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Sample records for short sleep duration

  1. Short sleep duration and obesity among Australian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zumin; Taylor, Anne W; Gill, Tiffany K; Tuckerman, Jane; Adams, Robert; Martin, James

    2010-10-15

    There is limited information on sleep duration and obesity among Australian children. The objective of the study is to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in Australian children aged 5 to 15 years. Data were collected using the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System between January 2004 and December 2008. Each month a representative random sample of South Australians are selected from the Electronic White Pages with interviews conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). Within each household, the person who was last to have a birthday was selected for interview. Parents reported the number of hours their children slept each day. Obesity was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) definition based on BMI calculated from reported body weight and height. Overall, parents of 3495 children aged 5-15 years (mean 10.7 years, 50.3% boys) were interviewed. The prevalence of obesity was 7.7% (8.9% in boys, 6.6% in girls). In multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, intake of fruit and vegetables, physical activity and inactivity, the odds ratio (OR) for obesity comparing sleeping sleep (sleep and obesity was found among children aged 13-15. There was also an additive interaction between short sleep and low level of physical activity. Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity in children especially among younger age groups and boys.

  2. Racial disparities in short sleep duration by occupation and industry.

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    Jackson, Chandra L; Redline, Susan; Kawachi, Ichiro; Williams, Michelle A; Hu, Frank B

    2013-11-01

    Short sleep duration, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, has been shown to vary by occupation and industry, but few studies have investigated differences between black and white populations. By using data from a nationally representative sample of US adult short sleepers (n = 41,088) in the National Health Interview Survey in 2004-2011, we estimated prevalence ratios for short sleep duration in blacks compared with whites for each of 8 industry categories by using adjusted Poisson regression models with robust variance. Participants' mean age was 47 years; 50% were women and 13% were black. Blacks were more likely to report short sleep duration than whites (37% vs. 28%), and the black-white disparity was widest among those who held professional occupations. Adjusted short sleep duration was more prevalent in blacks than whites in the following industry categories: finance/information/real estate (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30, 1.59); professional/administrative/management (PR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18, 1.44); educational services (PR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.25, 1.54); public administration/arts/other services (PR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.21, 1.41); health care/social assistance (PR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.14, 1.32); and manufacturing/construction (PR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.20). Short sleep generally increased with increasing professional responsibility within a given industry among blacks but decreased with increasing professional roles among whites. Our results suggest the need for further investigation of racial/ethnic differences in the work-sleep relationship.

  3. Short sleep duration as a possible cause of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L S; Danielsen, Karen; Sørensen, T I A

    2011-01-01

    with particular emphasis on prospective studies. The studies showed that short sleep duration is consistently associated with development of obesity in children and young adults, but not consistently so in older adults. We have identified critical aspects of the evidence, and assessed the possibility......Systematic literature search for epidemiological evidence for an association of short sleep with weight gain and eventual development of obesity provided 71 original studies and seven reviews of various subsets of these studies. We have summarized the evidence for such an association...... may elucidate mechanisms, but adequate coverage of the entire pathway from sleep curtailment through obesity development is not feasible. Randomized trials are needed to assess the value of targeted interventions....

  4. Short sleep duration and obesity among Australian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill Tiffany K

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is limited information on sleep duration and obesity among Australian children. The objective of the study is to cross-sectionally examine the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in Australian children aged 5 to 15 years. Methods Data were collected using the South Australian Monitoring and Surveillance System between January 2004 and December 2008. Each month a representative random sample of South Australians are selected from the Electronic White Pages with interviews conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI. Within each household, the person who was last to have a birthday was selected for interview. Parents reported the number of hours their children slept each day. Obesity was defined according to the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF definition based on BMI calculated from reported body weight and height. Results Overall, parents of 3495 children aged 5-15 years (mean 10.7 years, 50.3% boys were interviewed. The prevalence of obesity was 7.7% (8.9% in boys, 6.6% in girls. In multivariate analysis after adjusting for sociodemographic variables, intake of fruit and vegetables, physical activity and inactivity, the odds ratio (OR for obesity comparing sleeping Conclusion Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity in children especially among younger age groups and boys.

  5. Cumulative association of obstructive sleep apnea severity and short sleep duration with the risk for hypertension.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascaline Priou

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA and short sleep duration are individually associated with an increased risk for hypertension (HTN. The aim of this multicenter cross-sectional study was to test the hypothesis of a cumulative association of OSA severity and short sleep duration with the risk for prevalent HTN. Among 1,499 patients undergoing polysomnography for suspected OSA, 410 (27.3% previously diagnosed as hypertensive and taking antihypertensive medication were considered as having HTN. Patients with total sleep time (TST <6 h were considered to be short sleepers. Logistic regression procedures were performed to determine the independent association of HTN with OSA and sleep duration. Considering normal sleepers (TST ≥6 h without OSA as the reference group, the odds ratio (OR (95% confidence intervals for having HTN was 2.51 (1.35-4.68 in normal sleepers with OSA and 4.37 (2.18-8.78 in short sleepers with OSA after adjustment for age, gender, obesity, diabetes, depression, current smoking, use of thyroid hormones, daytime sleepiness, poor sleep complaint, time in bed, sleep architecture and fragmentation, and study site. The risk for HTN appeared to present a cumulative association with OSA severity and short sleep duration (p<0.0001 for linear trend. The higher risk for HTN was observed in short sleepers with severe OSA (AHI ≥30 (OR, 4.29 [2.03-9.07]. In patients investigated for suspected OSA, sleep-disordered breathing severity and short sleep duration have a cumulative association with the risk for prevalent HTN. Further studies are required to determine whether interventions to optimize sleep may contribute to lower BP in patients with OSA.

  6. Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration. Data from a nationally representative sample☆

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    Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R.; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric illness, and performance deficits. Likewise, long sleep duration is also associated with poor physical and mental health. The role of a healthy diet in habitual sleep duration represents a largely unexplored pathway linking sleep and health. This study evaluated associations between habitual sleep parameters and dietary/nutritional variables obtained via the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007–2008. We hypothesized that habitual very short (theobromine (long sleep RR = 0.910, p < 0.05), vitamin C (short sleep RR = 0.890, p < 0.05), tap water (short sleep RR = 0.952, p < 0.001; very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.941, p < 0.05), lutein + zeaxanthin (short sleep RR = 1.123, p < 0.05), dodecanoic acid (long sleep RR = 0.812, p < 0.05), choline (long sleep RR = 0.450, p = 0.001), lycopene (very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.950, p <0.05), total carbohydrate (very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.494, p <0.05; long sleep RR = 0.509, p <0.05), selenium (short sleep RR = 0.670, p <0.01) and alcohol (long sleep RR = 1.172, p < 0.01). Overall, many nutrient variables were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, which may be explained by differences in food variety. Future studies should assess whether these associations are due to appetite dysregulation, due to short/long sleep and/or whether these nutrients have physiologic effects on sleep regulation. In addition, these data may help us better understand the complex relationship between diet and sleep and the potential role of diet in the relationship between sleep and obesity and other cardiometabolic risks. PMID:23339991

  7. Short and long sleep duration associated with race/ethnicity, sociodemographics, and socioeconomic position.

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    Whinnery, Julia; Jackson, Nicholas; Rattanaumpawan, Pinyo; Grandner, Michael A

    2014-03-01

    Short and/or long sleep duration are associated with cardiometabolic disease risk and may be differentially experienced among minorities and the socioeconomically disadvantaged. The present study examined nationally representative data along multiple dimensions of race/ ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional. Survey. 2007-2008 NHANES (N = 4,850). None. Self-reported sleep duration was classified as very short (insurance, and food security, controlling for all others as well as age, sex, marital-status, and overall self-rated health. Outcome was self-reported sleep duration, relative to normative sleep duration. Blacks/African Americans were more likely than whites to report very short (OR = 2.34, P Mexico-born adults reported less short sleep (OR = 0.63, P = 0.042). Spanish-only speakers reported less very short sleep (OR = 0.32, P = 0.030). Lower income groups reported more very short sleep versus > $75,000. Compared to college graduates, increased very short sleep was seen among all lower education levels. Those with public insurance reported more very short (OR = 1.67, P = 0.31) and long (OR = 1.83, P = 0.011) sleep versus uninsured. Very low food security was associated with very short (OR = 1.86, P = 0.036) and short (OR = 1.44, P = 0.047) sleep. Minority status and lower socioeconomic position were associated with shorter self-reported sleep durations.

  8. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiologic evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

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    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review provides an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relations between habitual short sleep duration and dietary intake in a...

  9. Short sleep duration and dietary intake: epidemiological evidence, mechanisms, and health implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Links between short sleep duration and obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease may be mechanistically mediated through changes in dietary intake. This review aims to provide an overview of recent epidemiologic studies on the relationships between habitual short sleep durat...

  10. Insomnia with short sleep duration and mortality: the Penn State cohort.

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    Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Liao, Duanping; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Calhoun, Susan; Karataraki, Maria; Basta, Maria; Fernández-Mendoza, Julio; Bixler, Edward O

    2010-09-01

    Because insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with increased morbidity, we examined the effects of this insomnia subtype on all-cause mortality. Longitudinal. Sleep laboratory. 1,741 men and women randomly selected from Central Pennsylvania. Participants were studied in the sleep laboratory and were followed-up for 14 years (men) and 10 years (women). "Insomnia" was defined by a complaint of insomnia with duration > or = 1 year. "Normal sleeping" was defined as absence of insomnia. Polysomnographic sleep duration was classified into two categories: the "normal sleep duration group" subjects who slept > or = 6 h and the "short sleep duration group" subjects who slept insomnia" group, (OR = 4.00, CI 1.14-13.99) after adjusting for diabetes, hypertension, and other confounders. Furthermore, there was a marginally significant trend (P = 0.15) towards higher mortality risk from insomnia and short sleep in patients with diabetes or hypertension (OR = 7.17, 95% CI 1.41-36.62) than in those without these comorbid conditions (OR = 1.45, 95% CI 0.13-16.14). In women, mortality was not associated with insomnia and short sleep duration. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration in men is associated with increased mortality, a risk that has been underestimated.

  11. Short Sleep Duration Increases Metabolic Impact in Healthy Adults: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

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    Deng, Han-Bing; Tam, Tony; Zee, Benny Chung-Ying; Chung, Roger Yat-Nork; Su, Xuefen; Jin, Lei; Chan, Ta-Chien; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong; Lao, Xiang Qian

    2017-10-01

    The metabolic impact of inadequate sleep has not been determined in healthy individuals outside laboratories. This study aims to investigate the impact of sleep duration on five metabolic syndrome components in a healthy adult cohort. A total of 162121 adults aged 20-80 years (men 47.4%) of the MJ Health Database, who were not obese and free from major diseases, were recruited and followed up from 1996 to 2014. Sleep duration and insomnia symptoms were assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Incident cases of five metabolic syndrome components were identified by follow-up medical examinations. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for three sleep duration categories " 8 hours/day (long)" with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Analyses were stratified by insomnia symptoms to assess whether insomnia symptoms modified the association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome. Compared to regular sleep duration, short sleep significantly (p sleep decreased the risk of hypertriglyceridemia (adjusted HR 0.89 [0.84-0.94]) and metabolic syndrome (adjusted HR 0.93 [0.88-0.99]). Insomnia symptoms did not modify the effects of sleep duration. Sleep duration may be a significant determinant of metabolic health. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Persistent insomnia: the role of objective short sleep duration and mental health.

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    Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Bixler, Edward O; Singareddy, Ravi; Shaffer, Michele L; Calhoun, Susan L; Liao, Duanping; Basta, Maria; Chrousos, George P

    2012-01-01

    Few population-based, longitudinal studies have examined risk factors for persistent insomnia, and the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, none of these studies have examined the role of polysomnographic (PSG) variables such as sleep duration or sleep apnea on the persistence of insomnia. Representative longitudinal study. Sleep laboratory. From a random, general population sample of 1741 individuals of the adult Penn State Cohort, 1395 were followed-up after 7.5 years. Individuals underwent one-night PSG and full medical evaluation at baseline and a telephone interview at follow-up. PSG sleep duration was analyzed as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable: insomnia persistence, partial remission, and full remission were 44.0%, 30.0%, and 26.0%, respectively. Objective short sleep duration significantly increased the odds of persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 3.19) and to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 4.92). Mental health problems at baseline were strongly associated with persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 9.67) and to a lesser degree compared to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 3.68). Smoking, caffeine, and alcohol consumption and sleep apnea did not predict persistent insomnia. Objective short sleep duration and mental health problems are the strongest predictors of persistent insomnia. These data further support the validity and clinical utility of objective short sleep duration as a novel marker of the biological severity of insomnia.

  13. Association between short sleep duration and body mass index in Australian Indigenous children.

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    Deacon-Crouch, Melissa; Skinner, Isabelle; Tucci, Joseph; Skinner, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Associations between short sleep duration and obesity and the relationship between obesity and chronic illness are well documented. Obese children are likely to become obese adults. To date, there is a paucity of information regarding sleep duration and quality for Indigenous Australian people. It may be that poor-quality, short sleep is contributing to the gap in health outcomes for Indigenous people compared with non-Indigenous adults and children. This study sought to investigate the possibility that poor sleep quality may be contributing to health outcomes for Indigenous children by exploring associations between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI). Participants included 1253 children aged 7-12 years in Wave 7 of the national Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children survey. Interviewers asked primary carers about children's sleep times. BMI was derived from measurements of children made by researchers. Regardless of age, relative socio-economic disadvantage and level of remoteness, unhealthy weight was associated with less sleep duration than healthy weight for Indigenous children. The relationship between short sleep duration and BMI in Indigenous children has important implications for their future health outcomes. Both overweight conditions and short sleep are established modifiable risk factors for metabolic dysfunction and other chronic illnesses prominent in the Indigenous population. It is important to consider strategies to optimise both for Indigenous children in an attempt to help 'close the gap' in health outcomes and life expectancy between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration: the most biologically severe phenotype of the disorder.

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    Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2013-08-01

    Until recently, the association of chronic insomnia with significant medical morbidity was not established and its diagnosis was based solely on subjective complaints. We present evidence that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is the most biologically severe phenotype of the disorder, as it is associated with cognitive-emotional and cortical arousal, activation of both limbs of the stress system, and a higher risk for hypertension, impaired heart rate variability, diabetes, neurocognitive impairment, and mortality. Also, it appears that objective short sleep duration is a biological marker of genetic predisposition to chronic insomnia. In contrast, insomnia with objective normal sleep duration is associated with cognitive-emotional and cortical arousal and sleep misperception but not with signs of activation of both limbs of the stress system or medical complications. Furthermore, the first phenotype is associated with unremitting course, whereas the latter is more likely to remit. We propose that short sleep duration in insomnia is a reliable marker of the biological severity and medical impact of the disorder. Objective measures of sleep obtained in the home environment of the patient would become part of the routine assessment of insomnia patients in a clinician's office setting. We speculate that insomnia with objective short sleep duration has primarily biological roots and may respond better to biological treatments, whereas insomnia with objective normal sleep duration has primarily psychological roots and may respond better to psychological interventions alone. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Insomnia with Objective Short Sleep Duration: the Most Biologically Severe Phenotype of the Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Until recently, the association of chronic insomnia with significant medical morbidity was not established and its diagnosis was based solely on subjective complaints. We present evidence that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is the most biologically severe phenotype of the disorder, as it is associated with cognitive-emotional and cortical arousal, activation of both limbs of the stress system, and a higher risk for hypertension, impaired heart rate variability, diabetes, neurocognitive impairment, and mortality. Also, it appears that objective short sleep duration is a biological marker of genetic predisposition to chronic insomnia. In contrast, insomnia with objective normal sleep duration is associated with cognitive-emotional and cortical arousal and sleep misperception but not with signs of activation of both limbs of the stress system or medical complications. Furthermore, the first phenotype is associated with unremitting course, whereas the latter is more likely to remit. We propose that short sleep duration in insomnia is a reliable marker of the biological severity and medical impact of the disorder. Objective measures of sleep obtained in the home environment of the patient would become part of the routine assessment of insomnia patients in a clinician’s office setting. We speculate that insomnia with objective short sleep duration has primarily biological roots and may respond better to biological treatments, whereas insomnia with objective normal sleep duration has primarily psychological roots and may respond better to psychological interventions alone. PMID:23419741

  16. Short Sleep Duration Among Middle School and High School Students - United States, 2015.

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    Wheaton, Anne G; Jones, Sherry Everett; Cooper, Adina C; Croft, Janet B

    2018-01-26

    Insufficient sleep among children and adolescents is associated with increased risk for obesity, diabetes, injuries, poor mental health, attention and behavior problems, and poor academic performance (1-4). The American Academy of Sleep Medicine has recommended that, for optimal health, children aged 6-12 years should regularly sleep 9-12 hours per 24 hours and teens aged 13-18 years should sleep 8-10 hours per 24 hours (1). CDC analyzed data from the 2015 national, state, and large urban school district Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBSs) to determine the prevalence of short sleep duration (teens aged 13-18 years) on school nights among middle school and high school students in the United States. In nine states that conducted the middle school YRBS and included a question about sleep duration in their questionnaire, the prevalence of short sleep duration among middle school students was 57.8%, with state-level estimates ranging from 50.2% (New Mexico) to 64.7% (Kentucky). The prevalence of short sleep duration among high school students in the national YRBS was 72.7%. State-level estimates of short sleep duration for the 30 states that conducted the high school YRBS and included a question about sleep duration in their questionnaire ranged from 61.8% (South Dakota) to 82.5% (West Virginia). The large percentage of middle school and high school students who do not get enough sleep on school nights suggests a need for promoting sleep health in schools and at home and delaying school start times to permit students adequate time for sleep.

  17. Associations of a Short Sleep Duration, Insufficient Sleep, and Insomnia with Self-Rated Health among Nurses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Silva-Costa

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence suggests that sleep duration and poor sleep are associated with mortality, as well as with a wide range of negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined the association between sleep and self-rated health, particularly through the combination of sleep complaints. The objective of this study was to examine whether self-rated health is associated with sleep complaints, considering the combination of sleep duration, insomnia, and sleep sufficiency. This cross-sectional study was performed in the 18 largest public hospitals in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A total of 2518 female nurses answered a self-filled multidimensional questionnaire. The adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs estimated the chance of poor self-rated health in the presence of different combinations of sleep duration and quality. Compared with women who reported adequate sleep duration with no sleep quality complaints (reference group, the odds ratios (95% CI for poor self-rated health were 1.79 (1.27-2.24 for those who reported only insufficient sleep, 1.85 (0.94-3.66 for only a short sleep duration, and 3.12 (1.94-5.01 for only insomnia. Compared with those who expressed all three complaints (short sleep duration, insomnia, and insufficient sleep, the odds ratio for poor self-rated health was 4.49 (3.25-6.22. Differences in the magnitude of the associations were observed, depending on the combination of sleep complaints. Because self-rated health is a consistent predictor of morbidity, these results reinforce the increasing awareness of the role of sleep in health and disease. Our findings contribute to the recognition of sleep as a public health matter that deserves to be better understood and addressed by policymakers.

  18. Persistent Insomnia: the Role of Objective Short Sleep Duration and Mental Health

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    Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Bixler, Edward O.; Singareddy, Ravi; Shaffer, Michele L.; Calhoun, Susan L.; Liao, Duanping; Basta, Maria; Chrousos, George P.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: Few population-based, longitudinal studies have examined risk factors for persistent insomnia, and the results are inconsistent. Furthermore, none of these studies have examined the role of polysomnographic (PSG) variables such as sleep duration or sleep apnea on the persistence of insomnia. Design: Representative longitudinal study. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: From a random, general population sample of 1741 individuals of the adult Penn State Cohort, 1395 were followed-up after 7.5 years. Measurements: Individuals underwent one-night PSG and full medical evaluation at baseline and a telephone interview at follow-up. PSG sleep duration was analyzed as a continuous variable and as a categorical variable: insomnia persistence, partial remission, and full remission were 44.0%, 30.0%, and 26.0%, respectively. Objective short sleep duration significantly increased the odds of persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 3.19) and to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 4.92). Mental health problems at baseline were strongly associated with persistent insomnia as compared to normal sleep (OR = 9.67) and to a lesser degree compared to fully remitted insomnia (OR = 3.68). Smoking, caffeine, and alcohol consumption and sleep apnea did not predict persistent insomnia. Conclusions: Objective short sleep duration and mental health problems are the strongest predictors of persistent insomnia. These data further support the validity and clinical utility of objective short sleep duration as a novel marker of the biological severity of insomnia. Citation: Vgontzas AN; Fernandez-Mendoza J; Bixler EO; Singareddy R; Shaffer ML; Calhoun SL; Liao D; Basta M; Chrousos GP. Persistent insomnia: the role of objective short sleep duration and mental health. SLEEP 2012;35(1):61-68. PMID:22215919

  19. Insomnia With Objective Short Sleep Duration Is Associated With Type 2 Diabetes

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    Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Liao, Duanping; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Calhoun, Susan; Karataraki, Maria; Bixler, Edward O.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examined the joint effects of insomnia and objective short sleep duration, the combination of which is associated with higher morbidity, on diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,741 men and women randomly selected from Central Pennsylvania were studied in the sleep laboratory. Insomnia was defined by a complaint of insomnia with duration of ≥1 year, whereas poor sleep was defined as a complaint of difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or early final awakening. Polysomnographic sleep duration was classified into three categories: ≥6 h of sleep (top 50% of the sample); 5–6 h (approximately third quartile of the sample); and ≤5 h (approximately the bottom quartile of the sample). Diabetes was defined either based on a fasting blood glucose >126 mg/dl or use of medication. In the logistic regression model, we simultaneously adjusted for age, race, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol use, depression, sleep-disordered breathing, and periodic limb movement. RESULTS Chronic insomnia but not poor sleep was associated with a higher risk for diabetes. Compared with the normal sleeping and ≥6 h sleep duration group, the highest risk of diabetes was in individuals with insomnia and ≤5 h sleep duration group (odds ratio [95% CI] 2.95 [1.2–7.0]) and in insomniacs who slept 5–6 h (2.07 [0.68–6.4]). CONCLUSIONS Insomnia with short sleep duration is associated with increased odds of diabetes. Objective sleep duration may predict cardiometabolic morbidity of chronic insomnia, the medical impact of which has been underestimated. PMID:19641160

  20. The insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype: an update on it's importance for health and prevention.

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    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio

    2017-01-01

    It was first proposed in the late 1990s that objective markers of sleep disturbance could serve as an index of the biological severity of insomnia. In 2013, a heuristic model of two insomnia phenotypes based on objective sleep duration was proposed. Herein, we review the studies conducted in the past 3 years on the insomnia with short sleep duration phenotype and its implications for a clinical research agenda. Studies have shown that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with physiologic hyperarousal and cardiometabolic and neurocognitive morbidity, whereas insomnia with normal sleep duration is not. Both insomnia phenotypes are associated with psychiatric morbidity albeit through different psychobiological mechanisms. Novel recent studies have included occupational outcomes, developmental approaches, at-home objective sleep testing, diagnostic accuracy measures, and response to cognitive-behavioral treatment. Accumulating evidence in the past years has continued to support that insomnia with short sleep duration is a more severe phenotype of the disorder associated with physiologic changes, significant morbidity and mortality and, potentially, a differential response to treatment.

  1. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with deficits in neuropsychological performance: a general population study.

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    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan; Bixler, Edward O; Pejovic, Slobodanka; Karataraki, Maria; Liao, Duanping; Vela-Bueno, Antonio; Ramos-Platon, Maria J; Sauder, Katherine A; Vgontzas, Alexandros N

    2010-04-01

    To examine the joint effect of insomnia and objective short sleep duration on neuropsychological performance. Representative cross-sectional study. Sleep laboratory. 1,741 men and women randomly selected from central Pennsylvania. None. Insomnia (n = 116) was defined by a complaint of insomnia with a duration > or = 1 year and the absence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB), while normal sleep (n = 562) was defined as the absence of insomnia, excessive daytime sleepiness, and SDB. Both groups were split according to polysomnographic sleep duration into 2 categories: > or = 6 h of sleep ("normal sleep duration") and sleep ("short sleep duration"). We compared the groups' performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery that measured processing speed, attention, visual memory, and verbal fluency, while controlling for age, race, gender, education, body mass index, and physical and mental health. No significant differences were detected between insomniacs and controls. However, the insomnia with short sleep duration group compared to the control with normal or short sleep duration groups showed poorer neuropsychological performance in variables such as processing speed, set-switching attention, and number of visual memory errors and omissions. In contrast, the insomnia with normal sleep duration group showed no significant deficits. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with deficits in set-switching attentional abilities, a key component of the "executive control of attention." These findings suggest that objective sleep duration may predict the severity of chronic insomnia, including its effect on neurocognitive function.

  2. Short sleep duration is associated with greater alcohol consumption in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; McNeil, Jessica; Després, Jean-Pierre; Bouchard, Claude; Tremblay, Angelo

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between sleep duration and alcohol consumption in adults (301 men and 402 women aged 18-64years) from the greater Quebec City area. Sleep duration (self-reported), alcohol consumption (3-day food record and questions on drinking habits), and disinhibition eating behavior trait (score ≥ 6 on the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire) were assessed. Participants were categorized as short- ( ≤ 6h), average- (7-8h) or long- ( ≥ 9h) duration sleepers. Overall, short-duration sleepers consumed significantly more alcohol than the two other sleep-duration groups. After adjusting for relevant covariates, short sleep duration was associated with an increase in the odds of exceeding the recommendations for sensible weekly alcohol intake of 14 drinks for men and 7 drinks for women compared to those sleeping between 7 and 8h (OR 1.87, 95%CI 1.03-3.54, both sexes combined). In both men and women, daily alcohol intake was significantly higher in short-duration sleepers having a high disinhibition eating behavior trait. However, the prevalence of a binge drinking occasion (i.e. ≥5 drinks on one occasion) was more common in men than women. Men sleeping less than 6h per night with a disinhibited eating behavior were more likely to report binge drinking (41% of them). In summary, the combination of short sleep duration with disinhibited eating behavior is associated with greater alcohol intake in adults. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Objectively measured short sleep duration and later sleep midpoint in pregnancy are associated with a higher risk of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Facco, Francesca L; Grobman, William A; Reid, Kathryn J; Parker, Corette B; Hunter, Shannon M; Silver, Robert M; Basner, Robert C; Saade, George R; Pien, Grace W; Manchanda, Shalini; Louis, Judette M; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Ling; Chung, Judith H; Wing, Deborah A; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Haas, David M; Iams, Jay; Parry, Samuel; Zee, Phyllis C

    2017-10-01

    Experimental and epidemiologic data suggest that among nonpregnant adults, sleep duration may be an important risk factor for chronic disease. Although pregnant women commonly report poor sleep, few studies objectively evaluated the quality of sleep in pregnancy or explored the relationship between sleep disturbances and maternal and perinatal outcomes. Our objective was to examine the relationship between objectively assessed sleep duration, timing, and continuity (measured via wrist actigraphy) and maternal cardiovascular and metabolic morbidity specific to pregnancy. This was a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women. Women were recruited between 16 0/7 and 21 6/7 weeks' gestation. They were asked to wear a wrist actigraphy monitor and complete a daily sleep log for a period of 7 consecutive days. The primary sleep exposure variables were the averages of the following over the total valid nights (minimum 5, maximum 7 nights): short sleep duration during the primary sleep period (5 am), and top quartile of minutes of wake time after sleep onset and sleep fragmentation index. The primary outcomes of interest were a composite of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (mild, severe, or superimposed preeclampsia; eclampsia; or antepartum gestational hypertension) and gestational diabetes mellitus. We used χ 2 tests to assess associations between sleep variables and categorical baseline characteristics. Crude odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated from univariate logistic regression models to characterize the magnitude of the relationship between sleep characteristics and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and gestational diabetes. For associations significant in univariate analysis, multiple logistic regression was used to explore further the association of sleep characteristics with pregnancy outcomes. In all, 901 eligible women consented to participate; 782 submitted valid actigraphy studies. Short sleep duration and a later sleep midpoint

  4. Objective but Not Subjective Short Sleep Duration Associated with Increased Risk for Hypertension in Individuals with Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Christina J; Edinger, Jack D; Wyatt, James K; Krystal, Andrew D

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between hypertension prevalence in individuals with insomnia who have short total sleep duration insomnia disorder (MAge = 46.2 y, SDAge = 13.7 y) participated in this study at two large university medical centers. Two nights of polysomnography, 2 w of sleep diaries, questionnaires focused on sleep, medical, psychological, and health history, including presence/absence of hypertension were collected. Logistic regressions assessed the odds ratios of hypertension among persons with insomnia with short sleep duration insomnia with a sleep duration ≥ 6 h, measured both objectively and subjectively. Consistent with previous studies using objective total sleep duration, individuals with insomnia and short sleep duration insomnia with sleep duration ≥ 6 h. Increased risk for hypertension was independent of major confounding factors frequently associated with insomnia or hypertension. No significant risk was observed using subjectively determined total sleep time groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found that the best balance of sensitivity and specificity using subjective total sleep time was at a 6-h cutoff, but the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve showed low accuracy and did not have good discriminant value. Objectively measured short sleep duration increased the odds of reporting hypertension more than threefold after adjusting for potential confounders; this relationship was not significant for subjectively measured sleep duration. This research supports emerging evidence that insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of comorbid hypertension. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Associations between non-restorative sleep, short sleep duration and suicidality: findings from a representative sample of Korean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae Hong; Yoo, Jae-Ho; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2013-01-01

    This study clarifies the associations among sleep duration, non-restorative sleep, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts in a representative sample of Korean adolescents. Analyses are based on data from the 2007 Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey. The survey used a cross-sectional, national and representative sample consisting of 78 843 students (grades 7-12) who were selected using a stratified, clustered, multistage sampling method. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to test the association between sleep and suicide variables while controlling for demographic characteristics and other potential risk factors of suicide. Fewer than 4 h of sleep and a lack of feeling refreshed after sleeping increased the likelihood of suicidal ideation but not of suicide attempts. Non-restorative sleep as well as short sleep duration are significantly associated with suicidal ideation in adolescents. This finding highlights the need to assess for both non-restorative sleep and short sleep duration when screening suicide risk in adolescents. Future research should examine the moderating or mediating effects of individual and environmental characteristics on the association between sleep and actual suicide attempt. © 2012 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2012 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  6. Effects of emotional eating and short sleep duration on weight gain in female employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Strien, Tatjana; Koenders, Paul G

    2014-06-01

    To investigate whether there is an interaction between emotional eating and sleep duration on weight change and whether this effect is stronger in women. One-year follow-up study. Banking environment. 553 women and 911 men. Self-reported emotional eating and body mass index (BMI) at T1 were measured in 2008, and sleep duration and BMI at follow-up (T2) were measured in 2009. A significant emotional eating-sleep duration interaction on BMI change was found in women, but not in men. The finding that the highest weight gain was found in women who combined short sleep duration with high emotional eating-both of them are markers of (chronic) distress-suggests a possible role of poor psychological health and (chronic) stress in this relationship.

  7. Selection for long and short sleep duration in Drosophila melanogaster reveals the complex genetic network underlying natural variation in sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbison, Susan T; Serrano Negron, Yazmin L; Hansen, Nancy F; Lobell, Amanda S

    2017-12-01

    Why do some individuals need more sleep than others? Forward mutagenesis screens in flies using engineered mutations have established a clear genetic component to sleep duration, revealing mutants that convey very long or short sleep. Whether such extreme long or short sleep could exist in natural populations was unknown. We applied artificial selection for high and low night sleep duration to an outbred population of Drosophila melanogaster for 13 generations. At the end of the selection procedure, night sleep duration diverged by 9.97 hours in the long and short sleeper populations, and 24-hour sleep was reduced to 3.3 hours in the short sleepers. Neither long nor short sleeper lifespan differed appreciably from controls, suggesting little physiological consequences to being an extreme long or short sleeper. Whole genome sequence data from seven generations of selection revealed several hundred thousand changes in allele frequencies at polymorphic loci across the genome. Combining the data from long and short sleeper populations across generations in a logistic regression implicated 126 polymorphisms in 80 candidate genes, and we confirmed three of these genes and a larger genomic region with mutant and chromosomal deficiency tests, respectively. Many of these genes could be connected in a single network based on previously known physical and genetic interactions. Candidate genes have known roles in several classic, highly conserved developmental and signaling pathways-EGFR, Wnt, Hippo, and MAPK. The involvement of highly pleiotropic pathway genes suggests that sleep duration in natural populations can be influenced by a wide variety of biological processes, which may be why the purpose of sleep has been so elusive.

  8. Short sleep duration and increased risk of hypertension: a primary care medicine investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraut, Brice; Touchette, Evelyne; Gamble, Harvey; Royant-Parola, Sylvie; Safar, Michel E; Varsat, Brigitte; Léger, Damien

    2012-07-01

    Compelling evidence from laboratory-based and population-based studies link sleep loss to negative cardiovascular health outcomes. However, little is known about the association between sleep duration and hypertension in primary care health settings, independently of other well controlled clinical and biochemical characteristics. We investigated the association between sleep duration and the prevalence of hypertension adjusting for 21 potential confounding factors in a noncontrolled primary care sample. The sample included 1046 French adults older than 40 years (mean age, 55.5 years), who visited any of the general practitioners of primary care centers in the Paris area. Blood pressure (BP) readings, blood samples and standardized health and sleep questionnaires were performed on each participant. Hypertension inclusion criteria were either high BP measurements (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg) or the use of antihypertensive medications. Sleep duration was recorded as the self-reported average number of hours of sleep per night during the week. Logistic regressions were performed to test the association between hypertension and sleep duration adjusted for sociodemographic, clinical, biochemical, lifestyle, psychological and sleep disorder covariates. Compared to the group sleeping 7 h, individuals sleeping 5 h or less had an increased odds ratio (OR) for the prevalence of hypertension [OR = 1.80, 95% confidence interval (1.06-3.05)], after adjusting for 21 potential confounders which did not markedly attenuate this association. Our data provide further epidemiologic evidence that with no specific selection in primary care medicine, usual short-sleep duration increases the risk of hypertension prevalence in adults over 40 years.

  9. Insomnia Patients With Objective Short Sleep Duration Have a Blunted Response to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, Christina J; Edinger, Jack D; Krystal, Andrew D

    2017-01-01

    This study examined whether individuals with insomnia and objective short sleep duration insomnia (CBT-I) when compared to individuals with insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h. Secondary analyses of a randomized, clinical trial with 60 adult participants (n = 31 women) from a single academic medical center. Outpatient treatment lasted 8 weeks, with a final follow-up conducted at 6 months. Mixed-effects models controlling for age, sex, CBT-I treatment group assignment, and treatment provider examined sleep parameters gathered via actigraphy, sleep diaries, and an Insomnia Symptom Questionnaire (ISQ) across the treatment and follow-up period. Six months post-CBT-I treatment, individuals with insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h fared significantly better on clinical improvement milestones than did those with insomnia and short sleep duration insomnia and normal sleep duration had significantly higher insomnia remission (ISQ 80%; χ2[1, N = 60] = 21, p 50% decline in MWASO (χ2[1, N = 60] = 60, p insomnia and short sleep duration. Additionally, those with insomnia and normal sleep duration had more success decreasing their total wake time (TWT) at the 6-month follow-up compared to those with insomnia and short sleep duration (χ2[2, N = 60] = 44.1, p insomnia remission, with the area under the curve = 0.986. Findings suggest that individuals with insomnia and objective short sleep duration insomnia and normal sleep duration ≥6 h. Using an actigraphy TST cutoff of 6 hours to classify sleep duration groups was highly accurate and provided good discriminant value for determining insomnia remission. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Prevalence and impact of short sleep duration in redeployed OIF soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxton, David D; Greenburg, David; Ryan, Jenny; Niven, Alexander; Wheeler, Gary; Mysliwiec, Vincent

    2011-09-01

    Short sleep duration (SSD) is common among deployed soldiers. The prevalence of SSD during redeployment, however, is unknown. Cross-sectional study of a brigade combat team (n = 3152 US Army soldiers) surveyed 90-180 days after completing a 6-15 month deployment to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). Survey items targeted sleep habits and comorbid medical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted odds ratios of medical comorbidities associated with SSD. US Army Infantry Post. All soldiers from a redeploying brigade combat team participated in a health assessment between 90 and 180 days upon return to Ft. Lewis from Iraq. None. A total of 2738 (86.9%) soldiers answered questions regarding self-perceived sleep and were included in the analysis. Mean sleep duration was 5.8 ± 1.2 hours. Nineteen hundred fifty-nine (72%) slept ≤ 6 h, but only 16% reported a daytime nap or felt their job performance was affected due to lack of sleep. Short sleep was more common among soldiers who reported combat exposure. After controlling for combat exposure, short sleep duration (SSD) was associated with symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic syndrome, and with high-risk health behaviors such as abuse of tobacco and alcohol products, and suicide attempts. SSD is common among redeployed soldiers. Soldiers who experienced combat are at increased risk for persistent SSD and comorbidities associated with SSD. Efforts to reestablish good sleep habits and aggressive evaluation of soldiers with persistent SSD following deployment may aid in the prevention and management of associated medical conditions.

  11. Sleep duration and resting fMRI functional connectivity: examination of short sleepers with and without perceived daytime dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Brian J; Williams, Paula G; Jones, Christopher R; Anderson, Jeffrey S

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 30% of the U.S. population reports recurrent short sleep; however, perceived sleep need varies widely among individuals. Some "habitual short sleepers" routinely sleep 4-6 hr/night without self-reported adverse consequences. Identifying neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in perceived sleep-related dysfunction has important implications for understanding associations between sleep duration and health. This study utilized data from 839 subjects of the Human Connectome Project to examine resting functional connectivity associations with self-reported short sleep duration, as well as differences between short sleepers with versus without reported dysfunction. Functional connectivity was analyzed using a parcellation covering the cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar gray matter at 5 mm resolution. Self-reported sleep duration predicts one of the primary patterns of intersubject variance in resting functional connectivity. Compared to conventional sleepers, both short sleeper subtypes exhibited resting fMRI (R-fMRI) signatures consistent with diminished wakefulness, potentially indicating inaccurate perception of functionality among those denying dysfunction. Short sleepers denying dysfunction exhibited increased connectivity between sensory cortices and bilateral amygdala and hippocampus, suggesting that efficient sleep-related memory consolidation may partly explain individual differences in perceived daytime dysfunction. Overall, current findings indicate that R-fMRI investigations should include assessment of average sleep duration during the prior month. Furthermore, short sleeper subtype findings provide a candidate neural mechanism underlying differences in perceived daytime impairment associated with short sleep duration.

  12. Short sleep duration as a contributor to racial disparities in breast cancer tumor grade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Allan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although African Americans (AAs are less likely to get breast cancer than European Americans (EAs, they get more aggressive forms. We previously showed that short sleep is associated with higher tumor grade. It is well documented that AAs get less sleep, on average, than EAs. We studied the contribution of short sleep to racial disparities in breast cancer aggressiveness among 809 invasive breast cancer patients who responded to a survey on their lifestyle. Multivariable regressions and mediation analyses were performed to assess the effect of sleep duration on the association of race with tumor grade. AAs reported shorter average sleep (mean [standard deviation] 6.57 [1.47] h than EAs (mean [standard deviation] 7.11 [1.16] h; P<0.0001 and were almost twice as likely to report less than 6 h of sleep per night (48.0% vs. 25.3%, P<0.0001. AA patients were more likely to have high-grade tumors (52.6% vs. 28.7% in EAs, P=0.0002. In multivariate analysis, race was associated with tumor grade (P<0.0001. On adjustment for sleep duration, the effect of race was reduced by 7.1%, but remained statistically significant (P=0.0006. However, the Sobel test did not indicate statistical significance (z=1.69, P=0.091. In other models accounting for these and additional confounders, we found similar results. Because of the conservative nature of the mediation analysis and smaller sample size, replication of our results in larger studies with more AA patients is warranted.

  13. The relationship between insomnia with short sleep duration is associated with hypercholesterolemia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Ling; Tsai, Yu-Hsia; Yeh, Mei Chang

    2016-02-01

    To examine the association between insomnia with short sleep duration and hypercholesterolemia in Taiwanese adults. Previous studies mostly focused on the association between sleep duration and hyperlipidemia, but the results were not consistent. Besides, very few studies extensively examined the association between insomnia and hypercholesterolemia. This study hypothesized that insomnia with short sleep duration is associated with hypercholesterolemia. Secondary data analysis. This study analysed the latest database of the cross-sectional Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan which was released on 2011 (data collected between 2005-2008) and collected data using stratified three-staged probability sampling design. This study analysed 1533 participants aged between 19-64 (733 males and 800 females) and used logistic regression model to calculate the odds ratio and the 95% confidence interval of insomnia with short sleep duration to hypercholesterolemia. Controlled confounders included age, gender, sample weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hypertension and diabetes. Insomnia with 5-6 hours of sleep duration was significantly associated with hypercholesterolemia. The odds ratio of mild insomnia or moderate/severe insomnia with 5-6 hours of sleep duration to hypercholesterolemia was higher, compared with the reference group (without insomnia and >6 hours of sleep duration). Insomnia with short sleep duration was associated with increased odds of hypercholesterolemia. Caregivers in clinical practice should watch out for the effect brought by this novel factor. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Short sleep duration is associated with eating more carbohydrates and less dietary fat in Mexican American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration is a risk factor for childhood obesity. Mechanisms are unclear, but may involve selection of high carbohydrate foods. This study examined the association between estimated sleep duration and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy among Mexican American (MA) 9-11 yea...

  15. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doo, Miae; Kim, Yangha

    2017-02-27

    We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight ( p = 0.007), body mass index ( p = 0.003), systolic and diastolic blood pressures ( p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively), prevalence of obesity ( p foods such as staple foods ( p = 0.026) and simple sugar-rich foods ( p = 0.044) than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030-1.330). However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women.

  16. The Risk of Being Obese According to Short Sleep Duration Is Modulated after Menopause in Korean Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miae Doo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We previously reported that women with short sleep duration consumed more dietary carbohydrate and showed an increased risk for obesity compared to those who slept adequately, but not for men. Using a cross-sectional study of 17,841 Korean women, we investigated the influence of sleep duration on obesity-related variables and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods in relation to menopausal status. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration had significantly greater body weight (p = 0.007, body mass index (p = 0.003, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (p = 0.028 and p = 0.024, respectively, prevalence of obesity (p < 0.016, and consumption of more carbohydrate-rich foods such as staple foods (p = 0.026 and simple sugar-rich foods (p = 0.044 than those with adequate sleep duration after adjustment for covariates. Premenopausal women with short sleep duration were more obese by 1.171 times compared to subjects adequate sleep duration (95% confidence interval = 1.030–1.330. However, obesity-related variables, dietary consumption, and odds of being obese did not differ according to sleep duration for postmenopausal women. The findings suggest that the increased risk for obesity and consumption of dietary carbohydrate-rich foods with short sleep duration appeared to disappear after menopause in Korean women.

  17. Relationship between short sleep duration and cardiovascular risk factors in a multi-ethnic cohort - the helius study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anujuo, K.; Stronks, K.; Snijder, M.B.; Jean-Louis, G.; Rutters, F.; van den Born, B.J.; Agyemang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short sleep duration and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity and lipid profile among various ethnic groups (South Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaians,

  18. Association of insomnia and short sleep duration with atherosclerosis risk in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazaki, Chie; Noda, Akiko; Koike, Yasuo; Yamada, Sumio; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Norio

    2012-11-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality, although a relationship with atherosclerosis in the elderly remains unclear. Eighty-six volunteers aged ≥65 years (mean, 73.6 ± 4.9 years) were evaluated for insomnia. Total sleep time (TST) and sleep efficiency were measured by actigraphy. Subjective symptoms were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Atherosclerosis was evaluated using ultrasonographic measurements of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT). IMT was significantly greater and sleep efficiency was significantly lower in subjects with TST ≤5 h than those with TST >7 h (1.3 ± 0.5 vs. 0.9 ± 0.3 mm; P = 0.009; 91.0 ± 6.0 vs. 81.6 ± 11.3%, P = 0.03, respectively). IMT was also significantly greater in the insomnia group than the noninsomnia group (1.3 ± 0.5 vs. 1.1 ± 0.4 mm; P = 0.03). IMT was significantly correlated with systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and TST (SBP: r = 0.49, P insomnia were associated with atherosclerosis risk leading to cardiovascular disease in the elderly.

  19. Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with longer duration of insomnia in the Freiburg Insomnia Cohort compared to insomnia with normal sleep duration, but not with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johann, Anna F; Hertenstein, Elisabeth; Kyle, Simon D; Baglioni, Chiara; Feige, Bernd; Nissen, Christoph; McGinness, Alastair J; Riemann, Dieter; Spiegelhalder, Kai

    2017-01-01

    To replicate the association between insomnia with objective short sleep duration and hypertension, type 2 diabetes and duration of insomnia. Retrospective case-control study. Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Medical Center-University of Freiburg. 328 patients with primary insomnia classified according to DSM-IV criteria (125 males, 203 females, 44.3 ± 12.2 years). N/A. All participants were investigated using polysomnography, blood pressure measurements, and fasting routine laboratory. Insomnia patients with short sleep duration (insomnia compared to those with normal sleep duration (≥ 6 hours) in the first night of laboratory sleep. Insomnia patients who were categorised as short sleepers in either night were not more likely to suffer from hypertension (systolic blood pressure of ≥ 140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure of ≥ 90 mm Hg, or a previously established diagnosis). Data analysis showed that insomnia patients with objective short sleep duration were not more likely to suffer from type 2 diabetes (fasting plasma glucose level of ≥ 126 mg/dl, or a previously established diagnosis). However, the diabetes analysis was only based on a very small number of diabetes cases. As a new finding, insomnia patients who were categorised as short sleepers in either night presented with increases in liver enzyme levels. The finding on insomnia duration supports the concept of two distinct sub-groups of insomnia, namely insomnia with, and without, objectively determined short sleep duration. However, our data challenges previous findings that insomnia patients with short sleep duration are more likely to suffer from hypertension.

  20. The Consumption of Dietary Antioxidant Vitamins Modifies the Risk of Obesity among Korean Men with Short Sleep Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miae Doo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Short sleep duration has been reported to be associated with various health problems. This study examined the influence of sleep duration on the odds of being obese in relation to the consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins among 3941 Korean men between 40 and 69 years of age. After adjusting for age, education, household income, marital status, insomnia, smoking and drinking status, participants with short sleep duration (<6 h had significantly higher body mass index (p = 0.005, body fat mass (p = 0.010, body fat percentage (p = 0.021, waist circumference (p = 0.029, as well as the odds ratio (OR of risk of obesity [OR (95% CI = 1.467 (1.282–1.678], compared to participants with optimal sleep duration (≥7 h. Short sleepers with a low consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins had a higher risk of obesity than those with a high consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins; however, this relationship did not hold among those with optimal sleep duration. Although a causal relationship among sleep-related variables could not be definitively demonstrated because of this study’s cross-sectional design, our results suggested that the increased risk of obesity associated with short sleep duration may be modified by the consumption of dietary antioxidant vitamins.

  1. Short sleep duration measured by wrist actimetry is associated with deteriorated glycemic control in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Nasse, Laure; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Netter, Sophie; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves

    2013-10-01

    Sleep restriction has been associated with deteriorated insulin sensitivity. The effects of short sleep duration have been explored little in patients with type 1 diabetes. This study addresses the question of whether sleep curtailment affects HbA1c levels in patients with type 1 diabetes. Seventy-nine adult patients with type 1 diabetes (median age 40 years [IQR 23-49]; 47% men) were recruited to wear a wrist actimetry sensor during 3 consecutive days to assess mean sleep duration during normal daily life. A subsample of 37 patients also performed 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). Medical history, sleep questionnaires, and diabetes-related quality of life (DQOL) were assessed. Patients having shorter sleep duration--less than 6.5 h (n=21)--had higher levels of HbA1c (P=0.01) than patients with longer sleep duration, above 6.5 h (n=58). In a multivariable regression model including shorter versus longer sleep duration, diabetes duration, DQOL score, and daily activity, sleep duration was the only variable independently associated with HbA1c (R2=10%). In patients who performed 24-h ABPM, patients with a nondipping pattern of blood pressure exhibited shorter sleep duration than patients with a dipping pattern of blood pressure. Shorter sleep duration is associated with higher HbA1c levels in patients with type 1 diabetes, as well as with a nondipping pattern of blood pressure, anticipating a long-term deleterious impact on the risk of microvascular complications. Further studies should test whether extending the duration of sleep may improve both HbA1c and blood pressure in type 1 diabetes.

  2. Short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypertension: analyses of the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gangwisch, J.E.; Heymsfield, S.B.; Boden-Albala, B.; Buijs, R.M.; Kreier, F.; Pickering, T.G.; Rundle, A.G.; Zamit, G.K.; Malaspina, D.

    2006-01-01

    Depriving healthy subjects of sleep has been shown to acutely increase blood pressure and sympathetic nervous system activity. Prolonged short sleep durations could lead to hypertension through extended exposure to raised 24-hour blood pressure and heart rate, elevated sympathetic nervous system

  3. Short sleep duration is associated with decreased serum leptin, increased energy intake and decreased diet quality in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Jennifer H; Grant, Andriene S; Thomson, Cynthia A; Tinker, Lesley; Hale, Lauren; Brennan, Kathleen M; Woods, Nancy F; Chen, Zhao

    2014-05-01

    Short sleep duration induces hormonal perturbations contributing to hyperphagia, insulin resistance, and obesity. The majority of these studies are conducted in young adults. This analysis in a large (n = 769) sample of postmenopausal women (median age 63 years) sought to (a) confirm that sleep duration and sleep quality are negatively correlated with circulating leptin concentrations and (b) to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep, dietary energy intake, and diet quality, as well as, investigate the role of leptin in these associations. Sleep duration/quality, insomnia, and dietary intake were determined via self-report. Blood samples were collected following an overnight fast to assess serum leptin concentration. All analyses were adjusted for total body fat mass. Women reporting ≤6 hr sleep/night had lower serum leptin concentrations than those reporting ≥8 hr sleep (P = 0.04). Furthermore, those with ≤6 hr sleep/night reported higher dietary energy intake (P = 0.01) and lower diet quality (P = 0.04) than the reference group (7 hr sleep/night). Women sleeping ≥8 hr also reported lower diet quality than the reference group (P = 0.02). Importantly, serum leptin did not confound these associations. These results provide evidence that sleep duration is inversely associated with serum leptin and dietary energy intake in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  4. Short sleep duration and large variability in sleep duration are independently associated with dietary risk factors for obesity in Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, J S; Hjorth, M F; Andersen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    -to-day variability) as well as parent-reported sleep problems are independently associated with proposed dietary risk factors for overweight and obesity in 8-11 year old children.Design:In this cross-sectional study data on sleep duration and day-to-day variability in sleep duration were measured in 676 Danish...

  5. Short sleep duration as a risk factor for hypercholesterolemia: analyses of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwisch, James E; Malaspina, Dolores; Babiss, Lindsay A; Opler, Mark G; Posner, Kelly; Shen, Sa; Turner, J Blake; Zammit, Gary K; Ginsberg, Henry N

    2010-07-01

    To explore the relationship between sleep duration in adolescence and hypercholesterolemia in young adulthood. Experimental sleep restriction has been shown to significantly increase total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels in women. Short sleep duration has been found in cross sectional studies to be associated with higher total cholesterol and lower HDL cholesterol levels. Sleep deprivation could increase the risk for hypercholesterolemia by increasing appetite and dietary consumption of saturated fats, decreasing motivation to engage in regular physical activity, and increasing stress and resultant catecholamine induced lipolysis. No previous published population studies have examined the longitudinal relationship between sleep duration and high cholesterol. Multivariate longitudinal analyses stratified by sex of the ADD Health using logistic regression. United States nationally representative, school-based, probability-based sample. Adolescents (n = 14,257) in grades 7 to 12 at baseline (1994-95) and ages 18 to 26 at follow-up (2001-02). Among females, each additional hour of sleep was associated with a significantly decreased odds of being diagnosed with high cholesterol in young adulthood (OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.96) after controlling for covariates. Additional sleep was associated with decreased, yet not statistically significant, odds ratios for hypercholesterolemia in males (OR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.79-1.05). Short sleep durations in adolescent women could be a significant risk factor for high cholesterol. Interventions that lengthen sleep could potentially serve as treatments and as primary preventative measures for hypercholesterolemia.

  6. The influence of PTSD, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress on insomnia and short sleep duration in urban, young adult, African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall Brown, Tyish; Mellman, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    African Americans residing in stressful urban environments have high rates of insomnia and short sleep duration, both of which are associated with adverse health outcomes. However, limited data exist that explore factors influencing inadequate sleep in this high-risk population. This study sought to evaluate the contributions of demographics, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress to both insomnia and short sleep in urban African American young adults. Data were analyzed from self-report measures completed by 378 participants 18-35 years of age. PTSD symptom severity and sleep fears were independently associated with insomnia severity, and sleep fears was associated with sleep duration. Results have implications for preventative health intervention strategies for urban African American young adults.

  7. Short sleep duration, complaints of vital exhaustion and perceived stress are prevalent among pregnant women with mood and anxiety disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Chunfang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychiatric disorders have been associated with sleep disorders in men and non-pregnant women, but little is known about sleep complaints and disorders among pregnant women with psychiatric disorders. Methods A cohort of 1,332 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We ascertained psychiatric diagnosis status and collect information about sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, vital exhaustion and perceived stress. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Results Approximately 5.1% of the cohort (n=68 reported having a physician-diagnosis of mood or anxiety disorder before interview. Compared with women without a psychiatric diagnosis, the multivariable-adjusted OR (95% CI for short sleep duration in early pregnancy (≤6 hours were 1.95 (1.03-3.69. The corresponding OR (95%CI for long sleep duration (≥9 hours during early pregnancy was 1.13 (0.63-2.03. Women with psychiatric disorders had an increased risk of vital exhaustion (OR=2.41; 95%CI 1.46-4.00 and elevated perceived stress (OR=3.33; 95%CI 1.89-5.88. Observed associations were more pronounced among overweight/obese women. Conclusions Women with a psychiatric disorder were more likely to report short sleep durations, vital exhaustion and elevated perceived stress. Prospective studies are needed to more thoroughly explore factors that mediate the apparent mood/anxiety-sleep comorbidity among pregnant women.

  8. Working multiple jobs over a day or a week: Short-term effects on sleep duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marucci-Wellman, Helen R; Lombardi, David A; Willetts, Joanna L

    Approximately 10% of the employed population in the United States works in multiple jobs. They are more likely to work long hours and in nonstandard work schedules, factors known to impact sleep duration and quality, and increase the risk of injury. In this study we used multivariate regression models to compare the duration of sleep in a 24-hour period between workers working in multiple jobs (MJHs) with single job holders (SJHs) controlling for other work schedule and demographic factors. We used data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics US American Time Use Survey (ATUS) pooled over a 9-year period (2003-2011). We found that MJHs had significantly reduced sleep duration compared with SJHs due to a number of independent factors, such as working longer hours and more often late at night. Male MJHs, working in their primary job or more than one job on the diary day, also had significantly shorter sleep durations (up to 40 minutes less on a weekend day) than male SJHs, even after controlling for all other factors. Therefore, duration of work hours, time of day working and duration of travel for work may not be the only factors to consider when understanding if male MJHs are able to fit in enough recuperative rest from their busy schedule. Work at night had the greatest impact on sleep duration for females, reducing sleep time by almost an hour compared with females who did not work at night. We also hypothesize that the high frequency or fragmentation of non-leisure activities (e.g. work and travel for work) throughout the day and between jobs may have an additional impact on the duration and quality of sleep for MJHs.

  9. Short sleep duration and obesity among children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yanhui; Gong, Qinghai; Zou, Zhuquan; Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiaohong

    Previous epidemiology studies have demonstrated that short sleep duration may be associated with the development of obesity, although the effects remain controversial. This study aimed to assess epidemiologic evidence systematically on the relation between sleep duration and obesity in children. We searched the Medline, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and Science Citation Index databases and reference lists of the included articles. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using a random-effects model. Fifty cohorts from thirteen studies were included in the pooled analysis. They included 35,540 participants from around the world. In children/adolescents the pooled OR was 1.71 (1.36-2.14; I 2 =91.3%), the positive association was consistent after omitting any of the studies. In subgroup analyses, the results indicated that the heterogeneity of effect may due to differences in geographical location, cut-off for short sleep duration and definition of obesity/overweight. The publication bias tests indicated a no evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis provides evidence that short sleep duration in children is associated with a significantly increased risk of obesity. Enough sleep duration is potentially important for the prevention of obesity among children. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Short Sleep Duration is Associated with Obesity in Hispanic Manufacturing Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, Grant; Ghaddar, Suad F; Talavera-Garza, Liza

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between obesity and sleep duration among Hispanic manufacturing workers. Two hundred and twenty eight Hispanic workers from eight manufacturing plants completed an in-person interview that included measures of demographics, health literacy, and sleep duration. Height and weight were directly assessed. A logistic regression, controlling for gender, education, age, income, physical activity levels, self-reported health status, and health literacy, indicated that workers who slept six hours or less were significantly more likely to be obese than those sleeping seven to nine hours (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.04-3.47). Our results extend previous research on the association between sleep duration and obesity to an understudied population of Hispanic workers.

  11. Relationship between short sleep duration and cardiovascular risk factors in a multi-ethnic cohort - the helius study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anujuo, Kenneth; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B.; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Rutters, Femke; van den Born, Bert-Jan; Peters, Ron J.; Agyemang, Charles

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between short sleep duration and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, obesity and lipid profile among various ethnic groups (South Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaians, Turks, Moroccans and the

  12. Effects of emotional eating and short sleep duration on weight gain in female employees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, T.; Koenders, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: To investigate whether there is an interaction between emotional eating and sleep duration on weight change and whether this effect is stronger in women. DESIGN:: One-year follow-up study. SETTING:: Banking environment. PARTICIPANTS:: 553 women and 911 men. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS::

  13. Effects of Emotional Eating and Short Sleep Duration on Weight Gain in Female Employees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strien, T. van; Koenders, P.G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether there is an interaction between emotional eating and sleep duration on weight change and whether this effect is stronger in women. Design: One-year follow-up study. Setting: Banking environment. Participants: 553 women and 911 men. Measurements and Results:

  14. Short sleep duration is associated with teacher-reported inattention and cognitive problems in healthy school-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaelsen S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Reut Gruber1,2, Sonia Michaelsen1,2, Lana Bergmame2, Sonia Frenette3,4, Oliviero Bruni5, Laura Fontil2, Julie Carrier3,41Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, 2Attention, Behavior and Sleep Lab, Douglas Mental Health University Institute, 3Centre du Sommeil et des Rythmes Biologiques, Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal, 4Departement de Psychologie, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 5Child Neuropsychiatry Unit, University of Rome, Rome, ItalyPurpose: Pediatric, clinical, and research data suggest that insufficient sleep causes tiredness and daytime difficulties in terms of attention-focusing, learning, and impulse modulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD or in those with ADHD and primary sleep disorders. The aim of the present study was to examine whether sleep duration was associated with ADHD-like symptoms in healthy, well-developing school-aged children.Patients and methods: Thirty-five healthy children (20 boys, 15 girls, aged 7–11 years participated in the present study. Each child wore an actigraphic device on their nondominant wrist for two nights prior to use of polysomnography to assess their typical sleep periods. On the third night, sleep was recorded via ambulatory assessment of sleep architecture in the child's natural sleep environment employing portable polysomnography equipment. Teachers were asked to report symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity on the revised Conners Teacher Rating Scale.Results: Shorter sleep duration was associated with higher levels of teacher-reported ADHD-like symptoms in the domains of cognitive problems and inattention. No significant association between sleep duration and hyperactivity symptoms was evident.Conclusion: Short sleep duration was found to be related to teacher-derived reports of ADHD-like symptoms of inattention and cognitive functioning in healthy children.Keywords: ADHD-like symptoms, sleep duration, inattention

  15. Relationship between Chronic Short Sleep Duration and Childhood Body Mass Index: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Pileggi

    Full Text Available To assess relationship between obesity and chronic shorter sleep duration in children and to determine if lack of sleep represents an independent determinant of childhood Body Mass Index.This cross-sectional study was conducted in all children enrolled in the fifth class (approximately 10 years of age of all public primary schools in Catanzaro (Southern Italy. The overall response rate was 62% resulting in 542 participating children. Parents completed a questionnaire with information on their demographics and socio-economic characteristics, their health status, characteristics of their child birth and health status. The sleeping habits were investigated in the 3 months preceding the consultation and parents were asked to indicate hours of bedtime and wake-up of their children. Multivariate linear regression analysis was performed to examine the association between child BMI and chronic lack of sleep.36.7% of the children surveyed were overweight or obese. A quarter of children did not routinely play sports and many of them spent more than an hour a day watching TV (60.7% and using videogames or computer (51.1%. Widespread dietary habits were inadequate, especially concerning vegetables and fruit intake with more than 95% of children who consumed insufficient amounts. The average duration of sleep was equal to 9.4 (SD = ±0.6 hours, and the short-sleepers accounted for 38.9% of the total sample. The results of multivariate analysis showed a significant 0.77 Kg/m(2 increase of BMI for children classified as short compared to normal sleepers (95%CI = 0.16-1.38, p = 0.01.Chronic lack of sleep appears to be associated to higher BMI even in middle childhood and strongly suggests that public health strategies, focused on promoting healthy lifestyles should include an innovative approach to ensure an adequate duration of sleep at night especially in children, alongside more traditional approaches.

  16. Survey of On-Orbit Sleep Quality: Short-Duration Flyers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, J.; Leveton, L.; Keeton, K.; Whitmire, A.; Patterson, H.; Faulk, J.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Behavioral Health and Performance Element (BHP), in conjunction with the NASA Space Medicine Division, is currently completing the largest systematic, subjective assessment of shuttle astronauts sleep behaviors and sleep quality on Earth, during training periods, and during space flight missions. Since July 2009, a total of 66 astronauts have completed a secure online survey regarding specific sleep strategies, crew policies, and mitigation effectiveness. In addition to the survey, each astronaut participant met individually with trained BHP and SD representatives for a structured, follow-up interview. Data are currently being assessed and the study s principal investigator will be providing some preliminary findings at the Investigators Workshop. Additional analyses will be conducted in the following months to examine predictors of optimal sleep in space, and to evaluate the differences in countermeasure effectiveness between groups based on their sleep experience on the ground and on orbit. A revised survey for a subsequent investigation on the experiences of long-duration flyers will be developed in the Spring and implemented in the Summer of 2010. Findings from both of these investigations will inform countermeasure strategies for astronauts, medical operations, and habitat designers for future exploration missions, as well as upcoming shuttle and ISS missions.

  17. Short Sleep Duration Is Associated With a Blood Pressure Nondipping Pattern in Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Debaty, Isabelle; Levy, Patrick; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Mallion, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess whether nocturnal blood pressure dipping status in type 1 diabetes is correlated with specific sleep characteristics and differences in nocturnal glycemic profiles. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty type 1 diabetic adult patients underwent sleep studies with simultaneous 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and continuous nocturnal glucose monitoring. RESULTS Altogether, 55% of patients exhibited blunted blood pressure dipping. They did not differ from the dipper group in age, BMI, or systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. Total sleep period (TSP) was higher in the dipper group (497 ± 30 vs. 407 ± 44 min for dippers and nondippers, respectively, P < 0.001). TSP was correlated with SBP and DBP day-night differences (r = 0.44 and 0.49, respectively). Periods of nocturnal hypoglycemia (i.e., % of TSP with glycemia <70 mg/dl) were longer in the dipper group (8.1 ± 10.7 vs. 0.1 ± 0.4% for dippers and nondippers, respectively, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS Dipping status in type 1 diabetes was associated with longer sleep duration and with hypoglycemia unawareness. PMID:19542208

  18. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS). Severity of depression (psychopathology) has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an ...

  19. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    2011-12-04

    Dec 4, 2011 ... psychopathology – both impair social and occupational functions. Insomnia and short nocturnal sleep duration are regular accompaniments of psychopathology. The triad of EDS, short nocturnal sleep duration and psychopathology must necessarily impact adversely on the lives and academic performance ...

  20. A multi-step pathway connecting short sleep duration to daytime somnolence, reduced attention, and poor academic performance: an exploratory cross-sectional study in teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Lloret, Santiago; Videla, Alejandro J; Richaudeau, Alba; Vigo, Daniel; Rossi, Malco; Cardinali, Daniel P; Perez-Chada, Daniel

    2013-05-15

    A multi-step causality pathway connecting short sleep duration to daytime somnolence and sleepiness leading to reduced attention and poor academic performance as the final result can be envisaged. However this hypothesis has never been explored. To explore consecutive correlations between sleep duration, daytime somnolence, attention levels, and academic performance in a sample of school-aged teenagers. We carried out a survey assessing sleep duration and daytime somnolence using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale (PDSS). Sleep duration variables included week-days' total sleep time, usual bedtimes, and absolute weekday to-weekend sleep time difference. Attention was assessed by d2 test and by the coding subtest from the WISC-IV scale. Academic performance was obtained from literature and math grades. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the independent relationships between these variables, while controlling for confounding effects of other variables, in one single model. Standardized regression weights (SWR) for relationships between these variables are reported. Study sample included 1,194 teenagers (mean age: 15 years; range: 13-17 y). Sleep duration was inversely associated with daytime somnolence (SWR = -0.36, p academic results (SWR = 0.18, p academic achievements (SWR = -0.16, p sleep duration influenced attention through daytime somnolence (p academic achievements through reduced attention (p academic achievements correlated with reduced attention, which in turn was related to daytime somnolence. Somnolence correlated with short sleep duration.

  1. Short sleep duration is associated with poor performance on IQ measures in healthy school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Reut; Laviolette, Rachelle; Deluca, Paolo; Monson, Eva; Cornish, Kim; Carrier, Julie

    2010-03-01

    To examine the associations between habitual sleep duration and intellectual functioning in healthy, well-rested, school-age children. The study group consisted of 39 healthy children, aged 7-11 years old. Nightly actigraphic sleep recordings were taken for four consecutive nights to determine habitual week-night sleep duration in the home environment. Objective measures of cognitive functioning and sleepiness were used to measure daytime functioning. Longer habitual sleep duration in healthy school-age participants was associated with better performance on measures of perceptual reasoning and overall IQ, as measured by the WISC-IV, and on reported measures of competence and academic performance. No association between sleep duration and the studied behavioral measures was found. These findings support the hypothesis that sleep duration is differentially related to some components of cognitive functioning, even in the absence of evidence for sleep deprivation or attention deficits. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing and contrasting therapeutic effects of cognitive-behavior therapy for older adults suffering from insomnia with short and long objective sleep duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovato, Nicole; Lack, Leon; Kennaway, David J

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of a brief group-based program of cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia (CBTi) for older adults suffering from chronic insomnia with short objective sleep relative to those with long sleep duration. Ninety-one adults (male = 43, mean age = 63.34, standard deviation (SD) = 6.41) with sleep maintenance insomnia were selected from a community-based sample. The participants were classified as short sleepers (SS; treatment program of CBTi (N = 30 SS; N = 33 LS) or to a wait-list control condition (N = 9 SS, N = 19 LS). One-week sleep diaries, actigraphy, and a comprehensive battery of questionnaires were used to evaluate the efficacy of CBTi for those with short objective sleep relative to those with long sleep duration. Outcome measures were taken at pretreatment, posttreatment, and a 3-month follow-up. CBTi produced robust and durable improvements in quality of sleep, including reduced wake after sleep onset and improved sleep efficiency. Participants reported a reduction of scores on the Insomnia Severity Index, Flinders Fatigue Scale, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Daytime Feeling and Functioning Scale, Sleep Anticipatory Anxiety Questionnaire, the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep Scale, and gains on the Sleep Self-Efficacy Scale. All improvements were significant relative to their respective SS or LS wait-list group. The benefits of CBTi were comparable with those who had short and long objective sleep before the treatment. Older adults suffering from chronic insomnia with short objective sleep received comparable therapeutic benefits following CBTi relative to those with long objective sleep duration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Short sleep duration is associated with B-type natriuretic peptide levels and predicts the death of Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Hidetaka; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Sako, Akahito; Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the associations of sleep duration with all-cause mortality, glycemic control, and other clinical parameters of patients with type 2 diabetes. From April 2013 to December 2015, we conducted a retrospective cohort study. Study participants were divided into three groups according to their sleep duration. Multiple regression analysis and Cox proportional hazards analysis were performed to assess the independent associations of sleep duration with clinical parameters and all-cause mortality. We enrolled 1233 patients who were then followed for 860 ± 264 days. During the follow-up period, 20 patients (1.6%) died. Sleep duration inversely associated with plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels (β = -0.203, p = 0.012) in short (<7 h) sleepers, whereas it was positively associated with hemoglobin A1c levels (β = 0.156, p = 0.021) in long (≥9 h) sleepers. Moreover, Cox proportional hazard analysis revealed that short sleep duration was a significant predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio = 0.473; confidence interval 0.248-0.905, p = 0.024). Short sleep duration may serve as a prognostic indicator of mortality in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes and may increase cardiovascular stress. Adequate sleep is essential for the management of type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma concentration of Caspase-8 is associated with short sleep duration and the risk of incident diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Thomas; Svensson, Akiko Kishi; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Almgren, Peter; Engström, Gunnar; Nilsson, Jan; Orho-Melander, Marju; Nilsson, Peter M; Melander, Olle

    2018-02-01

    The biological mechanism for the association between sleep duration and incident diabetes mellitus (DM) is unclear. Sleep duration and Caspase-8, a marker of apoptotic activity, have both been implicated in beta cell function. To investigate the associations between sleep duration and plasma Caspase-8, and incident DM, respectively. Prospective cohort study. The Malmö Diet and Cancer (MDC) Study is a population-based, prospective study run in the city of Malmö, Sweden. 4023 individuals from the MDC Study aged 45-68 years at baseline without a history of prevalent DM, and with information on habitual sleep duration. Incident DM. Mean follow-up time was 17.8 years. Sleep duration was the only behavioural variable significantly associated with plasma Caspase-8. Plasma Caspase-8 was significantly associated with incident DM per standard deviation of its transformed continuous form (hazard ratio [HR]= 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-1.36), and when dichotomized into high (quartile 4) (HR=1.44, 95%CI: 1.19-1.74) compared to low (quartiles 1-3) concentrations. Caspase-8 interacted with sleep duration; compared to 7-8 hours of sleep and low plasma Caspase-8, individuals with high plasma Caspase-8 and sleep duration <6 hours (HR=3.54, 95%CI: 2.12-5.90), 6-7 hours (HR=1.81, 95%CI: 1.24-2.65), and 8-9 hours (HR=1.54, 95%CI: 1.09-2.18) were at significantly increased risks of incident DM. Sleep duration is associated with plasma Caspase-8. Caspase-8 independently predicts DM years before disease onset and modifies the effect of sleep duration on incident DM. Future studies should investigate if change of sleep duration modifies plasma concentrations of Caspase-8. Copyright © 2018 Endocrine Society

  5. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and dietary behaviors are significant correlates of short sleep duration in the general population: the Nagahama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kimihiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Muro, Shigeo; Yamada, Ryo; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Nakayama, Takeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Chiba, Tsutomu; Chin, Kazuo; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2014-11-01

    To examine relationships among gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, dietary behaviors, and sleep duration in the general population. Cross-sectional. Community-based. There were 9,643 participants selected from the general population (54 ± 13 y). None. Sleep duration, sleep habits, and unfavorable dietary behaviors of each participant were assessed with a structured questionnaire. Participants were categorized into five groups according to their sleep duration: less than 5 h, 5 to less than 6 h, 6 to less than 7 h, 7 to less than 8 h, and 8 or more h per day. GERD was evaluated using the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD (FSSG) and participants having an FSSG score of 8 or more or those under treatment of GERD were defined as having GERD. Trend analysis showed that both the FSSG score and the number of unfavorable dietary habits increased with decreasing sleep duration. Further, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that both the presence of GERD (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07-1.32) and the number of unfavorable dietary behaviors (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.13-1.26) were independent and potent factors to identify participants with short sleep duration even after controlling for other confounding factors. The current study showed that both GERD symptoms and unfavorable dietary behaviors were significant correlates of short sleep duration independently of each other in a large sample from the general population.

  6. Insomnia with Objective Short Sleep Duration and Risk of Incident Cardiovascular Disease and All-Cause Mortality: Sleep Heart Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Suzanne M; Pollock, Benjamin D; Mittleman, Murray A; Buysse, Daniel J; Bazzano, Lydia A; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Redline, Susan

    2018-03-07

    To quantify the association between insomnia/poor sleep with objective short sleep and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in the general population. We conducted a time-to-event analysis of Sleep Heart Health Study data. Questionnaires and at-home polysomnography were performed between 1994 -1998. Participants were followed for a median 11.4 years (Q1-Q3, 8.8-12.4 years) until death or last contact. The primary exposure was insomnia or poor sleep with short sleep defined as: difficulty falling asleep, difficulty returning to sleep, early morning awakenings, or sleeping pill use, 16-30 nights/month; and total sleep insomnia/poor sleep with short sleep and CVD, as well as all-cause mortality. Among 4,994 participants (mean age 64.0 ± 11.1 years), 14.1% reported insomnia or poor sleep, of which 50.3% slept insomnia/poor sleep with short sleep group compared with the reference group (HR, 1.29, 95% CI, 1.00, 1.66), but neither the insomnia/poor sleep only nor short sleep only groups were associated with higher incident CVD. Insomnia/poor sleep with objective short sleep was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality (HR, 1.07, 95% CI, 0.86, 1.33). Insomnia/poor sleep with PSG-short sleep was associated with higher risk of incident CVD. Future studies should evaluate the impact of interventions to improve insomnia with PSG-short sleep on CVD.

  7. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms and Dietary Behaviors are Significant Correlates of Short Sleep Duration in the General Population: The Nagahama Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murase, Kimihiko; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Muro, Shigeo; Yamada, Ryo; Setoh, Kazuya; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Kadotani, Hiroshi; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Nakayama, Takeo; Mishima, Michiaki; Chiba, Tsutomu; Chin, Kazuo; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine relationships among gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, dietary behaviors, and sleep duration in the general population. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Community-based. Participants: There were 9,643 participants selected from the general population (54 ± 13 y). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Sleep duration, sleep habits, and unfavorable dietary behaviors of each participant were assessed with a structured questionnaire. Participants were categorized into five groups according to their sleep duration: less than 5 h, 5 to less than 6 h, 6 to less than 7 h, 7 to less than 8 h, and 8 or more h per day. GERD was evaluated using the Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD (FSSG) and participants having an FSSG score of 8 or more or those under treatment of GERD were defined as having GERD. Trend analysis showed that both the FSSG score and the number of unfavorable dietary habits increased with decreasing sleep duration. Further, multiple logistic regression analysis showed that both the presence of GERD (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07–1.32) and the number of unfavorable dietary behaviors (odds ratio = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.13–1.26) were independent and potent factors to identify participants with short sleep duration even after controlling for other confounding factors. Conclusion: The current study showed that both GERD symptoms and unfavorable dietary behaviors were significant correlates of short sleep duration independently of each other in a large sample from the general population. Citation: Murase K, Tabara Y, Takahashi Y, Muro S, Yamada R, Setoh K, Kawaguchi T, Kadotani H, Kosugi S, Sekine A, Nakayama T, Mishima M, Chiba T, Chin K, Matsuda F. Gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms and dietary behaviors are significant correlates of short sleep duration in the general population: the Nagahama Study. SLEEP 2014;37(11):1809-1815. PMID:25364076

  8. Short or long sleep duration is associated with memory impairment in older Chinese: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Lam, Tai Hing; Liu, Bin; Jin, Ya Li; Zhu, Tong; Zhang, Wei Sen; Cheng, Kar Keung; Thomas, G Neil

    2011-05-01

    To examine the association between sleep-related factors and memory impairment. Cross-sectional study Community-based study in Guangzhou, China. 28,670 older Chinese (20,776 women and 7,894 men) aged 50 to 85 years. Demographic and socioeconomic data, sleep-related factors, and cognitive function were collected by face-to-face interview. Potential confounders, such as employment and occupational status, smoking, alcohol and tea use, physical activity, self-rated health, anthropometry, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose and lipids were measured. After adjusting for multiple potential confounders, an inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration and delayed word recall test (DWRT) score, a validated measure of memory impairment, was found, with 7 to 8 h of habitual sleep duration showing the highest score (P-values for trend from 3 to 7 h and from 7 to ≥ 10 h were all ≤ 0.001). Compared to sleep duration of 7 h, the adjusted odds ratio for memory impairment from the sleep duration of 3 to 4 or ≥ 10 h was 1.29 (95% confidence interval 1.07-1.56) and 1.52 (1.25-1.86), respectively. Subjects with daily napping, morning tiredness, or insomnia had significantly lower DWRT scores than those without (P ranged from sleep duration was an important sleep-related factor independently associated with memory impairment and may be a useful marker for increased risk of cognitive impairment in older people.

  9. Short Sleep Duration Is Associated With a Blood Pressure Nondipping Pattern in Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Debaty, Isabelle; Levy, Patrick; P?pin, Jean-Louis; Mallion, Jean-Michel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess whether nocturnal blood pressure dipping status in type 1 diabetes is correlated with specific sleep characteristics and differences in nocturnal glycemic profiles. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Twenty type 1 diabetic adult patients underwent sleep studies with simultaneous 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and continuous nocturnal glucose monitoring. RESULTS Altogether, 55% of patients exhibited blunted blood pressure dipping. They did not differ from the dipper gro...

  10. Sleep duration and adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jonathan A; Rodriguez, Daniel; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Audrain-McGovern, Janet

    2013-05-01

    Short sleep has been associated with adolescent obesity. Most studies used a cross-sectional design and modeled BMI categories. We sought to determine if sleep duration was associated with BMI distribution changes from age 14 to 18. Adolescents were recruited from suburban high schools in Philadelphia when entering ninth grade (n = 1390) and were followed-up every 6 months through 12th grade. Height and weight were self-reported, and BMIs were calculated (kg/m(2)). Hours of sleep were self-reported. Quantile regression was used to model the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th BMI percentiles as dependent variables; study wave and sleep were the main predictors. BMI increased from age 14 to 18, with the largest increase observed at the 90th BMI percentile. Each additional hour of sleep was associated with decreases in BMI at the 10th (-0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.11, 0.03), 25th (-0.12; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.04), 50th (-0.15; 95% CI: -0.24, -0.06), 75th (-0.25; 95% CI: -0.38, -0.12), and 90th (-0.27; 95% CI: -0.45, -0.09) BMI percentiles. The strength of the association was stronger at the upper tail of the BMI distribution. Increasing sleep from 7.5 to 10.0 hours per day at age 18 predicted a reduction in the proportion of adolescents >25 kg/m(2) by 4%. More sleep was associated with nonuniform changes in BMI distribution from age 14 to 18. Increasing sleep among adolescents, especially those in the upper half of the BMI distribution, may help prevent overweight and obesity.

  11. Short sleep duration is associated with increased obesity markers in European adolescents: effect of physical activity and dietary habits. The HELENA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaulet, M; Ortega, F B; Ruiz, J R; Rey-López, J P; Béghin, L; Manios, Y; Cuenca-García, M; Plada, M; Diethelm, K; Kafatos, A; Molnár, D; Al-Tahan, J; Moreno, L A

    2011-10-01

    Adequate sleep is a critical factor for adolescent's health and health-related behaviors. (a) to describe sleep duration in European adolescents from nine countries, (b) to assess the association of short sleep duration with excess adiposity and (c) to elucidate if physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviors and/or inadequate food habits underlie this association. A sample of 3311 adolescents (1748 girls) aged 12.5-17.49 years from 10 European cities in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden was assessed in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Study between 2006 and 2008. We measured anthropometric data, sleep duration, PA (accelerometers and questionnaire), television watching and food habits (Food Frequency Questionnaire). Average duration of daily sleep was 8 h. Shorter sleepers showed higher values of BMI, body fat, waist and hip circumferences and fat mass index (Pwatching TV (Pobesity parameters. In European adolescents, short sleep duration is associated with higher adiposity markers, particularly in female adolescents. This association seems to be related to both sides of the energy balance equation due to a combination of increased food intake and more sedentary habits.

  12. Sleep duration, sleep quality and body weight: parallel developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Adam, Tanja C; Hursel, Rick; Rutters, Femke; Verhoef, Sanne P M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-09-10

    The increase in obesity, including childhood obesity, has developed over the same time period as the progressive decrease in self-reported sleep duration. Since epidemiological studies showed an inverse relationship between short or disturbed sleep and obesity, the question arose, how sleep duration and sleep quality are associated with the development of obesity. In this review, the current literature on these topics has been evaluated. During puberty, changes in body mass index (BMI) are inversely correlated to changes in sleep duration. During adulthood, this relationship remains and at the same time unfavorable metabolic and neuro-endocrinological changes develop, that promote a positive energy balance, coinciding with sleep disturbance. Furthermore, during excessive weight loss BMI and fat mass decrease, in parallel, and related with an increase in sleep duration. In order to shed light on the association between sleep duration, sleep quality and obesity, until now it only has been shown that diet-induced body-weight loss and successive body-weight maintenance contribute to sleep improvement. It remains to be demonstrated whether body-weight management and body composition improve during an intervention concomitantly with spontaneous sleep improvement compared with the same intervention without spontaneous sleep improvement. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Regional contextual influences on short sleep duration: a 50 universities population-based multilevel study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tingzhong; Peng, Sihui; Barnett, Ross; Zhang, Chichen

    2018-01-01

    Ecological models have emphasized that short sleep duration (SSD) is influenced by both individual and environmental variables. However, few studies have considered the latter. The present study explores the influence of urban and regional contextual factors, net of individual characteristics, on the prevalence of SSD among university students in China. Participants were 11,954 students, who were identified through a multistage survey sampling process conducted in 50 universities. Individual data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire, and contextual variables were retrieved from a national database. Multilevel logistic regression models were used to examine urban and regional variations in high and moderate levels of SSD. Overall the prevalence of high SSD (unemployment rate were associated with SSD, net of other individual- and city-level covariates. Students attending high-level universities also recorded the highest levels of SSD. Of the individual characteristcs, only mother's occupation and student mental health status were related to SSD. The results of this study add important insights about the role of contextual factors affecting SSD among young adults and indicate the need to take into account both past, as well as present, environmental influences to control SSD.

  14. Sociosexuality, Morningness–Eveningness, and Sleep Duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Randler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Morningness–eveningness is the preference for different times of day for activity and sleep. Here, we addressed the effects of sleep behavior and morningness–eveningness on sociosexuality. Three hundred students (M age = 22.75 years, with 95% between 18 and 28 participated online, answering questions about morningness–eveningness (rMEQ [Reduced Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire], midpoint of sleep on free days (MSF, sleep duration, and the Sociosexuality Orientation Inventory–Revised (SOI-R. The SOI-R contains three subscales, Behavior, Attitude, and Desire. Evening orientation and short sleep duration were related to a higher total SOI-R and to the three subscales. Based on the linear models, the strongest effect on sociosexuality was produced by gender (27% explained variance while age accounted for 6% of variance. Nonadditive variance explained by sleep–wake behavior was 7% (MSF, 4% (sleep duration, and 4% (rMEQ scores; 3% rMEQ-based typology. Older age was related to less-restricted sociosexuality, and men were less restricted than women in Attitude and Desire. Sleep duration and rMEQ scores were associated with Attitude and Desire; but only MSF was significantly related to Behavior. The data show that sleep–wake variables are associated with sociosexuality, with evening orientation and shorter sleep duration being related to a less-restricted sociosexuality.

  15. Short sleep duration is associated with risk of future diabetes but not cardiovascular disease: a prospective study and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G Holliday

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic studies have observed association between short sleep duration and both cardiovascular disease (CVD and type 2 diabetes, although these results may reflect confounding by pre-existing illness. This study aimed to determine whether short sleep duration predicts future CVD or type 2 diabetes after accounting for baseline health. Baseline data for 241,949 adults were collected through the 45 and Up Study, an Australian prospective cohort study, with health outcomes identified via electronic database linkage. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR and 95% confidence intervals. Compared to 7h sleep, <6h sleep was associated with incident CVD in participants reporting ill-health at baseline (HR=1.38 [95% CI: 1.12-1.70], but not after excluding those with baseline illness and adjusting for baseline health status (1.03 [0.88-1.21]. In contrast, the risk of incident type 2 diabetes was significantly increased in those with <6h versus 7h sleep, even after excluding those with baseline illness and adjusting for baseline health (HR=1.29 [1.08-1.53], P=0.004. This suggests the association is valid and does not simply reflect confounding or reverse causation. Meta-analysis of ten prospective studies including 447,124 participants also confirmed an association between short sleep and incident diabetes (1.33 [1.20-1.48]. Obtaining less than 6 hours of sleep each night (compared to 7 hours may increase type 2 diabetes risk by approximately 30%.

  16. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandner MA

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael A Grandner,1,2 Megan R Sands-Lincoln,3 Victoria M Pak,2,4 Sheila N Garland1,5 1Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 2Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 3Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 5Department of Family Medicine and Community Health, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA Abstract: Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific

  17. Prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among adolescents 15- to 19-year olds: A cross-sectional study from three major cities in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazzaa M Al-Hazzaa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate sleep has been considered important for the adolescent′s health and well being. On the other hand, self-imposed sleep curtailment is now recognized as a potentially important and novel risk factor for obesity. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of short sleep duration and its association with obesity among Saudi adolescents. Methods: This is a school-based cross-sectional study with self-reported sleep questionnaires. It was conducted during the years 2009/2010 in three cities in Saudi Arabia; Al-Khobar, Jeddah, and Riyadh. Participants were 2868 secondary-school males (1379 and females (1389 aged 15 to 19 years, randomly selected using a multistage stratified sampling technique. Measurements included weight, height, waist circumference, BMI, and sleeping duration. Logistic regression analysis while adjusted for age, gender, and location was used to examine the associations between sleep duration and obesity measures. Results: The mean (SD of sleep duration was 7.2 (1.6 hours/day with no significant differences between males and females. About 31% of the participants obtain less than 7 hours of sleep per day, while approximately 50% of the sample gets less than 8 hours of daily sleep. Two-way ANCOVA results while controlling for the effect of age revealed a significant gender by school-type interaction (P<0.001. In addition, adequate sleep duration increased the odds of having normal weight (adjusted odds ratios = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.08-1.50, P = 0.003. Conclusion: The present study observed a high prevalence of short sleep duration among Saudi adolescents 15- to 19-year olds and that short sleep duration was significantly associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. Future interventions should investigate whether adopting a healthy lifestyle by adolescents with short sleep duration would improve their sleeping habits or not.

  18. Short sleep duration is associated with a blood pressure nondipping pattern in type 1 diabetes: the DIAPASOM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Benhamou, Pierre-Yves; Baguet, Jean-Philippe; Debaty, Isabelle; Levy, Patrick; Pépin, Jean-Louis; Mallion, Jean-Michel

    2009-09-01

    To assess whether nocturnal blood pressure dipping status in type 1 diabetes is correlated with specific sleep characteristics and differences in nocturnal glycemic profiles. Twenty type 1 diabetic adult patients underwent sleep studies with simultaneous 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and continuous nocturnal glucose monitoring. Altogether, 55% of patients exhibited blunted blood pressure dipping. They did not differ from the dipper group in age, BMI, or systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure. Total sleep period (TSP) was higher in the dipper group (497 +/- 30 vs. 407 +/- 44 min for dippers and nondippers, respectively, P < 0.001). TSP was correlated with SBP and DBP day-night differences (r = 0.44 and 0.49, respectively). Periods of nocturnal hypoglycemia (i.e., % of TSP with glycemia <70 mg/dl) were longer in the dipper group (8.1 +/- 10.7 vs. 0.1 +/- 0.4% for dippers and nondippers, respectively, P = 0.02). Dipping status in type 1 diabetes was associated with longer sleep duration and with hypoglycemia unawareness.

  19. Habitual sleep duration and eating disorders in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R A; Rozette, E

    1986-02-01

    To measure the relationship between habitual sleep duration and eating disorders, the responses of groups of 34 short- and 43 longer-sleeping college students to the EAT-26 Test were compared. The short-sleepers scored twice as high and were five times more likely to exhibit abnormal eating patterns than the longer-sleeping group.

  20. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra

    2015-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins....... SETTING: Academic clinical research center. PARTICIPANTS: 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). DESIGN: Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a "normal" (7-9 h/24) and "short" (sleeping...... structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS: Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0...

  1. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  2. Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality: Associations With Depressive Symptoms Across Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raniti, Monika B; Allen, Nicholas B; Schwartz, Orli; Waloszek, Joanna M; Byrne, Michelle L; Woods, Michael J; Bei, Bei; Nicholas, Christian L; Trinder, John

    2017-01-01

    This study explored whether short sleep duration and sleep quality mediate the relationship between age and depressive symptoms. For comparison, we also explored whether depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between age and short sleep duration and sleep quality. The sample comprised 741 adolescents (63.5% female, mean age 15.78 years, range 11.92-19.67 years) in grades 7-12 from 11 secondary schools in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. Students completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Path analyses suggested that short sleep duration significantly mediated the relationship between age and depressive symptoms. Poor sleep quality also significantly mediated this relationship when sleep quality was defined by subjective judgement, but not sleep disturbance, sleep efficiency, or sleep onset latency. Depressive symptoms significantly mediated the relationship between age and short sleep duration and sleep quality (subjective judgement, sleep disturbance, sleep efficiency, and sleep onset latency). These findings suggest that the population-wide increase in depressive symptoms across adolescence is partially mediated by sleep-related developmental changes. They also highlight the importance of examining specific sleep problems when investigating the relationship between sleep and mood in this age group.

  3. Associations between insomnia, sleep duration and poor work ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Liu, Yan; Ning, Li; Guan, Suzhen; Ge, Hua; Li, Fuye; Liu, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the independent and joint effect of insomnia and objective sleep duration on poor work ability. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 2820 Chinese manufacturing workers were categorized as insomnia patients and individuals with normal sleeping pattern by interview according to DSM-IV criteria. Sleep duration was classified into four categories: ≥7h, 6-7h, 5-6h, and sleep duration of Watch-PAT-200 test. Work ability was assessed using the Chinese Work Ability Index (WAI) questionnaire. Regression analysis examined the independent and joint association of sleep duration and insomnia with poor work ability, after adjusting for various confounding factors. Insomnia and objective short sleep duration were both independently associated with poor work ability. Compared with the normal sleeping and ≥7h sleep duration group, the highest risk of poor work ability was in the insomnia patients with sleep duration [odds ratio (OR) 3.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.87-5.23], followed by the individuals with insomnia who slept 5-6h (OR 2.03, 95% CI 1.42-2.67). Insomnia and sleep duration in workers are both separately and together associated with increased risk of poor work ability. Objective sleep duration should be taken into consideration when assessing the work ability of people with insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sleep duration, mortality and the influence of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Ghilotti, Francesca; Grotta, Alessandra; Bellavia, Andrea; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle; Bellocco, Rino

    2017-10-01

    Prior work has shown that both short and long sleep predict mortality. However, sleep duration decreases with age and this may affect the relationship of sleep duration with mortality. The purpose of the present study was to assess whether the association between sleep duration and mortality varies with age. Prospective cohort study. 43,863 individuals (64% women), recruited in September 1997 during the Swedish National March and followed through record-linkages for 13 years. Sleep duration was self-reported and measured using the Karolinska Sleep Questionnaire, and grouped into 4 categories: ≤5, 6, 7 (reference) and ≥8 h. Up to 2010 3548 deaths occurred. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models with attained age as time scale were fitted to estimate mortality rate ratios. Among individuals sleep duration showed a significant relationship with mortality (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.09-1.71, and HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.08-1.48). Among individuals 65 years or older, no relationships between sleep duration and mortality were observed. The effect of short and long sleep duration on mortality was highest among young individuals and decreased with increasing age. The results suggest that age plays an important role in the relationship between sleep duration and mortality.

  5. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Sleep Duration Discordant Monozygotic Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Joanna E; Mengel-From, Jonas; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Bamshad, Michael; Noonan, Carolyn; Christiansen, Lene; Christensen, Kaare; Watson, Nathaniel F

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number is an important component of mitochondrial function and varies with age, disease, and environmental factors. We aimed to determine whether mtDNA copy number varies with habitual differences in sleep duration within pairs of monozygotic twins. Academic clinical research center. 15 sleep duration discordant monozygotic twin pairs (30 twins, 80% female; mean age 42.1 years [SD 15.0]). Sleep duration was phenotyped with wrist actigraphy. Each twin pair included a "normal" (7-9 h/24) and "short" (sleeping twin. Fasting peripheral blood leukocyte DNA was assessed for mtDNA copy number via the n-fold difference between qPCR measured mtDNA and nuclear DNA creating an mtDNA measure without absolute units. We used generalized estimating equation linear regression models accounting for the correlated data structure to assess within-pair effects of sleep duration on mtDNA copy number. Mean within-pair sleep duration difference per 24 hours was 94.3 minutes (SD 62.6 min). We found reduced sleep duration (β = 0.06; 95% CI 0.004, 0.12; P sleep efficiency (β = 0.51; 95% CI 0.06, 0.95; P sleep duration was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.06. Likewise, a 1% decrease in actigraphy-defined sleep efficiency was associated with a decrease in mtDNA copy number of 0.51. Reduced sleep duration and sleep efficiency were associated with reduced mitochondrial DNA copy number in sleep duration discordant monozygotic twins offering a potential mechanism whereby short sleep impairs health and longevity through mitochondrial stress. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Availability and night-time use of electronic entertainment and communication devices are associated with short sleep duration and obesity among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, H; Fung, C; Kuhle, S; Veugelers, P J

    2013-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity. Television (TV) in the bedroom has been shown to be associated with excess body weight in children. Children increasingly use other electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) such as video games, computers, and smart phones. What this study adds Access to and night-time use of EECDs are associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels. Our findings reinforce existing recommendations pertaining to TV and Internet access by the American Academy of Pediatrics and suggest to have these expanded to restricted availability of video games and smart phones in children's bedrooms. While the prevalence of childhood obesity and access to and use of electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) have increased in the past decades, no earlier study has examined their interrelationship. To examine whether night-time access to and use of EECDs are associated with sleep duration, body weights, diet quality, and physical activity of Canadian children. A representative sample of 3398 grade 5 children in Alberta, Canada, was surveyed. The survey included questions on children's lifestyles and health behaviours, the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency questionnaire, a validated questionnaire on physical activity, and measurements of heights and weights. Random effect models were used to assess the associations of night-time access to and use of EECDs with sleep, diet quality, physical activity, and body weights. Sixty-four percent of parents reported that their child had access to one or more EECDs in their bedroom. Access to and night-time use of EECDs were associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels in a statistically significant manner. Limiting the availability of EECDs in children's bedrooms and discouraging their

  7. Association Between Sleep Duration and Health Outcome in Elderly Taiwanese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ting Tsou

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: A U-shaped relationship was observed between the self-reported sleep duration with risk prevalence and health outcome in the elderly population, although not all results showed a significant difference. A progressively higher change was observed during short and long sleep durations in our study.

  8. Association between sleep duration and overweight: the importance of parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, E; Stocks, T; Visscher, T L S; HiraSing, R A; Seidell, J C; Renders, C M

    2012-10-01

    Sleep duration has been related to overweight in children, but determinants of sleep duration are unclear. The aims were to investigate the association between sleep duration and childhood overweight adjusted for family characteristics and unhealthy behaviours, to explore determinants of sleep duration and to determine with sleep competing activities. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2006 among 4072 children aged 4-13 years in the city of Zwolle, The Netherlands. In these children, data were available on measured height, weight and waist circumference, and from a parental questionnaire, on socio-demographic characteristics, child's sleep duration, nutrition, physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Associations were studied in 2011 using logistic and linear regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders. Short sleep duration was associated with overweight for 4-8-year-old boys (odds ratio (OR):3.10; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.15-8.40), 9-13-year-old boys (OR:4.96; 95% CI:1.35-18.16) and 9-13-year-old girls (OR:4.86; 95% CI:1.59-14.88). Among 4-8-year-old girls no statistically significant association was found. Determinants for short sleep duration were viewing television during a meal, permission to have candy without asking, not being active with their caregiver and a late bedtime. For all children, short sleep duration was strongly associated with more television viewing and computer use. Association between sleep duration and overweight is not explained by socio-demographic variables, drinking sugared drinks and eating snacks. Parents have a key role in stimulating optimal sleep duration. Improving parenting skills and knowledge to offer children more structure, and possibly with that, increase sleeping hours, may be promising in prevention of overweight.

  9. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. After a short review of gamma ray bursts (GRBs), we discuss the physical implications of strong statistical correlations seen among some of the parameters of short duration bursts (90 < 2 s). Finally, we conclude with a brief sketch of a new unified model for long and short GRBs.

  10. Sleep Quality and Nocturnal Sleep Duration in Pregnancy and Risk of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Shirong; Tan, Sara; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Chong, Yap-Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Kramer, Michael S; Gooley, Joshua J

    2017-02-01

    To examine the influence of maternal sleep quality and nocturnal sleep duration on risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a multiethnic Asian population. A cohort of 686 women (376 Chinese, 186 Malay, and 124 Indian) with a singleton pregnancy attended a clinic visit at 26-28 weeks of gestation as part of the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes mother-offspring cohort study. Self-reported sleep quality and sleep duration were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). GDM was diagnosed based on a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test administered after an overnight fast (1999 WHO criteria). Multiple logistic regression was used to model separately the associations of poor sleep quality (PSQI score > 5) and short nocturnal sleep duration (sleep quality and 77 women (11.2%) were categorized as short sleepers; 131 women (19.1%) were diagnosed with GDM. Poor sleep quality and short nocturnal sleep duration were independently associated with increased risk of GDM (poor sleep, adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11 to 2.76; short sleep, adjusted OR = 1.96, 95% CI 1.05 to 3.66). During pregnancy, Asian women with poor sleep quality or short nocturnal sleep duration exhibited abnormal glucose regulation. Treating sleep problems and improving sleep behavior in pregnancy could potentially reduce the risk and burden of GDM. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Sleep Duration, Mortality, and Heredity-A Prospective Twin Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Narusyte, Jurgita; Alexanderson, Kristina; Svedberg, Pia

    2017-10-01

    A number of studies have shown a U-shaped association between sleep duration and mortality. Since sleep duration is partly genetically determined, it seems likely that its association with mortality is also genetically influenced. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence on heredity on the association between sleep duration and mortality. We used a cohort of 14267 twins from the Swedish Twin Registry. A Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, adjusted for a number of covariates, confirmed a clear U shape with a hazard ratio (HR) = 1.34 and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.57 for a sleep duration of ≤6.5 hours and HR = 1.18 (CI = 1.07-1.30) for sleep of ≥9.5 hours. Reference value was 7.0 hours. A co-twin analysis of 1942 twins discordant on mortality showed a HR = 2.66 (CI = 1.17-6.04) for long (≥9.5 hours) sleep in monzygotic twins and an HR = 0.66 (CI = 0.20-2.14) for short (sleep. In dizygotic twins, no association was significant. The heritability for mortality was 28% for the whole group, while it was 86% for short sleepers and 42% for long sleepers. Thus, the link with mortality for long sleep appears to be more due to environmental factors than to heredity, while heritability dominates among short sleepers. We found that both long and short sleep were associated with higher total mortality, that the difference in mortality within twin pairs is associated with long sleep, and that short sleep has a higher heritability for mortality, while long sleep is associated with more environmental influences on mortality. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  13. From Sleep Duration to Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Hense, Sabrina; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Sleep duration has been identified as risk factor for obesity already in children. Besides investigating the role of fat mass (FM), this study addressed the question whether endocrine mechanisms act as intermediates in the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity. Within......-specific measure of sleep duration was derived to account for alteration in sleep duration during childhood/period of growth. Multivariate linear regression and quantile regression models confirmed an inverse relationship between sleep duration and measures of overweight/obesity. The estimate for the association...... of sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) was approximately halved after adjustment for FM, but remained significant. The strength of this association was also markedly attenuated when adjusting for insulin mainly for the upper BMI quantiles (Q80, β = −0.36 vs. β = −0.26; Q95, β = −0.87 vs. β = −0...

  14. Sleep Disturbance, Sleep Duration, and Inflammation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Experimental Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Michael R; Olmstead, Richard; Carroll, Judith E

    2016-07-01

    Sleep disturbance is associated with inflammatory disease risk and all-cause mortality. Here, we assess global evidence linking sleep disturbance, sleep duration, and inflammation in adult humans. A systematic search of English language publications was performed, with inclusion of primary research articles that characterized sleep disturbance and/or sleep duration or performed experimental sleep deprivation and assessed inflammation by levels of circulating markers. Effect sizes (ES) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted and pooled using a random effect model. A total of 72 studies (n > 50,000) were analyzed with assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Sleep disturbance was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .12; 95% CI = .05-.19) and IL-6 (ES .20; 95% CI = .08-.31). Shorter sleep duration, but not the extreme of short sleep, was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .09; 95% CI = .01-.17) but not IL-6 (ES .03; 95% CI: -.09 to .14). The extreme of long sleep duration was associated with higher levels of CRP (ES .17; 95% CI = .01-.34) and IL-6 (ES .11; 95% CI = .02-20). Neither sleep disturbances nor sleep duration was associated with TNFα. Neither experimental sleep deprivation nor sleep restriction was associated with CRP, IL-6, or TNFα. Some heterogeneity among studies was found, but there was no evidence of publication bias. Sleep disturbance and long sleep duration, but not short sleep duration, are associated with increases in markers of systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Weekend sleep intervention for workers with habitually short sleep periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Tomohide; Takahashi, Masaya; Sato, Tomoaki; Sasaki, Takeshi; Oka, Tatsuo; Iwasaki, Kenji

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether extended sleep time during the weekend improves alertness and performance during the subsequent week for workers who are habitually short on sleep time. Daytime employees in the manufacturing industry [38.3, standard deviation (SD) 8.1 years old, mean weekday sleep ≤6 hours] participated in a study that lasted 3 successive weeks. Participants were instructed to stay in bed for ≥8 hours between 22:00-09:00 hours on weekends during the first week as a sleep intervention condition and keep their habitual sleep-wake patterns as a habitual weekend sleep condition beginning the weekend of the second week through Thursday of the third week. Half the participants underwent the conditions in one order and the other half in the reverse. Sleep was monitored by an actigraph. A psychomotor vigilance task, subjective fatigue, and blood pressure were measured on Monday and Thursday during the afternoon each week. Sleep duration on weekends was approximately 2 hours longer per day during the intervention. However, sleep duration during weekdays following the intervention returned to shorter periods. Significantly shorter reaction times and a smaller number of lapses on the psychomotor vigilance task were found on Mondays after the intervention than after the habitual weekend sleep. The opposite results, however, were observed on Thursdays. Sleep extension on weekends may be effective in improving alertness and performance during the first days in subsequent weeks among workers with short sleep times. These benefits might be maintained if sufficient sleep duration continues.

  16. The role of sleep duration and sleep disordered breathing in gestational diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua J. Gooley

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many women experience sleep problems during pregnancy. This includes difficulty initiating and maintaining sleep due to physiologic changes that occur as pregnancy progresses, as well as increased symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB. Growing evidence indicates that sleep deficiency alters glucose metabolism and increases risk of diabetes. Poor sleep may exacerbate the progressive increase in insulin resistance that normally occurs during pregnancy, thus contributing to the development of maternal hyperglycemia. Here, we critically review evidence that exposure to short sleep duration or SDB during pregnancy is associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. Several studies have found that the frequency of GDM is higher in women exposed to short sleep compared with longer sleep durations. Despite mixed evidence regarding whether symptoms of SDB (e.g., frequent snoring are associated with GDM after adjusting for BMI or obesity, it has been shown that clinically-diagnosed SDB is prospectively associated with GDM. There are multiple mechanisms that may link sleep deprivation and SDB with insulin resistance, including increased levels of oxidative stress, inflammation, sympathetic activity, and cortisol. Despite emerging evidence that sleep deficiency and SDB are associated with increased risk of GDM, it has yet to be demonstrated that improving sleep in pregnant women (e.g., by extending sleep duration or treating SDB protects against the development of hyperglycemia. If a causal relationship can be established, behavioral therapies for improving sleep can potentially be used to reduce the risk and burden of GDM.

  17. Sleep duration and cardiovascular responses to stress in undergraduate men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezick, Elizabeth J; Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica H; Richard Jennings, J; Kamarck, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    Short sleep has been related to incident cardiovascular disease, but physiological mechanisms accounting for this relationship are largely unknown. This study examines sleep duration and cardiovascular stress responses in 79 healthy, young men. Sleep duration was assessed by wrist actigraphy for seven nights. Participants then completed a series of laboratory stress tasks while heart rate and blood pressure were monitored. Shorter total sleep time was related to a greater reduction in high-frequency heart rate variability during stress tasks, and to prolonged elevations in heart rate and diastolic pressure following tasks. Associations were independent of age, race, body mass index, caffeine intake, and smoking status. In sum, healthy young men with shorter actigraphy-assessed sleep exhibit less cardiac vagal activity, and poorer heart rate and diastolic blood pressure recovery, upon encountering stressful stimuli, than those with longer sleep. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  18. Computer use, sleep duration and health symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuutinen, Teija; Roos, Eva; Ray, Carola

    2014-01-01

    and Denmark in 2010, including data on 5,402 adolescents (mean age 15.61 (SD 0.37), girls 53 %). Symptoms assessed included feeling low, irritability/bad temper, nervousness, headache, stomachache, backache, and feeling dizzy. We used structural equation modeling to explore the mediating effect of sleep......OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether computer use is associated with health symptoms through sleep duration among 15-year olds in Finland, France and Denmark. METHODS: We used data from the WHO cross-national Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study collected in Finland, France...... duration on the association between computer use and symptom load. RESULTS: Adolescents slept approximately 8 h a night and computer use was approximately 2 h a day. Computer use was associated with shorter sleep duration and higher symptom load. Sleep duration partly mediated the association between...

  19. The impact of sleep duration on self-rated health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frange, Cristina; de Queiroz, Sandra Souza; da Silva Prado, Juliana Martuscelli; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To review the association between sleep duration and self-rated health. Methods A search for original and review articles focusing on sleep duration and self-rated health was performed in PubMed. The general search strategy was [(“sleep duration” OR “total sleep time” OR “time in bed”) AND “self-rated health”]. Results We found 22 articles in the English language; 8 articles with no direct association between sleep duration and self-rated health were excluded. Of these articles, 14 were considered potentially relevant and examined in detail, and 9 were excluded for not having self-rated health as the primary outcome. This work was compounded by 5 papers. The extremes of sleep duration (short or long) exhibited an interaction with poor or worse self-rated health. Conclusion The sleep duration issue should be considered when inquiring about health conditions, as this factor can lead to adverse results in global health status. PMID:26483912

  20. Sleep quality, duration and behavioral symptoms among 5?6-year-old children

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The objective of the present study was to examine whether parent-reported short sleep duration and sleeping difficulties are related to behavioral symptoms among pre-school aged children. The study is a cross-sectional survey of 297 families with 5?6-year-old children. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for children was used to measure sleep duration and sleeping difficulties, and the Child Behavior Checklist and Teacher?s Report Form were used to measure attention problems, and ...

  1. Associations between sleep duration, daytime nap duration, and osteoporosis vary by sex, menopause, and sleep quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gang; Chen, Ling; Wen, Junping; Yao, Jin; Li, Liantao; Lin, Lixiang; Tang, Kaka; Huang, Huibin; Liang, Jixing; Lin, Wei; Chen, Hongjie; Li, Meizhi; Gong, Xueying; Peng, Shushan; Lu, Jieli; Bi, Yufang; Ning, Guang

    2014-08-01

    Associations between sleep, daytime nap duration, and osteoporosis remain uncertain, and far less is even known about the influence of sex, menopause, and sleep quality on them. The objective of the study was to test the associations between sleep, daytime nap duration, and osteoporosis and whether they vary by sex, menopause, and sleep quality. This cross-sectional study was based on two communities in China. A total of 8688 participants (3950 males and 4738 females) aged 40 years or older were enrolled in the study. Self-reported sleep duration, daytime nap duration, sleep quality, and calcaneus bone mineral density were recorded. Sleep duration of 8-9 h/d and nap duration of 0 min/d were regarded as reference values. In postmenopausal women, risks (odds ratio and 95% confidence interval) of osteoporosis for sleep durations of 7-8 h/d, 9-10 h/d, and 10 h/d or longer were 1.531 (1.106, 2.121), 1.360 (1.035, 1.787), and 1.569 (1.146, 2.149), respectively (P osteoporosis for daytime nap durations of 30-60 min/d and longer than 60 min/d were 1.553 (1.212-1.989) and 1.645 (1.250-2.165), respectively (P osteoporosis, and this tendency is most obvious in postmenopausal women reporting good-quality sleep.

  2. Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Markers of Subclinical Arterial Disease in Healthy Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Won; Chang, Yoosoo; Zhao, Di; Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Ryu, Seungho; Jung, Hyun-Suk; Yun, Kyung Eun; Choi, Yuni; Ahn, Jiin; Zhang, Yiyi; Rampal, Sanjay; Baek, Youngji; Lima, Joao A; Shin, Hocheol; Guallar, Eliseo; Cho, Juhee; Sung, Eunju

    2015-10-01

    Short and long sleep duration are associated with increased risk of clinical cardiovascular events, but the association between sleep duration and subclinical cardiovascular disease is not well established. We examined the association between sleep duration and sleep quality with coronary artery calcification (CAC) and with brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a large sample of young and middle-aged asymptomatic adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult men and women who underwent a health checkup examination, including assessment of sleep duration and quality and coupled with either CAC (n=29 203) or brachial-ankle PWV (n=18 106). The multivariate-adjusted CAC score ratios (95% confidence interval) comparing sleep durations of ≤5, 6, 8, and ≥9 hours with 7 hours of sleep were 1.50 (1.17-1.93), 1.34 (1.10-1.63), 1.37 (0.99-1.89), and 1.72 (0.90-3.28), respectively (P for quadratic trend=0.002). The corresponding average differences in brachial-ankle PWV were 6.7 (0.75-12.6), 2.9 (-1.7 to 7.4), 10.5 (4.5-16.5), and 9.6 (-0.7 to 19.8) cm/s, respectively (P for quadratic trend=0.019). Poor subjective sleep quality was associated with CAC in women but not in men, whereas the association between poor subjective sleep quality and brachial-ankle PWV was stronger in men than in women. In this large study of apparently healthy men and women, extreme sleep duration and poor subjective sleep quality were associated with increased prevalence of CAC and higher PWV. Our results underscore the importance of an adequate quantity and quality of sleep to maintain cardiovascular health. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Behavioral Profiles Associated with Objective Sleep Duration in Young Children with Insomnia Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Susan L; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Mayes, Susan D; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2017-02-01

    Based on previous studies reporting on the association of objective sleep duration and physiologic changes (i.e., increased cortisol) in children, we examined the role of objective sleep duration on differentiating behavioral profiles in children with insomnia symptoms. Seven hundred children (ages 5-12, 47.8% male) from the Penn State Child Cohort underwent a nine-hour polysomnography and parent completed Pediatric Behavior Scale. Insomnia symptoms were defined as parent report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep, sleep disordered breathing as an AHI of ≥1, and objective short sleep duration as a total sleep time insomnia symptoms demonstrated more overall behavioral problems than controls. Significant interactions between insomnia symptoms and objective sleep duration on scores of externalizing behaviors, mood variability and school problems were found. Profile analyses showed that children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration were associated with clinically elevated externalizing behaviors, inattention, mood variability, and school problems, while children with insomnia and short sleep duration were associated with an overall elevated profile in which internalizing behaviors were more prominent. Childhood insomnia symptoms are associated with a wide array of behavioral problems, for which objective sleep duration is useful in differentiating behavioral profiles. Children with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration had a behavioral profile consistent with limit-setting and rule-breaking behaviors, while children with insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration had a behavioral profile more consistent with internalizing behaviors resembling that of psychophysiological disorders.

  4. Sleep Duration, Activity Levels, and Measures of Obesity in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Betty L; Ammar, Erica M; Pile, Debra

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sleep and activity as they relate to obesity measures of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in adults. Findings from recent studies have linked physical inactivity and short sleep with obesity. A total of 337 subjects were collected from the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The sample was evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between sleep duration, activity levels, and measures of obesity. Pearson r correlation revealed a significant positive relationship between WC and sedentary activity, r(318) = .168, p = .003. Analysis also showed a significant inverse association between sleep duration and WC, r(319) = -.113, p = .043. No statistical significance was found using BMI as the measure of obesity in relation to duration of sleep or activity level. In support of recent literature, this study found duration of sleep and sedentary activity in adults may relate to the development of obesity as measured by WC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Excessive sleep duration and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Reynolds, Charles F; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Using population-based data, we document the comorbidities (medical, neurologic, and psychiatric) and consequences for daily functioning of excessive quantity of sleep (EQS), defined as a main sleep period or 24-hour sleep duration ≥ 9 hours accompanied by complaints of impaired functioning or distress due to excessive sleep, and its links to excessive sleepiness. A cross-sectional telephone study using a representative sample of 19,136 noninstitutionalized individuals living in the United States, aged ≥ 18 years (participation rate = 83.2%). The Sleep-EVAL expert system administered questions on life and sleeping habits; health; and sleep, mental, and organic disorders (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision; International Classification of Sleep Disorders: Diagnostic and Coding Manual II, International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th edition). Sleeping at least 9 hours per 24-hour period was reported by 8.4% (95% confidence interval = 8.0-8.8%) of participants; EQS (prolonged sleep episode with distress/impairment) was observed in 1.6% (1.4-1.8%) of the sample. The likelihood of EQS was 3 to 12× higher among individuals with a mood disorder. EQS individuals were 2 to 4× more likely to report poor quality of life than non-EQS individuals as well as interference with socioprofessional activities and relationships. Although between 33 and 66% of individuals with prolonged sleep perceived it as a major problem, only 6.3 to 27.5% of them reported having sought medical attention. EQS is widespread in the general population, co-occurring with a broad spectrum of sleep, medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disorders. Therefore, physicians must recognize EQS as a mixed clinical entity indicating careful assessment and specific treatment planning. © 2013 American Neurological Association.

  6. Sleep duration, life satisfaction and disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Although sleep is considered an essential part of individuals' lives, there are no previous studies analysing how sleep duration affects the levels of life satisfaction reported by males and females with disabilities. To analyse and compare the impact of hours of sleep on life satisfaction scores reported by people without and with disabilities (stratified by sex) in Germany. Using data taken from the German Socio-Economic Panel for the period 2008-2013, we estimate life satisfaction equations for males and females (running a fixed-effects model) which include a set of variables measuring the number of sleep hours on workdays and weekends. A higher number of sleep hours on workdays increase life satisfaction for all males and females. However, the contribution of each hour of sleep on workdays is greater for males with disabilities in terms of life satisfaction, whereas for females no significant differences by disability status have been found. Although sleep hours on weekends also increase life satisfaction, the magnitude of the coefficients is relatively higher than that found for the corresponding hours of sleep on workdays, but only for the male sample (disabled or not). The participation and commitment of policymakers, governments, trade unions, employers, and health care professionals are key aspects for developing and formulating new guidelines and specific measures that promote a healthy lifestyle and increase sleep duration. Such guidelines and measures are of essence for people with disabilities who are employed (e.g. using brief sleep opportunities during prolonged work periods, which can contribute to reducing fatigue, stress and anxiety). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between habitual sleep duration, obesity and depressive symptoms in patients with sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gylen, Elena; Anttalainen, Ulla; Saaresranta, Tarja

    2014-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been linked with obesity in general population, but this issue has not been addressed in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) separately. Depressive symptoms are frequent in OSAS and may affect sleep and energy balance. Our purpose was to assess the association of habitual sleep duration, psychological distress, depressive symptoms, and excessive daytime sleepiness with measures of obesity in patients with OSAS. 210 middle aged consecutive patients (111 men and 99 women) referred for evaluation of suspected OSAS were divided into subgroups based on apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI) and treatment suggested by a sleep physician. OSAS (AHI>5/h plus symptoms) was diagnosed in 75.7% of the patients. Their sleep duration correlated negatively with psychological distress (r=-0.22, p=0.043) and depressive symptoms (r=-0.27, p=0.013) in men. No association was found between self-reported habitual sleep duration and measures of obesity or subjective sleepiness. In patients considered for CPAP therapy, sleep duration associated inversely with depressive symptoms both in men (r=-0.28, p=0.024) and women (r=-0.33, p=0.037). After adjusting for age and Epworth Sleepiness Score, the results remained essentially similar. Our results suggest that self-reported habitual sleep duration does not associate with obesity in patients with OSAS. Shorter habitual sleep duration seems to associate with higher scores of depressive symptoms and psychological distress. Copyright © 2013 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Habitual sleep durations and subjective sleep quality predict white matter differences in the human brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakh Khalsa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Self-imposed short sleep durations are increasingly commonplace in society, and have considerable health and performance implications for individuals. Reduced sleep duration over multiple nights has similar behavioural effects to those observed following acute total sleep deprivation, suggesting that lack of sleep affects brain function cumulatively. A link between habitual sleep patterns and functional connectivity has previously been observed, and the effect of sleep duration on the brain's intrinsic functional architecture may provide a link between sleep status and cognition. However, it is currently not known whether differences in habitual sleep patterns across individuals are related to changes in the brain's white matter, which underlies structural connectivity. In the present study we use diffusion–weighted imaging and a group comparison application of tract based spatial statistics (TBSS to investigate changes to fractional anisotropy (FA and mean diffusivity (MD in relation to sleep duration and quality, hypothesising that white matter metrics would be positively associated with sleep duration and quality. Diffusion weighted imaging data was acquired from a final cohort of 33 (23–29 years, 10 female, mean 25.4 years participants. Sleep patterns were assessed for a 14 day period using wrist actigraphs and sleep diaries, and subjective sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Median splits based on total sleep time and PSQI were used to create groups of shorter/longer and poorer/better sleepers, whose imaging data was compared using TBSS followed by post-hoc correlation analysis in regions identified as significantly different between the groups. There were significant positive correlations between sleep duration and FA in the left orbito-frontal region and the right superior corona radiata, and significant negative correlations between sleep duration and MD in right orbito-frontal white matter and the right

  9. Short sleep duration, shift work, and actual days taken off work are predictive life-style risk factors for new-onset metabolic syndrome: a seven-year cohort study of 40,000 male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, Osamu; Kaneita, Yoshitaka; Tokiya, Mikiko; Jike, Maki; Murata, Atsushi; Nakagome, Sachi; Otsuka, Yuichiro; Ohida, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the effects of various lifestyle-related factors - including sleep duration, shift work, and actual days taken off work - on new-onset metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 39,182 male employees (mean age 42.4 ± 9.8 years) of a local government organization in Japan were followed up for a maximum of seven years, between 1999 and 2006. Multivariate analysis (Cox proportional hazard method) identified seven high-risk lifestyle factors that were significantly associated with new-onset MetS or a range of metabolic factors (obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia): (1) short sleep duration (work, (3) insufficient number of days off work, (4) always eating until satiety, (5) not trying to take every opportunity to walk, (6) alcohol intake ≥60 g/day, and (7) smoking. In addition, a higher number of these high-risk lifestyle factors significantly promoted the onset of MetS. The hazard ratio for MetS associated with 0-1 high-risk lifestyle parameters per subject at the baseline was set at 1.00. Hazard ratios associated with the following numbers of high-risk lifestyle parameters were: 1.22 (95% CI 1.15-1.29) for 2-3 of these parameters; and 1.43 (1.33-1.54) for 4-7. An increase in the number of high-risk lifestyle factors - such as short sleep duration, shift work, and an insufficient number of days off work - increased the risk of MetS onset. Comprehensive strategies to improve a range of lifestyle factors for workers, such as sleep duration and days off work, could reduce the risk of MetS onset. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep duration, cognitive decline, and dementia risk in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Espeland, Mark A; Brunner, Robert L; Lovato, Laura C; Wallace, Robert B; Leng, Xiaoyan; Phillips, Lawrence S; Robinson, Jennifer G; Kotchen, Jane M; Johnson, Karen C; Manson, JoAnn E; Stefanick, Marcia L; Sarto, Gloria E; Mysiw, W Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence linking habitual sleep duration with risks of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia is lacking. We conducted a prospective study on 7444 community-dwelling women (aged 65-80 y) with self-reported sleep duration, within the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study in 1995-2008. Incident MCI/dementia cases were ascertained by validated protocols. Cox models were used to adjust for multiple sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, depression, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and other clinical characteristics. We found a statistically significant (P = .03) V-shaped association with a higher MCI/dementia risk in women with either short (≤6 hours/night) or long (≥8 hours/night) sleep duration (vs. 7 hours/night). The multicovariate-adjusted hazard for MCI/dementia was increased by 36% in short sleepers irrespective of CVD, and by 35% in long sleepers without CVD. A similar V-shaped association was found with cognitive decline. In older women, habitual sleep duration predicts the future risk for cognitive impairments including dementia, independent of vascular risk factors. Copyright © 2016 The Alzheimer's Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep Quality, Sleep Duration, and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study With 60,586 Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Liu, Xudong; Deng, Han-Bing; Chan, Ta-Chien; Ho, Kin Fai; Wang, Feng; Vermeulen, Roel; Tam, Tony; Wong, Martin C S; Tse, L A; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong

    2018-01-15

    There is limited information on the relationship between risk of cardiovascular disease and the joint effects of sleep quality and sleep duration, especially from large, prospective, cohort studies. This study is to prospectively investigate the joint effects of sleep quality and sleep duration on the development of coronary heart disease. This study examined 60,586 adults aged 40 years or older. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on sleep quality and sleep duration as well as a wide range of potential confounders. Events of coronary heart disease were self-reported in subsequent medical examinations. Two types of Sleep Score (multiplicative and additive) were constructed to reflect the participants' sleep profiles, considering both sleep quality and sleep duration. The Cox regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and the 95% confidence interval (CI). A total of 2,740 participants (4.5%) reported new events of coronary heart disease at follow-up. For sleep duration, participants in the group of sleep duration (> 8 h/d) did not reach statistical significance (HR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.98-1.26). For sleep quality, both dreamy sleep (HR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.10-1.32) and difficult to fall asleep/use of sleeping pills or drugs (HR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.25-1.56) were associated with an increased risk of the disease. Participants in the lowest quartile of multiplicative Sleep Score (HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.16-1.47) and of additive sleep score (HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.16-1.47) were associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease compared with those in the highest quartile. Both short sleep duration and poor sleep quality are associated with the risk of coronary heart disease. The association for long sleep duration does not reach statistical significance. Lower Sleep Score (poorer sleep profile) increases the risk of coronary heart disease, suggesting the importance of considering sleep duration and sleep quality together when developing

  12. Is the relationship between race and continuous positive airway pressure adherence mediated by sleep duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Martha E; Rosen, Carol L; Wang, Rui; Auckley, Dennis; Benca, Ruth; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Iber, Conrad; Zee, Phyllis; Redline, Susan; Kapur, Vishesh K

    2013-02-01

    Black race has been associated with decreased continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence. Short sleep duration, long sleep latency, and insomnia complaints may affect CPAP adherence as they affect sleep and opportunity to use CPAP. We assessed whether self-reported sleep measures were associated with CPAP adherence and if racial variations in these sleep characteristics may explain racial differences in CPAP adherence. Analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial (HomePAP), which investigated home versus laboratory-based diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Seven American Academy of Sleep Medicine-accredited sleep centers in five cities in the United States. Enrolled subjects (n = 191) with apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 and sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale > 12). N/A. Multivariable regression was used to assess if subjective sleep measures and symptoms predicted 3-mo CPAP use. Mediation analysis was used to assess if sleep measures mediated the association of race with CPAP adherence. Black participants reported shorter sleep duration and longer sleep latency at baseline than white and Hispanic participants. Shorter sleep duration and longer sleep latency predicted worse CPAP adherence. Sleep duration mediated the association of black race with lower CPAP adherence. However, insomnia symptoms were not associated with race or CPAP adherence. Among subjects with similar severity of obstructive sleep apnea and sleepiness, baseline self-reported sleep duration and latency, but not perceived insomnia, predicted CPAP adherence over 3 mo. Sleep duration explains some of the observed differences in CPAP use by race. Sleep duration and latency should be considered when evaluating poor CPAP adherence. PORTABLE MONITORING FOR DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF SLEEP APNEA (HOMEPAP) URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00642486. NIH clinical trials registry number: NCT00642486.

  13. The association between periodontitis and sleep duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romandini, Mario; Gioco, Gioele; Perfetti, Giorgio; Deli, Giorgio; Staderini, Edoardo; Laforì, Andreina

    2017-05-01

    Due to its potential to influence systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, and to predispose to bacterial infections, sleep duration could potentially be a risk factor for periodontitis. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate if there was in 2012 an association between periodontitis and sleep duration in a representative sample of the South Korean population. A total of 5812 subjects representative of 39.4 million of adults were examined. Multivariate logistic regressions were applied controlling for age, gender, education, smoking status, alcoholism and consumption frequency of coffee, tea, chocolate and red wine. Compared to the group sleeping ≤5 h/day, the adjusted odds ratios for periodontitis prevalence defined as Community Periodontal Index (CPI) = 4 were OR = 2.46 (95% CI: 1.20-5.06) in the 6 h/day sleepers group, OR = 2.66 (95% CI: 1.35-5.25) in the 7 h/day sleepers group, OR = 2.29 (95% CI: 1.13-4.63) in the 8 h/day sleepers group and OR = 4.27 (95% CI: 1.83-9.97) in the ≥9 h/day sleepers group. The association has shown to be highlighted in middle-aged people, females, non-smokers, lower educated, with lower lead and higher cadmium blood levels and with higher carotene dietary intake ones and to be partially mediated by lipid profile alterations, diabetes, serum Vitamin D levels and WBC count. A novel, direct and independent association between sleep duration and the prevalence of periodontitis was found. However, it needs to be investigated how the factors influencing the sleep duration affect this association. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Short duration gamma ray bursts

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This suggests either larger bulk Lorentz factors or spatially closer locations for the short GRBs [13]. From luminosity function studies, the local space density of the short GRBs is likely to be lower than that of the long ones by a factor of ~3 [14]. While analysing time tagged event (TTE) data for 156 category A type bursts.

  15. Manipulating sleep duration alters emotional functioning and cognitive performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, Jennifer L; Davidson, Fiona D; Corkum, Penny V; Rusak, Benjamin; Chambers, Christine T; McLaughlin, Elizabeth N

    2013-11-01

    To examine the impact of sleep duration on emotional functioning and cognitive performance in children. 32 children (8-12 years) wore actigraphs for 3 weeks. Following a week of typical sleep, each child was randomly assigned to go to bed 1 hr earlier for 4 nights (Long Sleep) or 1 hr later for 4 nights (Short Sleep) relative to their typical bedtime. Each child then completed the opposite condition. After each week, emotional and cognitive functioning were assessed using objective and subjective measures. Results revealed impaired functioning in the Short- relative to the Long-Sleep condition on measures of positive affective response, emotion regulation, short-term memory, working memory, and aspects of attention. Results suggest that even modest differences in sleep duration over just a few nights can have significant consequences for children's daytime functioning. These findings demonstrate the important impact of sleep duration on children's daytime functioning.

  16. [Impact of sleep duration on cognitive functions among preschoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-jiao; Wang, Li-gang; Li, Ye; Gao, Wen-bin; Sun, Xin-ying

    2013-12-18

    To explore the effect of sleep duration including napping, night sleep and total sleep duration on cognitive functions among preschoolers. The samples consisted of 94 preschoolers, aged from 2.58 to 6.75 years, from Hangzhou and Beijing. Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (PPVT-R), Picture Deletion Task for Preschoolers (PDTP) and Spatial Working Memory Test were applied to assess the cognitive functions of these preschoolers. Basic demographic information and sleep information were collected with self-made questionnaires. The results of the present study indicated that among all the participants, there were significant grade differences in napping duration and total sleep duration (F0.05(3, 90)=6.346, P=0.001; F0.05(3, 90)=2.925, P=0.038). The total sleep duration was decreased with age. However, the night sleep duration was not changed significantly with age. The correlations between the night sleep and total sleep duration and the scores of attention and working memory were significantly positive (r=0.202-0.282). No significant correlations were noted between the napping and all the scores of cognitive tests. The regression analysis showed that the total sleep duration especially the night sleep duration could well explain the variance of attention and working memory. Total sleep duration, especially night sleep duration may have great impact on preschoolers' cognitive functions, such as attention and working memory. Enough sound night sleep may help to promote the cognitive functions of the target population.

  17. Sleep and Student Success: The Role of Regularity vs. Duration

    OpenAIRE

    Luong, Phuc; Lusher, Lester; Yasenov, Vasil

    2017-01-01

    Recent correlational studies and media reports have suggested that sleep regularity – the variation in the amount of sleep one gets across days – is a stronger determinant of student success than sleep duration – the total amount of sleep one receives. We identify the causal impacts of sleep regularity and sleep duration on student success by leveraging over 165,000 student-classroom observations from a large university in Vietnam where incoming freshmen were randomly assigned into course sch...

  18. Ethnic differences in sleep duration and morning-evening type in a population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Patterson, Freda; Lu, Yinghui; Lozano, Alicia; Hanlon, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional population study examined associations of sleep duration and morning-evening type with sociodemographic and cardiometabolic disease in adults participating in the UK Biobank study (N = 439 933). Multivariable Poisson regression models of sleep duration and morning-evening type with a robust error variance were generated to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. All models were adjusted for sex, race, college attendance, employment status and age. Twenty five percent of the sample reported short sleep; 27% were morning, 64% intermediate and 9% evening type. Black ethnicity emerged as most strongly associated with sleep behavior. Short sleep was twice as prevalent, and morning versus intermediate type was 1.4 times more prevalent in Black than White participants. The greater prevalence of short sleep and morning type among Blacks suggests that sleep-based approaches to improving cardiometabolic outcomes may require a more multidimensional approach that encompasses adequate sleep and circadian alignment in this population.

  19. Insomnia Phenotypes Based on Objective Sleep Duration in Adolescents: Depression Risk and Differential Behavioral Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Fernandez-Mendoza

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Based on previous studies on the role of objective sleep duration in predicting morbidity in individuals with insomnia, we examined the role of objective sleep duration in differentiating behavioral profiles in adolescents with insomnia symptoms. Adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort (n = 397, ages 12–23, 54.7% male underwent a nine-hour polysomnography (PSG, clinical history, physical examination and psychometric testing, including the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist and Pediatric Behavior Scale. Insomnia symptoms were defined as a self-report of difficulty falling and/or staying asleep and objective “short” sleep duration as a PSG total sleep time ≤7 h. A significant interaction showed that objective short sleep duration modified the association of insomnia symptoms with internalizing problems. Consistently, adolescents with insomnia symptoms and short sleep duration were characterized by depression, rumination, mood dysregulation and social isolation, while adolescents with insomnia symptoms and normal sleep duration were characterized by rule-breaking and aggressive behaviors and, to a lesser extent, rumination. These findings indicate that objective sleep duration is useful in differentiating behavioral profiles among adolescents with insomnia symptoms. The insomnia with objective short sleep duration phenotype is associated with an increased risk of depression earlier in the lifespan than previously believed.

  20. Sleep duration is a potential risk factor for newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Chi-Yuan; Wu, Jin-Shang; Yang, Yi-Ching; Shih, Chi-Chen; Wang, Ru-Hsueh; Lu, Feng-Hwa; Chang, Chih-Jen

    2011-06-01

    U-shaped patterns have been observed for the relationship between sleep duration and diabetes. In addition, prediabetes is associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. However, there are few studies investigating the relationship between sleep duration and prediabetes/newly diagnosed diabetes. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between sleep duration and prediabetes/newly diagnosed diabetes in a Taiwanese population. After excluding the subjects with a high risk of obstructive sleep apnea, those with a positive history of diabetes, or those taking hypnotic drugs, a total of 3470 adults were recruited from a health checkup center. Each subject completed a self-administrated structured questionnaire on sleep duration and lifestyle factors. Prediabetes/diabetes was defined following the definition of the American Diabetes Association. Subjects with different sleep durations were classified into short (sleep duration among the 3 glycemic groups. In multinomial regression, both short and long sleepers had a higher risk of newly diagnosed diabetes; and the odds ratio were 1.55 (95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.24) and 2.83 (1.19-6.73), respectively. However, sleep duration was not found to relate to prediabetes. In conclusion, both short and long sleep durations were independently associated with newly diagnosed diabetes, but not with prediabetes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Caffeine intake reduces sleep duration in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodato, Francesca; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-09-01

    In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents. © 2013.

  2. Sleep Duration and the Risk of Diabetes Mellitus: Epidemiologic Evidence and Pathophysiologic Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zizi, Ferdinand; Brown, Clinton D.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Boutin-Foster, Carla; McFarlane, Samy I.

    2010-01-01

    Evidence from well-defined cohort studies has shown that short sleep, through sleep fragmentation caused by obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) or behavioral sleep curtailment because of lifestyle choices, is associated with increased incidence of diabetes. In this report, we review epidemiologic and clinical data suggesting that OSA is involved in the pathogenesis of altered glucose metabolism. Evidence suggesting increased risk of developing diabetes resulting from curtailed sleep duration is also considered. Proposed mechanisms explaining associations between short sleep and diabetes are examined and clinical management of OSA among patients with diabetes is discussed. PMID:20425066

  3. Sleep duration of underserved minority children in a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration has been shown to associate with increased risk of obesity. Childhood obesity is more prevalent among underserved minority children. The study measured the sleep duration of underserved minority children living in a large US urban environment using accelerometry and its relation...

  4. Association between sleep duration and overweight: the importance of parenting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, E.; Stocks, T.; Visscher, T.L.S.; Hira Sing, R.A.; Seidell, J.C.; Renders, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective:Sleep duration has been related to overweight in children, but determinants of sleep duration are unclear. The aims were to investigate the association between sleep duration and childhood overweight adjusted for family characteristics and unhealthy behaviours, to explore determinants of

  5. [Sujective evaluation of the duration of sleep periods: role of actual time and the representation rate of different EEG stages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilin, V P; Latash, L P

    1979-01-01

    Subjective estimations of the duration of night sleep periods and their actual duration were compared in 29 healthy men 21--36 years of age, awoken from the night sleep. The comparisons concerned the duration of consecutive sleep cycles, long (almost whole sleep cycles) and short ("parts of the cycles") periods, short periods ("parts of the cycle") without REM and with it. It has been found that long and short sleep periods are correspondingly reflected in the subjective estimation of their duration. The comparison of the estimation rates of various stages revealed that the highest subjective estimation, reduced to an hour of real time (subjective "hour estimation") in the first three sleep cycles characterises the cycle parts, including REM, whereas the lowest one--cycle parts, represented only by slow sleep stages, including delta-sleep. Subjective estimation of the sleep cycle duration regularly lowers throughout night sleep from evening till morning. Thus, subjective estimation of the duration of sleep periods is determined by two factors: their actual duration and manifestation rate of different sleep stages. The course of subjective time count in the sleep cycle seems to be uneven: it is slowed down in delta-sleep and accelerated in REM sleep following delta-sleep.

  6. Psychomotor slowness is associated with self-reported sleep duration among the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholm, Erkki; Sallinen, Mikael; Era, Pertti; Suutama, Timo; Sulkava, Raimo; Partonen, Timo

    2011-06-01

    Short and long self-reported sleep durations have been found to be associated with several seemingly disparate health risks and impaired functional abilities, including cognitive functioning. The role of long sleep is especially poorly understood in this context. Psychomotor slowness, shown to have analogous associations with cognitive performance and health risks as self-reported long sleep duration, has not been studied together with sleep duration in epidemiological settings. We hypothesized that self-reported habitual sleep duration, especially long sleep, is associated with slow psychomotor reaction time, and that this association is independent of vigilance-related factors. The hypothesis was tested in a sample of 5352 individuals, representing the general adult population. We found a U-shaped association between self-reported sleep duration and psychomotor speed, which prevailed even after controlling for several pertinent confounders. This novel finding can be interpreted to mean that self-reported sleep duration, at least in the case of long sleep, is an indicator of bodily/brain integrity and, taken together with the results of cognitive epidemiology, may provide some new insights into the mechanisms underlying the associations between habitual self-reported sleep duration, health risks and impaired functional abilities. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  7. The Relationship of Sleep Duration with Obesity and Sarcopenia in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Meng-Yueh; Wang, Li-Ying; Chen, Hsi-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have reported the relationship between sleep duration and obesity in elderly adults; however, little is known about the relationship of sleep duration and sarcopenia. We examined the relationship of sleep duration with obesity and sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. A total of 488 community-dwelling adults (224 men and 264 women) aged ≥65 years were included in the analysis. Self-reported sleep duration and anthropometric data were collected. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated using the predicted equation from a bioelectrical impedance analysis measurement. Obesity and sarcopenia were defined according to the body mass index and the skeletal muscle mass index, respectively. The association between sleep duration and sarcopenia exhibited a U shape in older adults. Compared to adults with 6-8 h of sleep, adults with adults with ≥8 h of sleep had a nearly 2-fold increased risk of sarcopenia (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.01-3.54). Older adults with a sleep duration obesity (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.08-4.30). After gender stratification, the association between obesity and short sleep duration was more robust in women. There were significant associations of sleep duration with either obesity or sarcopenia in community-dwelling older adults. Gender differences in these associations were also observed.

  8. Relationship between Self-Reported Dietary Nutrient Intake and Self-Reported Sleep Duration among Japanese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Komada

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported that short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity and metabolic disease. Moreover, both sleep duration and sleep timing might independently be associated with dietary nutrient intake. In this study, we investigated the associations between self-reported sleep duration and dietary nutrient intake, with and without adjustments for variations in sleep timing (i.e., the midpoint of sleep. We conducted a questionnaire survey, comprising a validated brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI among 1902 healthy Japanese adults and found that the dietary intakes of several nutrients correlated with sleep duration among men regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep. Particularly, (1 small but significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and the percentage of energy from protein, regardless of adjustment for the midpoint of sleep; (2 energy-adjusted intakes of sodium, vitamin D, and vitamin B12 also significantly correlated with sleep duration; and (3 intakes of bread, pulses, and fish and shellfish correlated with sleep duration. In contrast, no significant correlations were observed between sleep duration and dietary intakes among women. This study revealed that after controlling for the midpoint of sleep, sleep duration correlated significantly with the dietary intake of specific nutrients and foods in a population of Japanese men.

  9. Self-reported sleep duration and cognitive functioning in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronholm, Erkki; Sallinen, Mikael; Suutama, Timo; Sulkava, Raimo; Era, Pertti; Partonen, Timo

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between self-reported sleep factors (sleep duration, insomnia, use of sleeping medicine, probable sleep apnoea and feelings of fatigue and tiredness) with cognitive functioning in 5177 people aged 30 years or older from a cross-sectional representative sample of the adult population in Finland (The Finnish Health 2000 Survey). Previous studies have indicated a U-shaped association between increased health risks and sleep duration; we hypothesized a U-shaped association between sleep duration and cognitive functioning. Objective cognitive functioning was assessed with tasks derived from the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease test battery (verbal fluency, encoding and retaining verbal material). Subjective cognitive functioning and sleep-related factors were assessed with questionnaires. Health status was assessed during a health interview. Depressive and alcohol use disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Medication was recorded during the health examination. Short and long sleep duration, tiredness and fatigue were found to be associated with both objectively assessed and self-reported decreased cognitive functioning. The association was stronger between sleep factors and subjective cognitive function than with objective cognitive tests. These data suggest that self-reported habitual short and long sleep duration reflect both realization of homeostatic sleep need and symptom formation in the context of the individual's health status.

  10. The Association of Sleep Duration and Quality with CKD Progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Ana C; Knutson, Kristen; Chen, Jinsong; Appel, Lawrence J; Bazzano, Lydia; Carmona-Powell, Eunice; Cohan, Janet; Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Steigerwalt, Susan; Thornton, John Daryl; Weir, Matthew; Turek, Nicolas F; Rahman, Mahboob; Van Cauter, Eve; Lash, James P

    2017-12-01

    Evidence suggests that sleep disorders are common in individuals with CKD, but the influence of sleep duration and quality on CKD progression is unknown. We examined the association of habitual sleep duration and quality with CKD progression in 431 Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study participants, of whom 48% were women and 50% had diabetes (mean age of 60 years old, mean eGFR =38 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 , and median urine protein-to-creatinine ratio [UPCR] =0.20 g/g). We assessed sleep duration and quality by 5-7 days of wrist actigraphy and self-report. Primary outcomes were incident ESRD, eGFR slope, log-transformed UPCR slope, and all-cause death. Participants slept an average of 6.5 hours per night; mean sleep fragmentation was 21%. Over a median follow-up of 5 years, we observed 70 ESRD events and 48 deaths. In adjusted analyses, greater sleep fragmentation associated with increased ESRD risk (hazard ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.07 per 1% increase in fragmentation). In adjusted mixed effects regression models, shorter sleep duration (per hour less) and greater sleep fragmentation (per 1% more) each associated with greater eGFR decline (-1.12 and -0.18 ml/min per 1.73 m 2 per year, respectively; P =0.02 and P <0.01, respectively) and greater log UPCR slope (0.06/yr and 0.01/yr, respectively; P =0.02 and P <0.001, respectively). Self-reported daytime sleepiness associated with increased risk for all-cause death (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 1.02 to 1.20 per one-point increase in the Epworth Sleepiness Scale score). These findings suggest that short and poor-quality sleep are unrecognized risk factors for CKD progression. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  11. Sleep duration and insulin resistance in individuals without type 2 diabetes: the PPP-Botnia study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyykkönen, Antti-Jussi; Isomaa, Bo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Eriksson, Johan G; Groop, Leif; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Räikkönen, Katri

    2014-08-01

    Both short and long sleep duration may increase risk of type 2 diabetes (diabetes). We studied if short and long sleep durations were associated with insulin resistance (IR) and insulin secretion in individuals without diabetes, and if the associations remained after we excluded individuals who reported more frequent and severe complaints of sleep apnea and insomnia. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for 722 adults without diabetes. Indices of IR and insulin secretion were calculated. Sleep duration and complaints of sleep apnea and insomnia were self-reported. In comparison to average sleepers (6-9 h/night), short sleepers (< 6 h/night) had higher 120-min insulin and AUC glucose, and long sleepers (≥ 9 h/night) had higher fasting and 120-min insulin, 120-min glucose, and HOMAIR and lower Insulin Sensitivity Index. After adjusting for confounders and after excluding individuals who reported more frequent and severe complaints of sleep apnea and insomnia, long sleep duration remained significantly associated with IR and insulin secretion. Long but not short sleep duration is associated with IR and insulin secretion in individuals without diabetes whether or not accompanied by sleep complaints. Long sleepers may benefit from targeted preventions and interventions that aim at reducing risk of future diabetes.

  12. No relation between sleep duration and adiposity indicators in 9-36 months old children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klingenberg, Lars; Christensen, Line Brinch; Hjorth, Mads Fiil

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies in adults and children have repeatedly reported an association between short sleep duration and the risk of obesity. Studies using both objective measurements of sleep and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children aged three are, however, lacking.......Epidemiological studies in adults and children have repeatedly reported an association between short sleep duration and the risk of obesity. Studies using both objective measurements of sleep and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in children aged three are, however, lacking....

  13. Change in sleep duration and proposed dietary risk factors for obesity in Danish school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, M. F.; Quist, J. S.; Andersen, Rikke

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent cross-sectional studies found higher consumption of energy-dense foods among children with short sleep duration; however, longitudinal studies examining changes in sleep and diet over time are needed. Objective This study aimed to investigate prospective associations between...... changes in objectively measured sleep duration and alterations in proposed dietary risk factors for obesity in 8–11-year-old Danish children. Methods Four hundred forty-one children recorded dietary intake during seven consecutive days, along with accelerometer measurements estimating sleep duration...

  14. Sleep Duration and White Matter Quality in Middle-Aged Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaffe, Kristine; Nasrallah, Ilya; Hoang, Tina D; Lauderdale, Diane S; Knutson, Kristen L; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Launer, Lenore J; Lewis, Cora E; Sidney, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    Sleep duration has been associated with risk of dementia and stroke, but few studies have investigated the relationship between sleep duration and brain MRI measures, particularly in middle age. In a prospective cohort of 613 black and white adults (mean age = 45.4 years) enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, participants reported typical sleep duration, dichotomized into moderate sleep duration (> 6 to ≤ 8 h) and short sleep duration (≤ 6 h) at baseline (2005-2006). Five years later, we obtained brain MRI markers of white matter including fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and white matter hyperintensities. Compared to moderate sleepers, short sleepers had an elevated ratio of white matter hyperintensities to normal tissue in the parietal region (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.47, 3.61) adjusted for age, race/sex, education, hypertension, stroke/TIA, depression, smoking status, and physical activity. White matter diffusivity was also higher, approximately a 0.2 standard deviation difference, in frontal, parietal, and temporal white matter regions, among those reporting shorter sleep duration in (P sleep duration was associated with worse markers of white matter integrity in midlife. These mid-life differences in white matter may underlie the link between poor sleep and risk of dementia and stroke. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. A sleep diary and questionnaire study of naturally short sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, T. H.; Buysse, D. J.; Welsh, D. K.; Kennedy, K. S.; Rose, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    Whereas most people require more than 6 h of sleep to feel well rested, there appears to be a group of people who can function well on between 3 and 6 h of sleep. The aims of the present study were to compare 12 naturally short (3-6 h) sleepers (9 males 3 females, mean age 39.6 years, SD age 10.1 years) recruited by a media publicity campaign with age, gender and chronotype matched medium length (7-8.5 h) sleepers on various measures. Measurement instruments included diaries and questionnaires to assess sleep duration and timing, as well as questionnaire assessments of sleep pathology, morningness-eveningness, extroversion, neuroticism, pathological daytime sleepiness, subclinical hypomania, optimism, depressive symptoms, exercise, and work habits. Few measures showed reliable differences between naturally short sleepers and controls except the obvious ones related to sleep duration. There was, however, some evidence for subclinical hypomanic symptoms in naturally short sleepers.

  16. Insomnia, Sleep Duration, Depressive Symptoms, and the Onset of Chronic Multisite Musculoskeletal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generaal, Ellen; Vogelzangs, Nicole; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Dekker, Joost

    2017-01-01

    The temporal relationships among sleep, depressive symptoms, and pain are unclear. This longitudinal study examines whether insomnia and sleep duration predict the onset of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain over 6 years and whether this association is mediated by depressive symptoms. 1860 subjects of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, free from chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain at baseline, were followed up for the onset of chronic multisite musculoskeletal pain over 6 years (Chronic Pain Grade Questionnaire). We determined baseline insomnia (Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale ≥9) and sleep duration (short: ≤6 hr, normal: 7-9 hr, long: ≥10 hr). Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and as a change score over time (Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology). Insomnia (hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval, 95%CI] = 1.60 [1.30-1.96], p insomnia and short sleep with chronic pain onset (∆B = 40% and 26%, respectively). Adding the change score of depressive symptoms further weakened the association for insomnia (∆B = 16%) but not for short sleep. All direct effects for sleep measures with chronic pain onset remained statistically significant (p insomnia and short sleep duration are risk factors for developing chronic pain. Depressive symptoms partially mediate the effect for insomnia and short sleep with developing chronic pain. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Dream recall and sleep duration: state or trait factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schredl, Michael; Fulda, Stephany

    2005-10-01

    Previous research regarding the relationship between habitual sleep duration and frequency of dream recall yielded conflicting results, whereas experimental manipulation of sleep duration showed a significant effect on dream recall. In this study analyzing both effects simultaneously, the findings from diaries kept by the 196 participants over 28 to 111 days indicated that intra-individual fluctuations in sleep duration were significantly related to dream recall whereas interindividual differences in dream recall were not associated with differences in sleep duration. Sleep inertia might be an explanation for this finding.

  18. Sleep duration and obesity-related risk factors in the rural Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatakis, Katherine A; Brownson, Ross C

    2008-05-01

    Habitual short sleep duration is a common practice linked to weight gain and risk of obesity. Our objective was to examine the association between sleep duration with other behaviors, such as physical activity and nutrition, which are important for obesity prevention efforts. We used cross-sectional data from rural communities in Missouri, Tennessee, and Arkansas (N=1203). Controlling for covariates, we assessed the association between short sleep duration (obesity, not meeting vigorous physical activity requirements, low fruit and vegetable consumption, high fat consumption, and frequently eating at fast food restaurants. The proportion of participants with habitual sleep duration of or =9 h was 36.2%, 57.3%, and 6.4%, respectively. After multivariable adjustment, short sleep duration was associated with certain obesity-related behaviors, particularly lower physical activity and lower fruit and vegetable consumption. Short sleep duration is associated with risk behaviors that are known to promote weight gain and obesity. Interventions aimed at promoting physical activity and improved nutrition may benefit by considering adequate sleep duration as a potentially modifiable behavior that may impact the effectiveness of efforts to prevent obesity.

  19. Sleep duration and memory in the elderly Chinese: longitudinal analysis of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lin; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Lam, Tai Hing; Zhang, Wei Sen; Cherny, Stacey Shawn; Thomas, G Neil; Cheng, Kar Keung

    2014-11-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies showed that short or long sleep duration was associated with memory impairment (MI), but longitudinal studies are scarce. We examined whether sleep duration was associated with memory decline or development of MI. We conducted a prospective analysis based on the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study on 13,888 participants aged 50+ years without MI at baseline and with a follow-up for a mean of 4.1 years. Memory decline was assessed using the Delayed 10-Word Recall Test (DWRT), and in a subset (n = 6,020) with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Short and long sleep duration was defined as ≤ 5 hours/day and ≥ 9 hours/day, respectively. Data were analyzed both continuously for memory decline and dichotomously for MI (independently defined as DWRT, sleep durations were associated with memory decline using DWRT or MMSE score changes (all P sleep duration had a significantly increased risk of DWRT-defined MI (odds ratio = 1.53 (95% confidence interval; 1.21-1.93); P sleep durations. This is the largest study to date addressing the association between extremes of sleep duration and memory decline. The observed adverse relationships provide support for an intervention study to examine the potential benefits of normalizing sleep duration in attenuating memory decline.

  20. Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Weight-Control Strategies Among US High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheaton, Anne G.; Perry, Geraldine S.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Croft, Janet B.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To determine if self-reported sleep duration was associated with weight-control behaviors among US high school students. Design: National Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Setting: United States, 2007. Participants: US high school students (N = 12,087). Measurements: Students were asked if they had engaged in several weight-control behaviors during the 30 days before the survey to lose or maintain weight. Self-reported sleep duration categories included very short (≤ 5 h), short (6 or 7 h), referent moderate (8 or 9 h), and long (≥ 10 h). Sex-specific logistic regression analyses with race/ethnicity, grade, and body mass index category as covariates were conducted using SUDAAN to account for complex study design. Results: Approximately half the students reported short sleep duration (51.8% of males and 54.3% of females), whereas very short sleep durations were reported by another 14.8% of males and 16.9% of females. Among males, very short sleepers were significantly (P sleep duration was associated with dieting and three unhealthy weight-control behaviors in this population. If our findings are confirmed, intervention studies should be conducted to examine the effect of educational interventions. Citation: Wheaton AG; Perry GS; Chapman DP; Croft JB. Self-reported sleep duration and weight-control strategies among US high school students. SLEEP 2013;36(8):1139-1145. PMID:23904673

  1. Sleep Duration as a Risk Factor for Diabetes Incidence in a Large US Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwisch, James E.; Heymsfield, Steven B.; Boden-Albala, Bernadette; Buijs, Ruud M.; Kreier, Felix; Pickering, Thomas G.; Rundle, Andrew G.; Zammit, Gary K.; Malaspina, Dolores

    2007-01-01

    Study Objectives: To explore the relationship between sleep duration and diabetes incidence over an 8- to 10-year follow-up period in data from the First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES I). We hypothesized that prolonged short sleep duration is associated with diabetes and that obesity and hypertension act as partial mediators of this relationship. The increased load on the pancreas from insulin resistance induced by chronically short sleep durations can, over time, compromise β-cell function and lead to type 2 diabetes. No plausible mechanism has been identified by which long sleep duration could lead to diabetes. Design: Multivariate longitudinal analyses of the NHANES I using logistic regression models. Setting: Probability sample (n = 8992) of the noninstitutionalized population of the United States between 1982 and 1992. Participants: Subjects between the ages of 32 and 86 years. Measurements and Results: Between 1982 and 1992, 4.8% of the sample (n = 430) were determined by physician diagnosis, hospital record, or cause of death to be incident cases of diabetes. Subjects with sleep durations of 5 or fewer hours (odds ratio = 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.03–2.09) and subjects with sleep durations of 9 or more hours (odds ratio = 1.52, 95% confidence interval 1.06–2.18) were significantly more likely to have incident diabetes over the follow-up period after controlling for covariates. Conclusions: Short sleep duration could be a significant risk factor for diabetes. The association between long sleep duration and diabetes incidence is more likely to be due to some unmeasured confounder such as poor sleep quality. Citation: Gangwisch JE; Heymsfield SB; Boden-Albala B; Buijs RM; Kreier F; Pickering TG; Rundle AG; Zammit GK; Malaspina D. Sleep duration as a risk factor for diabetes incidence in a large US sample. SLEEP 2007;30(12):1667-1673. PMID:18246976

  2. Prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits in type 2 diabetes patients in South Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Ramtahal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits and their associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Trinidad. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study. There were 291 patients with type 2 diabetes studied. Sleep habits were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sleep disorder questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data were also collected. The sample had a mean age of 58.8 years; 66.7% were female. The mean BMI was 28.9 kg/m2. The prevalence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS was 11.3%. The prevalence of patients with short sleep (⩽6 h was 28.5%. The prevalence of patients with poor sleep was 63.9%. Poor sleep was associated with age, intensive anti-diabetic treatment and longer duration of diabetes. Short sleep was associated with intensive anti-diabetic treatment and BMI, while EDS was associated with increased BMI. In a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, a high prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and unhealthy sleep habits was found. There needs to be an increased awareness of sleep conditions in adults with type 2 diabetes by doctors caring for these patients.

  3. Prevalence of Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Sleep Habits in Type 2 Diabetes Patients in South Trinidad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramtahal, Rishi; Khan, Claude; Maharaj-Khan, Kavita; Nallamothu, Sriram; Hinds, Avery; Dhanoo, Andrew; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Lazo, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    The present study aims to determine the prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits and their associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Trinidad. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study. There were 291 patients with type 2 diabetes studied. Sleep habits were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sleep disorder questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data were also collected. The sample had a mean age of 58.8 years; 66.7% were female. The mean BMI was 28.9 kg/m2. The prevalence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) was 11.3%. The prevalence of patients with short sleep (≤6 hours) was 28.5%. The prevalence of patients with poor sleep was 63.9%. Poor sleep was associated with age, intensive anti-diabetic treatment and longer duration of diabetes. Short sleep was associated with intensive antidiabetic treatment and BMI, while EDS was associated with increased BMI. In a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, a high prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and unhealthy sleep habits was found. There needs to be an increased awareness of sleep conditions in adults with type 2 diabetes by doctors caring for these patients. PMID:26073574

  4. Prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits in type 2 diabetes patients in South Trinidad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramtahal, Rishi; Khan, Claude; Maharaj-Khan, Kavita; Nallamothu, Sriram; Hinds, Avery; Dhanoo, Andrew; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Lazo, Mariana

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to determine the prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and sleep habits and their associated factors in patients with type 2 diabetes in Trinidad. This was a cross-sectional multicenter study. There were 291 patients with type 2 diabetes studied. Sleep habits were assessed using the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey sleep disorder questionnaire. Demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data were also collected. The sample had a mean age of 58.8 years; 66.7% were female. The mean BMI was 28.9 kg/m(2). The prevalence of Excessive Daytime Sleepiness (EDS) was 11.3%. The prevalence of patients with short sleep (⩽6h) was 28.5%. The prevalence of patients with poor sleep was 63.9%. Poor sleep was associated with age, intensive anti-diabetic treatment and longer duration of diabetes. Short sleep was associated with intensive anti-diabetic treatment and BMI, while EDS was associated with increased BMI. In a sample of patients with type 2 diabetes, a high prevalence of self-reported sleep duration and unhealthy sleep habits was found. There needs to be an increased awareness of sleep conditions in adults with type 2 diabetes by doctors caring for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlates of Self-Reported Sleep Duration in Middle-Aged and Elderly Koreans: from the Health Examinees Study

    OpenAIRE

    Yoon, Hyung-Suk; Yang, Jae Jeong; Song, Minkyo; Lee, Hwi-Won; Han, Sohee; Lee, Sang-Ah; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Lee, Jong-koo; Kang, Daehee

    2015-01-01

    Though various factors related to fluctuations in sleep duration have been identified, information remains limited regarding the correlates of short and long sleep duration among the Korean population. Thus, we investigated characteristics that could be associated with short and/or long sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Koreans. A total of 84,094 subjects (27,717 men and 56,377 women) who participated in the Health Examinees Study were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regress...

  6. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = -0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b(0E) = -0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b(0Au) = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Excessive daytime sleepiness, nocturnal sleep duration and psychopathology among Nigerian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celestine Okorome Mume

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Short nocturnal sleep duration resulting in sleep debt may be a cause of excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS. Severity of depression (psychopathology has been found to be directly related to EDS. There is an association between sleep duration and mental health, so there may therefore be an interrelationship between sleep duration, EDS and psychopathology. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence rates of EDS and general psychopathology among university students in Nigeria; determine the range of and mean sleep duration in the students; and determine the extent to which sleep duration and EDS predict general psychopathology in the same group of subjects. Materials and methods. Eight hundred and forty-five students at Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, were recruited for the study. The subjects were required to provide information on their age, gender and the total amount of sleep per night they usually had. General psychopathology was assessed using the English language version of the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30. They were also evaluated for EDS using the English language version of the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS. Results. Six hundred and thirty-four subjects (75.03% of the participants provided complete data. The prevalence of EDS was 11.2% and the rate of general psychopathology in the subjects 13.1%. The range of sleep duration was 2 - 9 hours with a mean of 5.1 hours (standard deviation 1.3. On a regression model with the GHQ score as the dependent variable and sleep duration and ESS as the independent variables, the correlation coefficient between EDS, sleep duration and psychopathology (R was 0.47. Conclusion. EDS and psychopathology are common in the student population studied. Nocturnal sleep duration for an average student is far less than that for an average adult. Nocturnal sleep duration and EDS acted as moderate predictors of general psychopathology among

  8. Is the Relationship between Race and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence Mediated by Sleep Duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Martha E.; Rosen, Carol L.; Wang, Rui; Auckley, Dennis; Benca, Ruth; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Iber, Conrad; Zee, Phyllis; Redline, Susan; Kapur, Vishesh K.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Black race has been associated with decreased continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence. Short sleep duration, long sleep latency, and insomnia complaints may affect CPAP adherence as they affect sleep and opportunity to use CPAP. We assessed whether self-reported sleep measures were associated with CPAP adherence and if racial variations in these sleep characteristics may explain racial differences in CPAP adherence. Design: Analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial (HomePAP), which investigated home versus laboratory-based diagnosis and treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Setting: Seven American Academy of Sleep Medicine-accredited sleep centers in five cities in the United States. Patients or Participants: Enrolled subjects (n = 191) with apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15 and sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale > 12). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Multivariable regression was used to assess if subjective sleep measures and symptoms predicted 3-mo CPAP use. Mediation analysis was used to assess if sleep measures mediated the association of race with CPAP adherence. Black participants reported shorter sleep duration and longer sleep latency at baseline than white and Hispanic participants. Shorter sleep duration and longer sleep latency predicted worse CPAP adherence. Sleep duration mediated the association of black race with lower CPAP adherence. However, insomnia symptoms were not associated with race or CPAP adherence. Conclusions: Among subjects with similar severity of obstructive sleep apnea and sleepiness, baseline self-reported sleep duration and latency, but not perceived insomnia, predicted CPAP adherence over 3 mo. Sleep duration explains some of the observed differences in CPAP use by race. Sleep duration and latency should be considered when evaluating poor CPAP adherence. Clinical Trial Information: Portable Monitoring for Diagnosis and Management of Sleep Apnea (HomePAP) URL: http

  9. Habitual Sleep Duration, Unmet Sleep Need, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness in Korean Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hwangbo, Young; Kim, Won-Joo; Chu, Min Kyung; Yun, Chang-Ho; Yang, Kwang Ik

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Sleep need differs between individuals, and so the same duration of sleep will lead to sleep insufficiency in some individuals but not others. The aim of this study was to determine the separate and combined associations of both sleep duration and unmet sleep need with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) in Korean adults. Methods The participants comprised 2,769 Korean adults aged 19 years or older. They completed questionnaires about their sleep habits over the previous...

  10. The Joint Effect of Sleep Duration and Disturbed Sleep on Cause-Specific Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Kumari, Meena; Lange, Theis

    2014-01-01

    Both sleep duration and sleep quality are related to future health, but their combined effects on mortality are unsettled. We aimed to examine the individual and joint effects of sleep duration and sleep disturbances on cause-specific mortality in a large prospective cohort study....

  11. Sleep Duration, Nap Habits, and Mortality in Older Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Perach, Rotem

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effect of nighttime sleep duration on mortality and the effect modification of daytime napping on the relationship between nighttime sleep duration and mortality in older persons. Design: Prospective survey with 20-yr mortality follow-up. Setting: The Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study, a multidimensional assessment of a stratified random sample of the older Jewish population in Israel conducted between 1989-1992. Participants: There were 1,166 self-respondent, community-dwelling participants age 75-94 yr (mean, 83.40, standard deviation, 5.30). Measurements: Nighttime sleep duration, napping, functioning (activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, Orientation Memory Concentration Test), health, and mortality. Results: Duration of nighttime sleep of more than 9 hr was significantly related to increased mortality in comparison with sleeping 7-9 hr (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.31, P sleep of fewer than 7 hr mortality did not differ from that of 7-9 hr of sleep. For those who nap, sleeping more than 9 hr per night significantly increased mortality risk (HR = 1.385, P sleep reduced mortality significantly in the unadjusted model (HR = 0.71, P sleep appears to be harmful up to age 84 yr and may be protective thereafter (HR = 1.51, confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-2.02, P sleep duration in individuals who take daily naps and suggest that the examination of the effect of sleep needs to take into account sleep duration per 24 hr, rather than daytime napping or nighttime sleep per se. Citation: Cohen-Mansfield J; Perach R. Sleep duration, nap habits, and mortality in older persons. SLEEP 2012;35(7):1003–1009. PMID:22754047

  12. Sleep duration, nap habits, and mortality in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Perach, Rotem

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of nighttime sleep duration on mortality and the effect modification of daytime napping on the relationship between nighttime sleep duration and mortality in older persons. Prospective survey with 20-yr mortality follow-up. The Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Aging Study, a multidimensional assessment of a stratified random sample of the older Jewish population in Israel conducted between 1989-1992. There were 1,166 self-respondent, community-dwelling participants age 75-94 yr (mean, 83.40, standard deviation, 5.30). Nighttime sleep duration, napping, functioning (activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, Orientation Memory Concentration Test), health, and mortality. Duration of nighttime sleep of more than 9 hr was significantly related to increased mortality in comparison with sleeping 7-9 hr (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.31, P sleep of fewer than 7 hr mortality did not differ from that of 7-9 hr of sleep. For those who nap, sleeping more than 9 hr per night significantly increased mortality risk (HR = 1.385, P sleep reduced mortality significantly in the unadjusted model (HR = 0.71, P sleep appears to be harmful up to age 84 yr and may be protective thereafter (HR = 1.51, confidence interval [CI] = 1.13-2.02, P sleep duration in individuals who take daily naps and suggest that the examination of the effect of sleep needs to take into account sleep duration per 24 hr, rather than daytime napping or nighttime sleep per se. Cohen-Mansfield J; Perach R. Sleep duration, nap habits, and mortality in older persons. SLEEP 2012;35(7):1003-1009.

  13. The relationship between screen time, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems in preschool children in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyan; Tao, Shuman; Rutayisire, Erigene; Chen, Yunxiao; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between screen time (ST), nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems in a sample of preschool children in China. A sample of 8900 children aged 3-6 years was enrolled from 35 kindergartens, in four cities, in two provinces, in China to evaluate the relationships between ST, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems. Children's ST and nighttime sleep duration were assessed by questionnaires completed by parents or guardians. Behavioural problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and the Clancy Autism Behaviour Scale (CABS). Multivariate analysis was used to assess the associations between ST, nighttime sleep duration, and behavioural problems. The total SDQ and CABS scores were higher in children with ST ≥2 h/day and sleep duration problems, hyperactivity, peer problems, and prosocial problems, as well as behavioural symptoms of autism spectrum disorder. Similar results were found in children with sleep duration sleep duration. Preschool children with more ST and short nighttime sleep duration were significantly more likely to have behavioural problems. These results may contribute to a better understanding of prevention and intervention for psychosocial problems in children.

  14. Effects of sleep timing, sleep quality and sleep duration on school achievement in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonetti, Lorenzo; Fabbri, Marco; Filardi, Marco; Martoni, Monica; Natale, Vincenzo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of sleep timing, quality and duration on school achievement in adolescents. Thirty-six Italian students (mean age: 18.14 ± 0.49 years) attending their last year of high school participated in the study. They completed the Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (MEQ-CA). This was used to determine their ideal sleep timing by computing the total score, with higher scores corresponding to a greater tendency toward morningness. In addition, students underwent two non-consecutive weeks of actigraphy in one-month period to objectively assess: habitual sleep timing through the midpoint of sleep (MS); habitual sleep quality through the parameter of sleep efficiency (SE); and habitual sleep duration through the parameter of total sleep time (TST). Participants also completed the Mini Sleep Questionnaire, which allowed us to assess perceived sleep quality, at the end of each actigraphic-recording week. School performance was assessed using the grades obtained by students in their school leaving exams taken at the end of the school year. A significant positive correlation was observed between SE and exam grades, as well as MEQ-CA scores and grades. Multiple regression analysis showed that only SE was significantly and positively related to the final grade. Examining objective and ecological measures, SE (indicator of sleep quality) had the strongest effect on school achievement in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. Methods We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000–2001) among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30–79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-related symptoms over the previous month as well as average sleep duration were collected by questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression models were adjusted first for gender and age, second for sociodemographic factors, third additionally for socioeconomic factors, and fourth for all covariates and self-perceived health simultaneously. Results On average 70% of Finnish adults slept 7–8 hours a day. Frequent insomnia-related symptoms were more prevalent among women (14%) than men (10%). Not being married, not having children, having low education, low income, being unemployed, and being a disability retiree were associated with frequent insomnia-related symptoms. Similar factors were associated with short and long sleep duration. However, childhood socioeconomic position was mostly unrelated to sleep in adulthood except parental education had some associations with short sleep duration. Conclusions Disadvantaged socioeconomic position in adulthood, in particular income and employment status, is associated with poorer sleep. When promoting optimal sleep duration and better sleep quality, families with low incomes, unemployed people, and disability retirees should be targeted. PMID:22839359

  16. Sociodemographic and socioeconomic differences in sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms in Finnish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallukka Tea

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor sleep tends to be patterned by sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors with sleep duration and insomnia-related symptoms across life course. Methods We used cross-sectional Health 2000 Survey (2000–2001 among a total of 5,578 adult Finns, aged 30–79 years, representative of adult Finnish population. Data about sociodemographic and socioeconomic circumstances, insomnia-related symptoms over the previous month as well as average sleep duration were collected by questionnaires. Multinomial logistic regression models were adjusted first for gender and age, second for sociodemographic factors, third additionally for socioeconomic factors, and fourth for all covariates and self-perceived health simultaneously. Results On average 70% of Finnish adults slept 7–8 hours a day. Frequent insomnia-related symptoms were more prevalent among women (14% than men (10%. Not being married, not having children, having low education, low income, being unemployed, and being a disability retiree were associated with frequent insomnia-related symptoms. Similar factors were associated with short and long sleep duration. However, childhood socioeconomic position was mostly unrelated to sleep in adulthood except parental education had some associations with short sleep duration. Conclusions Disadvantaged socioeconomic position in adulthood, in particular income and employment status, is associated with poorer sleep. When promoting optimal sleep duration and better sleep quality, families with low incomes, unemployed people, and disability retirees should be targeted.

  17. Determinants of Sleep Duration among High School Students in Part-Time Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laberge, Luc; Ledoux, Élise; Auclair, Julie; Gaudreault, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents who work while attending school are reported to sleep less than those who do not. This study aimed to identify factors associated with short sleep duration in students who work during the school year. A cross-sectional survey aiming to describe working conditions and occupational safety and health was completed by representative…

  18. Association between sleep duration and sleep quality, and metabolic syndrome in Taiwanese police officers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Hung Chang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study’s objective was to examine association between sleep duration and sleep quality, and metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components in Taiwanese male police officers. Material and Methods: Male police officers who underwent annual health examinations were invited to join the study and eventually a total of 796 subjects was included in it. The study subjects were divided into 5 groups according to the length (duration of sleep: < 5, 5–5.9, 6–6.9, 7–7.9 and ≥ 8 h per day, and the global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to categorize their sleep quality as good or poor. To analyze the association between sleep problems and MetS, adjusted odds ratio and respective 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed. Results: The prevalence of MetS in Taiwanese male police officers was 24.5%. Abdominal obesity had the highest proportion (36.2% among 5 components of MetS. More than 1/2 of the police officers (52.3% had poor sleep quality. Police officers with higher scores of sleep disturbances had a higher prevalence of MetS (p = 0.029 and abdominal obesity (p = 0.009. After adjusting for age, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking status, alcohol drinking habit, physical habitual exercise, snoring and type of shift work, the police officers who slept less than 5 h were 88% more likely to suffer from abdominal obesity than those who slept 7–7.9 h (95% CI: 1.01–3.5. Sleep quality was not associated with MetS and its components. Conclusions: The police officers who slept less than 5 h were more likely to experience abdominal obesity in Taiwan, and those with higher scores of sleep disturbances had a higher prevalence of MetS and abdominal obesity. It is recommended that police officers with short sleep duration or sleep disturbances be screened for MetS and waist circumference in order to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Sleep Duration, Lifestyle Intervention, and Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes in Impaired Glucose Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuomilehto, Henri; Peltonen, Markku; Partinen, Markku; Lavigne, Gilles; Eriksson, Johan G.; Herder, Christian; Aunola, Sirkka; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Lindström, Jaana

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Both short and long sleep duration have frequently been found to be associated with an increased risk for diabetes. The aim of the present exploratory analysis was to examine the association between sleep duration and type 2 diabetes after lifestyle intervention in overweight individuals with impaired glucose tolerance in a 7-year prospective follow-up. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 522 individuals (aged 40–64 years) were randomly allocated either to an intensive diet-exercise counseling group or to a control group. Diabetes incidence during follow-up was calculated according to sleep duration at baseline. Sleep duration was obtained for a 24-h period. Physical activity, dietary intakes, body weight, and immune mediators (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6) were measured. RESULTS Interaction between sleep duration and treatment group was statistically significant (P = 0.003). In the control group, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) (95% CI) for diabetes were 2.29 (1.38–3.80) and 2.74 (1.67–4.50) in the sleep duration groups 9–9.5 h and ≥10 h, respectively, compared with for that of the 7–8.5 h group. In contrast, sleep duration did not influence the incidence of diabetes in the intervention group; for sleep duration groups 9–9.5 h and ≥10 h, the adjusted HRs (95% CI) were 1.10 (0.60–2.01) and 0.73 (0.34–1.56), respectively, compared with that in the reference group (7–8.5 h sleep). Lifestyle intervention resulted in similar improvement in body weight, insulin sensitivity, and immune mediator levels regardless of sleep duration. CONCLUSIONS Long sleep duration is associated with increased type 2 diabetes risk. Lifestyle intervention with the aim of weight reduction, healthy diet, and increased physical activity may ameliorate some of this excess risk. PMID:19651919

  20. Sleep Duration and Age-Related Changes in Brain Structure and Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C.; Loh, Kep Kee; Zheng, Hui; Sim, Sam K.Y.; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the contribution of sleep duration and quality to age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance in relatively healthy older adults. Design: Community-based longitudinal brain and cognitive aging study using a convenience sample. Setting: Participants were studied in a research laboratory. Participants: Relatively healthy adults aged 55 y and older at study commencement. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging and neuropsychological assessment every 2 y. Subjective assessments of sleep duration and quality and blood samples were obtained. Each hour of reduced sleep duration at baseline augmented the annual expansion rate of the ventricles by 0.59% (P = 0.007) and the annual decline rate in global cognitive performance by 0.67% (P = 0.050) in the subsequent 2 y after controlling for the effects of age, sex, education, and body mass index. In contrast, global sleep quality at baseline did not modulate either brain or cognitive aging. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, a marker of systemic inflammation, showed no correlation with baseline sleep duration, brain structure, or cognitive performance. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, short sleep duration is associated with greater age-related brain atrophy and cognitive decline. These associations are not associated with elevated inflammatory responses among short sleepers. Citation: Lo JC, Loh KK, Zheng H, Sim SK, Chee MW. Sleep duration and age-related changes in brain structure and cognitive performance. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1171-1178. PMID:25061245

  1. Association between Visual Impairment and Low Vision and Sleep Duration and Quality among Older Adults in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy

    2017-07-19

    This study aims to estimate the association between visual impairment and low vision and sleep duration and poor sleep quality in a national sample of older adults in South Africa. A national population-based cross-sectional Study of Global Ageing and Adults Health (SAGE) wave 1 was conducted in 2008 with a sample of 3840 individuals aged 50 years or older in South Africa. The interviewer-administered questionnaire assessed socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, sleep duration, quality, visual impairment, and vision. Results indicate that 10.0% of the sample reported short sleep duration (≤5 h), 46.6% long sleep (≥9 h), 9.3% poor sleep quality, 8.4% self-reported and visual impairment (near and/or far vision); and 43.2% measured low vision (near and/or far vision) (0.01-0.25 decimal) and 7.5% low vision (0.01-0.125 decimal). In fully adjusted logistic regression models, self-reported visual impairment was associated with short sleep duration and poor sleep quality, separately and together. Low vision was only associated with long sleep duration and poor sleep quality in unadjusted models. Self-reported visual impairment was related to both short sleep duration and poor sleep quality. Population data on sleep patterns may want to include visual impairment measures.

  2. Temperament moderates the association between sleep duration and cognitive performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Marije C M; Astill, Rebecca G; Benjamins, Jeroen S; Swaab, Hanna; Van Someren, Eus J W; van der Heijden, Kristiaan B

    2016-04-01

    The importance of sufficient sleep for cognitive performance has been increasingly recognized. Individual differences in susceptibility to effects of sleep restriction have hardly been investigated in children. We investigated whether individual differences in temperament moderate the association of sleep duration with sustained attention, inhibition, and working memory in 123 children (42% boys) aged 9 to 11 years. Sleep duration was assessed using parental diaries, and temperament traits of extraversion and negative affectivity were assessed by child self-report (Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised). Computerized assessment of sustained attention (short-form Psychomotor Vigilance Task, PVT), inhibition (PVT Go/No-Go adaptation), and working memory (visual Digit Span) were performed at school. Our findings demonstrate that long-sleeping introverted and negatively affective children show worse sustained attention and working memory than short-sleeping children with these temperaments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Disabling low back pain associated with night shift duration: sleep problems as a potentiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Masaya; Matsudaira, Ko; Shimazu, Akihito

    2015-12-01

    We investigated how night shift duration and sleep problems were jointly associated with disabling low back pain (LBP) among workers in different occupations. An online-survey was conducted regarding work schedules, disabling LBP, sleep problems, and other relevant factors in 5,008 workers who were randomly selected from a market research panel. Multiple logistic regression analyses determined the joint associations of night shift duration (0 [permanent day shift], sleep problems (no, yes) with disabling LBP adjusted for potential confounders. A night shift ≥16 hr was associated with a significant increase in the likelihood of disabling LBP. The magnitude of this association was elevated when participants perceived sleep problems including both sleep duration and quality. Associations between extended night shifts and disabling LBP became stronger in the presence of short or poor quality sleep. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Anxiety sensitivity and racial differences in sleep duration: Results from a national survey of adults with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Carmela; Giorgio Cosenzo, Luciana Andrea; Fan, Weijia; Doyle, David Matthew; Shaffer, Jonathan A

    2017-05-01

    Although Blacks sleep between 37 and 75min less per night than non-Hispanic Whites, research into what drives racial differences in sleep duration is limited. We examined the association of anxiety sensitivity, a cognitive vulnerability, and race (Blacks vs. White) with short sleep duration (anxiety sensitivity mediated race differences in sleep duration in a nationally representative sample of adults with cardiovascular disease. Overall, 1289 adults (115 Black, 1174 White) with a self-reported physician/health professional diagnosis of ≥1 myocardial infarction completed an online survey. Weighted multivariable logistic regressions and mediation analyses with bootstrapping and case resampling were conducted. Anxiety sensitivity and Black vs. White race were associated with 4%-84% increased odds, respectively, of short sleep duration. Anxiety sensitivity mediated Black-White differences in sleep duration. Each anxiety sensitivity subscale was also a significant mediator. Implications for future intervention science to address sleep disparities are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Change in Sleep Duration and Type 2 Diabetes: The Whitehall II Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrie, Jane E.; Kivim?ki, Mika; Akbaraly, Tasnime N.; Tabak, Adam; Abell, Jessica; Davey Smith, George; Virtanen, Marianna; Kumari, Meena; Shipley, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Evidence suggests that short and long sleep durations are associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. Using successive data waves spanning >20 years, we examined whether a change in sleep duration is associated with incident diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Sleep duration was reported at the beginning and end of four 5-year cycles: 1985?1988 to 1991?1994 (n = 5,613), 1991?1994 to 1997?1999 (n = 4,193), 1997?1999 to 2002?2004 (n = 3,840), and 2002?2004 to 2007?2009 (n = 4,...

  6. Interactive vs passive screen time and nighttime sleep duration among school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yland, Jennifer; Guan, Stanford; Emanuele, Erin; Hale, Lauren

    2015-09-01

    Insufficient sleep among school-aged children is a growing concern, as numerous studies have shown that chronic short sleep duration increases the risk of poor academic performance and specific adverse health outcomes. We examined the association between weekday nighttime sleep duration and 3 types of screen exposure: television, computer use, and video gaming. We used age 9 data from an ethnically diverse national birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to assess the association between screen time and sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using screen time data reported by both the child (n = 3269) and by the child's primary caregiver (n= 2770). Within the child-reported models, children who watched more than 2 hours of television per day had shorter sleep duration by approximately 11 minutes per night compared to those who watched less than 2 hours of television (β = -0.18; P < .001). Using the caregiver-reported models, both television and computer use were associated with reduced sleep duration. For both child- and parent-reported screen time measures, we did not find statistically significant differences in effect size across various types of screen time. Screen time from televisions and computers is associated with reduced sleep duration among 9-year-olds, using 2 sources of estimates of screen time exposure (child and parent reports). No specific type or use of screen time resulted in significantly shorter sleep duration than another, suggesting that caution should be advised against excessive use of all screens.

  7. Shorter sleep duration is associated with social impairment and comorbidities in ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veatch, Olivia J; Sutcliffe, James S; Warren, Zachary E; Keenan, Brendan T; Potter, Melissa H; Malow, Beth A

    2017-07-01

    Sleep disturbance, particularly insomnia, is common in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Furthermore, disturbed sleep affects core symptoms and other related comorbidities. Understanding the causes and consequences of sleep disturbances in children with ASD is an important step toward mitigating these symptoms. To better understand the connection between sleep duration and ASD severity, we analyzed ASD-related symptoms using the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (ADOS), IQ scores, and parent reports of the average amount of time slept per night that were available in the medical histories of 2,714 children with ASD in the Simons Simplex Collection (SSC). The mean (SD) sleep duration was 555 minutes. Sleep duration and severity of core ASD symptoms were negatively correlated, and sleep duration and IQ scores were positively correlated. Regression results indicated that more severe social impairment, primarily a failure to develop peer relationships, is the core symptom most strongly associated with short sleep duration. Furthermore, increased severity for numerous maladaptive behaviors assessed on the Child Behavior Checklist, as well as reports of attention deficit disorder, depressive disorder, and obsessive compulsive disorder were associated with short sleep duration. Severity scores for social/communication impairment and restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) were increased, and IQ scores were decreased, for children reported to sleep ≤420 minutes per night (lower 5th percentile) compared to children sleeping ≥660 minutes (upper 95th percentile). Our results indicate that reduced amounts of sleep are related to more severe symptoms in children with ASD. Autism Res 2017. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1221-1238. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism

  8. The relation among sleep duration, homework burden, and sleep hygiene in chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wan-Qi; Spruyt, Karen; Chen, Wen-Juan; Jiang, Yan-Rui; Schonfeld, David; Adams, Ryan; Tseng, Chia-Huei; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Jiang, Fan

    2014-09-03

    Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration.

  9. Sleep duration and sleep quality are associated differently with alterations of glucose homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Christensen, Dirk Lund

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims  Studies suggest that inadequate sleep duration and poor sleep quality increase the risk of impaired glucose regulation and diabetes. However, associations with specific markers of glucose homeostasis are less well explained. The objective of this study was to explore possible...... associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of glucose homeostasis and glucose tolerance status in a healthy population-based study sample. Methods  The study comprised 771 participants from the Danish, population-based cross-sectional ‘Health2008’ study. Sleep duration and sleep quality were......), the homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function and glucose tolerance status. Associations of sleep duration and sleep quality with markers of glucose homeostasis and tolerance were analysed by multiple linear and logistic regression. Results  A 1-h increment in sleep duration was associated with a 0.3 mmol...

  10. Association of Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality and Shift-Work Schedule in Relation to Hypertension Prevalence in Chinese Adult Males: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kai; Chen, Jia; Wang, Li; Wang, Changying; Ding, Rongjing; Wu, Shouling; Hu, Dayi

    2017-02-21

    Background: Previous studies indicated that measurement of sleep only by duration and quality may be biased. This study aimed to investigate the interactive association of self-reported sleep duration, quality and shift-work schedule with hypertension prevalence in Chinese adult males. Methods: A total of 4519 Chinese adult males (≥18 years) were enrolled into the cross-sectional survey. Sleep attributes were measured from the responses to the standard Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and relevant questions in a structured questionnaire survey. The association of sleep duration, quality and shift-work schedule with hypertension prevalence was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression, considering the interaction between them or not. Results: Taking the potential interaction of the three aspects of sleep into consideration, only short sleep duration combined with poor sleep quality was found to be related to hypertension prevalence in Chinese adult males (odds ratio (OR): 1.74, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31-2.31), which could be modified by occasional and frequent shift-work schedule (OR: 1.43, 95% CI: 1.05-1.95; OR: 1.97, 95% CI: 1.40-2.79). Conclusions: Short sleep duration was not associated with the prevalence of hypertension in Chinese adult males unless poor sleep quality exists, which could be further modified by shift-work schedule. Assessment of sleep by measuring sleep duration only was not sufficient when exploring the association of sleep with hypertension.

  11. Peruvians’ sleep duration: analysis of a population-based survey on adolescents and adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep duration, either short or long, has been associated with diseases such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Characterizing the prevalence and patterns of sleep duration at the population-level, especially in resource-constrained settings, will provide informative evidence on a potentially modifiable risk factor. The aim of this study was to explore the patterns of sleep duration in the Peruvian adult and adolescent population, together with its socio-demographic profile.Material and Methods. A total of 12,424 subjects, mean age 35.8 years (SD ±17.7, 50.6% males, were included in the analysis. This is a cross-sectional study, secondary analysis of the Use of Time National Survey conducted in 2010. We used weighted means and proportions to describe sleep duration according to socio-demographic variables (area and region; sex; age; education attainment; asset index; martial and job status. We used Poisson regressions, taking into account the multistage sampling design of the survey, to calculate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI. Main outcomes were short- (<6 h and long-sleep duration (≥ 9 h.Results. On average, Peruvians slept 7.7 h (95% CI [7.4–8.0] on weekdays and 8.0 h (95% CI [7.8–8.1] during weekends. The proportions of short- and long-sleep, during weekdays, were 4.3% (95% CI [2.9%–6.3%] and 22.4% (95% CI [14.9%–32.1%], respectively. Regarding urban and rural areas, a much higher proportion of short-sleep was observed in the former (92.0% vs. 8.0%; both for weekdays and weekends. On the multivariable analysis, compared to regular-sleepers (≥ 6 to <9 h, short-sleepers were twice more likely to be older and to have higher educational status, and 50% more likely to be currently employed. Similarly, relative to regular-sleep, long-sleepers were more likely to have a lower socioeconomic status as per educational attainment.Conclusions. In this

  12. Interaction of sleep quality and sleep duration on impaired fasting glucose: a population-based cross-sectional survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Peian; Chen, Peipei; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Pan; Chang, Guiqiu; Zhang, Ning; Li, Ting; Qiao, Cheng

    2014-03-13

    To explore the interactions of sleep quality and sleep duration and their effects on impaired fasting glucose (IFG) in Chinese adults. Cross-sectional survey. Community-based investigation in Xuzhou, China. 15 145 Chinese men and women aged 18-75 years old who fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to produce sleep quality categories of good, common and poor. Fasting blood glucose levels were assessed for IFG. Sleep duration was measured by average hours of sleep per night, with categories of 8 h. The products of sleep and family history of diabetes, obesity and age were added to the logistic regression model to evaluate the addictive interaction and relative excess risk of interaction (RERI) on IFG. The attributable proportion (AP) of the interaction and the synergy index (S) were applied to evaluate the additive interaction of two factors. Bootstrap measures were used to calculate 95% CI of RERI, AP and S. The prevalence of IFG was greatest in those with poor sleep quality and short sleep duration (OR 6.37, 95% CI 4.66 to 8.67; pgood sleep quality and 6-8 h sleep duration, after adjusting for confounders. After adjusting for potential confounders RERI, AP and S values (and their 95% CI) were 1.69 (0.31 to 3.76), 0.42 (0.15 to 0.61) and 2.85 (2.14 to 3.92), respectively, for the interaction between poor sleep quality and short sleep duration, and 0.78 (0.12 to 1.43), 0.61 (0.26 to 0.87) and -65 (-0.94 to -0.27) for the interaction between good sleep quality and long sleep duration. The results suggest that there are additive interactions between poor sleep quality and short sleep duration.

  13. Childhood sleep duration and quality in relation to leptin concentration in two cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeke, Caroline E; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Redline, Susan; Taveras, Elsie M

    2014-03-01

    Poor sleep in childhood is associated with increased obesity risk, possibly by affecting appetite-regulating hormones such as leptin. We examined short- and long-term sleep duration and quality in relation to leptin in two US pediatric cohorts. Analysis of data from two prospective cohort studies. Population-based. Adolescent polysomnography assessments performed in a clinical research unit. Children in Project Viva (n = 655) and adolescents in the Cleveland Children's Sleep & Health Study (n = 502). N/A. In Project Viva, mothers reported average child sleep duration annually from infancy through age 7, and we measured leptin at ages 3 and 7. In the Cleveland Children's Sleep & Health Study, we collected self-reported sleep duration, polysomnography-derived measures of sleep quality, and fasting leptin at ages 16-19. In sex-stratified linear regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and adiposity, chronic curtailed sleep was associated with lower leptin at age 7 in girls; a one-unit decrease in sleep score was associated with a 0.08 decrease in log leptin (95% CI: 0.01,0.15). The association was stronger in girls with greater adiposity (P = 0.01). Among adolescents, shorter sleep was associated with lower leptin in males; each one-hour decrease in sleep duration was associated with a 0.06 decrease in log leptin (95% CI: 0.00, 0.11). Sleep duration was not associated with leptin at other ages. Sleep quality indices were not associated with leptin. Our results suggest possible age-specific sexual dimorphism in the influence of sleep on leptin, which may partly explain inconsistencies in the literature.

  14. The relationship between sleep duration and working memory in children

    OpenAIRE

    Ashton, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background While sleep appears to have a robust relationship with working memory (WM) performance in adults, the picture in children is less clear. Aims The current study investigated the relationship between sleep duration and WM in children, with both correlational and experimental aspects to the design. The research also aims to clarify valid and effective ways to measure sleep duration with children in their home setting. Sample The participants were eight classes of children aged 9-10 ye...

  15. Sleep quality, sleep duration and physical activity in obese adolescents: effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Borowik, A; Michallet, A-S; Perrin, C; Monneret, D; Faure, P; Levy, P; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2016-02-01

    Decreased sleep duration and altered sleep quality are risk factors for obesity in youth. Structured exercise training has been shown to increase sleep duration and improve sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of exercise training for improving sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity in obese adolescents (OB). Twenty OB (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 healthy-weight adolescents (HW) completed an overnight polysomnography and wore an accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia) for 7 days. OB participated in a 12-week supervised exercise-training programme consisting of 180 min of exercise weekly. Exercise training was a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training. Sleep duration was greater in HW compared with OB (P exercise training, obese adolescents increased their sleep duration (+64.4 min; effect size: 0.88; P = 0.025) and sleep efficiency (+7.6%; effect size: 0.76; P = 0.028). Physical activity levels were increased in OB as evidenced by increased steps per day and average daily METs (P sleep duration was associated with improved average daily METs (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). The present study confirms altered sleep duration and quality in OB. Exercise training improves sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  16. Changes in Sleep Duration During Transition to Statutory Retirement: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllyntausta, Saana; Salo, Paula; Kronholm, Erkki; Aalto, Ville; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari

    2017-07-01

    This study examined whether sleep duration changes during the transition from full-time work to statutory retirement and, if this were the case, which preretirement factors, including sociodemographic, work, lifestyle, and health factors, predict these changes. Data from repeated surveys of the Finnish Public Sector study, linked to records of retirement, were used. The study population consisted of 5785 participants who retired on a statutory basis in 2000-2011 and who had responded to surveys on sleep duration at least once immediately before and after their retirement (mean number of repeat study waves 3.6). Linear regression analyses with generalized estimating equations were used to examine changes in sleep duration around retirement. Before retirement there was a slight decrease in sleep duration. During the 4-year retirement transition, sleep duration increased from 7 hours 0 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 6 hours 54 minutes to 7 hours 6 minutes) to 7 hours and 22 minutes (95% CI 7 hours 16 minutes to 7 hours 27 minutes); thus, mean increase being 22 minutes. Increase in sleep duration was greatest in those who were short sleepers, heavy drinkers, or had sleep difficulties. After the retirement transition, sleep duration remained at approximately the same level, as no significant changes were observed. This longitudinal study suggests that transition from full-time work to statutory retirement is associated with an increase in sleep duration. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Relationship between Sleep Duration and Risk Factors for Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Phua, Chun Seng; Jayaram, Lata; Wijeratne, Tissa

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. While various risk factors have been identified, sleep has only been considered a risk factor more recently. Various epidemiologic studies have associated stroke with sleep such as sleep duration, and laboratory and clinical studies have proposed various underlying mechanisms. The pathophysiology is multifactorial, especially considering sleep affects many common risk factors for stroke. This review aims to provide an outline of the...

  18. Short Sleep Makes Declarative Memories Vulnerable to Stress in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Rångtell, Frida H; Axelsson, Emil K; Yeganeh, Adine; Vogel, Heike; Broman, Jan-Erik; Dickson, Suzanne L; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2015-12-01

    This study sought to investigate the role of nocturnal sleep duration for the retrieval of oversleep consolidated memories, both prior to and after being cognitively stressed for ∼30 minutes the next morning. Participants learned object locations (declarative memory task comprising 15 card pairs) and a finger tapping sequence (procedural memory task comprising 5 digits) in the evening. After learning, participants either had a sleep opportunity of 8 hours (between ∼23:00 and ∼07:00, full sleep condition) or they could sleep between ∼03:00 and ∼07:00 (short sleep condition). Retrieval of both memory tasks was tested in the morning after each sleep condition, both before (∼08:30) and after being stressed (∼09:50). Sleep laboratory. 15 healthy young men. The analyses demonstrated that oversleep memory changes did not differ between sleep conditions. However, in their short sleep condition, following stress hallmarked by increased subjective stress feelings, the men were unable to maintain their pre-stress performance on the declarative memory task, whereas their performance on the procedural memory task remained unchanged. While men felt comparably subjectively stressed by the stress intervention, overall no differences between pre- and post-stress recalls were observed following a full night of sleep. The findings suggest that 8-h sleep duration, within the range recommended by the US National Sleep Foundation, may not only help consolidate newly learned procedural and declarative memories, but also ensure full access to both during periods of subjective stress. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to shorter sleep. As area-level deprivation increases, unique genetic and nonshared environmental residual variance in sleep duration increases. Citation: Watson NF, Horn E, Duncan GE, Buchwald D, Vitiello MV, Turkheimer E. Sleep duration and area

  20. Relationships between school start time, sleep duration, and adolescent behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L; Berger, Aaron T; Widome, Rachel

    2017-06-01

    The objectives were 2-fold: (1) to examine how high school start times relate to adolescent sleep duration, and (2) to test associations between sleep duration and mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors in teens. This study examines selected questions from survey data collected between 2010 and 2013 high school students. Respondents included more than 9000 students in grades 9 to 12 in 8 high schools in 5 school districts across the United States. The survey instrument is the 97-item Teen Sleep Habits Survey. Logistic regression models were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Because of clustering within schools and the use of repeated measures, generalized estimating equations were used to account for variance inflation. Greater sleep duration was associated with fewer reports of various mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors (all P values start times were significantly associated with greater sleep duration. Given that later start times allow for greater sleep duration and that adequate sleep duration is associated with more favorable mental health- and substance use-related issues and behaviors, it is important that school districts prioritize exploring and implementing policies, such as delayed start times, that may increase the amount of sleep of adolescent students, which is needed for their optimal development. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Contribution of Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants to the Relationship between Sleep Duration and Cardiometabolic Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I

    2015-12-01

    To explore the interrelationship and mediating effect of factors that are beneficial (i.e., antioxidants) and harmful (i.e., inflammation and oxidative stress) to the relationship between sleep and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Nationally representative population sample from the US. Age ≥ 20 y with sleep data; final analytical sample of n = 2,079. N/A. Metabolic syndrome was classified according to the Joint Interim Statement, and sleep duration was categorized as very short, short, adequate, and long sleepers (≤ 4, 5-6, 7-8, and ≥ 9 h per night, respectively). The indirect mediation effect was quantified as large (≥ 0.25), moderate (≥ 0.09), modest (≥ 0.01), and weak (sleep duration categories, whereas oxidative stress was elevated among short and very short sleepers. Select sleep duration- cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by C-reactive protein (CRP), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT), carotenoids, uric acid, and vitamins C and D, and were moderated by sex. Specifically, moderate-to-large indirect mediation by GGT, carotenoids, uric acid, and vitamin D were found for sleep duration-waist circumference and -systolic blood pressure relationships, whereas vitamin C was a moderate mediator of the sleep duration-diastolic blood pressure relationship. Several factors related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant status were found to lie on the casual pathway of the sleep duration-cardiometabolic health relationship. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm our results. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  2. New Pathways From Short Sleep to Obesity? Associations Between Short Sleep and "Secondary" Eating and Drinking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Sen, Bisakha

    2017-05-01

    The association between short sleep and obesity risk is well established. However, we explore a new pathway between short sleep and obesity: whether short sleep is linked to more time spent in secondary eating or drinking, that is, eating or drinking (beverages other than water, such as sugar-sweetened beverages) while primarily engaged in another activity, such as television watching. This pooled cross-sectional study uses data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) from 2006 to 2008. The study takes place in the United States. Subjects are 28,150 adults (55.8% female) aged 21 to 65 who were surveyed in the ATUS. Outcomes are time spent on (1) secondary eating and drinking and (2) primary eating and drinking. Our main predictor variable is sleep duration. Controlling for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents, we estimate multivariate regression-analysis models for the full sample, as well as by weekday/weekend status, race, and gender subgroups. In multivariate models, compared to respondents reporting normal sleep, short sleep was associated with additional 8.7 (SE = 2.1) minutes per day of secondary eating (p sleep is associated with more time spent in secondary eating and, in particular, secondary drinking. This potentially suggests a pathway from short sleep to increased caloric intake in the form of beverages and distracted eating and thus potential increased obesity risk, although more research is needed.

  3. Association between sleep duration and blood pressure in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciência, Inês; Barros, Henrique; Araújo, Joana; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-08-01

    In adults, sleep has an important role in the development of cardiovascular diseases. However, in young adolescents, the effect is unclear. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the association between sleep duration and blood pressure (BP) in subjects of 13 years of age. We evaluated 1771 adolescents as part of a population-based cohort (Epidemiological Health Investigation of Teenagers). Sleep duration was estimated based on the difference between self-reported usual bedtimes and wake-up times, and adolescents were classified into three categories: 8.5 h (reference class), >8.5 h and sleep duration, the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were computed by fitting binary logistic regression models with adjustments for caffeine intake and depressive symptoms in females and for caffeine intake and sports activities in males. The mean (s.d.) sleep duration was 9.0 (0.80) h per day. The prevalence of high BP was 32.5%, higher in males (35.3%) than in females (30.1%, P=0.019). After adjustment, in females, a positive association was found between sleep duration and high BP (>8.5 and sleep duration and BP. Sleep duration was positively associated with BP in both sexes, although after adjustment for potential confounders, this association was significant only for female adolescents.

  4. Sleep Duration and Diabetes Risk: Population Trends and Potential Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandner, Michael A.; Seixas, Azizi; Shetty, Safal; Shenoy, Sundeep

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is important for regulating many physiologic functions that relate to metabolism. Because of this, there is substantial evidence to suggest that sleep habits and sleep disorders are related to diabetes risk. In specific, insufficient sleep duration and/or sleep restriction in the laboratory, poor sleep quality, and sleep disorders such as insomnia and sleep apnea have all been associated with diabetes risk. This research spans epidemiologic and laboratory studies. Both physiologic mechanisms such as insulin resistance, decreased leptin, and increased ghrelin and inflammation and behavioral mechanisms such as increased food intake, impaired decision-making, and increased likelihood of other behavioral risk factors such as smoking, sedentary behavior, and alcohol use predispose to both diabetes and obesity, which itself is an important diabetes risk factor. This review describes the evidence linking sleep and diabetes risk at the population and laboratory levels. PMID:27664039

  5. The role of emotional eating and stress in the influence of short sleep on food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dweck, Julia S; Jenkins, Steve M; Nolan, Laurence J

    2014-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with elevated body mass index (BMI) and increased energy consumption. The present studies were conducted to determine what role emotional eating and stress might play in these relationships. The first was an exploratory questionnaire study in which sleep quality and duration were measured in conjunction with the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 184 women. Emotional and external eating scores were significantly higher in those who reported poor sleep quality (but were not related to sleep duration). In a second study of 64 women who were provided with snacks in the laboratory under stressed and control conditions, elevated food consumption was observed in those who scored high on emotional eating and who reported short sleep (a significant stress × emotional eating × sleep duration interaction) but not in those who reported poor sleep quality. No effects were found in liking or wanting of food and few effects were found on appetite. BMI was not related to sleep duration or sleep quality in either study. The results suggest that the relationship between short sleep and elevated food consumption exists in those who are prone to emotional eating. An external stressor elevated consumption in normal sleepers to the level observed in short sleepers, however, it did not significantly elevate consumption in short sleepers. Future examinations of the effects of sleep duration and quality on food consumption should examine emotional eating status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep Disturbance and Short Sleep as Risk Factors for Depression and Perceived Medical Errors in First-Year Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Arnedt, J Todd; Song, Peter X; Guille, Constance; Sen, Srijan

    2017-03-01

    While short and poor quality sleep among training physicians has long been recognized as problematic, the longitudinal relationships among sleep, work hours, mood, and work performance are not well understood. Here, we prospectively characterize the risk of depression and medical errors based on preinternship sleep disturbance, internship-related sleep duration, and duty hours. Survey data from 1215 nondepressed interns were collected at preinternship baseline, then 3 and 6 months into internship. We examined how preinternship sleep quality and internship sleep and work hours affected risk of depression at 3 months, per the Patient Health Questionnaire 9. We then examined the impact of sleep loss and work hours on depression persistence from 3 to 6 months. Finally, we compared self-reported errors among interns based on nightly sleep duration (≤6 hr vs. >6 hr), weekly work hours (sleeping trainees obtained less sleep and were at elevated risk of depression in the first months of internship. Short sleep (≤6 hr nightly) during internship mediated the relationship between sleep disturbance and depression risk, and sleep loss led to a chronic course for depression. Depression rates were highest among interns with both sleep disturbance and short sleep. Elevated medical error rates were reported by physicians sleeping ≤6 hr per night, working ≥ 70 weekly hours, and who were acutely or chronically depressed. Sleep disturbance and internship-enforced short sleep increase risk of depression development and chronicity and medical errors. Interventions targeting sleep problems prior to and during residency hold promise for curbing depression rates and improving patient care. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Sleep duration, insomnia, and coronary heart disease among postmenopausal women in the Women's Health Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands-Lincoln, Megan; Loucks, Eric B; Lu, Bing; Carskadon, Mary A; Sharkey, Katherine; Stefanick, Marcia L; Ockene, Judith; Shah, Neomi; Hairston, Kristen G; Robinson, Jennifer G; Limacher, Marian; Hale, Lauren; Eaton, Charles B

    2013-06-01

    Long and short sleep duration are associated with increased risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, evidence is inconsistent. We sought to identify whether self-reported sleep duration and insomnia, based on a validated questionnaire, are associated with increased incident CHD and CVD among postmenopausal women. Women's Health Initiative Observational Study Participants (N=86,329; 50-79 years) who reported on sleep at baseline were followed for incident CVD events. Associations of sleep duration and insomnia with incident CHD and CVD were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models over 10.3 years. Women with high insomnia scores had elevated risk of CHD (38%) and CVD (27%) after adjustment for age and race, and in fully adjusted models (hazard ratio [HR]=1.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09-1.30; 1.11 95% CI 1.03-2.00). Shorter (≤5 hours) and longer (≥10 hours) sleep duration demonstrated significantly higher incident CHD (25%) and CVD (19%) in age- and race-adjusted models, but this was not significant in fully adjusted models. Formal tests for interaction indicated significant interactions between sleep duration and insomnia for risk of CHD (pinsomnia scores and long sleep demonstrated the greatest risk of incident CHD compared to midrange sleep duration (HR=1.93, 95% CI 1.06-3.51) in fully adjusted models. Sleep duration and insomnia are associated with CHD and CVD risk, and may interact to cause almost double the risk of CHD and CVD. Additional research is needed to understand how sleep quality modifies the association between prolonged sleep and cardiovascular outcomes.

  8. Sleep duration and eating behaviors of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R A; McTighe, S; Juarez, M

    1986-02-01

    31 short-sleeping college students tended to eat more small meals or snacks than 37 long sleepers, all of whom were satisfied with their sleep. This disrupted pattern of larger meals was predicted from work of Elomaa and Johansson with rats who were partially REM-sleep deprived.

  9. Sleep Duration and School Readiness of Chinese Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Winnie; Rao, Nirmala; Jiang, Fan; Li, Albert Martin; Lee, So-Lun; Ho, Frederick Ka-Wing; Li, Sophia Ling; Ip, Patrick

    2016-02-01

    To examine the average sleep duration in Chinese preschoolers and to investigate the association between sleep duration and school readiness. This is a cross-sectional study that included 553 Chinese children (mean age = 5.46 years) from 20 preschools in 2 districts of Hong Kong. Average daily sleep duration in the last week was reported by parents and school readiness as measured by the teacher-rated Chinese Early Development Instrument (CEDI). Most Chinese preschoolers had 9-10 hours of sleep per day. Only 11% of preschoolers had the recommended 11-12 hours of sleep per day. This group was associated with more "very ready" CEDI domains. Sleep deprivation (≤7 hours per day) was associated with a lower CEDI total score, lower scores in the emotional maturity and language/cognitive domain, and prosocial behaviors subdomain but a greater score in the hyperactivity/inattention subdomain. Children with a lower family socioeconomic index, lower maternal education level, infrequent parent-child interactions, and who used electronic devices for more than 3 hours per day had shortened sleep durations. Optimal sleep duration was associated with better school readiness in preschool children, whereas sleep deprivation was associated with lower school readiness, more hyperactivity and inattention, and less prosocial behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sleep duration pattern and chronic diseases in Brazilian adults (ISACAMP, 2008/09).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Margareth Guimarães; Bergamo Francisco, Priscila Maria S; de Azevedo Barros, Marilisa Berti

    2012-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess sleep patterns in the adult population of the city of Campinas (Brazil) according to socioeconomic/demographic variables, chronic diseases, and symptoms. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Campinas Health Survey (ISACAMP) carried out in 2008 and 2009. A total of 2637 individuals aged 18 years or older (obtained from a probabilistic sample) were analyzed. Associations between sleep pattern and the independent variables were determined using the chi-square test. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to adjust for confounders. The prevalence of six or fewer hours of sleep was greater among individuals aged 40 years or older and among divorced or single individuals. The sleep pattern of nine or more hours was more prevalent among those with less than 40 years of age, among those who were divorced, or single, among those with a lower level of schooling, those who did not work and housewives. Both short and long sleep patterns were more prevalent among individuals with heart disease, vascular problems, rheumatism/arthritis/arthrosis, osteoporosis, or emotional problems. The prevalence of the short sleep duration was greater among individuals with back problems and those with three or more health conditions. A strong association was found between sleep duration and sleep quality. Socio-demographic factors and health diseases were associated to sleep duration. This issue should be considered in health promotion strategies. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with subsequent sickness absence: the Helsinki Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lallukka, Tea; Haaramo, Peija; Rahkonen, Ossi; Sivertsen, Børge

    2013-07-01

    We aimed to examine the joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia symptoms with subsequent sickness absence of various lengths while considering several covariates. Baseline surveys among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland, (N = 6535) were prospectively linked with employer's personnel register data comprising short self-certified (1-3 days), medically-certified intermediate (4-14 days) and long (15 days or more) sickness absence spells. Average follow-up time was 4.1 years. Sleep duration, insomnia symptoms, sociodemographics, working conditions, health behaviours and health were self-reported in the surveys. Poisson regression analysis was used. Insomnia symptoms were associated with sickness absence at all levels of sleep duration. Adjusting for gender and age, U-shaped associations regarding sleep hours were found. Thus, those reporting short or long sleep and reporting insomnia symptoms had a higher risk for medically-certified intermediate and long sickness absence as compared to those reporting 7 hours of sleep without insomnia symptoms. Also, those reporting 6, 7, and 8 hours of sleep had a higher risk for such sickness absence, if they reported insomnia. Weak associations were also found for self-certified sickness absence, and for those reporting short and long sleep without insomnia. Adjustments attenuated the associations, but they mainly remained. These results suggest primacy of the effects of insomnia symptoms over sleep duration on sickness absence. Although insomnia dominated the joint association, U-shaped associations suggest that both sleep duration and insomnia symptoms need to be considered to promote work ability.

  12. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    OpenAIRE

    Grandner, Michael A; Sands-Lincoln, Megan R; Pak, Victoria M; Garland, Sheila N

    2013-01-01

    Michael A Grandner,1,2 Megan R Sands-Lincoln,3 Victoria M Pak,2,4 Sheila N Garland1,5 1Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of Psychiatry, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 2Center for Sleep and Circadian Neurobiology, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 3Center for Evidence Based Medicine, Elsevier Inc, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Division of Sleep Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, PA, USA; 5Department of Family Medicine ...

  13. Relative Contribution of Obesity, Sedentary Behaviors and Dietary Habits to Sleep Duration Among Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haifi, Ahmad A.; AlMajed, Hana Th.; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M.; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O.; Arab, Mariam A.; Hasan, Rasha A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), eating habits and sedentary behaviours were associated with sleep duration among Kuwaiti adolescents. The study is part of the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), which is a school-based cross-sectional multi-center collaborative study. A sample of 906 adolescents (boys and girls) aged 14-19 years was randomly selected from 6 Kuwaiti Governances using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. The findings revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 50.5% in boys and 46.5% in girls. The majority of boys (76%) and of girls (74%) fell into the short sleep duration category (6 hours/day or less). Sleep duration were found to be negatively associated with BMI (girls only). Watching television (boys and girls) and working on computers (boys only) were also negatively associated with sleep duration. While the consumption of breakfast (both genders) and milk (boys only) was positively associated with sleep duration (pfoods (both genders), sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets (boys only) potatoes (girls only) were negatively associated with sleep duration (phabits and more sedentary behaviors. The findings also suggest gender differences in these associations. Therefore, adequate sleep is an important modifiable risk factor to prevent obesity and was positively associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits. PMID:26234983

  14. Relative Contribution of Obesity, Sedentary Behaviors and Dietary Habits to Sleep Duration Among Kuwaiti Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Haifi, Ahmad A; AlMajed, Hana Th; Al-Hazzaa, Hazzaa M; Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Arab, Mariam A; Hasan, Rasha A

    2015-05-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether body mass index (BMI), eating habits and sedentary behaviours were associated with sleep duration among Kuwaiti adolescents. The study is part of the Arab Teens Lifestyle Study (ATLS), which is a school-based cross-sectional multi-center collaborative study. A sample of 906 adolescents (boys and girls) aged 14-19 years was randomly selected from 6 Kuwaiti Governances using a multistage stratified cluster sampling technique. The findings revealed that the prevalence of overweight and obesity was 50.5% in boys and 46.5% in girls. The majority of boys (76%) and of girls (74%) fell into the short sleep duration category (6 hours/day or less). Sleep duration were found to be negatively associated with BMI (girls only). Watching television (boys and girls) and working on computers (boys only) were also negatively associated with sleep duration. While the consumption of breakfast (both genders) and milk (boys only) was positively associated with sleep duration (pgenders), sugar-sweetened drinks and sweets (boys only) potatoes (girls only) were negatively associated with sleep duration (peating habits and more sedentary behaviors. The findings also suggest gender differences in these associations. Therefore, adequate sleep is an important modifiable risk factor to prevent obesity and was positively associated with some unhealthy lifestyle habits.

  15. Change in sleep duration and proposed dietary risk factors for obesity in Danish school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, M F; Quist, J S; Andersen, R; Michaelsen, K F; Tetens, I; Astrup, A; Chaput, J-P; Sjödin, A

    2014-12-01

    Recent cross-sectional studies found higher consumption of energy-dense foods among children with short sleep duration; however, longitudinal studies examining changes in sleep and diet over time are needed. This study aimed to investigate prospective associations between changes in objectively measured sleep duration and alterations in proposed dietary risk factors for obesity in 8-11-year-old Danish children. Four hundred forty-one children recorded dietary intake during seven consecutive days, along with accelerometer measurements estimating sleep duration at baseline and after ∼200 days. Baseline sleep duration did not predict changes in dietary intake or vice versa (all P ≥ 0.69). However, 1-h lower sleep duration was associated with higher intake of added sugar (1.59 E%; P = 0.001) and sugar-sweetened beverages (0.90 E%; P = 0.002) after 200 days with no change in energy density of the diet (P = 0.78). Our results suggest that a negative change in sleep duration is associated with higher intakes of sugar containing foods/beverages. © 2014 World Obesity.

  16. Association between Screen Viewing Duration and Sleep Duration, Sleep Quality, and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness among Adolescents in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Yim Wah; Wu, Cynthia Sau Ting; Hui, Donna Wing Shun; Lam, Siu Ping; Tse, Hei Yin; Yu, Wing Yan; Wong, Ho Ting

    2014-01-01

    Screen viewing is considered to have adverse impacts on the sleep of adolescents. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on the association between screen viewing and sleep, most studies have focused on specific types of screen viewing devices such as televisions and computers. The present study investigated the duration with which currently prevalent screen viewing devices (including televisions, personal computers, mobile phones, and portable video devices) are viewed in relation to sleep duration, sleep quality, and daytime sleepiness among Hong Kong adolescents (N = 762). Television and computer viewing remain prevalent, but were not correlated with sleep variables. Mobile phone viewing was correlated with all sleep variables, while portable video device viewing was shown to be correlated only with daytime sleepiness. The results demonstrated a trend of increase in the prevalence and types of screen viewing and their effects on the sleep patterns of adolescents. PMID:25353062

  17. A Prospective Study of Sleep Duration and Pneumonia Risk in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay R.; Malhotra, Atul; Gao, Xiang; Hu, Frank B.; Neuman, Mark I.; Fawzi, Wafaie W.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: Experimental data suggest sleep deprivation may impair host immunity. We sought to assess the effect of poor sleep on pneumonia risk. Design: Prospective, observational cohort study. Participants: 56,953 female nurses (ages 37 to 57 years old) participating in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort free of cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and asthma with no prior history of pneumonia. Measurements and Results: At baseline, participants reported their average sleep duration and whether this quantity was adequate for them. Questionnaires ascertaining a new pneumonia diagnosis were mailed every 2 years. Cases required physician diagnosis and chest radiograph confirmation. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the relative risk for incident pneumonia over 4 years. Over 217,500 person-years, 977 cases of pneumonia were identified. Relative to 8-h sleepers, both short and long sleep durations were associated with elevated pneumonia risk. The age-adjusted relative risk for pneumonia was 1.70 (95% CI 1.30-2.23) in those sleeping ≤ 5 h and 1.49 (95% CI 1.12-1.98) in those sleeping ≥ 9 h. After adjusting for potential confounders, the relative risks were 1.39 (95% CI: 1.06-1.82) in those sleeping ≤ 5 h and 1.38 (95% CI 1.04-1.84) in those sleeping ≥ 9 h. Perceived inadequate sleep was also associated with pneumonia with a relative risk of 1.50 (95% CI 1.29-1.74) in multivariate models. Conclusions: Both reduced and prolonged habitual sleep durations are associated with increased risk of pneumonia. Further research is needed to understand how sleep habits can influence immunity. Citation: Patel SR; Malhotra A; Gao X; Hu FB; Neuman MI; Fawzi WW. A prospective study of sleep duration and pneumonia risk in women. SLEEP 2012;35(1):97-101. PMID:22215923

  18. Understanding the role of sleep quality and sleep duration in commercial driving safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemke, Michael K; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Hege, Adam; Sönmez, Sevil; Wideman, Laurie

    2016-12-01

    Long-haul truck drivers in the United States suffer disproportionately high injury rates. Sleep is a critical factor in these outcomes, contributing to fatigue and degrading multiple aspects of safety-relevant performance. Both sleep duration and sleep quality are often compromised among truck drivers; however, much of the efforts to combat fatigue focus on sleep duration rather than sleep quality. Thus, the current study has two objectives: (1) to determine the degree to which sleep impacts safety-relevant performance among long-haul truck drivers; and (2) to evaluate workday and non-workday sleep quality and duration as predictors of drivers' safety-relevant performance. A non-experimental, descriptive, cross-sectional design was employed to collect survey and biometric data from 260 long-haul truck drivers. The Trucker Sleep Disorders Survey was developed to assess sleep duration and quality, the impact of sleep on job performance and accident risk, and other relevant work organization characteristics. Descriptive statistics assessed work organization variables, sleep duration and quality, and frequency of engaging in safety-relevant performance while sleepy. Linear regression analyses were conducted to evaluate relationships between sleep duration, sleep quality, and work organization variables with safety composite variables. Drivers reported long work hours, with over 70% of drivers working more than 11h daily. Drivers also reported a large number of miles driven per week, with an average of 2,812.61 miles per week, and frequent violations of hours-of-service rules, with 43.8% of drivers "sometimes to always" violating the "14-h rule." Sleep duration was longer, and sleep quality was better, on non-workdays compared on workdays. Drivers frequently operated motor vehicles while sleepy, and sleepiness impacted several aspects of safety-relevant performance. Sleep quality was better associated with driving while sleepy and with job performance and concentration

  19. The costs of short sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, Kathleen K; O'Sullivan, Mary I

    2009-09-01

    Sleep plays an important role in workers' lives, allowing them to relax, restore, and revitalize their bodies, minds, and emotions every 24 hours. Sleep repairs the physical body to improve and maintain general health, consolidate learning and memory, and recharge the psychological batteries to maintain emotional balance and well-being. Quality sleep is as important as nutrition or exercise in maintaining overall health. A nutritious diet provides vitamins and minerals to maintain body functions and generate adequate energy to perform daily tasks. Regular exercise keeps muscles toned, improves cardiovascular activity, and reduces stress. However, neither diet nor exercise replaces the need for sleep. With prolonged inadequate sleep, humans do not function well. They become accident prone, are less productive, and experience increased fatigue and health problems. This article discusses the importance of sleep, sleep events, health risks associated with inadequate sleep, and health care professionals' role in protecting employees and companies.

  20. Sleep Duration, Snoring Prevalence, Obesity, and Behavioral Problems in a Large Cohort of Primary School Students in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Naoko; Gozal, David; Smith, Dale L; Yang, Limin; Morimoto, Noriko; Wada, Hiroo; Maruyama, Kotatsu; Ikeda, Ai; Suzuki, Yohei; Nakayama, Meiho; Horiguchi, Itsuko; Tanigawa, Takeshi

    2017-03-01

    Poor or short sleep and the presence of snoring indicative of sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) have been associated with behavioral problems in school-aged children. We examined the relationship between SDB, sleep duration, obesity risk, and behavioral characteristics in Japanese elementary school students using a large-scale survey. We conducted a cross-sectional study of children enrolled in all 46 public primary schools in Matsuyama city, Japan. The children's parents or guardians completed a questionnaire that covered sleep habits, presence of SDB risk, and behavioral characteristics. In total, 24 296 responses were received (90% response rate). After excluding incomplete responses, we analyzed complete datasets for 17 769 children. Mean sleep duration decreased with age, as did the prevalence of pediatric SDB. We found an increased risk for the presence of SDB and short sleep among overweight/obese children. With SDB or short sleep, we observed significantly increased odds of restless behaviors, fidgety behaviors, and poor concentration in school. Shorter sleep duration was associated with increased risk of obesity, and in turn, obesity increased SDB risk. Both short sleep duration and SDB risk were significantly associated with behavioral problems in school. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Are chronotype, social jetlag and sleep duration associated with health measured by Work Ability Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Mei; Fischer, Dorothee; Germann, Christina; Lang, Stefan; Vetter, Céline; Oberlinner, Christoph

    The present study investigates the impact of chronotype, social jetlag and sleep duration on self-perceived health, measured by Work Ability Index (WAI), within an industrial setting. Between 2011 and 2013, 2474 day and shift workers participated in a health check offered by an occupational health promotion program and filled out the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (adapted to the rotational 12-h schedule for shift workers) and the WAI. We computed sleep duration on work and free days, chronotype, and social jetlag. We used linear regression models to examine chronotype, sleep duration and social jetlag for association with the WAI sum score, and proportional odds models to estimate the combined effect of social jetlag and sleep duration. Participants reported an average daily sleep duration of 7.35 h (SD: 1.2 h), had an average chronotype of 3:08 a.m. (SD: 1 h), and the average social jetlag corresponded to 1.96 h (SD: 2.05 h). Increasing social jetlag and shorter sleep duration were independently associated with a decreasing WAI, while chronotype per se was not associated with WAI. Short sleep duration combined with high social jetlag significantly increased the risk of poor WAI (OR = 1.36; 95% CI: 1.09-1.72), while long sleep duration and high social jetlag were not associated with poor WAI (OR = 1.09; 95% CI: 0.88-1.35). Our results add to a growing body of literature, suggesting that circadian misalignment, but not chronotype per se, may be critical for health. Our results indicate that longer sleep may override the adverse effects of social jetlag on WAI.

  2. Lower Sleep Duration Is Associated With Reduced Autobiographical Memory Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Tom J; Takano, Keisuke; Boddez, Yannick; Raes, Filip

    2018-02-09

    Sleep can have an important influence on memory. However, it is unclear whether there is any relation between sleep quality and the specificity with which autobiographical memories are retrieved, a key factor associated with vulnerability for, and the presence of, depression and other psychiatric diagnoses. The present study provides the first investigation of the association between sleep quality and autobiographical memory specificity. Fifty-four unselected community participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) to assess memory specificity, while subjective and objective measures of total sleep time and sleep onset latency were provided through a daily diary and an actigraphy wristwatch worn for a week. Participants also completed questionnaires that measure known correlates of AMT specificity: the Ruminative Response Scale (RRS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Shorter sleep duration, measured using actigraphy, was associated with reduced autobiographical memory specificity. There was no evidence of an association between total sleep time recorded by self-report diaries, or of sleep onset latency recorded using actigraphy or diaries and memory specificity. The relation between actigraphy-assessed total sleep time and memory specificity was independent of the effects of rumination or depressive symptoms on these variables. Shorter sleep duration is associated with reduced memory specificity. Future research examining memory specificity and its association with psychopathology should consider the role of sleep quality around the time of memory recall in specificity.

  3. Association between nighttime sleep duration, midday naps, and glycemic levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Shinya; Hirose, Sachie; Kakutani, Miki; Fujiwara, Masayoshi; Nishiyama, Mitsuru; Terada, Yoshio; Ninomiya, Hitoshi

    2018-04-01

    To clarify the relationship between nighttime sleep duration, midday naps, and glycemic control in Japanese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (n = 355) or impaired glucose tolerance (n = 43). A total of 398 patients completed a self-administered questionnaire on sleep duration/quality and were divided into five groups according to their self-reported nighttime sleep duration: 8 h. Each group was further divided into two subgroups each according to the presence or absence of midday naps. Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA1c ≥ 7.0%. Short nighttime sleep (<5 h), poor sleep induction, daytime sleepiness, and low sleep satisfaction were associated with high HbA1c levels. HbA1c was higher in the short nighttime sleep/no nap group than in non-nappers with different nighttime sleep duration, whereas the short nighttime sleep/nap group showed similar HbA1c levels to the other nap subgroups. In multivariate logistic regression models, after adjusting for a number of potential confounders, short (<5 h) nighttime sleep without nap was significantly associated with poor glycemic control compared with 6-7 h nighttime sleep without nap (OR [95% CI]: 7.14 [2.20-23.20]). However, taking naps reduced this risk for poor glycemic control in short sleepers. Other risk factors for poor glycemic control were low sleep satisfaction (1.73 [1.10-2.70]) and poor sleep induction (1.69 [1.14-2.50]). Poor sleep quality and quantity could aggravate glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. Midday naps could mitigate the deleterious effects of short nighttime sleep on glycemic control. UMIN 000017887. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. DSM-5 Insomnia and Short Sleep: Comorbidity Landscape and Racial Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmbach, David A; Pillai, Vivek; Arnedt, J Todd; Drake, Christopher L

    2016-12-01

    We estimated rates of cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric illness associated with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) insomnia disorder (current and in remission) and habitual short sleep (fewer than 6 h), and examined the roles of insomnia and short sleep in racial disparities in disease burden between black and non-Hispanic white Americans. This epidemiological survey study was cross-sectional. The community-based sample consisted of 3,911 subjects (46.0 y ± 13.3; 65.4% female; 25.0% black) across six sleep groups based on DSM-5 insomnia classification ( never vs. remitted vs. current ) and self-reported habitual sleep duration ( normal vs. short ). Vascular events, cardiometabolic disease, pain conditions, and psychiatric symptoms were self-reported. Short sleeping insomniacs were at elevated risk for myocardial infarction, stroke, treated hypertension, diabetes, chronic pain, back pain, depression, and anxiety, independent of sex, age, and obesity. Morbidity profiles for insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs, irrespective of sleep duration, were similar with elevations in treated hypertension, chronic pain, depression, and anxiety. Regarding racial disparities, cardiometabolic and psychiatric illness burden was greater for blacks, who were more likely to have short sleep and the short sleep insomnia phenotype. Evidence suggested that health disparities may be attributable in part to race-related differences in sleep. Insomnia disorder with short sleep is the most severe phenotype of insomnia and comorbid with many cardiometabolic and psychiatric illnesses, whereas morbidity profiles are highly similar between insomniacs with normal sleep duration and former insomniacs. Short sleep endemic to black Americans increases risk for the short sleep insomnia phenotype and likely contributes to racial disparities in cardiometabolic disease and psychiatric illness. © 2016 Associated

  5. Sleep duration modifies effects of free ad libitum school meals on adiposity and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Sjödin, Anders; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Damsgaard, Camilla Trab; Michaelsen, Kim F; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja; Andersen, Rikke; Ritz, Christian; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Astrup, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep can potentially affect both energy intake and energy expenditure, resulting in obesity and reduced cardiometabolic health. The objective of the study was to investigate if habitual sleep duration of 8- to 11-year-olds modifies the effect of free ad libitum school meals on cardiometabolic markers, body composition, dietary intake, and physical activity. For 2 consecutive 3-month periods, this cluster-randomized, controlled, cross-over trial provided 530 children with school meals or usual lunch brought from home. Dietary intake, activity, and sleep were measured simultaneously for 7 consecutive days using dietary records and accelerometers. Short- and long-sleeping children were defined as lower and upper tertile of sleep duration. Body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMAIR) were measured/calculated. Overall, school meals compared with lunch from home had positive effects on physical activity and blood pressure in long-sleeping children and negative effects on body fat in short-sleeping children. Short-sleeping children increased fat mass compared with long-sleeping children by 0.21 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.38) kg, android fat mass by 0.02 (0.001-0.04) kg, waist circumference by 0.73 (0.23-1.24) cm, blood pressure by 1.5 (0.4-2.6) mm Hg, fat intake by 1.1 (0.2-2.0) percentage of energy, and decreased total physical activity by 7.2 (1.6-12.7) % (all P ≤ 0.04), while HOMAIR and blood lipids were not modified by sleep duration (all P ≥ 0.32). In conclusion, the susceptibility to increase abdominal adiposity and blood pressure when exposed to dietary changes can potentially be explained by too little sleep, which results in increased caloric intake and reduced physical activity.

  6. Sleep duration and body mass index and waist circumference among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Li, Chaoyang; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Perry, Geraldine S; Croft, Janet B

    2014-02-01

    To examine the form of the relationship between sleep duration and anthropometric measures and possible differences in these relationships by gender and race or ethnicity. Data for 13,742 participants aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 were used. Sleep duration was categorized as ≤6 (short sleepers), 7-9, and ≥10 hours (long sleepers). Short sleepers were as much as 1.7 kg/m² (SE 0.4) heavier and had 3.4 cm (SE 1.0) more girth than long sleepers. Among participants without depression or a diagnosed sleep disorder, sleep duration was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in an inverse linear association in the entire sample, men, women, whites, African Americans, and participants aged 20-39 years. No evidence for statistical interaction by gender and race or ethnicity was observed. Regression coefficients were notably stronger among adults aged 20-39 years. Compared to participants who reported sleeping 7-9 hours per night, short sleepers were more likely to be obese and have abdominal obesity. In this nationally representative sample of US adults, an inverse linear association most consistently characterized the association between sleep duration and BMI and waist circumference. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  7. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashti, Hassan S; Follis, Jack L; Smith, Caren E; Tanaka, Toshiko; Cade, Brian E; Gottlieb, Daniel J; Hruby, Adela; Jacques, Paul F; Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Richardson, Kris; Saxena, Richa; Scheer, Frank A J L; Kovanen, Leena; Bartz, Traci M; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Jonsson, Anna; Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Kalafati, Ioanna-Panagiota; Mikkilä, Vera; Partonen, Timo; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Lahti, Jari; Hernandez, Dena G; Toft, Ulla; Johnson, W Craig; Kanoni, Stavroula; Raitakari, Olli T; Perola, Markus; Psaty, Bruce M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Grarup, Niels; Highland, Heather M; Rallidis, Loukianos; Kähönen, Mika; Havulinna, Aki S; Siscovick, David S; Räikkönen, Katri; Jørgensen, Torben; Rotter, Jerome I; Deloukas, Panos; Viikari, Jorma S A; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Linneberg, Allan; Seppälä, Ilkka; Hansen, Torben; Salomaa, Veikko; Gharib, Sina A; Eriksson, Johan G; Bandinelli, Stefania; Pedersen, Oluf; Rich, Stephen S; Dedoussis, George; Lehtimäki, Terho; Ordovás, José M

    2015-01-01

    Short sleep duration has been associated with greater risks of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Also, common genetic variants in the human Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) show associations with ghrelin and total energy intake. We examined associations between habitual sleep duration, body mass index (BMI), and macronutrient intake and assessed whether CLOCK variants modify these associations. We conducted inverse-variance weighted, fixed-effect meta-analyses of results of adjusted associations of sleep duration and BMI and macronutrient intake as percentages of total energy as well as interactions with CLOCK variants from 9 cohort studies including up to 14,906 participants of European descent from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. We observed a significant association between sleep duration and lower BMI (β ± SE = 0.16 ± 0.04, P y) adults (men: 0.11 ± 0.06%, P = 0.03; women: 0.10 ± 0.05%, P = 0.04) and with lower carbohydrate (-0.31 ± 0.12%, P y) women. In addition, the following 2 nominally significant interactions were observed: between sleep duration and rs12649507 on PUFA intake and between sleep duration and rs6858749 on protein intake. Our results indicate that longer habitual sleep duration is associated with lower BMI and age- and sex-specific favorable dietary behaviors. Differences in the relative intake of specific macronutrients associated with short sleep duration could, at least in part, explain previously reported associations between short sleep duration and chronic metabolic abnormalities. In addition, the influence of obesity-associated CLOCK variants on the association between sleep duration and macronutrient intake suggests that longer habitual sleep duration could ameliorate the genetic predisposition to obesity via a favorable dietary profile. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Correlates of self-reported sleep duration in middle-aged and elderly Koreans: from the Health Examinees Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Suk Yoon

    Full Text Available Though various factors related to fluctuations in sleep duration have been identified, information remains limited regarding the correlates of short and long sleep duration among the Korean population. Thus, we investigated characteristics that could be associated with short and/or long sleep duration among middle-aged and elderly Koreans. A total of 84,094 subjects (27,717 men and 56,377 women who participated in the Health Examinees Study were analyzed by using multinomial logistic regression models. To evaluate whether sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, psychological conditions, anthropometry results, and health conditions were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated with sleep duration of 6-7 hours as the reference group, accounting for putative covariates. Regardless of sexual differences, we found that adverse behaviors and lifestyle factors including low educational attainment, unemployment, being unmarried, current smoking status, lack of exercise, having irregular meals, poor psychosocial well-being, frequent stress events, and poor self-rated health were significantly associated with abnormal sleep duration. Similarly, diabetes mellitus and depression showed positive associations with abnormal sleep duration in both men and women. Our findings suggest that low sociodemographic characteristics, adverse lifestyle factors, poor psychological conditions, and certain disease morbidities could be associated with abnormal sleep duration in middle-aged and elderly Koreans.

  9. Ethnic differences in sleep duration and morning–evening type in a population sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Susan Kohl; Patterson, Freda; Lu, Yinghui; Lozano, Alicia; Hanlon, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional population study examined associations of sleep duration and morning–evening type with sociodemographic and cardiometabolic disease in adults participating in the UK Biobank study (N = 439 933). Multivariable Poisson regression models of sleep duration and morning–evening type with a robust error variance were generated to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. All models were adjusted for sex, race, college attendance, employment status and age. Twenty five percent of the sample reported short sleep; 27% were morning, 64% intermediate and 9% evening type. Black ethnicity emerged as most strongly associated with sleep behavior. Short sleep was twice as prevalent, and morning versus intermediate type was 1.4 times more prevalent in Black than White participants. The greater prevalence of short sleep and morning type among Blacks suggests that sleep-based approaches to improving cardiometabolic outcomes may require a more multidimensional approach that encompasses adequate sleep and circadian alignment in this population. PMID:26654569

  10. Association between sleep duration and diabetes mellitus: Isfahan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recent studies revealed an association between sleep disturbance and metabolic disorders, such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. An aim of this study was to assess the relation between sleep duration and diabetes mellitus in a representative sample of the Iranian population. Materials and Methods: ...

  11. Sleep duration and the risk of metabolic syndrome – a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Suliga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: It has been stated that besides the traditional elements of lifestyle such as diet and physical activity, an additional factor, namely sleep, is involved in metabolic processes, hormonal functions, and energy homeostasis. Aim of the research: To examine relationships between self-reported sleep duration and the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, both for men and women. Material and methods: The study involved 10,367 individuals, aged 37 to 66 years. The definition of MetS applied in this paper was developed by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF. Logistic regression was applied to assess the risk (odds ratio – OR of MetS and its components. Results : There was no relationship observed between short sleep duration (≤ 6 h and the risk of MetS. Long sleep duration (≥ 9 h was connected with a higher risk of MetS only in the unadjusted model (OR = 1.11. After adjusting for confounders, a significant association was found between long sleep duration and a higher risk of abdominal obesity in the test group as a whole (OR = 1.16, as well as in the men in the group (OR = 1.22. In women, both with short (OR = 1.08 and long (OR = 1.12 sleep duration, the risk of increased concentration of glucose was found. Conclusions : Our study did not confirm the existence of an association between inadequate sleep duration and the risk of MetS, defined in accordance with IDF criteria. Sleep duration, however, is connected with some of the MetS components. It is therefore necessary to conduct further, long-term tests in this regard.

  12. Sleep duration and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and energy drinks among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hugues; Hamilton, Hayley A; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2018-04-01

    To examine the relationship between sleep duration and consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) and energy drinks (EDs) among adolescents. Data on 9,473 adolescents aged 11-20 years were obtained from the 2015 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a province-wide and cross-sectional school based survey of students in middle and high school. Respondents self-reported their sleep duration and consumption of SSBs and EDs. Those who did not meet the age-appropriate sleep duration recommendation were considered short sleepers. Overall, 81.4% and 12.0% of respondents reported that they had at least one SSBs and EDs in the past week, respectively. Males were more likely than females to consume SSBs and EDs. High school students were more likely than those in middle school to report drinking EDs. After adjusting for multiple covariates, results from logistic regression analyses indicated that short sleep duration was associated with greater odds of SSB consumption in middle school students (odd ratio (OR) = 1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.18-2.11), but not those in high school (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.86-1.31). Short sleep duration was associated with greater odds of ED consumption in both middle (OR = 1.60, 95% CI = 1.10-2.34) and high school (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.38-2.30) students. Short sleep duration was associated with consumption of EDs in middle and high school students and with SSBs in middle school students only. Future studies are needed to establish causality and to determine whether improving sleep patterns can reduce the consumption of SSBs and EDs among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Shortened Sleep Duration does not Predict Obesity in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Calamaro, Christina J.; Park, Sunhee; Mason, Thornton B. A.; Marcus, Carole L.; Weaver, Terri E.; Pack, Allan; Ratcliffe, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity continues to be a major public health issue. In adolescents, there are limited studies on the relationship between obesity and sleep duration. We hypothesied that average sleep duration of less than 6 hours in adolescents was associated with obesity. Data was from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health); survey of 90,000 youths, ages 12 – 18 years; surveyed in several waves. The sample population for our study was 13,568. Weighted multiple logistic regression...

  14. Sleep environments and sleep durations in a sample of low-income preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Katherine E; Miller, Alison L; Lumeng, Julie C; Chervin, Ronald D

    2014-03-15

    Sleep duration is commonly studied in children, but less is known about the potential impact of adverse sleep environments, particularly at preschool ages. We examined the frequency of suboptimal sleep environments and tested for associations with sleep duration or nocturnal sleep time among low-income preschool children. Parents of Head Start preschoolers in Michigan (Detroit and greater Lansing) completed questionnaires on children's sleep schedules and sleep environments. Respondents indicated how often their children slept in a place "too bright," "too loud," "too cold," or "too hot" on a scale of 1 = never to 5 = always. A suboptimal sleep environment (SSE) was defined when one or more of these conditions were reported for ≥ 1-2 nights/week. Weeknight sleep duration or reported time that the child went to sleep was regressed on SSE as an explanatory variable, with adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, gender, maternal education, and average daily nap duration. Among 133 preschool children, mean age was 4.1 ± 0.5 (SD), 48% were male, 39% were white, and 52% were black; 34% of parents had ≤ a high school degree. Parents reported that 26 (20%) of the children slept in a SSE ≥ 1-2 nights per week. In regression models, SSE was associated with 27 minutes shorter sleep duration (β = -0.45, SE = 0.22, p = 0.044) and 22 minutes later time child "fell asleep" (β = 0.37, SE = 0.19, p = 0.048) on weeknights. Among these Head Start preschool children, environmental challenges to adequate sleep are not uncommon, and they may have consequences. Clinician or preschool assessment of sleep environments may open opportunities to improve sleep at early ages. Wilson KE; Miller AL; Lumeng JC; Chervin RD. Sleep environments and sleep durations in a sample of low-income preschool children.

  15. Sleep Regulation, Physiology and Development, Sleep Duration and Patterns, and Sleep Hygiene in Infants, Toddlers, and Preschool-Age Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathory, Eleanor; Tomopoulos, Suzy

    2017-02-01

    Sleep problems are common, reported by a quarter of parents with children under the age of 5 years, and have been associated with poor behavior, worse school performance, and obesity, in addition to negative secondary effects on maternal and family well-being. Yet, it has been shown that pediatricians do not adequately address sleep in routine well-child visits, and underdiagnose sleep issues. Pediatricians receive little formal training in medical school or in residency regarding sleep medicine. An understanding of the physiology of sleep is critical to a pediatrician׳s ability to effectively and confidently counsel patients about sleep. The biological rhythm of sleep and waking is regulated through both circadian and homeostatic processes. Sleep also has an internal rhythmic organization, or sleep architecture, which includes sleep cycles of REM and NREM sleep. Arousal and sleep (REM and NREM) are active and complex neurophysiologic processes, involving both neural pathway activation and suppression. These physiologic processes change over the life course, especially in the first 5 years. Adequate sleep is often difficult to achieve, yet is considered very important to optimal daily function and behavior in children; thus, understanding optimal sleep duration and patterns is critical for pediatricians. There is little experimental evidence that guides sleep recommendations, rather normative data and expert recommendations. Effective counseling on child sleep must account for the child and parent factors (child temperament, parent-child interaction, and parental affect) and the environmental factors (cultural, geographic, and home environment, especially media exposure) that influence sleep. To promote health and to prevent and manage sleep problems, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that parents start promoting good sleep hygiene, with a sleep-promoting environment and a bedtime routine in infancy, and throughout childhood. Thus, counseling

  16. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl

    2017-05-09

    The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE) Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women). The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women) and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women), and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women) and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women). The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women), and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women). In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  17. Differences in Sleep Duration among Four Different Population Groups of Older Adults in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Peltzer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to investigate sleep duration in four different population groups in a national probability sample of older South Africans who participated in the Study of Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE Wave 1. A national population-based cross-sectional study with a sample of 3284 aged 50 years or older in South Africa was conducted in 2008. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, health variables, and self-reported sleep duration. Results indicate that White Africans compared to other population groups had the lowest mean sleep duration (7.88 h among men and 7.46 h among women. The prevalence of short sleep was the highest among both men and women among the White African (18.8% in men and 16.9% in women and Indian or Asian African population groups (14.5% in men and 17.1% in women, and lowest among both men and women in the Black African (7.0% in men and 6.5% in women and multi-ancestry population groups (15.6% in men and 12.7% in women. The prevalence of long sleep was among both men and women the highest in the Black African population group (56.2% in men and 58.5% in women, and the lowest in the White African population group (36.4% in men and 24.3% in women. In a Poisson regression model, adjusted for sociodemographics and chronic disease status, coming from the male and female White African population group was associated with short sleep. In addition, coming from the Indian or Asian African population group was associated with short sleep. No population group differences were found regarding long sleep prevalence. White Africans reported more short sleep duration than the other population groups, while there were no racial or ethnic differences in long sleep. White Africans are more likely to have sleep durations that are associated with negative health outcomes. An explanation of the high short sleep prevalence among White Africans may be related to their racial or ethnic minority status in South Africa.

  18. Sleep duration, obesity and insulin resistance in a multi-ethnic UK population at high risk of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, E M; Bodicoat, D H; Hall, A P; Khunti, K; Yates, T; Edwardson, C; Davies, M J

    2018-03-09

    Investigating the association between sleep duration, obesity, adipokines and insulin resistance (via Leptin:Adiponectin ratio (LAR)), in those at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Adults with impaired glucose regulation (IGR) were included. Fasting bloods for inflammatory biomarkers and glycaemic status, 2-h glucose, anthropometrics, objective physical activity, and self-reported sleep were collected. The average number of hours slept in a 24 h period was categorised as ≤5.5, 6-6.5, 7-7.5, 8-8.5, and ≥9 h. Regression models were fitted with sleep (linear and quadratic) and logistic regression used for IGR and adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index, waist circumference and objective physical activity. 2848 participants included (593 with inflammatory marker data). Short sleep and long sleep duration were significantly independently associated with higher body mass index (P < 0.001), body weight (P < 0.01), and waist circumference (P < 0.001). 6-7 h of sleep/24 h is associated with the lowest obesity measures. Fasting insulin and LAR were positively associated with sleep duration. Adiponectin levels were negatively associated with sleep duration. These results support the evidence of an association between short and long sleep duration and indices of obesity. We demonstrate an independent relationship between long sleep duration and insulin resistance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Incident diabetes mellitus may explain the association between sleep duration and incident coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Akiko Kishi; Svensson, Thomas; Kitlinski, Mariusz; Almgren, Peter; Engström, Gunnar; Nilsson, Peter M; Melander, Olle

    2018-02-01

    Sleep duration is a risk factor for incident diabetes mellitus and CHD. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate, in sex-specific analyses, the role of incident diabetes as the possible biological mechanism for the reported association between short/long sleep duration and incident CHD. Considering that diabetes is a major risk factor for CHD, we hypothesised that any association with sleep duration would not hold for cases of incident CHD occurring before incident diabetes ('non-diabetes CHD') but would hold true for cases of incident CHD following incident diabetes ('diabetes-CHD'). A total of 6966 men and 9378 women aged 45-73 years from the Malmö Diet Cancer Study, a population-based, prospective cohort, who had answered questions on habitual sleep duration and did not have a history of prevalent diabetes or CHD were included in the analyses. Incident cases of diabetes and CHD were identified using national registers. Sex-specific Cox proportional hazards regression models were stratified by BMI and adjusted for known covariates of diabetes and CHD. Mean follow-up times for incident diabetes (n = 1137/1016 [men/women]), incident CHD (n = 1170/578), non-diabetes CHD (n = 1016/501) and diabetes-CHD (n = 154/77) were 14.2-15.2 years for men, and 15.8-16.5 years for women. In men, short sleep duration (< 6 h) was associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.01, 1.80), CHD (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.06, 1.89) and diabetes-CHD (HR 2.34, 95% CI 1.20, 4.55). Short sleep duration was not associated with incident non-diabetes CHD (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.98, 1.87). Long sleep duration (≥ 9 h) was associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03, 1.83), CHD (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01, 1.75) and diabetes-CHD (HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.11, 4.00). Long sleep duration was not associated with incident non-diabetes CHD (HR 1.33, 95% CI 0.98, 1.80). In women, short sleep duration was associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.16, 2.01), CHD (HR 1

  20. Eating behavior by sleep duration in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Jung, Molly; Patel, Sanjay R; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Arens, Raanan; Ramos, Alberto; Redline, Susan; Rock, Cheryl L; Van Horn, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Sleep is an important pillar of health and a modifiable risk factor for diabetes, stroke and obesity. Little is known of diet and sleep patterns of Hispanics/Latinos in the US. Here we examine eating behavior as a function of sleep duration in a sub-sample of 11,888 participants from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos, a community-based cohort study of Hispanics aged 18-74 years in four US cities. Using a cross-sectional probability sample with self-report data on habitual sleep duration and up to two 24-h dietary recalls, we quantified the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010) score, a measure of diet quality, and intake of selected nutrients related to cardiovascular health. Linear regression models were fit to estimate least-square means of usual nutrient intake of saturated fats, potassium density, fiber, calcium, caffeine and the AHEI-2010 score by sleep duration adjusting for age, sex, Hispanic/Latino background, income, employment status, education, depressive symptomology, and years lived in the US. Distribution of calories over the day and association with sleep duration and BMI were also examined. Short sleepers (≤6 h) had significantly lower intake of potassium, fiber and calcium and long sleepers (≥9 h) had significantly lower intake of caffeine compared to others sleepers after adjusting for covariates. However no difference in the AHEI-2010 score was seen by sleep duration. Significantly more long sleepers, compared to intermediate and short sleepers, reported having ≥30% total daily calories before bedtime. Not consuming a snack or meal within 3 h before bedtime was associated with higher AHEI-2010 scores. These findings identify novel differences in dietary patterns by sleep duration in a Hispanic/Latino cohort in the U.S. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02060344. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Long sleep duration is associated with lower cognitive function among middle-age adults - the Doetinchem Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oostrom, Sandra H; Nooyens, Astrid C J; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Verschuren, W M Monique

    2018-01-01

    In older adults, both short and long sleep duration are associated with lower cognitive function, suggesting an inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration and cognitive outcomes. This study examined whether sleep duration is associated with (changes in) cognitive function in a middle-aged population. In the Doetinchem Cohort Study, the cognitive function of 2970 men and women aged 41-75 years at baseline (1995-2007) was examined 2-3 times, with 5-year time intervals. Global cognitive function and the domains memory, information processing speed, and cognitive flexibility were assessed. In multivariable linear regression models, (change in) self-reported sleep duration was studied in association with the level and change in cognitive function. In a subsample of the population (n = 2587), the association of sleep duration and feeling rested with cognitive function was studied. Sleep duration of 9 h and more was statistically significantly associated with lower global cognitive function (p memory (p = 0.02), and flexibility (p = 0.03), compared to a sleep duration of 7 or 8 h. Among adults feeling frequently not well rested, both short and long sleep duration were associated with a lower speed of cognitive function. An inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration and cognitive function was observed for speed, flexibility, and global cognitive function. Sleep duration was not associated with change in cognitive function. Middle-age adults with long sleep duration had a lower cognitive function. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship of Sleep Duration with Sociodemographic Characteristics, Lifestyle, Mental Health, and Chronic Diseases in a Large Chinese Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shibin; Li, Bo; Wu, Yanhua; Ungvari, Gabor S; Ng, Chee H; Fu, Yingli; Kou, Changgui; Yu, Yaqin; Sun, Hong-Qiang; Xiang, Yu-Tao

    2017-03-15

    Pattern of sleep duration and its correlates have rarely been reported in China. This study examined the sleep duration and its relationship with sociodemographic variables, lifestyle, mental health, and chronic diseases in a large Chinese adult population. This cross-sectional study used multistage stratified cluster sampling. A total of 17,320 participants from Jilin province were selected and interviewed using standardized assessment tools. Basic socio-demographic and clinical data were collected. Sleep duration was classified as short ( 9 h per day) and medium sleep (7-9 h per day). The mean age of the sample was 42.60 ± 10.60 y, with 51.4% being female. The mean sleep duration was 7.31 ± 1.44 h. Short and long sleepers accounted for 30.9% and 6.9% of the sample, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed that older age, current smoking, irregular meal pattern, lack of physical exercise, poor mental health, and chronic diseases or multimorbidity were positively associated with short sleep. Being married and living in rural areas were, however, negatively associated with short sleep. In addition, living in rural area, current smoking, current alcohol use and lack of physical exercise were positively associated with long sleep, while older age and lower education were negatively associated with long sleep. Given the high frequency of short sleep and its negative effect on health, health professionals should pay more attention to sleep patterns in general health care. Nationwide epidemiologic surveys in China are needed to further explore the relationship between sleep duration and health. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  3. Black–White Differences in Housing Type and Sleep Duration as Well as Sleep Difficulties in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayna A. Johnson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Housing environments can directly and indirectly affect sleep, and blacks are more likely than whites to live in suboptimal housing conditions, which may independently contribute to sleep disparities. However, few large-scale epidemiological studies consider the potential influence of housing type on sleep health. Using data from the 2004–2015 National Health Interview Survey, we investigated overall and Black-White differences in the association between housing type (house/apartment versus mobile home/trailer and sleep duration as well as sleep difficulties among 226,208 adults in the U.S. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to estimate sex-specific prevalence ratios (PR for sleep categories, first comparing houses/apartments to mobile homes/trailers and then blacks to whites within housing types. All models were adjusted for age, educational attainment, income, occupational class, self-reported general health status, and region of residence. Compared to participants living in houses/apartments, the prevalence of short sleep was higher for men (PR = 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.02–1.08 and women (PR = 1.07 (95% CI: 1.04–1.09 in mobile homes/trailers. Black men (PR = 1.26 (95% CI: 1.21–1.30 and women (PR = 1.24 (95% CI: 1.20–1.27 in a house/apartment were more likely to be short sleepers than their white counterparts. There was generally no significant difference in sleep characteristics (except long sleep between black and white men in mobile homes/trailers after adjustments, and black men in houses/apartments as well as black women in both housing types were less likely to report sleep difficulties although being more likely to report short sleep. Overall, individuals in mobile homes/trailers, which may represent suboptimal housing, had worse sleep than those in houses/apartments; and racial differences in the quality of houses and apartments are likely to greatly vary in ways that still contribute to sleep

  4. Low physical activity level and short sleep duration are associated with an increased cardio-metabolic risk profile: a longitudinal study in 8-11 year old Danish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Mads F; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T; Dalskov, Stine-Mathilde; Andersen, Rikke; Astrup, Arne; Michaelsen, Kim F; Tetens, Inge; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders

    2014-01-01

    As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. To examine independent and combined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between movement behaviors and the MetS score in 8-11 year old Danish children. Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration (seven days and eight nights) were assessed by accelerometer and fat mass index (fat mass/height2) was assessed using Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The MetS-score was based on z-scores of waist circumference, mean arterial blood pressure, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol. All measurements were taken at three time points separated by 100 days. Average of the three measurements was used as habitual behavior in the cross-sectional analysis and changes from first to third measurement was used in the longitudinal analysis. 723 children were included. In the cross-sectional analysis, physical activity was negatively associated with the MetS-score (Pphysical activity and high sedentary time were associated with an increased MetS-score (all Pphysical activity and sleep duration, but not sedentary time, were associated with the MetS-score (all P0.17). Children in the most favorable tertiles of changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sleep duration and sedentary time during the 200-day follow-up period had an improved MetS-score relative to children in the opposite tertiles (P = 0.005). The present findings indicate that physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration should all be targeted to improve cardio-metabolic risk markers in childhood; this is possibly mediated by adiposity.

  5. Low Physical Activity Level and Short Sleep Duration Are Associated with an Increased Cardio-Metabolic Risk Profile: A Longitudinal Study in 8-11 Year Old Danish Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads F.; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Damsgaard, Camilla T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: As cardio-metabolic risk tracks from childhood to adulthood, a better understanding of the relationship between movement behaviors (physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep) and cardio-metabolic risk in childhood may aid in preventing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood....... Objective: To examine independent and combined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between movement behaviors and the MetS score in 8-11 year old Danish children. Design: Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration (seven days and eight nights) were assessed by accelerometer and fat mass......, physical activity was negatively associated with the MetS-score (P...

  6. Association of Sleep Duration, Symptoms, and Disorders with Mortality in Adults with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricardo, Ana C; Goh, Vivien; Chen, Jinsong; Cedillo-Couvert, Esteban; Kapella, Mary; Prasad, Bharati; Parvathaneni, Sharmila; Knutson, Kristen; Lash, James P

    2017-09-01

    In general populations, short and long sleep duration, poor sleep quality and sleep disorders have been associated with increased risk of death. We evaluated these associations in individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Prospective cohort study of 1,452 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005-2008 participants with CKD. CKD was defined by estimated glomerular filtration rate 8 hours were 1.50 (1.08-2.10) and 1.36 (0.89-2.08), respectively. The corresponding HR (95%CI) for cardiovascular mortality were 1.56 (0.72-3.37) and 1.56 (0.66-3.65). Non-restorative sleep and restless legs syndrome were associated with increased risk for all-cause mortality (1.63 [1.13-2.35], and 1.69 [1.04-275], respectively). In adults with CKD, short sleep duration, nonrestorative sleep and restless legs syndrome are associated with increased risk of death. These findings underscore the importance of promoting adequate sleep in patients with CKD, and the need for future studies evaluating the impact of sleep interventions in this population.

  7. Duration of Sleep and ADHD Tendency among Adolescents in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Lawrence T.; Yang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the association between duration of sleep and ADHD tendency among adolescents. Method: This population-based health survey uses a two-stage random cluster sampling design. Participants ages 13 to 17 are recruited from the total population of adolescents attending high school in one city of China. Duration of…

  8. Sleep duration, but not insomnia, predicts the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Mill, Josine G; Vogelzangs, Nicole; van Someren, Eus J W; Hoogendijk, Witte J G; Penninx, Brenda W J H

    2014-02-01

    To examine the predictive role of insomnia and sleep duration on the 2-year course of depressive and anxiety disorders. This study is a secondary data analysis based on data from the baseline (2004-2007) and 2-year assessment of the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety. Participants were 1,069 individuals with DSM-IV-based depressive and/or anxiety disorders at baseline. Sleep measures included insomnia (Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale score ≥ 9) and sleep duration (categorized as short [≤ 6 hours], normal [7-9 hours], or long [≥ 10 hours]). Outcome measures were persistence of DSM-IV depressive and anxiety disorders (current diagnosis at 2-year follow-up), time to remission, and clinical course trajectory of symptoms (early sustained remission, late remission/recurrence, and chronic course). Logistic regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and chronic medical disorders, psychotropic medications, and severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms. The effect of insomnia on persistence of depressive and/or anxiety disorders (OR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.16-1.94) was explained by severity of baseline depressive/anxiety symptoms (adjusted OR with severity = 1.04; 95% CI, 0.79-1.37). Long sleep duration was independently associated with persistence of depression/anxiety even after adjusting for severity of psychiatric symptoms (OR = 2.52; 95% CI, 1.27-4.99). For short sleep duration, the independent association with persistence of combined depression/anxiety showed a trend toward significance (OR = 1.32; 95% CI, 0.98-1.78), and a significant association for the persistence of depressive disorders (OR = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.11-2.00). Both short and long sleep duration were independently associated with a chronic course trajectory (short sleep: OR = 1.50; 95% CI, 1.04-2.16; long sleep: OR = 2.91, 95% CI, 1.22-6.93). Both short and long sleep duration-but not insomnia-are important predictors of a chronic course, independent of

  9. Shortened sleep duration does not predict obesity in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamaro, Christina J; Park, Sunhee; Mason, Thornton B A; Marcus, Carole L; Weaver, Terri E; Pack, Allan; Ratcliffe, Sarah J

    2010-12-01

    Obesity continues to be a major public health issue. In adolescents, there are limited studies on the relationship between obesity and sleep duration. We found hypothesized that an average sleep duration of obesity. Data were from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (ADD Health); a survey of 90,000 youths, aged 12-18 years; surveyed in several waves. The sample population for our study was 13,568. Weighted multiple logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between obesity at Wave II and sleep duration, having adjusted for skipping breakfast ≥ 2/week; race, gender, parental income, TV ≥ 2 h per day, depression, and obesity at Wave I. At Wave I, the mean age was 15.96 ± 0.11 years; mean sleep hours were 7.91 ± 0.04. At Waves I and II, respectively, 10.6 and 11.2% of adolescents were obese. Adjusted analyses suggest that the effect of shortened sleep duration in Wave I was not significantly predictive of obesity in Wave II (P TV ≥ 2 h per day at Wave I was associated with a higher risk of obesity at Wave II in adjusted analyses. Depressed adolescents were almost twice as likely to be obese (OR = 1.84, 95% CI = 1.25-2.72); adolescents who watched TV ≥ 2 h per day were 37% more likely to be obese (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.09-1.72). Environmental factors including TV ≥ 2 h per day and depression were significantly associated with obesity; shortened sleep duration was not. Future longitudinal studies in adolescents are needed to determine whether timing of television watching directly influences sleep patterns and, ultimately, obesity. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  10. Sleep Duration and Quality in Relation to Autonomic Nervous System Measures: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Diehl, Cecilia; Diez Roux, Ana V; Redline, Susan; Seeman, Teresa; McKinley, Paula; Sloan, Richard; Shea, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Short sleep duration and poor sleep quality are associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Potential pathophysiological mechanisms include sleep-associated alterations in the autonomic nervous system. The objective of this study was to examine the associations of shorter sleep duration and poorer sleep quality with markers of autonomic tone: heart rate (HR), high-frequency HR variability (HF-HRV) and salivary amylase. Cross-sectional analysis of data from actigraphy-based measures of sleep duration and efficiency and responses to a challenge protocol obtained from 527 adult participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants who slept fewer than 6 h per night (compared to those who slept 7 h or more per night) had higher baseline HR (fully adjusted model 0.05 log beats/min, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.01, 0.09) and greater HR orthostatic reactivity (fully adjusted model 0.02 log beats/min, 95% CI 0.002, 0.023). Participants who slept 6 to less than 7 h/night (compared to those who slept 7 h or more per night) had lower baseline HF-HRV (fully adjusted model -0.31 log msec 2 , 95% CI -0.60, -0.14). Participants with low sleep efficiency had lower baseline HF-HRV than those with higher sleep efficiency (fully adjusted model -0.59 log msec 2 , 95% CI -1.03, -0.15). Participants with low sleep efficiency had higher baseline levels of amylase than those with higher sleep efficiency (fully adjusted model 0.45 log U/mL, 95% CI 0.04, 0.86). Short sleep duration, low sleep efficiency, and insomnia combined with short sleep duration were associated with markers of autonomic tone that indicate lower levels of cardiac parasympathetic (vagal) tone and/or higher levels of sympathetic tone. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Chronotype modulates sleep duration, sleep quality, and social jet lag in shift-workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juda, Myriam; Vetter, Céline; Roenneberg, Till

    2013-04-01

    This study explores chronotype-dependent tolerance to the demands of working morning, evening, and night shifts in terms of social jet lag, sleep duration, and sleep disturbance. A total of 238 shift-workers were chronotyped with the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire for shift-workers (MCTQ(Shift)), which collects information about shift-dependent sleep duration and sleep timing. Additionally, 94 shift-workers also completed those items of the Sleep Questionnaire from the Standard Shift-Work Index (SSI) that assess sleep disturbances. Although all participants worked morning, evening, and night shifts, subsamples differed in rotation direction and speed. Sleep duration, social jet lag, and sleep disturbance were all significantly modulated by the interaction of chronotype and shift (mixed-model ANOVAs). Earlier chronotypes showed shortened sleep duration during night shifts, high social jet lag, as well as higher levels of sleep disturbance. A similar pattern was observed for later chronotypes during early shifts. Age itself only influenced sleep duration and quality per se, without showing interactions with shifts. We found that workers slept longer in fast, rotating shift schedules. Since chronotype changes with age, investigations on sleep behavior and circadian misalignment in shift-workers have to consider chronotype to fully understand interindividual and intraindividual variability, especially in view of the current demographic changes. Given the impact of sleep on health, our results stress the importance of chronotype both in understanding the effects of shift-work on sleep and in devising solutions to reduce shift-work-related health problems.

  12. Sleep Duration and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnicka, Alicja R; Nightingale, Claire M; Donin, Angela S; Sattar, Naveed; Cook, Derek G; Whincup, Peter H; Owen, Christopher G

    2017-09-01

    Associations between sleep duration and type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk markers in childhood have been little studied. We examined associations between self-reported sleep duration and T2D risk markers in children. Cross-sectional study of 4525 multiethnic UK children aged 9 to 10 years. Sleep time was calculated from self-reported usual time of going to bed and getting up on a school day, validated in a subset using accelerometers. Fasting blood samples provided levels of serum lipids and insulin, plasma glucose, and HbA1c. Physical measures included height, weight, bioimpedance, and blood pressure. Multilevel linear regression models of anthropometric, T2D, and cardiovascular risk markers with sleep duration were adjusted for sex, age, month, ethnicity, socioeconomic position, observer (physical measures only), and random effect of school. On average, children slept 10.5 hours per night (95% range 8.0-12.0 hours). There were strong inverse graded relationships between sleep duration, adiposity, and diabetes risk markers. In adjusted models, a 1-hour-longer sleep duration was associated with 0.19 lower BMI (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.09 to 0.28), 0.03 kg/m 5 lower fat mass index (95% CI 0.00 to 0.05 kg/m 5 ), 2.9% lower homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (95% CI 1.2% to 4.4%), and 0.24% lower fasting glucose (95% CI 0.03% to 0.44%); there was no association with HbA1c or cardiovascular risk. Associations with insulin and glucose remained after an additional adjustment for adiposity markers. The finding of an inverse association between sleep duration and T2D risk markers in childhood is novel. Intervention studies are needed to establish the causality of these associations, which could provide a simple strategy for early T2D prevention. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Associations between self-reported sleep duration and sleeping disorder with concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among adults without diagnosed diabetes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S.; Wheaton, Anne G.; Chapman, Daniel P.; Li, Chaoyang; Perry, Geraldine S.; Croft, Janet B.

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited information from population-based investigations of the associations between sleep duration and sleep disorders and parameters of glucose homeostasis. The objective of the present study was to examine cross-sectional associations between sleep duration and sleep disordered breathing with concentrations of insulin, fasting and 2-h glucose, and HbA1c. Methods Data from 11 815 adults aged ≥20 years without diagnosed diabetes (5002 with an oral glucose tolerance test) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005–2010 were used. Information about sleep duration (2005–2010) and sleep apnea and sleep-disordered breathing (2005–2008) was obtained via questionnaire. Results An estimated 36.0% of participants reported sleeping ≤6 h/night, 62.0% reported sleeping 7–9 h/night, and 2.0% reported sleeping ≥10 h/night. In 2005–2008, 33.0% reported snoring ≥5 nights per week, 5.9% reported they snorted, gasped, or stopped breathing ≥5 nights/week, and 4.2% reported sleep apnea. Sleep duration was significantly associated with fasting concentrations of insulin and concentrations of HbA1c only in models that did not adjust for body mass index (BMI). Concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose were significantly associated with sleep duration in models that adjusted only for age. Snoring frequency was positively associated with concentrations of insulin and HbA1c. Frequency of snorting or stopping breathing and sleep apnea status were associated with concentrations of insulin and of HbA1c only when BMI was not accounted for. Conclusion In a representative sample of US adults, concentrations of insulin and HbA1c were significantly associated with short sleep duration, possibly mediated by BMI. PMID:24164804

  14. Associations between self-reported sleep duration and sleeping disorder with concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose, insulin, and glycosylated hemoglobin among adults without diagnosed diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Earl S; Wheaton, Anne G; Chapman, Daniel P; Li, Chaoyang; Perry, Geraldine S; Croft, Janet B

    2014-07-01

    There is limited information from population-based investigations of the associations between sleep duration and sleep disorders and parameters of glucose homeostasis. The objective of the present study was to examine cross-sectional associations between sleep duration and sleep disordered breathing with concentrations of insulin, fasting and 2-h glucose, and HbA1c. Data from 11 815 adults aged ≥20 years without diagnosed diabetes (5002 with an oral glucose tolerance test) from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 were used. Information about sleep duration (2005-2010) and sleep apnea and sleep-disordered breathing (2005-2008) was obtained via questionnaire. An estimated 36.0% of participants reported sleeping ≤6 h/night, 62.0% reported sleeping 7-9 h/night, and 2.0% reported sleeping ≥10 h/night. In 2005-2008, 33.0% reported snoring ≥5 nights per week, 5.9% reported they snorted, gasped, or stopped breathing ≥5 nights/week, and 4.2% reported sleep apnea. Sleep duration was significantly associated with fasting concentrations of insulin and concentrations of HbA1c only in models that did not adjust for body mass index (BMI). Concentrations of fasting and 2-h glucose were significantly associated with sleep duration in models that adjusted only for age. Snoring frequency was positively associated with concentrations of insulin and HbA1c. Frequency of snorting or stopping breathing and sleep apnea status were associated with concentrations of insulin and of HbA1c only when BMI was not accounted for. In a representative sample of US adults, concentrations of insulin and HbA1c were significantly associated with short sleep duration, possibly mediated by BMI. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  15. Sleep duration and mortality in the elderly: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Andressa Alves; de Mello, Renato Gorga Bandeira; Schaan, Camila Wohlgemuth; Fuchs, Flávio D; Redline, Susan; Fuchs, Sandra C

    2016-02-17

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate the association between short and long sleep duration and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality among elderly individuals. Systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based cohort studies. Articles were retrieved from international and national electronic databases. Studies were identified in PubMed, EMBASE, LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), IBECS (Bibliographic Index on Health Sciences from Spain) and CAPES (PhD thesis repository) between 1980 and 2015. Studies which met all criteria were eligible: participants aged 60 years or over, assessment of sleep duration as 24 h, nighttime or daytime sleep, evaluation of all-cause or cause-specific mortality, population-based cohort studies conducted on representative samples. There was no language restriction and studies published as abstracts were excluded. Data were analysed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (V.3.3.070), and summary estimates (relative risk (RR), 95% CI) were calculated using a random effects model. Heterogeneity and consistency were evaluated through Cochran's Q and the I(2) statistics, respectively, and sensitivity analyses were conducted. All-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Overall, 27 cohort studies were selected, comprising >70,000 elderly individuals, and followed up from 3.4 to 35 years. In the pooled analysis, long and short sleep duration were associated with increased all-cause mortality (RR 1.33; 95% CI 1.24 to 1.43 and RR 1.07; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.11, respectively), compared with the reference category. For cardiovascular mortality, the pooled relative risks were 1.43 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.78) for long sleep, and 1.18 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.84) for short sleep. Daytime napping ≥ 30 min was associated with risk of all-cause mortality (RR 1.27; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.49), compared with no daytime sleep, but longer sleep duration (≥ 2.0 h) was not (RR 1.34; 95% CI 1.95 to 1.90). Among elderly individuals, long

  16. Sleep duration trends and trajectories among youth in the COMPASS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patte, Karen A; Qian, Wei; Leatherdale, Scott T

    2017-10-01

    Limited Canadian studies have examined youth sleep over time. This study explored sleep duration over recent years among youth, patterns over the course of secondary school, and subgroups at greater risk of sleep deprivation and problematic trajectories. Longitudinal survey. Secondary school students in Ontario and Alberta, Canada. In cross-sectional analyses, student-reported sleep duration was analyzed in three waves of the COMPASS study (Y 2 : 2013/2014, Y 3 : 2014/2015, Y 4 : 2015/2016), and differences by student-level (race/ethnicity, grade, sex) and school-level (urbanicity, median household income) variables were tested in the most recent wave. For the longitudinal analyses, group-based trajectory modeling was conducted using 3-year linked data, adding risk factors as predictors of problematic trajectories. Average sleep durations declined over the 3 study waves, resulting in less than half of youth meeting the guideline of 8-10 hours per night. Four trajectory groups comprised almost 90% of participants, with 8.8% of students classified as long sleepers, whereas more than one-third of students belonged to 2 sleep-deprived trajectory groups (short [9.3%] and low-normal [26.7%]). In both the cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, longer sleep durations were more likely among students who identified as male, White, in earlier grades, and attending schools in areas with higher median household income and classified as rural/small urban, relative to their counterparts. Results support the necessity of continued surveillance and interventions to monitor and counteract what appears to be an ongoing trend of diminishing sleep and a growing number of sleep-deprived adolescents. Targeted efforts in less affluent and more metropolitan areas warrant consideration. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentration and Sleep Duration and Continuity: Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertisch, Suzanne M; Sillau, Stefan; de Boer, Ian H; Szklo, Moyses; Redline, Susan

    2015-08-01

    To determine the associations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration with sleep continuity, quality, and symptoms, and to explore race/ethnic variation. Cross-sectional study. Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). There were 1,721 adults. Sleep outcomes were measured by polysomnography, actigraphy, and questionnaires. Serum 25(OH)D concentration was expressed by clinical thresholds (sleep duration, efficiency, and symptoms, and assessed race/ethnic variation. Mean age was 68.2 ± 9.1 y, and 37.2% were white, 27.7% African American, 11.9% Chinese Americans, and 23.2% Hispanic. Mean 25(OH)D concentration was 25.4 ± 10.5 ng/mL. 25(OH)D deficient participants had the shortest sleep duration, lowest sleep efficiency, and highest sleepiness scores. After adjusting for demographics, obesity, and health habits, deficient individuals slept an average of 13.0 min (95% confidence interval, -22.8, -3.2) shorter than sufficient individuals. Race/ethnic-stratified analyses indicated that the strongest associations were in African Americans, in whom adjusted sleep duration was 25.6 ± 11.7 min shorter in deficient versus sufficient individuals (P = 0.04), and in Chinese Americans, adjusted apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 7.5 ± 3.3 events/h higher in deficient versus sufficient individuals. Overall, there were modest associations between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration and sleep traits. However, race-stratified analyses suggested the association between 25(OH)D concentration and sleep traits varied by race/ethnicity. Vitamin D deficiency was most strongly associated with short sleep duration in African Americans and with elevated apnea-hypopnea index in Chinese Americans, suggesting that race/ethnicity may modify these associations. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Work schedule, sleep duration, insomnia, and risk of fatal prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Carter, Brian D; Teras, Lauren R; Jacobs, Eric J

    2014-03-01

    Studies of breast cancer in women and laboratory studies provide evidence that shift work involving circadian rhythm disruption is a probable human carcinogen. However, evidence linking shift work and other circadian disruption factors to prostate cancer risk is limited. To examine associations of work schedule (i.e., rotating shift work, fixed night and fixed afternoon/evening shift work); sleep duration; and insomnia frequency with prostate cancer mortality. The Cancer Prevention Study-II is a large prospective cohort study of U.S. adults. Work schedule, sleep duration, insomnia frequency, and other information was self-reported in 1982. Among 305,057 employed men, aged ≥29 years who were cancer free at baseline, there were 4974 prostate cancer deaths during follow-up through 2010. In 2013, multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs were computed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Work schedule and insomnia frequency were not associated with risk of fatal prostate cancer. Short sleep duration was associated with higher risk of prostate cancer during the first 8 years of follow-up, compared to 7 hours/night, the RRs (95% CIs) for 3-5 and 6 hours/night were 1.64 (1.06, 2.54), and 1.28 (0.98, 1.67), respectively. There was no association between sleep duration and fatal prostate cancer during later follow-up. These results do not support associations of work schedule or insomnia frequency with prostate cancer mortality. The association between short sleep duration and higher risk of fatal prostate cancer only during the first 8 years of follow-up suggests that short sleep duration could affect later stages of prostate carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sociodemographic Characteristics and Waking Activities and their Role in the Timing and Duration of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Spaeth, Andrea M.; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Chronic sleep restriction is prevalent in the U.S. population and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The primary reasons for reduced sleep are unknown. Using population data on time use, we sought to identify individual characteristics and behaviors associated with short sleep that could be targeted for intervention programs. Design: Analysis of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). Setting: Cross-sectional annual survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Participants: Representative cohort (N = 124,517) of Americans 15 years and older surveyed between 2003 and 2011. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Telephone survey of activities over 24 hours. Relative to all other waking activities, paid work time was the primary waking activity exchanged for sleep. Time spent traveling, which included commuting to/from work, and immediate pre- and post-sleep activities (socializing, grooming, watching TV) were also reciprocally related to sleep duration. With every hour that work or educational training started later in the morning, sleep time increased by approximately 20 minutes. Working multiple jobs was associated with the highest odds for sleeping ≤ 6 hours on weekdays (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44; 1.81). Self-employed respondents were less likely to be short sleepers compared to private sector employees (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72; 0.95). Sociodemographic characteristics associated with paid work (age 25-64, male sex, high income, and employment per se) were consistently associated with short sleep. Conclusions: U.S. population time use survey findings suggest that interventions to increase sleep time should concentrate on delaying the morning start time of work and educational activities (or making them more flexible), increasing sleep opportunities, and shortening morning and evening commute times. Reducing the need for multiple jobs may increase sleep time, but economic disincentives from working fewer hours

  20. Associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and duration with academic failure in community-dwelling Swedish adolescents: sleep and academic performance at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titova, Olga E; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Jacobsson, Josefin A; Feldman, Inna; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2015-01-01

    To examine associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and short sleep duration with the risk for academic failure. A cohort of ~40,000 adolescents (age range: 12-19 years) who were attending high school grades 7, 9, and 2nd year of upper secondary school in the Swedish Uppsala County were invited to participate in the Life and Health Young Survey (conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Uppsala County, Sweden). In addition to the question how many subjects they failed during the school year (outcome variable), subsamples of adolescents also answered questions related to subjective sleep disturbance (n = 20,026) and habitual sleep duration (n = 4736) (exposure variables). Binary logistic regression analysis was utilized to explore if self-reported sleep disturbances and habitual short sleep duration (defined as less than 7-8 h sleep per night) increase the relative risk to fail subjects during the school year (controlled for possible confounders, e.g. body-mass-index). Adolescents with self-reported sleep disturbances had an increased risk for academic failure (i.e., they failed at least one subject during the school year; OR: boys, 1.68; girls, 2.05, both P sleep disturbances. In addition, adolescents who reported short sleep duration on both working and weekend days were more likely to fail at least one subject at school than those who slept at least 7-8 h per night (OR: boys, 4.1; girls, 5.0, both P sleep disturbance and short sleep duration are linked to academic failure in adolescents. Based on our data, causality cannot be established. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. A prospective study of total sleep duration and incident metabolic syndrome: the ARIRANG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang-Young; Yadav, Dhananjay; Ahn, Song Vogue; Koh, Sang-Baek; Park, Jong Taek; Yoon, Junghan; Yoo, Byung-Su; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2015-12-01

    Chronic sleep deprivation is increasingly common in industrialized societies. Recent data have revealed that chronic sleep deprivation is associated with negative health outcome. While prospective studies lack the predictive value of sleep duration to identify individuals at high risk of new-onset metabolic syndrome, total sleep duration may play a role in the development of metabolic abnormalities. This study investigates the association between total sleep duration and the incidence of metabolic syndrome in a population-based longitudinal study. At baseline, a prospective cohort study was conducted with 2579 adults without metabolic syndrome aged between 40 and 70 years. Based on a self-reported questionnaire, the participants in this study were investigated between 2005-2008 (baseline) and 2008-2011 (follow-up) and were categorized according to their total sleep duration (definition. During an average of 2.6 years of follow-up, 558 (21.6%) subjects developed metabolic syndrome. In multivariable adjusted models, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval (CI)) for incident metabolic syndrome comparing the 6 to 7.9 h to the sleep duration was 1.41 (1.06-1.88). The corresponding odds ratios (95% CI) for high waist circumference, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, high triglycerides, high blood pressure, and high blood glucose were 1.30 (0.98-1.69), 0.75 (0.56-0.97), 0.82 (0.60-1.11), 1.56 (1.19-2.03), and 1.31 (0.96-1.79), respectively. Short sleep duration is an independent risk factor for incident metabolic syndrome in a population-based longitudinal study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The association between sleep duration and dry eye syndrome among Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wanhyung; Lim, Sung-Shil; Won, Jong-Uk; Roh, Jaehoon; Lee, June-Hee; Seok, Hongdeok; Yoon, Jin-Ha

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between sleep duration and dry eye syndrome (DES) symptoms. We investigated 15,878 subjects (male = 6684; female = 9194) aged 20 years and older who underwent physical examinations and completed a self-report questionnaire and other anthropometric variables from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2010-2012. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for DES according to sleep duration were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Compared to that in an optimal sleep group (6-8 h/day), OR (95% CI) DES prevalence after adjusting for age, gender, sociodemographic factors (educational level, occupation, household income, and residence), and health behaviors (smoking habit, alcohol consumption, and level of exercise) was 1.20 (1.05-1.36) for a mild short sleep group (5 h/day) and 1.29 (1.08-1.55) for a severe short sleep group (≤4 h/day). Our results revealed that DES increased at shorter sleep durations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors of nocturnal sleep and daytime nap durations in community-dwelling elderly: a longitudinal population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Grand H-L; Chan, Angelique; Lo, June C

    2017-08-01

    Durations of nocturnal sleep and daytime nap influence the well-being of older adults. It is thus essential to understand their determinants. However, much previous research did not assess sleep duration and nap duration individually, and longitudinal data is lacking. This study aimed at examining the impact of demographic, psychosocial, and health factors, including ethnicity, social networks outside the household, smoking and physical exercise on sleep duration and nap duration among community-dwelling elderly. Our study involved over 2,600 older adults (≥60 years) from a longitudinal, nationally representative survey - the Panel on Health and Ageing of Singaporean Elderly. Sleep and nap durations at Time 2 (two years later) were regressed on predictors measured at Time 1. Time 2 short nocturnal sleep duration was predicted by Malay ethnicity (relative to Chinese and Indian), older age, lower education level, more depressive symptoms, and obesity, whereas future long nocturnal sleep duration was predicted by weaker social networks, older age, and more chronic diseases. Furthermore, smoking, obesity, Malay or Indian (relative to Chinese), older age, male gender, and cognitive impairment predicted longer daytime nap duration in the future. Older adults' nocturnal sleep and daytime nap durations may be affected by different demographic, psychosocial, and health factors. Thus, it is important to differentiate these two attributes in this age group.

  4. Sleep Duration and Academic Performance Among Student Pharmacists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeek, Megan L; Savoie, Matthew J; Song, Matthew; Kennemur, Leanna M; Qian, Jingjing; Jungnickel, Paul W; Westrick, Salisa C

    2015-06-25

    To identify sleep patterns and frequency of daytime sleepiness and to assess the association between sleep duration and academic performance among student pharmacists. A cross-sectional design was used. An anonymous self-administered paper questionnaire was administered to first-year through third-year students at a pharmacy school. Questionnaires were completed by 364 student pharmacists (79.4% response rate and 93.8% cooperation rate). More than half of student pharmacists obtained less than 7 hours of sleep at night during a typical school week (54.7%) and a large majority on the night prior to an examination (81.7%). Almost half (47.8%) felt daytime sleepiness almost every day. Longer sleep duration the night prior to an examination was associated with higher course grades and semester grade point averages (GPAs). A majority of student pharmacists had suboptimal durations of sleep, defined as fewer than 7 hours. Adequate sleep the night prior to an examination was positively associated with student course grades and semester GPAs.

  5. Short- and Long-Term Sleep Stability in Insomniacs and Healthy Controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Jordan; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Basta, Maria; Pejovic, Slobodanka; He, Fan; Bixler, Edward O

    2015-11-01

    Assess the short- and long-term stability of sleep duration in patients with insomnia and normal-sleeping controls. Observational short-term and prospective studies. Sleep laboratory. Patients with insomnia (n = 150) and controls (n = 151) were recruited from the local community or sleep disorders clinic. A subsample of 95 men from the Penn State Adult Cohort (PSAC) were followed up 2.6 y after their initial visit. Participants underwent a physical examination and 8-h polysomnography (PSG) recording for 3 consecutive nights (controls and insomniacs), or 2 single nights separated by several years (PSAC). Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) assessed the stability of the variables total sleep time (TST), sleep onset latency (SOL), and wake after sleep onset (WASO). We also examined persistence of the first-night classification of "short" versus "normal" sleep duration on subsequent nights. Stability of TST, SOL, and WASO based on 1 night were slight to moderate in both patients with insomnia (ICC = 0.37-0.57) and controls (ICC = 0.39-0.59), and became substantial to almost perfect when based on the average of 3 nights (ICC = 0.64-0.81). We observed similar degrees of stability for TST and WASO in the longitudinal sample, with moderate stability based on a single night and substantial stability based on both nights. In examining the persistence of "short" and "normal" sleep duration, 71.4% (controls), 74.7% (patients with insomnia), and 72.6% (longitudinal sample) of participants retained their first-night classifications over subsequent nights. Sleep duration variables, particularly total sleep time based on 3 consecutive nights in both patients with insomnia and controls or two single-night recordings separated by several years, are stable and reflect a person's habitual sleep. Furthermore, a single night in the laboratory may be useful for reliably classifying one's sleep duration. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Relationship between sleep duration and dietary intake in 4- to 14-year-old Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Rothausen, Berit Worm; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2013-01-01

    A negative association between sleep duration and BMI has been observed in children. However, knowledge about the association between sleep duration and diet is limited. The objective was to examine the association between sleep duration and intake of foods and nutrients in children. In the present...... crosssectional study, dietary intake and sleep duration were recorded by the parents for seven consecutive days in a food and sleep record in a representative sample of 802 4- to 14-year-old children. No sex differences were found regarding age and sleep duration. Sleep duration was negatively correlated to age...

  7. Sleep duration and overweight among elementary schoolchildren: a population-based study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Hirotaka; Shirasawa, Takako; Shimada, Naoki; Ohtsu, Tadahiro; Nishimura, Rimei; Morimoto, Aya; Hoshino, Hiromi; Tajima, Naoko; Kokaze, Akatsuki

    2012-01-01

    Although a number of studies have investigated the relationship of sleep duration to overweight and obesity, studies conducted among population-based elementary schoolchildren have been limited in Japan. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration and overweight among elementary schoolchildren in Japan. The study subjects were all fourth-grade schoolchildren (9 or 10 years of age) in Ina-town, Saitama Prefecture, Japan from 1999 to 2008. Information concerning each subject's sex, age, and lifestyle was obtained using a self-administered questionnaire, while measurements of his or her height and weight were carried out. Childhood overweight was determined according to the definition established by the International Obesity Task Force. Data from 3,433 children were analyzed. In logistic regression analysis, a statistically significant dose-response relationship was observed between sleep duration and overweight among boys (p for trend = 0.014) but not among girls (p for trend = 0.149). Short sleep duration was associated with childhood overweight, and the sex difference in the association was observed. These findings suggested that it is important to consider sleep duration as part of any program to prevent overweight among elementary schoolchildren, especially among boys.

  8. The association between physical activity, sitting time, sleep duration, and sleep quality as correlates of presenteeism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertler, Diana; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Short, Camille; Alley, Stephanie; Schoeppe, Stephanie; Duncan, Mitch J

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship of lifestyle behaviors (physical activity, work and non-work sitting time, sleep quality, and sleep duration) with presenteeism while controlling for sociodemographics, work- and health-related variables. Data were collected from 710 workers (aged 20 to 76 years; 47.9% women) from randomly selected Australian adults who completed an online survey. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between lifestyle behaviors and presenteeism. Poorer sleep quality (standardized regression coefficients [B] = 0.112; P importance of sleep behaviors for presenteeism and call for behavioral interventions that simultaneously address sleep in conjunction with other activity-related behaviors.

  9. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9% participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9% claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2% of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1–3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications

  10. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Zhang, Zhangyi; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2017-07-20

    Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as sleeping of less than 7 h per day. Excessive sleep duration was defined as sleeping of more than 9 h per day. Results: A total of 561 (23.9%) participants reported insufficient sleeping duration, whereas 485 (20.9%) claimed excessive sleep duration. A total of 358 (15.2%) of pregnant women reported problems regarding sleep quality. Compared to pregnant women with sufficient sleeping duration, those with insufficient sleeping duration were prone to have poor sleep quality, whereas those with excessive sleeping duration featured low possibility of poor sleep quality. High-risk groups of insufficient sleep duration include women of Han nationality, with siblings, in their first trimester of pregnancy, receiving care in low-capacity/quality hospital settings, and with daily or 1-3 days of secondhand smoke exposure. High-risk groups of excessive sleep duration include women living in rural areas, unemployed, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and receiving care in medium-capacity/quality hospital settings. High-risk groups of poor sleep quality include women of non-Han nationality, low income level, in their third trimester of pregnancy, and with insufficient sleep duration. Conclusions: Insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor sleep quality commonly occur during pregnancy in China. Findings provide a better understanding of the influencing factors of insufficient/excessive sleep duration and poor quality of sleep. These findings have some implications for future

  11. Mediterranean Diet and Changes in Sleep Duration and Indicators of Sleep Quality in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanini, Marcela Z; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Lopez-Garcia, Esther

    2017-03-01

    To examine the association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) and changes in sleep duration and sleep quality in older adults. We used data from 1596 participants in the Seniors-ENRICA cohort aged ≥ 60 years. MD was evaluated in 2012 with the Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener (MEDAS) score. Sleep duration (h) and indicators of poor sleep quality were assessed both in 2012 and 2015. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle and morbidity variables, and for sleep duration and the number of poor sleep indicators at baseline. Over a median follow-up of 2.8 years, 12.2% of individuals increased and 8.8% decreased their sleep duration by ≥2 h/night. Compared with those in the lowest tertile of adherence to the MD in 2012, those in the highest tertile showed both a lower risk of a ≥2 h/night increase in sleep duration (odds ratio [OR]: 0.54, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.34-0.85, p-trend = .01) and of a ≥2 h/night decrease (OR: 0.58, 95% CI 0.35-0.95, p-trend = 0.02) from 2012 to 2015. Being in the highest tertile of MD in 2012 was also associated with lower risk of poor sleep quality at follow-up, the OR (95% CI) for having 2-3 indicators of poor sleep was 0.70 (0.51-0.97) and for ≥4 indicators was 0.68 (0.47-0.99, p-trend = .04). High adherence to the MD was also associated with 56% lower odds of having large changes in sleep duration and ≥2 indicators of poor sleep quality simultaneously (OR: 0.44, 95% CI 0.29-0.68, p trend sleep duration and with better sleep quality in older adults. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Sleep During Pregnancy: The nuMoM2b Pregnancy and Sleep Duration and Continuity Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Kathryn J; Facco, Francesca L; Grobman, William A; Parker, Corette B; Herbas, Marcos; Hunter, Shannon; Silver, Robert M; Basner, Robert C; Saade, George R; Pien, Grace W; Manchanda, Shalini; Louis, Judette M; Nhan-Chang, Chia-Lang; Chung, Judith H; Wing, Deborah A; Simhan, Hyagriv N; Haas, David M; Iams, Jay; Parry, Samuel; Zee, Phyllis C

    2017-05-01

    To characterize sleep duration, timing and continuity measures in pregnancy and their association with key demographic variables. Multisite prospective cohort study. Women enrolled in the nuMoM2b study (nulliparous women with a singleton gestation) were recruited at the second study visit (16-21 weeks of gestation) to participate in the Sleep Duration and Continuity substudy. Women sleep log for 7 consecutive days. Time in bed, sleep duration, fragmentation index, sleep efficiency, wake after sleep onset, and sleep midpoint were averaged across valid primary sleep periods for each participant. Valid data were available from 782 women with mean age of 27.3 (5.5) years. Median sleep duration was 7.4 hours. Approximately 27.9% of women had a sleep duration of sleep duration of >9 hours. In multivariable models including age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, insurance status, and recent smoking history, sleep duration was significantly associated with race/ethnicity and insurance status, while time in bed was only associated with insurance status. Sleep continuity measures and sleep midpoint were significantly associated with all covariates in the model, with the exception of age for fragmentation index and smoking for wake after sleep onset. Our results demonstrate the relationship between sleep and important demographic characteristics during pregnancy. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Self-reported consistency of normal habitual sleep durations of college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, R A; Pellegrini, R J; Hawkins, J; Moore, J D

    1978-10-01

    A relationship between hours of sleep/night and the consistency of this normal daily sleep duration was observed for 763 college students who had rated themselves as good sleepers with stable and fairly well established patterns of sleep. Congruent with a limited literature, these data suggest that shorter sleep durations are likely, for college students, to be relatively recently acquired patterns of sleep.

  14. Night Sleep Duration and Risk of Cognitive Impairment in a Chinese Population: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qiao Feng; Liu, Xiao Xue; Hu, Wan Ning; Han, Xiao Chen; Zhou, Wen Hua; Lu, Ai Dong; Wang, Xi Zhu; Wu, Shou Ling

    2017-10-01

    Although sleep is one of the most important health-related behavioral factors, the association between night sleep duration and cognitive impairment has not been fully understood. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 2,514 participants (⋝ 40 years of age; 46.6% women) in China to examine the association between night sleep duration and cognitive impairment. Night sleep duration was categorized as ⋜ 5, 6, 7, 8, or ⋝ 9 h per night. Cognitive function was measured using the Mini-Mental State Examination. A multivariate regression analysis was used to analyze the association of night sleep duration with cognitive impairment. A total of 122 participants were diagnosed with cognitive impairment. A U-shaped association between night sleep duration and cognitive impairment was found. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of cognitive impairment (with 7 h of daily sleep being considered as the reference) for individuals reporting ⋜ 5, 6, 8, and ⋝ 9 h were 2.14 (1.20-3.83), 1.13 (0.67-1.89), 1.51 (0.82-2.79), and 5.37 (1.62-17.80), respectively (P ⋜ 0.01). Short or long night sleep duration was an important sleep-related factor independently associated with cognitive impairment and may be a useful marker for increased risk of cognitive impairment.. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  15. A novel BHLHE41 variant is associated with short sleep and resistance to sleep deprivation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, Renata; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Goel, Namni; Cardinale, Christopher J; Dinges, David F; Kuna, Samuel T; Maislin, Greg; Van Dongen, Hans P A; Tufik, Sergio; Hogenesch, John B; Hakonarson, Hakon; Pack, Allan I

    2014-08-01

    Earlier work described a mutation in DEC2 also known as BHLHE41 (basic helix-loophelix family member e41) as causal in a family of short sleepers, who needed just 6 h sleep per night. We evaluated whether there were other variants of this gene in two well-phenotyped cohorts. Sequencing of the BHLHE41 gene, electroencephalographic data, and delta power analysis and functional studies using cell-based luciferase. We identified new variants of the BHLHE41 gene in two cohorts who had either acute sleep deprivation (n = 200) or chronic partial sleep deprivation (n = 217). One variant, Y362H, at another location in the same exon occurred in one twin in a dizygotic twin pair and was associated with reduced sleep duration, less recovery sleep following sleep deprivation, and fewer performance lapses during sleep deprivation than the homozygous twin. Both twins had almost identical amounts of non rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. This variant reduced the ability of BHLHE41 to suppress CLOCK/BMAL1 and NPAS2/BMAL1 transactivation in vitro. Another variant in the same exome had no effect on sleep or response to sleep deprivation and no effect on CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Random mutagenesis identified a number of other variants of BHLHE41 that affect its function. There are a number of mutations of BHLHE41. Mutations reduce total sleep while maintaining NREM sleep and provide resistance to the effects of sleep loss. Mutations that affect sleep also modify the normal inhibition of BHLHE41 of CLOCK/BMAL1 transactivation. Thus, clock mechanisms are likely involved in setting sleep length and the magnitude of sleep homeostasis. Pellegrino R, Kavakli IH, Goel N, Cardinale CJ, Dinges DF, Kuna ST, Maislin G, Van Dongen HP, Tufik S, Hogenesch JB, Hakonarson H, Pack AI. A novel BHLHE41 variant is associated with short sleep and resistance to sleep deprivation in humans. SLEEP 2014;37(8):1327-1336.

  16. Sleep duration is affected by social relationships among sleeping partners in wild Japanese macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochida, Koji; Nishikawa, Mari

    2014-03-01

    Co-sleeping behaviour, such as sharing a sleeping site or bed, should play an important role in determining sleep structure in mammals by mitigating predation pressure and harsh abiotic conditions during sleep. Although environmental factors surrounding sleeping sites have been studied, there is very little information on the effects of the social environment within the site on sleep in animals other than humans. Here, we quantified the duration of nighttime sleep of wild primates during behavioural observations. Wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata yakui) form clusters at sleeping sites, where they huddle with group members. Macaques slept for longer when huddled in sleeping clusters with natal members than in those with non-natal members. A high degree of synchronisation of wakefulness in pairs of macaques huddling in non-natal clusters suggested that their sleep was often interrupted by the wakefulness of huddling members at night. Our results suggest that familiarity and closeness to huddling partners influence sleep duration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Importance of social relationships in the association between sleep duration and cognitive function: data from community-dwelling older Singaporeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Grand H-L; Chan, Angelique; Lo, June C

    2017-06-15

    Aging is accompanied by cognitive decline that is escalated in older adults reporting extreme sleep duration. Social relationships can influence health outcomes and thus may qualify the association between sleep duration and cognitive function. The present study examines the moderating effects of marital status, household size, and social network with friends and relatives on the sleep-cognition association among older adults. Data (N = 4,169) came from the Social Isolation, Health, and Lifestyles Survey, a nationally representative survey of community-dwelling older Singaporeans (≥ 60 years). Sleep duration and social relationships were self-reported. Cognitive function was assessed with the Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire. Regression analysis revealed that the inverted U-shaped association between sleep duration and cognitive function was less profound among older adults who were married (vs. unmarried) and those who had stronger (vs. weaker) social networks. In contrast, it was more prominent among individuals who had more (vs. fewer) household members. Being married and having stronger social networks may buffer against the negative cognitive impact of extreme sleep duration. But larger household size might imply more stress for older persons, and therefore strengthen the sleep duration-cognitive function association. We discuss the potential biological underpinnings and the policy implications of the findings. Although our findings are based on a large sample, replication studies using objective measures of sleep duration and other cognitive measures are needed.

  18. Chronotype, sleep quality and sleep duration in adult distance education: Not related to study progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gijselaers, Jérôme; Kirschner, Paul A.; De Groot, Renate

    2015-01-01

    Research in traditional education shows chronotype, sleep duration and sleep quality to be related to learning performance. Research in adult students participating in distance education (DE) is scarce. This study aims to provide knowledge on these relationships in this educational setting. In an

  19. Insomnia and incident depression: role of objective sleep duration and natural history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Shea, Sarah; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Calhoun, Susan L; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O

    2015-08-01

    Longitudinal studies that have examined the association of insomnia with incident depression using objective sleep measures are very limited. The aim of this study was to examine the predictive role of the severity of insomnia for incident depression in a general population sample using psychometric and polysomnographic data. From a random, general population sample of 1741 individuals of the Penn State Adult Cohort, 1137 adults without depression were followed up with a structured telephone interview after 7.5 years. All subjects completed a full medical evaluation, 1-night polysomnogram and Multiphasic Minnesota Personality Inventory at baseline. The incidence of depression was 15%. Poor sleep (odds ratio = 1.5, P = 0.001) and insomnia (odds ratio = 1.9, P = 0.031) were significantly associated with incident depression. The odds of incident depression were highest (odds ratio = 2.2, P = 0.019) in insomnia with objective short sleep duration and independent of Multiphasic Minnesota Personality Inventory Ego Strength scores, an index of poor coping resources. The persistence of insomnia and worsening of poor sleep into insomnia significantly increased the odds of incident depression (odds ratios ranged from 1.8 to 6.3), whereas their full remission did not (odds ratio ranged from 1.2 to 1.8). Insomnia with short sleep duration is associated with incident depression independent of poor coping resources, whereas the association of insomnia with normal sleep duration with incident depression was mediated by poor coping resources. Persistence and worsening of poor sleep or insomnia, but not their full remission, are significant predictors of incident depression. These data suggest that there is a significant relationship between the severity of insomnia and incident depression. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  20. Valproic Acid and Sleep Duration in Children with Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Sleep duration and behavior were assessed in 46 children (age range 1.7-17.4 years before and after tapering valproic acid (VPA administered for more than 6 months for epilepsy, in a study at University Children's Hospital, Zurich, Switzerland.

  1. Sleep duration differences between children of migrant and native origins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J.W.W. Labree (L. J. W. (Wim)); H. van de Mheen (Dike); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans); G. Rodenburg (Gerda); G. Koopmans (Gerrit); M.M.E. Foets (Marleen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAim: To explore whether primary school children of migrant and native Dutch origins differ regarding their sleep duration per night, a risk for overweight and obesity, and to determine to what degree differences in parenting styles contribute to these differences. Subjects and methods: A

  2. Sleep duration, vital exhaustion, and odds of spontaneous preterm birth: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajeepeta, Sandhya; Sanchez, Sixto E; Gelaye, Bizu; Qiu, Chunfang; Barrios, Yasmin V; Enquobahrie, Daniel A; Williams, Michelle A

    2014-09-27

    Preterm birth is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide, resulting in a pressing need to identify risk factors leading to effective interventions. Limited evidence suggests potential relationships between maternal sleep or vital exhaustion and preterm birth, yet the literature is generally inconclusive. We examined the relationship between maternal sleep duration and vital exhaustion in the first six months of pregnancy and spontaneous (non-medically indicated) preterm birth among 479 Peruvian women who delivered a preterm singleton infant (exhaustion were ascertained through in-person interviews. Spontaneous preterm birth cases were further categorized as those following either spontaneous preterm labor or preterm premature rupture of membranes. In addition, cases were categorized as very (exhaustion was also associated with increased odds of preterm birth (aOR = 2.41; 95% CI 1.79-3.23) compared to no exhaustion (Ptrend exhaustion on the odds of spontaneous preterm birth. The results of this case-control study suggest maternal sleep duration, particularly short sleep duration, and vital exhaustion may be risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth. These findings call for increased clinical attention to maternal sleep and the study of potential intervention strategies to improve sleep in early pregnancy with the aim of decreasing risk of preterm birth.

  3. Nocturnal Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Children's Sleep Duration and Sleep Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyde, Kjell Vegard; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Oftedal, Bente; Evandt, Jorunn; Magnus, Per; Øverland, Simon; Clark, Charlotte; Stansfeld, Stephen; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-05-06

    Almost half of the European Union (EU)'s population is exposed to road traffic noise above levels that constitute a health risk. Associations between road traffic noise and impaired sleep in adults have consistently been reported. Less is known about effects of noise on children's sleep. The aim of this study was to examine the association between nocturnal road traffic noise exposure and children's parental-reported sleep duration and sleep problems. The present cross-sectional study used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Parental report of children's sleep duration and sleep problems at age 7 was linked to modelled levels of residential night-time road traffic noise. The study population included 2665 children from Oslo, Norway. No association was found between road traffic noise and sleep duration in the total study population (odds ratio (OR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.94, 1.17]), but a statistically significant association was observed in girls (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: [1.04, 1.41]). For sleep problems, the associations were similar (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: [0.85, 2.16]) in girls. The ORs are presented for an increase of 10 dB. The findings suggest there is an association between road traffic noise and sleep for girls, underlining the importance of protecting children against excessive noise levels.

  4. Nocturnal Road Traffic Noise Exposure and Children’s Sleep Duration and Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyde, Kjell Vegard; Krog, Norun Hjertager; Oftedal, Bente; Evandt, Jorunn; Magnus, Per; Øverland, Simon; Clark, Charlotte; Stansfeld, Stephen; Aasvang, Gunn Marit

    2017-01-01

    Almost half of the European Union (EU)’s population is exposed to road traffic noise above levels that constitute a health risk. Associations between road traffic noise and impaired sleep in adults have consistently been reported. Less is known about effects of noise on children’s sleep. The aim of this study was to examine the association between nocturnal road traffic noise exposure and children’s parental-reported sleep duration and sleep problems. The present cross-sectional study used data from The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. Parental report of children’s sleep duration and sleep problems at age 7 was linked to modelled levels of residential night-time road traffic noise. The study population included 2665 children from Oslo, Norway. No association was found between road traffic noise and sleep duration in the total study population (odds ratio (OR): 1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): [0.94, 1.17]), but a statistically significant association was observed in girls (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: [1.04, 1.41]). For sleep problems, the associations were similar (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: [0.85, 2.16]) in girls. The ORs are presented for an increase of 10 dB. The findings suggest there is an association between road traffic noise and sleep for girls, underlining the importance of protecting children against excessive noise levels. PMID:28481249

  5. Sleep duration and obesity in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian; Zhang, Shuang; Huang, Yubei; Chen, Kexin

    2017-04-01

    Childhood obesity is a major public problem worldwide, and sleep duration may be associated with childhood obesity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to estimate the associations between sleep duration and obesity/body mass index (BMI) in children. PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched. For the meta-analysis, the pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated to reveal the association between short sleep duration and obesity. For the review, the outcomes focused on BMI change or subsequent BMI status. A total of 12 studies (15 populations) met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Short sleep duration was significantly associated with obesity (RR: 1.45; 95% CI: 1.14-1.85). After excluding two cohorts that substantially affected the heterogeneity, the pooled results remained significant (RR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.20-1.42), and the association was not substantially altered in the subgroup analysis. In addition, we summarised 24 studies that met the criteria for our review of the relationship between sleeping and BMI. The present meta-analysis indicated that short sleep duration increased the risk of childhood obesity. Public health efforts that encourage children to have sufficient sleep time may be important in combating obesity. © 2017 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  6. Sleep duration and incidence of type 2 diabetes: the Multiethnic Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Jacobs, Simone; Amshoff, Yvette; Setiawan, Veronica W; Shvetsov, Yurii B; Franke, Adrian A; Kolonel, Laurence N; Haiman, Christopher A; Le Marchand, Loïc

    2018-02-01

    As an emerging risk factor for the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes, we examined sleep duration in relation to type 2 diabetes and several biomarkers. Prospective cohort recruited 1993-1996. The Multiethnic Cohort in Hawaii and California. A cohort of 151,691 White, African American, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, and Latino participants; 9695 cohort members had biomarker measurements. Sleep duration was self-reported at cohort entry. Diabetes status was obtained from 3 questionnaires and confirmed by 3 administrative data sources. Biomarkers were measured by standard assays 9.6±2.1 years after cohort entry. We estimated diabetes risk as a time-varying outcome using Cox regression adjusted for body mass index assessed at 3 time points and other known confounders and computed adjusted means of biomarkers by sleep hours. During 7.9±3.5 years of follow-up, 8487 new diabetes cases were diagnosed. Long sleep duration (≥9 hours), as compared with 7-8 hours, was significantly associated with higher incidence (hazard ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.21), but the 4% elevated incidence for short sleep duration (≤6 hours) did not reach significance (95% confidence interval 0.99-1.09). After stratification, the associations appeared stronger in Japanese American than other ethnic groups and in participants without comorbidity. Hours of sleep were positively associated with C-reactive protein and triglycerides and inversely related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and adiponectin but not with leptin levels and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. In this multiethnic population, the 12% higher diabetes risk for long sleep hours may be mediated through inflammation, a poor lipid profile, and lower adiponectin levels. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between genetic variants of the clock gene and obesity and sleep duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares, Macarena; Obregón, Ana María; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-12-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of genetic and environmental factors related to lifestyle aspects. It has been shown that reduced sleep is associated with increased body mass index (BMI). Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) gene variants have also been associated with obesity. The objective of this mini-review was to discuss the available literature related to CLOCK gene variants associated with adiposity and sleep duration in humans. In total, 16 articles complied with the terms of the search that reported CLOCK variants associated with sleep duration, energy intake, and BMI. Overall, six CLOCK single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been associated with sleep duration, and three variants have been associated with energy intake variables. Overall, the most studied area has been the association of CLOCK gene with obesity; close to eight common variants have been associated with obesity. The most studied CLOCK SNP in different populations is rs1801260, and most of these populations correspond to European populations. Collectively, identifying at risk CLOCK genotypes is a new area of research that may help identify individuals who are more susceptible to overeating and gaining weight when exposed to short sleep durations.

  8. Exploration of Habitability Factors Influencing Short Duration Spaceflight: Structured Postflight Interviews of Shuttle Crewmembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, James; Leveton, Lauren; Keeton, Kathryn; Whitmire, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Astronauts report significant difficulties with sleep during Space missions. Psychological, physiological, and habitability factors are all thought to play a role in spaceflight insomnia. Crewmembers gain experience with the spaceflight sleep environment as their missions progress, but this knowledge is not formally collected and communicated to subsequent crews. This lack of information transfer prevents crews from optimizing their capability to sleep during mission, which leads to fatigue and its potentially deleterious effects. The goal of this project is astronauts with recent spaceflight experience to gather their knowledge of and insights into sleep in Space. Structured interviews consisting of standardized closed and open-ended questionnaires are administered to astronauts who have flown on the Space Shuttle since the Columbia disaster. It is hoped that review and analysis of the pooled responses to the interview questions will lead to greater understanding of the sleep environment during short duration spaceflight, with attention placed on problem aspects and their potential solutions.

  9. Sociodemographic characteristics and waking activities and their role in the timing and duration of sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basner, Mathias; Spaeth, Andrea M; Dinges, David F

    2014-12-01

    Chronic sleep restriction is prevalent in the U.S. population and associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The primary reasons for reduced sleep are unknown. Using population data on time use, we sought to identify individual characteristics and behaviors associated with short sleep that could be targeted for intervention programs. Analysis of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS). Cross-sectional annual survey conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Representative cohort (N = 124,517) of Americans 15 years and older surveyed between 2003 and 2011. None. Telephone survey of activities over 24 hours. Relative to all other waking activities, paid work time was the primary waking activity exchanged for sleep. Time spent traveling, which included commuting to/ from work, and immediate pre- and post-sleep activities (socializing, grooming, watching TV) were also reciprocally related to sleep duration. With every hour that work or educational training started later in the morning, sleep time increased by approximately 20 minutes. Working multiple jobs was associated with the highest odds for sleeping ≤6 hours on weekdays (adjusted OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.44; 1.81). Self-employed respondents were less likely to be short sleepers compared to private sector employees (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72; 0.95). Sociodemographic characteristics associated with paid work (age 25-64, male sex, high income, and employment per se) were consistently associated with short sleep. U.S. population time use survey findings suggest that interventions to increase sleep time should concentrate on delaying the morning start time of work and educational activities (or making them more flexible), increasing sleep opportunities, and shortening morning and evening commute times. Reducing the need for multiple jobs may increase sleep time, but economic disincentives from working fewer hours will need to be offset. Raising awareness of the importance of sufficient sleep for health and safety may

  10. The Link of Self-Reported Insomnia Symptoms and Sleep Duration with Metabolic Syndrome: A Chinese Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Chieh; Sun, Chien-An; You, San-Lin; Hwang, Lee-Ching; Liang, Chun-Yu; Yang, Tsan; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Chen, Chien-Hua; Wei, Cheng-Yu; Chou, Yu-Ching

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the relationships of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with insomnia symptoms and sleep duration in a Chinese adult population. Data from a nationwide epidemiological survey conducted on residents from randomly selected districts in Taiwan in 2007 were used for this cross-sectional population-based study. A total of 4,197 participants were included in this study. Insomnia symptoms, including difficulty initiating sleep (DIS), difficulty maintaining sleep (DMS), early morning awakening (EMA), were assessed using the Insomnia Self-Assessment Inventory questionnaire. Subjects were divided into 3 groups based upon their reported sleep duration (insomnia symptoms (OR [95% CI] was 1.54 [1.05-2.47]). However, there was no significant combined effect of insomnia symptoms and sleep duration on the prevalence of MetS. The current investigation shows that short sleep duration and insomnia symptoms, specifically DIS and DMS, were significant correlates of MetS. These findings should be replicated in prospective studies using both sleep duration and sleep quality measures. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Sleep Duration and the Risk of Mortality From Stroke in Japan: The Takayama Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Kawachi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have assessed the associations between sleep duration and stroke subtypes. We examined whether sleep duration is associated with mortality from total stroke, ischemic stroke, and hemorrhagic stroke in a population-based cohort of Japanese men and women. Methods: Subjects included 12 875 men and 15 021 women aged 35 years or older in 1992, who were followed until 2008. The outcome variable was stroke death (ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, and total stroke. Results: During follow-up, 611 stroke deaths (354 from ischemic stroke, 217 from hemorrhagic stroke, and 40 from undetermined stroke were identified. Compared with 7 h of sleep, ≥9 h of sleep was significantly associated with an increased risk of total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality after controlling for covariates. Hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs were 1.51 (95% CI, 1.16–1.97 and 1.65 (95% CI, 1.16–2.35 for total stroke mortality and ischemic stroke mortality, respectively. Short sleep duration (≤6 h of sleep was associated with a decreased risk of mortality from total stroke (HR 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59–1.01, although this association was of borderline significance (P = 0.06. The trends for total stroke and ischemic stroke mortality were also significant (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0002, respectively. There was a significant risk reduction of hemorrhagic stroke mortality for ≤6 h of sleep as compared with 7 h of sleep (HR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42–0.98; P for trend = 0.08. The risk reduction was pronounced for men (HR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.16–0.64. Conclusions: Data suggest that longer sleep duration is associated with increased mortality from total and ischemic stroke. Short sleep duration may be associated with a decreased risk of mortality from hemorrhagic stroke in men.

  12. Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Wright, Kenneth P., Jr.; Ronda, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short (Sleep-Short) will examine the effects of spaceflight on the sleep of the astronauts during space shuttle missions. Advancing state-of-the-art technology for monitoring, diagnosing and assessing treatment of sleep patterns is vital to treating insomnia on Earth and in space.

  13. Sleep duration, wake/sleep symptoms, and academic performance in Hong Kong Secondary School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, E P; Ng, D K; Chan, C H

    2009-11-01

    Sleep deprivation is common among teenagers. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration, wake/sleep symptoms, and academic performance among Hong Kong students. The sleep habit questionnaires were distributed to all Year 11 students at an international school that catered to different ethnic groups in Hong Kong. Analysis of various parameters of academic performance and sleep habits and their relationships were undertaken. Fifty-nine students were recruited. The average sleep duration in this group was 7.23 h. The overall prevalence of excessive daytime sleepiness (defined as an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of >10) was 25.4%. Eleven subjects had excessive class sleepiness, defined as high likelihood to fall asleep during at least one school session. Mathematics performance was positively correlated with sleep duration. Excessive sleepiness on rising was identified as a significant risk factor for poor performance in English and Mathematics. Sleepiness during the third and fourth lessons was identified as a significant risk factor for poor performance in Mathematics only. Sleep deprivation was common in the studied cohort and it was associated with a decrease in Mathematics performance. Excessive sleepiness on rising and sleepiness during third and fourth lessons were associated with poorer grades in Mathematics and English. Excessive daytime sleepiness was reported in 25% of students. Bruxism and snoring were associated with excessive daytime sleepiness.

  14. Sleep Duration and Sleep Quality following Acute Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Propensity Score Analysis

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    Ting-Yun Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has been widely studied and the effects of injury can be long term or even lifelong. This research aims to characterize the sleep problems of patients following acute mTBI. Methods. A total of 171 patients with mTBI within one month and 145 non-mTBI controls were recruited in this study. The questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI, was used to evaluate seven aspects of sleep problems. A propensity score method was used to generate a quasirandomized design to account for the background information, including gender, age, Beck’s Anxiety Index, Beck’s Depression Index, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. The effect was evaluated via cumulative logit regression including propensity scores as a covariate. Results. Before adjustment, about 60% mTBI patients and over three quarters of control subjects had mild sleep disturbance while one third mTBI patients had moderate sleep disturbance. After adjusting by the propensity scores, the scores of sleep quality and duration were significant between mTBI and control groups. Conclusion. Our study supports that sleep problem is common in mTBI group. After adjusting the confounders by propensity score, sleep duration and subjective sleep quality are the most frequently reported problems in mTBI patients within one month after the injury.

  15. Late Sleeping Affects Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index in Adolescents

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    Rajesh G.Kathrotia1,

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available During adolescence, there is a tendency to sleep late andsleep less because of altered psychosocial and life-stylechanges. Recent studies have demonstrated the link betweensleeping less and gaining weight in children, adolescents, andadults. We studied the effect of late sleeping and sleepingless on body mass index (BMI in medical college freshmen.All participants were adolescents (104 male and 38 femaleadolescents, mean age 17.77±0.79 years. After obtaininginformed consent, they filled out a questionnaire about theirsleeping habits. Height and weight were measured after abrief history taking and clinical examination. BMI increasedsignificantly with decrease in total sleep duration and withdelayed bedtime. Late sleeping individuals (after midnighthad significantly less sleep duration (6.78 hours v 7.74 hours,P<0.001, more day time sleepiness (85.2% v 69.3%,P=0.033 and more gap between dinner time and going tosleep (234.16 min v 155.45 min, P<0.001. Increased BMI inlate sleepers may be explained by low physical activity duringthe day caused by excess sleepiness and increased calorieintake with a gap of 5-6 hours between dinner and sleep.Sleep habits of late sleeping and sleeping less contribute toincrease BMI in adolescents.

  16. Sleep quality and the metabolic syndrome: the role of sleep duration and lifestyle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesas, Arthur Eumann; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; López-García, Esther; León-Muñoz, Luz María; Graciani, Auxiliadora; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the association between sleep quality and the metabolic syndrome and whether if it is independent of sleep duration and if it can be explained by lifestyles linked to sleep quality. Cross-sectional study conducted from 2008 to 2010 with 10 342 individuals representative of the population aged ≥18 years in Spain. Poor sleep quality was ascertained through self-reported difficulty falling asleep, difficulty maintaining sleep and sleeping pill consumption. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the recent harmonized definition. Analyses were conducted with logistic regression and adjusted for the main confounders. Difficulty falling asleep was associated with higher frequency of metabolic syndrome after adjustment for sociodemographic variables, lifestyle and diagnosed morbidity [odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.47]. The association was slightly attenuated after further adjusting for sleep duration (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.04-1.46) and held after additional adjustment for energy intake, adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern, energy spent in physical activity and time watching TV (OR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.01-1.42). No associations were found between metabolic syndrome and other sleep quality indicators. Difficulty falling asleep was associated with high blood pressure in the fully adjusted analyses (OR = 1.17; 95% CI = 1.00-1.37) but not with the rest of components of metabolic syndrome. Difficulty falling asleep is associated with metabolic syndrome and, in particular, with high blood pressure. This association is independent of sleep duration and is not due to lifestyles related to poor sleep. This finding should be replicated in prospective studies using objective sleep measures; also, the influence of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drug treatment on this association should be further studied. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Variability of sleep duration is related to subjective sleep quality and subjective well-being: an actigraphy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemola, Sakari; Ledermann, Thomas; Friedman, Elliot M

    2013-01-01

    While there is a large body of evidence that poor subjective sleep quality is related to lower subjective well-being, studies on the relation of objective sleep measures and subjective well-being are fewer in number and less consistent in their findings. Using data of the Survey of Mid-Life in the United States (MIDUS), we investigated whether duration and quality of sleep, assessed by actigraphy, were related to subjective well-being and whether this relationship was mediated by subjective sleep quality. Three hundred and thirteen mainly white American individuals from the general population and 128 urban-dwelling African American individuals between 35 and 85 years of age were studied cross-sectionally. Sleep duration, variability of sleep duration, sleep onset latency, and time awake after sleep onset were assessed by actigraphy over a period of 7 days. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, positive psychological well-being and symptoms of psychological distress were assessed with the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire. In both white and African Americans high day-to-day variability in sleep duration was related to lower levels of subjective well-being controlling age, gender, educational and marital status, and BMI. By contrast, sleep duration, sleep onset latency, and time awake after sleep onset were not related to subjective well-being controlling covariates and other sleep variables. Moreover, the relationship between variability in sleep duration and well-being was partially mediated by subjective sleep quality. The findings show that great day-to-day variability in sleep duration--more than average sleep duration--is related to poor subjective sleep quality and poor subjective well-being.

  18. NUTRITION-RELATED PREDICTORS OF SLEEP DURATION IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

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    Jerrilynn Burrowes

    2012-06-01

    At baseline, mean SD was 7.8±2.4 hrs; 33%, 43% and 24% of subjects were in the short, medium and long sleep groups, respectively. In univariate analysis, dietary protein intake, serum albumin, appetite, and QOL measures (mental component score [MCS] and physical component score [PCS] were significant predictors of SD. In multivariate analysis, age (P=0.008, race (White vs. Black (P=0.001, appetite on dialysis days (DD (P=0.0001, MCS and PCS (P<0.0001, respectively were also significant predictors of SD. Younger patients and those with good appetite on DD were more likely to sleep less, whereas Blacks and those with higher MCS and PCS were more likely to sleep more. Of the nutrition variables, higher protein intake and better appetite were associated with long vs. short SD in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, appetite on DD was the only variable predictive of SD. The odds ratio (95% CI of having a good appetite for those in the short SD group compared to the medium and long SD groups was 0.81 (0.72, 0.92 and 0.86 (0.78, 0.95, respectively. Further research on SD and appetite and the potential effects of short sleep on inflammation needs to be done in MHD patients.

  19. Sleep duration, depression, and oxytocinergic genotype influence prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex in postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comasco, Erika; Gulinello, Maria; Hellgren, Charlotte; Skalkidou, Alkistis; Sylven, Sara; Sundström-Poromaa, Inger

    2016-04-01

    The postpartum period is characterized by a post-withdrawal hormonal status, sleep deprivation, and susceptibility to affective disorders. Postpartum mothering involves automatic and attentional processes to screen out new external as well as internal stimuli. The present study investigated sensorimotor gating in relation to sleep duration, depression, as well as catecholaminergic and oxytocinergic genotypes in postpartum women. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex and startle reactivity were assessed two months postpartum in 141 healthy and 29 depressed women. The catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val158Met, and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) rs237885 and rs53576 polymorphisms were genotyped, and data on sleep duration were collected. Short sleep duration (less than four hours in the preceding night) and postpartum depression were independently associated with lower PPI. Also, women with postpartum depression had higher startle reactivity in comparison with controls. The OXTR rs237885 genotype was related to PPI in an allele dose-dependent mode, with T/T healthy postpartum women carriers displaying the lowest PPI. Reduced sensorimotor gating was associated with sleep deprivation and depressive symptoms during the postpartum period. Individual neurophysiological vulnerability might be mediated by oxytocinergic genotype which relates to bonding and stress response. These findings implicate the putative relevance of lower PPI of the startle response as an objective physiological correlate of liability to postpartum depression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  20. Duration of sleep inertia after napping during simulated night work and in extended operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signal, Tracey Leigh; van den Berg, Margo J; Mulrine, Hannah M; Gander, Philippa H

    2012-07-01

    Due to the mixed findings of previous studies, it is still difficult to provide guidance on how to best manage sleep inertia after waking from naps in operational settings. One of the few factors that can be manipulated is the duration of the nap opportunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the magnitude and time course of sleep inertia after waking from short (20-, 40- or 60-min) naps during simulated night work and extended operations. In addition, the effect of sleep stage on awakening and duration of slow wave sleep (SWS) on sleep inertia was assessed. Two within-subject protocols were conducted in a controlled laboratory setting. Twenty-four healthy young men (Protocol 1: n = 12, mean age = 25.1 yrs; Protocol 2: n = 12, mean age = 23.2 yrs) were provided with nap opportunities of 20-, 40-, and 60-min (and a control condition of no nap) ending at 02:00 h after ∼20 h of wakefulness (Protocol 1 [P1]: simulated night work) or ending at 12:00 h after ∼30 h of wakefulness (Protocol 2 [P2]: simulated extended operations). A 6-min test battery, including the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and the 4-min 2-Back Working Memory Task (WMT), was repeated every 15 min the first hour after waking. Nap sleep was recorded polysomnographically, and in all nap opportunities sleep onset latency was short and sleep efficiency high. Mixed-model analyses of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures were calculated and included the factors time (time post-nap), nap opportunity (duration of nap provided), order (order in which the four protocols were completed), and the interaction of these terms. Results showed no test x nap opportunity effect (i.e., no effect of sleep inertia) on KSS. However, WMT performance was impaired (slower reaction time, fewer correct responses, and increased omissions) on the first test post-nap, primarily after a 40- or 60-min nap. In P2 only, performance improvement was evident 45 min post-awakening for naps of 40 min or more. In ANOVAs

  1. Sleep Duration Trajectories and Systemic Inflammation in Young Adults: Results From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakour, Chighaf; Schwartz, Skai; O'Rourke, Kathleen; Wang, Wei; Sappenfield, William; Couluris, Marisa; Chen, Henian

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the effects of short and long sleep duration patterns in young adults on the levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as the potential effect modification by sex. Using data from waves III (age 18-26) and IV (age 24-32) of the National Longitudinal study of adolescent to adult health, we examined the association between sleep trajectories in young adults, and the risk of elevated high sensitivity-CRP (hs-CRP), a marker of systemic inflammation. Short sleep trajectories were associated with significantly elevated log-transformed hs-CRP (coefficient = 0.11, p-value .03) and with significantly higher odds of having hs-CRP levels > 3 mg/L (OR = 1.86, 95% CI 1.29, 2.67). The association was modified by sex, with the association between short sleep duration and hs-CRP limited to males. Both the continuous (coefficient 0.117, p-value = .0362) and the categorized hs-CRP (OR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.48, 3.30) were significantly elevated with short sleep durations in males, whereas no significant associations were seen in females with short sleep durations. By contrast, log hs-CRP was significantly elevated in females with long sleep durations (coefficient = 0.232, p-value = .0296), with a nonsignificant increase in the odds of having hs-CRP levels greater than 3 mg/L (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 0.75, 2.93), whereas there were no associations with long sleep duration in males. Systemic inflammation, measured by an elevated level of hs-CRP, is seen with persistent short sleep duration in young adult men and persistent long sleep duration in young adult women. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Associations of the work duration, sleep duration and number of holidays with an exaggerated blood pressure response during an exercise stress test among workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Ryoma; Ohta, Masanori; Ikeda, Masaharu; Jiang, Ying; Yamato, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that an exaggerated systolic blood pressure (ESBP) response during exercise, even if resting blood pressure is normal, is associated with an increased risk of future hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationships of work duration, sleep duration and number of holidays with blood pressure response during an exercise stress test among normotensive workers. The subjects were 362 normotensive workers (79 males and 283 females; age, 49.1 years). A multi-stage graded submaximal exercise stress test was performed on each subject using an electric bicycle ergometer. The workload was increased every 3 minutes, and blood pressure was measured at rest and during the last 1 minute of each stage. In this study, an ESBP response during exercise was defined according to the criteria of the Framingham Study (peak systolic blood pressure ≥210 mmHg in males, or ≥190 mmHg in females). Working environments, work duration, sleep duration, number of holidays, and physical activity during commuting and work, and leisure time exercise duration were evaluated using a questionnaire. An ESBP response during exercise was observed in 94 (26.0%) workers. The adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of an ESBP response during exercise was found to be significantly higher with an increase in work duration, decreases in sleep duration and number of holidays (psleep duration and number of holidays groups had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio for the prevalence of an ESBP response during exercise than the lowest work duration with highest sleep duration and number of holidays groups (pexercise and daily life are necessary to prevent the incidence of future hypertension, CVD and death due to overwork in workers with long-work duration, short sleep duration and small number of holidays.

  3. Habitual sleep variability, not sleep duration, is associated with caloric intake in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fan; Bixler, Edward O; Berg, Arthur; Imamura Kawasawa, Yuka; Vgontzas, Alexandros N; Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Yanosky, Jeff; Liao, Duanping

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between objectively measured habitual sleep duration (HSD), habitual sleep variability (HSV), and energy and snack intake in adolescents. We used data from 324 adolescents who participated in the Penn State Child Cohort follow-up examination. Actigraphy was used over seven consecutive nights to estimate nightly sleep duration. The seven-night mean and standard deviation of sleep duration were used to represent HSD and HSV, respectively. The Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to obtain the daily average total energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake, and number of snacks consumed. Linear regression models were used to investigate the associations between habitual sleep patterns and caloric, protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake. Proportional odds models were used to associate habitual sleep patterns with snack consumption. After adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI) percentile, and smoking status, an increased HSV was associated with a higher energy intake, particularly from fat and carbohydrate. For example, with a 1-h increase in HSV, there was a 170 (66)-kcal increase in the daily total energy intake. An increased HSV was also related to increased snack consumption, especially snacks consumed after dinner. For instance, a 1-h increase in HSV was associated with 65% and 94% higher odds of consuming more snacks after dinner during school/workdays and weekends/vacation days, respectively. Neither energy intake nor snack consumption was significantly related to HSD. High habitual sleep variability, not habitual sleep duration, is related to increased energy and food consumption in adolescents. Maintaining a regular sleep pattern may decrease the risk of obesity in adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Associations between sleep duration, sleep quality, and cognitive test performance among older adults from six middle income countries: results from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildner, Theresa E; Liebert, Melissa A; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Snodgrass, J Josh

    2014-06-15

    Alterations in sleep architecture are common among older adults. Previous studies have documented associations between sleep duration, sleep quality, and cognitive performance in older individuals, yet few studies have examined these trends using population-based samples from non-Western societies. The present cross-sectional study uses nationally representative datasets from six countries to test several hypotheses related to sleep patterns and cognitive function. Data were drawn from the first wave of the World Health Organization's study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE), a longitudinal study using samples of older adults (≥ 50 years old) in 6 middle-income countries (China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, South Africa, and Mexico). Self-report data provided information on sleep quality and sleep duration over the previous 2 nights, and 5 cognitive tests (immediate and delayed verbal recall, forward and backward digit span, and verbal fluency) were used to create a composite z-score of cognitive performance. Individuals with intermediate sleep durations (> 6-9 h/night) exhibited significantly higher cognitive scores than individuals with short sleep (0-6 h/night; p sleep duration (> 9 h/night; p sleep quality was positively correlated with cognitive z-score (p sleep quality and cognitive scores, while women reported longer sleep durations. This study documented positive correlations between cognitive scores and sleep quality, and between cognitive z-scores and intermediate sleep duration. These findings are clinically important given the growing rates of dementia and aging populations globally.

  5. Insomnia in patients on hemodialysis for a short versus long duration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomita T

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Tetsu Tomita,1 Norio Yasui-Furukori,1 Masaki Oka,1 Takaaki Shimizu,2 Aya Nagashima,2 Kento Mitsuhashi,2 Hisao Saito,3 Kazuhiko Nakamura1 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medicine, 2School of Medicine, Hirosaki University, 3Department of Urology, Oyokyo Kidney Research Institute, Hirosaki, Japan Background: Many studies have investigated insomnia and the factors associated with this condition in hemodialysis (HD patients, although the influence of HD duration has not been thoroughly investigated. In the present study, we investigated the factors, especially the duration of HD, associated with insomnia in HD patients.Patients and methods: A total of 138 patients undergoing HD were recruited, and the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI was used to assess the quality of sleep. Subjects with a total PSQI score up to 4 and those with a score of at least 5 were identified as normal subjects and subjects with insomnia, respectively. Additionally, we assessed restless legs syndrome, depression using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, and health-related quality of life (QOL using the Short Form 8 Health Survey. We divided the subjects into two groups according to the median HD duration.Results: The prevalence rate of insomnia was 54.3% among all the subjects. Twenty-one subjects (15.2% had depression, 26 (18.8% had restless legs syndrome, and 75 (54.3% had insomnia. The median HD duration was 4 years. The scores of components 1 and 4 of the PSQI, subjective sleep quality and habitual sleep efficiency, did not show a significant difference between the normal and insomnia groups. The score of component 7, daytime dysfunction, showed a significant difference between the short and long HD duration groups. In multiple regression analysis, the score of the Short Form 8 Health Survey showed a significant association with the PSQI score in the long HD duration group, but no variable showed a

  6. Sleep quality and duration are related to microvascular function: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, T.; Wijnstok, N.J.; Hoekstra, T.; Eringa, E.C.; Serne, E.H.; Smulders, Y.M.; Twisk, J.W.R.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep and sleep disorders are related to cardiovascular disease, and microvascular function is an early cardiovascular disease marker. Therefore, the relationship of sleep (measured in sleep quality and duration) with microvascular function was examined in healthy adults. Sleep quality was assessed

  7. U-shaped association between sleep duration and urinary albumin excretion in Korean adults: 2011-2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Hee Yu

    Full Text Available Although sleep duration has been extensively studied in metabolic diseases, few studies have investigated the impact of sleep duration on chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and albuminuria in the general population. Among 24,948 adults who participated in the 2011-2014 KNHANES, a total of 19,994 subjects were included in this analysis. Subjects were categorized into the following five groups according to self-reported sleep duration: less than 5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, and more than 9 h. The association between sleep duration and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR was examined cross-sectionally. Subjects with both short and long sleep durations were significantly associated with higher UACR levels and higher proportions of patients with microalbuminuria (30-299 mg/g and macroalbuminuria (≥300 mg/g compared to those with a sleep duration of 7 hours. The U-shaped association between sleep duration and UACR remained significant even after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, education, income, exercise, estimated glomerular filtration rate, diabetes mellitus, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia. The U-shaped association is more evident in the subgroup aged 65 or older, or in female subjects. Our findings suggest that both short and long sleep durations have a U-shaped association with UACR levels in the general population, independent of potential confounders.

  8. Acceleration from short-duration blast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzel, D. V.; Van Albert, S.; Sajja, V.; Long, J.

    2018-01-01

    The blast-induced motion of spheres has been studied experimentally where the shock wave is rapidly decaying during the period that quasi-steady acceleration would be developed in the case of a step-function shock wave as considered in most shock-tube studies. The motion of sphere models ranging from 39 to 251 mm in diameter and having a range of densities was assessed using the "free-flight" method in a simulator specially designed to replicate the decaying shock wave profile of spherical blast including negative phase and positive entropy gradient. A standardized blast-wave simulation of 125 kPa and 6-ms positive-phase duration was applied for all experiments. In all cases, there are three phases to the motion: a relatively low "kickoff" velocity from the shock diffraction, acceleration or deceleration during the positive duration, then deceleration through the negative phase and subsequent quiescent air. The unexpected deceleration of larger spheres after their kickoff velocity during the decaying yet high-speed flow of the blast wave seems associated with the persistence of a ring vortex on the downstream side of the sphere. The flow is entirely unsteady with initial forces dominated by the shock diffraction; therefore, the early motion of spheres under such conditions is not governed by quasi-steady drag as in classical aerodynamics. The work will help establish scaling rules for model studies of blast-induced motion relevant to improvised explosive devices, and preliminary results are shown for motion imparted to a human skull surrogate.

  9. Association of Subjective and Objective Sleep Duration as well as Sleep Quality with Non-Invasive Markers of Sub-Clinical Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Ali, Shozab S.; Das, Sankalp; Younus, Adnan; Malik, Rehan; Latif, Muhammad A.; Humayun, Choudhry; Anugula, Dixitha; Abbas, Ghulam; Salami, Joseph; Elizondo, Javier Valero; Veledar, Emir

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Abnormal daily sleep duration and quality have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity & mortality. However, the relationship between daily sleep duration and quality with subclinical measures of CVD remain less well studied. This systematic review evaluated how daily sleep duration and quality affect burden of subclinical CVD in subjects free of symptomatic CVD. Methods: Literature search was done via MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science until June 2016 and 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Sleep duration and quality were measured either via subjective methods, as self-reported questionnaires or Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) or via objective methods, as actigraphy or polysomnography or by both. Among subclinical CVD measures, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by electron beam computed tomography, Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound on carotid arteries, endothelial/microvascular function measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD) or peripheral arterial tone (PAT) or iontophoresis or nailfold capillaroscopy, and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) or ankle brachial index (ABI). Results: Subjective short sleep duration was associated with CAC and CIMT, but variably associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and arterial stiffness; however, subjective long sleep duration was associated with CAC, CIMT and arterial stiffness, but variably associated with ED. Objective short sleep duration was positively associated with CIMT and variably with CAC but not associated with ED. Objective long sleep duration was variably associated with CAC and CIMT but not associated with ED. Poor subjective sleep quality was significantly associated with ED and arterial stiffness but variably associated with CAC and CIMT. Poor objective sleep quality was significantly associated with CIMT, and ED but variably associated with CAC. Conclusions

  10. Association of Subjective and Objective Sleep Duration as well as Sleep Quality with Non-Invasive Markers of Sub-Clinical Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Ali, Shozab S; Das, Sankalp; Younus, Adnan; Malik, Rehan; Latif, Muhammad A; Humayun, Choudhry; Anugula, Dixitha; Abbas, Ghulam; Salami, Joseph; Elizondo, Javier Valero; Veledar, Emir; Nasir, Khurram

    2017-03-01

    Abnormal daily sleep duration and quality have been linked to hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and overall cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity& mortality. However, the relationship between daily sleep duration and quality with subclinical measures of CVD remains less well studied. This systematic review evaluated how daily sleep duration and quality affect burden of subclinical CVD in subjects free of symptomatic CVD. Literature search was done via MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science until June 2016 and 32 studies met the inclusion criteria. Sleep duration and quality were measured either via subjective methods, as self-reported questionnaires or Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) or via objective methods, as actigraphy or polysomnography or by both. Among subclinical CVD measures, coronary artery calcium (CAC) was measured by electron beam computed tomography, Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) measured by high-resolution B-mode ultrasound on carotid arteries, endothelial/microvascular function measured by flow mediated dilation (FMD) or peripheral arterial tone (PAT) or iontophoresis or nailfold capillaroscopy, and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) or ankle brachial index (ABI). Subjective short sleep duration was associated with CAC and CIMT, but variably associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and arterial stiffness; however, subjective long sleep duration was associated with CAC, CIMT and arterial stiffness, but variably associated with ED. Objective short sleep duration was positively associated with CIMT and variably with CAC but not associated with ED. Objective long sleep duration was variably associated with CAC and CIMT but not associated with ED. Poor subjective sleep quality was significantly associated with ED and arterial stiffness but variably associated with CAC and CIMT. Poor objective sleep quality was significantly associated with CIMT, and ED but variably associated with CAC. Overall, our review provided mixed

  11. The influence of sex and age on the relationship between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Katherine M; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Kim, Jieun; Oh, Kyungwon; Suh, Il

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the influence of sex and age on the relationship between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative population. We used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2001-2010) and enrolled 24,511 participants aged 20-79 years. Sleep duration was categorized into five groups: ≤5, 6, 7 (referent), 8, and ≥9h/day. Age was categorized into three groups: younger (20-39y), middle-aged (40-59y), and older (60-79y). The association between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome was assessed in the total, separately in men and women, then in six groups based on sex and age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome by sleep category demonstrated a U-shaped pattern in the total population. However, after adjusting for age, education, occupation, exercise, smoking, alcohol, and body mass index, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased in long sleepers (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.14-1.51) but not in short sleepers (OR 1.00; 95% CI 0.89-1.11). The relationship between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome varied by sex and age-long sleep (≥9h/day) was positively associated with metabolic syndrome only in younger (OR 2.13; 95% CI 1.38-3.28) and middle-aged (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.21-2.21) women. Short sleep (≤5h/day) was not associated with metabolic syndrome in any sex and age groups. However, extremely short sleep (≤4h/day) was associated with metabolic syndrome in middle-aged men (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.05-2.96). These data suggest that sex and age significantly modify the relationship between sleep duration and metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between sleep duration and urinary albumin excretion in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Fukuoka diabetes registry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiaki Ohkuma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Few studies have so far investigated the impact of sleep duration on chronic kidney disease in diabetic patients. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and albuminuria in type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 4,870 Japanese type 2 diabetic patients ≥20 years of age were divided into six groups according to self-reported sleep duration: less than 4.5 hours, 4.5-5.4 hours, 5.5-6.4 hours, 6.5-7.4 hours, 7.5-8.4 hours and more than 8.5 hours. The association between sleep duration and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR was examined cross-sectionally. RESULTS: Both short and long sleep durations were significantly associated with higher UACR levels and higher proportions of patients with albuminuria (≥30 mg/g and macroalbuminuria (≥300 mg/g compared with a sleep duration of 6.5-7.4 hours (P for quadratic trend <0.001. A U-shaped association between sleep duration and UACR remained significant even after adjustment for potential confounders, including age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking habits, former smoking habits, current drinking habits, regular exercise habits, total energy intake, total protein intake, hypnotic use and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, the association remained substantially unchanged after additional adjustment for body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, renin-angiotensin system inhibitor use and depressive symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that sleep duration has a U-shaped association with the UACR levels in type 2 diabetic patients, independent of potential confounders.

  13. Sleep duration, positive attitude toward life, and academic achievement: the role of daytime tiredness, behavioral persistence, and school start times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkinson-Gloor, Nadine; Lemola, Sakari; Grob, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    Sleep timing undergoes profound changes during adolescence, often resulting in inadequate sleep duration. The present study examines the relationship of sleep duration with positive attitude toward life and academic achievement in a sample of 2716 adolescents in Switzerland (mean age: 15.4 years, SD = 0.8), and whether this relationship is mediated by increased daytime tiredness and lower self-discipline/behavioral persistence. Further, we address the question whether adolescents who start school modestly later (20 min; n = 343) receive more sleep and report better functioning. Sleeping less than an average of 8 h per night was related to more tiredness, inferior behavioral persistence, less positive attitude toward life, and lower school grades, as compared to longer sleep duration. Daytime tiredness and behavioral persistence mediated the relationship between short sleep duration and positive attitude toward life and school grades. Students who started school 20 min later received reliably more sleep and reported less tiredness. Copyright © 2012 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep Duration and Cardiometabolic Risk Among Chinese School-aged Children: Do Adipokines Play a Mediating Role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lujiao; Fu, Junling; Yu, Xin Ting; Li, Ge; Xu, Lu; Yin, Jinghua; Cheng, Hong; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Gao, Shan; Li, Wenhui; Li, Changhong; Grant, Struan F A; Li, Mingyao; Xiao, Yi; Mi, Jie; Li, Ming

    2017-05-01

    To assess the associations between sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors in Chinese school-aged children and to explore the possible mediating role of adipokines. Sleep duration was collected in 3166 children from the Beijing Child and Adolescent Metabolic Syndrome study. Glucose homeostasis and other cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed. Serum adipokines including leptin, total and high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, resistin, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), and retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) were determined. Among the 6- to 12-year-old children, after adjusting for covariates including puberty, short sleep duration was associated with increased body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fasting glucose, insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (all p sleep duration was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, and RBP4 (all p sleep duration is strongly associated with obesity and hyperglycemia (in 6-12 years old), along with adverse adipokine secretion patterns among Chinese children. The associations with cardiometabolic risk factors appear to be more pronounced in younger children, and could be explained, at least partially, by leptin levels. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Self-reported sleep duration and cognitive performance in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, June C; Groeger, John A; Cheng, Grand H; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is important for optimal cognitive functioning across the lifespan. Among older adults (≥55 years), self-reported short and long sleep durations have been repeatedly, albeit inconsistently, reported to elevate the risk for poor cognitive function. This meta-analytic review quantitatively summarizes the risk for poorer cognitive function among short and long sleepers in older adults. Eligible publications were searched online and manually. A total of 35 independent samples (N = 97,264) from 11 cross-sectional and seven prospective cohort studies were included. Pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were derived using random-effects models. Self-reported short and long sleep increased the odds for poor cognitive function by 1.40 (CI = 1.27-1.56) and 1.58 times (CI = 1.43-1.74), respectively. Effect sizes varied across studies and may have been moderated by both study type (cross-sectional and prospective) and cognitive domain assessed. For cross-sectional studies, extreme sleep durations were significantly associated with poorer multiple-domain performance, executive functions, verbal memory, and working memory capacity. Prospective cohort studies revealed the significant long-term impact of short and long sleep on multiple-domain performance only. These findings establish self-reported extreme sleep duration as a risk factor for cognitive aging. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep quality and duration are associated with performance in maximal incremental test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, B M; Campos, E Z; Parmezzani, S S; Santos, R V; Franchini, E; Lira, F S

    2017-08-01

    Inadequate sleep patterns may be considered a trigger to development of several metabolic diseases. Additionally, sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality can negatively impact performance in exercise training. However, the impact of sleep duration and sleep quality on performance during incremental maximal test performed by healthy men is unclear. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to analyze the association between sleep pattern (duration and quality) and performance during maximal incremental test in healthy male individuals. A total of 28 healthy males volunteered to take part in the study. Sleep quality, sleep duration and physical activity were subjectively assessed by questionnaires. Sleep pattern was classified by sleep duration (>7h or sleep per night) and sleep quality according to the sum of measured points and/or scores by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Incremental exercise test was performed at 35 watts for untrained subjects, 70 watts for physically active subjects and 105 watts for well-trained subjects. HR max was correlated with sleep quality (r=0.411, p=0.030) and sleep duration (r=-0.430, p=0.022). Participants reporting good sleep quality presented higher values of W max , VO 2max and lower values of HR max when compared to participants with altered sleep. Regarding sleep duration, only W max was influenced by the amount of sleeping hours per night and this association remained significant even after adjustment by VO 2max . Sleep duration and quality are associated, at least in part, with performance during maximal incremental test among healthy men, with losses in W max and HR max . In addition, our results suggest that the relationship between sleep patterns and performance, mainly in W max , is independent of fitness condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep Prior to a Noxious Inflammatory Insult Influence Characteristics and Duration of Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanini, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient sleep and chronic pain are public health epidemics. Sleep loss worsens pain and predicts the development of chronic pain. Whether previous, acute sleep loss and recovery sleep determine pain levels and duration remains poorly understood. This study tested whether acute sleep deprivation and recovery sleep prior to formalin injection alter post-injection pain levels and duration. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) underwent sleep deprivation or ad libitum sleep for 9 hours. Thereafter, rats received a subcutaneous injection of formalin or saline into a hind paw. In the recovery sleep group, rats were allowed 24 h between sleep deprivation and the injection of formalin. Mechanical and thermal nociception were assessed using the von Frey test and Hargreaves' method. Nociceptive measures were performed at 1, 3, 7, 10, 14, 17 and 21 days post-injection. Formalin caused bilateral mechanical hypersensitivity (allodynia) that persisted for up to 21 days post-injection. Sleep deprivation significantly enhanced bilateral allodynia. There was a synergistic interaction when sleep deprivation preceded a formalin injection. Rats allowed a recovery sleep period prior to formalin injection developed allodynia only in the injected limb, with higher mechanical thresholds (less allodynia) and a shorter recovery period. There were no persistent changes in thermal nociception. The data suggest that acute sleep loss preceding an inflammatory insult enhances pain and can contribute to chronic pain. The results encourage studies in a model of surgical pain to test whether enhancing sleep reduces pain levels and duration. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  18. Sleep duration and progression to diabetes in people with prediabetes defined by HbA1cconcentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C-W; Chang, Y; Sung, E; Ryu, S

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the association between sleep duration and the risk of progression to diabetes among people with prediabetes, defined by HbA 1c values. We conducted a cohort study in 17 983 adults who underwent health check-up examinations, including assessments of sleep duration and quality. Diabetes was defined as either HbA 1c ≥48 mmol/mol (6.5%), or the use of antidiabetic medication. Time-dependent proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between sleep duration and the risk of progression to diabetes. During 31,582 person-years of follow-up, 664 incident cases of diabetes were identified; the incidence rate was 21.0 per 1000 person-years. The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios for progression to diabetes in people with sleep durations of ≤5, 6 and ≥8 h compared with 7 h were 1.68 (95% CI 1.30-2.16), 1.44 (95% CI 1.17-1.76) and 1.23 (95% CI 0.85-1.78), respectively (P for quadratic trend <0.001). This association was partially mediated by biomarkers of adiposity, fatty liver and insulin resistance. In this large study in young and middle-aged adults with prediabetes, we found an association between short sleep duration and the risk of progression to diabetes. Our findings suggest that sufficient sleep duration is important for delaying or preventing the progression of prediabetes to diabetes. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  19. Association between long sleep duration and increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes: A review of possible mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao; Chapman, Colin D; Cedernaes, Jonathan; Benedict, Christian

    2017-11-20

    For the last two decades research has revealed an alarming association between short sleep duration and metabolic disorders. In tandem, the hormonal, behavioral, and genetic mechanisms underlying this relationship have been extensively investigated and reviewed. However, emerging evidence is revealing that excessive sleep duration has remarkably similar deleterious effects. Unfortunately, to date there has been little attention to what drives this connection. This narrative review therefore aims to summarize existing epidemiological findings, experimental work, and most importantly putative molecular and behavioral mechanisms connecting excessive sleep duration with both obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. It will also address recent findings suggesting a worrisome bidirectional effect such that metabolic disorders create a positive feedback loop which further perpetuates excessive sleep. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Homework schedule: an important factor associated with shorter sleep duration among Chinese school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenghui; Yang, Qian; Chen, Zhe; Jin, Xingming; Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiaoming

    2014-09-03

    This study was designed to examine the hypothesis that homework schedule has adverse impacts on Chinese children's sleep-wake habits and sleep duration. A random sample of 19,299 children aged 5.08 to 11.99 years old participated in a large, cross-sectional survey. A parent-administered questionnaire was completed to quantify children's homework schedule and sleep behaviors. Generally, it was demonstrated that more homework schedule was significantly associated with later bedtime, later wake time, and shorter sleep duration. Among all sleep variables, bedtime and sleep duration during weekdays appeared to be most affected by homework schedule, especially homework schedule during weekdays.

  1. Actigraphic Sleep Duration and Fragmentation in Older Women: Associations With Performance Across Cognitive Domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spira, Adam P; Stone, Katie L; Redline, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Cauley, Jane A; Yaffe, Kristine

    2017-08-01

    To determine the association of actigraphic sleep duration and fragmentation with cognition in community-dwelling older women. We studied 782 women (mean age = 87.4) of varied cognitive status from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures who completed wrist actigraphy and the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS), California Verbal Learning Test-II-Short Form, digit span, verbal fluency tests, and the Trailmaking Test, Part B (Trails B). Total sleep time (TST) and wake after sleep onset (WASO) tertiles were our primary predictors. There were few significant associations in adjusted analyses. Compared to women with intermediate TST (mean = 430.1 minutes), those with the longest (508.7 minutes) had significantly poorer performance on the 3MS and phonemic and semantic fluency. Compared to women with the least WASO (31.5 minutes), those in the middle tertile (61.5 minutes) had significantly poorer delayed recall and those in the middle tertile and highest tertile (126.2 minutes) had poorer total recall and semantic fluency. We observed significant adjusted associations of TST with impaired 3MS performance and of WASO with impaired delayed recall, semantic fluency, and digit span. After excluding participants with adjudicated dementia diagnoses or indeterminate cognitive status, some adjusted associations remained but decreased in magnitude, others became nonsignificant, and a new association emerged. In community-dwelling older women, longer objectively measured sleep duration and greater sleep fragmentation are associated with poorer performance and impairment in only a subset of cognitive domains. Some of these associations may be driven by women with dementia in whom disturbed sleep and cognitive performance share an underlying neuropathological basis. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Sleep Research Society (SRS) 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Stressed and Losing Sleep: Sleep Duration and Perceived Stress among Affluent Adolescent Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSilva Mousseau, Angela M.; Lund, Terese J.; Liang, Belle; Spencer, Renée; Walsh, Jill

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between stress and sleep duration for adolescent females from affluent backgrounds. Participants were 218 students attending two independent single-sex secondary schools. Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) regression models (cross-sectional and longitudinal) were run to examine the association between stress and…

  3. Impact of sleep duration and weekend oversleep on body weight and blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quan SF

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Weekend oversleep or catchup sleep is a frequent occurrence in children, but there are relatively little data concerning its impact on weight and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the association between sleep duration and oversleep, and weight and blood pressure in adolescents. Methods: Sleep duration, weight and blood pressure of 327 children (51.4% boys, mean age 13.3 + 1.7 years who had polysomnograms performed during both exam cycles of the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea study (TuCASA were analyzed. Sleep duration on school nights and non-school nights was used to compute a weighted average of child and parent reported overall sleep duration respectively. Oversleep was defined as the difference between self and parent reported weekend sleep and weekday sleep separately. Simple correlations between overall sleep duration, sleep on school and non-school nights and oversleep, and blood pressure, standardized body mass index (BMI, snoring, respiratory disturbance index (RDI and age were calculated. Significant bivariate associations then were used to develop multivariate partial correlation models. Results: Unadjusted negative correlations with BMI were noted for parent reported total sleep duration at the 1st exam cycle, parent and child reported total sleep and school night sleep duration, and parent reported non-school night sleep duration at the 2nd exam cycle. Additionally, for BMI, positive correlations were observed for log RDI at both exam cycles and snoring at the 2nd exam cycle. For blood pressure, there were positive associations with age, parent reported oversleep, caffeine consumption and snoring. Additionally, for blood pressure, negative relationships were observed with parent reported total sleep duration at the 1st exam cycle, and parent and child reported total sleep and school night sleep durations at the 2nd exam cycle. Partial correlations found that BMI was negatively

  4. Impact of Sleep Duration and Weekend Oversleep on Body Weight and Blood Pressure in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Stuart F; Combs, Daniel; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2018-01-01

    Weekend oversleep or catchup sleep is a frequent occurrence in children, but there are relatively little data concerning its impact on weight and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the association between sleep duration and oversleep, and weight and blood pressure in adolescents. Sleep duration, weight and blood pressure of 327 children (51.4% boys, mean age 13.3 ± 1.7 years) who had polysomnograms performed during both exam cycles of the Tucson Children's Assessment of Sleep Apnea study (TuCASA) were analyzed. Sleep duration on school nights and non-school nights was used to compute a weighted average of child and parent reported overall sleep duration respectively. Oversleep was defined as the difference between self and parent reported weekend sleep and weekday sleep separately. Simple correlations between overall sleep duration, sleep on school and non-school nights and oversleep, and blood pressure, standardized body mass index (BMI), snoring, respiratory disturbance index (RDI) and age were calculated. Significant bivariate associations then were used to develop multivariate partial correlation models. Unadjusted negative correlations with BMI were noted for parent reported total sleep duration at the 1 st exam cycle, parent and child reported total sleep and school night sleep duration, and parent reported non-school night sleep duration at the 2 nd exam cycle. Additionally, for BMI, positive correlations were observed for log RDI at both exam cycles and snoring at the 2 nd exam cycle. For blood pressure, there were positive associations with age, parent reported oversleep, caffeine consumption and snoring. Additionally, for blood pressure, negative relationships were observed with parent reported total sleep duration at the 1 st exam cycle, and parent and child reported total sleep and school night sleep durations at the 2 nd exam cycle. Partial correlations found that BMI was negatively correlated with parent reported total sleep duration

  5. Decreases in self-reported sleep duration among U.S. adolescents 2009-2015 and association with new media screen time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Krizan, Zlatan; Hisler, Garrett

    2017-11-01

    Insufficient sleep among adolescents carries significant health risks, making it important to determine social factors that change sleep duration. We sought to determine whether the self-reported sleep duration of U.S. adolescents changed between 2009 and 2015 and examine whether new media screen time (relative to other factors) might be responsible for changes in sleep. We drew from yearly, nationally representative surveys of sleep duration and time use among adolescents conducted since 1991 (Monitoring the Future) and 2007 (Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System of the Centers for Disease Control; total N = 369,595). Compared to 2009, adolescents in 2015 were 16%-17% more likely to report sleeping less than 7 h a night on most nights, with an increase in short sleep duration after 2011-2013. New media screen time (electronic device use, social media, and reading news online) increased over this time period and was associated with increased odds of short sleep duration, with a clear exposure-response relationship for electronic devices after 2 or more hours of use per day. Other activities associated with short sleep duration, such as homework time, working for pay, and TV watching, were relatively stable or reduced over this time period, making it unlikely that these activities caused the sudden increase in short sleep duration. Increased new media screen time may be involved in the recent increases (from 35% to 41% and from 37% to 43%) in short sleep among adolescents. Public health interventions should consider electronic device use as a target of intervention to improve adolescent health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Social and Health Correlates of Sleep Duration in a US Hispanic Population: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sanjay R; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Castañeda, Sheila F; Dudley, Katherine A; Gallo, Linda C; Hernandez, Rosalba; Medeiros, Elizabeth A; Penedo, Frank J; Mossavar-Rahmani, Yasmin; Ramos, Alberto R; Redline, Susan; Reid, Kathryn J; Zee, Phyllis C

    2015-10-01

    To define the prevalence of poor sleep patterns in the US Hispanic/Latino population, identify sociodemographic and psychosocial predictors of short and long sleep duration, and the association between sleep and cardiometabolic outcomes. Cross-sectional analysis. Community-based study. Adults age 18-74 y free of sleep disorders (n = 11,860) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos baseline examination (2008-2011). N/A. The mean self-reported sleep duration was 8.0 h per night with 18.6% sleeping less than 7 h and 20.1% sleeping more than 9 h in age- and sex-adjusted analyses. Short sleep was most common in individuals of Puerto Rican heritage (25.6%) and the Other Hispanic group (27.4%). Full-time employment, low level of education, and depressive symptoms were independent predictors of short sleep, whereas unemployment, low household income, low level of education, and being born in the mainland US were independent predictors of long sleep. After accounting for sociodemographic differences, short sleep remained significantly associated with obesity with an odds ratio of 1.29 [95% confidence interval 1.12-1.49] but not with diabetes, hypertension, or heart disease. In contrast, long sleep was not associated with any of these conditions. Sleep duration is highly variable among US Hispanic/Latinos, varying by Hispanic/Latino heritage as well as socioeconomic status. These differences may have health consequences given associations between sleep duration and cardiometabolic disease, particularly obesity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Effects of SWS deprivation on subsequent EEG power density and spontaneous sleep duration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Derk Jan; Beersma, Domien G.M.

    In order to test predictions of the 2-process model of sleep regulation, the effects of slow wave sleep (SWS) deprivation by acoustic stimulation during the first part of the sleep period on EEG power density and sleep duration were investigated in 2 experiments. In the first experiment, 8 subjects

  8. Reduction of human sleep duration after bright light exposure in the morning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, D.J.; Visscher, C.A.; Bloem, G.M.; Beersma, D.G.M.; Daan, S.

    1987-01-01

    In 8 subjects the spontaneous termination of sleep was determined after repetitive exposure to either bright or dim light, between 6:00 and 9:00 h, on 3 days preceding sleep assessment. Sleep duration was significantly shorter following bright light than following dim light. During sleep the time

  9. Sleep duration and the risk of osteoporosis among middle-aged and elderly adults: a dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D; Ruan, W; Peng, Y; Li, W

    2018-03-25

    It remains unclear how many hours of sleep are associated with the lowest risk of osteoporosis. This meta-analysis was performed to assess the dose-response relationship between sleep duration and risk of osteoporosis. PubMed and Web of Science were searched from inception to December 3, 2017, supplemented by manual searches of the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Data were pooled using fixed- and random-effects models. Restricted cubic spline analysis with four knots was used to model the sleep duration and osteoporosis association. Four cross-sectional studies with eight records were eligible for inclusion in the meta-analysis. A U-shaped dose-response relationship was observed between sleep duration and risk of osteoporosis, with the lowest risk observed at a sleep duration category of 8-9 h per day. Compared with 8-h sleep duration per day, the pooled odds ratio for osteoporosis were 1.03 (95% CI 1.01-1.06) for each 1-h reduction among individuals with shorter sleep duration and 1.01 (95% CI 1.00-1.02) for each 1-h increment among individuals with longer sleep duration. Our dose-response meta-analysis shows a U-shaped relationship between sleep duration and risk of osteoporosis, with the lowest osteoporosis risk at about 8 h per day of sleep duration. Both short and long sleep duration is associated with a significantly increased risk of osteoporosis in the middle-aged and elderly adults, appropriate sleep duration could help for delay or prevention of osteoporosis.

  10. The hazards of bad sleep-Sleep duration and quality as predictors of adolescent alcohol and cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike, Thomas B; Shaw, Daniel S; Forbes, Erika E; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Hasler, Brant P

    2016-11-01

    Although an association between adolescent sleep and substance use is supported by the literature, few studies have characterized the longitudinal relationship between early adolescent sleep and subsequent substance use. The current study examined the prospective association between the duration and quality of sleep at age 11 and alcohol and cannabis use throughout adolescence. The present study, drawn from a cohort of 310 boys taking part in a longitudinal study in Western Pennsylvania, includes 186 boys whose mothers completed the Child Sleep Questionnaire; sleep duration and quality at age 11 were calculated based on these reports. At ages 20 and 22, participants were interviewed regarding lifetime alcohol and cannabis use. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine the association between sleep and substance use. After accounting for race, socioeconomic status, neighborhood danger, active distraction, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems, both the duration and quality of sleep at age 11 were associated with multiple earlier substance use outcomes. Specifically, less sleep was associated with earlier use, intoxication, and repeated use of both alcohol and cannabis. Lower sleep quality was associated with earlier alcohol use, intoxication, and repeated use. Additionally, lower sleep quality was associated with earlier cannabis intoxication and repeated use, but not first use. Both sleep duration and sleep quality in early adolescence may have implications for the development of alcohol and cannabis use throughout adolescence. Further studies to understand the mechanisms linking sleep and substance use are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Hazards of Bad SleepSleep Duration and Quality as Predictors of Adolescent Alcohol and Cannabis Use*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mike, Thomas B.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Hasler, Brant P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although an association between adolescent sleep and substance use is supported by the literature, few studies have characterized the longitudinal relationship between early adolescent sleep and subsequent substance use. The current study examined the prospective association between the duration and quality of sleep at age 11 and alcohol and cannabis use throughout adolescence. Methods The present study, drawn from a cohort of 310 boys taking part in a longitudinal study in Western Pennsylvania, includes 186 boys whose mothers completed the Child Sleep Questionnaire; sleep duration and quality at age 11 were calculated based on these reports. At ages 20 and 22, participants were interviewed regarding lifetime alcohol and cannabis use. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to determine the association between sleep and substance use. Results After accounting for race, socioeconomic status, neighborhood danger, active distraction, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems, both the duration and quality of sleep at age 11 were associated with multiple earlier substance use outcomes. Specifically, less sleep was associated with earlier use, intoxication, and repeated use of both alcohol and cannabis. Lower sleep quality was associated with earlier alcohol use, intoxication, and repeated use. Additionally, lower sleep quality was associated with earlier cannabis intoxication and repeated use, but not first use. Conclusions Both sleep duration and sleep quality in early adolescence may have implications for the development of alcohol and cannabis use throughout adolescence. Further studies to understand the mechanisms linking sleep and substance use are warranted. PMID:27659736

  12. Impact of sleep duration on seizure frequency in adults with epilepsy: a sleep diary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobabe, Maurine M; Sessler, Daniel I; Nowacki, Amy S; O'Rourke, Colin; Andrews, Noah; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy

    2015-02-01

    Prolonged sleep deprivation activates epileptiform EEG abnormalities and seizures in people with epilepsy. Few studies have addressed the effect of chronic partial sleep deprivation on seizure occurrence in populations with epilepsy. We tested the primary hypothesis that partial sleep deprivation over 24- and 72-hour periods increases seizure occurrence in adults with epilepsy. Forty-four subjects completed a series of self-reported instruments, as well as 1-month sleep and seizure diaries, to characterize their sleep and quality of life. Diaries were used to determine the relationship between seizure occurrence and total sleep time 24 and 72h before seizure occurrence using random effects models and a logistic regression model fit by generalized estimating equations. A total of 237 seizures were recorded during 1295 diary days, representing 5.5±7.0 (mean±SD) seizures per month. Random effects models for 24- and 72-hour total sleep times showed no clinically or statistically significant differences in the total sleep time between preseizure periods and seizure-free periods. The average 24-hour total sleep time during preseizure 24-hour periods was 8min shorter than that during seizure-free periods (p=0.51). The average 72-hour total sleep time during preseizure periods was 20min longer than that during seizure-free periods (p=0.86). The presence of triggers was a significant predictor of seizure occurrence, with stress/anxiety noted most often as a trigger. Mean total sleep time was 9h, and subjects took an average of 12±10 naps per month, having a mean duration of 1.9±1.2h. Daytime sleepiness, fatigue, and insomnia symptoms were commonly reported. Small degrees of sleep loss were not associated with seizure occurrence in our sample of adults with epilepsy. Our results also include valuable observations of the altered sleep times and frequent napping habits of adults with refractory epilepsy and the potential contribution of these habits to quality of life and

  13. Smoking, Screen-Based Sedentary Behavior, and Diet Associated with Habitual Sleep Duration and Chronotype: Data from the UK Biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Freda; Malone, Susan Kohl; Lozano, Alicia; Grandner, Michael A.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sleep duration has been implicated in the etiology of obesity but less is known about the association between sleep and other behavioral risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Purpose The aim of this study was to examine the associations among sleep duration, chronotype, and physical activity, screen-based sedentary behavior, tobacco use, and dietary intake. Methods Regression models were used to examine sleep duration and chronotype as the predictors and cardiovascular risk factors as outcomes of interest in a cross-sectional sample of 439,933 adults enrolled in the UK Biobank project. Results Short sleepers were 45 % more likely to smoke tobacco than adequate sleepers (9.8 vs. 6.9 %, respectively). Late chronotypes were more than twice as likely to smoke tobacco than intermediate types (14.9 vs. 7.4 %, respectively). Long sleepers reported 0.61 more hours of television per day than adequate sleepers. Early chronotypes reported 0.20 fewer daily hours of computer use per day than intermediate chronotypes. Early chronotypes had 0.25 more servings of fruit and 0.13 more servings of vegetables per day than late chronotypes. Conclusions Short and long sleep duration and late chronotype are associated with greater likelihood of cardiovascular risk behaviors. Further work is needed to determine whether these findings are maintained in the context of objective sleep and circadian estimates, and in more diverse samples. The extent to which promoting adequate sleep duration and earlier sleep timing improves heart health should also be examined prospectively. PMID:27056396

  14. Subjective reports versus objective measurement of sleep latency and sleep duration in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Danielle L; Fung, Alison; Walker, Susan P; Barnes, Maree

    2013-01-01

    This study compared self-reported sleep latency (SL) and total sleep time (TST) to objective measures on polysomnography (PSG) during pregnancy. Thirty-three women in the third trimester (T3) of pregnancy, 16 women in the first trimester (T1) of pregnancy, and 15 non-pregnant women underwent overnight PSG, and shortly after awakening reported their perceived SL and TST. Results showed that, on average, the T3 group slightly overestimated their TSTs, whereas the T1 and non-pregnant groups underestimated TSTs when compared with objective measurement. All groups overestimated SL, and perceived SL was closest to the first epoch of 10 min of uninterrupted sleep or the first epoch of slow-wave sleep, rather than the first epoch of sleep (the current definition used for diagnostic sleep studies). The wide variation in discrepancies between estimation and PSG measurement for both TST and SL shows that self-reports made by both pregnant and non-pregnant women tend to be unreliable, which has important implications both clinically and for the many studies based on self-reported sleep patterns in pregnancy.

  15. Associations between Sleep Duration and Overweight/Obesity: Results from 66,817 Chinese Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie; Wu, Hong; Wang, Juan; Guo, Lan; Deng, Xueqing; Lu, Ciyong

    2015-11-16

    The findings about the shapes of associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in adolescents were largely inconsistent in the existing literature. We examined the functional forms of the associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in 66,817 Chinese adolescents by modelling sleep duration categorically and continuously. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of overweight (with 7.0-8.9 h of sleep being considered the reference group) for subjects reporting obesity (with 7.0-8.9 h of daily sleep being considered as the reference group) for adolescents reporting obesity, with the bottom at around 7.0-8.0 hours sleep (overweight: likelihood ratio = 32.7 p obesity: likelihood ratio = 40.4 p obesity in Chinese adolescents and an optimal sleep duration of 7.0-8.0 hours sleep may prevent overweight/obesity.

  16. Simulated Obstructive Sleep Apnea Increases P-Wave Duration and P-Wave Dispersion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Gaisl

    Full Text Available A high P-wave duration and dispersion (Pd have been reported to be a prognostic factor for the occurrence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF, a condition linked to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. We tested the hypothesis of whether a short-term increase of P-wave duration and Pd can be induced by respiratory manoeuvres simulating OSA in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF.12-lead-electrocardiography (ECG was recorded continuously in 24 healthy subjects and 33 patients with PAF, while simulating obstructive apnea (Mueller manoeuvre, MM, obstructive hypopnea (inspiration through a threshold load, ITH, central apnea (AP, and during normal breathing (BL in randomized order. The P-wave duration and Pd was calculated by using dedicated software for ECG-analysis.P-wave duration and Pd significantly increased during MM and ITH compared to BL in all subjects (+13.1 ms and +13.8 ms during MM; +11.7 ms and +12.9 ms during ITH; p<0.001 for all comparisons. In MM, the increase was larger in healthy subjects when compared to patients with PAF (p<0.05.Intrathoracic pressure swings through simulated obstructive sleep apnea increase P-wave duration and Pd in healthy subjects and in patients with PAF. Our findings imply that intrathoracic pressure swings prolong the intra-atrial and inter-atrial conduction time and therefore may represent an independent trigger factor for the development for PAF.

  17. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short sleep duration has been associated with greater risks of obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Also, common genetic variants in the human Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) show associations with ghrelin and total energy intake. We examined associations betw...

  18. Sleep duration, insomnia, and markers of systemic inflammation: Results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prather, A.A.; Vogelzangs, N.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.

    2015-01-01

    Systemic inflammation has emerged as a potential pathway linking depressive and anxiety disorders with disease risk. Short and long sleep duration, as well as insomnia, are common among psychiatric populations and have previously been related to increased inflammation. The aim of the present study

  19. Glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes risk in relation to sleep duration and snoring during pregnancy: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Ihunnaya O

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality, considered endemic in modern society, are associated with obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Little, however, is known about the consequences of insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality during pregnancy on glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. Methods A cohort of 1,290 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We collected information about sleep duration and snoring during early pregnancy. Results from screening and diagnostic testing for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were abstracted from medical records. Generalized linear models were fitted to derive relative risk (RR and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs of GDM associated with sleep duration and snoring, respectively. Results After adjusting for maternal age and race/ethnicity, GDM risk was increased among women sleeping ≤ 4 hours compared with those sleeping 9 hours per night (RR = 5.56; 95% CI 1.31-23.69. The corresponding RR for lean women (2 was 3.23 (95% CI 0.34-30.41 and 9.83 (95% CI 1.12-86.32 for overweight women (≥ 25 kg/m2. Overall, snoring was associated with a 1.86-fold increased risk of GDM (RR = 1.86; 95% CI 0.88-3.94. The risk of GDM was particularly elevated among overweight women who snored. Compared with lean women who did not snore, those who were overweight and snored had a 6.9-fold increased risk of GDM (95% CI 2.87-16.6. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest associations of short sleep duration and snoring with glucose intolerance and GDM. Though consistent with studies of men and non-pregnant women, larger studies that include objective measures of sleep duration, quality and apnea are needed to obtain more precise estimates of observed associations.

  20. Glucose intolerance and gestational diabetes risk in relation to sleep duration and snoring during pregnancy: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality, considered endemic in modern society, are associated with obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Little, however, is known about the consequences of insufficient sleep and poor sleep quality during pregnancy on glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. Methods A cohort of 1,290 women was interviewed during early pregnancy. We collected information about sleep duration and snoring during early pregnancy. Results from screening and diagnostic testing for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were abstracted from medical records. Generalized linear models were fitted to derive relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of GDM associated with sleep duration and snoring, respectively. Results After adjusting for maternal age and race/ethnicity, GDM risk was increased among women sleeping ≤ 4 hours compared with those sleeping 9 hours per night (RR = 5.56; 95% CI 1.31-23.69). The corresponding RR for lean women (<25 kg/m2) was 3.23 (95% CI 0.34-30.41) and 9.83 (95% CI 1.12-86.32) for overweight women (≥ 25 kg/m2). Overall, snoring was associated with a 1.86-fold increased risk of GDM (RR = 1.86; 95% CI 0.88-3.94). The risk of GDM was particularly elevated among overweight women who snored. Compared with lean women who did not snore, those who were overweight and snored had a 6.9-fold increased risk of GDM (95% CI 2.87-16.6). Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest associations of short sleep duration and snoring with glucose intolerance and GDM. Though consistent with studies of men and non-pregnant women, larger studies that include objective measures of sleep duration, quality and apnea are needed to obtain more precise estimates of observed associations. PMID:20470416

  1. Associations of sleep duration and quality with disinhibited eating behaviors in adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Radin, Rachel M; Thompson, Katherine A; Cassidy, Omni L; Brady, Sheila; Mehari, Rim; Courville, Amber B; Chen, Kong Y; Galescu, Ovidiu A; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2016-08-01

    Short sleep duration and daytime sleepiness have been associated with an increased risk for the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults. There has been far less attention to the characterization of sleep in adolescents at-risk for diabetes or to the possible behavioral mechanisms, such as disinhibited eating, through which sleep may affect metabolic functioning. We evaluated the associations of sleep duration and daytime sleepiness with a multi-modal assessment of disinhibited eating in 119 adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes based upon being overweight/obese and having a family history of diabetes. Girls also endorsed mild-to-moderate depressive symptoms. Adolescents reported sleep duration and daytime sleepiness with the Sleep Habits Survey and Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire. They were administered a series of successive test meals to measure total energy intake and eating in the absence of hunger (EAH). Adolescent binge eating was assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination interview. Accounting for age, race, puberty, body composition, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress, reported sleep duration was positively related to test meal total energy intake (p=0.04), but not to EAH. Adjusting for the same covariates, daytime sleepiness was associated with a greater odds of objective binge eating in the previous month (p=0.009). In adolescent girls at-risk for type 2 diabetes, reported sleep characteristics are associated with disinhibited eating behaviors that have been linked to excessive weight and adverse metabolic outcomes. Future studies are called for to evaluate these links using objective measures of sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sleep Quality, Sleep Duration, and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease : A Prospective Cohort Study With 60,586 Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Liu, Xudong; Deng, Han-Bing; Chan, Ta-Chien; Ho, Kin Fai; Wang, Feng; Vermeulen, Roel; Tam, Tony; Wong, Martin C S; Tse, Lap Ah; Chang, Ly-Yun; Yeoh, Eng-Kiong

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: There is limited information on the relationship between risk of cardiovascular disease and the joint effects of sleep quality and sleep duration, especially from large, prospective, cohort studies. This study is to prospectively investigate the joint effects of sleep quality and

  3. Sleep Duration and Quality in Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Zhang, Zhangyi; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Good maternal health and fetal development require sufficient and good quality of sleep during pregnancy. This study investigated sleep duration and quality in pregnant women, assessing factors with possibly influence on sleep. Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted on pregnant women between June and August in 2015 in 16 hospitals in five provinces in China. A total of 2345 pregnant women aged 18 years and older were surveyed. Insufficient sleeping duration was defined as ...

  4. Interactive effects of sleep duration and morning/evening preference on cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Freda; Malone, Susan Kohl; Grandner, Michael A; Lozano, Alicia; Perkett, Mackenzie; Hanlon, Alexandra

    2018-02-01

    Sleep duration and morningness/eveningness (circadian preference) have separately been associated with cardiovascular risk factors (i.e. tobacco use, physical inactivity). Interactive effects are plausible, resulting from combinations of sleep homeostatic and circadian influences. These have not been examined in a population sample. Multivariable regression models were used to test the associations between combinations of sleep duration (short [≤6 h], adequate [7-8 h], long [≥9 h]) and morning/evening preference (morning, somewhat morning, somewhat evening, evening) with the cardiovascular risk factors of tobacco use, physical inactivity, high sedentary behaviour, obesity/overweight and eating fewer than 5 daily servings of fruit and vegetables, in a cross-sectional sample of 439 933 adults enrolled in the United Kingdom Biobank project. Participants were 56% female, 95% white and mean age was 56.5 (SD = 8.1) years. Compared with adequate sleep with morning preference (referent group), long sleep with evening preference had a relative odds of 3.23 for tobacco use, a 2.02-fold relative odds of not meeting physical activity recommendations, a 2.19-fold relative odds of high screen-based sedentary behaviour, a 1.47-fold relative odds of being obese/overweight and a 1.62-fold relative odds of morning or somewhat morning preference was associated with a lower prevalence and odds for all cardiovascular risk behaviours except fruit and vegetable intake. Long sleepers with evening preference may be a sleep phenotype at high cardiovascular risk. Further work is needed to examine these relationships longitudinally and to assess the effects of chronotherapeutic interventions on cardiovascular risk behaviours. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Male sleep duration and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wise, Lauren Anne; Rothman, Kenneth Jay; Wesselink, Amelia Kent

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the association between male sleep duration and fecundability. DESIGN: Pregnancy Online Study (PRESTO), a Web-based prospective cohort study of North American couples enrolled during the preconception period (2013-2017). SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Ma...... was associated with reduced fecundability. Because male factor accounts for 50% of couple infertility, identifying modifiable determinants of infertility could provide alternatives to expensive fertility workups and treatments.......OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the association between male sleep duration and fecundability. DESIGN: Pregnancy Online Study (PRESTO), a Web-based prospective cohort study of North American couples enrolled during the preconception period (2013-2017). SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Male...... night) and fecundability was similar among men not working nights or rotating shifts (FR 0.60, 95% CI 0.41-0.88) and among men without a history of infertility (FR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44-0.87) and was stronger among fathers (FR 0.46, 95% CI 0.28-0.76). CONCLUSION(S): Short sleep duration in men...

  6. Relationships between self-rated health, quality of life and sleep duration in middle aged and elderly Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Christopher A; Caputi, Peter; Iverson, Don C

    2011-04-01

    To determine whether sleep duration is associated with self-rated health and quality of life in adults residing in New South Wales, Australia. Cross-sectional data from the 45 and Up Study were used. Sleep duration, self-rated health, quality of life and other health-related variables were assessed using a self-report questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine whether sleep duration predicted self-rated health and quality of life. The sample included 63,408 adults aged 45-95 years. After controlling for a range of covariates, sleep (OR=1.49, 95% CI 1.31-1.70), 6 h sleep (OR=1.28, 95% CI 1.17-1.38) and ≥9 h sleep (OR=1.56, 95% CI 1.46-1.67) were associated with poorer self-rated health. Similarly, sleep (OR=1.80, 95% CI 1.57-2.07), 6 h sleep (OR=1.36, 95% CI 1.24-1.49) and ≥9 h sleep (OR=1.41, 95% CI 1.30-1.53) were associated with poorer quality of life. Short and long sleep were significantly associated with poor self-rated health and lower quality of life in this large sample of middle aged and older Australian adults. While cross-sectional, these results add weight to recent data emphasising the importance of adequate sleep in physical and mental health. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic, Goran; Wille, Micheline; Hemels, Michiel Eh

    2017-01-01

    Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep). Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with underlying medical conditions, sleep disruption may diminish the health-related quality of life of children and adolescents and may worsen the severity of common gastrointestinal disorders. As a result of the potential consequences of sleep disruption, health care

  8. Differential sensitivity of long-sleep and short-sleep mice to high doses of cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fiebre, C M; Ruth, J A; Collins, A C

    1989-12-01

    The cocaine sensitivity of male and female long-sleep (LS) and short-sleep (SS) mice, which have been selectively bred for differential ethanol-induced "sleep-time," was examined in a battery of behavioral and physiological tests. Differences between these two mouse lines were subtle and were seen primarily at high doses. At high doses, SS mice were more sensitive than LS mice, particularly to cocaine-induced hypothermia; however, significant hypothermia was not seen except at doses which were very near to the seizure threshold. During a 60-min test of locomotor activity, LS mice showed greater stimulation of Y-maze activity by 20 mg/kg cocaine than SS mice. Consistent with the finding of subtle differences in sensitivity to low doses of cocaine. LS and SS mice did not differ in sensitivity to cocaine inhibition of synaptosomal uptake of [3H]-dopamine, [3H]-norepinephrine or [3H]-5-hydroxytryptamine. However, consistent with the finding of differential sensitivity to high doses of cocaine, SS mice were more sensitive to the seizure-producing effects of the cocaine and lidocaine, a local anesthetic. It is hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these mouse lines to high doses of cocaine is due to differential sensitivity to cocaine's actions on systems that regulate local anesthetic effects. Selective breeding for differential duration of alcohol-induced "sleep-time" may have resulted in differential ion channel structure or function in these mice.

  9. A possible association between dysphonia and sleep duration: A cross-sectional study based on the Korean National Health and nutrition examination surveys from 2010 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hae Cho

    Full Text Available Sleep is important in terms of good general health and appropriate sleep duration has been linked to quality-of-life. Dysphonia may impair communication and social relationships, and is thus also closely related to quality-of-life. No large-scale, cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample representative of the population of an entire country has yet assessed the possible existence of a relationship between sleep duration and dysphonia.We investigated a possible association between subjective voice problems and self-reported sleep duration in South Korean subjects using 2010-2012 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES. Cross-sectional data on 17,806 adults (7,578 males and 10,228 females over the age of 19 years who completed the KNHANES were analyzed. All participants reported voice problems (if present and their daily average sleep duration using a self-reporting questionnaire. Sleep duration was classified into five categories as follows: ≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9 h/day.The overall prevalence of dysphonia was 6.8%; 5.7% in males and 7.7% in females. The prevalence for dysphonia by sleep duration exhibited a U-shape, with the lowest point being at sleep duration of 7-8h. After adjustment for covariates (age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, low income, high-level education, a sleep duration of ≤5 h (OR = 1.454; 95% CI, 1.153-1.832 and a sleep duration of ≥9 h (OR = 1.365; 95% CI, 1.017-1.832 were significantly associated with dysphonia, compared to a sleep duration of 7 h. In terms of gender, males who slept for ≥9 h were at a 2-fold (OR = 2.028; 95% CI, 1.22-3.35 higher odds for dysphonia (p<0.05 compared to those who slept for 7 h. A sleep duration ≤5 h was associated with a 1.6-fold (OR = 1.574; 95% CI, 1.203-2.247 higher odds of dysphonia ≥3 weeks in duration (long-term dysphonia.This is the first study to show that both short and long sleep duration were

  10. Oxidative Stress and Inflammation Differentially Elevated in Objective Versus Habitual Subjective Reduced Sleep Duration in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMartino, Theresanne; Ghoul, Rawad El; Wang, Lu; Bena, James; Hazen, Stanley L; Tracy, Russel; Patel, Sanjay R; Auckley, Dennis; Mehra, Reena

    2016-07-01

    Data have demonstrated adverse health effects of sleep deprivation. We postulate that oxidative stress and systemic inflammation biomarkers will be elevated in relation to short-term and long-term sleep duration reduction. We analyzed data from the baseline examination of a randomized controlled trial involving participants with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Baseline polysomnography provided the total sleep time (PSG-TST, primary predictor); self-reported habitual sleep duration (SR-HSD) data was collected. Morning measures of oxidative stress and systemic inflammation included: myeloperoxidase (MPO, pmol/L), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL, U/L), F2-isoprostane (ng/mg), paraoxonase 1 (PON1, nmol·min(-1)·mL(-1)), and aryl esterase (μmol·min(-1)·mL(-1)). Linear models adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index (BMI), cardiovascular disease (CVD), smoking, statin/anti-inflammatory medications, and apnea-hypopnea index were utilized (beta estimates and 95% confidence intervals). One hundred forty-seven participants comprised the final analytic sample; they were overall middle-aged (51.0 ± 11.7 y), obese (BMI = 37.3 ± 8.1 kg/m(2)), and 17% had CVD. Multivariable models demonstrated a significant inverse association of PSG-TST and MPO (β [95% CI] = -20.28 [-37.48, -3.08], P = 0.021), i.e., 20.3 pmol/L MPO reduction per hour increase PSG-TST. Alternatively, a significant inverse association with ox-LDL and SR-HSD was observed (β [95% CI] = 0.98 [0.96, 0.99], P = 0.027), i.e., 2% ox-LDL reduction per hour increase SR-HSD. Even after consideration of obesity and OSA severity, inverse significant findings were observed such that reduced PSG-TST was associated with elevated MPO levels and SR-HSD with ox-LDL, suggesting differential up-regulation of oxidative stress and pathways of inflammation in acute versus chronic sleep curtailment. NIH clinical trials registry number NCT00607893. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  11. Evening Chronotype Is Associated with Changes in Eating Behavior, More Sleep Apnea, and Increased Stress Hormones in Short Sleeping Obese Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Lucassen, Eliane A.; Zhao, Xiongce; Rother, Kristina I.; Mattingly, Megan S.; Courville, Amber B.; de Jonge, Lilian; Csako, Gyorgy; Cizza, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Background Short sleep duration and decreased sleep quality are emerging risk factors for obesity and its associated morbidities. Chronotype, an attribute that reflects individual preferences in the timing of sleep and other behaviors, is a continuum from morningness to eveningness. The importance of chronotype in relation to obesity is mostly unknown. Evening types tend to have unhealthy eating habits and suffer from psychological problems more frequently than Morning types, thus we hypothes...

  12. The Association Between Sleep Duration and Hand Grip Strength in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: The Yilan Study, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chung; Hsu, Nai-Wei; Chou, Pesus

    2017-04-01

    Different pathomechanisms may underlie the age-related decline in muscle mass and muscle power in older adults. This study aimed to examine the independent relationship between sleep duration and muscle power. Older adults, aged 65 years and older, were randomly selected to participate in a community-based survey in Yilan city, Taiwan. Data on self-reported sleep duration, sociodemographic information, lifestyle, chronic medical and mental health conditions, sleep-related parameters, and anthropometric measurements were collected. Participants who slept ≤4 hr, 5 hr, 6-7 hr, 8 hr, and ≥9 hr were defined as shortest, short, mid-range, long, and longest sleepers, respectively. Muscle power was estimated using hand grip strength. A total of 1081 individuals participated. Their average age was 76.3 ± 6.1 years, and 59.4% were female. After controlling for covariates, including muscle mass of the upper extremities, both long (estimated mean [95% confidence interval, CI]: 19.2 [18.2-20.2], p = .03) and longest sleepers (estimated mean [95% CI]: 17.8 [16.4-19.2], p = .001) had weaker hand grip strength than mid-range sleepers (estimated mean [95% CI]: 20.9 [20.3-21.4]). When stratified by sex, the association between longest sleep duration and weaker hand grip strength was noted among men only. Older adults with long sleep duration had weaker hand grip strength irrespective of muscle mass. This finding suggests that decreased muscle power may mediate or confound the relationship between long sleep duration and adverse health outcomes. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Shorter sleep duration in early pregnancy is associated with birth length: a prospective cohort study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiye; Zhong, Chunrong; Zhang, Yu; Huang, Li; Chen, Xi; Zhou, Xuezhen; Chen, Renjuan; Li, Xiating; Xiao, Mei; Hao, Liping; Yang, Xuefeng; Yang, Nianhong; Wei, Sheng

    2017-06-01

    To examine the association between sleep duration in early pregnancy and fetal growth in a prospective cohort study of 3567 Chinese women. Pregnant women at 8-16 weeks of gestation were interviewed using a semi-quantitative questionnaire to assess sleep duration. Birth weight and birth length were measured by a midwife in the delivery room at birth; low birth weight (LBW) was defined as birth weight sleep duration was 8.39 ± 1.13 h/day. A total of 1290 women sleeping ≥9 h/day, 1563 sleeping 8 to sleeping 7 to sleeping sleeping 8 to sleeping sleeping sleeping habit or with a history of abortion (all p for interaction sleep duration in early pregnancy was associated with birth length. Our findings indicate that midday napping may be a protective factor for birth length among pregnant women with shorter sleep duration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Association between Self-reported Sleep Duration and Body Mass Index among Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ban Hyung; Kang, Seung Gul; Choi, Jae Won; Lee, Yu Jin

    2016-12-01

    Previous research has shown that lack of sleep is related to Body Mass Index (BMI) in adolescence. This study was designed to investigate the association between sleep duration and BMI among Korean adolescents. We conducted a school-based cross-sectional study of 3,785 adolescents (males: 58.2%, females: 41.8%) in middle and high school between the ages of 11 and 18 years (mean age 15.26 ± 1.45). Using a self-reported questionnaire, we obtained information regarding weekday sleep duration, weekend sleep duration, height, weight, time spent at private tutoring institutes, socioeconomic status and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We investigated the association between self-reported sleep duration and BMI. After adjusting for confounding factors including age, gender, time spent at private tutoring institutes, academic performance, economic status and BDI scores, longer sleep duration on both weekdays and weekends was associated with decreased BMI (P = 0.002 and P sleep duration was associated with decreased BMI in females (P = 0.038), but not in males (P = 0.343). The results of the present study indicated that longer sleep duration on weekdays and weekends in adolescents was associated with lower BMI. Longer weekend catch-up sleep may compensate effects of insufficient sleep on BMI for female adolescents.

  15. Disagreement between subjective and actigraphic measures of sleep duration in a population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, J.F. van den; Rooij, F.J.A. van; Vos, H.; Tulen, J.H.M.; Hofman, A.; Miedema, H.M.E.; Neven, A.K.; Tiemeier, H.

    2008-01-01

    Sleep duration is an important concept in epidemiological studies. It characterizes a night's sleep or a person's sleep pattern, and is associated with numerous health outcomes. In most large studies, sleep duration is assessed with questionnaires or sleep diaries. As an alternative, actigraphy may

  16. Disagreement between subjective and actigraphic measures of sleep duration in a population-based study of elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. van den Berg (Julia); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); H. Vos; J.H.M. Tulen (Joke); A. Hofman (Albert); H.M. Miedema (Henk); A.K. Neven (Arie); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractSleep duration is an important concept in epidemiological studies. It characterizes a night's sleep or a person's sleep pattern, and is associated with numerous health outcomes. In most large studies, sleep duration is assessed with questionnaires or sleep diaries. As an alternative,

  17. Sleep duration independently influences metabolic body size phenotype in children and adolescents: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Han Hyuk

    2018-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies have found an association between sleep duration and obesity. However, the relationship between sleep duration and metabolic body size phenotype in children and adolescents remains unknown. In this cross-sectional study, 3650 participants (1946 boys and 1704 girls) from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2012 were classified into four phenotypes according to body mass index and metabolic heath status based on the definition of metabolic syndrome by NCEP-ATP III or the International Diabetes Federation. The four phenotypes were: metabolically healthy normal weight (MHNW), metabolically unhealthy normal weight (MUNW), metabolically healthy overweight (MHO), and metabolically unhealthy overweight (MUO). The associations between the four metabolic body size phenotypes and sleep duration, categorized as very short (≤5 h), short (6-7 h), normal (8-10 h), or long (≥11 h), were evaluated. Sleep duration was shorter in the MUO group (7.0 ± 1.5 h) than in the MHNW (7.3 ± 1.4 h) or MUNW (7.8 ± 1.6 h) groups. After adjusting for age, sex, household income, and physical activity, compared with a normal sleep duration, very short sleep duration (≤5 h) was associated with a higher prevalence of being overweight/obese (26.4% vs 17.4%, p = 0.001), lower risk of being MHNW (0.711 (0.538-0.940), p = 0.017) or MUNW (0.478 (0.237-0.962), p = 0.039), and higher risk of being MHO (1.702 (1.193-2.428), p = 0.003). By contrast, long sleep duration (≥11 h) was associated with a higher risk of being MUNW (2.581 (1.124-5.928), p = 0.025). Sleep duration may be independently associated with metabolic body size phenotype in children and adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationships of Sleep Duration With Weight-Related Behaviors of U.S. College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Virginia; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Shoff, Suzanne; White, Adrienne A; Lohse, Barbara; Horacek, Tanya; Colby, Sarah; Brown, Onikia; Kidd, Tandalayo; Greene, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    This study describes sleep behaviors of U.S. college students (N = 1,252; 18-24 years old; 59% female) and examines associations of sleep duration with weight-related behaviors. More than one quarter of participants slept college students during office visits and promote good sleep behaviors.

  19. Neural Consequences of Chronic Short Sleep: Reversible or Lasting?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengqing Zhao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Approximately one-third of adolescents and adults in developed countries regularly experience insufficient sleep across the school and/or work week interspersed with weekend catch up sleep. This common practice of weekend recovery sleep reduces subjective sleepiness, yet recent studies demonstrate that one weekend of recovery sleep may not be sufficient in all persons to fully reverse all neurobehavioral impairments observed with chronic sleep loss, particularly vigilance. Moreover, recent studies in animal models demonstrate persistent injury to and loss of specific neuron types in response to chronic short sleep (CSS with lasting effects on sleep/wake patterns. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the effects of chronic sleep disruption on neurobehavioral performance and injury to neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes and discuss what is known and what is not yet established for reversibility of neural injury. Recent neurobehavioral findings in humans are integrated with animal model research examining long-term consequences of sleep loss on neurobehavioral performance, brain development, neurogenesis, neurodegeneration, and connectivity. While it is now clear that recovery of vigilance following short sleep requires longer than one weekend, less is known of the impact of CSS on cognitive function, mood, and brain health long term. From work performed in animal models, CSS in the young adult and short-term sleep loss in critical developmental windows can have lasting detrimental effects on neurobehavioral performance.

  20. Daytime Cognitive Performance in Response to Sunlight or Fluorescent Light Controlling for Sleep Duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Jhanic; Zamos, Adela; Rao, Rohit; Flynn-Evans, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Light is the primary synchronizer of the human circadian rhythm and also has acute alerting effects. Our study involves and comparing the alertness, performance and sleep of participants in the NASA Ames Sustainability Base, which uses sunlight as its primary light source, to in a traditional office building which uses overhead florescent lighting and varying exposure to natural light. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the use of natural lighting as a primary light source improves daytime cognitive function and promotes nighttime sleep. Participants from the Sustainability Base will be matched by gender and age to individuals working in other NASA buildings. In a prior study we found no differences in performance between those working in the Sustainability Base and those working in other buildings. Unexpectedly, we found that the average sleep duration among participants in both buildings was short, which likely obscured our ability to detect a difference the effect of light exposure on alertness. Given that such sleep deprivation has negative effects on cognitive performance, in this iteration of the study we are asking the participants to maintain a regular schedule with eight hours in bed each night in order to control for the effect of self-selected sleep restriction. Over the course of one week, we will ask the participants to wear actiwatches continuously, complete a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) and digit symbol substitution task (DSST) three times per day, and keep daily sleepwork diaries. We hope that this study will provide data to support the idea that natural lighting and green architectural design are optimal to enhance healthy nighttime sleep patterns and daytime cognitive performance.

  1. A possible association between dysphonia and sleep duration: A cross-sectional study based on the Korean National Health and nutrition examination surveys from 2010 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jung-Hae; Guilminault, Christian; Joo, Young-Hoon; Jin, Sang-Kyun; Han, Kyung-Do; Park, Chan-Soon

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is important in terms of good general health and appropriate sleep duration has been linked to quality-of-life. Dysphonia may impair communication and social relationships, and is thus also closely related to quality-of-life. No large-scale, cross-sectional epidemiological study of a sample representative of the population of an entire country has yet assessed the possible existence of a relationship between sleep duration and dysphonia. We investigated a possible association between subjective voice problems and self-reported sleep duration in South Korean subjects using 2010-2012 data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Cross-sectional data on 17,806 adults (7,578 males and 10,228 females) over the age of 19 years who completed the KNHANES were analyzed. All participants reported voice problems (if present) and their daily average sleep duration using a self-reporting questionnaire. Sleep duration was classified into five categories as follows: ≤5, 6, 7, 8, and ≥9 h/day. The overall prevalence of dysphonia was 6.8%; 5.7% in males and 7.7% in females. The prevalence for dysphonia by sleep duration exhibited a U-shape, with the lowest point being at sleep duration of 7-8h. After adjustment for covariates (age, sex, smoking status, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, low income, high-level education), a sleep duration of ≤5 h (OR = 1.454; 95% CI, 1.153-1.832) and a sleep duration of ≥9 h (OR = 1.365; 95% CI, 1.017-1.832) were significantly associated with dysphonia, compared to a sleep duration of 7 h. In terms of gender, males who slept for ≥9 h were at a 2-fold (OR = 2.028; 95% CI, 1.22-3.35) higher odds for dysphonia (pdysphonia ≥3 weeks in duration (long-term dysphonia). This is the first study to show that both short and long sleep duration were significantly associated with the development of dysphonia. The association between sleep duration and dysphonia was more marked in males than females. A

  2. Association between sleep duration and menstrual cycle irregularity in Korean female adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ga Eun; Han, Kyungdo; Lee, Gyungjoo

    2017-07-01

    The association between sleep and the menstrual cycle in the adolescent population has been scarcely studied. This study aimed to investigate the association between sleep duration and menstrual cycle irregularity among female adolescents using nationwide representative data from the South Korean population. This population-based, cross-sectional study used the data collected from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012, and the data from 801 female adolescents were analyzed. Hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of menstrual cycle irregularity in relation to sleep duration. Subjects with menstrual cycle irregularity accounted for 15% (N = 120). The mean sleep duration in subjects with menstrual cycle irregularity was significantly shorter than that in those without (p = 0.003). Menstrual cycle irregularity prevalence tended to decrease as sleep duration increased (p for trend = 0.004), which was significantly different based on sleep duration and presence of depressive mood (p = 0.011). Sleep duration ≤5 h per day was significantly associated with increased risk of menstrual cycle irregularity compared with that in the subjects whose sleep duration is ≥8 h per day even after adjusting for confounding variables. The odds ratios of menstrual cycle irregularity tended to increase for shorter sleep duration in all adjusted models. This study found a significant inverse association between sleep duration and menstrual cycle irregularity among Korean female adolescents. Increasing sleep duration is required to improve the reproductive health of female adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Concomitant changes in sleep duration and body weight and body composition during weight loss and 3-mo weight maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Sanne P M; Camps, Stefan G J A; Gonnissen, Hanne K J; Westerterp, Klaas R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-07-01

    An inverse relation between sleep duration and body mass index (BMI) has been shown. We assessed the relation between changes in sleep duration and changes in body weight and body composition during weight loss. A total of 98 healthy subjects (25 men), aged 20-50 y and with BMI (in kg/m(2)) from 28 to 35, followed a 2-mo very-low-energy diet that was followed by a 10-mo period of weight maintenance. Body weight, body composition (measured by using deuterium dilution and air-displacement plethysmography), eating behavior (measured by using a 3-factor eating questionnaire), physical activity (measured by using the validated Baecke's questionnaire), and sleep (estimated by using a questionnaire with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale) were assessed before and immediately after weight loss and 3- and 10-mo follow-ups. The average weight loss was 10% after 2 mo of dieting and 9% and 6% after 3- and 10-mo follow-ups, respectively. Daytime sleepiness and time to fall asleep decreased during weight loss. Short (≤7 h) and average (>7 to weight loss. This change in sleep duration was concomitantly negatively correlated with the change in BMI during weight loss and after the 3-mo follow-up and with the change in fat mass after the 3-mo follow-up. Sleep duration benefits from weight loss or vice versa. Successful weight loss, loss of body fat, and 3-mo weight maintenance in short and average sleepers are underscored by an increase in sleep duration or vice versa. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01015508.

  4. Novel loci associated with usual sleep duration: The CHARGE Consortium Genome-Wide Association Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gottlieb, D.J.; Hek, K.; Chen, T.H.; Watson, N.F.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Byrne, E.M.; Cornelis, M.; Warby, S.C.; Bandinelli, S.; Cherkas, L.; Evans, D.S.; Grabe, H.J.; Lahti, J.; Li, M.; Lehtimaki, T.; Lumley, T.; Marciante, K.D.; Pérusse, L.; Psaty, B.M.; Robbins, J.; Tranah, G.J.; Vink, J.M.; Wilk, J.B.; Stafford, J.M.; Bellis, C.; Biffar, R.; Bouchard, C.; Cade, B.; Curhan, G.C.; Eriksson, J.G.; Ewert, R.; Ferrucci, L.; Fulop, T.; Gehrman, P.R.; Goodloe, R.; Harris, T.B.; Heath, A.C.; Hernandez, D.G.; Hofman, A.; Hottenga, J.J.; Hunter, D.J.; Jensen, M.K.; Johnson, A.D.; Kahonen, M.; Kao, L.; Kraft, P.; Larkin, E.K.; Lauderdale, D.S.; Luik, A.I.; Medici, M.; Montgomery, G.W.; Palotie, A.; Patel, S.R.; Pistis, G.; Porcu, E.; Quaye, L.; Raitakari, O.; Redline, S.; Rimm, E.B.; Rotter, J.I.; Smith, A.V.; Spector, T.D.; Teumer, A.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Vohl, M.C.; Widen, E.; Willemsen, G.; Young, T.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Blangero, J.; Boomsma, D.I.; Gudnason, V.; Hu, F.; Mangino, M.; Martin, N.G.; O'Connor, G.T.; Stone, K.L.; Tanaka, T.; Viikari, J.; Gharib, S.A.; Punjabi, N.M.; Raikkonen, K.; Völzke, H.; Mignot, E.; Tiemeier, H.

    2015-01-01

    Usual sleep duration is a heritable trait correlated with psychiatric morbidity, cardiometabolic disease and mortality, although little is known about the genetic variants influencing this trait. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of usual sleep duration was conducted using 18 population-based

  5. The Association of Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms in Rural Communities of Missouri, Tennessee, and Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jen Jen; Salas, Joanne; Habicht, Katherine; Pien, Grace W.; Stamatakis, Katherine A.; Brownson, Ross C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the association between sleep duration and depressive symptoms in a rural setting. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using data from Wave 3 of the Walk the Ozarks to Wellness Project including 12 rural communities in Missouri, Arkansas, and Tennessee (N = 1,204). Sleep duration was defined based on average…

  6. Habitual sleep duration is associated with BMI and macronutrient intake and may be modified by CLOCK genetic variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dashti, Hassan S; Follis, Jack L; Smith, Caren E

    2015-01-01

    examined associations between habitual sleep duration, body mass index (BMI), and macronutrient intake and assessed whether CLOCK variants modify these associations. DESIGN: We conducted inverse-variance weighted, fixed-effect meta-analyses of results of adjusted associations of sleep duration and BMI...... sleep duration and lower BMI (β ± SE = 0.16 ± 0.04, P ..., the following 2 nominally significant interactions were observed: between sleep duration and rs12649507 on PUFA intake and between sleep duration and rs6858749 on protein intake. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that longer habitual sleep duration is associated with lower BMI and age- and sex...

  7. Associations of outdoor play and screen time with nocturnal sleep duration and pattern among young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huilan; Wen, Li Ming; Hardy, Louise L; Rissel, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Sleep duration and pattern have important implications for children's health. This study aims to investigate nocturnal sleep duration, sleep pattern and their relationships with outdoor play and screen time among children aged 2 to five years. The study used data from the Healthy Beginnings Trial undertaken in Sydney, Australia. Data on children's sleep, outdoor playtime and screen time were reported by mothers via face-to-face interviews when children were 2, 3.5 and five years old. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were conducted. At age 2, 3.5 and five years, 497, 415 and 369 mother-child dyads participated. Significantly, there was an overall increase in children's nocturnal sleep duration, sleep latency and an earlier bedtime, and there was a decrease in the proportion of children who woke at night over time. Each additional hour of screen time was associated with three-minute (95% CI 0.6-5) shorter sleep, 1.6-minute (95% CI 0.59-2.63) longer sleep latency, four-minute (95% CI 1.8-6.0) later bedtime and less likely sleeping ≥10 hours per night with adjusted odds ratio 0.88 (95% CI 0.77-1.00), after controlling for mothers' demographics. Among young children, screen time and outdoor playtime were associated with sleep duration and pattern. Reducing screen time and increasing outdoor playtime might help improving children's sleep. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Gas temperature measurements in short duration turbomachinery test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattafesta, L. N.; Epstein, A. H.

    1988-07-01

    Thermocouple rakes for use in short-duration turbomachinery test facilities have been developed using very fine thermocouples. Geometry variations were parametrically tested and showed that bare quartz junction supports (76 microns in diameter) yielded superior performance, and were rugged enough to survive considerable impact damage. Using very low cost signal conditioning electronics, temperature accuracies of 0.3 percent were realized yielding turbine efficiency measurements at the 1-percent level. Ongoing work to improve this accuracy is described.

  9. Short- and long-term health consequences of sleep disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medic G

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Goran Medic,1,2 Micheline Wille,1 Michiel EH Hemels1 1Market Access, Horizon Pharma B.V., Utrecht, 2Unit of Pharmacoepidemiology & Pharmacoeconomics, Department of Pharmacy, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands Abstract: Sleep plays a vital role in brain function and systemic physiology across many body systems. Problems with sleep are widely prevalent and include deficits in quantity and quality of sleep; sleep problems that impact the continuity of sleep are collectively referred to as sleep disruptions. Numerous factors contribute to sleep disruption, ranging from lifestyle and environmental factors to sleep disorders and other medical conditions. Sleep disruptions have substantial adverse short- and long-term health consequences. A literature search was conducted to provide a nonsystematic review of these health consequences (this review was designed to be nonsystematic to better focus on the topics of interest due to the myriad parameters affected by sleep. Sleep disruption is associated with increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, metabolic effects, changes in circadian rhythms, and proinflammatory responses. In otherwise healthy adults, short-term consequences of sleep disruption include increased stress responsivity, somatic pain, reduced quality of life, emotional distress and mood disorders, and cognitive, memory, and performance deficits. For adolescents, psychosocial health, school performance, and risk-taking behaviors are impacted by sleep disruption. Behavioral problems and cognitive functioning are associated with sleep disruption in children. Long-term consequences of sleep disruption in otherwise healthy individuals include hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, weight-related issues, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and colorectal cancer. All-cause mortality is also increased in men with sleep disturbances. For those with

  10. The Association Between Insomnia and Sleep Duration in Adults With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Results From a General Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynchank, Dora; ten Have, Margreet; Bijlenga, Denise; Penninx, Brenda W.; Beekman, Aartjan T.; Lamers, Femke; de Graaf, Ron; Kooij, J.J. Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Study Objectives: Insomnia and short or long sleep duration are important comorbid conditions in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but reports of the association vary. In a general population study, we evaluated the relationship between ADHD symptom severity, insomnia symptoms, and sleep duration in adults. Methods: Data were from the third wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2 (NEMESIS-2; n = 4,618). ADHD symptom severity and symptom dimensions (hyperactivity and inattention) were assessed using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale screener. Self-reported insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Rating Scale; IRS) were defined as clinically relevant if IRS ≥ 9. Self-reported short sleep duration was defined as ≤ 6 hours, and long sleep duration as ≥ 10 hours. Results: Within the group with clinically relevant ADHD symptoms, 43% reported significant insomnia symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.74–4.07); 41% short sleep duration (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 1.94, 95% CI 1.31–2.85) and 6% long sleep (RRR = 5.87, 95% CI 1.97–17.45). Increased inattention symptoms were associated with IRS ≥ 9, short and long sleep duration in fully adjusted models (OR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.06–1.14; RRR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.09; RRR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.05–1.28, respectively). Increased hyperactivity symptoms were associated with IRS ≥ 9 (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.11–1.23) and short sleep duration (RRR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.05–1.19). Conclusions: Both clinically significant ADHD symptoms and inattention and hyperactivity symptom dimensions were consistently associated with insomnia symptoms and altered sleep duration. These associations confirm that sleep disturbances should be assessed and given appropriate clinical attention in adults with ADHD. Citation: Wynchank D, ten Have M, Bijlenga D, Penninx BW, Beekman AT, Lamers F, de Graaf R, Kooij JJ. The association between insomnia and sleep duration in adults with

  11. Sleep duration is significantly associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis incidence in a Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tsueko; Aoki, Toshinari; Yata, Syogo; Okada, Masahiko

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have indicated that sleep duration is associated with total mortality in a U-shaped fashion. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and carotid artery atherosclerosis in a Japanese population. In 2009-2010, a total of 2498 participants (1195 men, 1303 women; age range, 23-92 years) were recruited from members of a Japanese community receiving annual health check-up at a local health center who agreed to participate in the study. Exclusion criteria were as follows: age <40 or ≥85 years; and more than one missing value from either laboratory data or questionnaire responses. A total of 2214 participants were entered into the study. Carotid artery arteriosclerosis was evaluated ultrasonographically and quantified as intima-medial thickness (IMT). The presence of carotid artery atherosclerosis was defined as IMT≥1.2 mm. Sleep durations were compared with IMT measurements after controlling for confounding factors such as age, sex, lipid profile, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, alcohol intake, and smoking habit. Sleep duration ≥7 h correlated significantly with the incidence of IMT≥1.2 m when compared with a sleep duration of 6 h (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio, 1.263; 95% confidence interval, 1.031-1.546, P=0.024). Shorter sleep duration ≤5 h did not correlate significantly with the risk compared with a sleep duration of 6 h. Long sleep duration (≥7 h) correlated significantly with the incidence of carotid artery atherosclerosis compared with a sleep duration of 6 h, but shorter sleep duration did not. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sleep in the Cape Mole Rat: A Short-Sleeping Subterranean Rodent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Jean-Leigh; Gravett, Nadine; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Bennett, Nigel C; Archer, Elizabeth K; Manger, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    The Cape mole rat Georychus capensis is a solitary subterranean rodent found in the western and southern Cape of South Africa. This approximately 200-gram bathyergid rodent shows a nocturnal circadian rhythm, but sleep in this species is yet to be investigated. Using telemetric recordings of the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in conjunction with video recordings, we were able to show that the Cape mole rat, like all other rodents, has sleep periods composed of both rapid eye movement (REM) and slow-wave (non-REM) sleep. These mole rats spent on average 15.4 h awake, 7.1 h in non-REM sleep and 1.5 h in REM sleep each day. Cape mole rats sleep substantially less than other similarly sized terrestrial rodents but have a similar percentage of total sleep time occupied by REM sleep. In addition, the duration of both non-REM and REM sleep episodes was markedly shorter in the Cape mole rat than has been observed in terrestrial rodents. Interestingly, these features (total sleep time and episode duration) are similar to those observed in another subterranean bathyergid mole rat, i.e. Fukomys mechowii. Thus, there appears to be a bathyergid type of sleep amongst the rodents that may be related to their environment and the effect of this on their circadian rhythm. Investigating further species of bathyergid mole rats may fully define the emerging picture of sleep in these subterranean African rodents. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Relationship between Mobile Phone Addiction and the Incidence of Poor and Short Sleep among Korean Adolescents: a Longitudinal Study of the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joo Eun; Jang, Sung In; Ju, Yeong Jun; Kim, Woorim; Lee, Hyo Jung; Park, Eun Cheol

    2017-07-01

    Three of ten teenagers in Korea are addicted to mobile phones. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between mobile phone addiction and the incidence of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration in adolescents. We used longitudinal data from the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute in Korea (2011-2013). A total of 1,125 students at baseline were included in this study after excluding those who already had poor sleep quality or short sleep duration in the previous year. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the data. High mobile phone addiction (mobile phone addiction score > 20) increased the risk of poor sleep quality but not short sleep duration. We suggest that consistent monitoring and effective intervention programs are required to prevent mobile phone addiction and improve adolescents' sleep quality. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  14. Relationship between Mobile Phone Addiction and the Incidence of Poor and Short Sleep among Korean Adolescents: a Longitudinal Study of the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Three of ten teenagers in Korea are addicted to mobile phones. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between mobile phone addiction and the incidence of poor sleep quality and short sleep duration in adolescents. We used longitudinal data from the Korean Children & Youth Panel Survey conducted by the National Youth Policy Institute in Korea (2011–2013). A total of 1,125 students at baseline were included in this study after excluding those who already had poor sleep quality or short sleep duration in the previous year. A generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the data. High mobile phone addiction (mobile phone addiction score > 20) increased the risk of poor sleep quality but not short sleep duration. We suggest that consistent monitoring and effective intervention programs are required to prevent mobile phone addiction and improve adolescents' sleep quality. PMID:28581275

  15. Association between Sleep Duration and Intelligence Scores in Healthy Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, Anja; Achermann, Peter; Jenni, Oskar G.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the association between sleep behavior and cognitive functioning in 60 healthy children between 7 and 11 years of age under nonexperimental conditions. Intellectual abilities were assessed by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (4th edition) and sleep variables by questionnaires, actigraphy, and sleep diaries. Correlation…

  16. The Effects of Changing the Phase and Duration of Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taub, John M.; Berger, Ralph J.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the present experiment was to compare the effects on performance and mood of reduced and extended sleep with those following temporal shifts of sleep in a single group of subjects who characteristically sleep 9.5-10.5 hours per night. (Author)

  17. A longitudinal study of sleep duration in pregnancy and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes: findings from a prospective, multiracial cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Shristi; Hinkle, Stefanie N; Zhu, Yeyi; Albert, Paul S; Zhang, Cuilin

    2017-04-01

    Both short and prolonged sleep duration have been linked to impaired glucose metabolism. Sleep patterns change during pregnancy, but prospective data are limited on their relation to gestational diabetes. We sought to prospectively examine the trimester-specific (first and second trimester) association between typical sleep duration in pregnancy and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes, as well as the influence of compensatory daytime napping on this association. In the prospective, multiracial Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Fetal Growth Studies-Singleton Cohort, 2581 pregnant women reported their typical sleep duration and napping frequency in the first and second trimesters. Diagnosis of gestational diabetes (n = 107; 4.1%) was based on medical records review. Adjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for gestational diabetes were estimated with Poisson regression, adjusting for demographics, prepregnancy body mass index, and other risk factors. From the first and second trimester, sleep duration and napping frequency declined. Sleeping duration in the second but not first trimester was significantly related to risk of gestational diabetes. The association between second-trimester sleep and gestational diabetes differed by prepregnancy obesity status (P for interaction = .04). Among nonobese but not obese women, both sleeping >8-9 hours or <8-9 hours were significantly related to risk of gestational diabetes: 5-6 hours (adjusted relative risk, 2.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-4.99); 7 hours (adjusted relative risk, 2.01; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.68); or ≥10 hours (adjusted relative risk, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.67). Significant effect modification by napping frequency was also observed in the second trimester (P for interaction = .03). Significant and positive association between reduced sleep (5-7 hours) and gestational diabetes was observed among women napping rarely

  18. Associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and duration with academic failure in community-dwelling Swedish adolescents : Sleep and academic performance at school

    OpenAIRE

    Titova, Olga E; Hogenkamp, Pleunie S; Jacobsson, Josefin A; Feldman, Inna; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of self-reported sleep disturbance and short sleep duration with the risk for academic failure. METHODS: A cohort of ~40,000 adolescents (age range: 12-19 years) who were attending high school grades 7, 9, and 2nd year of upper secondary school in the Swedish Uppsala County were invited to participate in the Life and Health Young Survey (conducted between 2005 and 2011 in Uppsala County, Sweden). In addition to the question how many subjects they failed duri...

  19. Sleep duration and mortality: a prospective study of 113 138 middle-aged and elderly Chinese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hui; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Yang, Gong; Li, Honglan; Ji, Bu-Tian; Gao, Jing; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2015-04-01

    associated with increased risk of mortality. But longer sleep duration had a higher mortality risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes than short sleep. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. An investigation into the strength of the association and agreement levels between subjective and objective sleep duration in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Arora

    Full Text Available The majority of adolescent sleep research has utilized self-reported sleep duration and some have based information on a solitary question. Whilst some have claimed to have validated sleep survey data with objective actigraphy measures in adolescents, the statistical approach applied only demonstrates the strength of the association between subjective and objective sleep duration data and does not reflect if these different methods actually agree.Data were collected as part of the Midlands Adolescents Schools Sleep Education Study (MASSES. Adolescents (n=225 aged 11-13 years provided estimates for weekday, weekend and combined sleep duration based on self-reported survey data, a 7-day sleep diary, and wrist-worn actigraphy.We assessed the strength of the relationship as well as agreement levels between subjective and objectively determined sleep duration (weekday, weekend and combined. Subjective diary sleep duration was significantly correlated with actigraphy estimates for weekday and weekend sleep duration r=0.30, p ≤ 0.001 and r=0.31, p ≤ 0.001 respectively. Pitman's test demonstrated no significant difference in the variance between weekend sleep duration (r=0.09, p=0.16 and combined sleep duration (r=0.12, p=0.08 indicating acceptable agreement between actigraphy and sleep diary sleep duration only. Self-reported sleep duration estimates (weekday, weekend and combined did not agree with actigraphy determined sleep duration.Sleep diaries are a cost-effective alternative to survey/questionnaire data. Self-reported measures of sleep duration in adolescents do not agree with actigraphy measures and should be avoided where possible. Previous adolescent sleep studies that have utilized self-reported survey data may not provide a complete representation of sleep on the outcome measure of interest.

  1. The Relationship between Alcohol Drinking Patterns and Sleep Duration among Black and White Men and Women in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra L. Jackson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, racial minorities generally experience poorer cardiovascular health compared to whites, and differences in alcohol consumption and sleep could contribute to these disparities. With a nationally representative sample of 187,950 adults in the National Health Interview Survey from 2004 to 2015, we examined the relationship between alcohol-drinking patterns and sleep duration/quality by race and sex. Using Poisson regression models with robust variance, we estimated sex-specific prevalence ratios for each sleep duration/quality category among blacks compared to whites within categories of alcohol-drinking pattern, adjusting for socioeconomic status and other potential confounders. Across alcohol drinking patterns, blacks were less likely than whites to report recommended sleep of 7–<9 h/day. Short (PR = 1.30 [95% CI: 1.22–1.39] and long (PR = 1.30 [95% CI: 1.07–1.58] sleep were 30% more prevalent among black-male infrequent heavy drinkers compared to white-male infrequent heavy drinkers. Short (PR = 1.27 [95% CI: 1.21–1.34] sleep was more prevalent among black-female infrequent heavy drinkers compared to white-female infrequent heavy drinkers, but there was no difference for long sleep (PR = 1.09 [95% CI: 0.97–1.23]. Black female infrequent moderate drinkers, however, had a 16% higher (PR = 1.16 [95% CI: 1.01–1.33] prevalence of long sleep compared to their white counterparts. Environmental, social, and biological factors contributing to these findings, along with their impact on disparate health outcomes, should be studied in greater detail.

  2. Sleep Duration and the Cortisol Awakening Response in Dementia Caregivers Utilizing Adult Day Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, Amanda N.; Liu, Yin; Klein, Laura Cousino; Zarit, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Sleep complaints are common among caregivers and are associated with detriments in mental and physical health. Cortisol, a biomarker of the stress process, may link sleep with subsequent health changes in caregivers. The current study examines whether sleep duration is directly associated with the cortisol awakening response (CAR), or if it is moderated by Adult Day Services (ADS) use, an intervention found previously to influence daily CAR by reducing stressor exposure. Methods Associations were examined in caregivers (N=158) of individuals with dementia (IWD) on days when IWDs attended ADS and days when IWDs did not attend ADS. Data were gathered over 8 consecutive days. Caregivers were primarily female (87.3%) with a mean age of 61.59. A multi-level growth curve model tested the association of an interaction of today's ADS use and last night's sleep duration with today's CAR as the outcome. Results The interaction between ADS use and within-person sleep duration was significant such that when an individual sleeps longer than their average but does not use ADS, they have a smaller or blunted CAR. On the other hand when an individual sleeps longer than their average and uses ADS, they have a higher but nonsignificant CAR. Sleeping shorter than usual was associated with a dynamic rise regardless of ADS use. Conclusions Findings indicate that ADS use moderates the association between sleep duration and CAR such that longer than average sleep is associated with blunted, dysregulated cortisol patterns only on non-ADS days. PMID:26348500

  3. Association of Sleep Duration with Obesity among US High School Students

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    Richard Lowry

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing attention is being focused on sleep duration as a potential modifiable risk factor associated with obesity in children and adolescents. We analyzed data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Survey to describe the association of obesity (self-report BMI ≥95th percentile with self-reported sleep duration on an average school night, among a representative sample of US high school students. Using logistic regression to control for demographic and behavioral confounders, among female students, compared to 7 hours of sleep, both shortened (≤4 hours of sleep; adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval, AOR = 1.50 (1.05–2.15 and prolonged (≥9 hours of sleep; AOR = 1.54 (1.13–2.10 sleep durations were associated with increased likelihood of obesity. Among male students, there was no significant association between obesity and sleep duration. Better understanding of factors underlying the association between sleep duration and obesity is needed before recommending alteration of sleep time as a means of addressing the obesity epidemic among adolescents.

  4. Short-Term Effects of Electroconvulsive Therapy on Subjective and Actigraphy-Assessed Sleep Parameters in Severely Depressed Inpatients

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    Alexander Hoogerhoud

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sleep disturbances are a key feature of major depression. Electroconvulsive treatment (ECT may improve polysomnography-assessed sleep characteristics, but its short-term effects on actigraphy-assessed and subjective sleep characteristics are unknown. We therefore aimed to assess the effects of ECT on subjective and objective sleep parameters in a proof-of-principle study. Methods. We assessed subjective and objective sleep parameters in 12 severely depressed patients up to 5 consecutive days during their ECT course, corresponding to a total of 43 nights (including 19 ECT sessions. The 12 patients were 83% female and on average 62 (standard deviation (SD 14 years old and had an average MADRS score of 40 at baseline (SD 21. Results. Subjective and objective sleep parameters were not directly affected by ECT. The subjective sleep efficiency parameter was similar on the day after ECT and other days. ECT did not affect the number of errors in the Sustained Attention to Response Task. Patients subjectively underestimated their total sleep time by 1.4 hours (P<0.001 compared to actigraphy-assessed sleep duration. Conclusion. ECT did not affect subjective and actigraphy-assessed sleep in the short term. Depressed patients profoundly underestimated their sleep duration.

  5. Sleep duration of an individual has adverse influence on auditory episodic memory.

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    Nepal, Desh Bandhu; Kumar, Tushant; Mandal, Maloy B; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the influence of habitual sleep duration on episodic memory in a wakeful state. Episodic memory was assessed for auditory and visual processing pathways. A total of 96 medical students (53 male and 43 female, between the age group 18-23 years) accustomed to different sleep durations volunteered in the tests. The tests included auditory free recall of 10 common words, pictorial free recall of 10 pictures and recognition of 10 miniature animal replicas with 10 distracters. There was no gender-related difference in the visual and the auditory memory scores. The visual episodic memory scores were similar in persons sleeping longer or shorter duration. On the other hand auditory memory scores were significantly lower in persons accustomed to >10 h sleep. The results indicate the importance of sleep duration on episodic memory processing of learned material even during wakeful state specially which involves auditory system.

  6. A Novel, Open Access Method to Assess Sleep Duration Using a Wrist-Worn Accelerometer.

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    Vincent T van Hees

    Full Text Available Wrist-worn accelerometers are increasingly being used for the assessment of physical activity in population studies, but little is known about their value for sleep assessment. We developed a novel method of assessing sleep duration using data from 4,094 Whitehall II Study (United Kingdom, 2012-2013 participants aged 60-83 who wore the accelerometer for 9 consecutive days, filled in a sleep log and reported sleep duration via questionnaire. Our sleep detection algorithm defined (nocturnal sleep as a period of sustained inactivity, itself detected as the absence of change in arm angle greater than 5 degrees for 5 minutes or more, during a period recorded as sleep by the participant in their sleep log. The resulting estimate of sleep duration had a moderate (but similar to previous findings agreement with questionnaire based measures for time in bed, defined as the difference between sleep onset and waking time (kappa = 0.32, 95%CI:0.29,0.34 and total sleep duration (kappa = 0.39, 0.36,0.42. This estimate was lower for time in bed for women, depressed participants, those reporting more insomnia symptoms, and on weekend days. No such group differences were found for total sleep duration. Our algorithm was validated against data from a polysomnography study on 28 persons which found a longer time window and lower angle threshold to have better sensitivity to wakefulness, while the reverse was true for sensitivity to sleep. The novelty of our method is the use of a generic algorithm that will allow comparison between studies rather than a "count" based, device specific method.

  7. Caffeine consumption, insomnia, and sleep duration: Results from a nationally representative sample.

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    Chaudhary, Ninad S; Grandner, Michael A; Jackson, Nicholas J; Chakravorty, Subhajit

    2016-01-01

    Insomnia symptoms have been individually associated with both caffeine consumption and sleep duration abnormalities in prior studies. The goal of this study was to determine whether caffeine consumption was associated with insomnia symptoms from a population perspective and whether this relationship depended on habitual sleep duration. Data were extracted from the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (N = 4730). Caffeine consumption was quantified as mg/d from 2 typical days of use, 7 to 10 d apart. Insomnia symptoms were evaluated using frequencies of difficulty falling asleep (DFA), difficulty staying asleep (DSA), non-restorative sleep (NRS), and daytime sleepiness (DS). Habitual sleep duration was assessed as the hours of sleep obtained on a typical night. Binomial logistic regression analysis evaluated the relationships of individual insomnia and sleepiness symptoms (DFA, DSA, NRS, and DS) with caffeine consumption and sleep duration variables, after adjusting for covariates. The mean ± SD caffeine consumption was 176.6 ± 201 mg/d. Mean habitual sleep duration was 6.8 ± 1.4 h. Insomnia symptoms were prevalent in 19.1% to 28.4% of the respondents. Although caffeine consumption was associated with all insomnia symptoms in the unadjusted models, the adjusted models demonstrated a trend toward significance with DSA. Sleep duration was inversely associated with the insomnia symptoms in unadjusted and adjusted analysis. Finally, NRS was associated with an interaction between increased caffeine consumption and sleep duration. The association between caffeine use and insomnia symptoms depends on habitual sleep duration at a population level. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Joint associations of insomnia and sleep duration with prevalent diabetes: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

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    Cespedes, Elizabeth M; Dudley, Katherine A; Sotres-Alvarez, Daniela; Zee, Phyllis C; Daviglus, Martha L; Shah, Neomi A; Talavera, Gregory A; Gallo, Linda C; Mattei, Josiemer; Qi, Qibin; Ramos, Alberto R; Schneiderman, Neil; Espinoza-Giacinto, Rebeca A; Patel, Sanjay R

    2016-05-01

    Inadequate sleep quantity and quality are associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes. This relationship is not well-examined in U.S. Hispanics/Latinos, and prior analyses may be confounded by sleep apnea. This cross-sectional study examined joint associations of sleep duration and insomnia with diabetes among diverse U.S. Hispanic/Latinos. Baseline data on sleep quantity and quality were obtained from 15,227 participants (mean age 41; range 18-74 years) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos. Complex survey multinomial logistic regression was used to examine associations between prevalent diabetes and six phenotypes defined by cross-classifying sleep duration (short ≤6 h, average >6-9 h, long >9 h) and insomnia, adjusting for sex, age, site and Hispanic/Latino background interaction, education, physical activity, diet quality, and sleep apnea. In the weighted population, 14% had diabetes, 28% had insomnia, 9% were short sleepers, and 19% were long sleepers. Compared with those with average sleep and no insomnia, those with short sleep and insomnia were more likely to have diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.46; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.02, 2.11). Average sleepers with insomnia (1.28; 95% CI 1.02, 1.61) and long sleepers without insomnia (1.33; 95% CI 1.07, 1.65) also had elevated odds of diabetes. Further adjustment for body mass index attenuated associations, except with long sleep without insomnia. Both decreased quantity and quality of sleep are associated with diabetes in Hispanic/Latinos, with the greatest odds among those with short sleep duration and insomnia. The association is largely explained by obesity. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Self-reported sleep duration, all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in Finland.

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    Kronholm, Erkki; Laatikainen, Tiina; Peltonen, Markku; Sippola, Risto; Partonen, Timo

    2011-03-01

    The U-shaped association of self-reported sleep duration with all-cause mortality is generally accepted. Findings on cardiovascular (CVD) mortality and morbidity are inconsistent. We aimed to further clarify the associations of the self-reported sleep duration with CVD mortality and morbidity. In two population based surveys in 1972 and 1977 the levels of coronary risk factors in Finland and habitual sleep duration were measured; 25,025 individuals were followed-up until 2006 by the national register data. The outcome variables were death (for any reason), CVD death, and non-fatal CVD event (non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke). Participants with former non-fatal CVD event at baseline were excluded from CVD analyses, and socio-demographic and health-related confounders were considered in the final Cox proportional hazard models for both genders. The U-shaped association of total mortality with self-reported sleep duration was confirmed in both genders. The association of CVD mortality with self-reported sleep duration was independent of pertinent cardiovascular risk factors in women. The highest CVD mortality risk was found in both extreme ends of sleep duration distribution (⩽5 and ⩾10h sleepers). Sleep duration is an independent risk factor for CVD mortality and morbidity in women but not in men. The highest CVD mortality risk is associated with the extreme ends of sleep duration distribution. Thus, in epidemiological studies, combining adjacent (6 and 9h) sleep duration groups with the extreme groups may partly mask the mortality risks, especially in the long run. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between sleep duration and clustering of metabolic syndrome diagnostic components

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    Katano S

    2011-04-01

    the Poisson distribution. Poisson regression analysis revealed that independent factors that contributed to the number of MetS diagnostic components were being male (regression coefficient b = 0.752, P < 0.001, age (b = 0.026, P < 0.001, IPAQ classification (b = -0.238, P = 0.034, and alcohol intake (mL/day (b = 0.018, P < 0.001. Short sleep duration (<6 hours was also related to the number of MetS (b = 0.162, P < 0.001. The results of analyses with obesity component showed a similar association.Conclusion: Short sleep duration was positively associated with the number of MetS diagnostic components independent of other lifestyle habits.Keyword: short sleep duration, MetS diagnostic components, obesity

  11. Hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children: a multicenter birth cohort study.

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    Marinelli, Marcella; Sunyer, Jordi; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Iñiguez, Carmen; Torrent, Maties; Vioque, Jesús; Turner, Michelle C; Julvez, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    This study used longitudinal data to examine potential associations between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in children. To examine the association between hours of television viewing and sleep duration in preschool and school-aged children. Longitudinal, multicenter study among birth cohorts in Menorca, Sabadell, and Valencia from the Spanish Infancia y Medio Ambiente (environment and childhood) project. The study sample included 1713 children (468 from Menorca, 560 from Sabadell, and 685 from Valencia). Parent-reported child television viewing duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. Parent-reported child sleep duration measured in hours per day at 2 and 4 years of age in Sabadell and Valencia and at 6 and 9 years of age in Menorca. In cross-sectional analysis, children with longer periods of television viewing reported at baseline (≥ 1.5 hours per day) had shorter sleep duration. Longitudinally, children with reported increases in television viewing duration over time (from television viewing duration as a continuous variable, with each 1 hour per day of increased viewing decreasing sleep duration at follow-up visits (β = -0.11; 95% CI, -0.18 to -0.05). Associations were similar when television viewing duration was assessed during weekends and after adjusting for potential intermediate factors (child executive function and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms) and confounders (child physical activity level, parental mental health status, maternal IQ, and maternal marital status). Children spending longer periods watching television had shorter sleep duration. Changes in television viewing duration were inversely associated with changes in sleep duration in longitudinal analysis. Parents should consider avoiding long periods of daily television exposure among preschool and school-aged children.

  12. Sleep efficiency (but not sleep duration) of healthy school-age children is associated with grades in math and languages.

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    Gruber, Reut; Somerville, Gail; Enros, Paul; Paquin, Soukaina; Kestler, Myra; Gillies-Poitras, Elizabeth

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between objective measures of sleep duration and sleep efficiency with the grades obtained by healthy typically developing children in math, language, science, and art while controlling for the potential confounding effects of socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. We studied healthy typically developing children between 7 and 11 years of age. Sleep was assessed for five week nights using actigraphy, and parents provided their child's most recent report card. Higher sleep efficiency (but not sleep duration) was associated with better grades in math, English language, and French as a second language, above and beyond the contributions of age, gender, and SES. Sleep efficiency, but not sleep duration, is associated with academic performance as measured by report-card grades in typically developing school-aged children. The integration of strategies to improve sleep efficiency might represent a successful approach for improving children's readiness and/or performance in math and languages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Association between Sleep Duration, Insomnia Symptoms and Bone Mineral Density in Older Boston Puerto Rican Adults.

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    Jinya Niu

    Full Text Available To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD among older Boston Puerto Rican adults.We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47-79 y living in Massachusetts. BMD at 3 hip sites and the lumbar spine were measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sleep duration (≤5 h, 6 h, 7 h, 8 h, or ≥9 h/d and insomnia symptoms (difficulty initiating sleep, difficulty maintaining sleep, early-morning awaking, and non-restorative sleep were assessed by a questionnaire. Multivariable regression was used to examine sex-specific associations between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and BMD adjusting for standard confounders and covariates.Men who slept ≥9h/d had significantly lower femoral neck BMD, relative to those reporting 8 h/d sleep, after adjusting for age, education level, smoking, physical activity, depressive symptomatology, comorbidity and serum vitamin D concentration. This association was attenuated and lost significance after further adjustment for urinary cortisol and serum inflammation biomarkers. In contrast, the association between sleep duration and BMD was not significant in women. Further, we did not find any significant associations between insomnia symptoms and BMD in men or women.Our study does not support the hypothesis that shorter sleep duration and insomnia symptoms are associated with lower BMD levels in older adults. However, our results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies with larger sample size, objective assessment of sleep pattern, and prospective design are needed before a conclusion regarding sleep and BMD can be reached.

  14. Sleep Duration and Overweight/Obesity in Preschool-Aged Children: A Prospective Study of up to 48,922 Children of the Jiaxing Birth Cohort.

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    Wang, Fenglei; Liu, Huijuan; Wan, Yi; Li, Jing; Chen, Yu; Zheng, Jusheng; Huang, Tao; Li, Duo

    2016-11-01

    To examine the association between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children. A total of 48,922 3-year old children enrolled in the Jiaxing Birth Cohort, who provided sleep information and anthropometric data, were included in the present study as baseline and were followed up to 5 years of age. Sleep duration was categorized as ≤ 10 hours, 11-12 hours, and ≥ 13 hours. Overweight and obesity were defined according to the cut point criteria in China. Prevalence ratios and risk ratios were used to assess the association between sleep duration and risk of overweight/obesity. In cross-sectional analyses at baseline, the adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) of overweight (with 11-12 h of sleep being considered the reference group) for children sleeping ≤ 10 h and ≥ 13 h were 1.13 (1.06-1.20) and 1.16 (1.09-1.24), respectively, whereas the adjusted prevalence ratios (95% confidence interval) of obesity were 1.25 (1.11-1.40) and 1.25 (1.11-1.42). In longitudinal analyses, the adjusted risk ratios (95% confidence interval) of overweight for children sleeping ≤ 10 h and ≥ 13 h were 1.48 (1.26-1.74) and 1.13 (0.96-1.34), while adjusted risk ratios (95% confidence interval) of obesity were 1.77 (1.30-2.40) and 1.19 (0.85-1.66). Restricted cubic splines regression supported U-shaped curvilinear associations between sleep duration and overweight/obesity in both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Both short and overlong sleep duration are associated with a higher risk of overweight/obesity in preschool-aged children. Optimizing sleep duration may be an important modifiable intervention for overweight and obesity. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Sleep duration and the risk of obesity – a cross-sectional study

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    Edyta Suliga

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: So far, the association between a longer sleep duration, state of health, and the risk of obesity and the influence of gender on the association between sleep duration and the risk of obesity has not been fully explained. Aim of the research: To examine the relationships between self-reported sleep duration, body mass index (BMI, and body fat percentage (%BF, and also to determine whether such associations are the same in men and in women. Material and methods : This study included 10,367 participants aged 37 to 66 years. Logistic regression was applied for risk assessment of the prevalence of abnormal BMI values and %BF in groups of sleep duration. Sleep of 7–8 h per night was adopted as a reference level. Results: In men, the risk of obesity was significantly greater only in the group sleeping ≤ 6 h (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08–1.28; p < 0.05; however, in women, only among those sleeping ≥ 9 h (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02–1.26; p < 0.05. The risk of obesity, determined on the basis of %BF, was higher only in individuals sleeping ≥ 9 h. In the adjusted model, it turned out to be significant in the general study population (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.07–1.53; p < 0.05 and in women (OR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03–1.27; p < 0.05. Conclusions: In women, a greater risk of obesity was related to a longer sleep duration (≥ 9 h, whereas in men, the tendency of obesity occurrence along with shorter sleep (≤ 6 h. Thus, the physiological consequences of sleep duration may be different in women than in men.

  16. Mood Influences the Concordance of Subjective and Objective Measures of Sleep Duration in Older Adults.

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    Baillet, Marion; Cosin, Charlotte; Schweitzer, Pierre; Pérès, Karine; Catheline, Gwenaëlle; Swendsen, Joel; Mayo, Willy

    2016-01-01

    Sleep plays a central role in maintaining health and cognition. In most epidemiologic studies, sleep is evaluated by self-report questionnaires but several reports suggest that these evaluations might be less accurate than objective measures such as polysomnography or actigraphy. Determinants of the discrepancy between objective and subjective measures remain to be investigated. The aim of this pilot-study was to examine the role of mood states in determining the discrepancy observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration in older adults. Objective sleep quantity and quality were recorded by actigraphy in a sample of 45 elderly subjects over at least three consecutive nights. Subjective sleep duration and supplementary data, such as mood status and memory, were evaluated using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). A significant discrepancy was observed between EMA and actigraphic measures of sleep duration (p sleep quality or memory performance. The discrepancy classically observed between objective and subjective measures of sleep duration can be explained by mood status at the time of awakening. These results have potential implications for epidemiologic and clinical studies examining sleep as a risk factor for morbidity or mortality.

  17. Telomere length is associated with sleep duration but not sleep quality in adults with human immunodeficiency virus.

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    Lee, Kathryn A; Gay, Caryl; Humphreys, Janice; Portillo, Carmen J; Pullinger, Clive R; Aouizerat, Bradley E

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length provides an estimate of cellular aging and is influenced by oxidative stress and health behaviors such as diet and exercise. This article describes relationships between telomere length and sleep parameters that included total sleep time (TST), wake after sleep onset (WASO), and self-reported sleep quality in a sample of adults with chronic illness. Cross-sectional study of 283 adults (74% male, 42% Caucasian) infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) while living in the San Francisco Bay area, CA, USA. Ages ranged from 22-77 y. TST and WASO were estimated with wrist actigraphy across 72 h; self-reported sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Relative telomere length (RTL) in leukocytes was estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays. Shorter RTL was associated with older age, and RTL was shorter in males than females. RTL was unrelated to HIV disease characteristics. RTL was not associated with WASO or self-reported sleep quality. Participants with at least 7 h sleep had longer RTL than those with less than 7 h, even after controlling for the effects of age, sex, race, education, body mass index, metabolic hormones (i.e., leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, and resistin), depression and anxiety, and sleep quality. Results suggest that sleep duration is associated with preserving telomere length in a population of human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Getting at least 7 hours of sleep at night may either protect telomeres from damage or restore them on a nightly basis.

  18. Are late-night eating habits and sleep duration associated with glycemic control in adult type 1 diabetes patients treated with insulin pumps?

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    Matejko, Bartlomiej; Kiec-Wilk, Beata; Szopa, Magdalena; Trznadel Morawska, Iwona; Malecki, Maciej T; Klupa, Tomasz

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about the impact of sleep duration and late-night snacking on glycemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes using insulin pumps. The aim of the present study was to examine whether late-night eating habits and short sleep duration are associated with glycemic control in continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion-treated type 1 diabetic patients. We included 148 consecutive adult type 1 diabetic subjects using an insulin pump (100 women and 48 men). Participants completed a questionnaire regarding sleep duration (classified as short if ≤6 h) and late-night snacking. Other sources of information included medical records and data from blood glucose meters. Glycemic control was assessed by glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels and mean self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) readings. The mean age of patients was 26 years, mean type 1 diabetes duration was 13.4 years and mean HbA1c level was 7.2%. In a univariate regression analysis, sleep duration was a predictor of both HbA1c (β = 0.51, P = 0.01) and SMBG levels (β = 11.4, P = 0.02). Additionally, an association was found between frequent late-night snacking and higher SMBG readings (often snacking β = 18.1, P = 0.05), but not with increased HbA1c levels. In the multivariate linear regression, independent predictors for HbA1c and SMBG were sleep duration and patient age. In a univariate logistic regression, sleep duration and frequency of late-night snacking were not predictors of whether HbA1c target levels were achieved. Short sleep duration, but not late-night snacking, seems to be associated with poorer glycemic control in type 1 diabetic patients treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.

  19. The association of self-reported sleep duration, difficulty sleeping, and snoring with cognitive function in older women.

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    Tworoger, Shelley S; Lee, Sunmin; Schernhammer, Eva S; Grodstein, Francine

    2006-01-01

    We examined the association of sleep duration, snoring, and difficulty sleeping with cognitive function in a cohort of community-dwelling women. Women (n = 1844), aged 70 to 81 years at initial cognitive interview in 2000, are members of the Nurses' Health Study cohort. Women completed six tests of cognitive function encompassing general cognition, verbal memory, category fluency, and attention. We repeated the assessment 2 years later. We used linear regression models to obtain multivariate-adjusted mean differences in initial test performance, and in cognitive decline over time, across categories of sleep duration (sleep difficulties (rarely/never, occasionally, regularly). In analyses of initial test performance, women sleeping sleeping 7 hours/night (mean difference on global score combining all cognitive tests = 0.15 standard units, 95% CI: -0.28, -0.02). Women who regularly had difficulty falling or staying asleep scored 0.11 units lower on the global score (95% CI: -0.22, 0.01) compared with those who rarely had difficulty sleeping. These differences were equivalent to the mean differences in score observed between participants who were 4 to 5 years apart in age. We found no associations with snoring or with any of the sleep variables and cognitive decline over 2 years. Associations between sleep patterns and initial cognitive function may be clinically relevant given that diminished cognition is a risk factor for dementia. However, the lack of an association with prospective cognitive decline warrants further investigation.

  20. Subclinical Hearing Loss, Longer Sleep Duration, and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Japanese General Population

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    Kei Nakajima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss leads to impaired social functioning and quality of life. Hearing loss is also associated with sleeping disorders and cardiometabolic risk factors. Here, we determined whether subclinical hearing loss is associated with sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors in a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of healthy Japanese general population. 48,091 men and women aged 20–79 years who underwent medical checkups were included in a cross-sectional study, and 6,674 were included in an 8-year longitudinal study. The prevalence of audiometrically determined hearing loss (>25 dB at 4000 and 1000 Hz increased significantly with increasing sleep duration in any age strata. Logistic regression analysis showed that compared with reference sleep duration (6 h longer sleep duration (≥8 h was significantly associated with hearing loss, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Simultaneously, hearing loss was significantly associated with male sex, diabetes, and no habitual exercise. In the longitudinal study, the risk of longer sleep duration (≥8 h after 8 years was significantly greater in subjects with hearing loss at 4000 Hz at baseline. In conclusion, current results suggest a potential association of subclinical hearing loss with longer sleep duration and cardiometabolic risk factors in a Japanese general population.

  1. The Relationship Between Sleep Duration and Glycemic Control Among Hispanic Adults With Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes.

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    Full, Kelsie M; Schmied, Emily A; Parada, Humberto; Cherrington, Andrea; Horton, Lucy A; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2017-10-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and glycemic control in adult Hispanic patients with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes. Methods This cross-sectional study used baseline data from 317 Hispanic adults with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes who participated in a randomized controlled trial testing a peer support intervention to improve diabetes control. To be eligible, participants had to be 18 years or older and have A1C >7% in the 3 months prior to randomization. Glycemic control was assessed by A1C ascertained through medical chart review; higher A1C levels reflected poorer glycemic control. Sleep duration (hours/night), diabetes control behaviors, and demographics were obtained by interviewer-administered questionnaire. We used multivariable generalized linear models to estimate the association between sleep duration and glycemic control. Results Forty-three percent of participants reported sleeping fewer than 7 hours per night. Sleep duration (hours/night) was inversely associated with A1C levels; however, the relationship was no longer statistically significant after adjusting for insulin status. Conclusions Sleep duration was not significantly associated with glycemic control in this sample of Hispanic adults with uncontrolled type 2 diabetes when adjusting for insulin. Future research should continue to explore this relationship among Hispanic adults with diabetes using an objective measure of sleep duration and a larger sample of Hispanic adults with both controlled and uncontrolled type 2 diabetes to determine if these results hold true.

  2. The association between sleep duration and physical performance in Chinese community-dwelling elderly.

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    Fu, Liyuan; Jia, Liye; Zhang, Wen; Han, Peipei; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Hairui; Zhai, Tianqi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Guo, Qi

    2017-01-01

    Physical performance is an important healthy factor in elder people. Good living habits, which include sleep, can maintain physical strength and physical performance. The aim of the present study was to conduct a cross-sectional study to determine the association between total sleep duration and physical performance. Our study population comprised residents of the township central hospital in the suburban of Tianjin, China. We measured muscle strength, walk speed and balance function by grip, 4-m walk test and timed up and go test (TUGT). We divided sleep duration into four groups 8-9h, >9h. A total 898 participants had completed data (392 men and 506 women, mean age 67.71 years). In man, adjusted sleep duration was associated with lower grip in > 9 h group, the mean value (95% CI) was 0.429 (0.409, 0.448), and longer TUGT time was also associated with long sleep duration, 10.46s (9.97 s, 10.95 s). In women, adjusted slower 4-m walk speed present an inverse U-shaped relation with sleep duration, by 0.93 m/s (0.86 m/s, 0.98 m/s), 0.97 m/s (0.96 m/s, 1.00 m/s), 0.97 m/s (0.95 m/s, 0.99 m/s) and 0.92 m/s (0.89 m/s, 0.96 m/s); longer TUGT time were associated with long sleep duration (> 9 h), by 11.23 s (10.70 s, 11.77 s). In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, lower muscle strength and lower balance function were associated with long sleep duration in men. Slower walk speed and lower balance function were associated with long sleep duration in women.

  3. The association between sleep duration and physical performance in Chinese community-dwelling elderly

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    Fu, Liyuan; Jia, Liye; Zhang, Wen; Han, Peipei; Kang, Li; Ma, Yixuan; Yu, Hairui; Zhai, Tianqi; Chen, Xiaoyu

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical performance is an important healthy factor in elder people. Good living habits, which include sleep, can maintain physical strength and physical performance. The aim of the present study was to conduct a cross-sectional study to determine the association between total sleep duration and physical performance. Methods Our study population comprised residents of the township central hospital in the suburban of Tianjin, China. We measured muscle strength, walk speed and balance function by grip, 4-m walk test and timed up and go test (TUGT). We divided sleep duration into four groups 8-9h, >9h. Results A total 898 participants had completed data (392 men and 506 women, mean age 67.71 years). In man, adjusted sleep duration was associated with lower grip in > 9 h group, the mean value (95% CI) was 0.429 (0.409, 0.448), and longer TUGT time was also associated with long sleep duration, 10.46s (9.97 s, 10.95 s). In women, adjusted slower 4-m walk speed present an inverse U-shaped relation with sleep duration, by 0.93 m/s (0.86 m/s, 0.98 m/s), 0.97 m/s (0.96 m/s, 1.00 m/s), 0.97 m/s (0.95 m/s, 0.99 m/s) and 0.92 m/s (0.89 m/s, 0.96 m/s); longer TUGT time were associated with long sleep duration (> 9 h), by 11.23 s (10.70 s, 11.77 s). Conclusion In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, lower muscle strength and lower balance function were associated with long sleep duration in men. Slower walk speed and lower balance function were associated with long sleep duration in women. PMID:28358845

  4. Sleep duration and blood pressure: a longitudinal analysis from early to late adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciência, Inês; Araújo, Joana; Ramos, Elisabete

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between sleep duration and blood pressure using a cross-sectional and longitudinal approach. As part of a population-based cohort, 1403 adolescents were evaluated at 13 and 17 years old. Sleep duration was estimated by the difference between self-reported usual bedtime and wake-up time. Blood pressure was measured using the auscultatory method. Regression coefficients (β) and respective 95% confidence intervals were computed to evaluate the association between sleep duration and blood pressure, using linear regression models adjusted for practice of sports and body mass index at 17 years old. The mean (standard deviation) sleep duration at 13 years old was 9.0 (0.76) h per day, and on average it decreased by 46 min up to 17 years old. The median (25th-75th) systolic blood pressure at 17 years old was 110.0 (103.5-119.0) mmHg in females and 114.0 (106.0-122.0)mmHg in males (P sleep duration and blood pressure, significant only for systolic blood pressure among females [β = 0.730 (0.005; 1.455)]. In girls, no significant association was found between sleep duration at 13 years old and blood pressure at 17 years old, but in males an inverse association was found between sleep duration at 13 years old and blood pressure at 17 years old significant only for systolic blood pressure [β = -1.938 (-3.229; -0.647)]. This study found no association between sleep duration at 13 years old and blood pressure at 17 years old in girls, but among males an inverse association was found. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  5. The association between sleep duration and physical performance in Chinese community-dwelling elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Fu

    Full Text Available Physical performance is an important healthy factor in elder people. Good living habits, which include sleep, can maintain physical strength and physical performance. The aim of the present study was to conduct a cross-sectional study to determine the association between total sleep duration and physical performance.Our study population comprised residents of the township central hospital in the suburban of Tianjin, China. We measured muscle strength, walk speed and balance function by grip, 4-m walk test and timed up and go test (TUGT. We divided sleep duration into four groups 8-9h, >9h.A total 898 participants had completed data (392 men and 506 women, mean age 67.71 years. In man, adjusted sleep duration was associated with lower grip in > 9 h group, the mean value (95% CI was 0.429 (0.409, 0.448, and longer TUGT time was also associated with long sleep duration, 10.46s (9.97 s, 10.95 s. In women, adjusted slower 4-m walk speed present an inverse U-shaped relation with sleep duration, by 0.93 m/s (0.86 m/s, 0.98 m/s, 0.97 m/s (0.96 m/s, 1.00 m/s, 0.97 m/s (0.95 m/s, 0.99 m/s and 0.92 m/s (0.89 m/s, 0.96 m/s; longer TUGT time were associated with long sleep duration (> 9 h, by 11.23 s (10.70 s, 11.77 s.In Chinese community-dwelling elderly, lower muscle strength and lower balance function were associated with long sleep duration in men. Slower walk speed and lower balance function were associated with long sleep duration in women.

  6. A review of short naps and sleep inertia: do naps of 30 min or less really avoid sleep inertia and slow-wave sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-04-01

    Napping is a widely used countermeasure to sleepiness and impaired performance caused by sleep loss and circadian pressure. Sleep inertia, the period of grogginess and impaired performance experienced after waking, is a potential side effect of napping. Many industry publications recommend naps of 30 min or less to avoid this side effect. However, the evidence to support this advice is yet to be thoroughly reviewed. Electronic databases were searched, and defined criteria were applied to select articles for review. The review covers literature on naps of 30 min or less regarding (a) sleep inertia, (b) slow-wave sleep (SWS) and (c) the relationship between sleep inertia and SWS. The review found that although the literature on short afternoon naps is relatively comprehensive, there are very few studies on naps of 30 min or less at night. Studies have mixed results regarding the onset of SWS and the duration and severity of sleep inertia following short naps, making guidelines regarding their use unclear. The varying results are likely due to differing sleep/wake profiles before the nap of interest and the time of the day at waking. The review highlights the need to have more detailed guidelines about the implementation of short naps according to the time of the day and prior sleep/wake history. Without this context, such a recommendation is potentially misleading. Further research is required to better understand the interactions between these factors, especially at night, and to provide more specific recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Association between sleep duration and osteoporosis risk in middle-aged and elderly women: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Sajjad; Shab-Bidar, Sakineh; Alizadeh, Shahab; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2017-04-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested an association between sleep duration and osteoporosis risk, although the results of previous studies have been inconsistent. To our knowledge, this is the first meta-analysis of the literature and quantitative estimates of the association between sleep duration and risk of osteoporosis in population-based studies of middle aged and elderly women. Pertinent studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE databases up to February 2016. Five out of six included studies were cross-sectional and one was a prospective cohort study. They included 72,326 participants from three different countries. We extracted 31,625 individuals in these studies for our meta-analysis. A pooled odds ratio analysis in women between 40 to 86years indicated that there is an inverse relationship between sleep duration and osteoporosis (overall OR =1.07 95% CI: 1.00-1.15). The negative association of long sleep duration (8h or more per day) with osteoporosis risk was observed in middle aged and elderly women (OR =1.22, 95% CI: 1.06-1.38) but not in women with short sleep duration (7h or less per day) (OR =0.98, 95% CI: 0.90-1.05). This meta-analysis suggests that long sleep duration (8h or more per day) may be associated with a higher risk of osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly. Further prospective cohort studies with longer follow-up periods, valid instruments for measurement of sleep duration and dynamic sleep quality are warranted to support the possible relationship between sleep duration and osteoporosis risk in women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Successful physical exercise-induced weight loss is modulated by habitual sleep duration in the elderly: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerke, Monique; Sobieray, Uwe; Becke, Andreas; Düzel, Emrah; Cohrs, Stefan; Müller, Notger G

    2017-02-01

    Although it is widely accepted that physical exercise promotes weight loss, physical exercise alone had been found to result in only marginal weight loss compared to no treatment. Interestingly, both subjective and objective sleep duration have been shown to be negatively correlated to the body mass index (BMI). Despite this growing evidence of a relation between sleep duration and body weight, the role of habitual sleep duration in physical exercise-induced weight loss has not been studied so far. Twenty-two healthy elderly good sleepers aged 61-76 years (mean 68.36 years, 55 % female, BMI mean 25.15 kg/m 2 ) either took part in a 12-week aerobic endurance training (3 × 30 min/week) or in a relaxation control (2 × 45 min/week). The BMI was assessed prior to and after intervention. Subjects maintained sleep logs every morning/evening during the training period, allowing for calculation of habitual sleep duration. Besides a significant main effect of the type of training, a significant interaction of type of training and habitual sleep duration was observed: while after treadmill training subjects who slept less than 7.5 h/night during intervention reduced their BMI by nearly 4 %, a comparable decrease in the BMI was found neither in subjects who slept more than 7.5 h nor after relaxation training independent of sleep duration. Sleep duration itself did not change in any group. Although results should be interpreted with caution due to the small sample size, this is the first study to indicate that physical exercise might compensate for disturbed body weight regulation associated with short sleep duration.

  9. Circadian and sleep episode duration influences on cognitive performance following the process of awakening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L

    2010-01-01

    The process of waking up from an episode of sleep can produce temporary deficits in cognitive functioning and low levels of alertness and vigilance, a process referred to as sleep inertia. Cognitive ability varies as a function of time-of-day; cognitive ability associated with sleep inertia also shows circadian influences with deleterious effects most pronounced when awakened from biological night, possibly paralleling the core body temperature minimum. The length of the sleep episode may contribute to the severity of sleep inertia. Short sleep episodes (sleep in the sleep episode. With longer sleep episodes, aspects of sleep depth such as percentage of slow-wave sleep or total length of the sleep episode may be important. Finally, myriad tasks have been used to measure sleep inertia effects, and cognitive deficits associated with waking up have been demonstrated on both simple and complex tasks for both speed and accuracy. More research is needed on how the type of task may interact with sleep inertia. Tests that measure known specific aspects of cognition and that can be mapped to brain systems and neurotransmitters (e.g., the Attentional Network Test: ANT) are recommended to further understand how information processing during the process of awakening is distinct from other aspects of awareness. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Naturally occurring circadian rhythm and sleep duration are related to executive functions in early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuula, Liisa; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar; Andersson, Sture; Lano, Aulikki; Lahti, Jari; Wolke, Dieter; Räikkönen, Katri

    2018-02-01

    Experimental sleep deprivation studies suggest that insufficient sleep and circadian misalignment associates with poorer executive function. It is not known whether this association translates to naturally occurring sleep patterns. A total of 512 of full-term-born members of the Arvo Ylppö Longitudinal Study [mean age = 25.3, standard deviation (SD) = 0.65] (44.3% men) wore actigraphs to define sleep duration, its irregularity and circadian rhythm (sleep mid-point) during a 1-week period (mean 6.9 nights, SD = 1.7). Performance-based executive function was assessed with the Trail-Making Test, Conners' Continuous Performance Test and Stroop. The self-rated adult version of Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function was used to assess trait-like executive function. We found that performance-based and self-reported trait-like executive function correlated only modestly (all correlations ≤0.17). Shorter sleep duration associated with more commission errors. Later circadian rhythm associated with poorer trait-like executive function, as indicated by the Brief Metacognitive Index and the Behavior Regulation Index. Those belonging to the group with the most irregular sleep duration performed slower than others in the Trail-Making Test Part A. All associations were adjusted for sex, age, socioeconomic status and body mass index. In conclusion, naturally occurring insufficient sleep and later circadian rhythm showed modest associations with poorer executive function. Shorter habitual sleep duration was associated with lower scores of performance-based tests of executive function, and later circadian rhythm was associated mainly with poorer trait-like executive function characteristics. Our findings suggest additionally that sleep duration and circadian rhythm associate with different domains of executive function, and there are no additive effects between the two. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  11. Perceptions of Sleep Duration, Patterns and Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties: A Study of Greek Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulou, Maria S.; Cooper, Paul

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated adolescent students' perceptions of sleep duration and patterns, and the way they relate to emotional and behavioural difficulties. Five hundred and two students from public schools in Greece completed the Sleep Questionnaire and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). It was demonstrated that consistency in…

  12. Association between sleep duration, insomnia symptoms and bone mineral density in older Puerto Rican adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To examine the association between sleep patterns (sleep duration and insomnia symptoms) and total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) among older Boston Puerto Rican adults. Materials/Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study including 750 Puerto Rican adults, aged 47–79 y livi...

  13. [Current situation of sleeping duration in Chinese Han students in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yi; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Peijin; Ma, Jun

    2014-07-01

    To analyze the characteristics of sleep duration in Chinese primary and middle school students. The data was collected from 30 provinces (Autonomous regions, Municipalities) in 165 363 Han Primary school students above 4 grade, the junior and senior high school students who participated in 2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance by using stratified random cluster sampling method, and the questionnaire of sleep duration, insufficient sleep and commuting way from school was conducted at the same time.χ² test and χ² linear-by-linear test were used to analyze the difference between the different groups, and logistic regression was used to analyze the factors of insufficient sleep. Nationwide in 2010, 39.09% (64 646/165 363) of students reported they had more than 8 hours sleep duration per day, the prevalence was lower among urban (37.06% (30 767/83 027)) than rural (41.15% (33 879/82 336)) students (χ² = 290.53, P car (1.09 (1.03-1.15)), or in a boarding school (1.17 (1.10-1.24)). The sleep duration in Chinese school children is low, a sizeable proportion of school children sleep less than the recommended hours. The prevalence of insufficient sleep is high, and there are significant differences in different groups.

  14. Sleep duration predicts behavioral and neural differences in adult speech sound learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, F Sayako; Landi, Nicole; Myers, Emily B

    2017-01-01

    Sleep is important for memory consolidation and contributes to the formation of new perceptual categories. This study examined sleep as a source of variability in typical learners' ability to form new speech sound categories. We trained monolingual English speakers to identify a set of non-native speech sounds at 8PM, and assessed their ability to identify and discriminate between these sounds immediately after training, and at 8AM on the following day. We tracked sleep duration overnight, and found that light sleep duration predicted gains in identification performance, while total sleep duration predicted gains in discrimination ability. Participants obtained an average of less than 6h of sleep, pointing to the degree of sleep deprivation as a potential factor. Behavioral measures were associated with ERP indexes of neural sensitivity to the learned contrast. These results demonstrate that the relative success in forming new perceptual categories depends on the duration of post-training sleep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bidirectional Associations between Sleep (Quality and Duration) and Psychosocial Functioning across the University Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavernier, Royette; Willoughby, Teena

    2014-01-01

    Despite extensive research on sleep and psychosocial functioning, an important gap within the literature is the lack of inquiry into the direction of effects between these 2 constructs. The purpose of the present 3-year longitudinal study was to examine bidirectional associations between sleep (quality and duration) and 3 indices of psychosocial…

  16. Sleep duration and its effect on nutritional status in adolescents of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    According to Dahl and Lewin,[9] sleep duration per se has a special relevance in adolescence, as: (i) there are substantial biological and psychosocial changes in sleep, and circadian regulation exists across pubertal development; (ii) interactions between physical and psychosocial domains during adolescence can lead to ...

  17. Changes in sleep duration, timing, and quality as children transition to kindergarten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Alyssa; Harsh, John

    2014-01-01

    Sleep can be seen as a biologically driven behavior shaped by cultural context. A "poor fit" occurs when contextual demands for the timing and duration sleep periods are incompatible with the underlying biology. Such contextual factors are well-known for adults, yet little is known of the contextual factors that shape young children's sleep health and to what degree such factors impact sleep duration, timing, and quality. This study attempted to identify how the transition to kindergarten was associated with changes in sleep timing, duration, and quality for children enrolled in preschool prior to attending kindergarten vs. those who were not. Wrist actigraphy in 38 5-year-old children was collected at three longitudinal points before and after the start of kindergarten. Our data suggested that the transition to kindergarten was associated with a reduction in weekday sleep (mostly due to lost napping) and an advance in the weekday nocturnal sleep period that was most pronounced for children not enrolled in preschool prior to kindergarten. These sleep changes paralleled objective and caregiver-reported data of increased sleep pressure that lasted well into the first month of kindergarten.

  18. Changes in Sleep Duration, Timing, and Quality as Children Transition to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Alyssa; Harsh, John

    2014-01-01

    Sleep can be seen as a biologically driven behavior shaped by cultural context. A “poor fit” occurs when contextual demands for the timing and duration sleep periods are incompatible with the underlying biology. Such contextual factors are well-known for adults, yet little is known of the contextual factors that shape young children’s sleep health and to what degree such factors impact sleep duration, timing, and quality. This study attempted to identify how the transition to kindergarten was associatedwith changes in sleep timing, duration, and quality for children enrolled in preschool prior to attending kindergarten vs. those who were not. Wrist actigraphy in 38 5-yearold children was collected at three longitudinal points before and after the start of kindergarten. Our data suggested that the transition to kindergarten was associated with a reduction in weekday sleep (mostly due to lost napping) and an advance in the weekday nocturnal sleep period that was most pronounced for children not enrolled in preschool prior to kindergarten. These sleep changes paralleled objective and caregiver-reported data of increased sleep pressure that lasted well into the first month of kindergarten. PMID:24364713

  19. Discrimination, other psychosocial stressors, and self-reported sleep duration and difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slopen, Natalie; Williams, David R

    2014-01-01

    To advance understanding of the relationship between discrimination and sleep duration and difficulties, with consideration of multiple dimensions of discrimination, and attention to concurrent stressors; and to examine the contribution of discrimination and other stressors to racial/ ethnic differences in these outcomes. Cross-sectional probability sample. Chicago, IL. There were 2,983 black, Hispanic, and white adults. Outcomes included self-reported sleep duration and difficulties. Discrimination, including racial and nonracial everyday and major experiences of discrimination, workplace harassment and incivilities, and other stressors were assessed via questionnaire. In models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, greater exposure to racial (β = -0.14)) and nonracial (β = -0.08) everyday discrimination, major experiences of discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity (β = -0.17), and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = -0.14) were associated with shorter sleep (P discrimination attributed to race/ethnicity and sleep duration (β = -0.09, P discrimination and racial (β = 0.04) and nonracial (β = 0.04) major experiences of discrimination, and workplace harassment and incivilities (β = 0.04) were also associated with more (log) sleep difficulties, and associations between racial and nonracial everyday discrimination and sleep difficulties remained after adjustment for other stressors (P discrimination (P > 0.05). Discrimination was associated with shorter sleep and more sleep difficulties, independent of socioeconomic status and other stressors, and may account for some of the racial/ethnic differences in sleep.

  20. The Effects of Experimental Manipulation of Sleep Duration on Neural Response to Food Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demos, Kathryn E; Sweet, Lawrence H; Hart, Chantelle N; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Williams, Samantha E; Mailloux, Kimberly A; Trautvetter, Jennifer; Owens, Max M; Wing, Rena R

    2017-11-01

    Despite growing literature on neural food cue responsivity in obesity, little is known about how the brain processes food cues following partial sleep deprivation and whether short sleep leads to changes similar to those observed in obesity. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to test the hypothesis that short sleep leads to increased reward-related and decreased inhibitory control-related processing of food cues.In a within-subject design, 30 participants (22 female, mean age = 36.7 standard deviation = 10.8 years, body mass index range 20.4-40.7) completed four nights of 6 hours/night time-in-bed (TIB; short sleep) and four nights of 9 hours/night TIB (long sleep) in random counterbalanced order in their home environments. Following each sleep condition, participants completed an fMRI scan while viewing food and nonfood images.A priori region of interest analyses revealed increased activity to food in short versus long sleep in regions of reward processing (eg, nucleus accumbens/putamen) and sensory/motor signaling (ie, right paracentral lobule, an effect that was most pronounced in obese individuals). Contrary to the hypothesis, whole brain analyses indicated greater food cue responsivity during short sleep in an inhibitory control region (right inferior frontal gyrus) and ventral medial prefrontal cortex, which has been implicated in reward coding and decision-making (false discovery rate corrected q = 0.05).These findings suggest that sleep restriction leads to both greater reward and control processing in response to food cues. Future research is needed to understand the dynamic functional connectivity between these regions during short sleep and whether the interplay between these neural processes determines if one succumbs to food temptation. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Gender Differences in the Association between Sleep Duration and Body Composition: The Cardia Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Pierre St-Onge

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep duration has been inversely associated with body mass index (BMI. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and BMI, waist circumference, and percent body fat in Black and White individuals from the CARDIA study. Box-Tidwell regression models were adjusted for age and race (Model 1, additional lifestyle and demographic variables (Model 2, and physical activity (Model 3. There were significant interactions between sleep and gender for the main outcome variables. In men, there was a trend for an inverse relationship between reported sleep duration and BMI in Model 2  (β=−0.20,P=.053 but not model 3  (β=−0.139,P=.191. In women, inverse relationships were observed between sleep duration and BMI (β=−0.294,P=.005 and waist circumference (β=−0.442,P=.059, in Model 2. These associations became nonsignificant in model 3 (BMI: β=−0.172,P=.084; waist circumference: β=−0.161,P=.474. Our results are consistent with previous findings that sleep is associated with BMI and other body composition variables. However, the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and body composition may be stronger in women than in men.

  2. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: associations between sleep duration, screen time and food consumption frequencies

    OpenAIRE

    Börnhorst, Claudia; Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; Kunešová, Marie; Yngve, Agneta; Rito, Ana I.; Lissner, Lauren; Duleva, Vesselka; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Breda, João

    2015-01-01

    Background Both sleep duration and screen time have been suggested to affect children?s diet, although in different directions and presumably through different pathways. The present cross-sectional study aimed to simultaneously investigate the associations between sleep duration, screen time and food consumption frequencies in children. Methods The analysis was based on 10 453 children aged 6?9 years from five European countries that participated in the World Health Organization European Chil...

  3. Insomnia Phenotypes Based on Objective Sleep Duration in Adolescents: Depression Risk and Differential Behavioral Profiles

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez-Mendoza, Julio; Calhoun, Susan L.; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Li, Yun; Gaines, Jordan; Liao, Duanping; Bixler, Edward O.

    2016-01-01

    Based on previous studies on the role of objective sleep duration in predicting morbidity in individuals with insomnia, we examined the role of objective sleep duration in differentiating behavioral profiles in adolescents with insomnia symptoms. Adolescents from the Penn State Child Cohort (n = 397, ages 12–23, 54.7% male) underwent a nine-hour polysomnography (PSG), clinical history, physical examination and psychometric testing, including the Child or Adult Behavior Checklist and Pediatric...

  4. Sleep duration and ischemic heart disease and all-cause mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Anne Helene; Hansen, Åse Marie; Holtermann, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to examine if sleep duration is a risk indicator for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality, and how perceived stress during work and leisure time and use of tranquilizers/hypnotics modifies the association.......This prospective study aimed to examine if sleep duration is a risk indicator for ischemic heart disease (IHD) and all-cause mortality, and how perceived stress during work and leisure time and use of tranquilizers/hypnotics modifies the association....

  5. Association between unhealthy behavior and sleep quality and duration in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Peter Hoefelmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2015v17n3p318   Inadequate sleep has been associated with unhealthy behavior in adolescence. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of negative sleep indicators (perceived poorquality sleep and insufficient sleep duration among students and to identify unhealthy behaviors associated with this outcome. This study is part of a school-based, cross-sectional survey conducted in 2011 in adolescents from Santa Catarina State, Brazil. High school students aged 15 to 19 years (n = 6,529 and enrolled in state public schools participated in the study. The students responded to a questionnaire on the number of hours slept (insufficient: < 8 h, sufficient: ≥ 8 h; perceived sleep quality (good or poor; and behavioral variables. Multinomial logistic regression was performed using reports of positive sleep indicators, and negative reports of one or two sleep indicators. Approximately 30% of adolescents reported a negative perception of sleep, indicating poor quality and insufficient duration. The use of computers/videogames (≥ 4 h/d and excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, salty snacks or sweets were associated with negative sleep indicators. A high number of young people displayed one or two negative sleep indicators, and it was found an association between these indicators and a number of unhealthy behaviors.

  6. Daytime Sleepiness: Associations with Alcohol Use and Sleep Duration in Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhajit Chakravorty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current analysis was to investigate the relationship of daytime sleepiness with alcohol consumption and sleep duration using a population sample of adult Americans. Data was analyzed from adult respondents of the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES 2007-2008 (N=2919 using self-reported variables for sleepiness, sleep duration, and alcohol consumption (quantity and frequency of alcohol use. A heavy drinking episode was defined as the consumption of ≥5 standard a