of SHOX results in the more severe Langer mesomelic dysplasia, while SHOX haploinsufficiency cause a wide spectrum of short stature phenotypes, including patients with Turner syndrome, Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), and idiopathic short stature (ISS). In Turner syndrome, haploinsufficiency of SHOX gene, as well as short stature, are present in 100%; nevertheless, SHOX deficiency accounts for only two-thirds of Turner patients' short stature. In LWD the prevalence of SHOX gene anomalies varies from 56% to 100%. This wide range might be due to different factors such as selection criteria of patients, sample size, and method used for screening SHOX mutations. The real challenge is to establish the prevalence of SHOX deficiency in ISS children given that published studies have reported this association with a very broad frequency range varying from 1.5% to 15%. An important variable in these studies is represented by the method used for screening SHOX mutations and sometimes by differences in patient selection. Short stature is present by definition in 3 out of 100 subjects; if we consider a frequency of SHOX defects of 3% among ISS, we should expect a population prevalence of 1 in 1000. This prevalence would be higher than that of GH deficiency (1:3,500) and of Turner syndrome (1:2,500 females), suggesting that SHOX deficiency could be one of the most frequent monogenetic causes of short stature.

  5. The ISS as a platform for a fully simulated mars voyage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narici, Livio; Reitz, Guenther

    2016-07-01

    The ISS can mimic the impact of microgravity, radiation, living and psychological conditions that astronauts will face during a deep space cruise, for example to Mars. This suggests the ISS as the most valuable "analogue" for deep space exploration. NASA has indeed suggested a 'full-up deep space simulation on last available ISS Mission: 6/7 crew for one year duration; full simulation of time delays & autonomous operations'. This idea should be pushed further. It is indeed conceivable to use the ISS as the final "analogue", performing a real 'dry-run' of a deep space mission (such as a mission to Mars), as close as reasonably possible to what will be the real voyage. This Mars ISS dry run (ISS4Mars) would last 500-800 days, mimicking most of the challenges which will be undertaken such as length, isolation, food provision, decision making, time delays, health monitoring diagnostic and therapeutic actions and more: not a collection of "single experiments", but a complete exploration simulation were all the pieces will come together for the first in space simulated Mars voyage. Most of these challenges are the same that those that will be encountered during a Moon voyage, with the most evident exceptions being the duration and the communication delay. At the time of the Mars ISS dry run all the science and technological challenges will have to be mostly solved by dedicated works. These solutions will be synergistically deployed in the dry run which will simulate all the different aspects of the voyage, the trip to Mars, the permanence on the planet and the return to Earth. During the dry run i) There will be no arrivals/departure of spacecrafts; 2) Proper communications delay with ground will be simulated; 3) Decision processes will migrate from Ground to ISS; 4) Permanence on Mars will be simulated. Mars ISS dry run will use just a portion of the ISS which will be totally isolated from the rest of the ISS, leaving to the other ISS portions the task to provide the

  6. Rodent Habitat On ISS: Spaceflight Effects On Mouse Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronca, A. E.; Moyer, E. L.; Talyansky, Y.; Padmanabhan, S.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Globus, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Decadal Survey (2011), Recapturing a Future for Space Exploration: Life and Physical Sciences Research for a New Era, emphasized the importance of expanding NASA life sciences research to long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities supporting mouse studies in space were developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The first flight experiment carrying mice, Rodent Research Hardware and Operations Validation (Rodent Research-1), was launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4, exposing the mice to a total of 37 days in space. Ground control groups were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Mouse health and behavior were monitored for the duration of the experiment via video streaming. Here we present behavioral analysis of two groups of five C57BL/6 female adult mice viewed via fixed camera views compared with identically housed Ground Controls. Flight (Flt) and Ground Control (GC) mice exhibited the same range of behaviors, including eating, drinking, exploratory behavior, self- and allo-grooming, and social interactions at similar or greater levels of occurrence. Mice propelled themselves freely and actively throughout the Habitat using their forelimbs to push off or by floating from one cage area to another, and they quickly learned to anchor themselves using tails and/or paws. Overall activity was greater in Flt as compared to GC mice, with spontaneous ambulatory behavior including the development of organized ‘circling’ or ‘race-tracking’ behavior that emerged within the first few days of flight and encompassed the primary dark cycle activity for the remainder of the experiment. We quantified the bout frequency, duration and rate of circling with respect to characteristic behaviors observed in the varying stages of the progressive development of circling: flipping utilizing two sides of the

  7. Irregular Saturnian Moon Lightcurves from Cassini-ISS Observations: Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denk, Tilmann; Mottola, S.

    2013-10-01

    Cassini ISS-NAC observations of the irregular moons of Saturn revealed various physical information on these objects. 16 synodic rotational periods: Hati (S43): 5.45 h; Mundilfari (S25): 6.74 h; Suttungr (S23): ~7.4 h; Kari (S45): 7.70 h; Siarnaq (S29): 10.14 h; Tarvos (S21): 10.66 h; Ymir (S19, sidereal period): 11.92220 h ± 0.1 s; Skathi (S27): ~12 h; Hyrrokkin (S44): 12.76 h; Ijiraq (S22): 13.03 h; Albiorix (S26): 13.32 h; Bestla (S39): 14.64 h; Bebhionn (S37): ~15.8 h; Kiviuq (S24): 21.82 h; Thrymr (S30): ~27 h; Erriapus (S28): ~28 h. The average period for the prograde-orbiting moons is ~16 h, for the retrograde moons ~11½ h (includes Phoebe's 9.2735 h from Bauer et al., AJ, 2004). Phase-angle dependent behavior of lightcurves: The phase angles of the observations range from 2° to 105°. The lightcurves which were obtained at low phase (<40°) show the 2-maxima/ 2-minima pattern expected for this kind of objects. At higher phases, more complicated lightcurves emerge, giving rough indications on shapes. Ymir pole and shape: For satellite Ymir, a convex-hull shape model and the pole-axis orientation have been derived. Ymir's north pole points toward λ = 230°±180°, β = -85°±10°, or RA = 100°±20°, Dec = -70°±10°. This is anti-parallel to the rotation axes of the major planets, indicating that Ymir not just orbits, but also rotates in a retrograde sense. The shape of Ymir resembles a triangular prism with edge lengths of ~20, ~24, and ~25 km. The ratio between the longest 25 km) and shortest axis (pole axis, ~15 km) is ~1.7. Erriapus seasons: The pole direction of object Erriapus has probably a low ecliptic latitude. This gives this moon seasons similar to the Uranian regular moons with periods where the sun stands very high in the sky over many years, and with years-long periods of permanent night. Hati density: The rotational frequency of the fastest rotator (Hati) is close to the frequency where the object would lose material from the surface if

  8. ISS--an electronic syndromic surveillance system for infectious disease in rural China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weirong Yan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance system has great advantages in promoting the early detection of epidemics and reducing the necessities of disease confirmation, and it is especially effective for surveillance in resource poor settings. However, most current syndromic surveillance systems are established in developed countries, and there are very few reports on the development of an electronic syndromic surveillance system in resource-constrained settings. OBJECTIVE: This study describes the design and pilot implementation of an electronic surveillance system (ISS for the early detection of infectious disease epidemics in rural China, complementing the conventional case report surveillance system. METHODS: ISS was developed based on an existing platform 'Crisis Information Sharing Platform' (CRISP, combining with modern communication and GIS technology. ISS has four interconnected functions: 1 work group and communication group; 2 data source and collection; 3 data visualization; and 4 outbreak detection and alerting. RESULTS: As of Jan. 31(st 2012, ISS has been installed and pilot tested for six months in four counties in rural China. 95 health facilities, 14 pharmacies and 24 primary schools participated in the pilot study, entering respectively 74,256, 79,701, and 2330 daily records into the central database. More than 90% of surveillance units at the study sites are able to send daily information into the system. In the paper, we also presented the pilot data from health facilities in the two counties, which showed the ISS system had the potential to identify the change of disease patterns at the community level. CONCLUSIONS: The ISS platform may facilitate the early detection of infectious disease epidemic as it provides near real-time syndromic data collection, interactive visualization, and automated aberration detection. However, several constraints and challenges were encountered during the pilot implementation of ISS in rural China.

  9. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Stephanie R. B.; Marsh, Angela L.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in utilization and hours of payload operations being executed onboard the International Space Station (ISS), upgrading the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) ISS Payload Control Area (PCA) was essential to gaining efficiencies and assurance of current and future payload health and science return. PCA houses the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) responsible for the execution of all NASA payloads onboard the ISS. POIC Flight Controllers are responsible for the operation of voice, stowage, command, telemetry, video, power, thermal, and environmental control in support of ISS science experiments. The methodologies and execution of the PCA refurbishment were planned and performed within a four-month period in order to assure uninterrupted operation of ISS payloads and minimal impacts to payload operations teams. To vacate the PCA, three additional HOSC control rooms were reconfigured to handle ISS real-time operations, Backup Control Center (BCC) to Mission Control in Houston, simulations, and testing functions. This involved coordination and cooperation from teams of ISS operations controllers, multiple engineering and design disciplines, management, and construction companies performing an array of activities simultaneously and in sync delivering a final product with no issues that impacted the schedule. For each console operator discipline, studies of Information Technology (IT) tools and equipment layouts, ergonomics, and lines of sight were performed. Infusing some of the latest IT into the project was an essential goal in ensuring future growth and success of the ISS payload science returns. Engineering evaluations led to a state of the art Video Wall implementation and more efficient ethernet cabling distribution providing the latest products and the best solution for the POIC. These engineering innovations led to cost savings for the project. Constraints involved in the management of

  10. Rodent Habitat on ISS: Advances in Capability for Determining Spaceflight Effects on Mammalian Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, R. K.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Leveson-Gower, D.; Ronca, A.; Taylor, E.; Beegle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Rodent research is a valuable essential tool for advancing biomedical discoveries in life sciences on Earth and in space. The National Research Counsel's Decadal survey (1) emphasized the importance of expanding NASAs life sciences research to perform long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, new flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities were developed at NASA ARC to support commercial and government-sponsored research. The flight phases of two separate spaceflight missions (Rodent Research-1 and Rodent Research-2) have been completed and new capabilities are in development. The first flight experiments carrying 20 mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4; Rodent Research-1 was dedicated to achieving both NASA validation and CASIS science objectives, while Rodent Reesearch-2 extended the period on orbit to 60 days. Groundbased control groups (housed in flight hardware or standard cages) were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Crewmembers previously trained in animal handling transferred mice from the Transporter into Habitats under simultaneous veterinary supervision by video streaming and were deemed healthy. Health and behavior of all mice on the ISS was monitored by video feed on a daily basis, and post-flight quantitative analyses of behavior were performed. The 10 mice from RR-1 Validation (16wk old, female C57Bl6/J) ambulated freely and actively throughout the Habitat, relying heavily on their forelimbs for locomotion. The first on-orbit dissections of mice were performed successfully, and high quality RNA (RIN values>9) and liver enzyme activities were obtained, validating the quality of sample recovery. Post-flight sample analysis revealed that body weights of FLT animals did not differ from ground controls (GC) housed in the same hardware, or vivarium controls (VIV) housed in standard cages. Organ weights analyzed post

  11. Sorting variables for each case: a new algorithm to calculate injury severity score (ISS) using SPSS-PC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linn, S

    One of the more often used measures of multiple injuries is the injury severity score (ISS). Determination of the ISS is based on the abbreviated injury scale (AIS). This paper suggests a new algorithm to sort the AISs for each case and calculate ISS. The program uses unsorted abbreviated injury scale (AIS) levels for each case and rearranges them in descending order. The first three sorted AISs representing the three most severe injuries of a person are then used to calculate injury severity score (ISS). This algorithm should be useful for analyses of clusters of injuries especially when more patients have multiple injuries.

  12. An Experiment Support Computer for Externally-Based ISS Payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell, S. W.; Chen, S. E.

    2002-01-01

    The Experiment Support Facility - External (ESF-X) is a computer designed for general experiment use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) Truss Site locations. The ESF-X design is highly modular and uses commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components wherever possible to allow for maximum reconfigurability to meet the needs of almost any payload. The ESF-X design has been developed with the EXPRESS Pallet as the target location and the University of Colorado's Micron Accuracy Deployment Experiment (MADE) as the anticipated first payload and capability driver. Thus the design presented here is configured for structural dynamics and control as well as optics experiments. The ESF-X is a small (58.4 x 48.3 x 17.8") steel and copper enclosure which houses a 14 slot VME card chassis and power supply. All power and data connections are made through a single panel on the enclosure so that only one side of the enclosure must be accessed for nominal operation and servicing activities. This feature also allows convenient access during integration and checkout activities. Because it utilizes a standard VME backplane, ESF-X can make use of the many commercial boards already in production for this standard. Since the VME standard is also heavily used in industrial and military applications, many ruggedized components are readily available. The baseline design includes commercial processors, Ethernet, MIL-STD-1553, and mass storage devices. The main processor board contains four TI 6701 DSPs with a PowerPC based controller. Other standard functions, such as analog-to-digital, digital-to-analog, motor driver, temperature readings, etc., are handled on industry-standard IP modules. Carrier cards, which hold 4 IP modules each, are placed in slots in the VME backplane. A unique, custom IP carrier board with radiation event detectors allows non RAD-hard components to be used in an extended exposure environment. Thermal control is maintained by conductive cooling through the copper

  13. Autosomal recessive Oliver-McFarlane syndrome: retinitis pigmentosa, short stature (GH deficiency), trichomegaly, and hair anomalies or CPD syndrome (chorioretinopathy-pituitary dysfunction).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haimi, Motti; Gershoni-Baruch, Ruth

    2005-10-15

    We describe a brother and sister with retinitis pigmentosa (RP), growth failure, long eyelashes, and sparse hair. They were born to young healthy consanguineous parents and presented at birth with IUGR. Evolving pigmentary retinopathy was diagnosed at the age of 5 years. A similar condition (Oliver-McFarlane) syndrome was reported previously. Our two sibs confirm the existence of this autosomal recessive syndrome.

  14. Psychosocial Adjustment of Children with Short Stature (Achondroplasia): Social Competence, Behavior Problems, Self-Esteem, Family Functioning, Body Image, and Reaction to Frustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csapo, Marg

    1991-01-01

    This evaluation of 16 children (ages 7-12) with achondroplasia from Transkei, Hungary, and Nigeria found that, compared to controls, subjects had more behavior problems and less self-esteem. Subjects were socially withdrawn, internalized emotional problems, had lower academic performance, found less adaptive solutions to frustration, and faced…

  15. X-linked congenital ptosis and associated intellectual disability, short stature, microcephaly, cleft palate, digital and genital abnormalities define novel Xq25q26 duplication syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, R S; Jensen, L R; Maas, S M

    2014-01-01

    , hypogonadism and feeding difficulties. Female carriers are often phenotypically normal or show a similar but milder phenotype, as in most cases the X-chromosome harbouring the duplication is subject to inactivation. Xq28, which includes MECP2 is the major locus for submicroscopic X-chromosome duplications......, whereas duplications in Xq25 and Xq26 have been reported in only a few cases. Using genome-wide array platforms we identified overlapping interstitial Xq25q26 duplications ranging from 0.2 to 4.76 Mb in eight unrelated families with in total five affected males and seven affected females. All affected...... males shared a common phenotype with intrauterine- and postnatal growth retardation and feeding difficulties in childhood. Three had microcephaly and two out of five suffered from epilepsy. In addition, three males had a distinct facial appearance with congenital bilateral ptosis and large protruding...

  16. Genome characterization of the selected long- and short-sleep mouse lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowell, Robin; Odell, Aaron; Richmond, Phillip; Malmer, Daniel; Halper-Stromberg, Eitan; Bennett, Beth; Larson, Colin; Leach, Sonia; Radcliffe, Richard A

    2016-12-01

    The Inbred Long- and Short-Sleep (ILS, ISS) mouse lines were selected for differences in acute ethanol sensitivity using the loss of righting response (LORR) as the selection trait. The lines show an over tenfold difference in LORR and, along with a recombinant inbred panel derived from them (the LXS), have been widely used to dissect the genetic underpinnings of acute ethanol sensitivity. Here we have sequenced the genomes of the ILS and ISS to investigate the DNA variants that contribute to their sensitivity difference. We identified ~2.7 million high-confidence SNPs and small indels and ~7000 structural variants between the lines; variants were found to occur in 6382 annotated genes. Using a hidden Markov model, we were able to reconstruct the genome-wide ancestry patterns of the eight inbred progenitor strains from which the ILS and ISS were derived, and found that quantitative trait loci that have been mapped for LORR were slightly enriched for DNA variants. Finally, by mapping and quantifying RNA-seq reads from the ILS and ISS to their strain-specific genomes rather than to the reference genome, we found a substantial improvement in a differential expression analysis between the lines. This work will help in identifying and characterizing the DNA sequence variants that contribute to the difference in ethanol sensitivity between the ILS and ISS and will also aid in accurate quantification of RNA-seq data generated from the LXS RIs.

  17. Assembling and supplying the ISS the space shuttle fulfills its mission

    CERN Document Server

    Shayler, David J

    2017-01-01

    The creation and utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) is a milestone in space exploration. But without the Space Shuttle, it would have remained an impossible dream. Assembling and Supplying the ISS is the story of how, between 1998 and 2011, the Shuttle became the platform which enabled the construction and continued operation of the primary scientific research facility in Earth orbit. Fulfilling an objective it had been designed to complete decades before, 37 Shuttle missions carried the majority of the hardware needed to build the ISS and then acted as a ferry and supply train for early resident crews to the station. Building upon the decades of development and experience described in the companion volume Linking the Space Shuttle and Space Stations: Early Docking Technologies from Concept to Implementation, this book explores • a purpose-built hardware processing facility • challenging spacewalking objectives • extensive robotic operations • undocking a unmanned orbiter The experie...

  18. Visual assessment of the radiation distribution in the ISS Lab module: visualization in the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saganti, P. B.; Zapp, E. N.; Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2001-01-01

    The US Lab module of the International Space Station (ISS) is a primary working area where the crewmembers are expected to spend majority of their time. Because of the directionality of radiation fields caused by the Earth shadow, trapped radiation pitch angle distribution, and inherent variations in the ISS shielding, a model is needed to account for these local variations in the radiation distribution. We present the calculated radiation dose (rem/yr) values for over 3,000 different points in the working area of the Lab module and estimated radiation dose values for over 25,000 different points in the human body for a given ambient radiation environment. These estimated radiation dose values are presented in a three dimensional animated interactive visualization format. Such interactive animated visualization of the radiation distribution can be generated in near real-time to track changes in the radiation environment during the orbit precession of the ISS.

  19. The VASIMR[registered trademark] VF-200-1 ISS Experiment as a Laboratory for Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover Tim W.; Squire, Jared P.; Longmier, Benjamin; Cassady, Leonard; Ilin, Andrew; Carter, Mark; Olsen, Chris S.; McCaskill, Greg; Diaz, Franklin Chang; Girimaji, Sharath; hide

    2010-01-01

    The VASIMR[R] Flight Experiment (VF-200-1) will be tested in space aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in about four years. It will consist of two 100 kW parallel plasma engines with opposite magnetic dipoles, resulting in a near zero-torque magnetic system. Electrical energy will come from ISS at low power level, be stored in batteries and used to fire the engine at 200 kW. The VF-200-1 project will provide a unique opportunity on the ISS National Laboratory for astrophysicists and space physicists to study the dynamic evolution of an expanding and reconnecting plasma loop. Here, we review the status of the project and discuss our current plans for computational modeling and in situ observation of a dynamic plasma loop on an experimental platform in low-Earth orbit. The VF-200-1 project is still in the early stages of development and we welcome new collaborators.

  20. How Do Lessons Learned on the International Space Station (ISS) Help Plan Life Support for Mars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Hodgson, Edward W.; Gentry, Gregory J.; Kliss, Mark H.

    2016-01-01

    How can our experience in developing and operating the International Space Station (ISS) guide the design, development, and operation of life support for the journey to Mars? The Mars deep space Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) must incorporate the knowledge and experience gained in developing ECLSS for low Earth orbit, but it must also meet the challenging new requirements of operation in deep space where there is no possibility of emergency resupply or quick crew return. The understanding gained by developing ISS flight hardware and successfully supporting a crew in orbit for many years is uniquely instructive. Different requirements for Mars life support suggest that different decisions may be made in design, testing, and operations planning, but the lessons learned developing the ECLSS for ISS provide valuable guidance.

  1. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, C.; Sgobba, T.; Larsen, A.; Rose, S.; Heimann, T.; Ciancone, M.; Mulhern, V.

    2005-12-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998 the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre- existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and ISS. The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be considered when establishing the ESA PSRP. The paper will expound upon the detailed franchising model, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The paper will then address the resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date. Additionally, the paper presents ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA). The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  2. Preliminary Analysis of ISS Maintenance History and Implications for Supportability of Future Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kevin J.; Robbins, William W.

    2004-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) enables the study of supportability issues associated with long-duration human spaceflight. The ISS is a large, complex spacecraft that must be maintained by its crew. In contrast to the Space Shuttle Orbiter vehicle, but similar to spacecraft that will be component elements of future missions beyond low-Earth orbit, ISS does not return to the ground for servicing and provisioning of spares is severely constrained by transportation limits. Although significant technical support is provided by ground personnel, all hands-on maintenance tasks are performed by the crew. It is expected that future missions to distant destinations will be further limited by lack of resupply opportunities and will, eventually, become largely independent of ground support. ISS provides an opportunity to begin learning lessons that will enable future missions to be successful. Data accumulated over the first several years of ISS operations have been analyzed to gain a better understanding of maintenance-related workload. This analysis addresses both preventive and corrective maintenance and includes all U.S segment core systems. Systems and tasks that are major contributors to workload are identified. As further experience accrues, lessons will be learned that will influence future system designs so that they require less maintenance and, when maintenance is required, it can be performed more efficiently. By heeding the lessons of ISS it will be possible to identify system designs that should be more robust and point towards advances in both technology and design that will offer the greatest return on investment.

  3. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.; Clancey, William J.; McDonald, Aaron; Toschlog, Jason; Tucker, Tyson; Khan, Ahmed; Madrid, Steven (Eric)

    2011-01-01

    In 2007 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organizations to find ways to reduce the cost of operations for supporting the International Space Station (ISS) in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to define and execute projects that would help them attain cost reductions by 2012. The MOD Operations Division Flight Planning Branch responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve console operations and reduce ISS console staffing and intern reduce operating costs. These tasks ranged from improving the management and integration mission plan changes, to automating the uploading and downloading of information to and from the ISS and the associated ground complex tasks that required multiple decision points. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture; as well as engaging a previously TRL 4-5 technology developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent-based system to manage and automate file traffic flow, archive data, and generate console logs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the goal of eliminating a second full time ISS console support position by 2012. The team will also reduce one long range planning console position by 2014. When complete, these Flight Planning Branch projects will account for the elimination of 3 console positions and a reduction in staffing of 11 engineering personnel (EP) for ISS.

  4. International Cooperation in the Field of International Space Station (ISS) Payload Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimann, Timothy; Larsen, Axel M.; Rose, Summer; Sgobba, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    In the frame of the International Space Station (ISS) Program cooperation, in 1998, the European Space Agency (ESA) approached the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) with the unique concept of a Payload Safety Review Panel (PSRP) "franchise" based at the European Space Technology Center (ESTEC), where the panel would be capable of autonomously reviewing flight hardware for safety. This paper will recount the course of an ambitious idea as it progressed into a fully functional reality. It will show how a panel initially conceived at NASA to serve a national programme has evolved into an international safety cooperation asset. The PSRP established at NASA began reviewing ISS payloads approximately in late 1994 or early 1995 as an expansion of the pre-existing Shuttle Program PSRP. This paper briefly describes the fundamental Shuttle safety process and the establishment of the safety requirements for payloads intending to use the Space Transportation System and International Space Station (ISS). The paper will also offer some historical statistics about the experiments that completed the payload safety process for Shuttle and ISS. The paper 1 then presents the background of ISS agreements and international treaties that had to be taken into account when establishing the ESA PSRP. The detailed franchising model will be expounded upon, followed by an outline of the cooperation charter approved by the NASA Associate Administrator, Office of Space Flight, and ESA Director of Manned Spaceflight and Microgravity. The resulting ESA PSRP implementation and its success statistics to date will then be addressed. Additionally the paper presents the ongoing developments with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. The discussion will conclude with ideas for future developments, such to achieve a fully integrated international system of payload safety panels for ISS.

  5. Report by the International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation (IMCE) Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A. Thomas; Kellogg, Yvonne (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Management and Cost Evaluation Task Force (IMCE) was chartered to conduct an independent external review and assessment of the ISS cost, budget, and management. In addition, the Task Force was asked to provide recommendations that could provide maximum benefit to the U.S. taxpayers and the International Partners within the President's budget request. The Task Force has made the following principal findings: (1) The ISS Program's technical achievements to date, as represented by on-orbit capability, are extraordinary; (2) The Existing ISS Program Plan for executing the FY 02-06 budget is not credible; (3) The existing deficiencies in management structure, institutional culture, cost estimating, and program control must be acknowledged and corrected for the Program to move forward in a credible fashion; (4) Additional budget flexibility, from within the Office of Space Flight (OSF) must be provided for a credible core complete program; (5) The research support program is proceeding assuming the budget that was in place before the FY02 budget runout reduction of $1B; (6) There are opportunities to maximize research on the core station program with modest cost impact; (7) The U.S. Core Complete configuration (three person crew) as an end-state will not achieve the unique research potential of the ISS; (8) The cost estimates for the U.S.-funded enhancement options (e.g., permanent seven person crew) are not sufficiently developed to assess credibility. After these findings, the Task Force has formulated several primary recommendations which are published here and include: (1) Major changes must be made in how the ISS program is managed; (2) Additional cost reductions are required within the baseline program; (3) Additional funds must be identified and applied from the Human Space Flight budget; (4) A clearly defined program with a credible end-state, agreed to by all stakeholders, must be developed and implemented.

  6. ISS Payload Operations: The Need for and Benefit of Responsive Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahay, Ed; Boster, Mandee

    2000-01-01

    International Space Station (ISS) payload operations are controlled through implementation of a payload operations plan. This plan, which represents the defined approach to payload operations in general, can vary in terms of level of definition. The detailed plan provides the specific sequence and timing of each component of a payload's operations. Such an approach to planning was implemented in the Spacelab program. The responsive plan provides a flexible approach to payload operations through generalization. A responsive approach to planning was implemented in the NASA/Mir Phase 1 program, and was identified as a need during the Skylab program. The current approach to ISS payload operations planning and control tends toward detailed planning, rather than responsive planning. The use of detailed plans provides for the efficient use of limited resources onboard the ISS. It restricts flexibility in payload operations, which is inconsistent with the dynamic nature of the ISS science program, and it restricts crew desires for flexibility and autonomy. Also, detailed planning is manpower intensive. The development and implementation of a responsive plan provides for a more dynamic, more accommodating, and less manpower intensive approach to planning. The science program becomes more dynamic and responsive as the plan provides flexibility to accommodate real-time science accomplishments. Communications limitations and the crew desire for flexibility and autonomy in plan implementation are readily accommodated with responsive planning. Manpower efficiencies are accomplished through a reduction in requirements collection and coordination, plan development, and maintenance. Through examples and assessments, this paper identifies the need to transition from detailed to responsive plans for ISS payload operations. Examples depict specific characteristics of the plans. Assessments identify the following: the means by which responsive plans accommodate the dynamic nature of

  7. Onboard cross-calibration of the Pille-ISS Detector System and measurement of radiation shielding effect of the water filled protective curtain in the ISS crew cabin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szántó, P.; Apáthy, I.; Deme, S.; Hirn, A.; Nikolaev, I.V.; Pázmándi, T.; Shurshakov, V.A.; Tolochek, R.V.; Yarmanova, E.N.

    2015-01-01

    As a preparation for long duration space missions it is important to determine and minimize the impact of space radiation on human health. One of the methods to diminish the radiation burden is using an additional local shielding in the places where the crewmembers can stay for longer time. To increase the crew cabin shielding a special protective curtain was designed and delivered to ISS in 2010 containing four layers of hygienic wipes and towels providing an additional shielding thickness of about 8 g/cm"2 water-equivalent matter. The radiation shielding effect of the protective curtain, in terms of absorbed dose, was measured with the thermoluminescent Pille-ISS Detector System. In order to verify the reliability of the Pille system an onboard cross-calibration was also performed. The measurement proved that potentially 25% reduction of the absorbed dose rate in the crew cabin can be achieved, that results in 8% (∼16 μGy/day) decrease of the total absorbed dose to the crew, assuming that they spend 8 h in the crew cabin a day. - Highlights: • The dose level in the ISS Zvezda crew quarters is higher than the average dose level in the module. • A shielding made of hygienic wipes and towels was set up onboard as additional protection. • Onboard cross calibration of the Pille-ISS space dosimeter (TL) system was performed. • The shielding effect of the protective curtain in terms of absorbed dose was measured with the onboard Pille system. • The shielding effect of the protective water curtain is approximately 24 ± 9% in absorbed dose.

  8. Familial congenital bowing with short thick bones and metaphyseal changes, a distinct entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezza, E.; Lendvai, D.; Iannaccone, G.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe two siblings, a male and a female, with disproportionate short stature, rhizomelic-mesomelic shortening of the limb bones, marked bowing of the femora, moderate bowing of the humeri, radii and ulnae, straight tibiae and fibulae, normal hands, flared cupped metaphyses of the tibiae, ulnae, raddi and ribs, and narrow chest. There was some improvement of the bone changes with advancing age. These two patients are similar to five other cases from the literature and strongly support Hall and Spranger's view that this pseudocampomelic condition most likely represents a distinct familial bowing syndrome. The differential diagnosis and the hereditary aspects in the two patients, are also briefly discussed. (orig.)

  9. Establishing a Distance Learning Plan for International Space Station (ISS) Interactive Video Education Events (IVEE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Clint

    1999-01-01

    Educational outreach is an integral part of the International Space Station (ISS) mandate. In a few scant years, the International Space Station has already established a tradition of successful, general outreach activities. However, as the number of outreach events increased and began to reach school classrooms, those events came under greater scrutiny by the education community. Some of the ISS electronic field trips, while informative and helpful, did not meet the generally accepted criteria for education events, especially within the context of the classroom. To make classroom outreach events more acceptable to educators, the ISS outreach program must differentiate between communication events (meant to disseminate information to the general public) and education events (designed to facilitate student learning). In contrast to communication events, education events: are directed toward a relatively homogeneous audience who are gathered together for the purpose of learning, have specific performance objectives which the students are expected to master, include a method of assessing student performance, and include a series of structured activities that will help the students to master the desired skill(s). The core of the ISS education events is an interactive videoconference between students and ISS representatives. This interactive videoconference is to be preceded by and followed by classroom activities which help the students aftain the specified learning objectives. Using the interactive videoconference as the centerpiece of the education event lends a special excitement and allows students to ask questions about what they are learning and about the International Space Station and NASA. Whenever possible, the ISS outreach education events should be congruent with national guidelines for student achievement. ISS outreach staff should recognize that there are a number of different groups that will review the events, and that each group has different criteria

  10. Surname-inferred Andean ancestry is associated with child stature and limb lengths at high altitude in Peru, but not at sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Emma; Wells, Jonathan C K; Stanojevic, Sanja; Miranda, J Jaime; Moore, Lorna G; Cole, Tim J; Stock, Jay T

    2015-01-01

    Native Andean ancestry gives partial protection from reduced birthweight at high altitude in the Andes compared with European ancestry. Whether Andean ancestry is also associated with body proportions and greater postnatal body size at altitude is unknown. Therefore, we tested whether a greater proportion of Andean ancestry is associated with stature and body proportions among Peruvian children at high and low altitude. Height, head circumference, head-trunk height, upper and lower limb lengths, and tibia, ulna, hand and foot lengths, were measured in 133 highland and 169 lowland children aged 6 months to 8.5 years. For highland and lowland groups separately, age-sex-adjusted anthropometry z scores were regressed on the number of indigenous parental surnames as a proxy for Andean ancestry, adjusting for potential confounders (maternal age and education, parity, altitude [highlands only]). Among highland children, greater Andean ancestry was negatively associated with stature and tibia, ulna, and lower limb lengths, independent of negative associations with greater altitude for these measurements. Relationships were strongest for tibia length: each additional Andean surname or 1,000 m increase at altitude among highland children was associated with 0.18 and 0.65 z score decreases in tibia length, respectively. Anthropometry was not significantly associated with ancestry among lowland children. Greater Andean ancestry is associated with shorter stature and limb measurements at high but not low altitude. Gene-environment interactions between high altitude and Andean ancestry may exacerbate the trade-off between chest dimensions and stature that was proposed previously, though we could not test this directly. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The role of height-associated loci identified in genome wide association studies in the determination of pediatric stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frackelton Edward C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human height is considered highly heritable and correlated with certain disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and cancer. Despite environmental influences, genetic factors are known to play an important role in stature determination. A number of genetic determinants of adult height have already been established through genome wide association studies. Methods To examine 51 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs corresponding to the 46 previously reported genomic loci for height in 8,184 European American children with height measurements. We leveraged genotyping data from our ongoing GWA study of height variation in children in order to query the 51 SNPs in this pediatric cohort. Results Sixteen of these SNPs yielded at least nominally significant association to height, representing fifteen different loci including EFEMP1-PNPT1, GPR126, C6orf173, SPAG17, Histone class 1, HLA class III and GDF5-UQCC. Other loci revealed no evidence for association, including HMGA1 and HMGA2. For the 16 associated variants, the genotype score explained 1.64% of the total variation for height z-score. Conclusion Among 46 loci that have been reported to associate with adult height to date, at least 15 also contribute to the determination of height in childhood.

  12. Body Height Preferences and Actual Dimorphism in Stature between Partners in Two Non-Western Societies (Hadza and Tsimane'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Sorokowski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Body height influences human mate preferences and choice. A typical finding in Western societies is that women prefer men who are taller than themselves and, equivalently, men prefer women who are shorter than themselves. However, recent reports in non-Western societies (e.g., the Himba in Namibia challenge the view on the universality of such preferences. Here we report on male and female height preferences in two non-Western populations—the Hadza (Tanzania and the Tsimane' (Bolivia—and the relationships between body height preferences and the height of actual partners. In the Hadza, most individuals preferred a sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS with the man being much taller than the woman. Preferences for SDS and actual partner SDS were positively and significantly correlated in both men and women, suggesting that people who preferred larger height differences also had larger height differences with their partners. In the Tsimane', the majority of men preferred an SDS with the man being taller than the woman, but women did not show such a preference. Unlike in the Hadza, SDS preference was not significantly correlated to actual partner SDS. We conclude that patterns of height preferences and choices in the Hadza and Tsimane' are different than those observed in Western societies, and discuss possible causes for the observed differences between non-Western and Western societies.

  13. Body height preferences and actual dimorphism in stature between partners in two non-Western societies (Hadza and Tsimane').

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Butovskaya, Marina; Stulp, Gert; Huanca, Tomas; Fink, Bernhard

    2015-06-16

    Body height influences human mate preferences and choice. A typical finding in Western societies is that women prefer men who are taller than themselves and, equivalently, men prefer women who are shorter than themselves. However, recent reports in non-Western societies (e.g., the Himba in Namibia) challenge the view on the universality of such preferences. Here we report on male and female height preferences in two non-Western populations--the Hadza (Tanzania) and the Tsimane' (Bolivia)--and the relationships between body height preferences and the height of actual partners. In the Hadza, most individuals preferred a sexual dimorphism in stature (SDS) with the man being much taller than the woman. Preferences for SDS and actual partner SDS were positively and significantly correlated in both men and women, suggesting that people who preferred larger height differences also had larger height differences with their partners. In the Tsimane', the majority of men preferred an SDS with the man being taller than the woman, but women did not show such a preference. Unlike in the Hadza, SDS preference was not significantly correlated to actual partner SDS. We conclude that patterns of height preferences and choices in the Hadza and Tsimane' are different than those observed in Western societies, and discuss possible causes for the observed differences between non-Western and Western societies.

  14. Amateur Radio on the International Space Station - the First Operational Payload on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. H.; McFadin, L.; Steiner, M.; Conley, C. L.

    2002-01-01

    As astronauts and cosmonauts have adapted to life on the International Space Station (ISS), they have found Amateur Radio and its connection to life on Earth to be a constant companion and a substantial psychological boost. Since its first use in November 2000, the first five expedition crews have utilized the amateur radio station in the FGB to talk to thousands of students in schools, to their families on Earth, and to amateur radio operators around the world. Early in the development of ISS, an international organization called ARISS (Amateur Radio on the International Space Station) was formed to coordinate the construction and operation of amateur radio (ham radio) equipment on ISS. ARISS represents a melding of the volunteer teams that have pioneered the development and use of amateur radio equipment on human spaceflight vehicles. The Shuttle/Space Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) team enabled Owen Garriott to become the first astronaut ham to use amateur radio from space in 1983. Since then, amateur radio teams in the U.S. (SAREX), Germany, (SAFEX), and Russia (Mirex) have led the development and operation of amateur radio equipment on board NASA's Space Shuttle, Russia's Mir space station, and the International Space Station. The primary goals of the ARISS program are fourfold: 1) educational outreach through crew contacts with schools, 2) random contacts with the Amateur Radio public, 3) scheduled contacts with the astronauts' friends and families and 4) ISS-based communications experimentation. To date, over 65 schools have been selected from around the world for scheduled contacts with the orbiting ISS crew. Ten or more students at each school ask the astronauts questions, and the nature of these contacts embodies the primary goal of the ARISS program, -- to excite student's interest in science, technology and amateur radio. The ARISS team has developed various hardware elements for the ISS amateur radio station. These hardware elements have flown to ISS

  15. Suspending in School Suspension?: Is ISS a Valid Means of Disciplinary Action to Reduce Negative Student Behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahynes, Leron M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explored whether or not In School Suspensions (ISS) is effective in reducing student behavioral problems. Research was conducted with 6-8th grade students in a rural middle school in the upstate of South Carolina for the purposes of determining if ISS, in its current design a viable and effective method to reduce negative student…

  16. What it takes to Fly in Space...Training to be an Astronaut and Daily Operations on ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    This presentation highlights NASA requirements to become an astronaut, training astronauts must do to fly on the International Space Station (ISS), systems and other training, and day-to-day activities onboard ISS. Additionally, stowage, organization and methods of communication (email, video conferenceing, IP phone) are discussed.

  17. Development and Certification of Ultrasonic Background Noise Test (UBNT) System for use on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2011-01-01

    As a next step in the development and implementation of an on-board leak detection and localization system on the International Space Station (ISS), there is a documented need to obtain measurements of the ultrasonic background noise levels that exist within the ISS. This need is documented in the ISS Integrated Risk Management System (IRMA), Watch Item #4669. To address this, scientists and engineers from the Langley Research Center (LaRC) and the Johnson Space Center (JSC), proposed to the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) and the ISS Vehicle Office a joint assessment to develop a flight package as a Station Development Test Objective (SDTO) that would perform ultrasonic background noise measurements within the United States (US) controlled ISS structure. This document contains the results of the assessment

  18. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) Space Science's Past, Present, and Future on the International Space Station (ISS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Reggie A.; Spearing, Scott F.; Jordan, Lee P.; McDaniel S. Greg

    2012-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) is a double rack facility designed for microgravity investigation handling aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The unique design of the facility allows it to accommodate science and technology investigations in a "workbench" type environment. MSG facility provides an enclosed working area for investigation manipulation and observation in the ISS. Provides two levels of containment via physical barrier, negative pressure, and air filtration. The MSG team and facilities provide quick access to space for exploratory and National Lab type investigations to gain an understanding of the role of gravity in the physics associated research areas. The MSG is a very versatile and capable research facility on the ISS. The Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) on the International Space Station (ISS) has been used for a large body or research in material science, heat transfer, crystal growth, life sciences, smoke detection, combustion, plant growth, human health, and technology demonstration. MSG is an ideal platform for gravity-dependent phenomena related research. Moreover, the MSG provides engineers and scientists a platform for research in an environment similar to the one that spacecraft and crew members will actually experience during space travel and exploration. The MSG facility is ideally suited to provide quick, relatively inexpensive access to space for National Lab type investigations.

  19. 76 FR 65752 - International Space Station (ISS) National Laboratory Advisory Committee; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... International and Interagency Relations, (202) 358-0550, National Aeronautics and Space Administration... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-104)] International Space Station (ISS... National Laboratory Advisory Committee is in the public interest in connection with the performance of...

  20. ISS Expeditions 16 through 20: Chemical Analysis Results for Potable Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, John E., II; Plumlee, Debrah K.; Schultz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2-year span from Expedition 16 through Expedition 20, the chemical quality of the potable water onboard the International Space Station (ISS) was verified safe for crew consumption through the return and chemical analysis of archival water samples by the Water and Food Analytical Laboratory (WAFAL) at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Reclaimed cabin humidity condensate and Russian ground-supplied water were the principal sources of potable water for Expeditions 16 through 18. During Expedition 18 the U.S. water processor assembly was delivered, installed, and tested during a 90-day checkout period. Beginning with Expedition 19, U.S. potable water recovered from a combined waste stream of humidity condensate and pretreated urine was also available for ISS crew use. A total of 74 potable water samples were collected using U.S. sampling hardware during Expeditions 16 through 20 and returned on both Shuttle and Soyuz vehicles. The results of JSC chemical analyses of these ISS potable water samples are presented in this paper. Eight potable water samples collected in flight with Russian hardware were also received for analysis, as well as 5 preflight samples of Rodnik potable water delivered to ISS on Russian Progress vehicles 28 to 34. Analytical results for these additional potable water samples are also reported and discussed.

  1. Utilizing the ISS Mission as a Testbed to Develop Cognitive Communications Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Dan

    2016-01-01

    The ISS provides an excellent opportunity for pioneering artificial intelligence software to meet the challenges of real-time communications (comm) link management. This opportunity empowers the ISS Program to forge a testbed for developing cognitive communications systems for the benefit of the ISS mission, manned Low Earth Orbit (LEO) science programs and future planetary exploration programs. In November, 1998, the Flight Operations Directorate (FOD) started the ISS Antenna Manager (IAM) project to develop a single processor supporting multiple comm satellite tracking for two different antenna systems. Further, the processor was developed to be highly adaptable as it supported the ISS mission through all assembly stages. The ISS mission mandated communications specialists with complete knowledge of when the ISS was about to lose or gain comm link service. The current specialty mandated cognizance of large sun-tracking solar arrays and thermal management panels in addition to the highly-dynamic satellite service schedules and rise/set tables. This mission requirement makes the ISS the ideal communications management analogue for future LEO space station and long-duration planetary exploration missions. Future missions, with their precision-pointed, dynamic, laser-based comm links, require complete autonomy for managing high-data rate communications systems. Development of cognitive communications management systems that permit any crew member or payload science specialist, regardless of experience level, to control communications is one of the greater benefits the ISS can offer new space exploration programs. The IAM project met a new mission requirement never previously levied against US space-born communications systems management: process and display the orientation of large solar arrays and thermal control panels based on real-time joint angle telemetry. However, IAM leaves the actual communications availability assessment to human judgement, which introduces

  2. ISS EarthKam: Taking Photos of the Earth from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haste, Turtle

    2008-01-01

    NASA is involved in a project involving the International Space Station (ISS) and an Earth-focused camera called EarthKam, where schools, and ultimately students, are allowed to remotely program the EarthKAM to take images. Here the author describes how EarthKam was used to help middle school students learn about biomes and develop their…

  3. CVB: The Constrained Vapor Bubble 40 mm Capillary Experiment on the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayner, Peter C., Jr.; Kundan, Akshay; Plawsky, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Discuss the Constrained Vapor Bubble (CVB) 40mm Fin experiment on the ISS and how it aims to achieve a better understanding of the physics of evaporation and condensation and how they affect cooling processes in microgravity using a remotely controlled microscope and a small cooling device

  4. The Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) Payload Facility on the ISS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reibaldi, Giuseppe; Nasca, Rosario; Neubert, Torsten

    ASIM is a payload facility to be mounted on a Columbus external platform on the International Space Station (ISS). ASIM will study the coupling of thunderstorm processes to the upper atmosphere, ionosphere and radiation belts. ASIM is the most complex Earth Observation payload facility planned fo...

  5. Applying lessons learned to enhance human performance and reduce human error for ISS operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.R.

    1998-09-01

    A major component of reliability, safety, and mission success for space missions is ensuring that the humans involved (flight crew, ground crew, mission control, etc.) perform their tasks and functions as required. This includes compliance with training and procedures during normal conditions, and successful compensation when malfunctions or unexpected conditions occur. A very significant issue that affects human performance in space flight is human error. Human errors can invalidate carefully designed equipment and procedures. If certain errors combine with equipment failures or design flaws, mission failure or loss of life can occur. The control of human error during operation of the International Space Station (ISS) will be critical to the overall success of the program. As experience from Mir operations has shown, human performance plays a vital role in the success or failure of long duration space missions. The Department of Energy`s Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is developed a systematic approach to enhance human performance and reduce human errors for ISS operations. This approach is based on the systematic identification and evaluation of lessons learned from past space missions such as Mir to enhance the design and operation of ISS. This paper describes previous INEEL research on human error sponsored by NASA and how it can be applied to enhance human reliability for ISS.

  6. Lessons learned from the STS-120/ISS 10A robotics operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Sarmad

    2010-01-01

    The STS-120/ISS 10A assembly mission was an unprecedented period during the life of the International Space Stations (ISS). The successful completion of the mission laid the foundation for the launch of the European and Japanese laboratories and continued assembly of the station. Unlike previous missions that concluded when the Space Shuttle undocked from the ISS, the 10A mission required critical assembly operations to continue after the Shuttle's departure to relocate the Harmony module to its permanent location and activate its systems. The end-to-end mission lasted for almost a month and required the execution of seven space walks, over 20 major robotics operations, and countless hours of ground commanding. The Canadian built mobile servicing system (MSS) and its robotics space station remote manipulator system (SSRMS) played a key a role in the success of the assembly operations. The mission presented the ISS robotics flight control team (ROBO) with unique challenges during the pre-mission planning and real-time execution of complex assembly tasks. The mission included the relocation of the P6 truss segment from the Z1 Node to its permanent location on the P5 truss; a three day marathon of highly choreographed sequence of robotics operations and space walks, and the reconfiguration of ISS structure to attach Harmony (Node 2) to the US destiny laboratory module; a six day sequence of complex robotics operations the majority of which was executed after the departure of the shuttle and included an unprecedented amount of ground commanded robotics operations. Of all the robotics operations executed during the mission, none were more challenging than supporting the repair of a torn P6 solar array that was damaged during its deployment; a dramatic space walk that pushed the MSS and the robotics flight control team to new limits and required the real-time planning and execution of an intricate series of operations that spanned two days. This paper will present an

  7. ISS Solar Array Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Bearing Failure and Recovery: Technical and Project Management Lessons Learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Krantz, Timothy L.; Dube, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The photovoltaic solar panels on the International Space Station (ISS) track the Sun through continuous rotating motion enabled by large bearings on the main truss called solar array alpha rotary joints (SARJs). In late 2007, shortly after installation, the starboard SARJ had become hard to turn and had to be shut down after exceeding drive current safety limits. The port SARJ, of the same design, had been working well for over 2 years. An exhaustive failure investigation ensued that included multiple extravehicular activities to collect information and samples for engineering forensics, detailed structural and thermal analyses, and a careful review of the build records. The ultimate root cause was determined to be kinematic design vulnerability coupled with inadequate lubrication, and manufacturing flaws; this was corroborated through ground tests, metallurgical studies, and modeling. A highly successful recovery plan was developed and implemented that included replacing worn and damaged components in orbit and applying space-compatible grease to improve lubrication. Beyond the technical aspects, however, lie several key programmatic lessons learned. These lessons, such as running ground tests to intentional failure to experimentally verify failure modes, are reviewed and discussed so they can be applied to future projects to avoid such problems.

  8. Gibberellin 20-oxidase gene OsGA20ox3 regulates plant stature and disease development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xue; Liu, Jun Hua; Zhao, Wen Sheng; Chen, Xu Jun; Guo, Ze Jian; Peng, You Liang

    2013-02-01

    Gibberellin (GA) 20-oxidase (GA20ox) catalyses consecutive steps of oxidation in the late part of the GA biosynthetic pathway. A T-DNA insertion mutant (17S-14) in rice, with an elongated phenotype, was isolated. Analysis of the flanking sequences of the T-DNA insertion site revealed that an incomplete T-DNA integration resulted in enhanced constitutively expression of downstream OsGA20ox3 in the mutant. The accumulation of bioactive GA(1) and GA(4) were increased in the mutant in comparison with the wild-type plant. Transgenic plants overexpressing OsGA20ox3 showed phenotypes similar to those of the 17S-14 mutant, and the RNA interference (RNAi) lines that had decreased OsGA20ox3 expression exhibited a semidwarf phenotype. Expression of OsGA20ox3 was detected in the leaves and roots of young seedlings, immature panicles, anthers, and pollens, based on β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity staining in transgenic plants expressing the OsGA20ox3 promoter fused to the GUS gene. The OsGA20ox3 RNAi lines showed enhanced resistance against rice pathogens Magnaporthe oryzae (causing rice blast) and Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (causing bacterial blight) and increased expression of defense-related genes. Conversely, OsGA20ox3-overexpressing plants were more susceptible to these pathogens comparing with the wild-type plants. The susceptibility of wild-type plants to X. oryzae pv. oryzae was increased by exogenous application of GA(3) and decreased by S-3307 treatment. Together, the results provide direct evidence for a critical role of OsGA20ox3 in regulating not only plant stature but also disease resistance in rice.

  9. Stature and jumping height are required in female volleyball, but motor coordination is a key factor for future elite success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pion, Johan A; Fransen, Job; Deprez, Dieter N; Segers, Veerle I; Vaeyens, Roel; Philippaerts, Renaat M; Lenoir, Matthieu

    2015-06-01

    It was hypothesized that differences in anthropometry, physical performance, and motor coordination would be found between Belgian elite and sub-elite level female volleyball players using a retrospective analysis of test results gathered over a 5-year period. The test sample in this study consisted of 21 young female volleyball players (15.3 ± 1.5 years) who were selected to train at the Flemish Top Sports Academy for Volleyball in 2008. All players (elite, n = 13; sub-elite, n = 8) were included in the same talent development program, and the elite-level athletes were of a high to very high performance levels according to European competition level in 2013. Five multivariate analyses of variance were used. There was no significant effect of playing level on measures of anthropometry (F = 0.455, p = 0.718, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.07), flexibility (F = 1.861, p = 0.188, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.19), strength (F = 1.218, p = 0.355, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.32); and speed and agility (F = 1.176, p = 0.350, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.18). Multivariate analyses of variance revealed significant multivariate effects between playing levels for motor coordination (F = 3.470, p = 0.036, (Equation is included in full-text article.)= 0.59). A Mann-Whitney U test and a sequential discriminant analysis confirmed these results. Previous research revealed that stature and jump height are prerequisites for talent identification in female volleyball. In addition, the results show that motor coordination is an important factor in determining inclusion into the elite level in female volleyball.

  10. FBN1 gene mutation defines the profibrillin to fibrillin processing site and segregates with tall stature in a family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossfield, J.; Cao, S.; Milewicz, D. [Univ. of Texas Medical School, Houston, TX (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Dermal fibroblasts from a 13-year-old boy with skeletal features of the Marfan syndrome were used to study fibrillin synthesis and processing. Synthesis and secretion of profibrillin was normal but only half of the secreted profibrillin was converted to fibrillin, an extracellular proteolytic processing that removes a 20 kDa fragment from the protein. All the secreted profibrillin was processed to fibrillin in control cells. Only the processed form of fibrillin was deposited into the extracellular matrix in both the proband`s and the control cells. Electron microscopic examination of rotary shadowed microfibrils made by the proband`s fibroblasts were indistinguishable from control cells. Screening exons in the 3{prime} end of the FBN1 gene revealed a heterozygous C to T transition at nucleotide 5482 of the FBN1 cDNA changing R 1828 to W. This mutation disrupts a known consensus sequence recognized by a cellular protease and is located in the carboxy terminus at a site predicted to remove a 19 kD fragment. The proband and his 22-year-old brother, also heterozygous for the mutation, have had normal echocardiograms and ophthalmologic exams. The mutation segregated in the proband`s three generation family with autosomal dominant inheritance of height (> 90th percentile) and no known cardiovascular or ocular problems, including the 67-year-old grandmother (exams pending). The mutation was not found in 90 chromosomes from unrelated individuals. In summary, (1) the mutation identifies the cleavage site for the conversion of profibrillin to fibrillin; (2) the characterized mutation segregates in the family with tall stature without known cardiovascular or ocular problems; (3) this mutation potentially defines the phenotype associated with a {open_quotes}null{close_quotes} allele for the FBN1 gene.

  11. ``DMS-R, the Brain of the ISS'', 10 Years of Continuous Successful Operation in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Bernd; Scheffers, Peter

    2012-08-01

    Space industries on both sides of the Atlantic were faced with a new situation of collaboration in the beginning of the 1990s.In 1995, industrial cooperation between ASTRIUM ST, Bremen and RSC-E, Moscow started aiming the outfitting of the Russian Service Module ZVEZDA for the ISS with computers. The requested equipments had to provide not only redundancy but fault tolerance and high availability. The design and development of two fault tolerant computers, (FTCs) responsible for the telemetry (Telemetry Computer: TC) and the central control (CC), as well as the man machine interface CPC were contracted to ASTRIUM ST, Bremen. The computer system is responsible e.g. for the life support system and the ISS re-boost control.In July 2000, the integration of the Russian Service Module ZVEZDA with Russian ZARYA FGB and American Node 1 bears witness for transatlantic and European cooperation.The Russian Service module ZVEZDA provides several basic functions as Avionics Control, the Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) in the ISS and control of the docked Automatic Transfer Vehicle (ATV) which includes re-boost of ISS. If these elementary functions fail or do not work reliable the effects for the ISS will be catastrophic with respect to Safety (manned space) and ISS mission.For that reason the responsible computer system Data Management System - Russia (DMS-R) is also called "The brain of the ISS".The Russian Service module ZVEZDA, including DMS-R, was launched on 12th of July, 2000. DMS-R was operational also during launch and docking.The talk provide information about the definition, design and development of DMS-R, the integration of DMS-R in the Russian Service module and the maintenance of the system in space. Besides the technical aspects are also the German - Russian cooperation an important subject of this speech. An outlook finalises the talk providing further development activities and application of fault tolerant systems.The importance of the DMS

  12. ISS Operations Cost Reductions Through Automation of Real-Time Planning Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Timothy A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 the Johnson Space Center s Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) management team challenged their organization to find ways to reduce the costs of International Space station (ISS) console operations in the Mission Control Center (MCC). Each MOD organization was asked to identify projects that would help them attain a goal of a 30% reduction in operating costs by 2012. The MOD Operations and Planning organization responded to this challenge by launching several software automation projects that would allow them to greatly improve ISS console operations and reduce staffing and operating costs. These projects to date have allowed the MOD Operations organization to remove one full time (7 x 24 x 365) ISS console position in 2010; with the plan of eliminating two full time ISS console support positions by 2012. This will account for an overall 10 EP reduction in staffing for the Operations and Planning organization. These automation projects focused on utilizing software to automate many administrative and often repetitive tasks involved with processing ISS planning and daily operations information. This information was exchanged between the ground flight control teams in Houston and around the globe, as well as with the ISS astronaut crew. These tasks ranged from managing mission plan changes from around the globe, to uploading and downloading information to and from the ISS crew, to even more complex tasks that required multiple decision points to process the data, track approvals and deliver it to the correct recipient across network and security boundaries. The software solutions leveraged several different technologies including customized web applications and implementation of industry standard web services architecture between several planning tools; as well as a engaging a previously research level technology (TRL 2-3) developed by Ames Research Center (ARC) that utilized an intelligent agent based system to manage and automate file traffic flow

  13. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) and International Space Station (ISS) Coordination for CubeSat Deployments to Minimize Collision Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawloski, James H.; Aviles, Jorge; Myers, Ralph; Parris, Joshua; Corley, Bryan; Hehn, Garrett; Pascucci, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is a joint U.S. and Japan mission to observe global precipitation, extending the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), which was launched by H-IIA from Tanegashima in Japan on February 28TH, 2014 directly into its 407km operational orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an international human research facility operated jointly by Russia and the USA from NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston Texas. Mission priorities lowered the operating altitude of ISS from 415km to 400km in early 2105, effectively placing both vehicles into the same orbital regime. The ISS has begun a program of deployments of cost effective CubeSats from the ISS that allow testing and validation of new technologies. With a major new asset flying at the same effective altitude as the ISS, CubeSat deployments became a serious threat to GPM and therefore a significant indirect threat to the ISS. This paper describes the specific problem of collision threat to GPM and risk to ISS CubeSat deployment and the process that was implemented to keep both missions safe from collision and maximize their project goals.

  14. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  15. Norepinephrine transporter: a candidate gene for initial ethanol sensitivity in inbred long-sleep and short-sleep mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haughey, Heather M; Kaiser, Alan L; Johnson, Thomas E; Bennett, Beth; Sikela, James M; Zahniser, Nancy R

    2005-10-01

    Altered noradrenergic neurotransmission is associated with depression and may contribute to drug abuse and alcoholism. Differential initial sensitivity to ethanol is an important predictor of risk for future alcoholism, making the inbred long-sleep (ILS) and inbred short-sleep (ISS) mice a useful model for identifying genes that may contribute to alcoholism. In this study, molecular biological, neurochemical, and behavioral approaches were used to test the hypothesis that the norepinephrine transporter (NET) contributes to the differences in ethanol-induced loss of righting reflex (LORR) in ILS and ISS mice. We used these mice to investigate the NET as a candidate gene contributing to this phenotype. The ILS and ISS mice carry different DNA haplotypes for NET, showing eight silent differences between allelic coding regions. Only the ILS haplotype is found in other mouse strains thus far sequenced. Brain regional analyses revealed that ILS mice have 30 to 50% lower [3H]NE uptake, NET binding, and NET mRNA levels than ISS mice. Maximal [3H]NE uptake and NET number were reduced, with no change in affinity, in the ILS mice. These neurobiological changes were associated with significant influences on the behavioral phenotype of these mice, as demonstrated by (1) a differential response in the duration of ethanol-induced LORR in ILS and ISS mice pretreated with a NET inhibitor and (2) increased ethanol-induced LORR in LXS recombinant inbred (RI) strains, homozygous for ILS in the NET chromosomal region (44-47 cM), compared with ISS homozygous strains. This is the first report to suggest that the NET gene is one of many possible genetic factors influencing ethanol sensitivity in ILS, ISS, and LXS RI mouse strains.

  16. Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the International Space Station (ISS): Launch, Installation, Activation, and First Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, R. J.; Christian, H. J., Jr.; Mach, D. M.; Buechler, D. E.; Wharton, N. A.; Stewart, M. F.; Ellett, W. T.; Koshak, W. J.; Walker, T. D.

    2017-12-01

    Over two decades, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, the University of Alabama in Huntsville, and their partners developed and demonstrated the effectiveness and value of space-based lightning observations as a remote sensing tool for Earth science research and applications, and, in the process, established a robust global lightning climatology. The Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) on the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) provided global observations of tropical lightning for an impressive 17 years before that mission came to a close in April 2015. Now a space-qualified LIS, built as the flight spare for TRMM, has been installed on the International Space Station (ISS) for a minimum two year mission following its SpaceX launch on February 19, 2017. The LIS, flown as a hosted payload on the Department of Defense Space Test Program-Houston 5 (STP-H5) mission, was robotically installed in an Earth-viewing position on the outside of the ISS, providing a great opportunity to not only extend the 17-year TRMM LIS record of tropical lightning measurements but also to expand that coverage to higher latitudes missed by the TRMM mission. Since its activation, LIS has continuously observed the amount, rate, and radiant energy lightning within its field-of-view as it orbits the Earth. A major focus of this mission is to better understand the processes which cause lightning, as well as the connections between lightning and subsequent severe weather events. This understanding is a key to improving weather predictions and saving lives and property here in the United States and around the world. The LIS measurements will also help cross-validate observations from the new Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) operating on NOAA's newest weather satellite GOES-16. An especially unique contribution from the ISS platform will be the availability of real-time lightning data, especially valuable for operational forecasting and warning applications over data sparse regions such

  17. Experiences with Extra-Vehicular Activities in Response to Critical ISS Contingencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cise, E. A.; Kelly, B. J.; Radigan, J. P.; Cranmer, C. W.

    2016-01-01

    The maturation of the International Space Station (ISS) design from the proposed Space Station Freedom to today's current implementation resulted in external hardware redundancy vulnerabilities in the final design. Failure to compensate for or respond to these vulnerabilities could put the ISS in a posture where it could no longer function as a habitable space station. In the first years of ISS assembly, these responses were to largely be addressed by the continued resupply and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) capabilities of the Space Shuttle. Even prior to the decision to retire the Space Shuttle, it was realized that ISS needed to have its own capability to be able to rapidly repair or replace external hardware without needing to wait for the next cargo resupply mission. As documented in a previous publication, in 2006 development was started to baseline Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA, or spacewalk) procedures to replace hardware components whose failure would expose some of the ISS vulnerabilities should a second failure occur. This development work laid the groundwork for the onboard crews and the ground operations and engineering teams to be ready to replace any of this failed hardware. In 2010, this development work was put to the test when one of these pieces of hardware failed. This paper will provide a brief summary of the planning and processes established in the original Contingency EVA development phase. It will then review how those plans and processes were implemented in 2010, highlighting what went well as well as where there were deficiencies between theory and reality. This paper will show that the original approach and analyses, though sound, were not as thorough as they should have been in the realm of planning for next worse failures, for documenting Programmatic approval of key assumptions, and not pursuing sufficient engineering analysis prior to the failure of the hardware. The paper will further highlight the changes made to the Contingency

  18. The OPALS Plan for Operations: Use of ISS Trajectory and Attitude Models in the OPALS Pointing Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamson, Matthew J.; Oaida, Bogdan; Erkmen, Baris

    2013-01-01

    This paper will discuss the OPALS pointing strategy, focusing on incorporation of ISS trajectory and attitude models to build pointing predictions. Methods to extrapolate an ISS prediction based on past data will be discussed and will be compared to periodically published ISS predictions and Two-Line Element (TLE) predictions. The prediction performance will also be measured against GPS states available in telemetry. The performance of the pointing products will be compared to the allocated values in the OPALS pointing budget to assess compliance with requirements.

  19. Converting the ISS to an Earth-Moon Transport System Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paniagua, John; Maise, George; Powell, James

    2008-01-01

    Using Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), the International Space Station (ISS) can be placed into a cyclic orbit between the Earth and the Moon for 2-way transport of personnel and supplies to a permanent Moon Base. The ISS cycler orbit apogees 470,000 km from Earth, with a period of 13.66 days. Once a month, the ISS would pass close to the Moon, enabling 2-way transport between it and the surface using a lunar shuttle craft. The lunar shuttle craft would land at a desired location on the surface during a flyby and return to the ISS during a later flyby. At Earth perigee 7 days later at 500 km altitude, there would be 2-way transport between it and Earth's surface using an Earth shuttle craft. The docking Earth shuttle would remain attached to the ISS as it traveled towards the Moon, while personnel and supplies transferred to a lunar shuttle spacecraft that would detach and land at the lunar base when the ISS swung around the Moon. The reverse process would be carried out to return personnel and materials from the Moon to the Earth. The orbital mechanics for the ISS cycle are described in detail. Based on the full-up mass of 400 metric tons for the ISS, an ISP of 900 seconds, and a delta V burn of 3.3 km/sec to establish the orbit, 200 metric tons of liquid H-2 propellant would be required. The 200 metric tons could be stored in 3 tanks, each 8 meters in diameter and 20 meters in length. An assembly of 3 MITEE NTP engines would be used, providing redundancy if an engine were to fail. Two different MITEE design options are described. Option 1 is an 18,000 Newton, 100 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 6.6/1; Option 2 is a 180,000 Newton, 1000 MW engine with a thrust to weight ratio of 23/1. Burn times to establish the orbit are ∼1 hour for the large 3 engine assembly, and 10 hours for the small 3 engine assembly. Both engines would use W-UO2 cermet fuel at ∼2750 K which has demonstrated the capability to operate for at least 50 hours in 2750 K hydrogen

  20. Qualitative Validation of the IMM Model for ISS and STS Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstman, E.; Walton, M.; Reyes, D.; Boley, L.; Saile, L.; Young, M.; Arellano, J.; Garcia, Y.; Myers, J. G.

    2016-01-01

    To validate and further improve the Integrated Medical Model (IMM), medical event data were obtained from 32 ISS and 122 STS person-missions. Using the crew characteristics from these observed missions, IMM v4.0 was used to forecast medical events and medical resource utilization. The IMM medical condition incidence values were compared to the actual observed medical event incidence values, and the IMM forecasted medical resource utilization was compared to actual observed medical resource utilization. Qualitative comparisons of these parameters were conducted for both the ISS and STS programs. The results of these analyses will provide validation of IMM v4.0 and reveal areas of the model requiring adjustments to improve the overall accuracy of IMM outputs. This validation effort should result in enhanced credibility of the IMM and improved confidence in the use of IMM as a decision support tool for human space flight.