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Sample records for short sensory profile

  1. Discriminating Children with Autism from Children with Learning Difficulties with an Adaptation of the Short Sensory Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Justin; Tsermentseli, Stella; Cummins, Omar; Happe, Francesca; Heaton, Pamela; Spencer, Janine

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we examine the extent to which children with autism and children with learning difficulties can be discriminated from their responses to different patterns of sensory stimuli. Using an adapted version of the Short Sensory Profile (SSP), sensory processing was compared in 34 children with autism to 33 children with typical…

  2. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Malay Version of the Short Sensory Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ee, Su Im; Loh, Siew Yim; Chinna, Karuthan; Marret, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    To translate, culturally adapt, and examine psychometric properties of the Malay version Short Sensory Profile (SSP-M). Pretesting (n = 30) of the original English SSP established its applicability for use with Malaysian children aged 3-10 years. This was followed by the translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the SSP-M. Two forward and two back translations were compared and reviewed by a committee of 10 experts who validated the content of the SSP-M, before pilot testing (n = 30). The final SSP-M questionnaire was completed by 419 parents of typically developing children aged 3-10 years. Cronbach's alpha of each section of the SSP-M ranged from 0.73 to 0.93 and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) indicated good reliability (0.62-0.93). The seven factor model of the SSP-M had an adequate fit with evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. We conclude that the SSP-M is a valid and reliable screening tool for use in Malaysia with Malay-speaking parents of children aged 3-10 years. The SSP-M enables Malay-speaking parents to answer the questionnaire with better reliability, and provides occupational therapists with a valid tool to screen for sensory processing difficulties.

  3. The effect of a psycho-educational program on CARS scores and short sensory profile in autistic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavasiliou, Antigone S; Nikaina, Irene; Rizou, Joanna; Alexandrou, Stratos

    2011-07-01

    There is great demand for effective management of children with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study aimed to investigate the effect of an individually tailored psycho-educational program for autistic children on the scores of the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) and the Short Sensory Profile (SSP). Forty children (36 males) were enrolled into an intervention program which consisted of occupational therapy including sensory integration techniques, speech therapy, social skills therapy and parent-directed approaches. Autism severity was assessed using CARS; sensory response capability with the SSP pre- and post-treatment. Eight children were intellectually normal; 12 borderline and 20 of low intelligence. Pre-treatment CARS showed that 8 were mildly autistic, 32 moderately-severely autistic. Post-treatment, 24 children changed category; 11 were no longer autistic. The percentage of children performing in the definitive difference region, according to total SSP score, changed slightly (45% vs 32.5%). Comparison of the pre- and post-treatment values revealed that CARS decreased significantly (p values (p educational therapy had a significant effect on autism severity according to CARS. Changes in the SSP scores were not significant. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Short communication: Sensory profile of raw goat milk cheeses made with artisan kid rennet pastes from commercial-weight animals: alternative to farmhouse goat cheeses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, M; Álvarez, S; Díaz, E; Virto, M; de Renobales, M

    2014-10-01

    The loss of traditional kid rennet pastes in the Canary Islands (Spain), as in many other regions, is most likely due to the custom of using abomasa from very young animals killed below desirable commercial weight. In addition, the reasonable price of commercial rennets (CR) has resulted in the loss of typical sensory characteristics for most farmhouse raw goat milk cheeses, placing them at a disadvantage when local and international markets are full of different cheeses, often with aggressive marketing strategies. This paper analyzes the sensory characteristics of raw goat milk cheeses made with rennet pastes prepared from commercial kid abomasa in 2 ways: dried while full of ingested milk [full, commercial, artisan kid rennet (FCKR)], or dried after being emptied of ingested milk and refilled with raw goat milk [empty, commercial, artisan kid rennet (ECKR)]. This latter practice allows the use of empty abomasa, or abomasa with grass, soil, and so on. Sensory profiles of cheeses made with FCKR and ECKR rennets were compared with those made with CR by an expert panel (n=7). The FCKR and ECKR cheeses had similar sensory profiles. Although scores for FCKR cheeses were somewhat higher than for ECKR cheeses, they were in the range found for traditional cheeses made with rennet prepared with abomasa from very young animals. The sensory profile of CR cheeses was very different. Almost 90% of consumer panelists (n=90) preferred cheeses made with the experimental rennet pastes. These results demonstrate the possibility to prepare artisan rennet pastes from commercial-weight kids in an easy way for farmhouse cheese makers using local resources that would otherwise be destroyed in abattoirs. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars

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    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.

  6. Psychometric Properties of Dunn\\'s Sensory Profile School Companion

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    Guita Movallali

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion The results showed that Dunn's sensory profile has good reliability and validity. Dunn's sensory profile is a useful tool for assessing sensory processing patterns in school and kindergarten settings, and can be used by occupational therapists in clinical environments and by psychologists in educational environments. Information obtained from this profile can have diagnostic value and could also be used for the design of curriculum and classroom space.

  7. Stratifying patients with peripheral neuropathic pain based on sensory profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollert, Jan; Maier, Christoph; Attal, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    In a recent cluster analysis, it has been shown that patients with peripheral neuropathic pain can be grouped into 3 sensory phenotypes based on quantitative sensory testing profiles, which are mainly characterized by either sensory loss, intact sensory function and mild thermal hyperalgesia and...... populations that need to be screened to reach a subpopulation large enough to conduct a phenotype-stratified study. The most common phenotype in diabetic polyneuropathy was sensory loss (83%), followed by mechanical hyperalgesia (75%) and thermal hyperalgesia (34%, note that percentages are overlapping...

  8. Short-term depression and transient memory in sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillary, Grant; Heydt, Rüdiger von der; Niebur, Ernst

    2017-12-01

    Persistent neuronal activity is usually studied in the context of short-term memory localized in central cortical areas. Recent studies show that early sensory areas also can have persistent representations of stimuli which emerge quickly (over tens of milliseconds) and decay slowly (over seconds). Traditional positive feedback models cannot explain sensory persistence for at least two reasons: (i) They show attractor dynamics, with transient perturbations resulting in a quasi-permanent change of system state, whereas sensory systems return to the original state after a transient. (ii) As we show, those positive feedback models which decay to baseline lose their persistence when their recurrent connections are subject to short-term depression, a common property of excitatory connections in early sensory areas. Dual time constant network behavior has also been implemented by nonlinear afferents producing a large transient input followed by much smaller steady state input. We show that such networks require unphysiologically large onset transients to produce the rise and decay observed in sensory areas. Our study explores how memory and persistence can be implemented in another model class, derivative feedback networks. We show that these networks can operate with two vastly different time courses, changing their state quickly when new information is coming in but retaining it for a long time, and that these capabilities are robust to short-term depression. Specifically, derivative feedback networks with short-term depression that acts differentially on positive and negative feedback projections are capable of dynamically changing their time constant, thus allowing fast onset and slow decay of responses without requiring unrealistically large input transients.

  9. Sensory profiling: a method for describing the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil

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    Lyon, David H.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Sensory profiling is an objective, descriptive technique which uses a panel of trained assessors. It was used at Campden to differentiate olive oil which differed in terms of the country of origin, variety, ripeness and extraction techniques. The data were related to similar results from the Netherlands and Italy. The results indicated that all three sensory panels perceived the samples in the same way, however, the differed in the way the oils were described.
    The new European legislation on olive oil is partially concerned with the sensory aspects of the oil. The sensory grading takes into account the 'positive' and 'negative' attributes in the oil before giving an overall quality grade. These attributes do not reflect the consumer requirements, therefore, the grading should be restricted to the assessment of the presence or absence of sensory defects.

  10. Sensory symptom profiles and co-morbidities in painful radiculopathy.

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    Friederike Mahn

    Full Text Available Painful radiculopathies (RAD and classical neuropathic pain syndromes (painful diabetic polyneuropathy, postherpetic neuralgia show differences how the patients express their sensory perceptions. Furthermore, several clinical trials with neuropathic pain medications failed in painful radiculopathy. Epidemiological and clinical data of 2094 patients with painful radiculopathy were collected within a cross sectional survey (painDETECT to describe demographic data and co-morbidities and to detect characteristic sensory abnormalities in patients with RAD and compare them with other neuropathic pain syndromes. Common co-morbidities in neuropathic pain (depression, sleep disturbance, anxiety do not differ considerably between the three conditions. Compared to other neuropathic pain syndromes touch-evoked allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia are relatively uncommon in RAD. One distinct sensory symptom pattern (sensory profile, i.e., severe painful attacks and pressure induced pain in combination with mild spontaneous pain, mild mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia, was found to be characteristic for RAD. Despite similarities in sensory symptoms there are two important differences between RAD and other neuropathic pain disorders: (1 The paucity of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia might be explained by the fact that the site of the nerve lesion in RAD is often located proximal to the dorsal root ganglion. (2 The distinct sensory profile found in RAD might be explained by compression-induced ectopic discharges from a dorsal root and not necessarily by nerve damage. These differences in pathogenesis might explain why medications effective in DPN and PHN failed to demonstrate efficacy in RAD.

  11. Multi-way models for sensory profiling data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bro, Rasmus; Qannari, El Mostafa; Kiers, Henk A.L.; Naes, Tormod; Frost, Michael Bom; Bom, M.

    2008-01-01

    One of the problems in analyzing sensory profiling data is to handle the systematic individual differences in the assessments from different panelists. It is unavoidable that different persons have, at least to a certain degree, different perceptions of the samples as well as a different

  12. Comparison of rapid descriptive sensory methodologies: Free-Choice Profiling, Flash Profile and modified Flash Profile.

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    Liu, Jing; Bredie, Wender L P; Sherman, Emma; Harbertson, James F; Heymann, Hildegarde

    2018-04-01

    Rapid sensory methods have been developed as alternatives to traditional sensory descriptive analysis methods. Among them, Free-Choice Profiling (FCP) and Flash Profile (FP) are two that have been known for many years. The objectives of this work were to compare the rating-based FCP and ranking-based FP method; to evaluate the impact of adding adjustments to FP approach; to investigate the influence of the number of assessors on the outcome of modified FP. To achieve these aims, a conventional descriptive analysis (DA), FCP, FP and a modified version of FP were carried out. Red wines made by different grape maturity and ethanol concentration were used for sensory testing. This study showed that DA provided a more detailed and accurate information on products through a quantitative measure of the intensity of sensory attributes than FCP and FP. However, the panel hours for conducting DA were higher than that for rapid methods, and FP was even able to separate the samples to a higher degree than DA. When comparing FCP and FP, this study showed that the ranking-based FP provided a clearer separation of samples than rating-based FCP, but the latter was an easier task for most assessors. When restricting assessors on their use of attributes in FP, the sample space became clearer and the ranking task was simplified. The FP protocol with restricted attribute sets seems to be a promising approach for efficient screening of sensory properties in wine. When increasing the number of assessors from 10 to 20 for conducting the modified FP, the outcome tended to be slightly more stable, however, one should consider the degree of panel training when deciding the optimal number of assessors for conducting FP. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Tactile short-term memory in sensory-deprived individuals.

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    Papagno, Costanza; Minniti, Giovanna; Mattavelli, Giulia C; Mantovan, Lara; Cecchetto, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    To verify whether loosing a sense or two has consequences on a spared sensory modality, namely touch, and whether these consequences depend on practice or are biologically determined, we investigated 13 deafblind participants, 16 deaf participants, 15 blind participants, and 13 matched normally sighted and hearing controls on a tactile short-term memory task, using checkerboard matrices of increasing length in which half of the squares were made up of a rough texture and half of a smooth one. Time of execution of a fixed matrix, number of correctly reproduced matrices, largest matrix correctly reproduced and tactile span were recorded. The three groups of sensory-deprived individuals did not differ in any measure, while blind and deaf participants outscored controls in all parameters except time of execution; the difference approached significance for deafblind people compared to controls only in one measure, namely correctly reproduced matrices. In blind and deafblind participants, performance negatively correlated with age of Braille acquisition, the older being the subject when acquiring Braille, the lower the performance, suggesting that practice plays a role. However, the fact that deaf participants, who did not share tactile experience, performed similarly to blind participants and significantly better than controls highlights that practice cannot be the only contribution to better tactile memory.

  14. Sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars Perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssegos

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    Francine Lorena Cuquel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile of eleven peach cultivars grown in an experimental orchard located in the city of Lapa (PR, Brazil in two seasons. The peach cultivars analyzed were Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier, and Vanguarda. The sensory analysis was performed by previously trained panelists; 20 of them in the first season and 10 in the second season. The sensory evaluation was performed using Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, in which the following attributes were measured: appearance, aroma, flesh color, flesh firmness, flavor, and juiciness. The results showed preference for sweet, soft, and juicy fruits. Chimarrita, Chiripá, and Coral fruits showed better sensorial performance than the other peach cultivars. It was also verified that the analysis of the attributes aroma, flesh firmness, and flavor is enough for performing the sensory profile of peach fruits for in natura consumption.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o perfil sensorial de onze cultivares de pêssego produzidos em duas safras em um pomar experimental implantado na Lapa (PR, Brasil. Os cultivares analisados foram Aurora I, Chimarrita, Chiripá, Coral, Eldorado, Granada, Leonense, Maciel, Marli, Premier e Vanguarda. As análises sensoriais foram realizadas por julgadores previamente treinados, sendo 20 julgadores na primeira safra e 10 na segunda. O método de avaliação empregado foi a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa na qual foram mensurados os atributos aparência, aroma, cor de polpa, firmeza de polpa, sabor e suculência dos frutos. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram a preferência por frutos de sabor adocicado, com polpa macia e suculenta. Os cultivares Chimarrita, Chiripá e Coral obtiveram o melhor desempenho nas análises sensoriais. Foi verificado ainda que os atributos aroma, firmeza de polpa e sabor são considerados suficientes para a avaliação do perfil sensorial de

  15. Identification of Biomarkers of Impaired Sensory Profiles among Autistic Patients

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    El-Ansary, Afaf; Hassan, Wail M.; Qasem, Hanan; Das, Undurti N.

    2016-01-01

    Background Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder that displays significant heterogeneity. Comparison of subgroups within autism, and analyses of selected biomarkers as measure of the variation of the severity of autistic features such as cognitive dysfunction, social interaction impairment, and sensory abnormalities might help in understanding the pathophysiology of autism. Methods and Participants In this study, two sets of biomarkers were selected. The first included 7, while the second included 6 biomarkers. For set 1, data were collected from 35 autistic and 38 healthy control participants, while for set 2, data were collected from 29 out of the same 35 autistic and 16 additional healthy subjects. These markers were subjected to a principal components analysis using either covariance or correlation matrices. Moreover, libraries composed of participants categorized into units were constructed. The biomarkers used include, PE (phosphatidyl ethanolamine), PS (phosphatidyl serine), PC (phosphatidyl choline), MAP2K1 (Dual specificity mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1), IL-10 (interleukin-10), IL-12, NFκB (nuclear factor-κappa B); PGE2 (prostaglandin E2), PGE2-EP2, mPGES-1 (microsomal prostaglandin synthase E-1), cPLA2 (cytosolic phospholipase A2), 8-isoprostane, and COX-2 (cyclo-oxygenase-2). Results While none of the studied markers correlated with CARS and SRS as measure of cognitive and social impairments, six markers significantly correlated with sensory profiles of autistic patients. Multiple regression analysis identifies a combination of PGES, mPGES-1, and PE as best predictors of the degree of sensory profile impairment. Library identification resulted in 100% correct assignments of both autistic and control participants based on either set 1 or 2 biomarkers together with a satisfactory rate of assignments in case of sensory profile impairment using different sets of biomarkers. Conclusion The two selected sets of biomarkers were effective to

  16. Analysis of the Sensory Profile in Children with Smith-Magenis Syndrome

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    Hildenbrand, Hanna L.; Smith, Ann C. M.

    2012-01-01

    This study systematically assessed sensory processing in 34 children, aged 3-14 years, with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) using the Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaire. Scores for the SMS cohort were significantly different from scores of the national sample of children with and without disabilities in all Sensory Profile categories and…

  17. Physicochemical and sensory profile of rice bran roasted in microwave

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    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, and sensory changes in bran from three rice cultivars according to microwave roasting time. This study analyzed three rice cultivars, BRS Sertaneja (S, BRS Primavera (P, and IRGA 417 (I determining the color parameters (L*, a*, and b * at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 minutes of roasting time. After applying the difference from control test, the rice brans with different characteristics aroma and flavor were selected: S and P roasted for 9 and 15 minutes and IRGA 417 roasted for 9, 12, and 15 minutes. These samples were characterized by Free-Choice Profile descriptive sensory analysis, and their chemical composition was also determined. The longer the roasting process, the higher the roasted flavor intensity and aroma. The IRG 417 cultivar roasted for 12 minutes showed a sweeter flavor and aroma. After roasting, the brans remained rich in protein and lipid and presented higher fiber content and lower reducing sugar and phytic acid content. Microwave roasting for 12 minutes can be a viable option for improving the sensory functional and nutritional characteristics of the rice bran considering its use in food products.

  18. Comparison of three sensory profiling methods based on consumer perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinbach, Helene Christine; Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Letícia Machado

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares three profiling methods based on consumer perceptions in their ability to discriminate and describe eight beers. Consumers (N=135) evaluated eight different beers using Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) methodology in two variations, with (n=63) and without (n=73) rating...... the intensity of the checked descriptors. With CATA, consumers rated 38 descriptors grouped in 7 overall categories (berries, floral, hoppy, nutty, roasted, spicy/herbal and woody). Additionally 40 of the consumers evaluated the same samples by partial Napping® followed by Ultra Flash Profiling (UFP). ANOVA...... comparisons the RV coefficients varied between 0.90 and 0.97, indicating a very high similarity between all three methods. These results show that the precision and reproducibility of sensory information obtained by consumers by CATA is comparable to that of Napping. The choice of methodology for consumer...

  19. Perfil sensorial de iogurte light, sabor pêssego Sensory profile of peach flavored light yogurt

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    Ligia R. R. Santana

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi determinado o perfil sensorial descritivo de três amostras de iogurte light, sabor pêssego, pela metodologia fundamentada na Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ. A equipe sensorial definiu os termos descritores, os materiais de referência para o treinamento das qualidades e quantificações de cada um dos termos e a ficha de avaliação das amostras, de forma consensual. Dez provadores foram selecionados e rigorosamente treinados para compor a equipe definitiva, utilizando-se como critérios o poder discriminativo, reprodutibilidade e consenso dos provadores entre si. Foram gerados doze termos descritores pelo método de rede. A intensidade de cada descritor foi avaliada em cada amostra por escala não estruturada de nove centímetros, com termos de intensidade ancorados em seus extremos, sendo o mínimo à esquerda e o máximo à direita. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA, Teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Os resultados indicaram que as amostras comerciais apresentaram grande variação em seus perfis sensoriais. Na ACP, ficou evidenciado que a amostra A foi caracterizada principalmente pelos atributos gosto doce, sabor pêssego e firmeza dos pedaços de fruta. A amostra B foi caracterizada pelos atributos brilho, cor pêssego e cremosidade, e a amostra C foi caracterizada pela maior intensidade dos atributos gosto ácido, adstringência, textura farinácea e aroma artificial de pêssego. De acordo com o teste de aceitação, todas as amostras apresentaram boa aceitação em todos os atributos avaliados. Desta maneira, a análise do perfil sensorial da amostra C, que contém proteína de soja na sua formulação, revelou que este ingrediente não foi percebido pelos provadores, e não interferiu na sua aceitação.The descriptive terminology and sensory profile of three samples of peach flavored light yogurt were determined using methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. A sensory panel

  20. Sensory subtypes in children with autism spectrum disorder: latent profile transition analysis using a national survey of sensory features.

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    Ausderau, Karla K; Furlong, Melissa; Sideris, John; Bulluck, John; Little, Lauren M; Watson, Linda R; Boyd, Brian A; Belger, Aysenil; Dickie, Virginia A; Baranek, Grace T

    2014-08-01

    Sensory features are highly prevalent and heterogeneous among children with ASD. There is a need to identify homogenous groups of children with ASD based on sensory features (i.e., sensory subtypes) to inform research and treatment. Sensory subtypes and their stability over 1 year were identified through latent profile transition analysis (LPTA) among a national sample of children with ASD. Data were collected from caregivers of children with ASD ages 2-12 years at two time points (Time 1 N = 1294; Time 2 N = 884). Four sensory subtypes (Mild; Sensitive-Distressed; Attenuated-Preoccupied; Extreme-Mixed) were identified, which were supported by fit indices from the LPTA as well as current theoretical models that inform clinical practice. The Mild and Extreme-Mixed subtypes reflected quantitatively different sensory profiles, while the Sensitive-Distressed and Attenuated-Preoccupied subtypes reflected qualitatively different profiles. Further, subtypes reflected differential child (i.e., gender, developmental age, chronological age, autism severity) and family (i.e., income, mother's education) characteristics. Ninety-one percent of participants remained stable in their subtypes over 1 year. Characterizing the nature of homogenous sensory subtypes may facilitate assessment and intervention, as well as potentially inform biological mechanisms. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  1. Proficiency testing for sensory profile panels : measuring panel performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mcewan, J.A.; Hunter, E.A.; Gemert, L.J. van; Lea, P.

    2002-01-01

    Proficiency testing in sensory analysis is an important step towards demonstrating that results from one sensory panel are consistent with the results of other sensory panels. The uniqueness of sensory analysis poses some specific problems for measuring the proficiency of the human instrument

  2. Variation in Sensory Profile of Individual Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Same Production Batch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    The variation in sensory profile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), belonging to the same aquaculture production batch and handled the same way, was explored by using objective sensory profiling on heat-treated minced fillets. In addition, quality index, mechanical texture, pH, fat, and water...... content were measured. Different groups of fish were sampled 3 different times during a production day. The results showed significant differences in the sensory profiles of individual fish within all 3 groups as well as significant differences between the groups. Differences in mechanical texture were...... not explain the differences in the sensory profiling or in the mechanical texture measurements. The results showed that significant differences in the sensory profiles of individual fish from the same aquaculture production batch may occur. Furthermore, the results also showed sensory differences between...

  3. Sensory profile and evaluation of the degree of acceptability of bread produced with inulin and oligofructose

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Kelli de Souza-Borges; Ana Carolina Conti-Silva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Homemade bread was produced with 4.4 and 4.45 g of total fructans per 50 g serving to meet Brazilian standards for prebiotic claims. The bread samples were characterized for their sensory profiles using descriptive analysis and for their sensory acceptability using hedonic and just-about-right scales for sweetness intensity. The sensory profiles of the breads were similar and sweetness was the term that discriminated the bread samples obtained, since the intensity decreased from the ...

  4. Sensory profile of portuguese white wines using long-term memory: a novel nationwide approach

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, A. J.; Ávila, P.; Silva, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    WOS:000362820600004 (Nº de Acesso Web of Science) White wine sensory profiling of all 12 Protected Geographical Indications (PGIs) of mainland Portugal was achieved through completion of extended sensory questionnaires by 20 professional wine experts. No samples were assessed; the experiment was based on memory alone. Three macro-zonings were found and typicality differences were statistically validated and sensory described. PGI MINHO was found the most typical of all PGIs, with several e...

  5. Flavour Profiling of 'Marion' and Thornless Blackberries by Instrumental and Sensory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The flavour of thornless blackberries grown in Pacific Northwest including 'Thornless Evergreen', 'Black Diamond', 'Black Pearl', 'Nightfall', ORUS 1843-3, 'Waldo', NZ 9351-4, and 'Chester Thornless' as well as 'Marion' was profiled by sensory evaluation and instrumental analysis. Sensory results sh...

  6. Rapid descriptive sensory methods – Comparison of Free Multiple Sorting, Partial Napping, Napping, Flash Profiling and conventional profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Meinert, Lene

    2012-01-01

    is a modal restriction of Napping to specific sensory modalities, directing sensation and still allowing a holistic approach to products. The new methods are compared to Flash Profiling, Napping and conventional descriptive sensory profiling. Evaluations are performed by several panels of expert assessors......Two new rapid descriptive sensory evaluation methods are introduced to the field of food sensory evaluation. The first method, free multiple sorting, allows subjects to perform ad libitum free sortings, until they feel that no more relevant dissimilarities among products remain. The second method...... are applied for the graphical validation and comparisons. This allows similar comparisons and is applicable to single-block evaluation designs such as Napping. The partial Napping allows repetitions on multiple sensory modalities, e.g. appearance, taste and mouthfeel, and shows the average...

  7. Analysis of the sensory profile in children with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Smith, Ann C M

    2012-02-01

    This study systematically assessed sensory processing in 34 children, aged 3-14 years, with Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) using the Sensory Profile Caregiver Questionnaire. Scores for the SMS cohort were significantly different from scores of the national sample of children with and without disabilities in all Sensory Profile categories and quadrants (p < .001). No main effects of age or gender were found, but an interaction effect of age by gender was found in Modulation of Sensory Input Affecting Emotional Responses, in which older females presented with the lowest scores. A significant decline over time was found in the Seeking pattern, reflecting increased vulnerability (p < .05). Nonsignificant trends suggest more vulnerabilities for older versus younger children, especially older females. The neurobehavioral phenotype in children with SMS is expanded by this description of sensory processing. How children with SMS experience and respond to everyday sensations informs multidisciplinary team decisions.

  8. Nontargeted metabolite profiles and sensory properties of strawberry cultivars grown both organically and conventionally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårlund, Anna; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Sandell, Mari

    2015-01-28

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) contains many secondary metabolites potentially beneficial for human health, and several of these compounds contribute to strawberry sensory properties, as well. In this study, three strawberry cultivars grown both conventionally and organically were subjected to nontargeted metabolite profiling analysis with LC-qTOF-ESI-MS and to descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained panel. Combined metabolome and sensory data (PLS model) revealed that 79% variation in the metabolome explained 88% variation in the sensory profiles. Flavonoids and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins determined the orosensory properties, and fatty acids contributed to the odor attributes of strawberry. Overall, the results indicated that the chemical composition and sensory quality of strawberries grown in different cultivation systems vary mostly according to cultivar. Organic farming practices may enhance the accumulation of some plant metabolites in specific strawberry genotypes. Careful cultivar selection is a key factor for the improvement of nutritional quality and marketing value of organic strawberries.

  9. Short-Term Effect of Prosthesis Transforming Sensory Modalities on Walking in Stroke Patients with Hemiparesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Yusuke; Honda, Keita; Ishiguro, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Sensory impairments caused by neurological or physical disorders hamper kinesthesia, making rehabilitation difficult. In order to overcome this problem, we proposed and developed a novel biofeedback prosthesis called Auditory Foot for transforming sensory modalities, in which the sensor prosthesis transforms plantar sensations to auditory feedback signals. This study investigated the short-term effect of the auditory feedback prosthesis on walking in stroke patients with hemiparesis. To evaluate the effect, we compared four conditions of auditory feedback from plantar sensors at the heel and fifth metatarsal. We found significant differences in the maximum hip extension angle and ankle plantar flexor moment on the affected side during the stance phase, between conditions with and without auditory feedback signals. These results indicate that our sensory prosthesis could enhance walking performance in stroke patients with hemiparesis, resulting in effective short-term rehabilitation. PMID:27547456

  10. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prip Karen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With quantitative sensory testing (QST we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet. Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep mechano-nociceptive stimuli and hypoesthesia to non-noxious cutaneous stimuli. The purpose of the present paper was to extend the group analysis into individual sensory profiles of victims’ feet to explore possible relations between external violence (torture, reported pain, sensory symptoms and QST data to help clarify the underlying mechanisms. Methods We employed interviews and assessments of the pain and sensory symptoms and QST by investigators blinded to whether the patients, 32 male torture victims from the Middle East, had (n=15, or had not (n=17 been exposed to falanga. Pain intensity, area and stimulus dependence were used to characterize the pain. QST included thresholds for touch, cold, warmth, cold-pain, heat-pain, deep pressure pain and wind-up to cutaneous noxious stimuli. An ethnically matched control group was available.The normality criterion, from our control group data, was set as the mean +/− 1.28SD, thus including 80% of all values.QST data were transformed into three categories in relation to our normality range; hypoesthesia, normoesthesia or hyperesthesia/hyperalgesia. Results Most patients, irrespective of having been exposed to falanga or not, reported severe pain when walking. This was often associated with hyperalgesia to deep mechanical pressure. Hypoesthesia to mechanical stimuli co-occurred with numbness, burning and with deep mechanical hyperalgesia more often than not, but otherwise, a hypoesthesia to cutaneous sensory modalities did not co-occur systematically to falanga, pain or sensory symptoms. Conclusion In torture victims, there seem to be overriding mechanisms, manifested by hyperalgesia to pressure pain

  11. Volatile composition and sensory profile of shiitake mushrooms as affected by drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politowicz, Joanna; Lech, Krzysztof; Lipan, Leontina; Figiel, Adam; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2018-03-01

    One of the best preservation method for long-term storage is drying. In this work, the influence of different drying methods on aroma and sensory profile of shiitake mushroom was evaluated. The drying methods tested were: convective drying (CD), freeze-drying (FD), vacuum-microwave drying (VMD), and a combination of convective pre-drying and vacuum-microwave finish-drying (CPD-VMFD). The volatile composition of fresh and dried shiitake mushrooms was analysed by SPME, GC-MS and GC-FID, and showed the presence of 71 volatile compounds, most of them present in all dried samples but with quantitative variation. The major volatile compounds in fresh shiitake were 1-octen-3-ol (20.2%), 2-octanone (20.7%), 1,2,4-trithiolane (9.8%), and 1,2,3,5,6-pentathiepane (8.2%). Drying of shiitake mushrooms caused significant losses of C8 compounds and cyclic sulfur compounds, such as 1,2,4-trithiolane (V31) and 1,2,4,5-tetrathiane (V57). Samples dried at CD 80 °C implied a relative short drying time (120 min), had the highest contents of total volatiles (1594 μg 100 g -1 ) and cyclic sulfur compounds (e.g. V57 126 μg 100 g -1 ), and the highest intensity of most of the key positive sensory attributes, such as inner colour (7.0), fresh shiitake flavour (6.7), and sponginess (6.2). The best dehydration methods, resulting in the highest total concentrations of volatile compounds and high intensity of key sensory attributes were FD (if vacuum and liquid nitrogen facilities are available) and CD at 80 °C (for companies with vacuum and liquid nitrogen facilities). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Phonological and Sensory Short-Term Memory Are Correlates and Both Affected in Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laasonen, Marja; Virsu, Veijo; Oinonen, Suvi; Sandbacka, Mirja; Salakari, Anita; Service, Elisabet

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether poor short-term memory (STM) in developmental dyslexia affects the processing of sensory stimulus sequences in addition to phonological material. STM for brief binary non-verbal stimuli (light flashes, tone bursts, finger touches, and their crossmodal combinations) was studied in 20 Finnish adults with dyslexia and 24…

  13. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  14. Sensory profiles for dried fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars commercially grown and processed in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Megan T; King, Ellena S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-08-01

    A trained sensory panel evaluated the 6 fig cultivars currently sold in the California dried fig market. The main flavor and aroma attributes determined by the sensory panel were "caramel," "honey," "raisin," and "fig," with additional aroma attributes: "common date," "dried plum," and "molasses." Sensory differences were observed between dried fig cultivars. All figs were processed by 2 commercial handlers. Processing included potassium sorbate as a preservative and SO2 application as an antibrowning agent for white cultivars. As a consequence of SO2 use during processing, high sulfite residues affected the sensory profiles of the white dried fig cultivars. Significant differences between dried fig cultivars and sources demonstrate perceived differences between processing and storage methods. The panel-determined sensory lexicon can help with California fig marketing. © 2013 The Regents of California, Davis Campus Department of Plant Sciences.

  15. Examining the Sensory Profiles of At-Risk Youth Participating in a Pre-employment Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Kwan Shea Ph.D., OTR/L

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to use Dunn’s model of sensory processing to investigate the sensory profiles of youth participating in a community-based occupational therapy pre-employment program. The youth participants had been involved in the juvenile justice system and were placed on probation. The studyanalyzed data from the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile (AASP questionnaires (Brown & Dunn, 2002 completed by 79 youth participants. Analysis of the participants’ scores on the AASP showed statistically significant differences from the norm in two quadrants; the delinquent youth scored lower in Sensation Seeking and higher in Sensation Avoiding. The delinquent youth participants demonstrated a high prevalence of atypical sensory processing patterns. Implications for further investigation and practice are discussed.

  16. Variation in sensory profile between individual Rainbow trout from the same production batch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Green-Petersen, Ditte

    The variation in sensory properties between individual Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) belonging to the same aquaculture production batch was explored by using objective sensory profiling on minced and heat treated fillets. Additionally, Quality Index, mechanical texture, pH, fat and water...... content were measured. 30 fish, all from the same production batch, were sampled at three different times making three groups (ten fish each time). The results showed differences in the sensory profile between individual fish within all three groups. Also sensory differences between the three groups...... of fish were found. Similar differences in mechanical texture were found between individuals in two of the three groups and between the groups. No differences were found in Quality Index neither between individuals nor groups. A significant correlation between lipid content and firm texture was observed...

  17. Atypical sensory profiles as core features of adult ADHD, irrespective of autistic symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlenga, D; Tjon-Ka-Jie, J Y M; Schuijers, F; Kooij, J J S

    2017-06-01

    Abnormal sensory sensitivity is a feature of autism-spectrum disorder (ASD), but is also reported in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In many cases, ADHD and ASD are comorbid. This study investigated the prevalence of sensory hyper- and hyposensitivity among adults with ADHD, controlling for autistic symptoms. One hundred and sixteen adults diagnosed with ADHD completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile-NL (AASP-NL) and the Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ) questionnaires. Prevalences of hyper- and hyposensitivity and autism-spectrum symptoms were compared to norm values. Multivariate binary logistic regressions were used to determine the association of autistic symptoms, age, gender, ADHD subtype, self-reported severity of ADHD symptoms, comorbid disorders, and use of medication on the sensory hypo- and hypersensitivity in adults with ADHD. Adults with ADHD had more autistic symptoms, and they had both more hyper- and hyposensitivity compared to norm groups. This was especially apparent in the Activity level and Auditory sensory modalities. Sensory hypo- and hypersensitivity were both related to an increased ADHD score, even showing a dose-response relationship, but not to any autistic symptom or comorbid disorder. As much as 43% of the females with ADHD reported sensory hypo- and/or hypersensitivity, compared to 22% of the men. Sensory hypo- and hypersensitivity may be viewed as key features of adult ADHD, especially in females, regardless of any autistic symptoms. Future research should be directed at the implications of this sensory dysregulation for the understanding of the pathophysiology of (female) ADHD, and on the usefulness of assessment of atypical sensory profiles in the diagnostic procedure of ADHD in adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Sensory profiles of chocolates produced from cocoa cultivars resistant to Moniliophtora Perniciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bacelar Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the sensory quality of chocolates obtained from two cocoa cultivars (PH16 and SR162 resistant to Moniliophtora perniciosa mould comparing to a conventional cocoa that is not resistant to the disease. The acceptability of the chocolates was assessed and the promising cultivars with relevant sensory and commercial attributes could be indicated to cocoa producers and chocolate manufacturers. The descriptive terminology and the sensory profile of chocolates were developed by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. Ten panelists, selected on the basis of their discriminatory capacity and reproducibility, defined eleven sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Tukey's test to compare the means. The results revealed significant differences among the sensory profiles of the chocolates. Chocolates from the PH16 cultivar were characterized by a darker brown color, more intense flavor and odor of chocolate, bitterness and a firmer texture, which are important sensory and commercial attributes. Chocolates from the SR162 cultivar were characterized by a greater sweetness and melting quality and chocolates from the conventional treatment presented intermediate sensory characteristics between those of the other two chocolates. All samples indicated high acceptance, but chocolates from the PH16 and conventional cultivars obtained higher purchase intention scores.

  19. Exploratory sensory profiling of three culinary preparations of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seefeldt, Helene F; Tønning, Erik; Thybo, Anette K

    2011-01-15

    A consumer-oriented description of potato quality with regard to culinary preparation could increase potato consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensory attributes in 11 potato varieties grown at two locations and used for three culinary preparations. Sensory evaluation of the potatoes served either as boiled, oven-fried or mashed were performed using 15-19 descriptors for appearance, flavour and texture attributes. A principal component analysis revealed that 45% of the variation in the sensory data was related to variety differences, which was ascribed to variation in appearance, dry matter content and texture. Growing location also significantly affected appearance and texture. The sensory panel judged the sensory attributes 'yellowness', 'hardness', 'adhesiveness' and 'moistness' to be important quality descriptors in all three culinary preparations. Internal references showed the high reproducibility of the sensory evaluations. The potatoes grown in a sandy location had higher content of dry matter compared to those grown in a clay location, affecting the quality. This study showed that it was possible to do reliable and reproducible sensory profiles in a potato material with a large span in quality. Sensory information based on few attributes can be used to describe culinary quality of potato varieties. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Impact of boiling conditions on the molecular and sensory profile of a vegetable broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougin, Alice; Mauroux, Olivier; Matthey-Doret, Walter; Barcos, Eugenia Maria; Beaud, Fernand; Bousbaine, Ahmed; Viton, Florian; Smarrito-Menozzi, Candice

    2015-02-11

    Low-pressure cooking has recently been identified as an alternative to ambient and high-pressure cooking to provide food with enhanced organoleptic properties. This work investigates the impact of the cooking process at different pressures on the molecular and sensory profile of a vegetable broth. Experimental results showed similar sensory and chemical profiles of vegetable broths when boiling at 0.93 and 1.5 bar, while an enhancement of sulfur volatile compounds correlated with a greater leek content and savory aroma was observed when boiling at low pressure (80 °C/0.48 bar). Thus, low-pressure cooking would allow preserving the most labile volatiles likely due to the lower water boiling temperature and the reduced level of oxygen. This study evidenced chemical and sensory impact of pressure during cooking and demonstrated that the flavor profile of culinary preparations can be enhanced by applying low-pressure conditions.

  1. Passion fruit juice with different sweeteners: sensory profile by descriptive analysis and acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Izabela Furtado de Oliveira; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different sweeteners on the sensory profile, acceptance, and drivers of preference of passion fruit juice samples sweetened with sucrose, aspartame, sucralose, stevia, cyclamate/saccharin blend 2:1, and neotame. Sensory profiling was performed by 12 trained assessors using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA). Acceptance tests (appearance, aroma, flavor, texture and overall impression) were performed with 124 consumers of tropical fruit juice. Samples with sucrose, aspartame and sucralose showed similar sensory profile (P Passion fruit flavor affected positively and sweet aftertaste affected negatively the acceptance of the samples. Samples sweetened with aspartame, sucralose, and sucrose presented higher acceptance scores for the attributes flavor, texture, and overall impression, with no significant (P passion fruit juice.

  2. Neural organization of linguistic short-term memory is sensory modality-dependent: evidence from signed and spoken language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pa, Judy; Wilson, Stephen M; Pickell, Herbert; Bellugi, Ursula; Hickok, Gregory

    2008-12-01

    Despite decades of research, there is still disagreement regarding the nature of the information that is maintained in linguistic short-term memory (STM). Some authors argue for abstract phonological codes, whereas others argue for more general sensory traces. We assess these possibilities by investigating linguistic STM in two distinct sensory-motor modalities, spoken and signed language. Hearing bilingual participants (native in English and American Sign Language) performed equivalent STM tasks in both languages during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Distinct, sensory-specific activations were seen during the maintenance phase of the task for spoken versus signed language. These regions have been previously shown to respond to nonlinguistic sensory stimulation, suggesting that linguistic STM tasks recruit sensory-specific networks. However, maintenance-phase activations common to the two languages were also observed, implying some form of common process. We conclude that linguistic STM involves sensory-dependent neural networks, but suggest that sensory-independent neural networks may also exist.

  3. Sensory Symptom Profiles of Patients With Neuropathic Pain After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Maria Dolors; Moriña, David; Rodríguez, Neus; Saurí, Joan; Vidal, Joan; Navarro, Albert; Navarro, Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Individuals experiencing neuropathic pain (NP) after spinal cord injury (SCI) present with a variety of pain descriptors in different combinations and at different intensities. These sensory features form distinct patterns, known as sensory symptom profiles. In the present cross-sectional study, we have used a multivariate statistical method (multiple correspondence analysis) to categorize the sensory symptom profiles of a cohort of 338 patients with at-level or below-level NP after SCI. We also investigated possible associations between positive neuropathic symptoms and features of the neurological lesion. The majority of participants had a combination of pain descriptors, with 59% presenting with 3 or 4 pain subtypes. No significant associations were found between specific pain profiles and etiology or clinical degree of the neurological lesion. Furthermore, similar symptom profiles were seen in patients with at-level and below-level NP. The most frequent pattern observed in patients with cervical SCI consisted predominantly of electric shocks and tingling, without burning, pressure pain, or allodynia. Classification of SCI-NP patients into the 5 groups identified in the present study based on their distinct sensory symptom profiles may allow identification of those most likely to respond to a specific analgesic approach.

  4. Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; De Smedt, Anny

    1999-01-01

    In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study was to char......In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study...... was to characterise the flavour pattern of the FAIR sausages with regards to sensory perceived compounds and volatile/sensory profiles. According to gas chromatography-olfactometry the greatest differences between the Northern and Mediterranean sausages were attributed to coffee/roasted, phenolic and vinegar odours...

  5. Results of the Sensory Profile in Children with Suspected Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newmeyer Amy J.; Grether, Sandra; Aylward, Christa; deGrauw, Ton; Akers, Rachel; Grasha, Carol; Ishikawa, Keiko; White, Jaye

    2009-01-01

    Speech-sound disorders are common in preschool-age children, and are characterized by difficulty in the planning and production of speech sounds and their combination into words and sentences. The objective of this study was to review and compare the results of the "Sensory Profile" ([Dunn, 1999]) in children with a specific type of speech-sound…

  6. TMS-induced neural noise in sensory cortex interferes with short-term memory storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler D Bancroft

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study, Harris et al. (2002 found disruption of vibrotactile short-term memory after applying single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to primary somatosensory cortex (SI early in the maintenance period, and suggested that this demonstrated a role for SI in vibrotactile memory storage. While such a role is compatible with recent suggestions that sensory cortex is the storage substrate for working memory, it stands in contrast to a relatively large body of evidence from human EEG and single-cell recording in primates that instead points to prefrontal cortex as the storage substrate for vibrotactile memory. In the present study, we use computational methods to demonstrate how Harris et al.’s results can be reproduced by TMS-induced activity in sensory cortex and subsequent feedforward interference with memory traces stored in prefrontal cortex, thereby reconciling discordant findings in the tactile memory literature.

  7. Organic and conventional nonflavored yogurts from the Italian market: study on sensory profiles and consumer acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Valli, Enrico; Cezanne, Marie Louise; Buchecker, Kirsten; Canavari, Maurizio

    2012-11-01

    The sensory properties of food products are an important success factor, especially in the organic market, where many producers and distributors of organic food claim superior taste for their products compared to the conventional alternative. For this reason consumer expectations and preferences, as well as the sensory properties of conventional and organic yogurt, have to be investigated in depth. In this work, the sensory profiling and consumer data of six nonflavored organic and conventional Italian yogurts were elaborated. Some results on the data segmentation (heavy and light users of organic food) and on the effect of information on liking (blind and labeled test) were obtained. Multivariate analysis was carried out to study how the sensory characteristics of 'natural yogurts' drive consumer liking. Consumers' preferences were oriented towards a creamy mouthfeel and smooth visual appearance and for a less acid and fresh taste. In particular, a conventional yogurt was the least accepted, because it was not creamy enough. This paper shows there is room to improve unflavored yogurt to better meet consumer expectations. Sensory profiling did not allow a distinction in odor/taste/texture between organic and conventional samples. However, three of four organic samples were in the region of highest consumer acceptability, fitting well consumers' preference. There was no clear tendency that heavy or light users scored differently in the blind and labeled tests regarding overall liking but, for all, the most liked conventional yogurt scored higher when labeled as organic. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Short guide to SDI profiling at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomerance, H.S.

    1976-06-01

    ORNL has machine-searchable data bases that correspond to printed indexes and abstracts. This guide describes the peculiarities of those several data bases and the conventions of the ORNL search system so that users can write their own queries or search profiles and can interpret the part of the output that is encoded.

  9. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumenyuk, Valentina; Korzyukov, Oleg; Roth, Thomas; Bowyer, Susan M; Drake, Christopher L

    2013-01-01

    Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP)--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS) (habitual total sleep time (TST) 7 h 32 m) vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS) (habitual TST ≤6 h). To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m) corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS), and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m) in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS), were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep), and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively). The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  10. Sleep extension normalizes ERP of waking auditory sensory gating in healthy habitually short sleeping individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Gumenyuk

    Full Text Available Chronic sleep loss has been associated with increased daytime sleepiness, as well as impairments in memory and attentional processes. In the present study, we evaluated the neuronal changes of a pre-attentive process of wake auditory sensory gating, measured by brain event-related potential (ERP--P50 in eight normal sleepers (NS (habitual total sleep time (TST 7 h 32 m vs. eight chronic short sleeping individuals (SS (habitual TST ≤6 h. To evaluate the effect of sleep extension on sensory gating, the extended sleep condition was performed in chronic short sleeping individuals. Thus, one week of time in bed (6 h 11 m corresponding to habitual short sleep (hSS, and one week of extended time (∼ 8 h 25 m in bed corresponding to extended sleep (eSS, were counterbalanced in the SS group. The gating ERP assessment was performed on the last day after each sleep condition week (normal sleep and habitual short and extended sleep, and was separated by one week with habitual total sleep time and monitored by a sleep diary. We found that amplitude of gating was lower in SS group compared to that in NS group (0.3 µV vs. 1.2 µV, at Cz electrode respectively. The results of the group × laterality interaction showed that the reduction of gating amplitude in the SS group was due to lower amplitude over the left hemisphere and central-midline sites relative to that in the NS group. After sleep extension the amplitude of gating increased in chronic short sleeping individuals relative to their habitual short sleep condition. The sleep condition × frontality interaction analysis confirmed that sleep extension significantly increased the amplitude of gating over frontal and central brain areas compared to parietal brain areas.

  11. Left TPJ activity in verbal working memory: implications for storage- and sensory-specific models of short term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravizza, Susan M; Hazeltine, Eliot; Ruiz, Sandra; Zhu, David C

    2011-04-15

    Patients with damage to the left temporoparietal junction (TPJ) have a low verbal span without concomitant deficits in speech perception. This pattern of cognitive impairment is taken as evidence for a dedicated phonological buffer that plays little role in perception (storage-specific account). In contrast, other research suggests that items are maintained and perceived in the same regions (sensory-specific account). In an fMRI study, we demonstrate that the left TPJ does not respond in a way predicted of a phonological buffer; that is, activity in this region is not sustained during encoding or maintenance. Instead, a region in the superior temporal gyrus that has been associated with both speech perception and production demonstrated the expected profile of a store: it was more active in the verbal condition than the object condition and was active during both encoding and maintenance. These results support the sensory-specific account of short term memory rather than the storage-specific account. Based on the pattern of activity in the left TPJ, we suggest that the impairment of verbal working memory observed in patients with TPJ damage may be due to diminished attentional processes rather than reduced storage capacity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Cereal bars produced with banana peel flour: evaluation of acceptability and sensory profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Vania Silva; Conti-Silva, Ana Carolina

    2018-01-01

    A mixture design was used to investigate the effects of banana peel flour, rice flakes and oat flour on sensory acceptability of cereal bars, with subsequent evaluation of sensory profile of products identified as having high acceptability. Regions of greater response for acceptability of the cereal bars, which are dependent on the three investigated components, were found. Although having good acceptability, sensory profiles of cereal bars were different. A cereal bar with the lowest quantity of banana peel flour was described as having a higher amount of rice flakes, chewiness and crispness, while formulations with intermediate and highest quantities of banana peel flour were described by darker color, higher banana aroma and bitter taste. Contrary to expectations, banana flavor of cereal bar with highest quantity of banana peel flour was lower than cereal bars with intermediate quantities. Cereal bars were not different in terms of hardness and adhesiveness and they also had a similar sweet taste and oat flavor. The use of banana peel flour in production of cereal bars is feasible and, even with different sensory profiles, cereal bars with banana peel flour are acceptable, which may favor the development of new products for different market niches. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Weighted integration of short-term memory and sensory signals in the oculomotor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deravet, Nicolas; Blohm, Gunnar; de Xivry, Jean-Jacques Orban; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2018-05-01

    Oculomotor behaviors integrate sensory and prior information to overcome sensory-motor delays and noise. After much debate about this process, reliability-based integration has recently been proposed and several models of smooth pursuit now include recurrent Bayesian integration or Kalman filtering. However, there is a lack of behavioral evidence in humans supporting these theoretical predictions. Here, we independently manipulated the reliability of visual and prior information in a smooth pursuit task. Our results show that both smooth pursuit eye velocity and catch-up saccade amplitude were modulated by visual and prior information reliability. We interpret these findings as the continuous reliability-based integration of a short-term memory of target motion with visual information, which support modeling work. Furthermore, we suggest that saccadic and pursuit systems share this short-term memory. We propose that this short-term memory of target motion is quickly built and continuously updated, and constitutes a general building block present in all sensorimotor systems.

  14. Mineral and sensory profile of seasoned cracked olives packed in diverse salt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Baquero, J M; Bautista-Gallego, J; Garrido-Fernández, A; López-López, A

    2013-05-01

    This work studies the effect of packing cracked seasoned olives with NaCl, KCl, and CaCl(2) mixture brines on their mineral nutrients and sensory attributes, using RSM methodology. The Na, K, Ca, and residual natural Mn contents in flesh as well as saltiness, bitterness and fibrousness were significantly related to the initial concentrations of salts in the packing solution. This new process led to table olives with a significantly lower sodium content (about 31%) than the traditional product but fortified in K and Ca. High levels of Na and Ca in the flesh led to high scores of acidity and saltiness (the first descriptor) and bitterness (the second) while the K content was unrelated to any sensory descriptor. The new presentations using moderate proportions of alternative salts will therefore have improved nutritional value and healthier characteristics but only a slightly modified sensory profile. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Relationships among Sensory Responsiveness, Anxiety, and Ritual Behaviors in Children with and without Atypical Sensory Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Orit; Bar-Shalita, Tami; Mansour, Hanin; Dar, Reuven

    2017-08-01

    To explore relationships between sensory responsiveness, anxiety, and ritual behaviors in boys with typical and atypical sensory responsiveness. Forty-eight boys, ages 5-9 participated in the study (28 boys with atypical sensory responsiveness and 20 controls). Atypical sensory responsiveness was defined as a score of ≤154 on the Short Sensory Profile. Parents completed the Sensory Profile, the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders, and the Childhood Routines Inventory. Children with atypical sensory responsiveness had significantly higher levels of anxiety and a higher frequency of ritual behaviors than controls. Atypical sensory responsiveness was significantly related to both anxiety and ritual behaviors, with anxiety mediating the relationship between sensory modulation and ritual behaviors. The findings elucidate the potential consequences of atypical sensory responsiveness and could support the notion that ritual behaviors develop as a coping mechanism in response to anxiety stemming from primary difficulty in modulating sensory input.

  16. Investigation of sensory profiles and hedonic drivers of emerging aquaculture fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexi, Niki; Byrne, Derek V; Nanou, Evangelia; Grigorakis, Kriton

    2018-02-01

    The aquaculture sector needs to increase the diversity fish species and their processed products to cover rising consumer demands. Candidates for this diversification have been identified to be meagre, greater amberjack, pikeperch and wreckfish. Yet scientific knowledge on their sensory profiles and consumer hedonic responses is scarce. The aim of the current study was to investigate these aspects, since they are essential for product development and market targeting. Species exhibited different sensory profiles with the exception of the odor/flavor profiles of meagre and greater amberjack, which were similar. Texture was more important than odor/flavor in explaining interspecies differences. Yet the hedonic responses were equally related to texture and odor/flavor. None of the species received negative hedonic scores. Both positive and negative hedonic drivers were identified within the odor/flavor and texture modalities. The distinct profiles of meagre, greater amberjack, pikeperch and wreckfish make these fish species valuable first materials for new product development and for covering markets with different sensory preferences. Differences in fish texture are more easily perceivable, yet small variations in fish odor/flavor can have a great impact on consumers' hedonic responses. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. En masse in vitro functional profiling of the axonal mechanosensitivity of sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usoskin, Dmitry; Zilberter, Misha; Linnarsson, Sten; Hjerling-Leffler, Jens; Uhlén, Per; Harkany, Tibor; Ernfors, Patrik

    2010-09-14

    Perception of the environment relies on somatosensory neurons. Mechanosensory, proprioceptor and many nociceptor subtypes of these neurons have specific mechanosensitivity profiles to adequately differentiate stimulus patterns. Nevertheless, the cellular basis of differential mechanosensation remains largely elusive. Successful transduction of sensory information relies on the recruitment of sensory neurons and mechanosensation occurring at their peripheral axonal endings in vivo. Conspicuously, existing in vitro models aimed to decipher molecular mechanisms of mechanosensation test single sensory neuron somata at any one time. Here, we introduce a compartmental in vitro chamber design to deliver precisely controlled mechanical stimulation of sensory axons with synchronous real-time imaging of Ca(2+) transients in neuronal somata that reliably reflect action potential firing patterns. We report of three previously not characterized types of mechanosensitive neuron subpopulations with distinct intrinsic axonal properties tuned specifically to static indentation or vibration stimuli, showing that different classes of sensory neurons are tuned to specific types of mechanical stimuli. Primary receptor currents of vibration neurons display rapidly adapting conductance reliably detected for every single stimulus during vibration and are consistently converted into action potentials. This result allows for the characterization of two critical steps of mechanosensation in vivo: primary signal detection and signal conversion into specific action potential firing patterns in axons.

  18. Relationship between the COI test and other sensory profiles by statistical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvente, J. J.

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available Relationships between 139 sensory attributes evaluated on 32 samples of virgin olive oil have been analysed by a statistical sensory wheel that guarantees the objectiveness and prediction of its conclusions concerning the best clusters of attributes: green, bitter-pungent, ripe fruit, fruity, sweet fruit, undesirable attributes and two miscellanies. The procedure allows the sensory notes evaluated for potential consumers of this edible oil from the point of view of its habitual consumers to be understood with special reference to The European Communities Regulation n-2568/91. Five different panels: Spanish, Greek, Italian, Dutch and British, have been used to evaluate the samples. Analysis of the relationships between stimuli perceived by aroma, flavour, smell, mouthfeel and taste together with Linear Sensory Profiles based on Fuzzy Logic are provided. A 3-dimensional plot indicates the usefulness of the proposed procedure in the authentication of different varieties of virgin olive oil. An analysis of the volatile compounds responsible for most of the attributes gives weight to the conclusions. Directions which promise to improve the E.G. Regulation on the sensory quality of olive oil are also given.

  19. Aroma profile of malbec red wines from La Mancha region: Chemical and sensory characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Palomo, E; Trujillo, M; García Ruiz, A; González Viñas, M A

    2017-10-01

    The aroma of La Mancha Malbec red wines over four consecutive vintages was characterized by chemical and sensory analysis. Solid phase extraction (SPE) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to isolate and analyze free volatile compounds. Quantitative Descriptive Sensory Analysis (QDA) was carried out to characterize the sensory aroma profile. A total of 79 free volatile compounds were identified and quantified in the wines over these four vintages. Volatile aroma compounds were classified into seven aromatic series and their odour activity values were calculated in order to determine the aroma impact compounds in these wines. The aroma sensory profile of these wines was characterized by red fruit, fresh, prune, liquorice, clove, caramel, leather, tobacco and coffee aromas. This study provides a complete aroma characterization of La Mancha Malbec red wines and it is proposed that these wines can be considered as an alternative to wines from traditional grape varieties of this region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Different commercial yeast strains affecting the volatile and sensory profile of cava base wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrens, Jordi; Urpí, Pilar; Riu-Aumatell, Montserrat; Vichi, Stefania; López-Tamames, Elvira; Buxaderas, Susana

    2008-05-10

    36 semi-industrial fermentations were carried out with 6 different yeast strains in order to assess differences in the wines' chemical and volatile profile. Two of the tested strains (Y3 and Y6) showed the fastest fermentation rates throughout 3 harvests and on 2 grape varieties. The wines fermented by three of the tested strains (Y5, Y3 and Y4) stand out for their high amounts of esters and possessed the highest fruity character. Wines from strains producing low amounts of esters and high concentrations of medium chain fatty acids, higher alcohols and six-carbon alcohols were the least appreciated at the sensory analysis. The data obtained in the present study show how the yeast strain quantitatively affects the final chemical and volatile composition of cava base wines and have repercussions on their sensory profile, independently of must variety and harvest year.

  1. Finding sensory profilers amongst red wine composition: a novel nationwide approach

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, A. J.; Ávila, P.; Silva, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this work was to verify the signaling/profiling potential of wine compounds and the physicochemical and bioclimatic winerelated measurements on a nationwide sensory scale of red wine typicality. Color tonality evolved from violet-purple in cooler northern regions to ruby-garnet in hotter southern regions. Acidity and astringency were enhanced from south to north. Conversely, alcohol and viscosity progressed southward. Bitterness was primarily affected by inland-coastal influe...

  2. Gross composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of Saanen goat milk fed with Cacti varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catunda, Karen Luanna Marinho; de Aguiar, Emerson Moreira; de Góes Neto, Pedro Etelvino; da Silva, José Geraldo Medeiros; Moreira, José Aparecido; do Nascimento Rangel, Adriano Henrique; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais

    2016-08-01

    The use of cactus is an alternative for sustainable production systems in Northeast Brazil. The objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of supplying five cacti species from the Brazilian semi-arid northeast region on the physical-chemical sensory characteristics and the profile of fatty acids of Saanen goat milk. Five multiparous goats were used, confined, and distributed in a Latin square 5 × 5 design, with five experimental diets and five periods. Treatments consisted of 473 to 501 g/kg of a cactaceous mix (Pilosocereus gounellei, Cereus jamacaru, Cereus squamosus, Nopalea cochenillifera, or Opuntia stricta) added to 187.8 to 197.9 g/kg of "Sabiá" (Mimosa caesalpiniifolia) hay and 311 to 329 g/kg of concentrate. No effects of experimental diets (P > 0.05) were evidenced in the physical and chemical composition of milk for fat, total solids, or salt levels. However, protein, lactose, solids-not-fat levels, and cryoscopy point were influenced by diet (P  0.05) in the profile of fatty acids between treatments for all acids found, except for butyric acid. Diets also did not (P > 0.05) confer sensory changes in milk characteristics. The use of the native cacti in the dairy goats' diet did not influence the sensory characteristics or lipid profile of milk.

  3. Rapid deterioration of pain sensory-discriminative information in short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Pierre; Doucet, Jean-Charles; Fortin, Marie-Chantale; Duncan, Gary H

    2004-08-01

    The assessment of pain and analgesic efficacy sometimes relies on the retrospective evaluation of pain felt in the immediate, recent or distant past, yet we have a very limited understanding of the processes involved in the encoding, maintenance and intentional retrieval of pain. We examine the properties of the short-term memory of thermal and pain sensation intensity with a delayed-discrimination task using pairs of heat pain, warm and cool stimulation in healthy volunteers. Performance decreased as a function of the inter-stimulus interval (ISI), indicating a robust deterioration of sensory information over the test period of 4-14 s. As expected, performance also decreased with smaller temperature differences (Delta-T) and shorter stimulus durations (6-2 s). The relation between performance and Delta-T was adequately described by a power function, the exponent of which increased linearly with longer ISI. Importantly, performance declined steadily with increasing ISI (from 6 to 14 s)--but only for pairs of heat pain stimuli that were relatively difficult to discriminate (Delta-T short-term memory for pain and temperature sensation intensity relies on a transient analog representation that is quickly degraded and transformed into a more resistant but less precise categorical format. This implies that retrospective pain ratings obtained even after very short delays may be rather inaccurate but relatively reliable.

  4. Sensory and chemical profiles of Finnish honeys of different botanical origins and consumer preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortesniemi, Maaria; Rosenvald, Sirli; Laaksonen, Oskar; Vanag, Anita; Ollikka, Tarja; Vene, Kristel; Yang, Baoru

    2018-04-25

    The sensory-chemical profiles of Finnish honeys (labeled as buckwheat, cloudberry-bog, lingonberry, sweet clover, willowherb and multifloral honeys) were investigated using a multi-analytical approach. The sensory test (untrained panel, n = 62) was based on scaling and check-all-that-apply (CATA) methods accompanied with questions on preference and usage of honey. The results were correlated with corresponding profiles of odor-active compounds, determined using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry/olfactometry (GC-MS/O). Botanical origins and chemical compositions including sugars were evaluated using NMR spectroscopy. A total of 73 odor-active compounds were listed based on GC-O. Sweet and mild honeys with familiar sensory properties were preferred by the panelists (PCA, R 2 X(1) = 0.7) while buckwheat and cloudberry-bog honeys with strong odor, flavor and color were regarded as unfamiliar and unpleasant. The data will give the honey industry novel information on honey properties in relation to the botanical origin, and consumer preference. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.

  6. Aromatic profile of ciders by chemical quantitative, gas chromatography-olfactometry, and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antón, María José; Suárez Valles, Belén; García Hevia, Ana; Picinelli Lobo, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Nine samples of Asturias cider have been analyzed for volatile, olfactometric, and sensorial profiles. The aromatic composition was mainly constituted by fusel alcohols and ethyl esters. Among the minor volatile compounds, fatty acids, volatile phenols, and alcohols were the main components. The olfactometric analysis revealed the existence of 55 aromatic areas, exhibiting a wide range of intensities. Components like amyl alcohols, 2-phenylethanol, ethyl esters such as 2-methylbutyrate, hexanoate and octanoate, hexanoic and octanoic acids 2-phenylethyl acetate, 4-ethyl guaiacol, and 4-ethyl phenol could be considered as being part of the structure of cider aroma. The extract dilution analysis of one extract identified 2 volatile phenols (4-ethyl guaiacol and 4-ethyl phenol) among the most powerful odorants in cider. These components gave significant correlations with the sensory attributes sweet, spicy, and lees. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Sensory profile and acceptability for pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) nectar with different sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Mírian Luisa Faria; Dutra, Mariana Borges de Lima; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory properties and acceptability of pitanga nectar samples prepared with sucrose and different sweeteners (sucralose, aspartame, stevia with 40% rebaudioside A, stevia with 95% rebaudioside A, neotame, and a 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend). A total of 13 assessors participated in a quantitative descriptive analysis and evaluated the samples in relation to the descriptor terms. The acceptability test was carried out by 120 fruit juice consumers. The results of the quantitative descriptive analysis of pitanga nectar showed that samples prepared with sucralose, aspartame, and the 2:1 cyclamate/saccharin blend had sensory profiles similar to that of the sample prepared with sucrose. Consumers' most accepted samples were prepared with sucrose, sucralose, aspartame, and neotame. The sweeteners that have the greatest potential to replace sucrose in pitanga nectar are sucralose and aspartame. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Pain when walking: individual sensory profiles in the foot soles of torture victims - a controlled study using quantitative sensory testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prip, K.; Persson, A. L.; Sjolund, B. H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: With quantitative sensory testing (QST) we recently found no differences in sensory function of the foot soles between groups of torture victims with or without exposure to falanga (beatings under the feet). Compared to matched controls the torture victims had hyperalgesia to deep mec...

  9. Influence of vegetable coagulant and ripening time on the lipolytic and sensory profile of cheeses made with raw goat milk from Canary breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, Arturo A; Pino, Verónica; Fresno, María R; Jiménez-Abizanda, Ana I; Álvarez, Sergio; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2017-04-01

    Free fatty acids and sensory profiles were obtained for cheeses made with raw goat milk and vegetable coagulant, derived from the cardoon flower ( Cynara cardunculus), at different ripening times (7 and 20 days). A solid-liquid phase extraction method followed by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography was used. Profiles were also obtained with cheeses made with commercial coagulant, traditional kid rennet paste, and mixture coagulant (vegetable coagulant-kid rennet). The use of vegetable coagulant and vegetable coagulant-kid rennet is common in traditional Protected Designation of Origin cheeses such as " Queso Flor de Guía" and " Queso Media Flor de Guía" (Spain). Contents of short-chain free fatty acids (7.5-22.5 mmol·kg -1 ), medium-chain free fatty acids (0.4-3.7 mmol·kg -1 ), and long-chain free fatty acids (0.2-2.1 mmol·kg -1 ) varied depending on the coagulant type and the ripening time. Vegetable coagulant cheeses present odour intensity and flavour intensity much higher than commercial coagulant cheeses in the sensory analysis for cheeses obtained with seven days of ripening, but the values decrease when increasing the ripening time. Multivariate analysis allowed us to differentiate cheese samples according to the ripening time when using lipolytic profile and according to the coagulant type using the sensory profile.

  10. Sensory and volatile profiles of monofloral honeys produced by native stingless bees of the brazilian semiarid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira da; Sousa, Janaína Maria Batista; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Garruti, Deborah Dos Santos; Madruga, Marta Suely

    2018-03-01

    Monofloral honeys produced by stingless bees M. subnitida Ducke and M. scutellaris Latrelle in typical flowering of the Brazilian semi-arid Ziziphus juazeiro Mart (juazeiro), Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (velame branco) and Mimosa arenosa willd Poir (jurema branca) were characterized in relation to volatile and sensorial profile. It identified 11 sensory descriptors and 96 volatile compounds. It was noticed a strong effect of flowering in sensorial profile and volatile of honeys. Juazeiro honey stood out with a higher characteristic aroma, taste sweet, caramel flavor and levels of aromatic aldehydes; jurema honey has been described with herb and beeswax aroma and the presence of sulfur compounds and ketones; volatile acids associated with acid taste, medicinal taste and clove aroma characterized the velame branco honey. These results demonstrate that the knowledge of the sensory and aroma profile of these honeys can contribute to characterization of its floral and geographical identity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance of flash profile and napping with and without training for describing small sensory differences in a model wine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing; Grønbeck, Marlene Schou; Di Monaco, Rosella

    2016-01-01

    . In this study different variations of two rapid sensory methods, one based on holistic assessment – Napping, and one based on attribute evaluation – Flash Profile, were tested for the evaluation of the flavour in wine. Model wines were developed with control over the sensory differences in terms of sensory...... to arrange samples on the sheet) or the product (familiarisation with the sensory properties of the wines) improved the outcome compared to the classical Napping protocol. The classical Flash Profile protocol and its modified version including a Napping with subsequent attributes generation as the word...... generation step and limiting the number of attributes for ranking gave a similar sample space. The Napping method could best highlight qualitative sample differences, whereas the Flash Profile provided a more precise product mapping on quantitative differences between model wines....

  12. Profil Sensori dan Nilai Gizi Beberapa Jenis Ikan Patin dan Hibrid Nasutus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresia Dwi Suryaningrum

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai profil sensori dan nilai gizi filet patin Siam (Pangasius hypopthalmus, Jambal (Pangasius djambal Bleeker, Pasupati, Nasutus serta hasil silangan Siam dan Nasutus (hibrid Nasutus telah dilakukan. Analisis sensori dilakukan dengan uji pembeda menyeluruh, uji pembeda atribut, uji kesukaan, dan uji rangking. Pengamatan lainnya dilakukan terhadap edible portion dan nilai gizi (proksimat dan profil asam amino. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa filet patin hibrid Nasutus lebih memiliki kesamaan warna dengan filet patin Nasutus daripada filet patin Siam. W arna daging filet patin hibrid Nasutus berbeda nyata dengan induknya yaitu patin Nasutus dan patin Siam. Panelis lebih menyukai warna filet patin hibrid Nasutus dibandingkan dengan patin Pasupati. Patin hibrid Nasutus mempunyai tekstur yang berbeda nyata dengan Nasutus dan Jambal yang kompak dan padat, tetapi mempunyai kesamaan dengan patin Siam dan Pasupati yang agak kompak dan agak padat. Berdasarkan intensitas warna, hasil uji pembeda atribut dan uji kesukaan, maka secara berturut-turut panelis menyukai filet patin Jambal, Nasutus, hibrid Nasutus, Pasupati, dan Siam. Hibrid Nasutus mempunyai edible portionpaling tinggi (49% dibandingkan dengan patin lainnya tetapi mempunyai kadar air, kadar lemak, dan kadar protein yang lebih rendah dan berbeda nyata dengan induknya (patin Siam dan Nasutus. Patin Siam mengandung asam amino esensial paling tinggi di antara berbagai jenis patin yang diteliti. Profil asam amino patin hibrid Nasutus, Jambal, Pasupati, dan Nasutus hampir sama, kecuali pada patin Siam yang mengandung glisin, leusin, isoleusin, histidin, serin, treonin, dan prolin yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan patin lainnya

  13. Sensory profiles as potential mediators of the association between hypomania and hopelessness in 488 major affective outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gonda, Xenia; Canepa, Giovanna; Pompili, Maurizio; Rihmer, Zoltan; Amore, Mario; Serafini, Gianluca

    2018-01-01

    Extreme sensory processing patterns may contribute to the pathophysiology of major affective disorders. We aimed to examine whether significant correlations exist between sensory profiles, hypomania, self-reported depression, and hopelessness and whether sensory profiles may be potential mediators of the association between hypomania and depression/hopelessness. The sample consisted of 488 euthymic affective disorder patients of which 283 diagnosed with unipolar and 162 with bipolar disorder with an age ranging from 18 to 65 years (mean = 47.82 ± 11.67). Lower registration of sensory input and sensory sensitivity significantly correlated with elevated self-reported depression, hopelessness, and irritable/risk-taking hypomania while sensation seeking and avoiding significantly correlated with elevated depression and hopelessness but not with irritable/risk-taking hypomania. Moreover, individuals with lower ability to register sensory input and higher hypomania showed higher self-reported depression than those with good registration of sensory information. According to SEM analyses, there was both a direct/indirect effect of irritable/risk-taking on depression-hopelessness with the mediation model explaining 48% of the variance in depression-hopelessness. The relatively small sample size and the cross-sectional nature of the study design do not allow the generalization of the main findings. Low registration was associated with enhanced depressed mood and hopelessness while sensory seeking may be considered a resilient factor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Impact of Hybridization on the Volatile and Sensorial Profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    OpenAIRE

    Andréa Santos da Costa; Maria de Fátima Arrigoni-Blank; Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira da Silva; Mércia Freitas Alves; Darlisson de Alexandria Santos; Péricles Barreto Alves; Arie Fitzgerald Blank

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids (“Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita,” “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon,” and “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita”). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component an...

  15. Aroma profile of Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines by chromatographic and sensorial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguerol-Pato, R; González-Álvarez, M; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2012-10-15

    The aroma profiles obtained of three Garnacha Tintorera-based wines were studied: a base wine, a naturally sweet wine, and a mixture of naturally sweet wine with other sweet wine obtained by fortification with spirits. The aroma fingerprint was traced by GC-MS analysis of volatile compounds and by sensorial analysis of odours and tastes. Within the volatiles compounds, sotolon (73 μg/L) and acetoin (122 μg/L) were the two main compounds found in naturally sweet wine. With regards to the odorant series, those most dominant for Garnacha Tintorera base wine were floral, fruity and spicy. Instead, the most marked odorant series affected by off-vine drying of the grapes were floral, caramelized and vegetal-wood. Finally, odorant series affected by the switch-off of alcoholic fermentation with ethanol 96% (v/v) fit for human consumption followed by oak barrel aging were caramelized and vegetal-wood. A partial least square test (PLS-2) was used to detect correlations between sets of sensory data (those obtained with mouth and nose) with the ultimate aim of improving our current understanding of the flavour of Garnacha Tintorera red wines, both base and sweet. Based on the sensory dataset analysis, the descriptors with the highest weight for separating base and sweet wines from Garnacha Tintorera were sweetness, dried fruit and caramel (for sweet wines) vs. bitterness, astringency and geranium (for base wines). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Volatile Compounds in Dry Dog Foods and Their Influence on Sensory Aromatic Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koushik Adhikari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine volatile compounds in dry dog foods and their possible influence on sensory aromatic profile. Grain-free dry dog foods were compared to dry dog foods manufactured with grain, but also with different protein sources for their aromatic volatiles. Solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine the aromatic compounds present in the headspace of these samples. Partial Least Squares regression was performed to correlate the instrumental aromatic data with the descriptive aroma analysis data. A total of 54 aromatic compounds were tentatively identified in the dry dog food samples, with aldehydes and ketones being the most represented organic volatiles group. Grain-added products were on the average higher in total volatiles than grain-free products. Partial Least Squares regression analysis indicated possible connections with sensory aromatic profile and grain-added samples, such as rancid aroma and aldehydes, especially hexanal. The results of this study showed that dry dog foods are products with complex odor characteristics and that grain-free products are less aromatic.

  17. Sensory profile and drivers of liking for grape nectar among smoker and nonsmoker consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ramos Voorpostel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Decreased gustatory and olfactory capacity is one of the problems caused by tobacco use. The objectives of this study were to determine the sensory profile of six grape nectar samples sweetened with different sweeteners and to verify the drivers of liking in two distinct consumer groups: smokers and nonsmokers. The sensory profile was constructed by twelve trained panelists using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA. Consumer tests were performed with 112 smokers and 112 nonsmokers. Partial least squares regression analyses was used to identify the drivers of acceptance and rejection of the grape nectars among the two consumer groups. According to the QDA, the samples differed regarding six of the nineteen attributes generated. The absolute averages of the affective test were lower in the group of smokers; possibly because smoking influences acceptance and eating preferences, especially with regard to sweet foods. The results showed that the grape flavor was the major driver of preference for acceptance of the nectar, while astringency, wine aroma, bitterness and sweetness, and bitter aftertaste were drivers of rejection in the two groups of consumers, with some differences between the groups.

  18. Sensory profiling and consumer acceptability of new dark cocoa bars containing Tuscan autochthonous food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantini, Claudio; Salusti, Patrizia; Romi, Marco; Francini, Alessandra; Sebastiani, Luca

    2018-03-01

    A new set of cocoa bars named Toscolata ® were developed containing top-quality extra virgin olive oil, dried apples cultivars, and chestnut flour. The present work has been conducted to define the sensory profile of these products through tasting by trained experts and consumers to study the acceptability, preference, and quality perception. The four sensorial profiles of the bars differed in the level of persistence, bitterness, aromaticity, acidity, astringency, and tastiness. In particular, the sour attribute could be traced to the presence of dried apple. Bars containing apple and chestnut flour obtained higher acceptance ratings, compared to those with extra virgin olive oil. The bar with chestnut flour was preferred by consumers who considered it to be sweeter due to the presence of natural sugars, which lowered the bitter sensation of cocoa. These results showed that the selection of the preferred bar by consumers was mainly based on the level of bitterness and, in particular, elderly consumers expressed a strong preference for the sweetest product. As far as we know, this is the first study comparing the results of a panel of expert tasters with that of consumers in the tasting of dark chocolate.

  19. Short communication: Chemical and sensory characteristics of Canestrato di Moliterno cheese manufactured in spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, A; Gambacorta, G; Loizzo, P; Cassone, A; Faccia, M

    2016-08-01

    Canestrato di Moliterno is an Italian Protected Geographical Indication hard cheese, made in winter and spring from a mixture of ewe and goat milks, that has been poorly investigated. The present study was aimed at characterizing the cheese made in the warm season. Two series of samples, ripened in traditional rooms called fondaco as indicated in the official protocol of production, were taken from the main certified producers. The cheeses were analyzed for gross composition; proteolysis and lipolysis; volatile fraction; and organoleptic features. Gross composition was not completely homogeneous among the samples, but primary proteolysis and lipolysis were quite uniform. We observed variations in secondary proteolysis, likely caused by fluctuations in environmental conditions in the fondaco. The sensory profiles of the samples were homogeneous: the cheese was soluble, greasy, and adhesive, with a sheepfold and buttery odor. The main taste attributes were fermented, pungent, and bitter. Overall, the results of this study provide an initial contribution to the characterization of Canestrato di Moliterno, and could be used to improve marketing strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Brief Report: DSM-5 Sensory Behaviours in Children with and without an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Dido; Chandler, Susie; Charman, Tony; Simonoff, Emily; Baird, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    Atypical responses to sensory stimuli are a new criterion in DSM-5 for the diagnosis of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) but are also reported in other developmental disorders. Using the Short Sensory profile (SSP) and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised we compared atypical sensory behaviour (hyper- or hypo-reactivity to sensory input or unusual…

  1. Brief Report: Further Evidence of Sensory Subtypes in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Alison E.; Dennis, Simon J.; Geraghty, Maureen E.

    2011-01-01

    Distinct sensory processing (SP) subtypes in autism have been reported previously. This study sought to replicate the previous findings in an independent sample of thirty children diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder. Model-based cluster analysis of parent-reported sensory functioning (measured using the Short Sensory Profile) confirmed the…

  2. Optical bi-sensorial measurement system for production control of extruded profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckenmann, A.; Bernstein, J.

    2008-09-01

    Extruded profiles are semi-finished products (made out of steel, brass, aluminum, synthetics...) which are appointed for wide applications in manufacturing of technical products. As yet used optical sensors in process control working to the shading technology detect the object's shadow orthographically to the axis of illumination. As a consequence they record it unattached by the profiles coat in measurement range at any point of the measured profile with high precision. As a matter of fact, concave zones cannot be captured. Alternatively the measurement of concave zones can be arranged by light-section systems. These do not comply with the required accuracy, are comparatively slow and moreover affected by dislocations of the section of the profile. A measurement system including a light-section and a shading system combines the advantages of both optical systems. It is to serve with a reliable conception for the assembly of a bi-sensorial measurement system consisting of both systems as well as suitable methods of analysis for the in-line inspection of concave profiles. As a result it contains conclusions concerning requirements of the light source, the arrangement of this source and the cameras, obtainable precision and sampling rate as well as the essential synchronization of both systems. After designing an appropriate prototype, the selected light-section system and the shading system will be synchronized and aligned. Therefore, the metered geometrical data will be merged for the evaluation of form deviation. So, developed and adapted software supports and contains proposals to the uncertainty after successful tests. The system and a calibration method will be proved in production where robustness will be a most critical despite of heat, dust and vibrations. The target uncertainty of less than 0.1 mm at every section of the profiles coat has to be met.

  3. Effect of sequential fermentations and grape cultivars on volatile compounds and sensory profiles of Danish wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Arneborg, Nils; Toldam-Andersen, Torben B; Petersen, Mikael A; Bredie, Wender Lp

    2017-08-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the use of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, three non-Saccharomyces yeast strains (Metschnikowia viticola, Metschnikowia fructicola and Hanseniaspora uvarum) indigenously isolated in Denmark were used in sequential fermentations with S. cerevisiae on three cool-climate grape cultivars, Bolero, Rondo and Regent. During the fermentations, the yeast growth was determined as well as key oenological parameters, volatile compounds and sensory properties of finished rosé wines. The different non-Saccharomyces strains and cool-climate grape cultivars produced wines with a distinctive aromatic profile. A total of 67 volatile compounds were identified, including 43 esters, 14 alcohols, five acids, two ketones, a C13-norisoprenoid, a lactone and a sulfur compound. The use of M. viticola in sequential fermentation with S. cerevisiae resulted in richer berry and fruity flavours in wines. The sensory plot showed a more clear separation among wine samples by grape cultivars compared with yeast strains. Knowledge on the influence of indigenous non-Saccharomyces strains and grape cultivars on the flavour generation contributed to producing diverse wines in cool-climate wine regions. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. A Computerized Evaluation of Sensory Memory and Short-term Memory Impairment After Rapid Ascent to 4280 m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qing Hai; Ge, Di; Zhao, Wei; Ma, Xue; Hu, Ke Yan; Lu, Yao; Liu, Zheng Xiang; Ran, Ji Hua; Li, Xiao Ling; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Jian Feng

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of acute high-altitude exposure on sensory and short-term memory using interactive software, we transported 30 volunteers in a sport utility vehicle to a 4280 m plateau within 3 h. We measured their memory performance on the plain (initial arrival) and 3 h after arrival on the plateau using six measures. Memory performance was significantly poorer on the plateau by four of the six measures. Furthermore, memory performance was significantly poorer in the acute mountain sickness (AMS) group than in the non-AMS group by five of the six measures. These findings indicate that rapid ascent to 4280 m and remaining at this altitude for 3 h resulted in decreased sensory and short-term memory, particularly among participants who developed AMS. Copyright © 2016 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensory profile and contribution of major components of aroma in dry red wine quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Costa de Oliveira

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the sensory profile and main volatile compounds of a set of commercial wines from two major wine regions in Brazil. A total of 28 descriptors were selected by quantitative descriptive analysis, and “red”, “violet”, “pungent aroma”, “vinegary aroma” and “softness” were the most important descriptors in sample discrimination (p<=0.05. 42 volatile aroma compounds were considered relevant for the evaluation of red wine samples. Several acetates and esters that contribute to the pleasant aroma in wines were found in the samples, but other undesirable compounds were also identified: acetic acid and octanoic acid may have contributed to the vinegary and sulphur odors perceived by a trained team.

  6. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae

    2014-01-01

    cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially...... fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles...... in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri...

  7. Effect of sequential fermentations and grape cultivars on volatile compounds and sensory profiles of Danish wines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Jing; Arneborg, Nils; Toldam-Andersen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There has been an increasing interest in the use of selected non-Saccharomyces yeasts in co-culture with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, three non-Saccharomyces yeast strains (Metschnikowia viticola, Metschnikowia fructicola and Hanseniaspora uvarum) indigenously isolated...... in Denmark were used in sequential fermentations with S. cerevisiae on three cool-climate grape cultivars, Bolero, Rondo and Regent. During the fermentations, the yeast growth was determined as well as key oenological parameters, volatile compounds and sensory properties of finished rosé wines. RESULTS......: The different non-Saccharomyces strains and cool-climate grape cultivars produced wines with a distinctive aromatic profile. A total of 67 volatile compounds were identified, including 43 esters, 14 alcohols, five acids, two ketones, a C13-norisoprenoid, a lactone and a sulfur compound. The use of M. viticola...

  8. The impact of hybridization on the volatile and sensorial profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Santos; Arrigoni-Blank, Maria de Fátima; da Silva, Maria Aparecida Azevedo Pereira; Alves, Mércia Freitas; Santos, Darlisson de Alexandria; Alves, Péricles Barreto; Blank, Arie Fitzgerald

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) of the essential oil of three hybrids ("Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita," "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon," and "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita"). Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey's test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid "Cinnamon" × "Maria Bonita" exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Maria Bonita," such as canfora and (E)-caryophyllene; (E)-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid "Sweet Dani" × "Cinnamon"; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents.

  9. TMS-induced neural noise in sensory cortex interferes with short-term memory storage in prefrontal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Bancroft, Tyler D.; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Hockley, William E.; Servos, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, Harris et al. (2002) found disruption of vibrotactile short-term memory after applying single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary somatosensory cortex (SI) early in the maintenance period, and suggested that this demonstrated a role for SI in vibrotactile memory storage. While such a role is compatible with recent suggestions that sensory cortex is the storage substrate for working memory, it stands in contrast to a relatively large body of evidence f...

  10. Effects of freezing-thawing on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked poultry breast meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHUANG Hong

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Freezing is a common method used by consumers to extend meat shelf life and by researchers to allow for subsequent meat quality assessments and processing.However,the effects of freezing on the sensory quality of cooked poultry breast meat are not well documented.The objective of this study was to compare sensory quality profiles of fresh and frozen/thawed chicken breast fillets (pectoralis major.Breast fillets were removed from carcasses within 24 h postmortem and either cooked from a fresh state or placed in a -20℃ freezer.Frozen samples were thawed by three different methods:thawing during cooking directly from a frozen state (0 h,thawing in 20℃ water for 2 h prior to cooking (2 h,or thawing at 4℃ for 24 h prior to cooking (24 h.A control treatment with fillets cooked directly from a fresh state was used.Fillets were cooked to an endpoint temperature of 78℃ and sensory quality was evaluated by trained descriptive panelists using 0~15 universal intensity scales.Results show that there were not treatment differences (P>0.05 in the average intensity scores for any of the descriptive flavor attributes or for 5 of the descriptive texture attributes (cohesiveness,hardness,juiciness,wad size,and wetness of wad.However,the intensity scores for cohesiveness of mass,rate of breakdown,and chewiness were significantly different among the treatments (P<0.05.Cohesiveness of mass intensity scores for 0h and 24 h fillets were significantly higher than 2 h samples.Fillets cooked directly from a frozen state (0 h had significantly higher intensity scores for rate of breakdown and chewiness than fresh controls and 2 h samples,respectively.These results indicate that freezing-thawing does not affect sensory flavor quality;however,it may change the texture attributes of cooked chicken breast meat products.The effects on meat texture depend on thawing methods prior to cooking.

  11. Estimation of Sensory Pork Loin Tenderness Using Warner-Bratzler Shear Force and Texture Profile Analysis Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jee-Hwan; Choi, Mi-Hee; Rhee, Min-Suk; Kim, Byoung-Chul

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the degree to which instrumental measurements explain the variation in pork loin tenderness as assessed by the sensory evaluation of trained panelists. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) had a significant relationship with the sensory tenderness variables, such as softness, initial tenderness, chewiness, and rate of breakdown. In a regression analysis, WBS could account variations in these sensory variables, though only to a limited proportion of variation. On the other hand, three parameters from texture profile analysis (TPA)-hardness, gumminess, and chewiness-were significantly correlated with all sensory evaluation variables. In particular, from the result of stepwise regression analysis, TPA hardness alone explained over 15% of variation in all sensory evaluation variables, with the exception of perceptible residue. Based on these results, TPA analysis was found to be better than WBS measurement, with the TPA parameter hardness likely to prove particularly useful, in terms of predicting pork loin tenderness as rated by trained panelists. However, sensory evaluation should be conducted to investigate practical pork tenderness perceived by consumer, because both instrumental measurements could explain only a small portion (less than 20%) of the variability in sensory evaluation.

  12. Desenvolvimento do perfil sensorial e avaliação sensorial/instrumental de suco de maracujá Sensory profile development and sensory/instrumental passion fruit juice evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C. Della Modesta

    2005-06-01

    developing the sensory profile and evaluating the changes that may occur during the passion fruit juice processing. Three passion fruit juices were analyzed: the raw material (pulp, which was pasteurized, kept in tambour and frozen; the ready-to-drink (formulated with sugar and water; and the pasteurized at 98 ºC, 30s. The sensory profile was composed of 13 attributes The quantitative descriptive analysis design comprised two factors, i.e. type of juice and panelists. The results were also analyzed using principal components analysis. Significant differences were found among the three juices except for the attribute passion fruit aroma and sweet aroma. the artificial aroma, cooked aroma, fermented aroma and fermented flavor were significantly higher (p<0.05 on the processed passion fruit juice. The first two principal components accounted for 57% of the variance. There were significant differences among the three juices regarding the colour parameters, except for the haze. The frozen juice kept in tambour was darker than both the formulated juice and the pasteurized juice. The red color of the frozen juice kept in tambour and the formulated juice was similar. On the other hand, the red color for the pasteurized juice was less intense. However the yellow colour was higher on the formulated juice, presenting lower values on the pasteurized juice and on the frozen juice kept in tambour.

  13. Sensory profiles of breast meat from broilers reared in an organic niche production system and conventional standard broilers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsted, Klaus; Allesen-Holm, Bodil Helene; Hermansen, John E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Breast meat from broilers produced in very different production systems may vary considerable in sensory profile, which may affect consumer interests. In this study the aim was to evaluate differences in the sensory profiles of breast meat from five broiler products: two conventional...... standard products (A and B) and three organic niche genotypes (I657, L40 and K8) reared in an apple orchard. RESULTS: Thirteen out of 22 sensory attributes differed significantly between the products. The aroma attributes `chicken', `bouillon' and `fat' scored highest and the `iron/liver' aroma lowest...... of `sweet/maize' than the standard products. The `overall liking' score was significantly higher for the `K 8' product than for the `Standard A' and `L 40' products. The `overall liking' score was significantly correlated with the scores for aroma and taste of `chicken', `umami/bouillon', `iron...

  14. Aroma Profile and Sensory Properties of Ultrasound-Treated Apple Juice and Nectar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Petrović

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonication is a nonthermal food processing method that is used in several applications (extraction, treatment before drying, freezing, inactivation of microorganisms, etc. in ultrasound processing. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of high power ultrasound and pasteurisation on the aroma profile and sensory properties of apple juice and nectar. Samples were treated according to the experimental design, with high power sonicator at ultrasound frequency of 20 kHz under various conditions (treatment time: 3, 6 and 9 min, sample temperature: 20, 40 and 60 °C, and amplitude: 60, 90 and 120 μm. The aromatic profiles of juices showed that, compared to the untreated samples of juices and nectars, ultrasonic treatment led to the formation of new compounds (which were not present in the untreated samples or to the disappearance of compounds that were found in the untreated samples. Samples treated at the highest amplitude (120 μm were used for evaluation and comparison with untreated and pasteurised samples using electronic tongue study. Principal component analysis confirmed the results of electronic tongue study, which showed that the ultrasound-treated and pasteurised juices had different scores compared to the untreated samples.

  15. Sensory profile of warmed-over flavour in tenderloin from steers supplemented with alpha-tocopherol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Evandro Lage

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the occurrence of warmed-over flavour (WOF in cooked tenderloin and the influence of alpha-tocopherol on its inhibition. A total of 24 animals were confined, 12 of which received 1200 mg/head/day of alpha-tocopherol acetate for 90 days. Longissimus dorsi muscle cuts (tenderloin were obtained for sensory profile assessment by nine trained tasters. The tasters evaluated the taste of the meat based on four general and 18 specific attributes. The results of the evaluations were analysed with ANOVA, post-hoc tests of the means (Tukey tests, and principal component analysis (PCA. There was no significant difference in the WOF between the cuts of meat from the supplemented and non-supplemented animals. However, as the refrigeration period increased, there was a decrease in the intensity of the umami and sweet taste attributes and the flavour and aroma of the roast meat as well as an increase in the intensity of the oxidised vegetable oil flavour and the aromas of fish, hard-boiled egg, flaxseed oil, and oxidised vegetable oil. The samples that had been stored for one day were characterised by PCA as having sweet and umami tastes and the flavour and aroma of roast meat, whereas after three days, the samples were classified as having sour and bitter tastes, the flavour of chicken and nuts, and the aroma of fish. The typical sensory attributes desirable for roasted meat decreased in intensity during the three days of storage after cooking, whereas the intensity of unpleasant (oxidative attributes for the consumer increased.

  16. Volatile profile and sensory quality of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper Perfil de voláteis e qualidade sensorial de novas variedades de pimentas Capsicum chinense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the sensory quality and the volatile compound profile of new varieties of Capsicum chinense pepper (CNPH 4080 a strain of'Cumari-do-Pará' and BRS Seriema with a known commercial variety (Biquinho. Volatiles were isolated from the headspace of fresh fruit by SPME and identified by GC-MS. Pickled peppers were produced for sensory evaluation. Aroma descriptors were evaluated by Check-All-That-Apply (CATA method, and the frequency data were submitted to Correspondence Analysis. Flavor acceptance was assessed by hedonic scale and analyzed by ANOVA. BRS Seriema showed the richest volatile profile, with 55 identified compounds, and up to 40% were compounds with sweet aroma notes. CNPH 4080 showed similar volatile profile to that of Biquinho pepper, but it had higher amounts of pepper-like and green-note compounds. The samples did not differ in terms of flavor acceptance, but they showed differences in aroma quality confirming the differences found in the volatile profiles. The C. chinense varieties developed by Embrapa proved to be more aromatic than Biquinho variety, and were well accepted by the judges.O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a qualidade sensorial e o perfil de compostos voláteis de novas variedades de pimenta Capsicum (CNPH 4080, uma linhagem de cumari-do-pará, e BRS Seriema, com uma variedade comercial (Biquinho. Voláteis foram isolados do headspace dos frutos in natura por SPME e identificados por CG-EM. Conservas das pimentas foram produzidas para a análise sensorial. Descritores do aroma foram avaliados pelo método Check-All-That-Apply (CATA e os dados de frequência submetidos à Análise de Correspondência. A aceitação do sabor das amostras foi analisada por meio de ANOVA. A BRS Seriema apresentou rico perfil de voláteis, com 53 compostos identificados, sendo que cerca de 40% deles são compostos de aroma doce. A CNPH 4080 apresentou perfil semelhante ao da pimenta Biquinho, por

  17. TMS-induced neural noise in sensory cortex interferes with short-term memory storage in prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancroft, Tyler D; Hogeveen, Jeremy; Hockley, William E; Servos, Philip

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study, Harris et al. (2002) found disruption of vibrotactile short-term memory after applying single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary somatosensory cortex (SI) early in the maintenance period, and suggested that this demonstrated a role for SI in vibrotactile memory storage. While such a role is compatible with recent suggestions that sensory cortex is the storage substrate for working memory, it stands in contrast to a relatively large body of evidence from human EEG and single-cell recording in primates that instead points to prefrontal cortex as the storage substrate for vibrotactile memory. In the present study, we use computational methods to demonstrate how Harris et al.'s results can be reproduced by TMS-induced activity in sensory cortex and subsequent feedforward interference with memory traces stored in prefrontal cortex, thereby reconciling discordant findings in the tactile memory literature.

  18. Temporal profile of pain and other sensory manifestations in Guillain-Barre' syndrome during ten days of hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkare, K; Taly, Arun B; Sinha, Sanjib; Rao, S

    2011-01-01

    Focused studies on sensory manifestations, especially pain and paresthesia in Guillain-Barre' (GB) syndrome are few and far between. To study the sensory manifestations in GB syndrome during 10 days of hospitalization with clinico-electrophysiological correlation. The study included 60 non-consecutive patients with GB syndrome, fulfilling National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS) criteria for GB syndrome. Data especially related to clinical and electrophysiological evidence of sensory involvement were analyzed. Pain was assessed using a) visual analogue paraesthesias (Vapar), b) visual analogue for pain (Vap) and c) verbal rating scale for pain (Verp). Sensory symptoms were widely prevalent: paraesthesia in 45 (75%) patients and pain in 30 (50%) patients. Impairment of different sensory modalities included: pain in 8 (13.3%), joint position sense in 14 (23.3%), and vibration in 11 (18.3%). Electrophysiological evidence of abnormal sensory nerve conduction was noted in 35 (58.3%) patients. Pain assessment using Vapar, Vap and Verp for from Day 1 to Day 10 of hospitalization revealed that from Day 7 onwards the degree and frequency of sensory symptoms and signs decreased. On comparing various clinico-electrophysiological parameters among patients of GB syndrome with and without pain and paresthesia. Presence of respiratory distress correlated with pain and paresthesia (P=0.02). Sensory manifestations in GB syndrome are often under-recognized and under-emphasized. This study analyzed the evolution and the profile of pain and paresthesia in GB syndrome during hospitalization. Knowledge, especially about evolution of pain and paresthesia during hospitalization might improve understanding and patient care.

  19. Sensory and Volatile Profiles of Monovarietal North Tunisian Extra Virgin Olive Oils from 'Chétoui' Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essid, Faten; Sifi, Samira; Beltrán, Gabriel; Sánchez, Sebastián; Raïes, Aly

    2016-07-01

    The quality of olive oil is defined as a combination of characteristics that significantly determine its acceptance by consumers. This study was carried out to compare sensorial and chemical characteristics of sixty 'Chétoui' extra virgin olive oils (EVOOc) samples from six northern areas in Tunisia (Tebourba (EVOOT); Other regions (EVOON): Mornag, Sidi Amor, El Kef, Béjà and Jendouba). Trained panel taste detected ten sensory attributes. EVOOT and EVOON were defined by 'tomato' and 'grass/ leave notes, respectively. Twenty one volatile compounds from EVOOc were extracted and identified by Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction followed by Gas Chromatography- Flame Ionization Detector. Principal component and cluster analysis of all studied parameters showed that EVOOT differed from EVOON. Sensory and volatile profiles of EVOOc revealed that the perception of different aromas, in monovarietal olive oil, was the result of synergic effect of oils' various components, whose composition was influenced by the geographical growing area.

  20. The Impact of Hybridization on the Volatile and Sensorial Profile of Ocimum basilicum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Santos da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate the volatile and sensorial profile of basil (Ocimum basilicum L. by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA of the essential oil of three hybrids (“Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita,” “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon,” and “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita”. Twelve descriptive terms were developed by a selected panel that also generated the definition of each term and the reference samples. The data were subjected to ANOVA, Tukey’s test, and principal component analysis. The hybrid “Cinnamon” × “Maria Bonita” exhibited a stronger global aroma that was less citric than the other samples. Hybridization favored the generation of novel compounds in the essential oil of the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Maria Bonita,” such as canfora and (E-caryophyllene; (E-caryophyllene also was a novel compound in the hybrid “Sweet Dani” × “Cinnamon”; this compound was not present in the essential oils of the parents.

  1. Effect of cysteine and cystine addition on sensory profile and potent odorants of extruded potato snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2007-07-11

    Aromas generated in extruded potato snacks without and with addition of 0.25, 0.5, and 1% (w/w) of flavor precursors, cysteine and cystine, were compared and evaluated by descriptive sensory profiling. The results showed that high addition of cysteine (0.5 and 1%) resulted in the formation of undesirable odor and taste described as mercaptanic/sulfur, onion-like, and bitter; on the contrary, addition of cystine even at high concentration gave product with pleasant odor and taste, slightly changed into breadlike notes. GC/O analysis showed cysteine to be a much more reactive flavor precursor than cystine, stimulating formation of 12 compounds with garlic, sulfury, burnt, pungent/beer, cabbage/mold, meatlike, roasted, and popcorn odor notes. Further analysis performed by the AEDA technique identified 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (FD 2048) as a most potent odorant of extruded potato snacks with 1% addition of cysteine. Other identified compounds with high FD were butanal, 3-methyl-2-butenethiol, 2-methylthiazole, methional, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone. In the case of cystine addition (1%) the highest FD factors were calculated for butanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, benzenemethanethiol, methional, phenylacetaldehyde, dimethyltrisulfide, 1-octen-3-ol, 1,5-octadien-3-one, and 2-acetylpyrazine.

  2. Sensory profile and volatile aroma composition of reduced alcohol Merlot wines fermented with Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces uvarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, C; Barker, A; Tran, T; Borneman, A; Curtin, C

    2017-07-03

    Strategies for production of wines containing lower alcohol concentrations are in strong demand, for reasons of quality, health, and taxation. Development and application of wine yeasts that are less efficient at transforming grape sugars into ethanol has the potential to allow winemakers the freedom to make lower alcohol wines from grapes harvested at optimal ripeness, without the need for post-fermentation processes aimed at removing ethanol. We have recently shown that two non-conventional wine yeast species Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces uvarum were both able to produce wine with reduced alcohol concentration. Both species produced laboratory-scale wines with markedly different volatile aroma compound composition relative to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work describes the volatile composition and sensory profiles of reduced-alcohol pilot-scale Merlot wines produced with M. pulcherrima and S. uvarum. Wines fermented with M. pulcherrima contained 1.0% v/v less ethanol than S. cerevisiae fermented wines, while those fermented with S. uvarum showed a 1.7% v/v reduction in ethanol. Compared to S. cerevisiae ferments, wines produced with M. pulcherrima showed higher concentrations of ethyl acetate, total esters, total higher alcohols and total sulfur compounds, while wines fermented with S. uvarum were characterised by the highest total concentration of higher alcohols. Sensorially, M. pulcherrima wines received relatively high scores for sensory descriptors such as red fruit and fruit flavour and overall exhibited a sensory profile similar to that of wine made with S. cerevisiae, whereas the main sensory descriptors associated with wines fermented with S. uvarum were barnyard and meat. This work demonstrates the successful application of M. pulcherrima AWRI3050 for the production of pilot-scale red wines with reduced alcohol concentration and highlights the need for rigorous evaluation of non-conventional yeasts with regard to their sensory impacts

  3. Perfil sensorial de bolos de chocolate formulados com farinha de yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Sensorial profile of chocolate cakes formulated with yacon flour (Smallanthus sonchifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne Montarroyos Padilha

    2010-09-01

    analyzed: sample P (standard cake without yacon flour, sample A (20% of yacon flour, and sample B (40% of yacon flour. The Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA was used for the sensory analysis with 15 trained panelists who evaluated 9 sensory attributes (color, crumb structure, aroma, sweet taste, chocolate flavor, residual taste, humectancy, tenderness, and overall quality. The physical analysis of the cake was made by color characterization. The data were subjected to sensory analysis of variance ANOVA and the Duncan's test for comparison between the averages, at 5% level of significance. To verify the correlations between the samples and attributes, the Principal Components Analysis (PCA was performed. In the PCA, the sum of the principal components 1 and 2 was 83.3%, i.e., the variability between the samples was explained by these two components. The results showed that the addition of 40% of yacon flour resulted in higher scores for aroma (10.16, sweet taste (7.60, chocolate flavor (10.52, tenderness (11.44, and overall quality (11.64. With regard to the attribute crumb structure, there was no significant difference between the scores of cakes P, A, and B. Regardless of the amount of yacon flour added, the sensory profile of the chocolate cakes was influenced. Particularly, the cake with the highest content of yacon flour was attributed the highest scores.

  4. Effect of pre-bloom leaf removal on grape aroma composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessandrini, Massimiliano; Battista, Fabrizio; Panighel, Annarita; Flamini, Riccardo; Tomasi, Diego

    2018-03-01

    Early leaf removal at pre-bloom is an innovative viticultural practice for regulating yield components and improving grape quality. The effects of this technique on vine performance, grape composition and wine sensory profile of Semillon variety were assessed. Pre-bloom leaf removal enhanced canopy porosity, total soluble solids in musts and reduced cluster compactness. This practice had a strong effect on glycoside aroma precursors, in particular by increasing glycoside terpenols and norisoprenoids. Metabolites of linalool were the most responsive to leaf removal. Wine produced from defoliated vines was preferred in tasting trials for its more intense fruity notes and mouthfeel attributes. Pre-bloom leaf removal is a powerful technique for modifying canopy microclimate, vine yield, grape composition and wine quality. The increase of glycoside aroma compounds in treated grapes has potential positive effect in improving the sensory profile of the resulting wines. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Characterisation of volatile profile and sensory analysis of fresh-cut "Radicchio di Chioggia" stored in air or modified atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzolino, Rosaria; Martignetti, Antonella; Pellicano, Mario Paolo; Stocchero, Matteo; Cefola, Maria; Pace, Bernardo; De Giulio, Beatrice

    2016-02-01

    The volatile profile of two hybrids of "Radicchio di Chioggia", Corelli and Botticelli, stored in air or passive modified atmosphere (MAP) during 12 days of cold storage, was monitored by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) GC-MS. Botticelli samples were also subjected to sensory analysis. Totally, 61 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified in the headspace of radicchio samples. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fresh product possessed a metabolic content similar to that of the MAP samples after 5 and 8 days of storage. Projection to latent structures by partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis showed the volatiles content of the samples varied depending only on the packaging conditions. Specifically, 12 metabolites describing the time evolution and explaining the effects of the different storage conditions were highlighted. Finally, a PCA analysis revealed that VOCs profile significantly correlated with sensory attributes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Outcomes of short-gap sensory nerve injuries reconstructed with processed nerve allografts from a multicenter registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, Brian D; Ingari, John V; Greenberg, Jeffrey A; Thayer, Wesley P; Safa, Bauback; Buncke, Gregory M

    2015-06-01

    Short-gap digital nerve injuries are a common surgical problem, but the optimal treatment modality is unknown. A multicenter database was queried and analyzed to determine the outcomes of nerve gap reconstructions between 5 and 15 mm with processed nerve allograft. The current RANGER registry is designed to continuously monitor and compile injury, repair, safety, and outcomes data. Centers followed their own standard of care for treatment and follow-up. The database was queried for digital nerve injuries with a gap between 5 and 15 mm reporting sufficient follow-up data to complete outcomes analysis. Available quantitative outcome measures were reviewed and reported. Meaningful recovery was defined by the Medical Research Council Classification (MRCC) scale at S3-S4 for sensory function. Sufficient follow-up data were available for 24 subjects (37 repairs) in the prescribed gap range. Mean age was 43 years (range, 23-81). Mean gap was 11 ± 3 (5-15) mm. Time to repair was 13 ± 42 (0-215) days. There were 25 lacerations, 8 avulsion/amputations, 2 gunshots, 1 crush injury, and 1 injury of unknown mechanism. Meaningful recovery, defined as S3-S4 on the MRCC scales, was reported in 92% of repairs. Sensory recovery of S3+ or S4 was observed in 84% of repairs. Static 2PD was 7.1 ± 2.9 mm (n = 19). Return to light touch was observed in 23 out of 32 repairs reporting Semmes-Weinstein monofilament outcomes (SWMF). There were no reported nerve adverse events. Sensory outcomes for processed nerve allografts were equivalent to historical controls for nerve autograft and exceed those of conduit. Processed nerve allografts provide an effective solution for short-gap digital nerve reconstructions. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Volatile and sensory profiling of Shiraz wine in response to alcohol management: comparison of harvest timing versus technological approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Rocco; Blackman, John W; Antalick, Guillaume; Torley, Peter J; Rogiers, Suzy Y; Schmidtke, Leigh M

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the volatile and sensory profiles of Australian Shiraz red wines produced by several methods to achieve alcohol concentrations of 10.5 and 13.5% v/v. These levels were considerably lower contents than the commercial wine (16-17% v/v) that was produced from this vineyard site. Wines were produced by: (i) harvest timing (19.3, 24 and 29.3 Brix); (ii) blending equal proportions of early harvest (19.3 Brix) and late harvest wines (29.3 Brix); and (iii) dealcoholization using reverse osmosis followed by a membrane contactor. Dealcoholization caused a significant loss of volatile compounds, particularly esters, while the blending treatment had an averaging effect on most analytes. Sensory descriptive analysis of treatments with 10.5% v/v alcohol showed that the perception of the herbaceous attribute was more intense in the early harvest wines in comparison to the dealcoholized wines, while those of dark fruit, raisin/prune, astringency and alcohol were lower. No sensory differences were found amongst the 13.5% v/v wines, except for alcohol. Sensory and compositional data were modelled by means of Common Dimension (ComDim) multi-block analysis and indicated which chemical components are important to the perceived wine sensory properties. Insights from this study will provide knowledge that may be applied to control or moderate both unripe sensory attributes in addition to a deficiency of ripe fruit aromas or mouthfeel characteristics in reduced-alcohol red wines. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Avaliação do perfil sensorial de chá light sabor pêssego Sensory profile evaluation of light peach tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Cristina Osawa

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente estudo foi determinado o perfil sensorial e a aceitação de três marcas comerciais de chá light sabor pêssego, denominadas A, B e C, acondicionadas em embalagem PET e adquiridas no comércio local. O perfil sensorial foi determinado por Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ utilizando-se uma equipe de 11 provadores rigorosamente selecionados e treinados. A aceitação dos produtos foi avaliada por 33 consumidores representativos do público alvo. Os resultados da ADQ foram submetidos à Análise de Variância (ANOVA, Teste de Média de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais. As amostras comerciais apresentaram perfis semelhantes em alguns termos descritores e diferenças significativas em outros. A amostra A caracterizou-se principalmente pelos atributos aroma e sabor de banana passa; a amostra B por aroma artificial de pêssego e refrescância; e a amostra C por aroma natural de pêssego e doçura. O Teste Afetivo, analisado por ANOVA e Teste de Média de Tukey, indicou maior aceitação para a amostra C. A cor das amostras foi avaliada pelo método Cielab L*a*b*, sendo que a amostra C se destacou das demais pela cor vermelha.In this work, three different brands of light peach iced tea (A, B and C, purchased in a local market and packed in PET bottles were sensory analyzed. At first, Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA was conducted in order to obtain the sensorial profile, with eleven tasters, previously selected and trained. The product acceptance was evaluated by 33 consumers, representing the target public. The QDA results were submitted to ANOVA, Tukey's test and Principal Component Analysis (PCA. The sample A was mainly characterized by banana aroma and flavor; the sample B by artificial peach aroma and refreshment; while the sample C by sweetness and natural peach aroma. The acceptance test, analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test, showed a greater acceptance for the sample C. The colour of the samples was evaluated by

  9. AVALIAÇÃO SENSORIAL DE VINHAS RIESLING ITÁLICO NACIONAIS UTILIZANDO PERFIL LIVRE SENSORY EVALUATION OF BRAZILIAN WELCHRIESLING WINES BY FREE-CHOICE PROFILING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Toledo BENASSI

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available A literatura cita um grande número de trabalhos envolvendo análise sensorial descritiva para vinhos. Perfil Livre, uma nova técnica descritiva, foi utilizado na caracterização em termos de aparência, sabor e aroma para sete amostras de vinhos brancos Riesling Itálico nacionais. Doze provadores, sem experiência anterior com a técnica, foram selecionados utilizando-se teste triangular. Para o levantamento de atributos foi empregado o método rede. O número de atributos levantados por provador variou de sete a treze. Utilizou-se a análise Procrustes Generalizada para tratamento dos dados. Durante quinze dias, foram realizadas quinze sessões, sendo duas para a seleção de provadores, quatro para o levantamento de atributos, duas para checar a ficha e sete para avaliação das amostras (blocos incompletos balanceados. Foi obtida boa discriminação entre as amostras. Os vinhos foram separados com base em atributos de sabor (doce, frutado, ácido, "adstringente" e alcoólico, correlacionados com a dimensão 1 (25% da variância, e um atributo de aparência (cor amarela, correlacionado com a dimensão 2 (9% da variância.There is a large bibliography on descriptive sensory analysis of wines. Free-choice profiling, a new descriptive sensory technique, was applied to develop a profile with respect to appearance, aroma and taste for seven Brazilian Welchriesling wines. Twelve panelists, without experience with the technique, were selected using triangular tests. The Grid method was used to obtain the list of descriptors. The number of attributes developed for each judge vary from seven to thirteen. Generalized Procrustes Analysis were applied to the data. During fifteen days, fifteen sessions were realized: two to select the assessors, four to develop the terminology, two to check the score sheets and seven to evaluate the wines (balanced incomplete block design. It was observed good discrimination between the samples. Wines were

  10. Desenvolvimento do perfil sensorial e aceitação de requeijão cremoso Sensory profile and acceptance of "requeijão cremoso" cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah dos Santos Garruti

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available O perfil sensorial de requeijão cremoso foi desenvolvido por meio da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ utilizando-se quatro marcas comerciais do produto. Onze termos descritivos foram desenvolvidos por uma equipe de provadores selecionados, que geraram também a definição de cada termo e as amostras-referência. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a ANOVA, teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais. O requeijão da marca A caracterizou-se por apresentar baixa consistência e aparência lisa, enquanto a característica predominante na marca B foi o sabor salgado muito intenso. Os produtos das marcas C e D apresentaram perfis sensoriais semelhantes entre si e distintos da marca A, por serem mais consistentes. Foi também realizado um teste de aceitação utilizando escala hedônica de nove pontos. Todas as marcas apresentaram alta aceitabilidade global, não apresentando diferença significativa entre si. A aceitação dos consumidores foi baseada no manuseio do produto, os quais gostaram mais das amostras mais consistentes e com menor formação de fio."Requeijão cremoso" is a type of smooth and spreadable cheese, manufactured with milk coagulated by natural acidification and addition of milk cream or butter oil. The sensory profile of four commercial brands of requeijão cremoso was developed through Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. Eleven descriptive terms, their definitions and reference samples were generated by a selected and trainned panel. The statistical analysis included Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Tukey's Test for means, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Brand A showed low consistency and a smooth appearance. The main attribute of brand B was a strong salty taste. Both products C and D showed very similar sensory profiles, presenting higher consistency than brand A. Laboratory consumer tests were also carried out, using a nine point hedonic scale. All products showed good acceptance, but subjects preferred

  11. Impaired Auditory Sensory Gating: Effects of Long and Short Deployments on Army Combat Readiness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Lawrence

    2002-01-01

    ...) can measure the impact of long (90 days or greater) and short (30-45 days) deployments on soldiers and assess correlations with military biological and psychological measures of performance under stress...

  12. Sensory and instrumental profiling of apples: a new tool for quality assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Corollaro, M.L.

    2014-01-01

    Food suppliers currently measure apple quality considering basic pomological descriptors. Sensory analysis is expensive, does not permit to analyse many samples, and cannot be implemented for measuring quality properties in real time. However, sensory analysis is the best way to precisely describe food eating quality, since it is able to define, measure, and explain what is really perceivable by human senses and using a language that closely reflects the consumers’ perception. On the basis of...

  13. Physicochemical, sensory attributes and protein profile by SDS-PAGE of beef sausage substituted with texturized vegetable protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidayat, B.T.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of texturized vegetable protein (TVP on the quality of beef sausages was investigated in this research. Several formulations which replaced by beef meat with TVP ranging from 10-20% w/w were investigated for their physical, chemical, sensory properties and also protein profile by SDS-PAGE. The addition of TVP concentration significantly influences physicochemical characteristics e.g. water, fat content, the color parameter (L and b value, WHC, Texture (Hardness and cooking yield (P<0.05. The protein profile also influenced by the addition of TVP in beef sausage formula. Higher substitution of meat with TVP will increase the water and will decrease fat content significantly (P<0.05. The highest water content is 40% TVP (64.02 ± 1.15% where the lowest water content is control (61.29 ± 1.88%. The highest fat content is control (12.16 ± 1.87% where the highest fat content is (8.53 ± 2.09%. For the physicochemical properties, e.g. L* and b* value, WHC and Cooking yield will increase during the substitution of meat with TVP in sausage products (P<0.05. The hardness will decrease during the substitution of meat with TVP in sausage products (P<0.05. Sensory results indicated that sensory attributed of beef sausage showed good acceptance until 30% of TVP substitution.

  14. Influence of cultivar and of conventional and organic agricultural practices on phenolic and sensory profile of blackberries (Rubus fruticosus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Teresa; Vilela, Alice; Pinto, Andreia; Nunes, Fernando M; Cosme, Fernanda; Anjos, Rosário

    2018-03-06

    Consumer demand for organic products is increasing because of their claimed health benefits. Blackberries are a rich source of polyphenols, with high antioxidant activity; nevertheless, the impact of organic versus conventional agricultural practices on its phytochemical composition is unknown. 'Loch Ness' and 'Chester Thornless' were selected as blackberry cultivars for this study because of their desired sensory and technological properties, which make them more suitable for export. 'Loch Ness' variety presented a higher amounts of polyphenols and higher antioxidant activity when compared to the 'Chester Thornless' variety. The impact of agricultural practices on the phytochemical composition of the two varieties was contradictory. Under organic agricultural practices, levels of polyphenols increased for 'Loch Ness' and decreased for 'Chester Thornless', whereas the soluble solids content increased in both varieties. These changes in composition were correlated with changes observed in the blackberries' sensory profile. The effect of agricultural practices on the blackberries' chemical and sensory profile was dependent on the variety and cannot be generalized. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Sensory Profile and Consumer Acceptability of Prebiotic White Chocolate with Sucrose Substitutes and the Addition of Goji Berry (Lycium barbarum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais Ferreira, Janaína Madruga; Azevedo, Bruna Marcacini; Luccas, Valdecir; Bolini, Helena Maria André

    2017-03-01

    Functional food is a product containing nutrients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the descriptive sensory profile and consumers' acceptance of functional (prebiotic) white chocolates with and without the addition of an antioxidant source (goji berry [GB]) and sucrose replacement. The descriptive sensory profile was determined by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) with trained assessors (n = 12), and the acceptance test was performed with 120 consumers. The correlation of descriptive and hedonic data was determined by partial least squares (PLS). The results of QDA indicated that GB reduces the perception of most aroma and flavor attributes, and enhances the bitter taste, bitter aftertaste, astringency, and most of the texture attributes. The consumers' acceptance of the chocolates was positive for all sensory characteristics, with acceptance scores above 6 on a 9-point scale. According to the PLS regression analysis, the descriptors cream color and cocoa butter flavor contributed positively to the acceptance of functional white chocolates. Therefore, prebiotic white chocolate with or without the addition of GB is innovative and can attract consumers, due to its functional properties, being a promising alternative for the food industry. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Effect of oak wood barrel capacity and utilization time on phenolic and sensorial profile evolution of an Encruzado white wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Paulo; Muxagata, Sara; Correia, Ana C; Nunes, Fernando M; Cosme, Fernanda; Jordão, António M

    2017-11-01

    Several studies have reported the influence of diverse winemaking technologies in white wine characteristics. However, the impact of the use of different oak wood barrel capacities and utilization time on the evolution of white wine phenolic content and sensorial characteristics are not usually considered. Thus the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of oak wood barrel capacity and utilization time on the evolution of phenolic compounds, browning potential index and sensorial profile of an Encruzado white wine. For the 180 aging days considered, the use of new oak wood barrels induced a greater increase in global phenolic composition, including several individual compounds, such as gallic and ellagic acid, independently of the barrel capacity. Tendency for a lesser increase of the browning potential index values was detected for white wines aged in new oak wood barrels. The sensorial profile evolution, showed significant differences only for the aroma descriptors, namely for 'wood aroma' and 'aroma intensity', white wine aged in 225 L new oak wood barrels being the highest scored. The results show that, in general, the use of different capacities and utilization time of oak wood barrels used for white wine aging could play an important role in white wine quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Distributed patterns of activity in sensory cortex reflect the precision of multiple items maintained in visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Stephen M; Riggall, Adam C; Larocque, Joshua J; Postle, Bradley R

    2013-04-10

    Traditionally, load sensitivity of sustained, elevated activity has been taken as an index of storage for a limited number of items in visual short-term memory (VSTM). Recently, studies have demonstrated that the contents of a single item held in VSTM can be decoded from early visual cortex, despite the fact that these areas do not exhibit elevated, sustained activity. It is unknown, however, whether the patterns of neural activity decoded from sensory cortex change as a function of load, as one would expect from a region storing multiple representations. Here, we use multivoxel pattern analysis to examine the neural representations of VSTM in humans across multiple memory loads. In an important extension of previous findings, our results demonstrate that the contents of VSTM can be decoded from areas that exhibit a transient response to visual stimuli, but not from regions that exhibit elevated, sustained load-sensitive delay-period activity. Moreover, the neural information present in these transiently activated areas decreases significantly with increasing load, indicating load sensitivity of the patterns of activity that support VSTM maintenance. Importantly, the decrease in classification performance as a function of load is correlated with within-subject changes in mnemonic resolution. These findings indicate that distributed patterns of neural activity in putatively sensory visual cortex support the representation and precision of information in VSTM.

  18. Short-Term Memory for Space and Time Flexibly Recruit Complementary Sensory-Biased Frontal Lobe Attention Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalka, Samantha W; Kong, Lingqiang; Rosen, Maya L; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Somers, David C

    2015-08-19

    The frontal lobes control wide-ranging cognitive functions; however, functional subdivisions of human frontal cortex are only coarsely mapped. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals two distinct visual-biased attention regions in lateral frontal cortex, superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and inferior precentral sulcus (iPCS), anatomically interdigitated with two auditory-biased attention regions, transverse gyrus intersecting precentral sulcus (tgPCS) and caudal inferior frontal sulcus (cIFS). Intrinsic functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that sPCS and iPCS fall within a broad visual-attention network, while tgPCS and cIFS fall within a broad auditory-attention network. Interestingly, we observe that spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM), respectively, recruit visual and auditory attention networks in the frontal lobe, independent of sensory modality. These findings not only demonstrate that both sensory modality and information domain influence frontal lobe functional organization, they also demonstrate that spatial processing co-localizes with visual processing and that temporal processing co-localizes with auditory processing in lateral frontal cortex. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Sensory Qualities of Oysters Unaltered by a Short Exposure to Combined Elevated pCO2 and Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anaëlle J. Lemasson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Reliance on the marine environment for the provision of food is ever-increasing, but future climate change threatens production. Despite this concern, the impact on seafood quality and success of the seafood industry is unknown. Using a short-term study, we test these concerns using a major aquaculture species—Crassostrea gigas—exposing them to three acidification and warming scenarios: (1 ambient pCO2 (~400 ppm & control temperature (15°C, (2 ambient pCO2 (~400 ppm & elevated temperature (20°C, (3 elevated pCO2 (~1,000 ppm & elevated temperature (20°C. Oyster quality was assessed by scoring appearance, aroma, taste, and overall acceptability. A panel of five experts was asked to score nine oysters—three from each treatment—according to agreed criteria. Results indicate that these levels of acidification and warming did not significantly alter the sensory properties of C. gigas, and notably the overall acceptability remained unchanged. Non-statistically supported trends suggest that several sensory attributes—opacity, mouthfeel, aspect of meat, shininess, meat resistance, meat texture, and creaminess—may improve under acidification and warming scenarios. These findings can be considered positive for the future of the aquaculture and food sectors. Crassostrea gigas therefore is expected to remain a key species for food security that is resilient to climate change, whilst retaining its valuable attributes.

  20. Short-term memory for space and time flexibly recruit complementary sensory-biased frontal lobe attention networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalka, Samantha W.; Kong, Lingqiang; Rosen, Maya L.; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G.; Somers, David C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The frontal lobes control wide-ranging cognitive functions; however, functional subdivisions of human frontal cortex are only coarsely mapped. Here, functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals two distinct visual-biased attention regions in lateral frontal cortex, superior precentral sulcus (sPCS) and inferior precentral sulcus (iPCS), anatomically interdigitated with two auditory-biased attention regions, transverse gyrus intersecting precentral sulcus (tgPCS) and caudal inferior frontal sulcus (cIFS). Intrinsic functional connectivity analysis demonstrates that sPCS and iPCS fall within a broad visual-attention network, while tgPCS and cIFS fall within a broad auditory-attention network. Interestingly, we observe that spatial and temporal short-term memory (STM), respectively, recruit visual and auditory attention networks in the frontal lobe, independent of sensory modality. These findings not only demonstrate that both sensory modality and information domain influence frontal lobe functional organization, they also demonstrate that spatial processing co-localizes with visual processing and that temporal processing co-localizes with auditory processing in lateral frontal cortex. PMID:26291168

  1. Effect of cooking on aroma profile of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and correlation with sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Prashant K; Tripathi, Jyoti; Gupta, Sumit; Variyar, Prasad S

    2017-01-15

    Volatile aroma compounds of three varieties of red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) namely Kashmiri red, Sharmili and Chitra were extracted in raw state using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and cooked state using simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE). During cooking a significant (palcohols and terpene hydrocarbons while an increase in content of various sulfurous compounds, terpene alcohols, ketones and pyrazines was noted. Descriptive sensory analysis showed that the maximum intensity of 'kidney bean', 'earthy' and 'smoky' odour was observed in Kashmiri red while Sharmili variety was characterised by 'sulfurous' odour. Correlation of volatile profile data with descriptive sensory analysis and odour activity values clearly established the role of compounds, such as methanethiol, diethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, methional and dimethyl trisulfide, in contributing to 'cooked kidney bean' aroma, while dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone and ethyl methyl sulfone were responsible for 'sulfurous' aroma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of pre-fermentation treatments on wine volatile and sensory profile of the new disease tolerant cultivar Solaris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shujuan; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Solaris is a new disease tolerant cultivar increasingly cultivated in cool climate regions. In order to explore the winemaking processes' potential to make different styles of Solaris wines, the effects of different pre-fermentation treatments (direct press after crushing, whole cluster press, cold...... maceration, and skin fermentation) on the volatile profile, chemical, and sensory properties of Solaris wines were investigated. Cold maceration treatment for 24 h and fermentation on skin led to wines with lower acidity and higher glycerol and total polyphenol indexes. Sensory analysis showed that cold...... maceration enhanced "apricot" and "apple" flavor while skin fermentation gave rise to increased "rose" and "elderflower" flavor. The PLS regression model revealed that fruity flavor of cold macerated wines was related to a combination of esters while β-damascenone and linalool were correlated to the "rose...

  3. Production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory analysis of goat milk in goats fed buriti oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, J S; Bezerra, L R; Silva, A M A; Araújo, M J; Oliveira, R L; Edvan, R L; Torreão, J N C; Lanna, D P D

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of replacing ground corn with buriti oil ( L.) on feed intake and digestibility and on the production, composition, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of goat milk. A double Latin square (4 × 4) was used; eight goats were distributed in a completely randomized design. The square comprised four periods and four buriti oil concentration (0.00; 1.50; 3.00 and 4.50% of total DM) replacing corn. Intakes of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, non-fibrous carboydrates (NFC) and TDN were not affected by the replacement of corn with oil in the diet. However, lipids intake was increased ( goats with 4.50% oil inclusion, as total DM. DM and CP digestibility were similar between the buriti oil concentrations. However, lipid digestibility increased linearly ( = 0.01) and may have contributed to a quadratic reduction in NDF digestibility ( = 0.01) and a linear reduction of NFC ( = 0.04) with buriti oil content in the goat feed. Goat milk production, corrected production and chemical composition were not influenced by the concentration of buriti oil replacement; however, milk fat concentration ( = 0.04) and feed efficiency ( goat's diet. In contrast, the fatty acids C18:0 ( goats that were fed with buriti oil. However, CLA ( 0.05) by the replacement of corn with buriti oil in the goats' diet. It is recommended to replace corn with buriti oil in goat feed by up to 4.5% of total DM, resulting in improved feed efficiency and milk fat without affecting production; this recommendation satisfies the minimum requirements of the industry and preserves the organoleptic characteristics of the milk and its acceptability for human consumption. In addition, buriti oil replacing ground corn by up to 4.5% DM in the diet of lactating goats decrease medium-chain SFA which are hypercholesterolemic and increase the concentrations of the C18:19, CLA and DFA in goat milk fat, helping to protect against cardiovascular disease.

  4. Sensory and short-term memory formations observed in a Ag2S gap-type atomic switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Takeo; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Nayak, Alpana; Tsuruoka, Tohru; Gimzewski, James K.; Aono, Masakazu

    2011-11-01

    Memorization caused by the change in conductance in a Ag2S gap-type atomic switch was investigated as a function of the amplitude and width of input voltage pulses (Vin). The conductance changed little for the first few Vin, but the information of the input was stored as a redistribution of Ag-ions in the Ag2S, indicating the formation of sensory memory. After a certain number of Vin, the conductance increased abruptly followed by a gradual decrease, indicating the formation of short-term memory (STM). We found that the probability of STM formation depends strongly on the amplitude and width of Vin, which resembles the learning behavior of the human brain.

  5. The antioxidative activity of plant extracts in cooked pork patties as evaluated by descriptive sensory profiling and chemical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Lise R; Byrne, Derek V; Bertelsen, Grete; Skibsted, Leif H

    2004-11-01

    Antioxidative efficiency of extracts of rosemary, green tea, coffee and grape skin in precooked pork patties was investigated during storage under retail conditions (10 days, 4 °C, atmospheric air), using descriptive sensory profiling following reheating and quantitative measurements of hexanal, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and vitamin E as indicators of lipid oxidation. The initial oxidative status of pork patties (evaluated by ANOVA) showed a significant lower level of secondary oxidation products and higher levels of vitamin E in patties with extracts incorporated, indicating that the extracts retarded lipid oxidation during processing of the meat. Data analysis for the storage study was based on qualitative overview of sensory/chemical variation by principal component analysis (PCA) and quantitative ANOVA-PLSR for determination of the relationship between design variables (days of chill-storage, extract treatment) versus sensory-chemical variables and PLSR for elucidating the predictive ability of the chemical methods for sensory terms. Lipid oxidation was seen to involve a decrease in perception of meat flavour/odour and a concomitant increase in the off-flavour/odours linseed, rancid. TBARS, hexanal and vitamin E were all significant predictive indices (Pfresh meat flavour/odour. The effect of the various extracts incorporated in the product was clearly related to the degree of lipid oxidation and an overall ranking of the antioxidative efficiency of extracts in declining order became apparent: Rosemary>Grape skin>Tea>Coffee>Reference. Furthermore, the relation between extracts and vitamin E indicated that the extracts, to some extent, interacted with the vitamin and prevented it from degrading. In conclusion, the rosemary extract displayed potential for maintaining sensory eating quality in processed pork products.

  6. Sensory Profiles and Volatile Compounds of Wheat Species, Landraces and Modern Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard

    as cooked wheat grain, flour porridge and for eight of these varieties, baked bread. Descriptors for odours of cocoa, oat porridge and øllebrød1) and flavours of sweet, bitter, oat porridge and øllebrød1) were common to all three wheat products. Wheat porridge shared 6 odour and 10 flavour descriptors...... be connected. This Ph. D. project aims to study sensory attributes and volatile compounds of wheat and its products in order to investigate variations between wheat species, landraces and modern varieties and to reveal their impact on bread odours and flavours. Furthermore to examine whether bread could......) were used to analyse sensory and GC-MS data. Differences in odours and flavours were found in all wheat products. Variation also occurred between volatile peak-areas of wheat grain- and bread samples. Twenty four selected wheat species, landraces and varieties were evaluated by trained sensory panels...

  7. Sensory profiling of Dalmatian dry-cured ham under different temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Janječić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of the Dalmatian ham processing conditions on weight loss and sensory characteristics, 20 hams were processed following different temperature conditions during salting and ripening. For that purpose, hams were evaluated using quantitative descriptive analysis. The weight loss was higher and all sensory traits except presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine crystals were higher rated for hams processed at higher temperatures. The most significant (P<0.0001 influence of temperature was established on subcutaneous fat color, muscle color and presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine, whereas no influence was established on appearance, marbling, flavor and melting. This concludes that there is overall significant effect of higher temperature on sensory characteristics most likely due to the more intense proteolysis and lipolysis.

  8. Superior short-term learning effect of visual and sensory organisation ability when sensory information is unreliable in adolescent rhythmic gymnasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ya; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Ju, Yan-Ying; Tsao, Hung-Ting

    2017-06-01

    Rhythmic gymnasts specialise in dynamic balance under sensory conditions of numerous somatosensory, visual, and vestibular stimulations. This study investigated whether adolescent rhythmic gymnasts are superior to peers in Sensory Organisation test (SOT) performance, which quantifies the ability to maintain standing balance in six sensory conditions, and explored whether they plateaued faster during familiarisation with the SOT. Three and six sessions of SOTs were administered to 15 female rhythmic gymnasts (15.0 ± 1.8 years) and matched peers (15.1 ± 2.1 years), respectively. The gymnasts were superior to their peers in terms of fitness measures, and their performance was better in the SOT equilibrium score when visual information was unreliable. The SOT learning effects were shown in more challenging sensory conditions between Sessions 1 and 2 and were equivalent in both groups; however, over time, the gymnasts gained marginally significant better visual ability and relied less on visual sense when unreliable. In conclusion, adolescent rhythmic gymnasts have generally the same sensory organisation ability and learning rates as their peers. However, when visual information is unreliable, they have superior sensory organisation ability and learn faster to rely less on visual sense.

  9. Perfil sensorial e aceitabilidade de méis de abelhas sem ferrão submetidos a processos de conservação Sensorial profile and acceptability of stingless bee honey submitted to conservation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geni da Silva Sodré

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho avaliou o perfil sensorial e a aceitabilidade de méis de abelhas sem ferrão submetidos a dois processos de conservação, objetivando obter maior vida de prateleira. Foram utilizadas amostras de méis de Melipona scutellaris e M. quadrifasciata, coletadas no Estado da Bahia entre dezembro de 2005 e janeiro de 2006. As amostras foram submetidas aos processos de pasteurização e desumidificação, passando em seguida por avaliação sensorial. O perfil sensorial foi determinado no Laboratório de Entomologia do Centro de Ciências Agrárias, Ambientais e Biológicas da Universidade Federal do Recôncavo da Bahia, em Cruz das Almas, Estado da Bahia. Os atributos analisados foram: fluidez, cor, aroma, cristalização, sabor e aceitabilidade. Os resultados mostraram que os processos de conservação utilizados não interferem no perfil sensorial e na aceitabilidade do produto.The present work was conducted to evaluate the sensorial profile and the acceptability of the honey of stingless bees submitted to two conservation processes seeking to obtain longer shelf life. The samples of Melipona scutellaris and M. quadrifasciata honey were collected in the State of Bahia, Brazil, between December 2005 and January 2006. The samples were first submitted to pasteurization and dehumidification processes and then to sensorial evaluation. The sensorial profile was determined in the Laboratory of Entomology in the Center for Agrarian, Biological, and Environmental Sciences of the Federal University of Recôncavo Bahiano, in Cruz das Almas, in the state of Bahia. The analyzed attributes were: fluidity, color, scent, crystallization, flavour, and acceptability. The results show that the conservation processes used do not interfere with the sensorial profile and the product acceptability.

  10. Effect of squash seed meal (Cucurbita moschata on broiler performance, sensory meat quality, and blood lipid profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YM Aguilar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this experiment, 240 Cobb-500® broilers reared from1 to 49 days, and distributed according to a completely experimental randomized design with four treatments of four replicates each in order to evaluate the effect of the dietary inclusion of 0, 33, 66 or 100 g/kg of squash seed meal (SSM (Cucurbita moschata on the performance, carcass yield, serum lipid profile and sensory meat quality of broilers. Significant differences (p<0.05 were detected in performance, carcass weight, weight and breast yield, and leg weight. The best results were obtained with 33 and 66 g/kg as compared to the control diet and 100 g SSM /kg. Abdominal fat decreased with the inclusion of 66 and 100 g SSM / kg, but the sensory quality of breast and thighs was not affected by the inclusion of SSM. The serum levels of total cholesterol, very low density (VLDL and low density (LDL lipoproteins, triglycerides, glucose and atherogenic index decreased with the inclusion of 100 g/kg of SSM, except for high density lipoproteins (HDL, which increased. The inclusion of 0, 33, 66 and 100 g/kg of SSM in broiler diets, partially replacing soybean meal and vegetable oil, improved live performance and edible portions yield. In addition, abdominal fat and serum levels of harmful lipids were reduced, whereas serum levels of beneficial lipids increased. There was no effect on meat sensory quality.

  11. SAD kinases sculpt axonal arbors of sensory neurons through long and short-term responses to neurotrophin signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Brendan N.; Pan, Y. Albert; Sanes, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Extrinsic cues activate intrinsic signaling mechanisms to pattern neuronal shape and connectivity. We showed previously that three cytoplasmic Ser/Thr kinases, LKB1, SAD-A and SAD-B, control early axon-dendrite polarization in forebrain neurons. Here we assess their role in other neuronal types. We found that all three kinases are dispensable for axon formation outside of the cortex, but that SAD kinases are required for formation of central axonal arbors by subsets of sensory neurons. The requirement for SAD kinases is most prominent in NT-3 dependent neurons. SAD kinases transduce NT-3 signals in two ways through distinct pathways. First, sustained NT-3/TrkC signaling increases SAD protein levels. Second, short duration NT-3/TrkC signals transiently activate SADs by inducing dephosphorylation of C-terminal domains, thereby allowing activating phosphorylation of the kinase domain. We propose that SAD kinases integrate long- and short duration signals from extrinsic cues to sculpt axon arbors within the CNS. PMID:23790753

  12. SAD kinases sculpt axonal arbors of sensory neurons through long- and short-term responses to neurotrophin signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, Brendan N; Pan, Y Albert; Sanes, Joshua R

    2013-07-10

    Extrinsic cues activate intrinsic signaling mechanisms to pattern neuronal shape and connectivity. We showed previously that three cytoplasmic Ser/Thr kinases, LKB1, SAD-A, and SAD-B, control early axon-dendrite polarization in forebrain neurons. Here, we assess their role in other neuronal types. We found that all three kinases are dispensable for axon formation outside of the cortex but that SAD kinases are required for formation of central axonal arbors by subsets of sensory neurons. The requirement for SAD kinases is most prominent in NT-3 dependent neurons. SAD kinases transduce NT-3 signals in two ways through distinct pathways. First, sustained NT-3/TrkC signaling increases SAD protein levels. Second, short-duration NT-3/TrkC signals transiently activate SADs by inducing dephosphorylation of C-terminal domains, thereby allowing activating phosphorylation of the kinase domain. We propose that SAD kinases integrate long- and short-duration signals from extrinsic cues to sculpt axon arbors within the CNS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Short-term sensory and cutaneous vascular responses to therapeutic ultrasound in the forearms of healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaik, Shaguftha Sultana; MacDermid, Joy C; Birmingham, Trevor; Grewal, Ruby; Farooq, Baseer

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic ultrasound (US) is used for a variety of clinical pathologies and is thought to accelerate tissue repair and help with pain reduction via its thermal and nonthermal effects. The evidence on physiological effects of US on both sensory and vascular functions in humans is incomplete. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine the short-term impact of two doses of US (3 MHz, 1:4, 0.25 W/cm(2), 5 min; 1 MHz, continuous, 0.8 W/cm(2), 3 min), on sensory and vascular responses in the healthy forearms. Twenty healthy subjects were recruited (mean age, 29.6 ± 8.8 years) for the study. Superficial blood flow (SBF) in the distal forearms was determined using the tissue viability imaging system. Sensory perception thresholds (SPT) were determined from ring finger (C7, C8) to assess A-beta (at 2,000 Hz) and C fiber function (at 5 Hz), using a Neurometer CPT/C device. Subject's two hands were randomly allocated to group order (AB/BA). Scores were obtained before and immediately after the application of US and control. Differences in these were analyzed using repeated measures. Both 3 MHz pulsed US and 1 MHz continuous US showed small to moderate (effect size = 0.12 to 0.68), statistically significant reductions in SBF (3 MHz, mean change = 2.8 AU and 1 MHz, mean change = 3.9 AU, p 0.05). Age and gender also had no effect on all outcome measures (p > 0.05). This study demonstrated minor reductions in skin blood flow, skin temperatures, and C fiber perception thresholds immediately after 3 MHz, and 1 MHz US. The responses observed may have been due to a thermo-cooling effect of the gel or due to the direct effect of US on C fibers of median and ulnar nerves. US had a negligible effect on A-beta fibres. This would suggest that future studies looking at physiological effects of US should move towards investigating larger dosages and study the effects in patient populations.

  14. Physicochemical properties, fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of sheep and goat meat sausages manufactured with different pork fat levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Ana; Rodrigues, Sandra; Pereira, Etelvina; Paulos, Kátia; Oliveira, António Filipe; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The effect of three pork backfat levels (0% vs. 10% vs. 30%) on chemical composition, fatty acid profile and sensory properties on sheep and goat meat sausages was studied. All physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Sausages manufactured with 30% of pork backfat showed the lowest moisture and protein contents and the highest total fat content. The lower a(w) values in sausages manufactured with higher fat content while in pH happened the reverse situation. The addition of pork backfat modified the total fatty acid profile, prompting a significant drop in the relative percentages of C14:0, C16:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:0 and TVA (trans-vaccenic acid), together with a marked increase in oleic and linoleic acids. Finally, in goat sausages, the fat content significantly affected sensory parameters: taste, texture and overall acceptability (P<0.05). As expected, all physicochemical parameters were affected by the addition of pork backfat in both types of sausages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensory properties and fatty acids profiles of fermented dry sausages made of pork meat from various breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parunović, N.; Radović, Č.; Savić, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the parallel examinations on fatty acid profiles and sensory properties of fermented dry sausages are presented. Three types of kulen and sremska sausages were made, which varied depending on the percentage of meat and fat derived from different pig breeds: autochthonous (Swallow-Belly Mangalitsa and Moravka) and commercial (Swedish Landrace). In sausages made from meat of commercial pig breed, the highest cholesterol content was detected. However, sausage made from the Mangalitsa pork meat contained higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (USFA), and lower saturated fatty acid levels (SFA).The level of polyunsaturated (PUFA) in sausage made of Landrace pork meat was significantly higher than levels in other types. These differences between fatty acids were mostly deriving by higher total n-6 PUFA content. In a sausage made of Mangulitsa meat, the values of atherogenic (IA) and thrombogenic (IT) health lipid indexes are lower. Kulen and sremska sausages made from the Mangalitsa pork meat was superior in terms of colour, odour, taste, after taste and overall acceptability. This study demonstrate that pig breed have an effect on the chemical content, fatty acids profiles and sensory properties of dry fermented sausages.

  16. Metabolomic profiling and sensorial quality of 'Golden Delicious', 'Liberty', 'Santana', and 'Topaz' apples grown using organic and integrated production systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzo, Andreja; Jenko, Mojca; Vrhovsek, Urska; Stopar, Matej

    2013-07-03

    Apple quality was investigated in the scab-resistant 'Liberty', 'Santana', and 'Topaz' cultivars and the scab-susceptible 'Golden Delicious' cultivar. Trees subjected to the same crop load were cultivated using either an organic (ORG) or an integrated production (IP) system. Physicochemical properties, phenolic content, and sensorial quality of fruit from both systems were compared. There were no significant differences in fruit mass, starch, and total soluble solid content (the latter was higher in ORG 'Liberty') between ORG and IP fruit, whereas significantly higher flesh firmness was found in ORG fruit (except no difference in 'Golden Delicious'). Significantly higher total phenolic content in ORG fruit was found in 'Golden Delicious', whereas differences in other cultivars were not significant. Targeted metabolomic profiling of multiple classes of phenolics confirmed the impact of the production system on the 'Golden Delicious' phenolic profile as higher levels of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, neo- and chlorogenic acids, phloridzin, procyanidin B2+B4, -3-O-glucoside and -3-O-galactoside of quercetin, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and rutin being found in ORG fruit. The results obtained suggested that scab resistance influenced the phenolic biosynthesis in relation to the agricultural system. Sensorial evaluation indicated significantly better flavor (except for 'Topaz') and better appearance of IP fruit.

  17. Flavor characteristics of the juices from fresh market tomatoes differentiated from those from processing tomatoes by combined analysis of volatile profiles with sensory evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Yoko; Iwasaki, Yumi; Otagiri, Yuji; Tsugawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Tsuneo; Otomo, Hiroe; Sekine, Yukio; Obata, Akio

    2016-12-01

    Various commercial tomato juices with different flavors are available at markets worldwide. To clarify the marker compounds related to the flavor characteristics of tomato juice, we analyzed 15 pure commercial tomato juices by a combination of volatile profiling and sensory evaluation. The correlations among volatiles and the relationship between volatiles and sensory descriptors were elucidated by multivariate analyses. Consequently, the tomato juices made from fresh market tomatoes (including the popular Japanese tomato variety "Momotaro") were clearly separated from other juices made from processing tomatoes, by both the volatile composition and sensory profiles. cis-3-Hexenol, hexanal, and apocarotenoids negatively contributed to the juices from fresh market tomatoes, whereas Strecker aldehydes and furfural showed positive contributions to the juices. Accordingly, the sensory characteristics of juices from fresh market tomatoes were related to cooked and fruity flavors but not to green or fresh notes.

  18. Manipulating Sensory and Phytochemical Profiles of Greenhouse Tomatoes Using Environmentally Relevant Doses of Ultraviolet Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzakovich, Michael P; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Mitchell, Cary A

    2016-09-14

    Fruits harvested from off-season, greenhouse-grown tomato plants have a poor reputation compared to their in-season, garden-grown counterparts. Presently, there is a gap in knowledge with regard to the role of UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) in determining greenhouse tomato quality. Knowing that UV-B is a powerful elicitor of secondary metabolism and not transmitted through greenhouse glass and some greenhouse plastics, we tested the hypothesis that supplemental UV-B radiation in the greenhouse will impart quality attributes typically associated with garden-grown tomatoes. Environmentally relevant doses of supplemental UV-B radiation did not strongly affect antioxidant compounds of fruits, although the flavonol quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) significantly increased in response to UV-B. Physicochemical metrics of fruit quality attributes and consumer sensory panels were used to determine if any such differences altered consumer perception of tomato quality. Supplemental UV-A radiation (315-400 nm) pre-harvest treatments enhanced sensory perception of aroma, acidity, and overall approval, suggesting a compelling opportunity to environmentally enhance the flavor of greenhouse-grown tomatoes. The expression of the genes COP1 and HY5 were indicative of adaptation to UV radiation, which explains the lack of marked effects reported in these studies. To our knowledge, these studies represent the first reported use of environmentally relevant doses of UV radiation throughout the reproductive portion of the tomato plant life cycle to positively enhance the sensory and chemical properties of fruits.

  19. Perfil sensorial e aceitação de bebida láctea achocolatada Sensory profile and acceptance of milk chocolate beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bertelli Pflanzer

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O perfil sensorial de bebida láctea achocolatada foi obtido por meio da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ, utilizando três marcas comerciais do produto. Doze termos descritivos foram desenvolvidos por uma equipe de provadores selecionados e treinados, que geraram também a definição de cada termo e as amostras referência. Os resultados foram submetidos à ANOVA, teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais. A bebida láctea achocolatada da marca A caracterizou-se por apresentar maior intensidade de doçura, aroma e sabor de caramelo, enquanto as características predominantes da marca B foram a cor marrom, viscosidade e arenosidade muito intensos. O produto da marca C diferiu dos demais por apresentar maior aroma e sabor de leite. Foi também realizado um teste de aceitação para avaliar as amostras de uma forma global, quanto a intensidade do ideal de doçura e a intenção de compra. Todas as marcas apresentaram boa aceitabilidade global, não apresentando diferença significativa entre si, assim como a intenção de compra. O teste com o consumidor indicou que a amostra B apresentou intensidade de doçura ideal.The sensory profile of three commercial brands of milk chocolate beverage was obtained using the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. Twelve descriptive terms, their definitions, and reference samples were generated by a selected and trained panel. The statistical analysis included the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA, Tukey's Test for means, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Brand A showed strong sweetness taste, aroma, and caramel flavor, whereas the predominant characteristics of brand B were the brown color, viscosity, and very intense sandiness. Brand C differed from the others for presenting stronger aroma and milk flavor. An acceptance test was also performed to evaluate the samples thoroughly in terms of the intensity of the ideal sweetness and buying intention. All brands presented high acceptability, and

  20. Comparison of performance and quantitative descriptive analysis sensory profiling and its relationship to consumer liking between the artisanal cheese producers panel and the descriptive trained panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Rivera, Emmanuel de Jesús; Díaz-Rivera, Pablo; Guadalupe Ramón-Canul, Lorena; Juárez-Barrientos, José Manuel; Rodríguez-Miranda, Jesús; Herman-Lara, Erasmo; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Herrera-Corredor, José Andrés

    2018-04-25

    The aim of this research was to compare the performance and sensory profiling of a panel of artisanal cheese producers against a trained panel and their relationship to consumer liking (external preference mapping). Performance was analyzed statistically at an individual level using the Fisher's test (F) for discrimination, the mean square error for repeatability, and Manhattan plots for visualizing the intra-panel homogeneity. At group level, performance was evaluated using ANOVA. External preference mapping technique was applied to determine the efficiency of each sensory profile. Results showed that the producers panel was discriminant and repetitive with a performance similar to that of the trained panel. Manhattan plots showed that the performance of artisanal cheese producers was more homogeneous than trained panelists. The correlation between sensory profiles (Rv = 0.95) demonstrated similarities in the generation and use of sensory profiles. The external preference maps generated individually with the profiles of each panel were also similar. Recruiting individuals familiar with the production of artisanal cheeses as panelists is a viable strategy for sensory characterization of artisanal cheeses within their context of origin because their results were similar to those from the trained panel and can be correlated with consumer liking data. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. IMPACT OF THE FERMENTATION PROCESS WITH IMMOBILIZED YEAST CELLS ON THE AROMA PROFILE AND SENSORY QUALITY OF DISTILLATES PRODUCED FROM TWO FIG (Ficus carica L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borislav Miličević

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of immobilized cell fermentation on aroma and sensory characteristics of distillates produced from two fig varieties commonly grown in Croatia (Petrovača bijela and Petrovača crna. Distillate samples were produced both by classical and immobilized yeast fermentation technology. Aroma profile was determined using GC/FID and sensory analysis was conducted according to German DLG model. Results showed that immobilized cell technique gives distillates with higher ethanol and lower ester contents, but of higher sensory quality. It is a promising technique for production of high quality fruit distillates.

  2. Blocking opioid receptors alters short-term feed intake and oro-sensorial preferences in weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2012-05-01

    during the first 4 h after feeding and tended to prefer SF only after 6 h from feeding. Plasma glucose, insulin, and cholecystokinin concentrations were greater in FED than in FAS calves. Injection of naloxone decreased plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in NAL calves. Blocking opioid receptors reduced intake the first 2 h after naloxone injection in FED calves, altered oro-sensorial preferences, and reduced plasma GLP-1 concentration. In conclusion, the opioid peptide system may control short-term feed intake by modulating the oro-sensorial response triggered by feed consumption, especially when calves are fed ad libitum. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensory characterization of commercial soluble coffees by Flash ProfileCaracterização sensorial de cafés solúveis comerciais por Perfil Flash

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    Marta de Toledo Benassi

    Full Text Available In today’s competitive market, there is a lack of simple methods for sensory characterization of products. The Flash Profile is a combination of the Free Choice Profiling terms selection with a ranking method, based on the simultaneous presentation of all samples to be evaluated, providing a quick description and discrimination of a set of products. Thus, this study aimed to apply the Flash profile method on the characterization of commercial soluble coffees. Four soluble coffees selected by presenting diversity in the production process and composition were evaluated by 32 assessors in a single session. The coffee brews were prepared with 28 g of soluble coffee per 1000 mL of purified water, and added of 9.5 % sucrose. Initially, the whole set of samples were presented simultaneously for the glossary development. In individual discussion, each assessor was assisted on the elaboration of individual score sheet with the definition of each attribute. Subsequently, the four coffee beverages were presented simultaneously to the assessor, who ordered the samples in ascending order for the intensity of each attribute on its score sheet. The results were analyzed by Generalized Procrustes Analysis. The most relevant attributes in the description and discrimination of sweetened coffee brews were brown color, aroma and flavor of coffee, bitter taste, sweet taste and the presence of oil on the brew surface. The Flash Profile method was efficient on the description and discrimination of a complex food matrix as soluble coffee, presenting consensus among the assessors, and a fast assessment.Dentro do competitivo mercado atual, há demanda por métodos mais simples na descrição de produtos. O Perfil Flash (Flash Profile é uma combinação do levantamento de atributos do Perfil Livre com um método de ordenação, baseado na apresentação simultânea de todas as amostras a serem avaliadas, proporcionando uma descrição e discriminação rápida de um

  4. Volatile composition and sensory profile of Cantharellus cibarius Fr. as affected by drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politowicz, Joanna; Lech, Krzysztof; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Lucía; Szumny, Antoni; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-12-01

    In this work, the influence of different drying methods on the aroma composition and sensory quality of chanterelle mushrooms (Cantharellus cibarius Fr.) was evaluated. The drying methods tested were convective drying (CD), freeze drying (FD), vacuum microwave drying (VMD) and a combination of convective pre-drying and vacuum microwave finish drying (CPD-VMFD). Analyses of fresh and dried chanterelle samples by HS-SPME and GC/MS and GC-FID showed the presence of 39 volatile compounds at different concentrations. The most abundant compounds in fresh chanterelle were 1-hexanol (33.4 μg per 100 g dry basis (db)), 1-octen-3-ol (80.2 μg per 100 g db) and 2-octen-1-ol (19.3 μg per 100 g db). The results showed that fresh and dried chanterelle contained very low levels of aroma compounds; however, the highest contents of volatile compounds were found in samples after (i) CD at 80 °C (129 μg per 100 g db), (ii) CPD-VMFD at 70 °C-480/240 W (136 μg per 100 g db) and (iii) CPD-VMFD at 80 °C-480/240 W (136 μg per 100 g db). The best dehydration methods, which resulted in high contents of volatile compounds and appropriate sensory quality, according to descriptive sensory analysis and PCA tools, were CD at 70 and 80 °C. Besides, these methods led to spongy dried mushrooms with high intensities of fresh, mushroom ID, with proper color and without intense shrinkage. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. High-Specificity Targeted Functional Profiling in Microbial Communities with ShortBRED.

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    James Kaminski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Profiling microbial community function from metagenomic sequencing data remains a computationally challenging problem. Mapping millions of DNA reads from such samples to reference protein databases requires long run-times, and short read lengths can result in spurious hits to unrelated proteins (loss of specificity. We developed ShortBRED (Short, Better Representative Extract Dataset to address these challenges, facilitating fast, accurate functional profiling of metagenomic samples. ShortBRED consists of two components: (i a method that reduces reference proteins of interest to short, highly representative amino acid sequences ("markers" and (ii a search step that maps reads to these markers to quantify the relative abundance of their associated proteins. After evaluating ShortBRED on synthetic data, we applied it to profile antibiotic resistance protein families in the gut microbiomes of individuals from the United States, China, Malawi, and Venezuela. Our results support antibiotic resistance as a core function in the human gut microbiome, with tetracycline-resistant ribosomal protection proteins and Class A beta-lactamases being the most widely distributed resistance mechanisms worldwide. ShortBRED markers are applicable to other homology-based search tasks, which we demonstrate here by identifying phylogenetic signatures of antibiotic resistance across more than 3,000 microbial isolate genomes. ShortBRED can be applied to profile a wide variety of protein families of interest; the software, source code, and documentation are available for download at http://huttenhower.sph.harvard.edu/shortbred.

  6. Fermented sausage production using E. faecium as starter culture: Physicochemical and microbiological profile, sensorial acceptance and cellular viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Calochi Pires de Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages are defined as a mixture of lean meat and fat, curing salts, sucrose and spices, stuffed in a natural or artificial casing and submitted to fermentation and air-drying process. Starter culture and ripening process may affect the quality and acceptability of the final product. Current research evaluates the use of Enterococcus faecium as starter culture in fermented sausage production and its physicochemical and microbiological profile during maturation process, coupled to sausage sensory acceptance after ripening. Enterococcus faecium showed 10.9 log CFU g-1 and remained viable after the ripening period with 8.32 log CFU g-1. Fermented sausage was monitored during the ripening period by physicochemical (pH control, water activity and weight loss and microbiological (analysis of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, coliforms and Salmonella spp. analyses. All tests complied with standards established by Brazilian legislation and did not interfere in final product quality. Results showed that E. faecium was resistant to curing salt and sodium chloride, maintaining its viability during ripening and conferring beneficial effects on fermented sausage technological characteristics. E. faecium also proved to be in vitro resistant to simulate passage through the human digestive tract. Fermented sausage containing E. faecium had better sensory acceptance than commercial sausage evaluated.

  7. Technological quality, mineral profile, and sensory attributes of broiler chicken breasts affected by White Striping and Wooden Breast myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasoniero, G; Cullere, M; Cecchinato, M; Puolanne, E; Dalle Zotte, A

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the research was to study the impact of white striping and wooden breast myopathies on the technological quality, mineral, and sensory profile of poultry meat. With this purpose, a total of 138 breasts were selected for a control group with normal breasts (N), a group of breasts characterised by white striping (WS) myopathy, and a group of breasts having both white striping and wooden breast myopathies (WSWB). Data revealed that the simultaneous presence of the two myopathies, with respect to the WS lesion individually considered, had a further detrimental effect on pH (6.04 vs. 5.96; P white striping and wooden breast myopathies. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Novel and successful free comments method for sensory characterization of chocolate ice cream: A comparative study between pivot profile and comment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernando G A; Esmerino, Erick A; Filho, Elson R Tavares; Ferraz, Juliana P; da Cruz, Adriano G; Bolini, Helena M A

    2016-05-01

    Rapid sensory profiling methods have gained space in the sensory evaluation field. Techniques using direct analysis of the terms generated by consumers are considered easy to perform, without specific training requirements, thus improving knowledge about consumer perceptions on various products. This study aimed to determine the sensory profile of different commercial samples of chocolate ice cream, labeled as conventional and light or diet, using the "comment analysis" and "pivot profile" methods, based on consumers' perceptions. In the comment analysis task, consumers responded to 2 separate open questions describing the sensory attributes they liked or disliked in each sample. In the pivot profile method, samples were served in pairs (consisting of a coded sample and pivot), and consumers indicated the higher and lower intensity attributes in the target sample compared with the pivot. We observed that both methods were able to characterize the different chocolate ice cream samples using consumer perception, with high correlation results and configurational similarity (regression vector coefficient=0.917) between them. However, it is worth emphasizing that comment analysis is performed intuitively by consumers, whereas the pivot profile method showed high analytical and discriminative power even using consumers, proving to be a promising technique for routine application when classical descriptive methods cannot be used. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumer acceptability and sensory profile of cooked broccoli with mustard seeds added to improve chemoprotective properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghawi, Sameer Khalil; Shen, Yuchi; Niranjan, Keshavan; Methven, Lisa

    2014-09-01

    Broccoli, a rich source of glucosinolates, is a commonly consumed vegetable of the Brassica family. Hydrolysis products of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, have been associated with health benefits and contribute to the flavor of Brassica. However, boiling broccoli causes the myrosinase enzyme needed for hydrolysis to denature. In order to ensure hydrolysis, broccoli must either be mildly cooked or active sources of myrosinase, such as mustard seed powder, can be added postcooking. In this study, samples of broccoli were prepared in 6 different ways; standard boiling, standard boiling followed by the addition of mustard seeds, sous vide cooking at low temperature (70 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature (100 °C) and sous vide cooking at higher temperature followed by the addition of mustard seeds at 2 different concentrations. The majority of consumers disliked the mildly cooked broccoli samples (70 °C, 12 min, sous vide) which had a hard and stringy texture. The highest mean consumer liking was for standard boiled samples (100 °C, 7 min). Addition of 1% mustard seed powder developed sensory attributes, such as pungency, burning sensation, mustard odor, and flavor. One cluster of consumers (32%) found mustard seeds to be a good complement to cooked broccoli; however, the majority disliked the mustard-derived sensory attributes. Where the mustard seeds were partially processed, doubling the addition to 2% led to only the same level of mustard and pungent flavors as 1% unprocessed seeds, and mean consumer liking remained unaltered. This suggests that optimization of the addition level of partially processed mustard seeds may be a route to enhance bioactivity of cooked broccoli without compromising consumer acceptability. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Perfil sensorial e aceitação de presuntos crus produzidos por métodos tradicionais e acelerado Sensory profile and acceptance of dry-cured hams produced by traditional and accelerated methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela de Rezende Costa

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Existem muitos tipos de presuntos crus com perfis sensoriais particulares, em decorrência de diferentes matérias-primas e técnicas de processamento, que são apreciados por seus sabores e texturas característicos. Este trabalho objetivou caracterizar o perfil sensorial de presuntos crus através da Análise Descritiva Quantitativa e verificar a aceitação dos produtos pelo consumidor. Foram avaliados dois presuntos crus experimentais, produzidos por processo acelerado (denominados CTC 3,5 e 5,0% devido ao teor inicial de sal adicionado, e quatro produtos comercializados no Brasil, um Serrano espanhol, um Italiano e dois brasileiros (Tipo Serrano e Tipo Parma. Os produtos diferiram pelos seguintes atributos: CTC 3,5% - sabor mais ácido, menor intensidade de sabor de ranço e aroma de ranço, aparência: menor intensidade de cor vermelha e menor intensidade de suculência; CTC 5,0% - mais fibrosidade, menores intensidade e persistência de sabor e maciez; Serrano - maiores aroma de ranço, cor vermelha, intensidade e persistência de sabor e menor sabor salgado; Tipo Serrano - maior sabor de ranço e menor sabor doce; Italiano - maiores sabor salgado e maciez; Tipo Parma - sabor de carne, marmoreado e amarelo da gordura mais intensos. Todos os produtos obtiveram boa aceitação pelo consumidor. O presunto Tipo Serrano foi o mais aceito e o Serrano foi o menos aceito pelos consumidores brasileiros entrevistados. Os produtos CTC foram considerados de boa qualidade, apresentando características típicas de um presunto cru, apesar do curto período de maturação.There are many types of dry cured hams with particular sensorial profiles resulting from different raw materials and processing techniques, which are appreciated by their characteristic flavors and textures. The objectives of this paper are to characterize the sensorial profile of dry cured hams through a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, and to verify the products acceptance by the

  11. Burst-induced anti-Hebbian depression acts through short-term synaptic dynamics to cancel redundant sensory signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey-Girard, Erik; Lewis, John; Maler, Leonard

    2010-04-28

    Weakly electric fish can enhance the detection and localization of important signals such as those of prey in part by cancellation of redundant spatially diffuse electric signals due to, e.g., their tail bending. The cancellation mechanism is based on descending input, conveyed by parallel fibers emanating from cerebellar granule cells, that produces a negative image of the global low-frequency signals in pyramidal cells within the first-order electrosensory region, the electrosensory lateral line lobe (ELL). Here we demonstrate that the parallel fiber synaptic input to ELL pyramidal cell undergoes long-term depression (LTD) whenever both parallel fiber afferents and their target cells are stimulated to produce paired burst discharges. Paired large bursts (4-4) induce robust LTD over pre-post delays of up to +/-50 ms, whereas smaller bursts (2-2) induce weaker LTD. Single spikes (either presynaptic or postsynaptic) paired with bursts did not induce LTD. Tetanic presynaptic stimulation was also ineffective in inducing LTD. Thus, we have demonstrated a form of anti-Hebbian LTD that depends on the temporal correlation of burst discharge. We then demonstrated that the burst-induced LTD is postsynaptic and requires the NR2B subunit of the NMDA receptor, elevation of postsynaptic Ca(2+), and activation of CaMKIIbeta. A model incorporating local inhibitory circuitry and previously identified short-term presynaptic potentiation of the parallel fiber synapses further suggests that the combination of burst-induced LTD, presynaptic potentiation, and local inhibition may be sufficient to explain the generation of the negative image and cancellation of redundant sensory input by ELL pyramidal cells.

  12. Response of Aspergillus niger Inoculated on Tomatoes Exposed to Vapor Phase Mustard Essential Oil for Short or Long Periods and Sensory Evaluation of Treated Tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Elena Aguilar-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory effect of mustard essential oil (EO in vapor phase against Aspergillus niger was evaluated in vitro and in vivo (in tomatoes. Mold response in tomatoes exposed for short or long periods to selected concentrations of mustard EO was also evaluated. Furthermore, a sensory evaluation was also performed among treated tomatoes and compared with nontreated ones. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for the studied EO was determined by the inverted Petri dish method. MIC for the in vitro and in vivo tests for mustard EO was of 3.08 μL/Lair. In vitro and in vivo results demonstrate the effectiveness of vapors of mustard EO against A. niger. The studied EO contains highly volatile organic compounds with strong inhibitory effects, even when applied for short periods, and can consequently be considered a good alternative to traditional synthetic antimicrobials without detriment of selected sensory attributes.

  13. Effects of transportation stress on quality and sensory profiles of Nile tilapia fillets

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    Elenice Souza dos Reis Goes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated pre-slaughter stress and its influence on the stress indicators, quality characteristics and sensory characteristics of Nile tilapia fillets. To this end, two experiments were conducted: (1 two transportation times (60 and 240 min, with a density of 200 kg m−3, were compared to control treatment fish (in which the fish were removed from the net cage and immediately euthanized; and (2 two transportation densities (100 and 400 kg m−3, transported for 180 min, compared with control treatment fish. In experiment 1, the transportation time of 60 min resulted in higher levels of serum cortisol and plasma glucose compared to the transportation time of 240 min and the control. Fish fillets transported for 240 min had higher water-holding capacity, less water loss by pressure and higher levels of juiciness compared to fish transported for 60 min. Color, pH and water loss during cooking were not affected by transportation time. In experiment 2, transportation densities of 100 and 400 kg m−3 did not significantly affect the stress indicators nor the instrumental quality parameters of the fillets, but fish transported at 400 kg m−3 showed better visual acceptance by panellists.

  14. Short-term observations of the regenerative potential of injured proximal sensory nerves crossed with distal motor nerves

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    Xiu-xiu Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor nerves and sensory nerves conduct signals in different directions and function in different ways. In the surgical treatment of peripheral nerve injuries, the best prognosis is obtained by keeping the motor and sensory nerves separated and repairing the nerves using the suture method. However, the clinical consequences of connections between sensory and motor nerves currently remain unknown. In this study, we analyzed the anatomical structure of the rat femoral nerve, and observed the motor and sensory branches of the femoral nerve in the quadriceps femoris. After ligation of the nerves, the proximal end of the sensory nerve was connected with the distal end of the motor nerve, followed by observation of the changes in the newly-formed regenerated nerve fibers. Acetylcholinesterase staining was used to distinguish between the myelinated and unmyelinated motor and sensory nerves. Denervated muscle and newly formed nerves were compared in terms of morphology, electrophysiology and histochemistry. At 8 weeks after connection, no motor nerve fibers were observed on either side of the nerve conduit and the number of nerve fibers increased at the proximal end. The proportion of newly-formed motor and sensory fibers was different on both sides of the conduit. The area occupied by autonomic nerves in the proximal regenerative nerve was limited, but no distinct myelin sheath was visible in the distal nerve. These results confirm that sensory and motor nerves cannot be effectively connected. Moreover, the change of target organ at the distal end affects the type of nerves at the proximal end.

  15. Furan Levels and Sensory Profiles of Commercial Coffee Products Under Various Handling Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeesoo; Kim, Mina K; Lee, Kwang-Geun

    2017-11-01

    In this study, the levels of furan in coffee with consideration towards common coffee consumption was investigated. The concentration of furan in brewed coffee was the highest among the coffee types studied, with an average of 110.73 ng/mL, followed by canned coffee (28.08 ng/mL) and instant coffee (8.55 ng/mL). In instant and brewed coffee, the furan levels decreased by up to an average of 20% and 22%, after 5 min of pouring in a cup without a lid. The degree of reduction was greater when coffee was served without a lid, regardless of coffee type (P coffee, the level of furan decreased by an average of 14% after storage at 60 °C without a lid, and the degree of furan reduction in coffee was greater in coffee served warm (60 °C) than in coffee served cold (4 °C). A time-dependent intensities of sensory attributes in commercial coffees with various handling condition were different (P coffee kept in a cup with lid closed, holds the aroma of coffee longer than coffee in a cup without a lid. Consumption of coffee has increased rapidly in Korea over the past few years. Consequently, the probability of exposure to chemical hazards presence in coffee products increases. Furan is a heterocyclic compound, formed mainly from Maillard reaction, therefore present in coffee products. This work demonstrated the strategy to reduce the levels of furan in coffee products at individual consumer level, by investigating the levels of furan served in common handling scenarios of coffee in Korea: canned coffee, instant coffee, and brewed coffee. Findings of this study can practically guide industry, government, and consumer agencies to reduce the risk exposure to furan during coffee consumptions. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  16. Large scale gene expression profiles of regenerating inner ear sensory epithelia.

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    R David Hawkins

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Loss of inner ear sensory hair cells (HC is a leading cause of human hearing loss and balance disorders. Unlike mammals, many lower vertebrates can regenerate these cells. We used cross-species microarrays to examine this process in the avian inner ear. Specifically, changes in expression of over 1700 transcription factor (TF genes were investigated in hair cells of auditory and vestibular organs following treatment with two different damaging agents and regeneration in vitro. Multiple components of seven distinct known signaling pathways were clearly identifiable: TGFbeta, PAX, NOTCH, WNT, NFKappaB, INSULIN/IGF1 and AP1. Numerous components of apoptotic and cell cycle control pathways were differentially expressed, including p27(KIP and TFs that regulate its expression. A comparison of expression trends across tissues and treatments revealed identical patterns of expression that occurred at identical times during regenerative proliferation. Network analysis of the patterns of gene expression in this large dataset also revealed the additional presence of many components (and possible network interactions of estrogen receptor signaling, circadian rhythm genes and parts of the polycomb complex (among others. Equal numbers of differentially expressed genes were identified that have not yet been placed into any known pathway. Specific time points and tissues also exhibited interesting differences: For example, 45 zinc finger genes were specifically up-regulated at later stages of cochlear regeneration. These results are the first of their kind and should provide the starting point for more detailed investigations of the role of these many pathways in HC recovery, and for a description of their possible interactions.

  17. [Development of a Japanese version of a short form of the Profile of Emotional Competence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozaki, Yuki; Koyasu, Masuo

    2015-06-01

    Emotional competence refers to individual differences in the ability to appropriately identity, understand, express, regulate, and utilize one's own emotions and those of others. This study developed a Japanese version of a short form of the Profile of Emotional Competence, a measure that allows the comprehensive assessment of intra- and interpersonal emotional competence with shorter items, and investigated its reliability and validity. In Study 1, we selected items for a short version and compared it with the full scale in terms of scores, internal consistency, and validity. In Study 2, we examined the short form's test-retest reliability. Results supported the original two-factor model and the measure had adequate reliability and validity. We discuss the construct validity and practical applicability of the short form of the Profile of Emotional Competence.

  18. Descriptive sensory analysis in different classes of orange juice by a robust free-choice profile method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Aparicio, Jesús; Toledano Medina, M Angeles; Lafuente Rosales, Victoria

    2007-07-09

    Free-choice profile (FCP), developed in the 1980s, is a sensory analysis method that can be carried out by untrained panels. The participants need only to be able to use a scale and be consumers of the product under evaluation. The data are analysed by sophisticated statistical methodologies like Generalized Procrustean Analysis (GPA) or STATIS. To facilitate a wider use of the free-choice profiling procedure, different authors have advocated simpler methods based on principal components analysis (PCA) of merged data sets. The purpose of this work was to apply another easy procedure to this type of data by means of a robust PCA. The most important characteristic of the proposed method is that quality responsible managers could use this methodology without any scale evaluation. Only the free terms generated by the assessors are necessary to apply the script, thus avoiding the error associated with scale utilization by inexpert assessors. Also, it is possible to use the application with missing data and with differences in the assessors' attendance at sessions. An example was performed to generate the descriptors from different orange juice types. The results were compared with the STATIS method and with the PCA on the merged data sets. The samples evaluated were fresh orange juices with differences in storage days and pasteurized, concentrated and orange nectar drinks from different brands. Eighteen assessors with a low-level training program were used in a six-session free-choice profile framework. The results proved that this script could be of use in marketing decisions and product quality program development.

  19. Physico-chemical, nutritional, and volatile composition and sensory profile of Spanish jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Francisca; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Burló, Francisco; Wojdyło, Aneta; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A; Legua, Pilar

    2016-06-01

    Jujube fruit is eaten mostly fresh, but may be dried (Chinese dates and tea) or processed into confectionary recipes in bread, cakes, compotes, and candy. Given that the quality of jujube available on the market differs on account of various factors such as geographical environment, cultivar, processing conditions, and storage conditions, and that, for consumers, flavour and nutrition properties of jujube represent the major parameters in determining the quality of jujube, the main goal of this study were to determine the main physico-chemical properties of jujube fruits, sugars and organic acids profiles, protein, mineral constituents, volatile composition and sensory profile of jujube fruits. This would allow breeders to select cultivars with higher levels of nutrients and also enable increasing dietary intake by consumers. Investigations showed that jujube fruit weight ranged from 4.8 to 29.3 g fruit(-1) . Four sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose and sorbitol) and four organic acids (citric, malic, ascorbic and succinic acids) were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography in jujube fruits. Potassium, calcium and magnesium were the major mineral constituents in jujube fruits. Fifteen volatiles compounds were found in the aroma profile of jujube fruits (nine were aldehydes, three terpenes, one ester, one ketone and one linear hydrocarbon). The results showed that Spanish jujube cultivars studied are a good source of vitamin C, and they have a low content of Na. The jujube cultivar with the most appreciated quality by consumers was GAL; the GAL fruits were sweet, crunchy, and had high intensities of jujube ID and apple flavour a long after-taste. Therefore, jujube grown in Spain has a great potential to be exploited for functional foods. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Sensory profiling and quality assessment of research Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay wines; quality discrimination depends on greater differences in multiple modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimi, Jun; Boss, Paul K; Bastian, Susan E P

    2018-04-01

    The sensory profiles of Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay research wines were determined and analysed together with wine quality scores of expert judges. Research Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay wines from three and two vintages, respectively, were evaluated. Wines of both varieties were produced with grapes harvested from across South Australian wine making regions throughout 2013-2016 vintages. Wines within varieties were vinified identically across samples and also across vintages. Wines were profiled in triplicate using descriptive analysis with a panel of trained assessors (n=9-11) and graded for quality in triplicate by winemakers (n=6-9) using a sorting task based on similarity of quality and with the aid of definitions formed by the winemakers prior to sorting. The data sets were analysed using canonical variate analysis (CVA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS). The scores from CVA and MDS per variety per vintage were analysed using Generalised Procrustes Analysis (GPA). Differences in Cabernet Sauvignon samples by provenance were determined, where associations with regions by sensory attributes were observed in all vintages. These wines were consistently sorted based on quality by the winemakers, evident from GPA. Chardonnay in comparison were poorly discriminated in both sensory profiles and quality. The combination of descriptive sensory analysis with sorting was complimentary to each other and was able to uncover additional information about the sensory properties of wines when the two methods were used in concert, such as balance and complexity. However the red wine variety had more intrinsic characteristics that lead to better discrimination based on sensory properties and hence quality than the white wine variety. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Perception and the strongest sensory memory trace of multi-stable displays both form shortly after the stimulus onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We investigated the relation between perception and sensory memory of multi-stable structure-from-motion displays. The latter is an implicit visual memory that reflects a recent history of perceptual dominance and influences only the initial perception of multi-stable displays. First, we established the earliest time point when the direction of an illusory rotation can be reversed after the display onset (29-114 ms). Because our display manipulation did not bias perception towards a specific direction of illusory rotation but only signaled the change in motion, this means that the perceptual dominance was established no later than 29-114 ms after the stimulus onset. Second, we used orientation-selectivity of sensory memory to establish which display orientation produced the strongest memory trace and when this orientation was presented during the preceding prime interval (80-140 ms). Surprisingly, both estimates point towards the time interval immediately after the display onset, indicating that both perception and sensory memory form at approximately the same time. This suggests a tighter integration between perception and sensory memory than previously thought, warrants a reconsideration of its role in visual perception, and indicates that sensory memory could be a unique behavioral correlate of the earlier perceptual inference that can be studied post hoc.

  2. Perfil sensorial de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros através de análise descritiva quantitativa Sensory profile of brazilian varietal white wines by quantitative descriptive analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Herman BEHRENS

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Terminologia descritiva e perfil sensorial de três variedades de vinhos brancos varietais brasileiros (Chardonnay, Gewürztraminer e Riesling foram desenvolvidos através de metodologia fundamentada na Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ. Em consenso, a equipe sensorial definiu os descritores, materiais de referência e a ficha de avaliação das amostras. Após treinamento, dez indivíduos foram selecionados para compor a equipe final de provadores, utilizando-se como critérios o poder discriminativo, reprodutibilidade dos julgamentos e consenso do indivíduo com a equipe. Doze termos descritores definindo as similaridades e diferenças entre as amostras foram gerados. A intensidade de cada descritor foi avaliada em cada amostra através de uma escala não estruturada de nove centímetros, com termos de intensidade ancorados em seus extremos. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA, Teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Os resultados indicaram moderada variação entre os perfis sensoriais das amostras dos varietais Gewürztraminer e Riesling e pouca variação entre os perfis sensoriais dos vinhos Chardonnay. A ACP separou as amostras em dois grupos: um primeiro grupo caracterizado por vinhos com maior intensidade de doçura, sabor e aroma frutado e corpo, e um segundo grupo de amostras de maior acidez, adstringência, amargor, sabor alcoólico e sabor fermentado.Descriptive terminology and sensory profile of three varieties of brazilian varietal white wines (cultivars Riesling, Gewürztraminer and Chardonnay were developed by a methodology based on the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. The sensory panel consensually defined the sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. Ten individuals were selected as judges based on their discrimination, reproducibility and individual consensus with the sensory panel. Twelve descriptors were generated showing similarities and

  3. Brief Report: Exploring the Relationship between Sensory Processing and Repetitive Behaviours in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Janes, Emily; Rodgers, Jacqui

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between sensory processing abnormalities and repetitive behaviours in children with Williams Syndrome (WS; n = 21). This is a novel investigation bringing together two clinical phenomena for the first time in this neuro-developmental disorder. Parents completed the Sensory Profile (Short Form; Dunn in The…

  4. Sensory characteristics and volatile profiles of parsley ( Petroselinum crispum [Mill.] Nym.) in correlation to resistance properties against Septoria Blight ( Septoria petroselini ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Detlef; Bruchmüller, Tobias; Krüger, Hans; Marthe, Frank

    2011-10-12

    Sixteen different genotypes of parsley, including two cultivars, six populations, and eight inbred lines, were investigated regarding their sensory characteristics in relation to the volatile patterns and resistance to Septoria petroselini . The sensory quality was determined by a combination of profile analysis and preference test, whereas the volatile patterns were analyzed by headspace-SPME-GC of leaf homogenates with subsequent nontargeted data processing to prevent a possible overlooking of volatile compounds. The more resistant genotypes are characterized by several negative sensory characteristics such as bitter, grassy, herbaceous, pungent, chemical, and harsh. In contrast, the contents of some volatile compounds correlate highly and significantly either with resistance (e.g., hexanal and α-copaene) or with susceptibility (e.g., p-menthenol). Some of these compounds with very strong correlation to resistance are still unidentified and are presumed to act as resistance markers.

  5. Rapid sensory profiling and hedonic rating of whole grain sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits by low income consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovi, Koya Ap; Chiremba, Constance; Taylor, John Rn; de Kock, Henriëtta L

    2018-02-01

    The challenges of malnutrition and urbanization in Africa demand the development of acceptable, affordable, nutritious complementary-type foods. Biscuits (i.e. cookies; a popular snack) from whole grain staples are an option. The present study aimed to relate check-all-that-applies (CATA) sensory profiles of sorghum-cowpea composite biscuits compared to economic commercial refined wheat biscuits with hedonic ratings by low income consumers. In addition, the nutritional composition and protein quality, L * a * b * colour and texture of the biscuits were determined. The CATA method is suitable for rapidly determining which attributes consumers perceive in food products and relating these to acceptability. Consumers preferred the lighter, more yellow wheat biscuits with ginger, vanilla, sweet and cinnamon flavours compared to the stronger flavours (sorghum, beany and nutty) and harder but brittle, grittier, dry and rough textured sorghum or sorghum-cowpea biscuits. However, a substantial proportion of consumers also liked the latter biscuits. The composite biscuits had higher dietary fibre content and a similar protein quality to the standards. Whole grain sorghum-cowpea biscuits could serve as acceptable value-added nutritious complementary snacks for consumers in sub-Saharan Africa. The biscuits are simple to produce for the creation of viable small enterprises. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Hospital catering systems and their impact on the sensorial profile of foods provided to older patients in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrommatis, Yiannis; Moynihan, Paula J; Gosney, Margot A; Methven, Lisa

    2011-08-01

    Impaired sensorial perception is very common in older people and low sensorial quality of foods is associated with decreased appetite and dietary intake. Hospital undernutrition in older patients could be linked to sensorial quality of hospital food if the quality were low or inappropriate for older people. The aim of this study was to examine changes in the sensorial quality of different foods that occur as a result of the food journey (i.e. freezing, regeneration, etc.) in the most common hospital catering systems in the UK. A trained sensory panel assessed sensorial descriptors of certain foods with and without the hospital food journey as it occurs in the in-house and cook/freeze systems. The results showed effects of the food journey on a small number of sensorial descriptors related to flavour, appearance and mouthfeel. The majority of these effects were due to temperature changes, which caused accumulation of condensation. A daily variation in sensorial descriptors was also detected and in some cases it was greater than the effect of the food journey. This study has shown that changes occur in the sensory quality of meals due to hospital food journeys, however these changes were small and are not expected to substantially contribute to acceptability or have a major role in hospital malnutrition. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Measurement of kinaesthetic properties of in-brine table olives by microstructure of fracture surface, sensory evaluation and texture profile analysis (TPA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Barbara; Amoruso, Filomena

    2018-02-02

    A series of transformations occur in olive fruit both during ripening and processing. In particular, significant changes in the microstructural composition affect the flavour, texture, nutrients and overall quality of the end product. Texture is one of the sensory quality attributes of greatest importance to consumer acceptance. In the present work, kinaesthetic properties of in-brine table olives of three cultivars of Olea europaea L. (Bella di Cerignola, Peranzana and Taggiasca cvs) were provided by several measurements of olive tissue texture by sensory, rheological and microstructural approaches. Olives at the same stage of ripening and processed with the same technology, but belonging to different cultivars, showed significant differences at microstructural, sensorial and rheological levels. To describe the relationship between the three variables, multiple regression analysis and principal component analysis were chosen. Differences in microstructure were closely related both in terms of hardness measured by texture profile analysis and hardness measured by sensory analysis. The information provided could be an aid for screening and training of a sensory panel. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Circuit motifs for contrast-adaptive differentiation in early sensory systems: the role of presynaptic inhibition and short-term plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danke; Wu, Si; Rasch, Malte J

    2015-01-01

    In natural signals, such as the luminance value across of a visual scene, abrupt changes in intensity value are often more relevant to an organism than intensity values at other positions and times. Thus to reduce redundancy, sensory systems are specialized to detect the times and amplitudes of informative abrupt changes in the input stream rather than coding the intensity values at all times. In theory, a system that responds transiently to fast changes is called a differentiator. In principle, several different neural circuit mechanisms exist that are capable of responding transiently to abrupt input changes. However, it is unclear which circuit would be best suited for early sensory systems, where the dynamic range of the natural input signals can be very wide. We here compare the properties of different simple neural circuit motifs for implementing signal differentiation. We found that a circuit motif based on presynaptic inhibition (PI) is unique in a sense that the vesicle resources in the presynaptic site can be stably maintained over a wide range of stimulus intensities, making PI a biophysically plausible mechanism to implement a differentiator with a very wide dynamical range. Moreover, by additionally considering short-term plasticity (STP), differentiation becomes contrast adaptive in the PI-circuit but not in other potential neural circuit motifs. Numerical simulations show that the behavior of the adaptive PI-circuit is consistent with experimental observations suggesting that adaptive presynaptic inhibition might be a good candidate neural mechanism to achieve differentiation in early sensory systems.

  9. Data on changes in red wine phenolic compounds, headspace aroma compounds and sensory profile after treatment of red wines with activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe-Ribeiro, Lu?s; Milheiro, Juliana; Matos, Carlos C.; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M.

    2017-01-01

    Data in this article presents the changes on phenolic compounds, headspace aroma composition and sensory profile of a red wine spiked with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol and treated with seven activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics, namely surface area, micropore volume and mesopore volume (“Reduction of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in red wine by activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics: impact on wine quality” Filipe-Ribeiro et al. (...

  10. Quantitative sensory testing somatosensory profiles in patients with cervical radiculopathy are distinct from those in patients with nonspecific neck-arm pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampin, Brigitte; Slater, Helen; Hall, Toby; Lee, Gabriel; Briffa, Noelle Kathryn

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the somatosensory profiles of patients with cervical radiculopathy and patients with nonspecific neck-arm pain associated with heightened nerve mechanosensitivity (NSNAP). Sensory profiles were compared to healthy control (HC) subjects and a positive control group comprising patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) of thermal and mechanical detection and pain thresholds, pain sensitivity and responsiveness to repetitive noxious mechanical stimulation was performed in the maximal pain area, the corresponding dermatome and foot of 23 patients with painful C6 or C7 cervical radiculopathy, 8 patients with NSNAP in a C6/7 dermatomal pain distribution, 31 HC and 22 patients with FM. For both neck-arm pain groups, all QST parameters were within the 95% confidence interval of HC data. Patients with cervical radiculopathy were characterised by localised loss of function (thermal, mechanical, vibration detection Ppain area and dermatome (thermal detection, vibration detection, pressure pain sensitivity Ppain groups demonstrated increased cold sensitivity in their maximal pain area (Ppain groups differed from patients with FM, the latter characterised by a widespread gain of function in most nociceptive parameters (thermal, pressure, mechanical pain sensitivity Ppain characteristics between the 2 neck-arm pain groups, distinct sensory profiles were demonstrated for each group. Copyright © 2012 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of changes in the aroma and sensory profile of dawadawa due to modification in fermentation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agyei-Baoteng, R.

    2013-07-01

    Dawadawa is the most popular traditional condiment in West Africa and is produced by the fermentation of African locust bean seeds. Though the alkaline fermentation results in the production of a tasty condiment, it has a strong ammoniacal odour which some consumers find unattractive and offensive. This work was carried out to develop procedures for reducing the pungent odour of dawadawa in order to increase its popularity and market value especially amongst non-traditional users. Various treatments were applied to the fermenting locust bean seeds 15 hours into the fermentation which lasted for a total of 96 hours. Some treatments were also tested on the beans after fermentation. Treatments which were applied during fementation were fementation under conditions of limited oxygen, low temperature fermentation, irradiation by gamma radiation and steaming. Post-fermentation treatments were partial frying and roasting after fermentation. Samples were taken during fermentation and analyzed for Bacillus count on Nutrient Agar, pH, percentage titratable acidity, moisture content by the oven dry method, crude protein content by the kjeldhal method and texture by the texture analyzer. The final product was analyzed for aroma profile by GC-MS analysis using the Dynamic Headspace Sampling (DHS) method and also by descriptive sensory analysis by a semi-trained panel. Application of all the treatments applied during fermentation resulted in a ten to a hundredfold lower Bacillus counts compared to the control sample at various stages of fermentation. The reduction in the Bacillus activities resulted in a lower rise in pH giving final pH values of 6.8 to 7.53 compared to 8.37 in the control. The rise in pH was due to the proteolytic activity of the Bacillus species which break down the proteins into peptides and amino acids and subsequently utilize the amino acids to produce ammonia leading to the rise in pH. All the samples recorded a simultaneous increase in titratable acidity

  12. Temporal profile of pain and other sensory manifestations in Guillain-Barre′ syndrome during ten days of hospitalization

    OpenAIRE

    K Karkare; Arun B Taly; Sanjib Sinha; S Rao

    2011-01-01

    Background: Focused studies on sensory manifestations, especially pain and paresthesia in Guillain-Barre′ (GB) syndrome are few and far between. Aim: To study the sensory manifestations in GB syndrome during 10 days of hospitalization with clinico-electrophysiological correlation. Materials and Methods: The study included 60 non-consecutive patients with GB syndrome, fulfilling National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke (NINCDS) criteria for GB syndrome. Data es...

  13. Predictors of short-term and long-term memory of sensory and affective dimensions of pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedney, Jeffrey J; Logan, Henrietta; Baron, Robert S

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to establish predictors of the dimensions of pain intensity and pain unpleasantness recalled at 1 week and 18 months after an invasive therapeutic procedure, root canal therapy (RCT). Pretreatment measures of mood state and RCT-related expectations of sensory and affective dimensions of pain by using a visual analog scale (VAS) format were obtained. VAS measures of experienced pain intensity and unpleasantness were obtained immediately after treatment. Patients[apos ] memory of their RCT-related pain intensity and unpleasantness was assessed by phone call. Regression analysis showed that after controlling for age, experienced pain intensity predicts 1-week memory of pain intensity (adjusted R(2) [equals].34, P [lt ].01), whereas patients[apos ] pretreatment affective state predicts the memory of pain intensity at 18 months (adjusted R(2) [equals].24, P [lt ].01) and the memory of pain unpleasantness at 1 week (adjusted R(2) [equals].40, P [lt ].01) and 18 months (adjusted R(2) [equals].62, P [lt ].01). These findings point to the contribution of preexisting affective state to the sensory and affective dimensions of pain recollection and illustrate the importance of anxiety management for minimizing patient[apos ]s long-term recollection of the aversiveness of outpatient medical and dental procedures. 2003 by the American Pain Society

  14. Efeito da radiação gama sobre o perfil sensorial de suco de laranja Effect of gamma irradiation on sensory profile of orange juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Regina Verruma-Bernardi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de doses de radiações sobre as características sensoriais do suco fresco de laranja variedade 'Pêra' (Citrus sinensis L conservado sob refrigeração. Utilizou-se amostras de suco de laranja refrigerado (controle e suco de laranja refrigerado irradiado com 1,5 e 3,0kGy por hora (Cobalto60, armazenadas a 4ºC por 1, 7, 14 e 21 dias a 4ºC. Para a análise sensorial realizou-se a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa, na qual provadores selecionados e treinados avaliaram a aparência, aroma, sabor e textura oral dos sucos. As doses de radiação alteraram características de aparência como cor, brilho e grumosidade. As amostras de suco irradiados apresentaram coloração amarelo mais claro, maior brilho e menor grumosidade que o suco controle. Os sucos irradiados apresentaram também maior intensidade de aroma cozido, passado e artificial, gosto ácido, amargo, sabor cozido, de sumo, passado e de laranja artificial. As doses de radiação utilizadas alteraram as características de corpo e adstringência. A cor e a grumosidade do suco não irradiado intensificaram-se com o tempo de armazenamento. Com base nos resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que a irradiação do suco promoveu alterações nas características sensoriais.The objective of this work was to evaluate the characteristics of the irradiated fresh of 'Pera' sweet orange (Citrus sinnensis L. juice and kept refrigerated. Samples of orange juice (control and samples irradiated with 1.5 and 3.0kGy per hour (Cobalt 60 were stored for 1, 7, 14 and 21 days at 4ºC. Quantitative Descriptive Analysis was conducted by a selected trained panels that evaluated appearance, aroma, flavor and texture of juices. Radiation levels affected appearance characteristics as color, shine and gummy. Irradiated juice resulted more clear and shinny and less gummy, more cooked, with past and artificial aroma, more acid, bitter, cooked, sap, past and with accentuated

  15. Data on changes in red wine phenolic compounds, headspace aroma compounds and sensory profile after treatment of red wines with activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Filipe-Ribeiro

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Data in this article presents the changes on phenolic compounds, headspace aroma composition and sensory profile of a red wine spiked with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol and treated with seven activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics, namely surface area, micropore volume and mesopore volume (“Reduction of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in red wine by activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics: impact on wine quality” Filipe-Ribeiro et al. (2017 [1]. Data on the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons are shown. Statistical data on the sensory expert panel consistency by General Procrustes Analysis is shown. Statistical data is also shown, which correlates the changes in chemical composition of red wines with the physicochemical characteristics of activated carbons used.

  16. The effect of partial substitution of pork back fat with vegetable oils and walnuts on chemical composition, texture profile and sensorial properties of meatloaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Dănuţ MOCANU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effects of the partial substitution of the pork back fat with different vegetable oils (sea buckthorn, walnut and sunflower and walnuts on the chemical composition, texture profile and sensory characteristics of meatloaves. The dry matter and ash content of meatloaf with vegetable oils and walnuts were higher than the control sample (P < 0.05. The cooking loss, energy values and lipid oxidation for the samples with walnuts and vegetable oils were lower than the control sample. The meatloaf sample containing walnuts and sea buckthorn oil had the highest total antioxidant capacity. The partial substitution of pork back fat showed a positive effect on textural and sensorial characteristics. Results reveal that the incorporation of vegetable oils and walnuts has successfully reduced the animal fat content in the finite products while improving the quality characteristics.

  17. Data on changes in red wine phenolic compounds, headspace aroma compounds and sensory profile after treatment of red wines with activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipe-Ribeiro, Luís; Milheiro, Juliana; Matos, Carlos C; Cosme, Fernanda; Nunes, Fernando M

    2017-06-01

    Data in this article presents the changes on phenolic compounds, headspace aroma composition and sensory profile of a red wine spiked with 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol and treated with seven activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics, namely surface area, micropore volume and mesopore volume ("Reduction of 4-ethylphenol and 4-ethylguaiacol in red wine by activated carbons with different physicochemical characteristics: impact on wine quality" Filipe-Ribeiro et al. (2017) [1]). Data on the physicochemical characteristics of the activated carbons are shown. Statistical data on the sensory expert panel consistency by General Procrustes Analysis is shown. Statistical data is also shown, which correlates the changes in chemical composition of red wines with the physicochemical characteristics of activated carbons used.

  18. The effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition on the chemical and physical characteristics, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral compositions and sensory properties of ice creams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yüksel, Arzu Kavaz; Şat, Ihsan Güngör; Yüksel, Mehmet

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of terebinth (Pistacia terebinthus L.) coffee addition (0.5, 1 and 2 %) on the chemical and physical properties, colour values, organic acid profiles, mineral contents and sensory characteristics of ice creams. The total solids, fat, titratable acidity, viscosity, first dripping time and complete melting time values, a (*) and b (*) colour properties, citric, lactic, acetic and butyric acid levels and Ca, Cu, Mg, Fe, K, Zn and Na concentrations of ice creams showed an increase with the increment of terebinth coffee amount, while protein, pH, L (*), propionic acid and orotic acid values decreased. However, Al and malic acid were not detected in any of the samples. The overall acceptability scores of the sensory properties showed that the addition of 1 % terebinth coffee to the ice cream was more appreciated by the panellists.

  19. Short communication: The effect of raw milk cooling on sensory perception and shelf life of high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A P; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2016-12-01

    The cooling rate of raw milk may influence sensory properties and pasteurized shelf life. Under the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance for grade A milk, raw milk may be cooled instantaneously by on-farm heat exchangers but is also acceptable if "cooled to 10°C or less within four (4) hours of the commencement of the first milking." The objective of this study was to determine the effect of raw milk cooling on consumer perception and shelf life. Raw milk (18-21°C) was obtained and transported within 1h of milking to North Carolina State University (Raleigh). The batch of raw milk was split in 2 portions, and a plate heat exchanger was used to quickly cool one portion to <6°C within 1min. The second portion was stored in a jacketed bulk tank and slowly cooled over 4h to <10°C. Milk from 3 consecutive milkings was collected every 12h, with subsequent milkings added to the previous collections. The bulk milk was kept below 10°C while adding milk for the slow cool milk treatment. After 72h, each whole milk was separated; the skim milk was pasteurized at 73 or 78°C for 20 s, homogenized, and held at 4°C. Difference tests (n=75) and consumer acceptance tests (n=100) were conducted to determine if consumers could detect differences among milks. Descriptive analysis and microbial testing for aerobic, psychrotrophic, and psychrotolerant spore counts were conducted through shelf life. The entire experiment was repeated in triplicate. Raw milks averaged 3.3 logcfu/mL by aerobic plate count, <25cfu/mL coliforms, somatic cell count of 300,000 cells/mL, and 3.15±0.07% protein. Psychrotolerant spores were not found in the raw milk. Consumers could not detect differences between cooling treatments of the same pasteurization temperature or between different temperatures of the same cooling treatment. Milks reached sensory failure 49±4d on average after processing, and aerobic counts were between 5 to 7 logcfu/mL. Cooling treatment had no effect on shelf life. These results suggest

  20. Antioxidant capacity, fatty acids profile, and descriptive sensory analysis of table olives as affected by deficit irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Lamadrid, Marina; Hernández, Francisca; Corell, Mireia; Burló, Francisco; Legua, Pilar; Moriana, Alfonso; Carbonell-Barrachina, Ángel A

    2017-01-01

    The influence of three irrigation treatments (T0, no stress; T1, soft stress; and, T2, moderate stress) on the key functional properties [fatty acids, sugar alcohols, organic acids, minerals, total polyphenols content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA)], sensory quality, and consumers' acceptance of table olives, cv. 'Manzanilla', was evaluated. A soft water stress, T1, led to table olives with the highest oil and dry matter contents, with the highest intensities of key sensory attributes and slightly, although not significant, higher values of consumer satisfaction degree. Besides, RDI in general (T1 and T2) slightly increased green colour, the content of linoleic acid, but decreased the content of phytic acid and some minerals. The soft RDI conditions are a good option for the cultivation of olive trees because they are environmentally friendly and simultaneously maintain or even improve the functionality, sensory quality, and consumer acceptance of table olives. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Expression of the short chain fatty acid receptor GPR41/FFAR3 in autonomic and somatic sensory ganglia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Mark Klitgaard; Egerod, K L; Christiansen, S H

    2015-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptor 41 (GPR41) also called free fatty acid receptor 3 (FFAR3) is a Gαi-coupled receptor activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) mainly produced from dietary complex carbohydrate fibers in the large intestine as products of fermentation by microbiota. FFAR3 is expressed...

  2. Perfil sensorial de pó de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. alcalinizado Sensory profile and acceptance of alkalinized cocoa (Theobroma cacao L. powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete da Silva Bispo

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A Análise Descritiva Quantitativa(ADQ foi empregada para caracterização das amostras de pós de cacau que representaram a amplitude do delineamento composto rotacional central 2 do processo de alcalinização dos "nibs" de cacau. As variáveis independentes foram faixas de temperatura de 60 a 120 ºC, de tempo de 30 a 150min e de concentração de K2CO3 de 1,22 a 4,78%. Foram avaliadas oito amostras de pó de cacau representativas das variações de cor e aceitabilidade do total das amostras obtidas experimentalmente e duas amostras de marcas comerciais. A análise do aroma foi feita diretamente nos pós de cacau alcalinizados e a dos demais atributos na forma de bebida achocolatada (2% do pó de cacau e 7% de açúcar em leite desnatado esterilizado. Doze provadores selecionados com base no seu poder de discriminação, reprodutibilidade e concordância com a equipe geraram em consenso, pelo método de rede (Kelly's Repertory Grid Method, três termos descritos para o aroma (alcalino, chocolate e queimado e doze para os achocolatados (solubilidade, marrom, marrom avermelhado, chocolate, queimado, caramelo, doce, adstringente, alcalino, amargo, salgado e corpo. As avaliações das amostras foram feitas monadicamente com três repetições e em cabines individuais. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos a ANOVA, teste de Tukey e Análise de Componentes Principais. As avaliações dos aromas dos pós de cacau mostraram relação direta entre o aroma alcalino e os teores de álcali, temperatura e tempo do processo. De modo geral, os produtos com menores concentrações de K2CO3 (1,22 - 3,00% apresentaram aroma e sabor de chocolate mais fortes. Encontrou-se uma relação direta entre os teores de álcali no produto e o sabor alcalino, queimado e adstringente e uma relação inversa com a luminosidade da cor. Assim, as amostras com maior concentração de K2CO3 (4,78%, foram consideradas pela equipe sensorial, as de mais forte sabor e aroma alcalino

  3. Differential Gene Expression Profiling of Enriched Human Spermatogonia after Short- and Long-Term Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Conrad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to provide a molecular signature for enriched adult human stem/progenitor spermatogonia during short-term (<2 weeks and long-term culture (up to more than 14 months in comparison to human testicular fibroblasts and human embryonic stem cells. Human spermatogonia were isolated by CD49f magnetic activated cell sorting and collagen−/laminin+ matrix binding from primary testis cultures obtained from ten adult men. For transcriptomic analysis, single spermatogonia-like cells were collected based on their morphology and dimensions using a micromanipulation system from the enriched germ cell cultures. Immunocytochemical, RT-PCR and microarray analyses revealed that the analyzed populations of cells were distinct at the molecular level. The germ- and pluripotency-associated genes and genes of differentiation/spermatogenesis pathway were highly expressed in enriched short-term cultured spermatogonia. After long-term culture, a proportion of cells retained and aggravated the “spermatogonial” gene expression profile with the expression of germ and pluripotency-associated genes, while in the majority of long-term cultured cells this molecular profile, typical for the differentiation pathway, was reduced and more genes related to the extracellular matrix production and attachment were expressed. The approach we provide here to study the molecular status of in vitro cultured spermatogonia may be important to optimize the culture conditions and to evaluate the germ cell plasticity in the future.

  4. Changes in short-chain fatty acid plasma profile incurred by dietary fiber composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery and w...... higher net absorption of butyrate (2.4–4.0 vs. 1.6 mmol/h; P ...Pigs were used as model for humans to study the impact of dietary fiber (DF), the main substrate for microbial fermentation, on plasma profile of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate). Six female pigs fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery...... >> arabinoxylan >> β-glucan, whereas in the WWG, WAF, and RAF, diets it was arabinoxylan >> cellulose > β-glucan. The diets were fed to the pigs during 3 wk in a crossover design. Within an experimental week, WFL was supplied on Days 1 through 3 and WWG, WAF, or RAF was supplied during Days 4 through 7. Fasting...

  5. Contamination profiles of short-chain polychlorinated n-alkanes in foodstuff samples from Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Kurunthachalam, S; Ohi, Etsumasa; Takasuga, Takumi [Shimadzu Techno Research, Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Iino, Fukuya; Nakanishi, Junko [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated n-alkanes (PCAs) are group of chemicals manufactured by chlorination of liquid n-paraffin or paraffin wax that contain 30 to 70% chlorine by weight. Large amounts of PCAs are widely used as plasticizers for vinyl chloride, lubricants, paints, and flame retardants and number of other industrial applications. Annual global production of PCAs is approximately 300 kilo tones, with a majority having medium-carbon-chain (C14-C19) length. According to the investigation made by Kagaku Kogyo Nippon-Sha, the annual consumption of PCAs in Japan was about 83,000 tons in between 1986-2001. Short-carbon-chain (C10-C13) has been placed on the Priority Substance List under Canadian Environmental Protection Act and on the Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Release Inventory in the USA due to its potential to act as tumor promoters in mammals. Data on environment levels of PCAs is meager, nevertheless, PCAs have been measured at relatively high concentrations in biota from Sweden, biota, sediment from Canada and marine biota and human milk from the Canadian Arctic. In our earlier study, we reported concentrations of short-chain PCAs from sewage treatment plant (STP) collected from Tama River, Tokyo and river water and sediment from Tokyo and Osaka. STP influent water contained greater shortchain PCAs concentrations than STP effluent. In addition, some river water and sediment samples contained detectable concentrations of short-chain PCAs, which was similar to other industrial countries. However, there is no study conducted to explore the contamination profiles of short-chain PCAs in human foodstuff samples. In the present study, we analyzed eleven foodstuff samples that were purchased from various supermarkets in order to know the short-chain PCAs concentrations in the foodstuff and possible human total daily intake (TDI) amounts.

  6. Gene expression profiling of canine osteosarcoma reveals genes associated with short and long survival times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Nagesha AS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene expression profiling of spontaneous tumors in the dog offers a unique translational opportunity to identify prognostic biomarkers and signaling pathways that are common to both canine and human. Osteosarcoma (OS accounts for approximately 80% of all malignant bone tumors in the dog. Canine OS are highly comparable with their human counterpart with respect to histology, high metastatic rate and poor long-term survival. This study investigates the prognostic gene profile among thirty-two primary canine OS using canine specific cDNA microarrays representing 20,313 genes to identify genes and cellular signaling pathways associated with survival. This, the first report of its kind in dogs with OS, also demonstrates the advantages of cross-species comparison with human OS. Results The 32 tumors were classified into two prognostic groups based on survival time (ST. They were defined as short survivors (dogs with poor prognosis: surviving fewer than 6 months and long survivors (dogs with better prognosis: surviving 6 months or longer. Fifty-one transcripts were found to be differentially expressed, with common upregulation of these genes in the short survivors. The overexpressed genes in short survivors are associated with possible roles in proliferation, drug resistance or metastasis. Several deregulated pathways identified in the present study, including Wnt signaling, Integrin signaling and Chemokine/cytokine signaling are comparable to the pathway analysis conducted on human OS gene profiles, emphasizing the value of the dog as an excellent model for humans. Conclusion A molecular-based method for discrimination of outcome for short and long survivors is useful for future prognostic stratification at initial diagnosis, where genes and pathways associated with cell cycle/proliferation, drug resistance and metastasis could be potential targets for diagnosis and therapy. The similarities between human and canine OS makes the

  7. A possible role of the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile in screening for autism: a proof-of-concept study in the specific sample of prematurely born children with birth weights <1,500 g

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Beranová, Š.; Stoklasa, J.; Dudová, I.; Marková, D.; Kašparová, M.; Zemánková, J.; Urbánek, Tomáš; Talášek, T.; Luukka, P.; Hrdlička, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, January (2017), s. 191-200 ISSN 1178-2021 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : autism spectrum disorders * preterm children * screening * Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers * Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist * Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) Impact factor: 2.198, year: 2016 https://www.dovepress.com/a-possible-role-of-the-infanttoddler-sensory-profile-in-screening-for--peer-reviewed-article-NDT

  8. Effect of brewing technique and particle size of the ground coffee on sensory profiling of brewed Dampit robusta coffee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fibrianto, K.; Febryana, Y. R.; Wulandari, E. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of different brewing techniques with the use of appropriate particle size standard of Apresiocoffee cafe (Category 1) compared to the difference brewing techniques with the use of the same particle size (coarse) (Category 2) of the sensory attributes Dampit robusta coffee. Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) method was applied in this study, and the data was analysed by ANOVA General Linier Model (GLM) on Minitab-16. The influence of brewing techniques (tubruk, French-press, drips, syphon) and type of particle size ground coffee (fine, medium, coarse) were sensorially observed. The result showed that only two attributes, including bitter taste, and astringent/rough-mouth-feel were affected by brewing techniques (p-value <0.05) as observed for brewed coarse coffee powder.

  9. Sensory Profile, Drivers of Liking, and Influence of Information on the Acceptance of Low-Calorie Synbiotic and Probiotic Chocolate Ice Cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Juliana; Esmerino, Erick; da Silva, Alessandra Lins; Racowski, Ilana; Bolini, Helena

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensory profile and the influence of the information on the acceptance of the symbiotic chocolate ice cream made with sucrose and different sweeteners (aspartame, sucralose, neotame, Stevia with 60%, 85%, 95%, and 97% of rebaudioside A) through analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's test, and partial least of square (PLS) regression. Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was carried out by 18 assessors, who evaluated the samples in relation to the raised descriptors. Additionally, two acceptance tests (blind/informed) were performed with 120 consumers. The samples sweetened with sucralose and rebaudioside 97% presented similar profile to the control sample, thus having a better potential to replace sucrose in chocolate ice cream. The acceptance test carried out with information had higher scores for the attributes appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall impression. The correlation between data from the acceptance tests and QDA showed that the descriptors "low-energy" and "natural sweetener" claims interfered negatively in the drivers of liking of chocolate ice cream. Therefore, we can conclude that some characteristics unnoticed by consumers were highlighted after providing the information about the product's characteristics. This research is important and contributes to the manufacture and development of low-calorie chocolate ice cream with functional properties, guiding, through suitable sensory and statistical tools, the application of stevia and other artificial sweeteners in products with reduction or total absence of sucrose and highlighting the impact of the labeling of these products on consumer perception. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Effects of fortified lysine on the amino acid profile and sensory qualities of deep-fried and dried noodles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polpuech, C; Chavasit, V; Srichakwal, P; Paniangvait, P

    2011-08-01

    Lysine fortification of wheat flour has been used toward reducing protein energy malnutrition in developing countries. The feasibility of fortifying instant noodles with lysine was evaluated based on sensory qualities and the residual lysine content. Fifty grams of deep-fried and dried instant noodles were fortified with 0.23 and 0.21 g lysine, respectively. The production temperatures used for deep-frying were 165-175 degrees C and for drying, 80-105 degrees C; these are the temperatures used in the industrial production of both kinds of noodles. Lysine fortification was then performed at the local factories using the commercial production lines and packaging for both types of instant noodles. Both fortified and unfortified deep-fried and dried instant noodles were stored at 50 degrees C under fluorescent light for 2 and 4 months, respectively. The fortified products were tested for residual lysine content and sensory qualities as compared with unfortified noodles. The results show fortified products from the tested processing temperatures were all accepted. After storage, significant losses of lysine were not found in both types of noodles analysed. The lysine-fortified noodles had amino acid scores of 102% and 122%, respectively. After 2 months, the sensory quality of fortified deep-fried noodles was still acceptable; however, the dried noodles turned to an unacceptable dark colour. This study shows that it is feasible to fortify deep-fried instant noodles with lysine, though lysine fortification exhibited an undesirable colour in the dried instant noodles after storage.

  11. Preharvest factors related to sensory profile of Passiflora setacea nectars, a wild passion fruit from Brazilian savannah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Mariana Veras Oliveira; de Lacerda de Oliveira, Lívia; Melo, Lauro; Costa, Ana Maria

    2018-05-08

    Passiflora setacea D.C is a passion fruit species native from Brazilian savannah characterized by naturally sweet sensory characteristics. Sensory quality of the pulp can be affected by growing environment. The effect of training systems (trellis or espalier), seasons (the weather conditions in periods of drought and rain) and addition of seeds to the juice (25%) were evaluated, with emphasis on the sensory quality of Passiflora setacea nectars. Training systems of P. setacea plantation did not influence flavor or aroma of nectars. Season had an effect on texture attributes. Although training system and season had impact on pH, TSS, TA, polyphenolics and condensed tannins content, these environment factors had no influence on acceptance. Seeds addition had a negative effect on overall liking. Frequency of consumption of passion fruit and functional food did not influence nectar preference whereas being neophilic or having higher level of knowledge about functional foods favored greater acceptance of P. setacea nectars. Passiflora setacea nectar is a potential functional beverage, due its bioactive contents. Training system and season had no influence on acceptance as isolated factors. However, there was an interaction between these factors, which could be considered to market projection, as well as the addition of seeds. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  13. UNCOMMON SENSORY METHODOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Vietoris

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sensory science is the young but the rapidly developing field of the food industry. Actually, the great emphasis is given to the production of rapid techniques of data collection, the difference between consumers and trained panel is obscured and the role of sensory methodologists is to prepare the ways for evaluation, by which a lay panel (consumers can achieve identical results as a trained panel. Currently, there are several conventional methods of sensory evaluation of food (ISO standards, but more sensory laboratories are developing methodologies that are not strict enough in the selection of evaluators, their mechanism is easily understandable and the results are easily interpretable. This paper deals with mapping of marginal methods used in sensory evaluation of food (new types of profiles, CATA, TDS, napping.

  14. Short- and Long-Term Learning of Feedforward Control of a Myoelectric Prosthesis with Sensory Feedback by Amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strbac, Matija; Isakovic, Milica; Belic, Minja; Popovic, Igor; Simanic, Igor; Farina, Dario; Keller, Thierry; Dosen, Strahinja

    2017-11-01

    Human motor control relies on a combination of feedback and feedforward strategies. The aim of this study was to longitudinally investigate artificial somatosensory feedback and feedforward control in the context of grasping with myoelectric prosthesis. Nine amputee subjects performed routine grasping trials, with the aim to produce four levels of force during four blocks of 60 trials across five days. The electrotactile force feedback was provided in the second and third block using multipad electrode and spatial coding. The first baseline and last validation block (open-loop control) evaluated the effects of long- (across sessions) and short-term (within session) learning, respectively. The outcome measures were the absolute error between the generated and target force, and the number of force saturations. The results demonstrated that the electrotactile feedback improved the performance both within and across sessions. In the validation block, the performance did not significantly decrease and the quality of open-loop control (baseline) improved across days, converging to the performance characterizing closed-loop control. This paper provides important insights into the feedback and feedforward processes in prosthesis control, contributing to the better understanding of the role and design of feedback in prosthetic systems.

  15. Physico-chemical and sensory profiling of promising mango cultivars grown in peri-urban areas of multan, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naz, S.; Anjum, M.A.; Chohan, S.; Akhtar, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the present scenario, Pakistani mango is facing serious apprehension about production decline and export, consequently present study was planned to categorize the paramount mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivar in relation to its physical, chemical and sensorial attributes. Physiologically fully mature fruits of eight mango cultivars were picked and subjected for physical and proximate analysis. Among the eight cultivars, Fajri produced the maximum green and ripe fruit weight, fruit length and perimeter and physiological weight loss (453.0g, 403.0g, 13.80 cm, 21.57cm and 10.97%), respectively. The higher softness values were noticed in Aman Dusahri. The mark variations were observed among all the cultivars for proximate composition. There is an increase in pH values (5.47, 5.40 and 5.33) among Samar Bahisht Chaunsa, Aman Dusahri and Anwar Ratual, respectively with a progressive decrease in ascorbic acid and titrable acidity during ripening period. Likewise, maximum moisture and ash contents were observed in the mango pulp of Fajri and Sindhri (92.20% and 0.78%, respectively). Whereas appreciably higher total sugar contents were observed in pulp of Langra, Samar Bahisht Chaunsa and Anwar Ratual (20.67%, 20.43% and 20.33%, respectively. 19.83% TSS and 0.64% protein contents were recorded in Langra while the Fajri contained higher fat contents. The sensorial attributes varied significantly according to cultivars. Out of eight cultivars Langra obtained higher scores, while Anwar Ratual found to be highly satisfactory followed by Samar Bahisht Chunsa for flavor and taste. Both of these cultivars were equally acceptable for overall acceptability. However non of the cultivar is rejected by the panelists regarding the sensory evaluation. (author)

  16. Association of Sensory Processing and Eating Problems in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviève Nadon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available “Selective” or “picky eating” is a frequent problem in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. Many of these children do not treat sensory input, particularly olfactory, auditory, visual, and tactile information in the same manner as their typically developing peers of the same age. The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between problems of sensory processing and the number of eating problems in children with ASD. Of 95 children with ASD, 3 to 10 years of age, 65 percent showed a definite difference and 21 percent a probable difference in sensory processing on the total score of the Short Sensory Profile. These results were significantly related to an increase in the number of eating problems measured by the Eating Profile. These results could not be explained by age, sex, mental retardation, attention deficit disorder, or hyperactivity. Timely interventions focusing on the sensory components of eating must now be developed.

  17. Power profiles and short-term visual performance of soft contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, Eric; Dahms, Anne; Carnt, Nicole; Tahhan, Nina; Ehrmann, Klaus

    2009-04-01

    To investigate the manner in which contemporary soft contact lenses differ in the distribution of optical power within their optic zones and establish if these variations affect the vision of wearers or the prescribing procedure for back vertex power (BVP). By using a Visionix VC 2001 contact lens power analyzer, power profiles were measured across the optic zones of the following contemporary contact lenses ACUVUE 2, ACUVUE ADVANCE, O2OPTIX, NIGHT & DAY and PureVision. Single BVP measures were obtained using a Nikon projection lensometer. Visual performance was assessed in 28 masked subjects who wore each lens type in random order. Measurements taken were high and low contrast visual acuity in normal illumination (250 Cd/m), high contrast acuity in reduced illumination (5 Cd/m), subjective visual quality using a numerical rating scale, and visual satisfaction rating using a Likert scale. Marked differences in the distribution of optical power across the optic zone were evident among the lens types. No significant differences were found for any of the visual performance variables (p > 0.05, analysis of variance with repeated measures and Friedman test). Variations in power profile between contemporary soft lens types exist but do not, in general, result in measurable visual performance differences in the short term, nor do they substantially influence the BVP required for optimal correction.

  18. Recommendation of short tandem repeat profiling for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barallon, Rita; Bauer, Steven R; Butler, John; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Elmore, Eugene; Furtado, Manohar; Kline, Margaret C; Kohara, Arihiro; Los, Georgyi V; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Masters, John R W; Nardone, Mark; Nardone, Roland M; Nims, Raymond W; Price, Paul J; Reid, Yvonne A; Shewale, Jaiprakash; Sykes, Gregory; Steuer, Anton F; Storts, Douglas R; Thomson, Jim; Taraporewala, Zenobia; Alston-Roberts, Christine; Kerrigan, Liz

    2010-10-01

    Cell misidentification and cross-contamination have plagued biomedical research for as long as cells have been employed as research tools. Examples of misidentified cell lines continue to surface to this day. Efforts to eradicate the problem by raising awareness of the issue and by asking scientists voluntarily to take appropriate actions have not been successful. Unambiguous cell authentication is an essential step in the scientific process and should be an inherent consideration during peer review of papers submitted for publication or during review of grants submitted for funding. In order to facilitate proper identity testing, accurate, reliable, inexpensive, and standardized methods for authentication of cells and cell lines must be made available. To this end, an international team of scientists is, at this time, preparing a consensus standard on the authentication of human cells using short tandem repeat (STR) profiling. This standard, which will be submitted for review and approval as an American National Standard by the American National Standards Institute, will provide investigators guidance on the use of STR profiling for authenticating human cell lines. Such guidance will include methodological detail on the preparation of the DNA sample, the appropriate numbers and types of loci to be evaluated, and the interpretation and quality control of the results. Associated with the standard itself will be the establishment and maintenance of a public STR profile database under the auspices of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The consensus standard is anticipated to be adopted by granting agencies and scientific journals as appropriate methodology for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues.

  19. Short tandem repeat profiling: part of an overall strategy for reducing the frequency of cell misidentification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nims, Raymond W; Sykes, Greg; Cottrill, Karin; Ikonomi, Pranvera; Elmore, Eugene

    2010-12-01

    The role of cell authentication in biomedical science has received considerable attention, especially within the past decade. This quality control attribute is now beginning to be given the emphasis it deserves by granting agencies and by scientific journals. Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling, one of a few DNA profiling technologies now available, is being proposed for routine identification (authentication) of human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues. The advantage of this technique over methods such as isoenzyme analysis, karyotyping, human leukocyte antigen typing, etc., is that STR profiling can establish identity to the individual level, provided that the appropriate number and types of loci are evaluated. To best employ this technology, a standardized protocol and a data-driven, quality-controlled, and publically searchable database will be necessary. This public STR database (currently under development) will enable investigators to rapidly authenticate human-based cultures to the individual from whom the cells were sourced. Use of similar approaches for non-human animal cells will require developing other suitable loci sets. While implementing STR analysis on a more routine basis should significantly reduce the frequency of cell misidentification, additional technologies may be needed as part of an overall authentication paradigm. For instance, isoenzyme analysis, PCR-based DNA amplification, and sequence-based barcoding methods enable rapid confirmation of a cell line's species of origin while screening against cross-contaminations, especially when the cells present are not recognized by the species-specific STR method. Karyotyping may also be needed as a supporting tool during establishment of an STR database. Finally, good cell culture practices must always remain a major component of any effort to reduce the frequency of cell misidentification.

  20. Recommendation of short tandem repeat profiling for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barallon, Rita; Bauer, Steven R.; Butler, John; Capes-Davis, Amanda; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Furtado, Manohar; Kline, Margaret C.; Kohara, Arihiro; Los, Georgyi V.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.; Masters, John R. W.; Nardone, Mark; Nardone, Roland M.; Nims, Raymond W.; Price, Paul J.; Reid, Yvonne A.; Shewale, Jaiprakash; Sykes, Gregory; Steuer, Anton F.; Storts, Douglas R.; Thomson, Jim; Taraporewala, Zenobia; Alston-Roberts, Christine; Kerrigan, Liz

    2010-01-01

    Cell misidentification and cross-contamination have plagued biomedical research for as long as cells have been employed as research tools. Examples of misidentified cell lines continue to surface to this day. Efforts to eradicate the problem by raising awareness of the issue and by asking scientists voluntarily to take appropriate actions have not been successful. Unambiguous cell authentication is an essential step in the scientific process and should be an inherent consideration during peer review of papers submitted for publication or during review of grants submitted for funding. In order to facilitate proper identity testing, accurate, reliable, inexpensive, and standardized methods for authentication of cells and cell lines must be made available. To this end, an international team of scientists is, at this time, preparing a consensus standard on the authentication of human cells using short tandem repeat (STR) profiling. This standard, which will be submitted for review and approval as an American National Standard by the American National Standards Institute, will provide investigators guidance on the use of STR profiling for authenticating human cell lines. Such guidance will include methodological detail on the preparation of the DNA sample, the appropriate numbers and types of loci to be evaluated, and the interpretation and quality control of the results. Associated with the standard itself will be the establishment and maintenance of a public STR profile database under the auspices of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The consensus standard is anticipated to be adopted by granting agencies and scientific journals as appropriate methodology for authenticating human cell lines, stem cells, and tissues. PMID:20614197

  1. Sensorial and fatty acid profile of ice cream manufactured with milk of crossbred cows fed palm oil and coconut fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corradini, S A S; Madrona, G S; Visentainer, J V; Bonafe, E G; Carvalho, C B; Roche, P M; Prado, I N

    2014-11-01

    This work was carried out to study the nutritional quality of milk of cows fed palm oil (PAL) or coconut fat (COC), and the use of that milk as raw material for ice cream production. Three treatments were tested with 23 healthy cows: control (CON), PAL, and COC. The milk was collected at d 21 and 36 of the experimental diet. Proximate composition (moisture, ash, fat, protein, and carbohydrates) and fatty acid composition were evaluated on milk and ice cream, and sensorial analysis, color (lightness, green/red, and blue/yellow), overrun, and texture were evaluated on the ice cream. Fatty acids present in milk and ice cream were determined by gas chromatography. Sensory analysis results showed that the ice cream acceptability index was above 70%. No difference was observed for proximate composition in milk and ice cream. Chromatographic analysis showed an increase in saturated fatty acid concentration in CON and lower levels in PAL; polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration was higher in PAL and lower in CON, in milk and ice cream; monounsaturated fatty acid concentration in milk was higher in PAL and lower in CON but no difference was found in ice cream. Comparing n-3 content in milk and ice cream, we observed that PAL had higher levels than CON and COC. The results indicate that it is feasible to add sources of fat to the animal feed for fatty acid composition modulation of milk and ice cream. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Physicochemical characteristics and sensory profile of honey samples from stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponinae submitted to a dehumidification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A.L. Carvalho

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of a dehumidification process on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of stingless-bee honey. Melipona scutellaris and M. quadrifasciata honey samples were submitted to a dehumidification process and to physicochemical (reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, moisture, diastatic activity, hydroxymethylfurfural, ash, pH, acidity, and electric conductivity and sensory evaluations (fluidity, color, aroma, crystallization,flavor,and acceptability. The results indicated that the dehumidification process does not interfere with honey quality and acceptability.Este estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do processo de desumidificação sobre as características físico-químicas e sensoriais do mel das abelhas sem ferrão. Amostras de méis de Melipona scutellaris e M. quadrifasciata foram submetidas ao processo de desumidificação, passando em seguida por avaliações físico-químicas (açúcares redutores, sacarose aparente, umidade, atividade diastásica, hidroximetilfurfural, cinzas, pH, acidez e condutividade elétrica e sensoriais (fluidez, cor, aroma, cristalização, sabor e aceitabilidade. Os resultados indicaram que o processo de desumidificação não interfere na qualidade e aceitabilidade do mel.

  3. GC-MS profiling, descriptive sensory analysis, and consumer acceptance of Costa Rican papaya (Carica papaya L.) fruit purees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, Veronika M; Esquivel, Patricia; Cubero Castillo, Elba; Carle, Reinhold; Steingass, Christof B

    2018-05-15

    Volatiles of papaya purees from four Costa Rican cultivars were analysed by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 83 volatiles was assigned in the purees, of which 19 were detected for the first time as papaya constituents. As revealed by multivariate statistics, i.e., principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), the purees may be allocated to terpene- and lactone-rich ('SH-5'), ester-containing ('Criolla'), and intermediate chemotypes ('Pococí' and 'Silvestre'). Descriptive sensory analysis and a consumer acceptance test were additionally performed. Floral, fruity, and honey-like notes were perceived at significantly higher intensities in 'SH-5' puree. The latter descriptors strongly correlated with volatiles discriminating 'SH-5' in the PCA and PLS-DA, respectively. Consumer acceptance of the papaya purees differed significantly. 'Pococí' and 'SH-5' purees appear to be suitable for improving the nutritional value of blended fruit juices without impairing their sensory quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-term Memory – an Aggregate analysis of Lesion and fMRI data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D’Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways, recent advances in lesions reconstruction methodology applied to groups of patients have implicated left temporoparietal zones. Parallel work using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has pinpointed a region in the posterior most portion of the left planum temporale, area Spt, which is critical for phonological working memory. Here we show that the region of maximal lesion overlap in a sample of 14 patients with conduction aphasia perfectly circumscribes area Spt, as defined in an aggregate fMRI analysis of 105 subjects performing a phonological working memory task. We provide a review of the evidence supporting the idea that Spt is an interface site for the integration of sensory and vocal tract-related motor representations of complex sound sequences, such as speech and music and show how the symptoms of conduction aphasia can be explained by damage to this system. PMID:21256582

  5. Conduction aphasia, sensory-motor integration, and phonological short-term memory - an aggregate analysis of lesion and fMRI data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-12-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways, recent advances in lesions reconstruction methodology applied to groups of patients have implicated left temporoparietal zones. Parallel work using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has pinpointed a region in the posterior most portion of the left planum temporale, area Spt, which is critical for phonological working memory. Here we show that the region of maximal lesion overlap in a sample of 14 patients with conduction aphasia perfectly circumscribes area Spt, as defined in an aggregate fMRI analysis of 105 subjects performing a phonological working memory task. We provide a review of the evidence supporting the idea that Spt is an interface site for the integration of sensory and vocal tract-related motor representations of complex sound sequences, such as speech and music and show how the symptoms of conduction aphasia can be explained by damage to this system. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Physico-chemical properties and sensory profile of durum wheat Dittaino PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) bread and quality of re-milled semolina used for its production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Virgilio; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Spina, Alfio; Todaro, Aldo; Pecorino, Biagio; Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2018-02-15

    To help future quality checks, we characterized the physico-chemical and sensory properties of Dittaino bread, a sourdough-based durum wheat bread recently awarded with Protected Designation of Origin mark, along with the quality features of re-milled semolina used for its production. Semolina was checked for Falling Number (533-644s), protein content (12.0-12.3g/100gd.m.), gluten content (9.7-10.5g/100gd.m.), yellow index (18.0-21.0), water absorption (59.3-62.3g/100g), farinograph dough stability (171-327s), softening index (46-66B.U.), alveograph W (193×10 -4 -223×10 -4 J) and P/L (2.2-2.7). Accordingly, bread crumb was yellow, moderately hard (16.4-27.1N) and chewy (88.2-109.2N×mm), with low specific volume (2.28-3.03mL/g). Bread aroma profile showed ethanol and acetic acid, followed by hexanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, benzaldehyde, and furfural. The sensory features were dominated by a thick brown crust, with marked toasted odor, coupled to yellow and consistent crumb, with coarse grain and well-perceivable sour taste and odor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physicochemical and sensory profile of rice bran roasted in microwave Perfil físico-químico e sensorial de farelos de arroz torrados em micro-ondas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Costa Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical, chemical, and sensory changes in bran from three rice cultivars according to microwave roasting time. This study analyzed three rice cultivars, BRS Sertaneja (S, BRS Primavera (P, and IRGA 417 (I determining the color parameters (L*, a*, and b * at 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 minutes of roasting time. After applying the difference from control test, the rice brans with different characteristics aroma and flavor were selected: S and P roasted for 9 and 15 minutes and IRGA 417 roasted for 9, 12, and 15 minutes. These samples were characterized by Free-Choice Profile descriptive sensory analysis, and their chemical composition was also determined. The longer the roasting process, the higher the roasted flavor intensity and aroma. The IRG 417 cultivar roasted for 12 minutes showed a sweeter flavor and aroma. After roasting, the brans remained rich in protein and lipid and presented higher fiber content and lower reducing sugar and phytic acid content. Microwave roasting for 12 minutes can be a viable option for improving the sensory functional and nutritional characteristics of the rice bran considering its use in food products.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar as mudanças físicas, químicas e sensoriais de farelos de três cultivares de arroz em função do tempo de torra em micro-ondas. Foram estudados 3 cultivares de arroz, BRS Sertaneja (S, BRS Primavera (P e Irga 417 (I, determinando-se os parâmetros de cor (L*, a* e b* aos 6, 9, 12, 15 e 18 minutos de torração. Após aplicação do teste de diferença do controle, selecionaram-se farelos de arroz com características de sabor e aroma distintas: S e P torrados por 9 e 15 minutos e I torrado por 9, 12 e 15 minutos. Essas amostras foram caracterizadas pela análise sensorial descritiva de Perfil Livre e quanto composição química. Quanto mais longa a torração, mais intenso o aroma e sabor de torrado dos farelos, apresentando sabor e aroma

  8. Parametric and non-parametric approach for sensory RATA (Rate-All-That-Apply) method of ledre profile attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, S.; Harijono; Murtini, E. S.; Fibrianto, K.

    2018-03-01

    This current study is aimed to investigate the use of parametric and non-parametric approach for sensory RATA (Rate-All-That-Apply) method. Ledre as Bojonegoro unique local food product was used as point of interest, in which 319 panelists were involved in the study. The result showed that ledre is characterized as easy-crushed texture, sticky in mouth, stingy sensation and easy to swallow. It has also strong banana flavour with brown in colour. Compared to eggroll and semprong, ledre has more variances in terms of taste as well the roll length. As RATA questionnaire is designed to collect categorical data, non-parametric approach is the common statistical procedure. However, similar results were also obtained as parametric approach, regardless the fact of non-normal distributed data. Thus, it suggests that parametric approach can be applicable for consumer study with large number of respondents, even though it may not satisfy the assumption of ANOVA (Analysis of Variances).

  9. Volatile Compounds and Sensory Profiles of Monovarietal Virgin Olive Oil from Buža, Črna and Rosinjola Cultivars in Istria (Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Sladonja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds found in virgin olive oil, mainly C6 and C5 volatile compounds biogenerated from polyunsaturated fatty acids through the lipoxygenase pathway, are responsible for their particular aroma. The composition of volatile compounds in olive oil depends on the cultivar, the ripening degree of the fruits and processing conditions. Among many different autochthonous cultivars in Istria (Croatia, some of the most prevalent are Buža, Črna and Rosinjola. The volatiles and sensory characteristics of their monovarietal virgin olive oil are little known. Therefore, fruits from these three cultivars were handpicked at the same ripening degree and processed under the same conditions. Quantitative descriptive sensory analysis of monovarietal virgin olive oil was carried out by the panel. Volatile composition was evaluated by headspace solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography, previously optimized and validated. The main parameters affecting effectiveness, time and temperature of extraction were optimized. The extraction procedure showed detection and quantification limits, as well as linear ranges adequate for the analysis of selected volatile compounds. Good precision was obtained both in terms of intra-day repeatability (relative standard deviations generally lower than 7 % and inter-day precision. The tested types of monovarietal olive oil showed different volatile profiles, although E-2-hexenal was the main compound in all samples. Buža oil was the richest in total C6 and C5 volatile compounds. The results show that the most important contributors to the olive oil aroma (odour activity value >1.0 were 1-penten-3-one, E-2-hexenal, hexanal, hexanol, Z-3-hexen-1-ol and Z-2-penten-1-ol. These chemical findings were compared with those provided by the panel test. Buža had the highest intensity of sensory characteristic 'other ripe fruits' and Rosinjola had the highest intensity of sensory characteristic 'bitter'. All results show

  10. Prevalence and etiological profile of short stature among school children in a South Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumaravel Velayutham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Short stature (SS is a common pediatric problem and it might be the first sign of underlying illness. Studies documenting the burden and etiological profile of SS are scarce from India and are mostly limited to data obtained from referral centers. Due to the lack of large-scale, community-based studies utilizing a standard protocol, the present study aimed to assess the prevalence and etiological profile of SS in school children of a South Indian district. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, children aged 4–16 years from 23 schools in Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, underwent anthropometric measurements and height was plotted in Khadilkar et al. growth chart. The cause of SS was assessed using clinical and laboratory evaluations in assigned children with a height less than third centile. Results: A total of 15644 children belonging to 23 schools were evaluated, and 448 (2.86% children had SS. Etiological evaluation was further performed in 87 randomly assigned children, and it is identified that familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS in the study population (66.67%. Hypothyroidism and growth hormone deficiency were the two most common pathological causes of SS seen in 12 (13.79% and 8 (9.20% children, respectively. Malnutrition was the cause of SS in 6 (6.9% children and cardiac disorders, psychogenic SS, and skeletal dysplasia were other identified causes of SS in the study. Interpretation and Conclusions: The overall prevalence of SS in school children was 2.86% and familial SS or constitutional delay in growth was the most common cause of SS. As a significant percentage of children with SS had correctable causes, monitoring growth with a standard growth chart should be mandatory in all schools.

  11. Free Fatty Acids Profiles Are Related to Gut Microbiota Signatures and Short-Chain Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez-Carrio

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence highlights the relevance of free fatty acids (FFA for human health, and their role in the cross talk between the metabolic status and immune system. Altered serum FFA profiles are related to several metabolic conditions, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recent studies have highlighted the link between gut microbiota and host metabolism. However, although most of the studies have focused on different clinical conditions, evidence on the role of these mediators in healthy populations is lacking. Therefore, we have addressed the analysis of the relationship among gut microbial populations, short-chain fatty acid (SCFA production, FFA levels, and immune mediators (IFNγ, IL-6, and MCP-1 in 101 human adults from the general Spanish population. Levels of selected microbial groups, representing the major phylogenetic types present in the human intestinal microbiota, were determined by quantitative PCR. Our results showed that the intestinal abundance of Akkermansia was the main predictor of total FFA serum levels, displaying a negative association with total FFA and the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Similarly, an altered FFA profile, identified by cluster analysis, was related to imbalanced levels of Akkermansia and Lactobacillus as well as increased fecal SCFA, enhanced IL-6 serum levels, and higher prevalence of subclinical metabolic alterations. Although no differences in nutritional intakes were observed, divergent patterns in the associations between nutrient intakes with intestinal microbial populations and SCFA were denoted. Overall, these findings provide new insights on the gut microbiota–host lipid metabolism axis and its potential relevance for human health, where FFA and SCFA seem to play an important role.

  12. Aceitação e perfil sensorial das cachaças produzidas com Kefir e Saccharomyces cerevisae Acceptance and sensory profile of cachaça produced using Kefir and Saccharomyces cerevisae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Saraiva Dornelles

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A levedura Saccharomyces cerevisae é o microrganismo mais utilizado industrialmente nas destilarias, mas outros microrganismos também são capazes de produzir etanol utilizando matérias-primas açucaradas como substrato. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o perfil sensorial e a aceitação da aguardente de cana produzida através da fermentação alcoólica com grânulos de Kefir, comparando-a ao produto obtido tradicionalmente. Pelo método de ADQ, 8 provadores treinados avaliaram os seguintes descritores: aroma alcoólico e de cachaça, sabor alcoólico e de cachaça, gosto amargo e ardência. O teste de aceitação foi realizado por 57 consumidores de aguardente, utilizando-se uma escala hedônica estruturada de nove pontos para avaliar a aceitação do aroma e a aceitação global. A cachaça com Kefir apresentou maior intensidade de aroma alcoólico e gosto amargo, obtendo menor aceitação global que a cachaça de levedura. Dessa forma, o produto foi considerado de grande potencial visto que apresentou satisfatório percentual de aprovação entre os consumidores.Saccharomyces cerevisae is the main industrially used yeast to produce sugar cane spirits (cachaça. However, other microorganisms are able to produce ethanol using sugar as substrate. This work aimed at determining the sensory profile of cachaça produced through the alcoholic fermentation with Kefir's granules and its acceptance. The acceptance analysis was performed by 57 consumers using a 9 point structured hedonic scale to evaluate the aroma and the general acceptance of the product. The QDA method, with 8 trained tasters, was used to evaluate the following product descriptors: alcoholic aroma, alcoholic flavor, and burning and bitter taste. The evaluated samples did not presented statistical differences (p < 0.05 among each other regarding the aroma acceptance. However, the cachaça produced using bakery yeast presented higher acceptance scores. On the other hand

  13. Latent constructs underlying sensory subtypes in children with autism: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand, Brittany N; Dennis, Simon; Lane, Alison E

    2017-08-01

    Recent reports identify sensory subtypes in ASD based on shared patterns of responses to daily sensory stimuli [Ausderau et al., 2014; Lane, Molloy, & Bishop, 2014]. Lane et al. propose that two broad sensory dimensions, sensory reactivity and multisensory integration, best explain the differences between subtypes, however this has yet to be tested. The present study tests this hypothesis by examining the latent constructs underlying Lane's sensory subtypes. Participants for this study were caregivers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) aged 2-12 years. Caregiver responses on the Short Sensory Profile (SSP), used to establish Lane's sensory subtypes, were extracted from two existing datasets (total n = 287). Independent component analyses were conducted to test the fit and interpretability of a two-construct structure underlying the SSP, and therefore, the sensory subtypes. The first construct was largely comprised of the taste/smell sensitivity domain, which describes hyper-reactivity to taste and smell stimuli. The second construct had a significant contribution from the low energy/weak domain, which describes behaviors that may be indicative of difficulties with multisensory integration. Findings provide initial support for our hypothesis that sensory reactivity and multisensory integration underlie Lane's sensory subtypes in ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1364-1371. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  15. Influence of Fermentation Temperature, Yeast Strain, and Grape Juice on the Aroma Chemistry and Sensory Profile of Sauvignon Blanc Wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deed, Rebecca C; Fedrizzi, Bruno; Gardner, Richard C

    2017-10-11

    Sauvignon blanc wine, balanced by herbaceous and tropical aromas, is fermented at low temperatures (10-15 °C). Anecdotal accounts from winemakers suggest that cold fermentations produce and retain more "fruity" aroma compounds; nonetheless, studies have not confirmed why low temperatures are optimal for Sauvignon blanc. Thirty-two aroma compounds were quantitated from two Marlborough Sauvignon blanc juices fermented at 12.5 and 25 °C, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains EC1118, L-1528, M2, and X5. Fourteen compounds were responsible for driving differences in aroma chemistry. The 12.5 °C-fermented wines had lower 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH) and higher alcohols but increased fruity acetate esters. However, a sensory panel did not find a significant difference between fruitiness in 75% of wine pairs based on fermentation temperature, in spite of chemical differences. For wine pairs with significant differences (25%), the 25 °C-fermented wines were fruitier than the 12.5 °C-fermented wines, with high fruitiness associated with 3MH. We propose that the benefits of low fermentation temperatures are not derived from increased fruitiness but a better balance between fruitiness and greenness. Even so, since 75% of wines showed no significant difference, higher fermentation temperatures could be utilized without detriment, lowering costs for the wine industry.

  16. Perfil sensorial e aceitação de melão amarelo minimamente processado submetido a tratamentos químicos Sensory profile and consumer acceptance of minimally processed melon submitted to chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo traçar o perfil sensorial ao longo do período de armazenamento e determinar a aceitação global de melões amarelos minimamente processados (submetidos a tratamentos químicos e os impactos desse processamento sobre a aceitação do produto pelo consumidor. Frutos selecionados, lavados e sanificados foram minimamente processados em forma de cubos, divididos em quatro lotes que constaram de: testemunha, tratados com solução de cloreto de cálcio (1%, tratados com ácido ascórbico (1% e revestidos com alginato de sódio (1%. Esses cubos foram acondicionados em bandejas de tereftalato de polietileno (PET com tampa e armazenados a 5 ± 1 ºC e 73 ± 5% UR por um período de 8 dias. No 1º, 3º, 5º e 8º dias após o processamento, os melões foram avaliados sensorialmente, utilizando a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ, por uma equipe de 8 provadores treinados. O teste de aceitação pelo consumidor foi conduzido em laboratório, com 50 provadores não treinados, utilizando as escalas: hedônica e de intenção de compra; além da frequência de consumo. A ADQ mostrou que os tratamentos testados não apresentaram efeito no prolongamento da vida útil dos melões amarelos minimamente processados. Os descritores que mais traduziram a qualidade do fruto submetido aos tratamentos químicos testados foram: aparência de fresco e brilhante; odor de fresco e característico; sabor ácido, salgado, amargo, fresco, característico, adstringente, aguado e estranho. O teste com os consumidores indicou que os melões tratados com cloreto de cálcio e com ácido ascórbico foram os mais aceitos pelos provadores e revelou que não houve diferença quanto à intenção de compra.The objective of this work was to trace the sensory profile during storage and to determine the global acceptance of minimally processed melon samples submitted to chemical treatments as well as to evaluate the impacts on the acceptance of the

  17. Sensory and metabolic profiles of "Fuji" apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) grown without synthetic agrochemicals: the role of ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Fukuyo; Miyazawa, Toshio; Okazaki, Keiki; Tatsuki, Miho; Ito, Tsutae

    2015-01-01

    Flavors of "Fuji" apple cultivated with or without synthetic agrochemicals were compared using quantitative descriptive analyses (QDA) and metabolite profiling for 3 seasons. Experimental plots included conventional crops (with agrochemicals) and organic crops (without agrochemicals) at our institute and organic and conventional farms. Additionally, mass market samples were analyzed. Organic apples were weak in sweetness and floral characteristics and had enhanced green and sour flavors. Most esters and sugars were present in lower concentrations in organic than in conventional apples. Close relation of principal component 1 of QDA and metabolite profiles, to ethylene production suggested that ethylene is considerably involved in flavor synthesis. Reduced ethylene associated with immaturity accounted for insufficient flavor synthesis and weak aroma and flavor attributes of organic apples. Furthermore, organic apples from the farm were more flavorsome than those from the institute in 2012, suggesting possible recovery of ethylene production after a long organic cultivation period.

  18. Sensory processing patterns, coping strategies, and quality of life among patients with unipolar and bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batya Engel-Yeger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare sensory processing, coping strategies, and quality of life (QoL in unipolar and bipolar patients; to examine correlations between sensory processing and QoL; and to investigate the relative contribution of sociodemographic characteristics, sensory processing, and coping strategies to the prediction of QoL. Methods: Two hundred sixty-seven participants, aged 16-85 years (53.6±15.7, of whom 157 had a diagnosis of unipolar major depressive disorder and 110 had bipolar disorder type I and type II, completed the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile, Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced, and 12-item Short-Form Health Survey version 2. The two groups were compared with multivariate analyses. Results: The unipolar and bipolar groups did not differ concerning sensory processing, coping strategies, or QoL. Sensory processing patterns correlated with QoL independently of mediation by coping strategies. Correlations between low registration, sensory sensitivity, sensation avoidance, and reduced QoL were found more frequently in unipolar patients than bipolar patients. Higher physical QoL was mainly predicted by lower age and lower sensory sensitivity, whereas higher mental QoL was mainly predicted by coping strategies. Conclusion: While age may predict physical QoL, coping strategies predict mental QoL. Future studies should further investigate the impact of sensory processing and coping strategies on patients’ QoL in order to enhance adaptive and functional behaviors related to affective disturbances.

  19. Relationships between atypical sensory processing patterns, maladaptive behaviour and maternal stress in Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, C; López, B; Gandía, H

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated sensory processing in a sample of Spanish children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Specifically, the study aimed to explore (1) the prevalence and distribution of atypical sensory processing patterns, (2) the relationship between adaptive and maladaptive behaviour with atypical sensory processing and (3) the possible relationship between sensory subtype and maternal stress. The short sensory profile 2 (Dunn 2014) and the vineland adaptive behavior scale (Sparrow et al. 1984) were administered to examine the sensory processing difficulties and maladaptive behaviours of 45 children with ASD aged 3 to 14; their mothers also completed the parenting stress index-short form (Abidin 1995). Atypical sensory features were found in 86.7% of the children; avoider and sensor being the two most common patterns. No significant relationship was found between atypical sensory processing and adaptive behaviour. However, the analysis showed a strong relationship between sensory processing and maladaptive behaviour. Both maladaptive behaviour and sensory processing difficulties correlated significantly with maternal stress although maternal stress was predicted only by the sensory variable, and in particular by the avoider pattern. The findings suggest that sensory features in ASD may be driving the high prevalence of parental stress in carers. They also suggest that the effect on parental stress that has been attributed traditionally to maladaptive behaviours may be driven by sensory difficulties. The implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the development of interventions and the need to explore contextual and cultural variables as possible sources of variability. © 2017 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. STUDY OF CLINICAL PROFILE OF PATIENTS WITH SHORT STATURE VISITING A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar Choudhury

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Short stature is one of the common causes of referral of children to endocrine unit. It may result due to various causes and elucidating the exact cause is necessary to formulate the right therapy. OBJECTIVE To study the various aetiologies and clinical presentation of patients presenting with short to a tertiary care hospital. DESIGN Cross sectional study MATERIAL AND METHODS We collected and analysed the clinical, biochemical, radiological and hormonal data of 104 consecutive patients who presented to our department from January 2015 to March 2016 for evaluation of short stature. RESULTS Majority of the subjects studied belonged to 10-15 years group (44.23% followed by 5-10 years age group (31.73%. The most common cause in our population was due to familial short stature (29.80%. The next common causes included chronic medical illness (23.08% followed by hypothyroidism (13.46%. Majority of patients presenting for evaluation of short stature were males (60.58%. CONCLUSIONS Short stature is caused due to a multitude of causes. In our population, familial short stature was the most common aetiology

  1. Short-term observation of beach dynamics using cross-shore profiles and foreshore sediment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dora, G.U.; SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Philip, C.S.; Vinayaraj, P.

    Cross-shore beach profiles and textural characteristics of foreshore sediment were analyzed for understanding an annual cycle of intertidal beach dynamics at Devbag, an Island sheltered estuarine coast. Cross-shore transects were monitored in a...

  2. Short communication: Effect of whey protein addition and transglutaminase treatment on the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danesh, Erfan; Goudarzi, Mostafa; Jooyandeh, Hossein

    2017-07-01

    The effects of whey protein addition and transglutaminase treatment, alone and in combination, on the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream were investigated. Adding whey protein with or without enzyme treatment decreased melting rate, overrun, and hardness of the reduced-fat ice cream; however, the enzyme-treated sample had a higher melting rate and overrun and softer texture. Whey protein-fortified samples showed higher melting resistance, but lower overrun and firmer texture compared with the enzyme-treated sample without added whey protein. Whey protein addition with or without transglutaminase treatment caused an increase in apparent viscosity and a decrease in flow index of the reduced-fat ice cream; nevertheless, the flow behavior of full-fat sample was most similar to the enzyme-treated reduced-fat sample with no added whey protein. Descriptive sensory analyses showed that neither whey protein addition nor transglutaminase treatment significantly influenced the flavor and odor of reduced-fat ice cream, but they both noticeably improved the color and texture of the final product. The results of this study suggest that whey protein addition with transglutaminase treatment improves the physical and sensory properties of reduced-fat ice cream more favorably than does whey protein addition or transglutaminase treatment alone. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. SCL-90-R Symptom Profiles and Outcome of Short-Term Psychodynamic Group Therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background. Psychodynamic group psychotherapy may not be an optimal treatment for anxiety and agoraphobic symptoms. We explore remission of SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI) and target symptoms in 39 sessions of psychodynamic group therapy. Methods. SCL-90-R “target symptom” profile a...

  4. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Ørntoft, Christina Øyangen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players...... weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short...... (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen...

  5. Effects of acupuncture on sensory perception: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeumler, Petra I; Fleckenstein, Johannes; Takayama, Shin; Simang, Michael; Seki, Takashi; Irnich, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acupuncture on sensory perception has never been systematically reviewed; although, studies on acupuncture mechanisms are frequently based on the idea that changes in sensory thresholds reflect its effect on the nervous system. Pubmed, EMBASE and Scopus were screened for studies investigating the effect of acupuncture on thermal or mechanical detection or pain thresholds in humans published in English or German. A meta-analysis of high quality studies was performed. Out of 3007 identified articles 85 were included. Sixty five studies showed that acupuncture affects at least one sensory threshold. Most studies assessed the pressure pain threshold of which 80% reported an increase after acupuncture. Significant short- and long-term effects on the pressure pain threshold in pain patients were revealed by two meta-analyses including four and two high quality studies, respectively. In over 60% of studies, acupuncture reduced sensitivity to noxious thermal stimuli, but measuring methods might influence results. Few but consistent data indicate that acupuncture reduces pin-prick like pain but not mechanical detection. Results on thermal detection are heterogeneous. Sensory threshold changes were equally frequent reported after manual acupuncture as after electroacupuncture. Among 48 sham-controlled studies, 25 showed stronger effects on sensory thresholds through verum than through sham acupuncture, but in 9 studies significant threshold changes were also observed after sham acupuncture. Overall, there is a lack of high quality acupuncture studies applying comprehensive assessments of sensory perception. Our findings indicate that acupuncture affects sensory perception. Results are most compelling for the pressure pain threshold, especially in pain conditions associated with tenderness. Sham acupuncture can also cause such effects. Future studies should incorporate comprehensive, standardized assessments of sensory profiles in order to fully characterize its

  6. Psychosocial profiles of children with achondroplasia in terms of their short stature-related stress: a nationwide survey in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Naoko; Hanaki, Keiichi

    2014-11-01

    To assess psychosocial profiles of children with achondroplasia using a nationwide survey. Achondroplasia, showing short stature and disproportionately short limbs, causes physical inconvenience such as difficulty in reaching high objects. It is, however, still controversial whether the condition is associated with psychological problems, especially in childhood. A cross-sectional descriptive design was employed. To evaluate psychosocial profiles and adaptation processes in children with achondroplasia, we developed an inventory of scales based on the psychological stress model of which conceptual framework was comprised of stressor, coping process, coping resource and adaptation outcome domains. Participants were recruited nationwide through the largest advocacy support group for achondroplasia in Japan. Of the 130 group members, 73 X-ray-diagnosed patients, aged 8-18 years, completed the inventory of questionnaires to be analysed. As for the stressor domain, patients experienced short stature-related unpleasant experiences more frequently (z-score: +1·3 in average, +3·9 in physical inconvenience). Nevertheless, these experiences had little effect on the coping process (threat appraisal: -0·2, control appraisal: +0·1) and the adaptation outcome (stress response: +0·3, self-concept: 0·0). Interestingly, self-efficacy in the coping resource domain was noticeably increased (+3·1) and was strongly correlated with most variables in the coping process and in adaptation outcome domains. Although the children with achondroplasia experienced more short stature-related stressors, there was no evidence of any psychosocial maladaptation. This finding suggests that coping process as well as coping resources such as self-efficacy could be important targets for promoting psychological adjustment in children with achondroplasia. To help children with achondroplasia adapt socially, nurses and other healthcare providers should routinely assess their psychological adaptation

  7. Effect of Kombucha Tea on Blood Sugar and Blood Lipid Profiles in Diabetic Rats: Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Malekaneh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Kombucha tea is made through fermentation of sweet tea by Kombucha fungus. It has beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of many diseases. The present study aimed at examining the effect of Kombucha tea extract on blood sugar and blood lipid profiles in diabetes. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats weighing about 250g were divided into 4 equal groups and then injected intraperitoneally (IP with alloxan to induce diabetes. The administered concentrations were 20 and 80 mg/kg of Kombucha tea and 20 mg/kg of black ordinary tea for one month. The rats’ blood sugar and weight were tested before and after the intervention period but blood lipid parameters per either administration were also assessed at the end of the period. Results: Mean blood sugar in the diabetic rats receiving Kombucha tea was reduced. Maximum reduction in blood sugar was observed in the group receiving Kombucha tea with concentration of 80 mg/kg. However, black tea significantly reduced blood sugar. Conclusion: Kombucha tea consumption for a month only reduced blood sugar levels in diabetic patients. But increased the weight and not have favorable effects on lipid profile.

  8. Plasma metabolomic profiles of breast cancer patients after short-term limonene intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jessica A; Pappan, Kirk; Thompson, Patricia A; Want, Elizabeth J; Siskos, Alexandros P; Keun, Hector C; Wulff, Jacob; Hu, Chengcheng; Lang, Julie E; Chow, H-H Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Limonene is a lipophilic monoterpene found in high levels in citrus peel. Limonene demonstrates anticancer properties in preclinical models with effects on multiple cellular targets at varying potency. While of interest as a cancer chemopreventive, the biologic activity of limonene in humans is poorly understood. We conducted metabolite profiling in 39 paired (pre/postintervention) plasma samples from early-stage breast cancer patients receiving limonene treatment (2 g QD) before surgical resection of their tumor. Metabolite profiling was conducted using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a linear trap quadrupole system and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Metabolites were identified by comparison of ion features in samples to a standard reference library. Pathway-based interpretation was conducted using the human metabolome database and the MetaCyc database. Of the 397 named metabolites identified, 72 changed significantly with limonene intervention. Class-based changes included significant decreases in adrenal steroids (P limonene resulted in significant changes in several metabolic pathways. Furthermore, pathway-based changes were related to the change in tissue level cyclin D1 expression. Future controlled clinical trials with limonene are necessary to determine the potential role and mechanisms of limonene in the breast cancer prevention setting. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Design of a microfluidic device with a non-traditional flow profile for on-chip damage to zebrafish sensory cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Hyuck-Jin; Xu, Yuhao; Solovitz, Stephen A; Xue, Wei; Xu, Jie; Dimitrov, Alexander G; Coffin, Allison B

    2014-01-01

    Hearing loss affects millions of people worldwide and often results from the death of the sensory hair cells in the inner ear, and exposure to intense noise is one of the leading causes of hair cell damage. Recently, the zebrafish lateral line system has emerged as a powerful in vivo model for real-time studies of hair cell damage and protection. In this research, we designed a microfluidic device for inducing noise damage in hair cells of the zebrafish lateral line. As the first step, a 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation was utilized to predict the flow pattern inside the device. An ideal flow pattern for our application should feature higher velocity near the sidewalls to over-stimulate the externally located hair cells, and minimum flow in the middle of the channel to protect the fish from high pressure on the head. Flow induced from ordinary channel geometry with a single inlet/outlet pair would not work because the parabolic velocity profile features the maximum flow speed in the middle of the channel. In order to achieve the desired flow pattern, sidewall inlet/outlet pairs were used to suppress the growth of boundary layers. CFD simulation was used to design parameters such as the dimensions of the microfluidic channel and the angle of the inlets and outlets. It was found that in the case of an empty 2.0 mm wide channel with the inlet/outlet pairs set to 45°, the flow velocity at the side of the channel would be 6.7 times faster than the velocity in the middle, approaching the optimal flow characteristics. In the case of a fish-loaded channel, simulation shows that a 1.0 mm wide channel with a 60° inlet/outlet angle creates the lowest pressure (0.3 Pa) on the fish head while maintaining a reasonably strong shear stress (1.9 Pa) on the lateral line hair cells. (technical note)

  10. Clinical profile of congenital adrenal hyperplasia and short-term response to treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, S.; Lal, S.; Jamro, B.U.; Jamro, S.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the clinical presentation of congenital adrenal hyperplasia and short- term response to treatment. Background: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a genetic disorder which usually presents with life threatening emergencies. Awareness of physicians regarding these presentations is an essential for early diagnosis and lifesaving treatment. In view of the prevalence of the condition as reported from tertiary care centers within the country and other parts of the globe, we had carried out a study in the paediatric department of Shaheed Mohtrama Benazir Bhutto Medical University Larkana. Material and Methods: The study was conducted over a period of one year from July 2012 to June 2013. All infants presenting with vomiting, dehydration, shock, failure to thrive and ambiguous genitalia were examined and investigated thoroughly. The diagnosis was based upon a raised level of serum 17 OHP in a child with suggestive clinical features. Results: A total of 40 children were diagnosed to have CAH during the study period. The major presenting features were vomiting in 13 (32.5%), ambiguous genitalia 17 (42.5%), vomiting and ambiguous genitalia 10 (25%), shock 5(12.5%) and failure to thrive in 13 (32.5%) of cases. All the patients were followed up after initiation of treatment and good response was observed to short-term treatment. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of common clinical features like vomiting, unreasonable dehydration, shock and ambiguous genitalia being the presenting features of CAH and the effectiveness of replacement therapy in amending life threatening emergencies due to this condition. (author)

  11. Descriptive sensory evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian

    A recent trend in descriptive sensory evaluation methodology has been the application of rapid evaluation techniques. The ease in use makes the techniques extremely easy to implement by industry and university environments. Thus, one might not consider validity in the choice of method. The overall...... aim of this thesis is to compare and evaluate selected rapid evaluation techniques for sensory profiling. Method variations have been suggested for evaluations in product development and quality control, and method insight is provided. The thesis includes three original studies, designed...... as a consequence of the current practices and needs faced in the industry. Study I compared applicability and validity of rapid methods across several panels of trained assessors. Two rapid approaches were introduced for the evaluation of foods. The first method, ‘Free Multiple Sorting’, allows subjects to perform...

  12. Demographic and clinical profile of Multiple Sclerosis in Kashmir: A short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahoor, Insha; Asimi, Ravouf; Haq, Ehtishamul; Yousuf Wani, Irfan

    2017-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). There have been only few population/hospital based studies on MS in India, and at the same time there is no data on its profile in Kashmir. A total of 41 MS patients diagnosed on the basis of 2010 Revised Mc Donald criteria were enrolled in this study from Kashmir region of India. Clinical, demographic, radiological and biochemical parameters were analyzed for most of the patients. Male to female ratio was found to be 1:3.1 with mean age at the time of analysis 32.26±7.54 (range 18-48) years. The mean disease duration was found to be 3.2±3.6 years. The most common course was relapsing-remitting (RR) present in 87.80% of cases followed by secondary progressive (SP) in 9.76% and primary progressive (PP) in 2.44%. Numbness, weakness of limbs, prickling and tingling sensations, muscle stiffness, and visual disturbances were most common manifestations. Condition of bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) and vertigo was rarely observed. Oligoclonal bands (OCB) were present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of majority of the patients. Symptomatic and steroidal treatment mode was given to majority of the patients (92.68%) and only 7.32% patients were given disease modifying drug. This is the first preliminary report on MS profile in Kashmir. The high prevalence of female patients and RR course of MS, low prevalence of progressive cases, predominance of OCB positive cases, insignificant family history in all cases, predominance of cases with low socio-economic status, and high rate of less educated and unemployed cases are the most important findings. By and large MS pattern in Kashmir was found to be relatively similar to West and rest of the Asia. Larger comprehensive studies are mandatory to completely understand MS pattern in Kashmir. There is utmost requirement to maintain a local MS registry in Kashmir so as to get an idea about the actual number of

  13. The short form endometriosis health profile (EHP-5: translation and validation study of the Iranian version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goshtasebi Azita

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endometriosis Health Profile (EHP-5 is a valid instrument to measure health-related quality of life in endometriosis. This study was conducted to culturally adapt and validate the EHP-5 in Iran. Methods Using a standard "forward-backward' translation procedure, the English language version of the questionnaire was translated into Persian (Iranian language. Then a sample of 199 women aged 18-50 years completed the questionnaire. To test reliability the internal consistency was assessed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Validity was evaluated using known groups comparison. Results The mean age of respondents was 31.4 (SD = 5.4 years. Reliability analysis showed satisfactory result (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.71. The questionnaire discriminated well between sub-groups of women differing in infertility and premenstrual syndrome (PMS in the expected direction. Conclusion This preliminary validation study of the Iranian version of the EHP-5 proved that it is an acceptable, reliable and valid measure of quality of life in endometriosis patients.

  14. Transcriptome Profiling of Watermelon Root in Response to Short-Term Osmotic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yongchao; Mo, Yanling; Yang, Xiaozheng; Zhang, Haifei; Wang, Yongqi; Li, Hao; Wei, Chunhua; Zhang, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Osmotic stress adversely affects the growth, fruit quality and yield of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai). Increasing the tolerance of watermelon to osmotic stress caused by factors such as high salt and water deficit is an effective way to improve crop survival in osmotic stress environments. Roots are important organs in water absorption and are involved in the initial response to osmosis stress; however, few studies have examined the underlying mechanism of tolerance to osmotic stress in watermelon roots. For better understanding of this mechanism, the inbred watermelon accession M08, which exhibits relatively high tolerance to water deficits, was treated with 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The root samples were harvested at 6 h after PEG treatment and untreated samples were used as controls. Transcriptome analyses were carried out by Illumina RNA sequencing. A total of 5246 differentially expressed genes were identified. Gene ontology enrichment and biochemical pathway analyses of these 5246 genes showed that short-term osmotic stress affected osmotic adjustment, signal transduction, hormone responses, cell division, cell cycle and ribosome, and M08 may repress root growth to adapt osmotic stress. The results of this study describe the watermelon root transcriptome under osmotic stress and propose new insight into watermelon root responses to osmotic stress at the transcriptome level. Accordingly, these results allow us to better understand the molecular mechanisms of watermelon in response to drought stress and will facilitate watermelon breeding projects to improve drought tolerance.

  15. Methods for the evaluation of quench temperature profiles and their application for LHC superconducting short dipole magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfilippo, S.; Siemko, A.

    2000-08-01

    This paper presents a study of the thermal effects on quench performance for several large Hadron collider (LHC) single aperture short dipole models. The analysis is based on the temperature profile in a superconducting magnet evaluated after a quench. Peak temperatures and temperature gradients in the magnet coil are estimated for different thicknesses of insulation layer between the quench heaters and the coil and different powering and protection parameters. The results show clear correlation between the thermo-mechanical response of the magnet and quench performance. They also display that the optimisation of the position of quench heaters can reduce the decrease of training performance caused by the coexistence of a mechanical weak region and of a local temperature rise.

  16. Atributos de qualidade da carne de paca (Agouti paca: perfil sensorial e força de cisalhamento Quality attributes of paca meat (Agouti paca: sensory profile and shear force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gomes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as características sensoriais e determinou-se a força de cisalhamento de cortes de carne de paca (Agouti paca. As análises foram realizadas nos cortes desossados de paleta, lombo e pernil de nove pacas, preparados por cocção até a temperatura interna de 70ºC. A avaliação de aspecto, cor, sabor, odor e maciez foi realizada pela aplicação de teste afetivo a 146 provadores, utilizando-se escala hedônica, e a força de cisalhamento foi determinada pela técnica Warner Bratzler. Na avaliação sensorial, os cortes de paleta, lombo e pernil de paca mostraram diferença significativa (p0,05 entre os cortes, que se mostraram igualmente macios. A carne de paca apresentou-se sensorialmente semelhante à carne suína e com boa aceitação pelos consumidores. O estudo evidenciou o potencial da paca como uma espécie silvestre para a produção comercial de carne para o mercado de carnes vermelhas ou exóticas.Sensory characteristics and shear force of paca meat (Agouti paca were assessed in this study. Analyses were performed in the bonelessshoulder,loin andhamobtained from nine paca carcassesprepared by cookinguntil reaching the internal temperatureof 70°C. The evaluation of flavor, aroma, color, appearance and tenderness was carried out by the application of an affective test using the hedonic scaleand a 146 consumer panel. Shear force was determined by the Warner-Bratzler technique. Shoulder, loin and ham had significant differences (p 0.05 among the cuts, which were similarly tender. Paca meat was found to resemble pork meat in sensory evaluation and had good acceptance by consumers. This study showed the potential of paca (Agouti paca asa wild species for meat production in the red or exotic meat market.

  17. PROFILE AND SHORT-TERM OUTCOME IN ADULT PATIENTS WITH NEW-ONSET SEIZURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The annual incidence is 85 per 1,00,000 for people aged 65-69 years and 135 per 1,00,000 for those aged over 80 years. Epilepsy in older patients poses several additional problems for the provision of services compared with the rest of the population as diagnostic difficulties and polypharmacy. The aim of the study is to1. Know the various causes of seizures, clinical profile and correlation between neurological imaging and VEEG characteristics. 2. Know the differences between the aetiologies of seizures in young age and elderly >65 years. MATERIALS AND METHODS This was a prospective, hospital-based case control study conducted on 75 patients older than 65 years with new-onset seizures at KGH Neurology OP and IP Services from September 2014 - November 2016 using EEG, MRI or CT brain and relevant laboratory tests. RESULTS 75 patients (46 males, 29 females with a mean age of 73.72 ± 8.72 years were enrolled in the study. Overall, the seizures were classified as generalised onset in 7 (9.4%, focal onset in 52 (70.1% and uncertain onset in 15 (20.5% patients. The aetiology was acute symptomatic in 29 (39.2%, remote symptomatic in 24 (31.7%, progressive symptomatic in 14 (19.1% and unknown in 8 (10.1% patients. CONCLUSION Most of the new-onset seizures in our elderly patients were focal onset as a consequence of vascular brain lesion. The recurrence was high. The major risk factors for recurrent seizures were acute, remote and progressive symptomatic aetiologies, epileptiform discharges and nonspecific abnormalities on EEG. Elderly patients maybe at a higher risk of recurrence following an initial stroke than younger people.

  18. A clinician-administered observation and corresponding caregiver interview capturing DSM-5 sensory reactivity symptoms in children with ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siper, Paige M; Kolevzon, Alexander; Wang, A Ting; Buxbaum, Joseph D; Tavassoli, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Sensory reactivity is a new criterion for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5). However, there is no consensus on how to reliably measure sensory reactivity, particularly in minimally verbal individuals. The current study is an initial validation of the Sensory Assessment for Neurodevelopmental Disorders (SAND), a novel clinician-administered observation and corresponding caregiver interview that captures sensory symptoms based on DSM-5 criteria for ASD. Eighty children between the ages of 2 and 12 participated in this study; 44 children with ASD and 36 typically developing (TD) children. Sensory reactivity symptoms were measured using the SAND and the already validated Short Sensory Profile (SSP). Initial psychometric properties of the SAND were examined including reliability, validity, sensitivity and specificity. Children with ASD showed significantly more sensory reactivity symptoms compared to TD children across sensory domains (visual, tactile, and auditory) and within sensory subtypes (hyperreactivity, hyporeactivity and seeking). The SAND showed strong internal consistency, inter-rater reliability and test-retest reliability, high sensitivity (95.5%) and specificity (91.7%), and strong convergent validity with the SSP. The SAND provides a novel method to characterize sensory reactivity symptoms based on DSM-5 criteria for ASD. This is the first known sensory assessment that combines a clinician-administered observation and caregiver interview to optimally capture sensory phenotypes characteristic of individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. The SAND offers a beneficial new tool for both research and clinical purposes and has the potential to meaningfully enhance gold-standard assessment of ASD. Autism Res 2017, 10: 1133-1140. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Symptom profile and short term outcome of catatonia: an exploratory clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Benyam; Fekadu, Abebaw

    2015-07-22

    Catatonia is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neuropsychiatric condition. Although considered more common in low income countries, data is particularly sparse in these settings. In this study we explore the symptomatology, treatment, and short-term outcome of catatonia in Ethiopia, a low income country. The study was a prospective evaluation of patients admitted with a DSM-IV diagnosis of catatonia. Diagnosis of Catatonia and its severity were further assessed with the Bush-Francis Catatonia Rating Scale (BFCRS). Twenty participants, 5 male and 15 female, were included in the study: 15 patients (75 %) had underlying mood disorders, 4 patients (20 %) had schizophrenia and 1 patient (5 %) had general medical condition. The most common catatonic symptoms, occurring in over two-thirds of participants, were mutism, negativism, staring and immobility (stupor). Eighteen (90 %) of the twenty patients were on multiple medications. Antipsychotics were the most commonly prescribed medications. ECT was required in seven patients (35.0 %). Dehydration, requiring IV rehydration, and infections were the most important complications ascribed to the catatonia. These occurred in seven patients (25 %). Almost all patients (n = 19/20) were discharged with significant improvement. This study supports the growing consensus that catatonia is most often associated with mood disorders. Overall prognosis appears very good although the occurrence of life-threatening complications underlines the serious nature of catatonia. This has implication for "task-shifted" service scale up plans, which aim to improve treatment coverage by training non-specialist health workers to provide mental health care in low income countries. Further larger scale studies are required to clarify the nature and management, as well as, service requirements for catatonia.

  20. Sensory quality criteria for five fish species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warm, Karin; Nielsen, Jette; Hyldig, Grethe

    2000-01-01

    Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation i...... variation and by presenting references, panel discussions and interpreting plots from multivariate data analysis. The developed profile can be used as a sensory wheel for these species, and with minor changes it may be adapted to similar species......Sensory profiling has been used to develop one sensory vocabulary for five fish species: cod (Gadus morhua), saithe (Pollachius virens), rainbow trout (Salmo gardineri), herring (Clupea harengus) and flounder (Platichthys flessus). A nine- member trained panel assessed 18 samples with variation...

  1. Genome-wide expression profiling of the response to short-term exposure to fluconazole in Cryptococcus neoformans serotype A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanguinetti Maurizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluconazole (FLC, a triazole antifungal drug, is widely used for the maintenance therapy of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis, the most common opportunistic infection in AIDS patients. In this study, we examined changes in the gene expression profile of the C. neoformans reference strain H99 (serotype A following FLC treatment in order to investigate the adaptive cellular responses to drug stress. Results Simultaneous analysis of over 6823 transcripts revealed that 476 genes were responsive to FLC. As expected up-regulation of genes involved in ergosterol biosynthesis was observed, including the azole target gene ERG11 and ERG13, ERG1, ERG7, ERG25, ERG2, ERG3 and ERG5. In addition, SRE1 which is a gene encoding a well-known regulator of sterol homeostasis in C. neoformans was up-regulated. Several other genes such as those involved in a variety of important cellular processes (i.e. lipid and fatty acid metabolism, cell wall maintenance, stress and virulence were found to be up-regulated in response to FLC treatment. Conversely, expression of AFR1, the major transporter of azoles in C. neoformans, was not regulated by FLC. Conclusions Short-term exposure of C. neoformans to FLC resulted in a complex altered gene expression profile. Some of the observed changes could represent specific adaptive responses to the antifungal agent in this pathogenic yeast.

  2. Short-term effect of cocoa product consumption on lipid profile: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Lei; Liu, Xuan; Bai, Yong Yi; Li, Shao Hua; Sun, Kai; He, Chen; Hui, Rutai

    2010-07-01

    The effect of cocoa products on lipid changes is controversial. We aimed to identify and quantify the effect of cocoa on total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for relevant trials of cocoa on lipid profile. Weighted mean differences were calculated for net changes in lipid concentrations by using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Previously defined subgroup analyses were performed to identify the source of heterogeneity. Eight trials (involving 215 participants) were included and evaluated. Because there was only one relatively longer-term study, we focused on the short-term data to evaluate the effects of cocoa on plasma lipid. Cocoa consumption significantly lowered LDL cholesterol by 5.87 mg/dL (95% CI: -11.13, -0.61; P consumption significantly reduced blood cholesterol, but the changes were dependent on the dose of cocoa consumption and the healthy status of participants. There was no dose response and no effect in healthy participants. Future high-quality studies are needed to determine the efficiency of moderate cocoa consumption on lipid profile in long-term intervention and in subjects with other cardiometabolic risk factors.

  3. Cardiovascular health profile of elite female football players compared to untrained controls before and after short-term football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Lars Juel; Orntoft, Christina; Bendiksen, Mads; Johansen, Lars; Horton, Joshua; Hansen, Peter Riis; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the intermittent exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile in elite female football players in comparison to untrained young women, as well as a subgroup subjected to football training 2x1 h · week(-1) for 16 weeks. Twenty-seven Danish national team players (elite trained, ET) and 28 untrained women (UT) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-scanning (DXA), comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography, treadmill and Yo-Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 (IE2) testing. Eight women in UT were also tested after the football training period. Maximal oxygen uptake rate (VO2max), peak ventilation and peak lactate were 40, 18 and 51% higher (Pfootball elevated VO2max and Yo-Yo IE2 performance by 16 and 40%, respectively, and lowered fat mass by 6%. Cardiac function was markedly improved by 16 weeks of football training with 26 and 46% increases in TAPSE and E/A ratio, respectively, reaching levels comparable to ET. In summary, elite female football players have a superior cardiovascular health profile and intermittent exercise performance compared to untrained controls, but short-term football training can markedly improve the cardiovascular health status.

  4. Does short-term lemon honey juice fasting have effect on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Fasting is one of the fundamental treatments of naturopathy. Use of lemon and honey for various medicinal purposes were documented since ancient days but there is a lack of evidence on short-term effects of lemon honey juice fasting (LHJF. Hence, we aim at evaluating the short-term effect of LHJF on lipid profile and body composition in healthy individuals. A total of 50 healthy subjects were recruited and they received 300-ml of LHJ, 4 times a day for four successive days of fasting. Assessments were performed before and after the intervention. Statistical analysis was performed by student's paired t-test with the use of Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS version-16. Our study showed significant reduction in weight, body mass index (BMI, fat mass (FM, free FM (FFM, and total serum triglycerides (TSTGs with insignificant reduction in fat percentage and total serum cholesterol compared to baseline. Within group analysis of females showed similar results, unlike males. Our results suggest that LHJF may be useful for reduction of body weight, BMI, FM, FFM, and TSTG in healthy individuals, which might be useful for the prevention of obesity and hypertriglyceridemia.

  5. Microbial profiles of commercial, vacuum-packaged, fresh pork of normal or short storage life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Richard A; Peirson, Michael D; Lam, Jocelyn; Tan, Kit Bee

    2004-12-01

    The microbial ecology of fresh vacuum-packed pork cuts during storage at -1.5 degrees C for up to 45 days was examined to characterize rates of microbial growth and pH changes in commercially prepared products of normal storage quality. Pork loins in commercial distribution with odour defects were also studied to determine a possible cause of the defects and avoid future problems. In addition, microbial profiles of pork cuts from two plants were compared, after storage for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, to identify possible reasons for differences in the storage life of product from the plants. The effects of a change in sanitation procedures on the microbial populations of products stored for 25 days were also studied. With normal product, microbial growth in different packages progressed at different rates, reflecting differences in initial levels of bacterial contamination. All samples in the study reached 8 weeks without apparent organoleptic change and samples carried 5.8+/-1.2 log bacteria cm(-2) (mean+/-S.D.). The flora of loins with the odour defect were predominately lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and carnobacteria, but they contained large fractions of Enterobacteriaceae spoiled products, but species of Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria could have contributed to spoilage. Comparison of microbial groups present in 16 other cuts, half from each of two commercial plants, which were stored for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, showed that larger fractions of Enterobacteriaceae were present in samples from the plant having difficulty achieving the desired storage life. Additional bacterial samples from 12 cuts supplied by the latter plant obtained after adoption of an acid sanitizer step in the plant cleaning regimen, and also stored for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, yielded few Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas or Shewanella. Use of an acid sanitizer in plant cleaning may be a means of controlling alkali-tolerant bacteria such as Aeromonas or Shewanella which can

  6. Conduction Aphasia, Sensory-Motor Integration, and Phonological Short-Term Memory--An Aggregate Analysis of Lesion and fMRI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Baldo, Juliana; Okada, Kayoko; Berman, Karen F.; Dronkers, Nina; D'Esposito, Mark; Hickok, Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Conduction aphasia is a language disorder characterized by frequent speech errors, impaired verbatim repetition, a deficit in phonological short-term memory, and naming difficulties in the presence of otherwise fluent and grammatical speech output. While traditional models of conduction aphasia have typically implicated white matter pathways,…

  7. Evaluation of diagnostic efficiency of intelligence program for automatic diagnosis of circumferential profiles of myocardial short axial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunko, Hisashi; Tada, Akira; Nakajima, Kenichi; Taki, Junichi; Kojima, Kazuhiko.

    1984-01-01

    Quantitative diagnosis using circumferential profile (CFP) is widely employed for Tl-201 myocardial imaging. However, its diagnostic efficiency is susceptible to the number and composition of the confirmed normal (CN) group. Intelligence program for CFP data file and automatic diagnosis (CAD), which was previously developed by us, was modified for creating universal data file (d-base) and evaluated its diagnostic efficiency for myocardial short axial images according to the number of CNs. CAD consists of following 3 major functions: (1) CFP data filing to d-base, (2) modification and correction of file data, and (3) automatic diagnosis of CFP. When function (1) or (2) is completed, new diagnostic criteria (mean-2 sd) are generated automatically using CN data in the d-base at that time. Because of this function, diagnostic criteria are changeable according to the number of CNs. Sensitivity (TP) and specificity (TN) of CAD program for Tl-201 7-pinhole images of 16 normals and 17 ischemic heart diseases (IHDs) were 100%, 44% (CN = 4), 88%, 94% (CN = 8 or 16) and 88%, 100% (CN = 12), respectively. Diagnostic efficiency reached plateau in more than 8 CNs. Although number of patients were limited (8 CNs and 6 IHDs), results of CAD for short axial SPECT showed consistent tendency with 7-pinhole images. In conclusion, intelligence program is necessary for automatic diagnosis using quantitative criteria under the clinical condition of daily increasing informations. Automatic diagnosis of CFP using CAD program is simple, effective and useful for interpretation of Tl-201 myocardial short axial images. CAD program is applicable to any quantitative distribution study using CFPs. (author)

  8. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), conditions in which altered behavioral responses to sensory stimuli have been firmly established. A continuum of sensory processing defects due to imbalanced neuronal inhibition and excitation across these disorders has been hypothesizedthat may lead to common symptoms of inadequate modulation of behavioral responses to sensory stimuli. Here, we investigated the prevalence of sensory modulation disorders among children with epilepsy and their relation with symptomatology of neurodevelopmental disorders. We used the Sensory Profile questionnaire to assess behavioral responses to sensory stimuli and categorize sensory modulation disorders in children with active epilepsy (aged 4-17 years). We related these outcomes to epilepsy characteristics and tested their association with comorbid symptoms of ASD (Social Responsiveness Scale) and ADHD (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire). Sensory modulation disorders were reported in 49 % of the 158 children. Children with epilepsy reported increased behavioral responses associated with sensory "sensitivity," "sensory avoidance," and "poor registration" but not "sensory seeking." Comorbidity of ASD and ADHD was associated with more severe sensory modulation problems, although 27 % of typically developing children with epilepsy also reported a sensory modulation disorder. Sensory modulation disorders are an under-recognized problem in children with epilepsy. The extent of the modulation difficulties indicates a substantial burden on daily functioning and may explain an important part of the behavioral distress associated with childhood epilepsy.

  9. Risk Profiles for Barrett's Esophagus Differ between New and Prevalent, and Long- and Short-Segment Cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi C Tan

    Full Text Available Previous studies on Barrett's esophagus (BE risk factors have had differing case definitions and control groups. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in risk factors between newly diagnosed vs. prevalent BE, long- vs. short-segment BE, and endoscopy-only BE without specialized intestinal metaplasia (SIM.We conducted a cross-sectional study among eligible patients scheduled for elective esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD and patients eligible for screening colonoscopy, recruited from primary care clinics at a Veterans Affairs center. All participants completed a survey on demographics, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD symptoms and medication use prior to undergoing study EGD. We compared BE cases separately to two control groups: 503 primary care controls and 1353 endoscopy controls. Associations between risk factors and differing BE case definitions were evaluated with multivariate logistic regression models.For comparisons with primary care controls, early onset frequent GERD symptoms were more strongly associated with risk of long-segment BE (OR 19.9; 95% CI 7.96-49.7 than short-segment BE (OR 8.54; 95% CI 3.85-18.9. Likewise, the inverse association with H. pylori infection was stronger for long-segment BE (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.26-0.79 than short-segment BE (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.48-1.05. GERD symptoms and H. pylori infection was also more strongly associated with prevalent BE than newly diagnosed BE. Few differences were observed between BE cases and endoscopy controls. Endoscopy-only BE was associated with GERD symptoms (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.32-3.85 and PPI/H2RA use (OR 4.44; 95% CI 2.61-7.54 but to a smaller degree than BE with SIM.We found differences in the strength and profiles of risk factors for BE. The findings support that epidemiological studies of BE should make a distinction between long and short, new and prevalent, endoscopy-only and BE with SIM as well as type of controls.

  10. Impact of utilization of alternative wood products of less conventional species (cherry and acacia) on the phenolic composition and sensory profile evolution of a red wine

    OpenAIRE

    Tavares, Mariana Ferreira Filipe

    2015-01-01

    Mestrado em Viticultura e Enologia - Instituto Superior de Agronomia / Faculdade de Ciências. Universidade do Porto The aim of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent changes, in the course of 90 days, in the phenolic and volatile composition and sensory properties in one red wine matured in contact with Portuguese (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) and French (Quercus petraea L.) oak, acacia (Robina pseudoacacia) and cherry (Prunus Avium) wood chips and a cherry (Prunus avium) wood powder. ...

  11. Improving the lipid profile of ready-to-cook meat products by addition of omega-3 microcapsules: effect on oxidation and sensory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Palacios, Trinidad; Ruiz-Carrascal, Jorge; Jiménez-Martín, Estefanía; Solomando, Juan Carlos; Antequera, Teresa

    2018-04-15

    The omega-3 enrichment of ready-to-cook meat products by microencapsulated fish oil (MFO) addition was analyzed. Accordingly, three batches of chicken nuggets were prepared: (i) control (C); (ii) enriched in bulk fish oil (BFO); and (iii) with added MFO. Sensory features, acceptability, oxidative stability and volatile compounds were analyzed. MFO nuggets did not differ from C ones with respect to any sensory trait. BFO showed increased juiciness and saltiness but decreased meat flavor. Acceptability was not affected by enrichment. Consumers were not able to differentiate between C and MFO in a triangle test, although they could clearly identify BFO nuggets. Higher levels of lipid and protein oxidation indicators and of volatile compounds from fatty acid oxidation were found in BFO nuggets compared to C and MFO nuggets. Enrichment of ready-to-cook meat products in omega-3 fatty acids with MFO provides both lipid and protein oxidative protection without changes in sensory quality. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Profiles is a synthetic overview of more than 100 national energy markets in the world, providing insightful facts and key energy statistics. A Profile is structured around 6 main items and completed by key statistics: Ministries, public agencies, energy policy are concerned; main companies in the oil, gas, electricity and coal sectors, status, shareholders; reserve, production, imports and exports, electricity and refining capacities; deregulation of prices, subsidies, taxes; consumption trends by sector, energy market shares; main energy projects, production and consumption prospects. Statistical Profiles are present in about 3 pages the main data and indicators on oil, gas, coal and electricity. (A.L.B.)

  13. Multivariate analysis of data in sensory science

    CERN Document Server

    Naes, T; Risvik, E

    1996-01-01

    The state-of-the-art of multivariate analysis in sensory science is described in this volume. Both methods for aggregated and individual sensory profiles are discussed. Processes and results are presented in such a way that they can be understood not only by statisticians but also by experienced sensory panel leaders and users of sensory analysis. The techniques presented are focused on examples and interpretation rather than on the technical aspects, with an emphasis on new and important methods which are possibly not so well known to scientists in the field. Important features of the book are discussions on the relationship among the methods with a strong accent on the connection between problems and methods. All procedures presented are described in relation to sensory data and not as completely general statistical techniques. Sensory scientists, applied statisticians, chemometricians, those working in consumer science, food scientists and agronomers will find this book of value.

  14. Sensory characteristics of different cod products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Hyldig, Grethe

    2010-01-01

    atmosphere) were evaluated with quantitative descriptive analysis by a trained sensory panel. Signal-to-noise analysis, p*MSE (discrimination and repeatability) and line plots proved to be very useful in studying panelists' performance. Most sensory attributes described significant differences between...... the products, and principal component analysis provided an overview of the differences and similarities between the products with regard to sensory characteristics. Farmed cod had different sensory characteristics compared with wild cod, such as more meat flavor, and rubbery and meaty texture. Different...... storage methods had minor influence on sensory characteristics of cod fillets after short storage time, but after extended storage, the groups were different with regard to most attributes. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS This paper presents different ways of analyzing sensory data. The process of analysis...

  15. Untargeted LC-MS/MS Profiling of Cell Culture Media Formulations for Evaluation of High Temperature Short Time Treatment Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floris, Patrick; McGillicuddy, Nicola; Albrecht, Simone; Morrissey, Brian; Kaisermayer, Christian; Lindeberg, Anna; Bones, Jonathan

    2017-09-19

    An untargeted LC-MS/MS platform was implemented for monitoring variations in CHO cell culture media upon exposure to high temperature short time (HTST) treatment, a commonly used viral clearance upstream strategy. Chemically defined (CD) and hydrolysate-supplemented media formulations were not visibly altered by the treatment. The absence of solute precipitation effects during media treatment and very modest shifts in pH values observed indicated sufficient compatibility of the formulations evaluated with the HTST-processing conditions. Unsupervised chemometric analysis of LC-MS/MS data, however, revealed clear separation of HTST-treated samples from untreated counterparts as observed from analysis of principal components and hierarchical clustering sample grouping. An increased presence of Maillard products in HTST-treated formulations contributed to the observed differences which included organic acids, observed particularly in chemically defined formulations, and furans, pyridines, pyrazines, and pyrrolidines which were determined in hydrolysate-supplemented formulations. The presence of Maillard products in media did not affect cell culture performance with similar growth and viability profiles observed for CHO-K1 and CHO-DP12 cells when cultured using both HTST-treated and untreated media formulations.

  16. The influence of the dose of calcium bisglycinate on physicochemical properties, sensory analysis and texture profile of kefirs during 21 days of cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlos, Małgorzata; Znamirowska, Agata; Szajnar, Katarzyna; Kalicka, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    In the process of enrichment of dairy products a priority element is the proper selection of compounds that are a mineral carrier. Calcium bisglycinate is better absorbed by the body than inorganic forms of calcium. Moreover, the lactic acid which is produced in kefir fermentation and the presence of lactose have also a positive effect on the improvement of absorption of calcium. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of the applied dose of calcium in the form of calcium bisglycinate on the physicochemical and sensory properties and texture of kefirs during 21-day period of cold storage. Processed cow milk was enriched with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mg of calcium (for 100 g of milk), repasteurized (72°C, 1 min), cooled down (26°C), inoculated with Commercial VITAL kefir culture (Danisco, Poland) and fermented for 16 hours (26°C). The assessment of the influence of addition   of calcium bisglycinate on acidity, syneresis, texture and sensory characteristics (1-9 points) of kefirs was conducted at four fixed dates (after 1 day, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days of storage). During successive weeks of cold storage in all experimental groups there was observed a tendency to decrease general acidity. On the 1st and 7th days of cold storage reduced whey leakage was observed in kefirs enriched with 25 mg and 30 mg Ca/100 g of milk. With increasing doses of enrichment with calcium both the hardness, adhesiveness and gumminess of kefirs decreased. The applied doses of calcium did not cause changes in the sensory characteristics such as colour and consistency of the fermented beverages. Calcium bisglycinate may be used to enrich kefirs with calcium even with 30 mg of calcium in 100 g of milk without the modification of the product's parameters.

  17. Effect of dietary incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids rich oil sources on fatty acid profile, keeping quality and sensory attributes of broiler chicken meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridhar Kalakuntla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of dietary replacement of commonly used vegetable oil (sunflower oil, SFO with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA rich oil sources on broiler chicken performance, carcass yield, meat fatty acid composition, keeping quality and sensory attributes of meat. In the current experiment, 300 day-old Krishibro broiler chicks were randomly distributed to 5 dietary groups (50 replicates with 6 chicks in each prepared by replacing SFO (2% and 3% of diet during starter and finisher periods, respectively with n-3 PUFA rich soybean oil (SO, mustard oil (MO, linseed oil (LO or fish oil (FO on weight basis. Variation in oil sources had no influence (P > 0.05 on performance and carcass yield. Supplementation of MO, LO or FO significantly (P < 0.01 increased the n-3 PUFA, lowered the n-6 PUFA deposition and n-6:n-3 ratio in breast and thigh without affecting the organoleptic characters (appearance, flavour, juiciness, tenderness and overall acceptability of meat. However, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances concentration in meat was increased (P < 0.01 with LO and FO supplementation compared with SFO. It is concluded that, dietary incorporation of MO, LO or FO at 2% and 3% levels during starter and finisher phase can enrich broiler chicken meat with n-3 PUFA without affecting the bird's performance and sensory characters of meat.

  18. Relating sensory profiles of canned amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus), cleome (Cleome gynandra), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris) leaves to consumer acceptance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyeoziri, Isiguzoro O; Kinnear, Marise; de Kock, Henriëtta L

    2018-04-01

    The younger generation of South Africans generally do not consume traditional meals prepared using African green leafy vegetables, primarily because they are regarded as bitter, "poverty" foods. Canning of these vegetables could create value-added products that can be sold in the commercial market. Descriptive sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance testing with young females were used to assess the potential of such products. The sensory attributes of amaranth, cleome and cowpea leaves canned in brine and in a cream sauce were described using 21 attributes grouped by aroma, taste, texture/mouthfeel and aftertaste. Amaranth and Swiss chard products were described as sweet with a popcorn-like aroma. Cleome products were described as bitter, sour, pungent, chemical-tasting, astringent, sandy with a metallic mouthfeel and strong aftertaste. Cowpea products were described as having woody and tobacco aromas as well as a chewy and cohesive texture. Among the products canned with a cream sauce, young female consumers preferred amaranth and Swiss chard; cowpea was less liked, while cleome was least liked. Canned amaranth leaves have potential as a commercial product that may be well liked by young consumers. The cowpea leaves product has consumer potential, but the formulation needs revision, while canned cleome leaves need further research work. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. PENGARUH PERENDAMAN BIJI KAKAO KERING DAN BAHAN ALAT SANGRAI TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN PROFIL SENYAWA VOLATIL KAKAO SANGRAI SERTA SIFAT SENSORIS COKELAT BATANG YANG DIHASILKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulius Gae Lada

    2015-02-01

    menggunakan alat sangrai dari alumunium, besi dan tanah liat menghasilkan profil senyawa volatil yang berbeda. Dari kromatogram SPME-GC-MS diketahui bahwa alat sangrai dari tanah liat menghasilkan kelompok senyawa dan total luas area yang lebih kecil dibandingkan dengan alat sangrai dari alumunium dan besi. Cokelat batang yang dihasilkan melalui perendaman dan disangrai menggunakan alat sangrai dari tanah liat adalah yang paling disukai oleh panelis. Kata kunci: Perendaman, bahan alat sangrai, biji kakao sangrai, profil senyawa volatil, cokelat batang

  20. Study of the effect of H2S, MeSH and DMS on the sensory profile of wine model solutions by Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Luesma, Ernesto; Sáenz-Navajas, María-Pilar; Valentin, Dominique; Ballester, Jordi; Rodrigues, Heber; Ferreira, Vicente

    2016-09-01

    The effect of hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), methanethiol (MeSH) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) on the odor properties of three wine models-WM- (young white, young red and oaked red wines) was studied. Wine models were built by mixing a pool of common wine volatile and non-volatile compounds and further spiked with eight different combinations of the three sulfur compounds present at two levels (level 0: 0μgL -1 and level 1: 40μgL -1 of H 2 S, 12μgL -1 of MeSH; 55μgL -1 of DMS). For each wine matrix eight WMs were produced and further submitted to sensory description by Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) method. Hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol were clearly involved in the formation of reductive aromas and shared the ability to act as strong suppressors of fruity and floral attributes. Specifically, hydrogen sulfide generated aromas of rotten eggs, while methanethiol generated significant increases in camembert and decreases in citrus, smoky/roasted and oxidation aromas. The simultaneous presence of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol enhanced the intensity of the unspecific term reduction, while the specific nuances individually imparted by each of the two compounds could not be further identified. DMS did not exert any outstanding effect on the reductive character of wines and its sensory effect was matrix-dependent. It was involved in the formation of fruity notes such as cooked/candied and red/black fruits in young wines, and vegetal notes (canned vegetables) in oaked red WMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Physicochemical aspects and sensory profile of stingless bee honeys from Seridó region, State of Rio Grande do Norte, BrazilAspectos físico-químicos e perfil sensorial de méis de abelhas sem ferrão da região do Seridó, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Maria Batista Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Stingless bee honey is a highly valued product of the Seridó region, state of Rio Grande do Norte due to its specific sensory and nutritional characteristics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and sensory profile of stingless bee honeys produced in the Seridó region, state of Rio Grande do Norte. Twenty-nine honey samples from the following stingless bees were analyzed: M. subnitida D., Frieseomellita doederleini F., Melipona scutellaris L., Frieseomellita flavicornis, Scaptotrigrona SP, Nannotrigona testaceicornis L., Melipona compressipes fasciculada S., Melipona quadrifasciata Lep, Melipona quinquefasciata, M. scutellaris L. and Partamona helleri F. The composition considering moisture, total sugars, reducing sugars, apparent sucrose, protein, vitamin C, and ash, and the total acidity, pH, and color were evaluated. A sensory profile, considering the aroma, color, viscosity, flavor, acidity attributes and general acceptability, and the acceptability, regarding aroma, color and flavor, were also analyzed. The honeys were different (p O mel de abelhas sem ferrão é um produto bastante valorizado na região do Seridó do Rio Grande do Norte, em função de suas características nutritivas e sensoriais específicas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os aspectos físico-químicos e perfil sensorial de méis de abelhas sem ferrão produzidos na região do Seridó do Rio Grande do Norte. Foram analisadas 29 amostras de mel das seguintes abelhas sem ferrão: M. subnitida D., Frieseomellita doederleini F., Melipona scutellaris L., Frieseomellita flavicornis, Scaptotrigrona SP, Nannotrigona testaceicornis L., Melipona compressipes fasciculada S., Melipona quadrifasciata Lep, Melipona quinquefasciata, M. scutellaris L. e Partamona helleri F. Os aspectos físico-químicos analisados foram: umidade, açúcares totais, açucares redutores, sacarose aparente, cinzas, acidez total, pH, proteína, vitamina C e cor

  2. HIV Associated Sensory Neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    G, Amruth; S, Praveen-Kumar; B, Nataraju; Bs, Nagaraja

    2014-07-01

    In the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, sensory neuropathies have increased in prevalence. We have documented the frequency and profile of the two most common forms of sensory neuropathies associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and looked into clinicoelectrophysiological correlates to differentiate the two entities. The study population comprised of all consecutive patients detected to be HIV positive and attending the Neurology outpatient department (from March 2011 to March 2012) who were aged ≥ 18 years and were able to give informed consent. The data were collected from the patient records (including CD4 counts and treatment details) and questionnaire based interview with each patient. All patients underwent detailed clinical examination and nerve conduction studies (NCSs). Among the total study population of 50 patients, there were 31 men and 19 women. Thirty two patients were in age range of 21 - 40 years and rest were above 40 years. 25 were on antiretroviral therapy (18 on regimen containing zidovudine; seven on regimen containing stavudine). The mean duration of antiretroviral therapy was 16.6±8.4 months. Low CD4 counts ( 40 years. Subclinical neuropathy was common in those on antiretroviral therapy. Axonal neuropathy was the commonest pattern noted in patients who were receiving antiretroviral therapy and demyelinating neuropathy in patients not on antiretroviral therapy. Surprisingly no significant correlation was found between low CD4 counts and symptomatic neuropathy.

  3. A possible role of the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile in screening for autism: a proof-of-concept study in the specific sample of prematurely born children with birth weights <1,500 g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beranova S

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stepanka Beranova,1 Jan Stoklasa,2 Iva Dudova,1 Daniela Markova,3 Martina Kasparova,4 Jana Zemankova,5 Tomas Urbanek,6 Tomas Talasek,2 Pasi Luukka,7 Michal Hrdlicka1 1Department of Child Psychiatry, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, 2Department of Applied Economics, Faculty of Arts, Palacky University, Olomouc, 3Department of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, Charles University First Faculty of Medicine and General University Hospital, Prague, 4Department of Pediatrics, Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Prague, 5Department of Pediatrics, Charles University Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, Hradec Kralove, 6Institute of Psychology, Academy of Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic; 7Laboratory of Applied Mathematics, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Lappeenranta, Finland Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the potential of the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP as a screening tool for autism spectrum disorders (ASD in prematurely born children.Methods: Parents of 157 children with birth weights <1,500 g (aged 2 years, corrected for prematurity; 88 boys, 69 girls completed a screening battery that included the ITSP, Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT, and the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales Developmental Profile Infant-Toddler Checklist (CSBS-DP-ITC. Children with known disabilities were excluded. All the children who were screened positive on any of the screening tools subsequently underwent clinical examination including the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule.Results: We used classification trees to answer the question whether ITSP (or some of its subscales could be combined with the M-CHAT and/or the CSBS-DP-ITC or its subscales into an effective ASD screening tool. Using the CSBS-DP-ITC, overall score, and the Sensation Seeking subscale of the ITSP, we obtained a screening tool that was able

  4. Extraction of oak volatiles and ellagitannins compounds and sensory profile of wine aged with French winewoods subjected to different toasting methods: behaviour during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chira, Kleopatra; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis

    2013-09-01

    In Merlot wines the evolution of volatile and non-volatile (ellagitannins) compounds extracted from winewoods while being macerated for 12 months was studied. Seven types of winewoods subjected to different toasting methods were used. Different rates of extraction, depending mainly on wood compounds origin (toasting or naturally present in wood) and on the watering process during toasting, were observed, which were reflected in sensory differences. Globally, volatile phenols together with aldehydes, phenols and lactones showed an increase with increasing maceration time. Ellagitannins were extracted faster during the first 3 months; after 6 months an important decrease was observed. Wines with winewoods subjected to watering during toasting were lower in ellagitannins concentrations and demonstrated the greatest decrease of these compounds during maceration. Astringency and bitterness intensified with increasing ellagitannins. Lactones induced positive sweetness sensations, whereas furanic and guaiacol compounds influenced bitterness and astringency. Spicy and vanilla descriptors were related to eugenol, vanillin and other odorous chemicals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Assessment of volatile compound profiles and the deduced sensory significance of virgin olive oils from the progeny of Picual×Arbequina cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Ana G; de la Rosa, Raúl; Pascual, Mar; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Romero-Segura, Carmen; León, Lorenzo; Sanz, Carlos

    2016-01-08

    Volatile compounds are responsible for most of the sensory qualities of virgin olive oil and they are synthesized when enzymes and substrates come together as olive fruit is crushed during the industrial process to obtain the oil. Here we have studied the variability among the major volatile compounds in virgin olive oil prepared from the progeny of a cross of Picual and Arbequina olive cultivars (Olea europaea L.). The volatile compounds were isolated by SPME, and analyzed by HRGC-MS and HRGC-FID. Most of the volatile compounds found in the progeny's oil are produced by the enzymes in the so-called lipoxygenase pathway, and they may be clustered into different groups according to their chain length and polyunsaturated fatty acid origin (linoleic and linolenic acids). In addition, a group of compounds derived from amino acid metabolism and two terpenes also contributed significantly to the volatile fraction, some of which had significant odor values in most of the genotypes evaluated. The volatile compound content of the progeny was very varied, widely transgressing the progenitor levels, suggesting that in breeding programs it might be more effective to consider a larger number of individuals within the same cross than using different crosses with fewer individuals. Multivariate analysis allowed genotypes with particularly interesting volatile compositions to be identified and their flavor quality deduced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of fat content, pasteurization method, homogenization pressure, and storage time on the mechanical and sensory properties of bovine milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Joyner, H S; Carter, B G; Drake, M A

    2018-04-01

    Fluid milk may be pasteurized by high-temperature short-time pasteurization (HTST) or ultrapasteurization (UP). Literature suggests that UP increases milk astringency, but definitive studies have not demonstrated this effect. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the effects of pasteurization method, fat content, homogenization pressure, and storage time on milk sensory and mechanical behaviors. Raw skim (fat), 2%, and 5% fat milk was pasteurized in duplicate by indirect UP (140°C, 2.3 s) or by HTST pasteurization (78°C, 15 s), homogenized at 20.7 MPa, and stored at 4°C for 8 wk. Additionally, 2% fat milk was processed by indirect UP and homogenized at 13.8, 20.7, and 27.6 MPa and stored at 4°C for 8 wk. Sensory profiling, instrumental viscosity, and friction profiles of all milk were evaluated at 25°C after storage times of 1, 4, and 8 wk. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to determine protein structural changes in milk at these time points. Fresh HTST milk was processed at wk 7 for wk 8 evaluations. Ultrapasteurization increased milk sensory and instrumental viscosity compared with HTST pasteurization. Increased fat content increased sensory and instrumental viscosity, and decreased astringency and friction profiles. Astringency, mixed regimen friction profiles, and sensory viscosity also increased for UP versus HTST. Increased storage time showed no effect on sensory viscosity or mechanical viscosity. However, increased storage time generally resulted in increased friction profiles and astringency. Sodium dodecyl sulfate PAGE and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed increased denatured whey protein in UP milk compared with HTST milk. The aggregates or network formed by these proteins and casein micelles likely caused the increase in viscosity and friction profiles during storage. Homogenization pressure did not significantly affect friction behaviors, mechanical viscosity, or astringency; however

  7. Flexibility and Stability in Sensory Processing Revealed Using Visual-to-Auditory Sensory Substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Uri; Amedi, Amir

    2015-01-01

    The classical view of sensory processing involves independent processing in sensory cortices and multisensory integration in associative areas. This hierarchical structure has been challenged by evidence of multisensory responses in sensory areas, and dynamic weighting of sensory inputs in associative areas, thus far reported independently. Here, we used a visual-to-auditory sensory substitution algorithm (SSA) to manipulate the information conveyed by sensory inputs while keeping the stimuli intact. During scan sessions before and after SSA learning, subjects were presented with visual images and auditory soundscapes. The findings reveal 2 dynamic processes. First, crossmodal attenuation of sensory cortices changed direction after SSA learning from visual attenuations of the auditory cortex to auditory attenuations of the visual cortex. Secondly, associative areas changed their sensory response profile from strongest response for visual to that for auditory. The interaction between these phenomena may play an important role in multisensory processing. Consistent features were also found in the sensory dominance in sensory areas and audiovisual convergence in associative area Middle Temporal Gyrus. These 2 factors allow for both stability and a fast, dynamic tuning of the system when required. PMID:24518756

  8. Reduction of sodium and increment of calcium and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dry fermented sausages: effects on the mineral content, lipid profile and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Íñiguez de Ciriano, Mikel; Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2013-03-15

    A combined technological approach was applied in the development of healthier dry fermented sausages: a partial substitution of the pork back fat by pre-emulsified linseed oil and a partial replacement of sodium chloride with calcium ascorbate at two different levels, leading to low amounts of salt (14gSalt and 10gSalt, with 14 g and 10 g NaCl per kg of mixture, respectively). The developed products (14gSalt and 10gSalt) showed adequate results for a(w) (0.85 and 0.87) and pH (4.98 and 5.21), and low lipid oxidation values (1.4 × 10(-4) and 1.5 × 10(-5) g malondialdehyde (MDA) kg(-1)). The lipid modification led to a significantly higher supply of ω-3 (23.3 g kg(-1) ) compared to the control (3.2 g kg(-1) ). Simultaneously, reductions of 38% and 50% in sodium content and a calcium supply of 4 and 5.2 g kg(-1) were achieved in the 14gSalt and 10gSalt formulations, respectively, compared to the control products (26 g salt and 0.87 g kg(-1) Ca). Instrumental analysis of colour and texture and sensory studies demonstrated that the organoleptic quality of the new formulations was similar to that of traditional products. The developed dry fermented sausages showed healthier properties than traditional ones owing to their reduced sodium and higher calcium content and a significant supply of ω-3 fatty acids. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Short-term test-retest-reliability of conditioned pain modulation using the cold-heat-pain method in healthy subjects and its correlation to parameters of standardized quantitative sensory testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehling, Julia; Mainka, Tina; Vollert, Jan; Pogatzki-Zahn, Esther M; Maier, Christoph; Enax-Krumova, Elena K

    2016-08-05

    Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) is often used to assess human descending pain inhibition. Nine different studies on the test-retest-reliability of different CPM paradigms have been published, but none of them has investigated the commonly used heat-cold-pain method. The results vary widely and therefore, reliability measures cannot be extrapolated from one CPM paradigm to another. Aim of the present study was to analyse the test-retest-reliability of the common heat-cold-pain method and its correlation to pain thresholds. We tested the short-term test-retest-reliability within 40 ± 19.9 h using a cold-water immersion (10 °C, left hand) as conditioning stimulus (CS) and heat pain (43-49 °C, pain intensity 60 ± 5 on the 101-point numeric rating scale, right forearm) as test stimulus (TS) in 25 healthy right-handed subjects (12females, 31.6 ± 14.1 years). The TS was applied 30s before (TSbefore), during (TSduring) and after (TSafter) the 60s CS. The difference between the pain ratings for TSbefore and TSduring represents the early CPM-effect, between TSbefore and TSafter the late CPM-effect. Quantitative sensory testing (QST, DFNS protocol) was performed on both sessions before the CPM assessment. paired t-tests, Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), smallest real difference (SRD), Pearson's correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, significance level p Pain ratings during CPM correlated significantly (ICC: 0.411…0.962) between both days, though ratings for TSafter were lower on day 2 (p pain thresholds. The short-term test-retest-reliability of the early CPM-effect using the heat-cold-pain method in healthy subjects achieved satisfying results in terms of the ICC. The SRD of the early CPM effect showed that an individual change of > 20 NRS can be attributed to a real change rather than chance. The late CPM-effect was weaker and not reliable.

  10. Short-term nitrous oxide profile dynamics and emissions response to water, nitrogen and carbon additions in two tropical soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. D. Nobre; M. Keller; P. M. Crill; R. C. Harriss

    2001-01-01

    Tropical soils are potentially the highest and least studied nitrous oxide (N2O) production areas in the world. The effect of water, nitrate and glucose additions on profile concentrations and episodic emissions of N2O for two volcanic soils in Costa Rica was examined. Magnitudes of episodic N2O pulses, as well as overall N2O emissions, varied considerably and...

  11. Short report The DeDiMa battery: a tool for identifying students’ mathematical learning profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannis Karagiannakis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background The DeDiMa battery is designed for assessing students’ mathematical learning profiles, and it has been used to validate a 4-dimensional model for classifying mathematical learning difficulties. The model arises from existing hypotheses in the cognitive psychology and neuroscience literature, while the DeDiMa battery provides a reliable set of mathematical tasks that help to match characteristics of students’ mathematical performances to their more basic learning difficulties. Participants and procedure In this report we address the question of how these tools can help sketch out a student’s mathematical learning profile. The participants are 5th and 6th grade students. Results We compare the emerging profiles of two students with mathematical learning difficulties (MLD matched for age, performance on a standardized test, non-verbal IQ, and educational experiences. The profiles are very different. Conclusions We believe that this approach can inform the design of individualized remedial interventions for MLD students.

  12. On-current modeling of short-channel double-gate (DG) MOSFETs with a vertical Gaussian-like doping profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubey, Sarvesh; Jit, S.; Tiwari Pramod Kumar

    2013-01-01

    An analytic drain current model is presented for doped short-channel double-gate MOSFETs with a Gaussian-like doping profile in the vertical direction of the channel. The present model is valid in linear and saturation regions of device operation. The drain current variation with various device parameters has been demonstrated. The model is made more physical by incorporating the channel length modulation effect. Parameters like transconductance and drain conductance that are important in assessing the analog performance of the device have also been formulated. The model results are validated by numerical simulation results obtained by using the commercially available ATLAS™, a two dimensional device simulator from SILVACO. (semiconductor devices)

  13. Evaluating Sensory Processing in Fragile X Syndrome: Psychometric Analysis of the Brain Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolacz, Jacek; Raspa, Melissa; Heilman, Keri J; Porges, Stephen W

    2018-06-01

    Individuals with fragile X syndrome (FXS), especially those co-diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), face many sensory processing challenges. However, sensory processing measures informed by neurophysiology are lacking. This paper describes the development and psychometric properties of a parent/caregiver report, the Brain-Body Center Sensory Scales (BBCSS), based on Polyvagal Theory. Parents/guardians reported on 333 individuals with FXS, 41% with ASD features. Factor structure using a split-sample exploratory-confirmatory design conformed to neurophysiological predictions. Internal consistency, test-retest, and inter-rater reliability were good to excellent. BBCSS subscales converged with the Sensory Profile and Sensory Experiences Questionnaire. However, data also suggest that BBCSS subscales reflect unique features related to sensory processing. Individuals with FXS and ASD features displayed more sensory challenges on most subscales.

  14. Birefringence profile adjustment by spatial overlap of nanogratings induced by ultra-short laser pulses inside fused silica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabanian, Atoosa Sadat; Najafi, Somayeh; Ajami, Aliasghar; Husinsky, Wolfgang; Massudi, Reza

    2018-02-01

    We have succeeded in realizing a method to control the spatial distribution of optical retardation as a result of nanogratings in bulk-fused silica induced by ultrashort laser pulses. A colorimetry-based retardation measurement (CBRM) based on the Michel-Levy interference color chart using a polarization microscope is used to determine the profiles of the optical retardation. Effects of the spatial overlap of written regions as well as the energy and polarization of the writing pulses on the induced retardations are studied. It has been found that the spatial overlap of lines written by pulse trains with different energies and polarizations can result in an adjustment of the induced birefringence in the overlap region. This approach offers the possibility of designing polarization-sensitive components with a desired birefringence profile.

  15. Sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Caroline E; Baron-Cohen, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Autism is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, and little is known about its neurobiology. Much of autism research has focused on the social, communication and cognitive difficulties associated with the condition. However, the recent revision of the diagnostic criteria for autism has brought another key domain of autistic experience into focus: sensory processing. Here, we review the properties of sensory processing in autism and discuss recent computational and neurobiological insights arising from attention to these behaviours. We argue that sensory traits have important implications for the development of animal and computational models of the condition. Finally, we consider how difficulties in sensory processing may relate to the other domains of behaviour that characterize autism.

  16. Influence of multi-level anaesthesia care and patient profile on perioperative patient satisfaction in short-stay surgical inpatients: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarjeet Singh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and goals of study: Patient satisfaction in relation to perioperative anesthesia care represents essential aspect of quality health-care management. We analyzed the influence of multi-level anesthesia care exposure and patient profile on perioperative patient satisfaction in short-stay surgical inpatients. Methods : 120 short-stay surgical inpatients who underwent laparoscopic surgery have been included in this prospective study. Pertaining to demographic parameters (age, gender, education, profession, duration of stay (preoperative room, recovery room, various patient problems and patient satisfaction (various levels, overall were recorded by an independent observer and analyzed. Overall, adults, male and uneducated patients experienced more problems. Conversely, elderly, females and educated patients were more dissatisfied. Female patients suffered more during immediate postoperative recovery room stay and were more dissatisfied than their male counterparts (p< 0.05. However, patient′s professional status had no bearing on the problems encountered and dissatisfaction levels. Preoperative and early postoperative period accounted for majority of the problems encountered among the study population. There was a positive correlation between problems faced and dissatisfaction experienced at respective levels of anesthesia care (p< 0.05. Conclusion(s : Patient′s demographic profile and problems faced during respective level of anesthesia care has a correlation with dissatisfaction. Interestingly, none of the above stated factors had any effect on overall satisfaction level.

  17. Which sensory perception is primarily considered, in consumers’ hedonic evaluation of foods?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Barbara Vad; Brockhoff, Per B.; Hyldig, Grethe

    An analysis of the primary hedonic drivers of liking and sensory satisfaction will provide valuable information to product developers on which sensory properties to emphasise the most. The aims of the present study were: a) to study if liking of the sensory properties: appearance, odour, taste...... with sensory profiling. For data analysis mixed three-way analysis of variance and principal component analysis was applied to study and visualise sensory differences. The relative importance of liking of sensory properties; appearance, odour, taste and texture was analysed using slopes, when consumers rated...... and texture were considered equally, when consumers rated overall liking and sensory satisfaction b) to study if the relation depended on, whether liking of sensory properties were related to overall liking or sensory satisfaction, and c) to study individual differences in which sensory properties...

  18. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandenbroucke, A.R.E.; Sligte, I.G.; Barrett, A.B.; Seth, A.K.; Fahrenfort, J.J.; Lamme, V.A.F.

    2014-01-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the

  19. Influence of dietary lipid sources on sensory characteristics of broiler

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of dietary lipid sources on sensory characteristics of broiler meat ... fatty acid profile of poultry products such as eggs and meat by means of dietary inclusion of ..... Designer eggs: From improvement of egg composition to functional.

  20. Development of a diamond detector for temporal profile measurements of intense, short ion bunches within the LIGHT project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahn, Diana [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany); Traeger, Michael; Kis, Mladen [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung (Germany); Collaboration: LIGHT-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    In the context of the Laser Ion Generation, Handling and Transport (LIGHT) research project at GSI, laser-driven ion acceleration and beam shaping are explored, combining a target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) proton source with conventional accelerator technology. In the LIGHT experimental campaign in 2015, protons were accelerated via the TNSA mechanism, an energy of 7.8 MeV was selected and collimated with a pulsed solenoid and injected into a rf cavity. Through phase focusing, temporally compressed proton bunches were generated to a pulse length of <240 ps (FWHM) with up to 5 x 10{sup 8} particles in a single bunch at a distance of 6 m from the source. An ultrafast diamond detector has been specially developed to measure the temporal profile of these bunches and will be presented.

  1. Sexual odor discrimination and physiological profiles in adult male rats after a neonatal, short term, reversible nasal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, S N; Padzys, G S; Trabalon, M

    2014-05-01

    The present study was designed to examine behavioral responses (interpreted as preferences) to olfactory cues (nest bedding odor and odors of estrous and anestrus females) in adult male rats after they had a short term reversible, bilateral, nasal obstruction (RbNO) as developing rat pups. These results were compared to behavior of control (untreated) and sham operated male littermates. Behavioral tests and physiological parameters were analyzed 90 days after recovery of nasal breathing. Experiments investigated the time spent in arms or the center of a maze of male rats in response to odors from the nest bedding or from adult females. There were no differences in responses between untreated, sham and RbNO adult male rats to fresh and nest bedding odors. RbNO males spent more time in the center of the maze when given a choice of estrus or anestrus female odors, or bedding odors from untreated or sham operated female rats. In contrast untreated and sham male rats preferred the odors of estrous females and of untreated or sham females. Plasma corticosterone levels in the males increased during the behavioral tests. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly lower in RbNO males compared to untreated males and did not increase during the behavioral tests compared to sham operated males. Males from all groups had similar preferences for the odor of bedding from adult RbNO females. Plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides were increased in RbNO adults. In conclusion, short term nasal obstruction in males while juvenile has long term consequences on hormones and behavioral preferences, thus potential partner selection when adult. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [Treatment of sensory information in neurodevelopmental disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoenen, D; Delvenne, V

    2018-01-01

    The processing of information coming from the elementary sensory systems conditions the development and fulfilment of a child's abilities. A dysfunction in the sensory stimuli processing may generate behavioural patterns that might affect a child's learning capacities as well as his relational sphere. The DSM-5 recognizes the sensory abnormalities as part of the symptomatology of Autism Spectrum Disorders. However, similar features are observed in other neurodevelopmental disorders. Over the years, these conditions have been the subject of numerous controversies. Nowadays, they are all grouped together under the term of Neurodevelopmental Disorders in DSM-5. The semiology of these disorders is rich and complex due to the frequent presence of comorbidities and their impact on cognitive, behavioural, and sensorimotor organization but also on a child's personality, as well as his family, his school, or his social relationships. We carried out a review of the literature on the alterations in the treatment of sensory information in ASD but also on the different neurodevelopmental clinical panels in order to show their impact on child development. Atypical sensory profiles have been demonstrated in several neurodevelopmental clinical populations such as Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorders, Dysphasia and Intellectual Disability. Abnomalies in the processing of sensory information should be systematically evaluated in child developmental disorders.

  3. Neuropathic pain: is quantitative sensory testing helpful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumova, Elena K; Geber, Christian; Westermann, Andrea; Maier, Christoph

    2012-08-01

    Neuropathic pain arises as a consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system and is characterised by a combination of positive and negative sensory symptoms. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) examines the sensory perception after application of different mechanical and thermal stimuli of controlled intensity and the function of both large (A-beta) and small (A-delta and C) nerve fibres, including the corresponding central pathways. QST can be used to determine detection, pain thresholds and stimulus-response curves and can thus detect both negative and positive sensory signs, the second ones not being assessed by other methods. Similarly to all other psychophysical tests QST requires standardised examination, instructions and data evaluation to receive valid and reliable results. Since normative data are available, QST can contribute also to the individual diagnosis of neuropathy, especially in the case of isolated small-fibre neuropathy, in contrast to the conventional electrophysiology which assesses only large myelinated fibres. For example, detection of early stages of subclinical neuropathy in symptomatic or asymptomatic patients with diabetes mellitus can be helpful to optimise treatment and identify diabetic foot at risk of ulceration. QST assessed the individual's sensory profile and thus can be valuable to evaluate the underlying pain mechanisms which occur in different frequencies even in the same neuropathic pain syndromes. Furthermore, assessing the exact sensory phenotype by QST might be useful in the future to identify responders to certain treatments in accordance to the underlying pain mechanisms.

  4. Probabilistic sensory recoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazayeri, Mehrdad

    2008-08-01

    A hallmark of higher brain functions is the ability to contemplate the world rather than to respond reflexively to it. To do so, the nervous system makes use of a modular architecture in which sensory representations are dissociated from areas that control actions. This flexibility however necessitates a recoding scheme that would put sensory information to use in the control of behavior. Sensory recoding faces two important challenges. First, recoding must take into account the inherent variability of sensory responses. Second, it must be flexible enough to satisfy the requirements of different perceptual goals. Recent progress in theory, psychophysics, and neurophysiology indicate that cortical circuitry might meet these challenges by evaluating sensory signals probabilistically.

  5. Acute heart failure with mid-range left ventricular ejection fraction: clinical profile, in-hospital management, and short-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmakis, Dimitrios; Simitsis, Panagiotis; Bistola, Vasiliki; Triposkiadis, Filippos; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Katsanos, Spyridon; Bakosis, George; Hatziagelaki, Erifili; Lekakis, John; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Parissis, John

    2017-05-01

    Heart failure with mid-range left ventricular ejection fraction (HFmrEF) is a poorly characterized population as it has been studied either in the context of HF with reduced (HFrEF) or preserved (HFpEF) left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) depending on applied LVEF cutoffs. We sought to investigate the clinical profile, in-hospital management, and short-term outcome of HFmrEF patients in comparison with those with HFrEF or HFpEF in a large acute HF cohort. The Acute Heart Failure Global Registry of Standard Treatment (ALARM-HF) included 4953 patients hospitalized for HF in nine countries in Europe, Latin America, and Australia. Baseline characteristics, clinical presentation, in-hospital therapies, and short-term mortality (all-cause in-hospital or 30-day mortality, whichever first) were compared among HFrEF (LVEF chronic renal disease (p = 0.003), more hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome (p < 0.001), or infection (p = 0.003), and were more frequently treated with intravenous vasodilators compared to HFrEF or HFpEF. Adjusted short-term mortality in HFmrEF was lower than HFrEF [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.635 (0.419, 0.963), p = 0.033] but similar to HFpEF [HR = 1.026 (0.605, 1.741), p = 0.923]. Hospitalized HFmrEF patients represent a demographically and clinically diverse group with many intermediate features compared to HFrEF and HFpEF and carry a lower risk of short-term mortality than HFrEF but a similar risk with HFpEF.

  6. Sensory Symptoms and Processing of Nonverbal Auditory and Visual Stimuli in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Claire R.; Sanchez, Sandra S.; Grenesko, Emily L.; Brown, Christine M.; Chen, Colleen P.; Keehn, Brandon; Velasquez, Francisco; Lincoln, Alan J.; Müller, Ralph-Axel

    2016-01-01

    Atypical sensory responses are common in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While evidence suggests impaired auditory-visual integration for verbal information, findings for nonverbal stimuli are inconsistent. We tested for sensory symptoms in children with ASD (using the Adolescent/Adult Sensory Profile) and examined unisensory and bisensory…

  7. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D.

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. - Highlights: • Utilized a graded CR model in male mice • The mRNA profiles of xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in liver were investigated. • CR up-regulates many phase-II enzymes. • CR tends to feminize the mRNA profiles of XPGs

  8. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Zidong Donna [Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutics, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States); Klaassen, Curtis D., E-mail: cklaasse@kumc.edu [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS 66160 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. - Highlights: • Utilized a graded CR model in male mice • The mRNA profiles of xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in liver were investigated. • CR up-regulates many phase-II enzymes. • CR tends to feminize the mRNA profiles of XPGs.

  9. Short communication: Cytokine profiles from blood mononuclear cells of dairy cows classified with divergent immune response phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C E; Paibomesai, M A; Emam, S M; Gallienne, J; Hine, B C; Thompson-Crispi, K A; Mallard, B A

    2016-03-01

    Genetic selection for enhanced immune response has been shown to decrease disease occurrence in dairy cattle. Cows can be classified as high (H), average, or low responders based on antibody-mediated immune response (AMIR), predominated by type-2 cytokine production, and cell-mediated immune response (CMIR) through estimated breeding values for these traits. The purpose of this study was to identify in vitro tests that correlate with in vivo immune response phenotyping in dairy cattle. Blood mononuclear cells (BMC) isolated from cows classified as H-AMIR and H-CMIR through estimated breeding values for immune response traits were stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA; Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) and gene expression, cytokine production, and cell proliferation was determined at multiple time points. A repeated measures model, which included the effects of immune response group, parity, and stage of lactation, was used to compare differences between immune response phenotype groups. The H-AMIR cows produced more IL-4 protein than H-CMIR cows at 48 h; however, no difference in gene expression of type-2 transcription factor GATA3 or IL4 was noted. The BMC from H-CMIR cows had increased production of IFN-γ protein at 48, 72, and 96 h compared with H-AMIR animals. Further, H-CMIR cows had increased expression of the IFNG gene at 16, 24, and 48 h post-treatment with ConA, although expression of the type-1 transcription factor gene TBX21 did not differ between immune response groups. Although proliferation of BMC increased from 24 to 72 h after ConA stimulation, no differences were found between the immune response groups. Overall, stimulation of H-AMIR and H-CMIR bovine BMC with ConA resulted in distinct cytokine production profiles according to genetically defined groups. These distinct cytokine profiles could be used to define disease resistance phenotypes in dairy cows according to stimulation in vitro; however, other immune response phenotypes should be assessed

  10. Sensory Subtypes in Preschool Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomchek, Scott D; Little, Lauren M; Myers, John; Dunn, Winnie

    2018-06-01

    Given the heterogeneity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), research has investigated how sensory features elucidate subtypes that enhance our understanding of etiology and tailored treatment approaches. Previous studies, however, have not integrated core developmental behaviors with sensory features in investigations of subtypes in ASD. Therefore, we used latent profile analysis to examine subtypes in a preschool aged sample considering sensory processing patterns in combination with social-communication skill, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. Results showed four subtypes that differed by degree and quality of sensory features, age and differential presentation of developmental skills. Findings partially align with previous literature on sensory subtypes and extends our understanding of how sensory processing aligns with other developmental domains in young children with ASD.

  11. Do Birds Experience Sensory Pleasure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Cabanac

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To answer the question of whether sensory pleasure exists in birds, I trained an African-gray parrot (Psittacus erythacus named Aristote to speak. Stage 1 of the study consisted in gaining Aristote's affection. In Stage 2 Aristote was taught to speak, following Irene Pepperberg's triangular method: another person and I would talk together and look at Aristote only when it used understandable French words. Thus Aristote learned to say a few words for obtaining toys or getting my attention; e.g. “donne bouchon” (give cork or “donne gratte” (give scratch/tickle, with the appropriate reward. In Stage 3, the word bon (good was added to the short list of words used by Aristote. I said “bon” when giving Aristote the stimuli it requested and which would, presumably, be pleasurable; e.g. gratte bon. Aristote started to use short sentences such as “yaourt bon” (good yogurt. Eventually, Aristote transferred the word bon to new stimuli such as raisin (grape, an association I myself had never made. Such a use of vocabulary, and moreover its transfer, likely shows that this bird experienced sensory pleasure.

  12. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in surface soil from a background area in China: occurrence, distribution, and congener profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue-Tong; Zhang, Yuan; Miao, Yi; Ma, Ling-Ling; Li, Yuan-Cheng; Chang, Yue-Ya; Wu, Ming-Hong

    2013-07-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are extremely complex technical mixtures of polychlorinated n-alkanes with carbon chain lengths from C10 to C13 and chlorine content between 49 and 70%. SCCPs are under consideration for inclusion in the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants. SCCPs have been used extensively in industrial production, but little is known about the pollution level in soil environment in China. In this study, levels and distribution of SCCPs in soil samples from Chongming Island were analyzed. Concentrations of total SCCPs in soil samples ranged from 0.42 to 420 ng g(-1), with a median of 9.6 ng g(-1). The ubiquitous occurrence of SCCPs in Chongming Island implied that long-range atmospheric transport and soil-air exchange may be the most important pathways for SCCP contamination in the background area. The localized SCCP contamination could be derived from an unidentified source. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated that C13- and C11-congeners were predominant in most soils and C10- and C12-congeners dominated in the remaining soils. Cl7- and Cl8-congeners were on the average the most dominant chlorine congeners in nearly all soils. Principal component analysis suggested that the separation of even and odd carbon chain congeners occurred during long-range atmospheric transport and aging in soil in the study area.

  13. Short-term calorie restriction feminizes the mRNA profiles of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in livers of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zidong Donna; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2014-01-01

    Calorie restriction (CR) is one of the most effective anti-aging interventions in mammals. A modern theory suggests that aging results from a decline in detoxification capabilities and thus accumulation of damaged macromolecules. The present study aimed to determine how short-term CR alters mRNA profiles of genes that encode metabolism and detoxification machinery in the liver. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed CR (0, 15, 30, or 40%) diets for one month, followed by mRNA quantification of 98 xenobiotic processing genes (XPGs) in the liver, including 7 uptake transporters, 39 phase-I enzymes, 37 phase-II enzymes, 10 efflux transporters, and 5 transcription factors. In general, 15% CR did not alter mRNAs of most XPGs, whereas 30 and 40% CR altered over half of the XPGs (32 increased and 29 decreased). CR up-regulated some phase-I enzymes (fold increase), such as Cyp4a14 (12), Por (2.3), Nqo1 (1.4), Fmo2 (5.4), and Fmo3 (346), and numerous number of phase-II enzymes, such as Sult1a1 (1.2), Sult1d1 (2.0), Sult1e1 (33), Sult3a1 (2.2), Gsta4 (1.3), Gstm2 (1.3), Gstm3 (1.7), and Mgst3 (2.2). CR feminized the mRNA profiles of 32 XPGs in livers of male mice. For instance, CR decreased the male-predominantly expressed Oatp1a1 (97%) and increased the female-predominantly expressed Oatp1a4 (11). In conclusion, short-term CR alters the mRNA levels of over half of the 98 XPGs quantified in livers of male mice, and over half of these alterations appear to be due to feminization of the liver. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Accessibility and sensory experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl, Camilla

    2010-01-01

    and accessibility. Sensory accessibility accommodates aspects of a sensory disability and describes architectural design requirements needed to ensure access to architectural experiences. In the context of architecture accessibility has become a design concept of its own. It is generally described as ensuring...... physical access to the built environment by accommodating physical disabilities. While the existing concept of accessibility ensures the physical access of everyone to a given space, sensory accessibility ensures the choice of everyone to stay and be able to participate and experience....

  15. Sensory analysis of beans (Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Calvo M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of sensory profiling constitutes the basis of a descriptive quantitative analysis, defining a product with the minimum number of words and with maximum efficiency, using a precise tasting sheet, which can be reproduced and is understood by all. In this work, the texture profiling for different bean varieties that are characteristic of the Spanish market was carried out. Optimum conditions for samples and a tasting card were established, and a panel was trained. The texture profile results show significant differences amongst varieties and even amongst different origins for the same variety.

  16. The Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Profile of Peripheral Blood Is Not Systematically Changed by Short-Time Storage at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicklas Heine Staunstrup

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epigenetic epidemiology has proven an important research discipline in the delineation of diseases of complex etiology. The approach, in such studies, is often to use bio-banked clinical material, however, many such samples were collected for purposes other than epigenetic studies and, thus, potentially not processed and stored appropriately. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC includes more than 100,000 peripheral and umbilical cord blood samples shipped from maternity wards by ordinary mail in EDTA tubes. While this and other similar cohorts hold great promises for DNA methylation studies the potential systematic changes prompted by storage at ambient temperatures have never been assessed on a genome-wide level. Methods and Results: In this study, matched EDTA whole blood samples were stored up to three days at room temperature prior to DNA extraction and methylated DNA immunoprecipitation coupled with deep sequencing (MeDIP-seq. We established that the quality of the MeDIP-seq libraries was high and comparable across samples; and that the methylation profiles did not change systematically during the short-time storage at room temperature. Conclusion: The global DNA methylation profile is stable in whole blood samples stored for up to three days at room temperature in EDTA tubes making genome-wide methylation studies on such material feasible.

  17. Accumulation and elimination profiles of paralytic shellfish poison in the short-necked clam Tapes japonica fed with the toxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsur, Mohamad; Takatani, Tomohiro; Yamaguchi, Yasunaga; Sagara, Takefumi; Noguchi, Tamao; Arakawa, Osamu

    2007-02-01

    The paralytic shellfish poison (PSP)-producing dinoflagellate Gymnodinium catenatum (Gc) was fed to the short-necked clam Tapes japonica, and the accumulation, transformation and elimination profiles of PSP were investigated by means of high-performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization (HPLC-FLD). The short-necked clams ingested most of the Gc cells (4 x 10(6) cells) supplied as a bolus at the beginning of the experiment, and accumulated a maximal amount of toxin (181 nmol/10 clams) after 12 hr. The rate of toxin accumulation at that time was 16%, which rapidly decreased thereafter. During the rearing period, a variation in toxin composition, derived presumably from the transformation of toxin analogues in the clams, was observed, including a reversal of the ratio of C2 to C1, and the appearance of carbamate (gonyautoxin (GTX) 2, 3) and decarbamoyl (dc) derivatives (decarbamoylsaxitoxin (dcSTX) and dcGTX2, 3), which were undetectable in Gc cells. The total amount of toxin contained in clams and residue (remaining Gc cells and/or excrement in the rearing tank) gradually declined, and only about 1% of the supplied toxin was detected at the end of the experiment.

  18. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate if some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile. The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory prof...

  19. Neuromorphic sensory systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Delbruck, Tobi

    2010-06-01

    Biology provides examples of efficient machines which greatly outperform conventional technology. Designers in neuromorphic engineering aim to construct electronic systems with the same efficient style of computation. This task requires a melding of novel engineering principles with knowledge gleaned from neuroscience. We discuss recent progress in realizing neuromorphic sensory systems which mimic the biological retina and cochlea, and subsequent sensor processing. The main trends are the increasing number of sensors and sensory systems that communicate through asynchronous digital signals analogous to neural spikes; the improved performance and usability of these sensors; and novel sensory processing methods which capitalize on the timing of spikes from these sensors. Experiments using these sensors can impact how we think the brain processes sensory information. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sensory evaluation techniques

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Meilgaard, Morten; Civille, Gail Vance; Carr, B. Thomas

    1991-01-01

    ..., #2 as a textbook for courses at the academic level, it aims to provide just enough theoretical background to enable the student to understand which sensory methods are best suited to particular...

  1. Clinical neurophysiology and quantitative sensory testing in the investigation of orofacial pain and sensory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Satu K

    2004-01-01

    Chronic orofacial pain represents a diagnostic and treatment challenge for the clinician. Some conditions, such as atypical facial pain, still lack proper diagnostic criteria, and their etiology is not known. The recent development of neurophysiological methods and quantitative sensory testing for the examination of the trigeminal somatosensory system offers several tools for diagnostic and etiological investigation of orofacial pain. This review presents some of these techniques and the results of their application in studies on orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Clinical neurophysiological investigation has greater diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity than clinical examination in the detection of the neurogenic abnormalities of either peripheral or central origin that may underlie symptoms of orofacial pain and sensory dysfunction. Neurophysiological testing may also reveal trigeminal pathology when magnetic resonance imaging has failed to detect it, so these methods should be considered complementary to each other in the investigation of orofacial pain patients. The blink reflex, corneal reflex, jaw jerk, sensory neurography of the inferior alveolar nerve, and the recording of trigeminal somatosensory-evoked potentials with near-nerve stimulation have all proved to be sensitive and reliable in the detection of dysfunction of the myelinated sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve or its central connections within the brainstem. With appropriately small thermodes, thermal quantitative sensory testing is useful for the detection of trigeminal small-fiber dysfunction (Adelta and C). In neuropathic conditions, it is most sensitive to lesions causing axonal injury. By combining different techniques for investigation of the trigeminal system, an accurate topographical diagnosis and profile of sensory fiber pathology can be determined. Neurophysiological and quantitative sensory tests have already highlighted some similarities among various orofacial pain conditions

  2. Accurate metacognition for visual sensory memory representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Sligte, Ilja G; Barrett, Adam B; Seth, Anil K; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Lamme, Victor A F

    2014-04-01

    The capacity to attend to multiple objects in the visual field is limited. However, introspectively, people feel that they see the whole visual world at once. Some scholars suggest that this introspective feeling is based on short-lived sensory memory representations, whereas others argue that the feeling of seeing more than can be attended to is illusory. Here, we investigated this phenomenon by combining objective memory performance with subjective confidence ratings during a change-detection task. This allowed us to compute a measure of metacognition--the degree of knowledge that subjects have about the correctness of their decisions--for different stages of memory. We show that subjects store more objects in sensory memory than they can attend to but, at the same time, have similar metacognition for sensory memory and working memory representations. This suggests that these subjective impressions are not an illusion but accurate reflections of the richness of visual perception.

  3. The Sensory Nature of Episodic Memory: Sensory Priming Effects Due to Memory Trace Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunel, Lionel; Labeye, Elodie; Lesourd, Mathieu; Versace, Remy

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide evidence that memory and perceptual processing are underpinned by the same mechanisms. Specifically, the authors conducted 3 experiments that emphasized the sensory aspect of memory traces. They examined their predictions with a short-term priming paradigm based on 2 distinct phases: a learning phase consisting…

  4. Sensory and aromatic characteristics of tongue sole by-products hydrolysates (Cynoglossus senegalensis)

    OpenAIRE

    Sylla, K. S. B.; Berge, Jean-pascal; Prost, Carole; Musabyemariya, B.; Seydi, Mg

    2009-01-01

    Tongue sole by-products coming from fish-filleting plant were hydrolyzed by Protamex® protease. To identify the future application of hydrolysates, a sensory analysis was carried out.The sensory profile was performed with a jury of 14 specialized judges.11 profiles were found by this panel of tasting. In addition, the aromatic characterization revealed that 57 molecules are responsible for these odours described in sensory analysis.The description of these aromatic compounds opens potentia...

  5. The effects of Snoezelen (multi-sensory behavior therapy) and psychiatric care on agitation, apathy, and activities of daily living in dementia patients on a short term geriatric psychiatric inpatient unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staal, Jason A; Sacks, Amanda; Matheis, Robert; Collier, Lesley; Calia, Tina; Hanif, Henry; Kofman, Eugene S

    2007-01-01

    A randomized, controlled, single-blinded, between group study of 24 participants with moderate to severe dementia was conducted on a geriatric psychiatric unit. All participants received pharmacological therapy, occupational therapy, structured hospital environment, and were randomized to receive multi sensory behavior therapy (MSBT) or a structured activity session. Greater independence in activities of daily living (ADLs) was observed for the group treated with MSBT and standard psychiatric inpatient care on the Katz Index of Activities of Daily Living (KI-ADL; P = 0.05) than standard psychiatric inpatient care alone. The combination treatment of MSBT and standard psychiatric care also reduced agitation and apathy greater than standard psychiatric inpatient care alone as measured with the Pittsburgh Agitation Scale and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms in Alzheimer's Disease (P = 0.05). Multiple regression analysis predicted that within the multi-sensory group, activities of daily living (KI-ADL) increased as apathy and agitation reduced (R2 = 0.42; p = 0.03). These data suggest that utilizing MSBT with standard psychiatric inpatient care may reduce apathy and agitation and additionally improve activities of daily living in hospitalized people with moderate to severe dementia more than standard care alone.

  6. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey

    2007-01-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  7. Sensorial evaluation of irradiated mangoes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisler, Paula Olhe; Cruz, Juliana Nunes da; Sabato, Susy Frey [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: paulabroisler@hotmail.com; juliananc@ig.com.br; sfsabato@ipen.br

    2007-07-01

    Mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a tropical fruit of great economical relevance in the world, mainly for tropical countries like Brazil. It consists in the second tropical fruit more important grown in the world. On the other hand it is a very perishable fruit and its delivery to distant points is restricted due to short shelf life at environmental temperature. Food irradiation process is applied to fruits for their preservation, once it promotes disinfestation and even maturation retard, among other mechanisms. The Brazilian legislation permits the food irradiation and does not restrict the doses to be delivered. In order to verify eventual changes, sensorial evaluation is very important to study how irradiation affects the quality of the fruit and its acceptability. Mangoes were irradiated in a Cobalto-60 source, from the Radiation Technology Center, CTR, of IPEN/CNEN-SP at doses 0,5 kGy e 0,75 kGy. The sensorial evaluation was measured through Acceptance Test where irradiated samples were offered together with control sample to the tasters who answered their perception through hedonic scale. The parameters Color, Odor, Flavor and Texture were analyzed. Statistical analysis showed that only Odor parameter was different from control (sample irradiated at 0.5 kGy). Few tasters indicated that irradiated mangoes had fewer odors in relation to non-irradiated samples. (author)

  8. Characterization of Sensory Differences in Mixing and Premium Rums Through the Use of Descriptive Sensory Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ickes, Chelsea M; Cadwallader, Keith R

    2017-11-01

    This study identified and quantitated perceived sensory differences between 7 premium rums and 2 mixing rums using a hybrid of the Quantitative Descriptive Analysis and Spectrum methods. In addition, the results of this study validated the previously developed rum flavor wheel created from web-based materials. Results showed that the use of the rum flavor wheel aided in sensory term generation, as 17 additional terms were generated after the wheel was provided to panelists. Thirty-eight sensory terms encompassing aroma, aroma-by-mouth, mouthfeel, taste and aftertaste modalities, were generated and evaluated by the panel. Of the finalized terms, only 5 did not exist previously on the rum flavor wheel. Twenty attributes were found to be significantly different among rums. The majority of rums showed similar aroma profiles with the exception of 2 rums, which were characterized by higher perceived intensities of brown sugar, caramel, vanilla, and chocolate aroma, caramel, maple, and vanilla aroma-by-mouth and caramel aftertaste. These results demonstrate the previously developed rum flavor wheel can be used to adequately describe the flavor profile of rum. Additionally, results of this study document the sensory differences among premium rums and may be used to correlate with analytical data to better understand how changes in chemical composition of the product affect sensory perception. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Insulin requirement profiles of short-term intensive insulin therapy in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and its association with long-term glycemic remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liehua; Ke, Weijian; Wan, Xuesi; Zhang, Pengyuan; Cao, Xiaopei; Deng, Wanping; Li, Yanbing

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the insulin requirement profiles during short-term intensive continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes and its relationship with long-term glycemic remission. CSII was applied in 104 patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. Daily insulin doses were titrated and recorded to achieve and maintain euglycemia for 2 weeks. Measurements of blood glucose, lipid profiles as well as intravenous glucose tolerance tests were performed before and after the therapy. Afterwards, patients were followed up for 1 year. Total daily insulin dose (TDD) was 56.6±16.1IU at the first day when euglycemia was achieved (TDD-1). Thereafter, TDD progressively decreased at a rate of 1.4±1.0IU/day to 36.2±16.5IU at the end of the therapy. TDD-1 could be estimated with body weight, FPG, triglyceride and waist circumference in a multiple linear regression model. Decrement of TDD after euglycemia was achieved (ΔTDD) was associated with reduction of HOMA-IR (r=0.27, P=0.008) but not with improvement in β cell function. Patients in the lower tertile of ΔTDD had a significantly higher risk of hyperglycemia relapse than those in the upper tertile within 1 year (HR 3.4, 95%CI [1.4, 8.4], P=0.008). There is a steady decline of TDD after euglycemia is achieved in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes treated with CSII, and ΔTDD is associated with a better long-term glycemic outcome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The sensory wheel of virgin olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojet, Jos

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available During a 3-year FLAIR study extra virgin olive oils, varying in species, degree of ripeness and extraction method, were evaluated by 6 different institutes according to QDA or GDI-methods in order to identify parameters related to the quality of extra virgin olive oil. The current COI-method yields a poor between-panel reproducibility. This could well be caused by a difference in the perception of positive quality aspects. Whereas the QDA-method is especially suitable for determining sensory profiles according to the perception of the consumer, the COI-method should be tailored to detect possible defects only.
    In order to cluster all attributes to one condensed set of sensory attributes for describing virgin olive oil, the COI and QDA data of ail panels were pooled and analyzed separately for appearance, texture and flavour. This approach resulted in a set of 3 appearance, 3 texture and 12 flavour descriptors which can be conveniently represented graphically in the form of a "sensory wheel".
    On the basis of the findings it is recommended to base the "extra virgin" qualification for olive oils solely on the absence of defects. The between-panel reproducibility of such a simplified COI-test can be assessed by means of ring tests and improved by training with reference products. When an oil passes this screening it can be profiled subsequently using the attributes of the sensory wheel. Such a profile can be linked to preferential profiles derived from consumer studies enabling the production of most preferred olive oils.

  11. A 100-Year Review: Sensory analysis of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiano, A N; Harwood, W S; Drake, M A

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of the sensory characteristics of food products has been, and will continue to be, the ultimate method for evaluating product quality. Sensory quality is a parameter that can be evaluated only by humans and consists of a series of tests or tools that can be applied objectively or subjectively within the constructs of carefully selected testing procedures and parameters. Depending on the chosen test, evaluators are able to probe areas of interest that are intrinsic product attributes (e.g., flavor profiles and off-flavors) as well as extrinsic measures (e.g., market penetration and consumer perception). This review outlines the literature pertaining to relevant testing procedures and studies of the history of sensory analysis of fluid milk. In addition, evaluation methods outside of traditional sensory techniques and future outlooks on the subject of sensory analysis of fluid milk are explored and presented. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. PopAffiliator: online calculator for individual affiliation to a major population group based on 17 autosomal short tandem repeat genotype profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Luísa; Alshamali, Farida; Andreassen, Rune; Ballard, Ruth; Chantratita, Wasun; Cho, Nam Soo; Coudray, Clotilde; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Espinoza, Marta; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Hadi, Sibte; Immel, Uta-Dorothee; Marian, Catalin; Gonzalez-Martin, Antonio; Mertens, Gerhard; Parson, Walther; Perone, Carlos; Prieto, Lourdes; Takeshita, Haruo; Rangel Villalobos, Héctor; Zeng, Zhaoshu; Zhivotovsky, Lev; Camacho, Rui; Fonseca, Nuno A

    2011-09-01

    Because of their sensitivity and high level of discrimination, short tandem repeat (STR) maker systems are currently the method of choice in routine forensic casework and data banking, usually in multiplexes up to 15-17 loci. Constraints related to sample amount and quality, frequently encountered in forensic casework, will not allow to change this picture in the near future, notwithstanding the technological developments. In this study, we present a free online calculator named PopAffiliator ( http://cracs.fc.up.pt/popaffiliator ) for individual population affiliation in the three main population groups, Eurasian, East Asian and sub-Saharan African, based on genotype profiles for the common set of STRs used in forensics. This calculator performs affiliation based on a model constructed using machine learning techniques. The model was constructed using a data set of approximately fifteen thousand individuals collected for this work. The accuracy of individual population affiliation is approximately 86%, showing that the common set of STRs routinely used in forensics provide a considerable amount of information for population assignment, in addition to being excellent for individual identification.

  13. Short-term effects of milking frequency on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count and milk protein profile in dairy goats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, Alexandr; Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; Morales-delaNuez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without impai...... was returned to X2 and X1. Finally, quantitative analysis showed an increase in intensities of milk protein bands from X1 to X2, but the intensities of casein bands (αS1-CN, αS2-CN, β-CN, κ-CN) and major whey proteins (α-La, β-Lg) decreased from X2 to X3.......Goats in Canary Islands are milked once a day by tradition, but in most countries with high technology on farms, goats are milked twice a day, which is known to improve milk yield. Therefore it is important to know whether the increase of milking frequency can improve the production without...... impairing milk quality. The objective of this study was to investigate the short term effects of three milking frequencies on milk yield, milk composition, somatic cell count (SCC) and milk protein profile in dairy goats traditionally milked once a day. Twelve Majorera goats in early lactation (48±4 d...

  14. Association between level of personality organization as assessed with theory-driven profiles of the Dutch Short Form of the MMPI and outcome of inpatient treatment for personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholte, W.R.; Eurelings-Bontekoe, E.H.M.; Tiemens, B.G.; Verheul, R.; Meerman, A.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The association between level of personality organization as assessed by theory-driven profile interpretation of the MMPI (Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) Dutch Short Form and treatment outcome was investigated in a naturalistic follow-up study among 121 psychotherapy inpatients who had been treated for

  15. Differential treatment response of subtypes of patients with borderline personality organization, as assessed with theory-driven profiles of the Dutch short form of the MMPI: a naturalistic follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eurelings-Bontekoe, E.H.M.; Peen, J.; Noteboom, A.; Alkema, M.; Dekker, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the validity of different subtypes of borderline personality organization (BPO) as assessed by theory-driven profiles of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Disorder (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) Dutch Short Form (DSFM; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Onnink, Williams, & Snellen, 2008) in

  16. Fingerprint enhancement revisited and the effects of blood enhancement chemicals on subsequent profiler Plus fluorescent short tandem repeat DNA analysis of fresh and aged bloody fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, C J; Germain, O; Fourney, R M

    2000-03-01

    This study was aimed at determining the effect of seven blood enhancement reagents on the subsequent Profiler Plus fluorescent STR DNA analysis of fresh or aged bloody fingerprints deposited on various porous and nonporous surfaces. Amido Black, Crowle's Double Stain. 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO), Hungarian Red, leucomalachite green, luminol and ninhydrin were tested on linoleum, glass, metal, wood (pine, painted white), clothing (85% polyester/15% cotton, 65% polyester/35% cotton, and blue denim) and paper (Scott 2-ply and Xerox-grade). Preliminary experiments were designed to determine the optimal blood dilutions to use to ensure a DNA typing result following chemical enhancement. A 1:200 blood dilution deposited on linoleum and enhanced with Crowle's Double Stain generated enough DNA for one to two rounds of Profiler Plus PCR amplification. A comparative study of the DNA yields before and after treatment indicated that the quantity of DNA recovered from bloody fingerprints following enhancement was reduced by a factor of 2 to 12. Such a reduction in the DNA yields could potentially compromise DNA typing analysis in the case of small stains. The blood enhancement chemicals selected were also evaluated for their capability to reveal bloodmarks on the various porous and nonporous surfaces chosen in this study. Luminol. Amido Black and Crowle's Double Stain showed the highest sensitivity of all seven chemicals tested and revealed highly diluted (1:200) bloody fingerprints. Both luminol and Amido Black produced excellent results on both porous and nonporous surfaces, but Crowle's Double Stain failed to produce any results on porous substrates. Hungarian Red, DFO, leucomalachite green and ninhydrin showed lower sensitivities. Enhancement of bloodmarks using any of the chemicals selected, and short-term exposure to these same chemicals (i.e., less than 54 days), had no adverse effects on the PCR amplification of the nine STR systems surveyed (D3S 1358, HumvWA, Hum

  17. Impact of Fruit Piece Structure in Yogurts on the Dynamics of Aroma Release and Sensory Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Souchon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to gain insight into the effect of food formulation on aroma release and perception, both of which playing an important role in food appreciation. The quality and quantity of retronasal aroma released during food consumption affect the exposure time of olfactory receptors to aroma stimuli, which can influence nutritional and hedonic characteristics, as well as consumption behaviors. In yogurts, fruit preparation formulation can be a key factor to modulate aroma stimulation. In this context, the impact of size and hardness of fruit pieces in fat-free pear yogurts was studied. Proton Transfer Reaction-Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS was used to allow sensitive and on-line monitoring of volatile odorous compound release in the breath during consumption. In parallel, a trained panel used sensory profile and Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS methods to characterize yogurt sensory properties and their dynamic changes during consumption. Results showed that the size of pear pieces had few effects on aroma release and perception of yogurts, whereas fruit hardness significantly influenced them. Despite the fact that yogurts presented short and similar residence times in the mouth, this study showed that fruit preparation could be an interesting formulation factor to enhance exposure time to stimuli and thus modify food consumption behaviors. These results could be taken into account to formulate new products that integrate both nutritional and sensory criteria.

  18. Studying Sensory Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerly, Spafford C.

    2001-01-01

    Explains the vestibular organ's role in balancing the body and stabilizing the visual world using the example of a hunter. Describes the relationship between sensory perception and learning. Recommends using optical illusions to illustrate the distinctions between external realities and internal perceptions. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  19. Transcendence and Sensoriness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Protestant theology and culture are known for a reserved, at times skeptical, attitude to the use of art and aesthetic forms of expression in a religious context. In Transcendence and Sensoriness, this attitude is analysed and discussed both theoretically and through case studies considered...

  20. Sensory matched filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warrant, Eric J

    2016-10-24

    As animals move through their environments they are subjected to an endless barrage of sensory signals. Of these, some will be of utmost importance, such as the tell-tale aroma of a potential mate, the distinctive appearance of a vital food source or the unmistakable sound of an approaching predator. Others will be less important. Indeed some will not be important at all. There are, for instance, wide realms of the sensory world that remain entirely undetected, simply because an animal lacks the physiological capacity to detect and analyse the signals that characterise this realm. Take ourselves for example: we are completely insensitive to the Earth's magnetic field, a sensory cue of vital importance as a compass for steering the long distance migration of animals as varied as birds, lobsters and sea turtles. We are also totally oblivious to the rich palette of ultraviolet colours that exist all around us, colours seen by insects, crustaceans, birds, fish and lizards (in fact perhaps by most animals). Nor can we hear the ultrasonic sonar pulses emitted by bats in hot pursuit of flying insect prey. The simple reason for these apparent deficiencies is that we either lack the sensory capacity entirely (as in the case of magnetoreception) or that our existing senses are incapable of detecting specific ranges of the stimulus (such as the ultraviolet wavelength range of light). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensory influences on food intake control: moving beyond palatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrickerd, K; Forde, C G

    2016-01-01

    The sensory experience of eating is an important determinant of food intake control, often attributed to the positive hedonic response associated with certain sensory cues. However, palatability is just one aspect of the sensory experience. Sensory cues based on a food's sight, smell, taste and texture are operational before, during and after an eating event. The focus of this review is to look beyond palatability and highlight recent advances in our understanding of how certain sensory characteristics can be used to promote better energy intake control. We consider the role of visual and odour cues in identifying food in the near environment, guiding food choice and memory for eating, and highlight the ways in which tastes and textures influence meal size and the development of satiety after consumption. Considering sensory characteristics as a functional feature of the foods and beverages we consume provides the opportunity for research to identify how sensory enhancements might be combined with energy reduction in otherwise palatable foods to optimize short-term energy intake regulation in the current food environment. Moving forward, the challenge for sensory nutritional science will be to assess the longer-term impact of these principles on weight management. © 2015 World Obesity.

  2. Sensory ERPs predict differences in working memory span and fluid intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumback, Carrie R; Low, Kathy A; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2004-02-09

    The way our brain reacts to sensory stimulation may provide important clues about higher-level cognitive function and its operation. Here we show that short-latency (memory span, as well as between subjects scoring high and low on a fluid intelligence test. Our findings also suggest that this link between sensory responses and complex cognitive tasks is modality specific (visual sensory measures correlate with visuo-spatial tasks whereas auditory sensory measures correlate with verbal tasks). We interpret these findings as indicating that people's effectiveness in controlling attention and gating sensory information is a critical determinant of individual differences in complex cognitive abilities.

  3. Short and long-term impact of lipectomy on expression profile of hepatic anabolic genes in rats: a high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bey-Leei Ling

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To understand the molecular basis of the short and long-term effects of an immediate shortage of energy storage caused by lipectomy on expression profile of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese rats. METHODS: The hepatic mRNA levels of enzymes, regulator and transcription factors involved in glucose and lipid metabolism were analyzed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR ten days and eight weeks after lipectomy in obese rats. Body and liver weights and serum biochemical parameters, adiponectin, leptin and insulin were determined. RESULTS: No significant difference was observed on the food intake between the lipectomized and sham-operated groups during the experimental period. Ten days after the operation, the lipectomized animals showed significant higher triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin levels, a lower adiponectin concentration than the sham-operated rats, along with significant higher hepatic mRNA levels of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis and gluconeogenesis. The results of immunohistochemical (IHC analysis also confirmed increased levels of lipogenic enzymes in the liver of lipectomized versus sham-operated animals. The lipectomized group had a significantly lower adiponectin/leptin ratio that was positively correlated to the level of LDL (r = 0.823, P<0.05 and negatively to glucose and insulin (r = -0.821 and -0.892 respectively, P<0.05. Eight weeks after the operation, the lipectomized animals revealed significant higher body and liver weights, weight gain, liver to body weight ratio, hepatic triacylglycerol and serum insulin level. CONCLUSIONS: In response to lipectomy a short term enhancement of the expression of hepatic anabolic genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism was triggered that might eventually lead to the final extra weight gain. These

  4. A sensory analysis of butter cookies: An application of generalized procrustes analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. A sensory analysis is one of the first steps in product development in the food industry. A thorough analysis of the results from such an analysis may give important input to the development process. 2. A sensory analysis on butter cookies is conducted in order to evaluate...... if some butter may be replaced by vegetable fat without a significant change in the sensory profile. The conclusion is that the replacement is possible without a considerable change in the sensory profile. 3. Generalized Procrustes Analysis is used to analyze the results. It is a relatively new technique...

  5. Sensory properties of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) processed from raw material from commercial landings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Durita; Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Jette

    2005-01-01

    Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile of marina......Sensory properties of marinated herring processed from raw material from Danish commercial catches were described and related to fishing season and biological, chemical and functional properties. Herring was caught on five cruises and stored on board in tanks or ice. The sensory profile...

  6. Milk minerals modify the effect of fat intake on serum lipid profile: results from an animal and a human short-term study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Janne K; Jensen, Søren K; Astrup, Arne

    2014-04-28

    Despite a high content of saturated fat, evidence from observational studies indicates that the consumption of dairy products may have a neutral effect or may be inversely associated with the risk of CVD. We aimed to examine whether milk minerals modify the effect of saturated fat on serum lipid profile. We present data from two studies. Study I had a randomised, blinded, parallel design (n 24 pigs) with a 10 d adaptation period during which a high-fat diet was fed to the pigs and a 14 d intervention period during which the same diet either enriched with milk minerals (MM group) or placebo (control group) was fed to the pigs. Study II had a randomised cross-over design (n 9 men) where the subjects were fed either a high-fat diet enriched with milk minerals (MM period) or a regular diet (control period). In both the studies, blood variables were measured before and after the intervention and faecal and urine samples were collected at the end of the dietary periods. The increase in plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations but not in HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly lowered by milk minerals in both the studies. In the animal study, baseline adjusted total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations in the MM group were 11% (P = 0.004) and 13% (P = 0.03) lower compared with those in the control group after the intervention. Similarly in the human study, baseline adjusted total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were 6% (P = 0.002) and 9% (P = 0.03) lower after the MM period compared with those in the control period. HDL-cholesterol concentration was not lowered by milk minerals. These short-term studies indicate that the addition of milk minerals to a high-fat diet to some extent attenuates the increase in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations, without affecting HDL-cholesterol concentration.

  7. Short and long-term impact of lipectomy on expression profile of hepatic anabolic genes in rats: a high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Bey-Leei; Chiu, Chun-Tang; Lu, Hsiu-Chin; Lin, Jin-Jin; Kuo, Chiung-Yin; Chou, Fen-Pi

    2014-01-01

    To understand the molecular basis of the short and long-term effects of an immediate shortage of energy storage caused by lipectomy on expression profile of genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in high fat and high cholesterol diet-induced obese rats. The hepatic mRNA levels of enzymes, regulator and transcription factors involved in glucose and lipid metabolism were analyzed by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) ten days and eight weeks after lipectomy in obese rats. Body and liver weights and serum biochemical parameters, adiponectin, leptin and insulin were determined. No significant difference was observed on the food intake between the lipectomized and sham-operated groups during the experimental period. Ten days after the operation, the lipectomized animals showed significant higher triacylglycerol, glucose and insulin levels, a lower adiponectin concentration than the sham-operated rats, along with significant higher hepatic mRNA levels of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) and the enzymes involved in lipogenesis, sterol biosynthesis and gluconeogenesis. The results of immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis also confirmed increased levels of lipogenic enzymes in the liver of lipectomized versus sham-operated animals. The lipectomized group had a significantly lower adiponectin/leptin ratio that was positively correlated to the level of LDL (r = 0.823, Pshort term enhancement of the expression of hepatic anabolic genes involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism was triggered that might eventually lead to the final extra weight gain. These metabolic changes could be the results of reduced circulating adiponectin that further influences the functions of insulin and hepatic HNF4α.

  8. Sensory differentiation of commercially produced spaghetti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pestorić Mladenka V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work was focused on the performance of trained and untrained panel in evaluating the texture of nine commercially produced wheat spaghetti. Several sensory methods were applied in order to investigate the performance of different panel groups. In order to avoid the loss of information obtained by non-parametric methods, data were scaled according to contingency tables. This analysis showed that significant differences existed between the two panels for the given products. On the basis of these results, it can be concluded that the used panels cannot be a good alternative to each other in providing sensory texture profiling of commercial spaghetti, except in the case when the properties of spaghetti were evaluated using the control sample.

  9. Assessment of Sensory Processing Characteristics in Children between 3 and 11 Years Old: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Jorquera-Cabrera

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of sensory perception, discrimination, integration, modulation, praxis, and other motor skills, such as posture, balance, and bilateral motor coordination, is necessary to identify the sensory and motor factors influencing the development of personal autonomy. The aim of this work is to study the assessment tools currently available for identifying different patterns of sensory processing. There are 15 tests available that have psychometric properties, primarily for the US population. Nine of them apply to children in preschool and up to grade 12. The assessment of sensory processing is a process that includes the use of standardized tests, administration of caregiver questionnaires, and clinical observations. The review of different studies using PRISMA criteria or Osteba Critical Appraisal Cards reveals that the most commonly used tools are the Sensory Integration and Praxis Test, the Sensory Processing Measure, and the Sensory Profile.

  10. Parasympathetic functions in children with sensory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseann C Schaaf

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The overall goal of this study was to determine if Parasympathetic Nervous System Activity (PsNS is a significant biomarker of sensory processing difficulties in children. Several studies have demonstrated that PsNS activity is an important regulator of reactivity in children, and thus, it is of interest to study whether PsNS functioning affects sensory reactivity in children who have a type of condition associated with Sensory Processing Disorders (SPD termed Sensory Modulation Dysfunction (SMD. If so, this will have important implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying sensory processing problems of children. The primary aims of this project were to: (1 evaluate PsNS activity in children with SMD compared to typically developing (TYP children, and (2 determine if PsNS activity is a significant predictor of sensory behaviors and adaptive functions among children with SMD. As a secondary aim we examined whether subgroups of children with specific physiological and behavioral sensory reactivity profiles can be identified. Results indicate that the children with severe SMD demonstrated a trend for low baseline parasympathetic activity, compared to TYP children, suggesting this may be a biomarker for severe SMD. In addition, children with SMD demonstrated significantly poorer adaptive behavior. These results provide preliminary evidence that children who demonstrate SMD may have physiological responses that are different from children without SMD, and that these physiological and behavioral manifestations of SMD may affect a child’s ability to engage in everyday social, communication, and daily living skills.

  11. Sensory evaluation of commercial fat spreads based on oilseeds and walnut

    OpenAIRE

    Dimić, Etelka B.; Vujasinović, Vesna B.; Radočaj, Olga F.; Borić, Bojan D.

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this study was on the sensory evaluation of commercial oilseeds spreads, as the most significant characteristic of this type of product from the consumers’ point of view. Sensory analysis was conducted by five experts using a quantitative descriptive and sensory profile test, applying a scoring method according to the standard procedure. Five different spreads were evaluated: sunflower, pumpkin, sesame, peanut, and walnut. Oil content and ...

  12. Inulin-enriched dairy desserts: physicochemical and sensory aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Tomás, L; Bayarri, S; Costell, E

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this work was to study how adding inulin of different average chain lengths (long-chain, native, and short-chain inulin) at a concentration of 7.5% (wt/wt) would affect the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of starch-based dairy desserts formulated with either skim or whole milk. The results have shown that the effect of adding 7.5% inulin of different average chain length can give rise to products with different rheological behavior and different sensory characteristics. The skim milk sample with long-chain inulin and the whole milk sample without inulin showed similar flow behavior. Both samples were perceived to have the same creaminess and consistency intensity, but addition of long-chain inulin increased roughness intensity and, consequently, the sensory quality could be negatively affected. The information obtained may be of great interest in designing new products with nutritional and sensory characteristics that meet consumer demands.

  13. Sensory Science Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otrel-Cass, Kathrin

    2018-01-01

    little note of the body-mind interactions we have with the material world. Utilizing examples from primary schools, it is argued that a sensory pedagogy in science requires a deliberate sensitization and validation of the senses’ presence and that a sensor pedagogy approach may reveal the unique ways...... in how we all experience the world. Troubling science education pedagogy is therefore also a reconceptualization of who we are and how we make sense of the world and the acceptance that the body-mind is present, imbalanced and complex....

  14. The changing sensory room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    In 2017 the kindergarten The Milky Way in the city Vejle in Denmark made a sensory room that has the special ability change whenever wanted by the children and social educators. Kjetil Sandvik (to the right) from Copenhagen University and Klaus Thestrup from Aarhus University reflects upon what...... they saw, took part in and talked with the social educators about. Jacob Knudsen from VIFIN filmed the two gentlemen and organised the project. it is a room composed around common experiments, many self-made objects, open narrative structures. and a combination of digital and analogue elements....

  15. Sensory properties of marinated herring ( Clupea harengus ) - influence of fishing ground and season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Durita; Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2004-01-01

    fillets. Fishing ground did not influence the odor, flavor or texture, but there was an apparent effect of season on the sensory profile. The sensory properties were influenced by body weight, but not by age, sex and gonad maturity. The influence of varying lipid content, water content and liquid holding...

  16. Características de qualidade de cultivares de maçã: avaliação físico-química e sensorial de quinze cultivares Quality profile of 15 apple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilvan Wosiacki

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados aspectos de qualidade de interesse industrial de 15 cultivares de maçãs. A análise sensorial das frutas in natura discriminou as amostras de Melrose, Fred Housh, M 51/90 e Malus 71/90 como capazes de promover o processo de compra e de instalação do hábito de consumo. A análise sensorial dos sucos de frutas discrimina apenas a cultivar comercial Belgolden como interessante. Os sucos feitos com as amostras de maçãs apresentaram uma variação de 12 a 16ºBRIX e o valor médio de ácido málico foi de 0,362g/100mL. Os teores de compostos fenólicos apresentaram uma média de 316mg/L e um desvio padrão de 70mg/L (C.V.= 22%. Os indicadores industriais são elevados demais para serem comparados com aqueles necessários, abaixo de 20/25; os valores médios encontrados neste conjunto de maçãs foram de 45 (índice BRIX/acidez e 40,2 (índice ART/acidez. As amostras codificadas foram categorizadas como amargas, com um grupo de doces-amargas (as comerciais Fred Housh, Marquesa, Sansa e Romu, e as experimentais M 51/90 e todas as Malus e outro de ácidas-amargas (as demais cultivares estudadas. As amostras mais interessantes para o processamento industrial de suco clarificado são a Belgolden, as Coop 25 e 26, a Melrose e a Malus 67/90. A Sansa desponta como portadora de maior teor de frutose e potencialmente como matéria-prima para a elaboração de bebidas com apelo funcional.The article shows some figures concerning industrial aplications of samples from apple cultivars. Sensorial evaluation of the apples in natura indicated Melrose, Fred Housh, M 51/90 and Malus 71/90 as able to satisfy the consumer. Sensorial evaluation of the apple juice shows only one interesting variety, Belgolden. The juices showed 12 to 16ºBRX and a mean value of malic acid of 0,362g/100mL. Total phenol compounds showed a mean of 316mg/l (C.V.= 22%. Ratios concerning total sugar or total soluble solids: malic acid were too high as

  17. SENSORY AND CONSUMER TESTING LABORATORY

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — These laboratories conduct a wide range of studies to characterize the sensory properties of and consumer responses to foods, beverages, and other consumer products....

  18. Variable sensory perception in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, Sarah M

    2018-03-01

    Autism is associated with sensory and cognitive abnormalities. Individuals with autism generally show normal or superior early sensory processing abilities compared to healthy controls, but deficits in complex sensory processing. In the current opinion paper, it will be argued that sensory abnormalities impact cognition by limiting the amount of signal that can be used to interpret and interact with environment. There is a growing body of literature showing that individuals with autism exhibit greater trial-to-trial variability in behavioural and cortical sensory responses. If multiple sensory signals that are highly variable are added together to process more complex sensory stimuli, then this might destabilise later perception and impair cognition. Methods to improve sensory processing have shown improvements in more general cognition. Studies that specifically investigate differences in sensory trial-to-trial variability in autism, and the potential changes in variability before and after treatment, could ascertain if trial-to-trial variability is a good mechanism to target for treatment in autism. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Profiling a multiplex short tandem repeat loci from human urine with use of low cost on-site technology for verification of sample authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nuno M M; Tao Dong; Berntzen, Lasse; Lonningdal, Torill

    2017-07-01

    This work focuses on the development of a sophisticated technique via STR typing to unequivocally verify the authenticity of urine samples before sent to laboratories. STR profiling was conducted with the CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01 Multiplex System coupled with a smartphone-based detection method. The promising capability of the method to identify distinct STR profiles from urine of different persons opens the possibility to conduct sample authenticity tests. On-site STR profiling could be realized with a self-contained autonomous device with an integrated PCR microchip shown hereby.

  20. Duration of Auditory Sensory Memory in Parents of Children with SLI: A Mismatch Negativity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Johanna G.; Hardiman, Mervyn J.; Line, Elizabeth; White, Katherine B.; Yasin, Ifat; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous behavioral study, we showed that parents of children with SLI had a subclinical deficit in phonological short-term memory. Here, we tested the hypothesis that they also have a deficit in nonverbal auditory sensory memory. We measured auditory sensory memory using a paradigm involving an electrophysiological component called the…

  1. Age effects on sensory-processing abilities and their impact on handwriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel-Yeger, Batya; Hus, Sari; Rosenblum, Sara

    2012-12-01

    Sensory-processing abilities are known to deteriorate in the elderly. As a result, daily activities such as handwriting may be impaired. Yet, knowledge about sensory-processing involvement in handwriting characteristics among older persons is limited. To examine how age influences sensory-processing abilities and the impact on handwriting as a daily performance. The study participants were 118 healthy, independently functioning adults divided into four age groups: 31-45, 46-60, 61-75 and 76+ years. All participants completed the Adolescent/ Adult Sensory Profile (AASP). Handwriting process was documented using the Computerized Handwriting Penmanship Evaluation Tool (ComPET). Age significantly affects sensory processing and handwriting pressure as well as temporal and spatial measures. Both handwriting time and spatial organization of the written product were predicted by sensory seeking. When examining age contribution to the prediction of handwriting by sensory processing, sensory seeking showed a tendency for predicting handwriting pressure (p = .06), while sensory sensitivity significantly predicted handwriting velocity. Age appears to influence sensory-processing abilities and affect daily performance tasks, such as handwriting, for which sensitivity and seeking for sensations are essential. Awareness of clinicians to sensory-processing deficits among older adults and examining their impact on broader daily activities are essential to improve daily performance and quality of life.

  2. Sensory adaptation for timing perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseboom, Warrick; Linares, Daniel; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-04-22

    Recent sensory experience modifies subjective timing perception. For example, when visual events repeatedly lead auditory events, such as when the sound and video tracks of a movie are out of sync, subsequent vision-leads-audio presentations are reported as more simultaneous. This phenomenon could provide insights into the fundamental problem of how timing is represented in the brain, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the effect of recent experience on timing perception is not just subjective; recent sensory experience also modifies relative timing discrimination. This result indicates that recent sensory history alters the encoding of relative timing in sensory areas, excluding explanations of the subjective phenomenon based only on decision-level changes. The pattern of changes in timing discrimination suggests the existence of two sensory components, similar to those previously reported for visual spatial attributes: a lateral shift in the nonlinear transducer that maps relative timing into perceptual relative timing and an increase in transducer slope around the exposed timing. The existence of these components would suggest that previous explanations of how recent experience may change the sensory encoding of timing, such as changes in sensory latencies or simple implementations of neural population codes, cannot account for the effect of sensory adaptation on timing perception.

  3. Sensory characteristics of camphor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, B G

    1990-05-01

    The perceptual effects of camphor on hairy skin were measured in a psychophysical experiment. Subjects rated the intensity and quality of sensations produced when a solution of 20% camphor (in a vehicle of ethanol and deionized H2O) was applied topically to the volar forearm. Under conditions in which skin temperature was varied either from 33-43 degrees C or from 33-18 degrees C, it was found that camphor increased the perceived intensity of the cutaneous sensations produced during heating and cooling. Although camphor's effect appeared to be greater during warming, neither effect was large. Camphor also produced a significant increase in the frequency of reports of "burning." It is concluded that camphor is a relatively weak sensory irritant that may have a modest excitatory effect on thermosensitive (and perhaps nociceptive) cutaneous fibers.

  4. Sleep problems in children with autism spectrum disorder: examining the contributions of sensory over-responsivity and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurek, Micah O; Petroski, Gregory F

    2015-02-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are at high risk for sleep problems. Previous research suggests that sensory problems and anxiety may be related to the development and maintenance of sleep problems in children with ASD. However, the relationships among these co-occurring conditions have not been previously studied. The current study examined the interrelations of these symptoms in a large well-characterized sample of children and adolescents with ASD. The current study examined the relationships among sleep problems, sensory over-responsivity, and anxiety in 1347 children enrolled in the Autism Speaks Autism Treatment Network. The primary measures included the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire, the Child Behavior Checklist, and the Short Sensory Profile. In bivariate correlations and multivariate path analyses, anxiety was associated with all types of sleep problems (ie, bedtime resistance, sleep-onset delay, sleep duration, sleep anxiety, and night wakings; p children, while SOR was no longer significantly associated with bedtime resistance or sleep anxiety for younger children. Children with ASD who have anxiety and SOR may be particularly predisposed to sleep problems. These findings suggest that some children with ASD and sleep disturbance may have difficulties with hyperarousal. Future research using physiological measures of arousal and objective measures of sleep are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tic Modulation Using Sensory Tricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca W. Gilbert

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: A sensory trick, or geste antagoniste, is defined as a physical gesture (such as a touch on a particular body part that mitigates the production of an involuntary movement. This phenomenon is most commonly described as a feature of dystonia. Here we present a case of successful modulation of tics using sensory tricks.Case Report:: A case report and video are presented. The case and video demonstrate a 19-year-old male who successfully controlled his tics with various sensory tricks.Discussion: It is underappreciated by movement disorder physicians that sensory tricks can play a role in tics. Introducing this concept to patients could potentially help in tic control. In addition, understanding the pathophysiological underpinnings of sensory tricks could help in the understanding of the pathophysiology of tics.

  6. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Sensory-motor problems in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyatt, Caroline; Craig, Cathy

    2013-01-01

    Despite being largely characterized as a social and cognitive disorder, strong evidence indicates the presence of significant sensory-motor problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper outlines our progression from initial, broad assessment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to subsequent targeted kinematic assessment. In particular, pronounced ASD impairment seen in the broad categories of manual dexterity and ball skills was found to be routed in specific difficulties on isolated tasks, which were translated into focused experimental assessment. Kinematic results from both subsequent studies highlight impaired use of perception-action coupling to guide, adapt and tailor movement to task demands, resulting in inflexible and rigid motor profiles. In particular difficulties with the use of temporal adaption are shown, with “hyperdexterity” witnessed in ballistic movement profiles, often at the cost of spatial accuracy and task performance. By linearly progressing from the use of a standardized assessment tool to targeted kinematic assessment, clear and defined links are drawn between measureable difficulties and underlying sensory-motor assessment. Results are specifically viewed in-light of perception-action coupling and its role in early infant development suggesting that rather than being “secondary” level impairment, sensory-motor problems may be fundamental in the progression of ASD. This logical and systematic process thus allows a further understanding into the potential root of observable motor problems in ASD; a vital step if underlying motor problems are to be considered a fundamental aspect of autism and allow a route of non-invasive preliminary diagnosis. PMID:23882194

  8. Sensory-motor problems in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWhyatt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite being largely characterised as a social and cognitive disorder, strong evidence indicates the presence of significant sensory-motor problems in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD. This paper outlines our progression from initial, broad assessment using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2 to subsequent targeted kinematic assessment. In particular, pronounced ASD impairment seen in the broad categories of manual dexterity and ball skills was found to be routed in specific difficulties on isolated tasks, which were translated into focused experimental assessment. Kinematic results from both subsequent studies highlight impaired use of perception-action coupling to guide, adapt and tailor movement to task demands, resulting in inflexible and rigid motor profiles. In particular difficulties with the use of temporal adaption are shown, with hyperdexterity witnessed in ballistic movement profiles, often at the cost of spatial accuracy and task performance. By linearly progressing from the use of a standardised assessment tool to targeted kinematic assessment, clear and defined links are drawn between measureable difficulties and underlying sensory-motor assessment. Results are specifically viewed in-light of perception-action coupling and its role in early infant development suggesting that rather than being secondary level impairment, sensory-motor problems may be fundamental in the progression of ASD. This logical and systematic process thus allows a further understanding into the potential route of observable motor problems in ASD; a vital step if underlying motor problems are to be considered a fundamental aspect of autism and allow a route of non-invasive preliminary diagnosis.

  9. Identification and Characterization of Mouse Otic Sensory Lineage Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byron H. Hartman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate embryogenesis gives rise to all cell types of an organism through the development of many unique lineages derived from the three primordial germ layers. The otic sensory lineage arises from the otic vesicle, a structure formed through invagination of placodal non-neural ectoderm. This developmental lineage possesses unique differentiation potential, giving rise to otic sensory cell populations including hair cells, supporting cells, and ganglion neurons of the auditory and vestibular organs. Here we present a systematic approach to identify transcriptional features that distinguish the otic sensory lineage (from early otic progenitors to otic sensory populations from other major lineages of vertebrate development. We used a microarray approach to analyze otic sensory lineage populations including microdissected otic vesicles (embryonic day 10.5 as well as isolated neonatal cochlear hair cells and supporting cells at postnatal day 3. Non-otic tissue samples including periotic tissues and whole embryos with otic regions removed were used as reference populations to evaluate otic specificity. Otic populations shared transcriptome-wide correlations in expression profiles that distinguish members of this lineage from non-otic populations. We further analyzed the microarray data using comparative and dimension reduction methods to identify individual genes that are specifically expressed in the otic sensory lineage. This analysis identified and ranked top otic sensory lineage-specific transcripts including Fbxo2, Col9a2, and Oc90, and additional novel otic lineage markers. To validate these results we performed expression analysis on select genes using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Fbxo2 showed the most striking pattern of specificity to the otic sensory lineage, including robust expression in the early otic vesicle and sustained expression in prosensory progenitors and auditory and vestibular hair cells and supporting

  10. Modeling equilibrium bed profiles of short tidal embayments : On the effect of the vertical distribution of suspended sediment and the influence of the boundary conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Brake, M.C.; Schuttelaars, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    In many tidal embayments, bottom patterns, such as the channel-shoal systems of the Wadden Sea, are observed. To gain understanding of the mechanisms that result in these bottom patterns, an idealized model is developed and analyzed for short tidal embayments. In this model, the water motion is

  11. Longitudinal Study of Sensory Features in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Perez Repetto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Between 45 and 95% of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD present sensory features that affect their daily functioning. However, the data in the scientific literature are not conclusive regarding the evolution of sensory features in children with ASD. The main objective of this study was to analyze the sensory features of children within the age of 3-4 (T1 when they received their ASD diagnosis and two years later (T2 when they started school. Methods. We conducted a prospective cohort study to assess sensory features in 34 children with ASD over time. The data were collected using a standardized assessment tool, the Sensory Profile. Results. Our analyses show that sensory features in children with ASD are stable from the age of three to six years. The stability of sensory scores is independent of correction by covariates, such as cognitive level and autism severity scores. Conclusions. Children with ASD have sensory features that persist from the time of diagnosis at the age of 3 to 4 years to school age. This persistence of sensory features from an early age underscores the need to support these children and their parents. Sensory features should be detected early and managed to improve functional and psychosocial outcomes.

  12. Reduced Fat Food Emulsions: Physicochemical, Sensory, and Biological Aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Cheryl; Smith, Gordon; Degner, Brian; McClements, David Julian

    2016-01-01

    Fat plays multiple important roles in imparting desirable sensory attributes to emulsion-based food products, such as sauces, dressings, soups, beverages, and desserts. However, there is concern that over consumption of fats leads to increased incidences of chronic diseases, such as obesity, coronary heart disease, and diabetes. Consequently, there is a need to develop reduced fat products with desirable sensory profiles that match those of their full-fat counterparts. The successful design of high quality reduced-fat products requires an understanding of the many roles that fat plays in determining the sensory attributes of food emulsions, and of appropriate strategies to replace some or all of these attributes. This paper reviews our current understanding of the influence of fat on the physicochemical and physiological attributes of food emulsions, and highlights some of the main approaches that can be used to create high quality emulsion-based food products with reduced fat contents.

  13. Analyzing sensory data with R

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Descriptive Approaches When panelists rate products according to one single list of attributes Data, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Measuring the impact of the experimental design on the perception of the products? When products are rated according to one single list of attributesData, sensory issues, notations In practice For experienced users: Adding supplementary information to the product space When products are rated according to several lists

  14. Sensory Dissonance Using Memory Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2015-01-01

    Music may occur concurrently or in temporal sequences. Current machine-based methods for the estimation of qualities of the music are unable to take into account the influence of temporal context. A method for calculating dissonance from audio, called sensory dissonance is improved by the use of ...... of a memory model. This approach is validated here by the comparison of the sensory dissonance using memory model to data obtained using human subjects....

  15. Late sensory function after intraoperative capsaicin wound instillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, E K; Hansen, J B; Kehlet, H

    2010-01-01

    is partly re-established after skin injection of capsaicin. However, no study has evaluated the long-term effects of wound instillation of purified capsaicin on sensory functions. METHODS: Patients included in a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study of the analgesic effect of capsaicin after....... placebo group at the 1-week follow-up (Pfunction on the operated side between groups at the pre-operative, 1-week or 2 1/2 year post-operative follow-up (P>0.05). The sensory function......BACKGROUND: Intense capsaicin-induced C-fiber stimulation results in reversible lysis of the nerve soma, thereby making capsaicin wound instillation of potential interest for the treatment of post-operative pain. Clinical histological and short-term sensory studies suggest that the C-fiber function...

  16. Comprehensive profiling of mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide as short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluation of toxicokinetics in rats and daily internal exposure in humans using isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Zhejiang R & D Center for Food Technology and Equipment, Fuli Institute of Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Qiao; Cheng, Jun [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang (China); Zhang, Jingshun; Xu, Jiaojiao [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, Zhejiang (China); Ren, Yiping, E-mail: renyiping@263.net [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-09-24

    Mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide are important short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of acrylamide. Most of studies have focused on the measurement of two metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA). Thus, the comprehensive profile of acrylamide urinary metabolites cannot be fully understood. We developed an isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of all four mercapturic acid adducts of acrylamide and its primary metabolite glycidamide under the electroscopy ionization negative (ESI-) mode in the present study. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytes ranged 0.1–0.3 ng/mL and 0.4–1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery rates with low, intermediate and high spiking levels were calculated as 95.5%–105.4%, 98.2%–114.0% and 92.2%–108.9%, respectively. Acceptable within-laboratory reproducibility (RSD < 7.0%) substantially supported the use of current method for robust analysis. Rapid pretreatment procedures and short run time (8 min per sample) ensured good efficiency of metabolism profiling, indicating a wide application for investigating short-term internal exposure of dietary acrylamide. Our proposed UHPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the toxicokinetic study of acrylamide in rats. Meanwhile, results of human urine analysis indicated that the levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine-sulfoxide (AAMA-sul), which did not appear in the mercapturic acid metabolites in rodents, were more than the sum of GAMA and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (iso-GAMA). Thus, AAMA-sul may alternatively become a specific biomarker for investigating the acrylamide exposure in humans. Current proposed method provides a substantial methodology support for comprehensive

  17. Comprehensive profiling of mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide as short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluation of toxicokinetics in rats and daily internal exposure in humans using isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Qiao; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Jingshun; Xu, Jiaojiao; Ren, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide are important short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of acrylamide. Most of studies have focused on the measurement of two metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA). Thus, the comprehensive profile of acrylamide urinary metabolites cannot be fully understood. We developed an isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of all four mercapturic acid adducts of acrylamide and its primary metabolite glycidamide under the electroscopy ionization negative (ESI-) mode in the present study. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytes ranged 0.1–0.3 ng/mL and 0.4–1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery rates with low, intermediate and high spiking levels were calculated as 95.5%–105.4%, 98.2%–114.0% and 92.2%–108.9%, respectively. Acceptable within-laboratory reproducibility (RSD < 7.0%) substantially supported the use of current method for robust analysis. Rapid pretreatment procedures and short run time (8 min per sample) ensured good efficiency of metabolism profiling, indicating a wide application for investigating short-term internal exposure of dietary acrylamide. Our proposed UHPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the toxicokinetic study of acrylamide in rats. Meanwhile, results of human urine analysis indicated that the levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine-sulfoxide (AAMA-sul), which did not appear in the mercapturic acid metabolites in rodents, were more than the sum of GAMA and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (iso-GAMA). Thus, AAMA-sul may alternatively become a specific biomarker for investigating the acrylamide exposure in humans. Current proposed method provides a substantial methodology support for comprehensive

  18. The Significance of Memory in Sensory Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S

    2017-05-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. The significance of memory in sensory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Muckli, Lars; Petro, Lucy S.

    2017-01-01

    Early sensory cortex is typically investigated in response to sensory stimulation, masking the contribution of internal signals. Recently, van Kerkoerle and colleagues reported that attention and memory signals segregate from sensory signals within specific layers of primary visual cortex, providing insight into the role of internal signals in sensory processing.

  20. Sensory properties of Californian and imported extra virgin olive oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Claudia; Guinard, Jean-Xavier

    2011-04-01

    Production and consumption of extra-virgin olive has been increasing in the United States, particularly in California. The objective of this study was to compare the sensory characteristics of 22 extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from California, Italy, Spain, Chile, and Australia using a generic descriptive analysis. A total of 22 sensory attributes were identified and defined by the descriptive panel. With the exception of thick and citrus, all sensory attributes were significantly different among the oils. Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) showed that California oils differed from some imported EVOOs, mainly by their absence of defects. A second analysis, of only those attributes included in the International Olive Council (IOC) official scorecard, provided a less detailed description of the samples and did not allow for a full characterization of the oils. While the IOC attributes allowed for faster classification in terms of clean versus defective EVOOs, the more comprehensive descriptive analysis provided both more information and a more refined classification of the samples. Variety and region of origin were important factors in the classification of both Californian and imported EVOOs.   Measuring olive oil sensory quality using the IOC method-positive attributes of fruitiness, bitterness, and pungency, and defects including fusty, musty, winey, and rancid-allows for the certification of oils as extra virgin but it provides limited information on the sensory characteristics of the oils. A full descriptive profile, on the other hand, provides information that can be used by producers in the processing and marketing of their oils, and is a useful tool in the education of consumers about the wide range of (positive) sensory attributes in EVOO and the various sensory styles of EVOO.

  1. Monitoring the sensory quality of canned white asparagus through cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arana, Inés; Ibañez, Francisco C; Torre, Paloma

    2016-05-01

    White asparagus is one of the 30 vegetables most consumed in the world. This paper unifies the stages of their sensory quality control. The aims of this work were to describe the sensory properties of canned white asparagus and their quality control and to evaluate the applicability of agglomerative hierarchical clustering (AHC) for classifying and monitoring the sensory quality of manufacturers. Sixteen sensory descriptors and their evaluation technique were defined. The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was high flavor characteristic, little acidity and bitterness, medium firmness and very light fibrosity, among other characteristics. The dendrogram established groups of manufacturers that had similar scores in the same set of descriptors, and each cluster grouped the manufacturers that had a similar quality profile. The sensory profile of canned white asparagus was clearly defined through the intensity evaluation of 16 descriptors, and the sensory quality report provided to the manufacturers is in detail and of easy interpretation. AHC grouped the manufacturers according to the highest quality scores in certain descriptors and is a useful tool because it is very visual. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Localization of SSeCKS in unmyelinated primary sensory neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegel Sandra M

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SSeCKS (Src SupprEssed C Kinase Substrate is a proposed protein kinase C substrate/A kinase anchoring protein (AKAP that has recently been characterized in the rat peripheral nervous system. It has been shown that approximately 40% of small primary sensory neurons contain SSeCKS-immunoreactivity in a population largely separate from substance P (95.2%, calcitonin gene related peptide (95.3%, or fluoride resistant acid phosphatase (55.0% labeled cells. In the spinal cord, it was found that SSeCKS-immunoreactive axon collaterals terminate in the dorsal third of lamina II outer in a region similar to that of unmyelinated C-, or small diameter myelinated Aδ-, fibers. However, the precise characterization of the anatomical profile of the primary sensory neurons containing SSeCKS remains to be determined. Here, immunohistochemical labeling at the light and ultrastructural level is used to clarify the myelination status of SSeCKS-containing sensory neuron axons and to further clarify the morphometric, and provide insight into the functional, classification of SSeCKS-IR sensory neurons. Methods Colocalization studies of SSeCKS with myelination markers, ultrastructural localization of SSeCKS labeling and ablation of largely unmyelinated sensory fibers by neonatal capsaicin administration were all used to establish whether SSeCKS containing sensory neurons represent a subpopulation of unmyelinated primary sensory C-fibers. Results Double labeling studies of SSeCKS with CNPase in the dorsal horn and Pzero in the periphery showed that SSeCKS immunoreactivity was observed predominantly in association with unmyelinated primary sensory fibers. At the ultrastructural level, SSeCKS immunoreactivity was most commonly associated with axonal membrane margins of unmyelinated fibers. In capsaicin treated rats, SSeCKS immunoreactivity was essentially obliterated in the dorsal horn while in dorsal root ganglia quantitative analysis revealed a 43

  3. Influence of Sensory Stimulation on Exhaled Volatile Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzatenta, A; Pokorski, M; Di Tano, A; Cacchio, M; Di Giulio, C

    2016-01-01

    The real-time exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been suggested as a new biomarker to detect and monitor physiological processes in the respiratory system. The VOCs profile in exhaled breath reflects the biochemical alterations related to metabolic changes, organ failure, and neuronal activity, which are, at least in part, transmitted via the lungs to the alveolar exhaled breath. Breath analysis has been applied to investigate cancer, lung failure, and neurodegenerative diseases. There are by far no studies on the real-time monitoring of VOCs in sensory stimulation in healthy subjects. Therefore, in this study we investigated the breath parameters and exhaled VOCs in humans during sensory stimulation: smell, hearing, sight, and touch. Responses sensory stimulations were recorded in 12 volunteers using an iAQ-2000 sensor. We found significant effects of sensory stimulation. In particular, olfactory stimulation was the most effective stimulus that elicited the greatest VOCs variations in the exhaled breath. Since the olfactory pathway is distinctly driven by the hypothalamic and limbic circuitry, while other senses project first to the thalamic area and then re-project to other brain areas, the findings suggest the importance of olfaction and chemoreception in the regulation lung gas exchange. VOCs variations during sensory activation may become putative indicators of neural activity.

  4. The critical events for motor-sensory temporal recalibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Henry Arnold

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Determining if we, or another agent, were responsible for a sensory event can require an accurate sense of timing. Our sense of appropriate timing relationships must, however, be malleable as there is a variable delay between the physical timing of an event and when sensory signals concerning that event are encoded in the brain. One dramatic demonstration of such malleability involves having people repeatedly press a button thereby causing a beep. If a delay is inserted between button presses and beeps, when it is subsequently taken away beeps can seem to precede the button presses that caused them. For this to occur it is important that people feel they were responsible for instigating the beeps. In terms of their timing, as yet it is not clear what combination of events is important for motor-sensory temporal recalibration. Here, by introducing ballistic reaches of short or longer extent before a button press, we varied the delay between the intention to act and the sensory consequence of that action. This manipulation failed to modulate recalibration magnitude. By contrast, introducing a similarly lengthened delay between button presses and consequent beeps eliminated recalibration. Thus it would seem that the critical timing relationship for motor-sensory temporal recalibration is between tactile signals relating to the completion of an action and the subsequent auditory percept.

  5. Recovering traditional raw-milk Tetilla cheese flavour and sensory attributes by using Kocuria varians and Yarrowia lipolytica adjunct cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, J A; Garabal, J I; Docampo, F; Lorenzo, J M; Carballo, J

    2017-06-19

    The rationale of the present study was to evaluate the potential of microbial adjunct cultures including Kocuria varians and/or Yarrowia lipolytica strains in the recovery of the typical sensory profile of traditional (raw-milk) Tetilla cheese. Four batches of Tetilla cheese, a short ripened cows' milk cheese produced in Galicia (NW Spain), were made in duplicate from pasteurized milk inoculated with different microbial cultures. A control batch was manufactured by adding a mesophilic commercial D-starter only. The other three batches were made with the same starter after a cheese-milk pre-ripening step carried out with (i) an adjunct culture of K. varians, (ii) an adjunct culture of Y. lipolytica, or (iii) a combination of both adjunct cultures. The highest pH and water activity values, associated with softer textures were determined in the cheeses manufactured with the Y. lipolytica adjunct after 21days of ripening. The contents of the volatile compounds 3-methylbutanol, dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide were higher in the cheeses made with only the K. varians adjunct than in the cheeses made with the only yeast adjunct and in the control cheeses. The contents of hexanoic and octanoic acids were highest in the cheeses made with the Y. lipolytica adjunct, and levels of ethyl hexanoate, ethyl octanoate and ethyl decanoate were higher in the cheeses made with only the yeast adjunct than in the other batches of cheese. The cheeses manufactured with both adjunct cultures were awarded the highest scores for flavour and overall sensory parameters (considering the standards of the traditional product) and were considered very similar to 'good quality' artisanal raw-milk cheeses. We conclude that use of selected Micrococcaceae and Y. lipolytica strains as adjunct cultures would differentiate the sensory properties and contribute to the quality and typicality of the short-ripened rennet-curd Galician Tetilla and Arzúa-Ulloa cheeses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  6. Molecular profiling of short-term and long-term surviving patients identifies CD34 mRNA level as prognostic for glioblastoma survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Signe Regner; Urup, Thomas; Olsen, Lars Rønn

    2018-01-01

    Despite extensive treatment, overall survival (OS) for glioblastoma (GBM) remains poor. A small proportion of patients present long survival over 3 years, but the underlying molecular background separating these long-term survivors (LTS) from short-term survivors (STS) are insufficiently understood....... Accordingly, study aim was to identify independent prognostic biomarkers for survival. Study cohort consisted of 93 primary GBM patients treated with radiation-, chemo- and bevacizumab therapy, among which 14 STS (OS ≤ 12 months) and 6 LTS (OS ≥ 36 months) were identified, all confirmed being IDH wild......-type. RNA expression levels in diagnostic tumor specimen for 792 genes were analyzed by NanoString technology. While no differences were found with regard to GBM subtype between LTS versus STS, comparative analysis of individual genes identified 14 significantly differently expressed candidate genes...

  7. Use of Gifu Anaerobic Medium for culturing 32 dominant species of human gut microbes and its evaluation based on short-chain fatty acids fermentation profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Aina; Nara, Misaki; Sugiyama, Yuta; Sakanaka, Mikiyasu; Yachi, Hiroyuki; Kitakata, Aya; Nakagawa, Akira; Minami, Hiromichi; Okuda, Shujiro; Katoh, Toshihiko; Katayama, Takane; Kurihara, Shin

    2017-10-01

    Recently, a "human gut microbial gene catalogue," which ranks the dominance of microbe genus/species in human fecal samples, was published. Most of the bacteria ranked in the catalog are currently publicly available; however, the growth media recommended by the distributors vary among species, hampering physiological comparisons among the bacteria. To address this problem, we evaluated Gifu anaerobic medium (GAM) as a standard medium. Forty-four publicly available species of the top 56 species listed in the "human gut microbial gene catalogue" were cultured in GAM, and out of these, 32 (72%) were successfully cultured. Short-chain fatty acids from the bacterial culture supernatants were then quantified, and bacterial metabolic pathways were predicted based on in silico genomic sequence analysis. Our system provides a useful platform for assessing growth properties and analyzing metabolites of dominant human gut bacteria grown in GAM and supplemented with compounds of interest.

  8. An integrated method for the emotional conceptualization and sensory characterization of food products: The EmoSensory® Wheel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouteten, Joachim J; De Steur, Hans; De Pelsmaeker, Sara; Lagast, Sofie; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Gellynck, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    Although acceptability is commonly used to examine liking for food products, more studies now emphasize the importance of measuring consumers' conceptualizations, such as emotions for food products. It is also important to identify how consumers perceive the sensory attributes of food products, as illustrated by the increasing involvement of consumers in product characterization. The objective of this paper is to examine the use of a wheel-format questionnaire to obtain both an emotional and sensory profiles for food products using a hands-on consumer tool. Terms selected were product-specific and the rate-all-that-apply (RATA) approach was used as a scaling technique. Three different experiments demonstrated that the EmoSensory® Wheel could discriminate within and between food product categories. The added value of the RATA approach was illustrated in the sample discrimination for some food products when using the weighted attribute scores for analysis. The tool was used in both blind and informed conditions to illustrate its applicability across different experimental designs. In general, the respondents did not find the task tedious when using the wheel-questionnaire format, demonstrating the potential for collecting information in a more facile way. Although further studies with other food products are needed, this paper shows the potential for using this wheel format to obtain information about consumers' emotional and sensory profiling of food products. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Consumer Preference and Description of Salmon in Four Northern Atlantic Countries and Association with Sensory Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green-Petersen, D.; Hyldig, G.; Sveinsdottir, K.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.; Martinsdottir, E.

    2009-01-01

    The focus in this article is on the relation between consumer preference and objective description of the product profile of salmon. A consumer study of eight salmon products was carried out in Iceland, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Ireland. In addition, objective sensory profiling using a trained

  10. Consumer preference and description of salmon in four Northern Atlantic countries and association with sensory characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Sveinsdóttir, K.

    2009-01-01

    The focus in this article is on the relation between consumer preference and objective description of the product profile of salmon. A consumer study of eight salmon products was carried out in Iceland, Denmark, the Netherlands, and Ireland. In addition, objective sensory profiling using a trained...

  11. Correlations of Sensory Processing and Visual Organization Ability with Participation in School-Aged Children with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuang, Yee-Pay; Su, Chwen-Yng

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has highlighted delays and differences in cognitive, language, and sensorimotor functions in children diagnosed with Down syndrome (DS). However, sensory processing and visual organization abilities have not been well-examined in DS to date. This study aimed to investigate the developmental profile of sensory processing and visual…

  12. Comparison of response formats and concurrent hedonic measures for optimal use of the EmoSensory® Wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schouteten, Joachim J.; Gellynck, Xavier; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    The study of emotional and sensory profiling with food products is gaining momentum in the field of sensory research. These methods can be applied in order to obtain a broader consumer perspective on product performance beyond traditional hedonic measurements (Jiang, King, & Prinyawiwatkul, 2014;...

  13. Increased Sensory Processing Atypicalities in Parents of Multiplex ASD Families versus Typically Developing and Simplex ASD Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Chelsea K.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; Donkers, Franc C. L.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that sensory processing atypicalities may share genetic influences with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To further investigate this, the adolescent/adult sensory profile (AASP) questionnaire was distributed to 85 parents of typically developing children (P-TD), 121 parents from simplex ASD families (SPX), and 54…

  14. Sensory overload: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheydt, Stefan; Müller Staub, Maria; Frauenfelder, Fritz; Nielsen, Gunnar H; Behrens, Johann; Needham, Ian

    2017-04-01

    In the context of mental disorders sensory overload is a widely described phenomenon used in conjunction with psychiatric interventions such as removal from stimuli. However, the theoretical foundation of sensory overload as addressed in the literature can be described as insufficient and fragmentary. To date, the concept of sensory overload has not yet been sufficiently specified or analyzed. The aim of the study was to analyze the concept of sensory overload in mental health care. A literature search was undertaken using specific electronic databases, specific journals and websites, hand searches, specific library catalogues, and electronic publishing databases. Walker and Avant's method of concept analysis was used to analyze the sources included in the analysis. All aspects of the method of Walker and Avant were covered in this concept analysis. The conceptual understanding has become more focused, the defining attributes, influencing factors and consequences are described and empirical referents identified. The concept analysis is a first step in the development of a middle-range descriptive theory of sensory overload based on social scientific and stress-theoretical approaches. This specification may serve as a fundament for further research, for the development of a nursing diagnosis or for guidelines. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  15. Sensory bases of navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, J L

    1998-10-08

    Navigating animals need to know both the bearing of their goal (the 'map' step), and how to determine that direction (the 'compass' step). Compasses are typically arranged in hierarchies, with magnetic backup as a last resort when celestial information is unavailable. Magnetic information is often essential to calibrating celestial cues, though, and repeated recalibration between celestial and magnetic compasses is important in many species. Most magnetic compasses are based on magnetite crystals, but others make use of induction or paramagnetic interactions between short-wavelength light and visual pigments. Though odors may be used in some cases, most if not all long-range maps probably depend on magnetite. Magnetitebased map senses are used to measure only latitude in some species, but provide the distance and direction of the goal in others.

  16. Short-Term Memory in Habituation and Dishabituation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Jesse William, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present research evaluated the refractorylike response decrement, as found in habituation of auditory evoked peripheral vasoconstriction in rabbits, to determine whether or not it represents a short-term habituation process distinct from effector fatigue or sensory adaptation. (Editor)

  17. How emulsions composition and structure affect sensory perception of low-viscosity model emulsions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, de R.A.; Zoet, F.D.; Nixdorf, R.R.; Aken, van G.A.

    2008-01-01

    The oral residence time of low-viscosity emulsions, like milk, is relatively short. Despite this short residence time, people can easily perceive differences between these emulsions. Our research is dedicated to unravel the oral behaviour of emulsions in relation to sensory perception. The aim of

  18. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe Arildsen; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall

    2014-01-01

    and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were......Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat...... also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than...

  19. The beauty of sensory ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otálora-Luna, Fernando; Aldana, Elis

    2017-08-10

    Sensory ecology is a discipline that focuses on how living creatures use information to survive, but not to live. By trans-defining the orthodox concept of sensory ecology, a serious heterodox question arises: how do organisms use their senses to live, i.e. to enjoy or suffer life? To respond to such a query the objective (time-independent) and emotional (non-rational) meaning of symbols must be revealed. Our program is distinct from both the neo-Darwinian and the classical ecological perspective because it does not focus on survival values of phenotypes and their functions, but asks for the aesthetic effect of biological structures and their symbolism. Our message recognizes that sensing apart from having a survival value also has a beauty value. Thus, we offer a provoking and inspiring new view on the sensory relations of 'living things' and their surroundings, where the innovating power of feelings have more weight than the privative power of reason.

  20. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  1. Sensory analysis in grapes benitaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santillo, Amanda G.; Rodrigues, Flavio T.; Arthur, Paula B.; Villavicencio, Ana Lucia C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Sensory analysis is considered one of the main techniques when you want to know the organoleptic qualities of foods. Marketing strategies, showing that some foods produced organically is more nutritious, flavorful than conventional ones are affecting some consumers. The advantages of using radiation in sensory analysis are not the formation of waste, the less nutritional loss and little change in taste of food. The possibility that the fruit is harvested at more advanced maturity, when all characteristics of flavor and external appearance are fully developed is another advantage. The possibility of fruits being packed irradiated prevents contamination after processing. This type of study, ionizing radiation associated with sensory evaluation scarce, making it necessary for future discoveries. The objective this paper was to evaluate the quality of grapes Benitaka after the irradiation process with doses 0,5; 1; 1,5 e 2 kGy. (author)

  2. Short communication: Partial replacement of ground corn with algae meal in a dairy cow diet: Milk yield and composition, nutrient digestibility, and metabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, G G; Ferreira de Jesus, E; Takiya, C S; Del Valle, T A; da Silva, T H; Vendramini, T H A; Yu, Esther J; Rennó, F P

    2016-11-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of partially replacing dietary ground corn with a microalgae meal from Prototheca moriformis (composed of deoiled microalgae and soyhulls) on milk yield and composition, nutrient intake, total-tract apparent digestibility, and blood profile of lactating dairy cows. Twenty multiparous Holstein cows (57.7±49.4d in milk, 25.3±5.3 of milk yield, and 590±71kg of live weight at the start of experiment, mean ± standard deviation) were used in a cross-over design experiment, with 21-d periods. Diets were no microalgae meal (CON) or 91.8g/kg of microalgae meal partially replacing dietary ground corn (ALG). Cows showed similar milk yield and composition. The 3.5% fat-corrected milk production was 30.2±1.34kg/d for CON and 31.1±1.42kg/d for ALG. Despite cows having similar dry matter intake, ALG increased neutral detergent fiber and ether extract intake. In addition, cows fed ALG exhibited higher ether extract digestibility. No differences were detected in glucose, urea, amino-aspartate transferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase blood concentrations. Feeding ALG increased the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein in blood compared with CON. The microalgae meal may partially replace ground corn in diets of lactating cows without impairing the animal's performance. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A New Conceptualization of Human Visual Sensory-Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H.

    2016-01-01

    Memory is an essential component of cognition and disorders of memory have significant individual and societal costs. The Atkinson-Shiffrin "modal model" forms the foundation of our understanding of human memory. It consists of three stores: Sensory Memory (SM), whose visual component is called iconic memory, Short-Term Memory (STM; also called working memory, WM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM). Since its inception, shortcomings of all three components of the modal model have been identified. Wh...

  4. Hereditary sensory ataxic neuropathy associated with proximal muscle weakness in the lower extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tatsufumi; Fukai, Yuta; Rikimaru, Mitsue; Henmi, Shoji; Ohsawa, Yutaka; Sunada, Yoshihide

    2010-04-15

    We describe three patients from the same family with hereditary sensory ataxic neuropathy followed by proximal muscle weakness in the lower extremities. Sensory ataxic gait began as an initial symptom when patients were in their 50s. Mild proximal weakness in the lower extremities appeared several years later. Serum creatine kinase was mildly elevated. Nerve conduction studies revealed sensory dominant axonal neuropathy, and short sensory evoked potentials showed involvement of the sensory nerve axon, dorsal root ganglia and posterior funiculus of the spinal cord. Needle electromyography showed fibrillation, positive sharp waves, and multiple giant motor unit potentials, suggesting the involvement of anterior horn motor neurons or the anterior root. Autosomal recessive inheritance was considered, because of consanguinity. The disorder described here may be a new clinical entity with unique clinical manifestations. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribution and congener profiles of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in indoor/outdoor glass window surface films and their film-air partitioning in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-02-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are a group of n-alkanes with carbon chain length of 10-13. In this work, paired indoor/outdoor samples of organic films on window glass surfaces from urban buildings in Beijing, China, were collected to measure the concentrations and congener distributions of SCCPs. The total SCCP levels ranged from 337 ng/m(2) to 114 μg/m(2), with total organic carbon (TOC) normalized concentrations of 365 μg/m(2)-365 mg/m(2). Overall, the concentrations of SCCPs on the interior films were higher than the concentrations on the exterior films, suggesting an important indoor environmental exposure of SCCPs to the general public. A significant linear relationship was found between the SCCP concentrations and TOC, with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.34 (p film-air partitioning model suggests that the indoor gas-phase SCCPs are related to their corresponding window film levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Taste perception and sensory sensitivity: Relationship to feeding problems in boys with Barth Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Stacey; Kreider, Consuelo M; Meeley, Lauren E; Bendixen, Roxanna M

    2015-03-01

    Feeding problems are common in boys with Barth syndrome and may contribute to the population's propensity for growth delay and muscle weakness. The purpose of this study was to quantify and describe these feeding issues and examine altered taste perception and sensory sensitivity as contributing factors. A cross-sectional, two-group comparison design was used to examine feeding preferences and behaviors, chemical taste perception, and sensory sensitivities in fifty boys with (n=24) and without (n=26) Barth ages 4-17 years. Taste perception was measured using chemical test strips saturated with phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and sodium benzoate (NaB). Feeding problems were documented by parents using a Food Inventory, while sensory sensitivities were recorded using a Short Sensory Profile. Boys with Barth differed significantly from typical peers with regards to problem feeding behaviors. For boys with Barth, food refusal and food selectivity were identified as being present in 50% the sample, while 70% of had identified problems related to gagging or swallowing foods. About half of all Barth families noted that their child's eating habits did not match the family's and that separate meals were often prepared. As demonstrated in previous research, about 50% of boys with Barth demonstrated probable or definite differences in taste/smell sensitivity, which was significantly higher than controls. On tests of chemical taste perception, boys with Barth were significantly more likely to be supertasters to PTC and non-tasters to NaB. Taster-status did not directly relate to the presence of feeding problems, however, taste/smell sensitivity did significantly relate to food selectivity by type and texture. Results indicate feeding problems in at least 50-70% of boys with Barth syndrome, and suggest that behaviors are often present before 6 months of age. Differences in taste perception may influence dietary choices in boys with Barth, particularly their craving of salty foods

  7. Short-Term and Mid-Term Effects of Fasting and Downset Meal Pattern on Dietary Intakes, Anthropometric Parameters, and Glycemic and Lipid Profile in Fasting Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narsis Afghari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: This study assessed the mid-term changes in anthropometrical and biochemical factors as well as nutritional status and physical activity level with regard to nocturnal eating during Ramadan, for the first time.Materials and Methods: Via an easy sampling, the cohort study was conducted in 49 women aged between 20 and 45 years who were recruited from Shahid Motahari Hospital in Isfahan. The subjects were divided into two groups based on their nocturnal eating pattern. Anthropometrical and biochemical parameters were measured three days before Ramadan, on the third day of Ramadan, and thirty days after the end of Ramadan. A 147 food items frequency questionnaire was used for the assessment of nutritional status t. Repeated measure test was employed to determine changes over time, and the interaction effects between times and nocturnal eating status. Results: The body weight and body mass index of the women who consumed the nocturnal meal was significantly different from those of the subjects who did not consume the downset meal (p value =0.006. There were significant differences in energy, carbohydrate, and fat intake as well as serum triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and physical activity levels between the three time periods. Serum glucose, cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol were not significantly different between the two groups.Conclusion: Ramadan fasting has beneficial effects on the body weight and body mass index. Fasting causes some changes in the lipid profile; these changes can be attributed to changes in dietary habits and physical activity level during Ramadan, rather than nocturnal eating status.

  8. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  9. Comparative Transcriptomes Profiling of Photoperiod-sensitive Male Sterile Rice Nongken 58S During the Male Sterility Transition between Short-day and Long-day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yingguo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile (PGMS rice, Nongken 58S, was discovered in 1973. It has been widely used for the production of hybrid rice, and great achievements have been made in improving rice yields. However, the mechanism of the male sterility transition in PGMS rice remains to be determined. Results To investigate the transcriptome during the male sterility transition in PGMS rice, the transcriptome of Nongken 58S under short-day (SD and long-day (LD at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages was compared. Seventy-three and 128 differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified at the glume primordium differentiation and pistil/stamen primordium forming stages, respectively. Five and 22 genes were markedly up-regulated (≥ 5-fold, and two and five genes were considerably down-regulated (≥ 5-fold under SD during the male sterility transition. Gene ontology annotation and pathway analysis revealed that four biological processes and the circadian rhythms and the flowering pathways coordinately regulated the male sterility transition. Further quantitative PCR analysis demonstrated that the circadian rhythms of OsPRR1, OsPRR37, OsGI, Hd1, OsLHY and OsDof in leaves were obviously different between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under LD conditions. Moreover, both OsPRR37 and Hd1 in the inflorescence displayed differences between Nongken 58S and Nongken 58 under both LD and SD conditions. Conclusion The results presented here indicate that the transcriptome in Nongken 58S was significantly suppressed under LD conditions. Among these DEGs, the circadian rhythm and the flowering pathway were involved in the male sterility transition. Furthermore, these pathways were coordinately involved in the male sterility transition in PGMS rice.

  10. Effect of tomato juice consumption on the plasmatic lipid profile, hepatic HMGCR activity, and fecal short chain fatty acid content of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periago, María Jesús; Martín-Pozuelo, Gala; González-Barrio, Rocío; Santaella, Marina; Gómez, Victoria; Vázquez, Nuria; Navarro-González, Inmaculada; García-Alonso, Javier

    2016-10-12

    The aims of the present study were to ascertain, indirectly, the prebiotic role of tomato juice, by analyzing its effect on the content of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) in feces of rats, and to determine the plausible mechanisms related to the hypocholesterolemic effects of tomato juice and lycopene, evaluating the activity of hepatic HMGCR and the formation of propionic acid. Two commercially available tomato juices with differing contents of lycopene (low and high lycopene contents: Llyc and Hlyc tomato juices) were used. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 8): control group, normal diet and water; group 1, normal diet and Llyc tomato juice; and group 2, normal diet and Hlyc tomato juice, which were fed ad libitum for three weeks. Feces were collected at the beginning and the end of the study to determine SCFA, and blood and liver were obtained (after sacrificing the animals) to analyze the lipid plasmatic parameters and the HMGCR activity and total cholesterol, respectively. No significant differences were observed in the plasmatic parameters, except that HDL-cholesterol increased significantly after consumption of both tomato juices. Lycopene was accumulated in the liver in proportion to the amount ingested, and was observed to have an inhibitory effect on the HMGCR enzyme, according to the amount of lycopene in the liver. In relation to the SCFA in feces, no differences were observed in acetate and propionate after the consumption of tomato juice, but a significant increase in butyrate was observed in group 2 after the intake of Hlyc tomato juice. The content of this carboxylic acid together with excreted lycopene in feces could have a beneficial effect on colonic cells.

  11. Effects of dietary Lactobacillus plantarum B1 on growth performance, intestinal microbiota, and short chain fatty acid profiles in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Q; Zeng, X F; Zhu, J L; Wang, S; Liu, X T; Hou, C L; Thacker, P A; Qiao, S Y

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum B1 on broiler performance, cecal bacteria, and ileal and cecal short chain fatty acids (SCFA). The study also determined whether it was necessary to feed Lactobacillus throughout the entire growth period or if the beneficial effects could be obtained by supplementation during the starter or finisher period only. Experiment 1 was conducted with 72 broilers assigned to 2 treatments (N=6). One treatment was the basal diet (Con), and the other was the basal diet supplemented with 2×10(9) cfu/kg L. plantarum B1 (Wh). In experiment 2, 144 one-day-old broilers were assigned to 4 treatments (N=6) including a basal diet (Con), the basal diet supplemented with 2×10(9) cfu/kgL. plantarum B1 during d one to 21 only (St), the basal diet supplemented with L. plantarum B1 during d 22 to 42 only (Fn), and, finally, the basal diet supplemented with L. plantarum B1 from d one to 42 (Wh). Experiment 1 showed that L. plantarum B1 enhanced broiler average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). In experiment 2, during the starter period, broilers in the Wh and St treatments had higher ADG (Pplantarum B1 also increased (Pplantarum B1 had no effect on intestinal morphology. In conclusion,L. plantarum B1 plays a positive role in broilers. Supplementation during the finisher period or the entire growth period is superior to supplementation during the starter period only. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Development of soy-based bread with acceptable sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanovski, B; Seetharaman, K; Duizer, L M

    2012-01-01

    Consumption of soy protein has been associated with benefits related to numerous areas of health. Due to the widespread consumption of bread, one means of contributing to the health of individuals is through the incorporation of soy protein into bread. To this end, soy flour (SF) or soy protein isolates (SPIs) in 20% and 12% substitution levels, respectively, were added to flour during bread manufacture. The developed breads were tested using a consumer panel for acceptability, using a refined white bread as a control. These data were compared to attribute intensity data collected by the trained panel to identify specific flavor and texture characteristics affecting liking. The sensory profile of the 20% SF bread was acceptable and comparable to the control bread, despite a significantly stronger beany flavor. No significant differences in sensory properties of the SF and control breads were detected by the trained panel for many sensory attributes. The SPI bread, however, had a sensory profile that was significantly more firm, dense, sour, beany, bitter, and astringent with a strong aftertaste in comparison to the wheat control bread. Consumer liking scores for the SPI bread was significantly lower than the liking of the control and the SF added bread. Many soy-enriched foods, while contributing positively to health, are considered unacceptable by consumers. This is due to negative sensory properties, such as beany, painty, and astringent notes, often perceived by consumers. This study provides information on the level of SF that can be included in bread in an amount that does not detract from consumer acceptability. This level also allows for a Food and Drug Administration (FDA) health claim to be made. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Sensory analysis of cosmetic powders: personal care ingredients and emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussour, M; Lavarde, M; Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M; Bouton, F

    2017-02-01

    The powders are ingredients increasingly used in the formulation of cosmetic products for the sensory qualities they give. The objective of this study was the development of a lexicon and a referential for sensory characterization of these pure raw materials as well as formulations which contain them. Eleven expert panellists from Ecole de biologie industrielle de Cergy (France) developed a lexicon and a referential based on 12 powders of different chemical natures. The selected attributes were then used for performing a quantitative descriptive profile of two powders and an emulsion containing or not one of these two powders. A lexicon has been established through a consensus approach of the panel. It contains seven attributes that allow the evaluation of the powders in four phases: the appearance, the pickup, the application and the after-feel. This lexicon contains definitions and assessment protocols and provides references products. The quantitative descriptive profile of two powders of the same chemical nature, but different in physical quality showed significant differences in sensory level between products. These same attributes used to evaluate an emulsion containing the powder or not allowed to prove the contribution of these raw materials on the sensory specificities of the emulsion. The lexicon developed in this study can be used for assessment of other powders but also to define the quantities necessary to put in the formulation to meet the sensory characteristics of these raw materials powder. © 2016 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  14. Short- and long-term effects of continuous versus intermittent restrictive diet approaches on body composition and the metabolic profile in overweight and obese postmenopausal women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arguin, Hélène; Dionne, Isabelle J; Sénéchal, Martin; Bouchard, Danielle R; Carpentier, André C; Ardilouze, Jean-Luc; Tremblay, Angelo; Leblanc, Claude; Brochu, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare changes in body composition and the metabolic profile between women taking an intermittent diet (ID) and women taking a continuous diet (CD). Twenty-five obese postmenopausal women were randomized to an ID (n = 13) or a CD (n = 12). In the ID, 5-week energy restriction periods were followed by 5-week weight stabilization periods. In the CD, 15 weeks of energy restriction was followed by 5 weeks of weight stabilization. Outcome measures before, during, and after weight loss, as well as after a 1-year follow-up, were body weight and composition, waist circumference, resting metabolic rate, and fasting lipid and glucose levels. Body weight, waist circumference, percentage fat mass, and fat mass decreased significantly and similarly in both groups (P fasting glucose decreased significantly in the ID group only. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and resting metabolic rate remained stable in both groups. Fasting plasma triglyceride and glucose levels were the only metabolic variables to further improve after the fifth week of the protocol. At the 1-year follow-up, both interventions were associated with successful and similar weight loss maintenance and improvements in fasting plasma glucose levels. The ID resulted in similar short- and long-term changes in body composition and metabolic profile compared with a CD. Most improvements occurred during the first 5 weeks of treatment in both interventions.

  15. Low temperature and short-term high-CO2 treatment in postharvest storage of table grapes at two maturity stages: Effects on transcriptome profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rosales

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal are highly perishable and their quality deteriorates during postharvest storage at low temperature mainly because of sensitivity to fungal decay and senescence of rachis. The application of a 3-day CO2 treatment (20 kPa CO2 + 20 kPa O2 + 60 kPa N2 at 0ºC reduced total decay and retained fruit quality in early and late-harvested table grapes during postharvest storage. In order to study the transcriptional responsiveness of table grapes to low temperature and high CO2 levels in the first stage of storage and how the maturity stage affect these changes, we have performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis using the custom-made GrapeGen GeneChip®. In the first stage of storage, low temperature led to a significantly intense change in grape skin transcriptome irrespective of fruit maturity, although there were different changes within each stage. In the case of CO2 treated samples, in comparison to fruit at time zero, only slight differences were observed. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that major modifications in the transcriptome profile of early- and late-harvested grapes stored at 0ºC are linked to biotic and abiotic stress-responsive terms. However, in both cases there is a specific reprogramming of the transcriptome during the first stage of storage at 0ºC in order to withstand the cold stress. Thus, genes involved in gluconeogenesis, photosynthesis, mRNA translation and lipid transport were up-regulated in the case of early-harvested grapes, and genes related to protein folding stability and intracellular membrane trafficking in late-harvested grapes. The beneficial effect of high CO2 treatment maintaining table grape quality seems to be an active process requiring the induction of several transcription factors and kinases in early-harvested grapes, and the activation of processes associated to the maintenance of energy in late-harvested grapes.

  16. Low Temperature and Short-Term High-CO2 Treatment in Postharvest Storage of Table Grapes at Two Maturity Stages: Effects on Transcriptome Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Raquel; Romero, Irene; Fernandez-Caballero, Carlos; Escribano, M Isabel; Merodio, Carmen; Sanchez-Ballesta, M Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Table grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Cardinal) are highly perishable and their quality deteriorates during postharvest storage at low temperature mainly because of sensitivity to fungal decay and senescence of rachis. The application of a 3-day CO2 treatment (20 kPa CO2 + 20 kPa O2 + 60 kPa N2) at 0°C reduced total decay and retained fruit quality in early and late-harvested table grapes during postharvest storage. In order to study the transcriptional responsiveness of table grapes to low temperature and high CO2 levels in the first stage of storage and how the maturity stage affect these changes, we have performed a comparative large-scale transcriptional analysis using the custom-made GrapeGen GeneChip®. In the first stage of storage, low temperature led to a significantly intense change in grape skin transcriptome irrespective of fruit maturity, although there were different changes within each stage. In the case of CO2 treated samples, in comparison to fruit at time zero, only slight differences were observed. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that major modifications in the transcriptome profile of early- and late-harvested grapes stored at 0°C are linked to biotic and abiotic stress-responsive terms. However, in both cases there is a specific reprogramming of the transcriptome during the first stage of storage at 0°C in order to withstand the cold stress. Thus, genes involved in gluconeogenesis, photosynthesis, mRNA translation and lipid transport were up-regulated in the case of early-harvested grapes, and genes related to protein folding stability and intracellular membrane trafficking in late-harvested grapes. The beneficial effect of high CO2 treatment maintaining table grape quality seems to be an active process requiring the induction of several transcription factors and kinases in early-harvested grapes, and the activation of processes associated to the maintenance of energy in late-harvested grapes.

  17. The effects of increasing doses of 2 preparations of long-acting insulin on short-term plasma profiles of glucose and insulin in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, L A; Overton, T R

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate effects of administering increasing doses of 2 different preparations of long-acting insulin on the 24-h profiles of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in mid lactation dairy cows. The 2 separately analyzed experiments investigated the effects administering either Humulin N (H), a neutral protamine Hagedorn insulin, or insulin glargine (Lantus, L), an insulin analog, at doses of 0 (control), 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 IU/kg of body weight in a randomized complete block design. Sixteen cows (237±11 d in milk for H; 213±10 d in milk for L; mean ± SD) were used for each insulin preparation, resulting in n=4 for each dose within insulin preparation. Cows were fitted with a single jugular catheter on the day before the study. On the day of the study, cows were given treatments by subcutaneous injection of either sterile water or the designated insulin type and dose. Blood samples were taken hourly from the jugular catheter. Subcutaneous injection of both H and L resulted in linear decreases in plasma glucose concentrations, increased area under the curve, and decreased nadir for plasma glucose following administration of the insulin preparations. Plasma insulin concentration linearly increased with increasing dose of H. Though elevated concentrations of insulin were measurable in cows treated with H, they were not measurable in cows treated with L. Attempts to measure overall insulin concentrations and metabolites of L by a commercially available ELISA and a commercially available RIA kit were not successful and did not retrieve values that we felt truly represented the amount of insulin activity exhibited during this treatment. Both long-acting insulin preparations elicited insulin-like activity in lactating dairy cows, as evidenced by reduced plasma glucose concentrations. Given these results, the potential exists to use both H and L to study the effects of insulin in mid lactation dairy cows without the confounding

  18. Comparison of global brain gene expression profiles between inbred long-sleep and inbred short-sleep mice by high-density gene array hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Ehringer, M; Yang, F; Sikela, J M

    2001-06-01

    Inbred long-sleep (ILS) and short-sleep (ISS) mice show significant central nervous system-mediated differences in sleep time for sedative dose of ethanol and are frequently used as a rodent model for ethanol sensitivity. In this study, we have used complementary DNA (cDNA) array hybridization methodology to identify genes that are differentially expressed between the brains of ILS and ISS mice. To carry out this analysis, we used both the gene discovery array (GDA) and the Mouse GEM 1 Microarray. GDA consists of 18,378 nonredundant mouse cDNA clones on a single nylon filter. Complex probes were prepared from total brain mRNA of ILS or ISS mice by using reverse transcription and 33P labeling. The labeled probes were hybridized in parallel to the gene array filters. Data from GDA experiments were analyzed with SQL-Plus and Oracle 8. The GEM microarray includes 8,730 sequence-verified clones on a glass chip. Two fluorescently labeled probes were used to hybridize a microarray simultaneously. Data from GEM experiments were analyzed by using the GEMTools software package (Incyte). Differentially expressed genes identified from each method were confirmed by relative quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 41 genes or expressed sequence tags (ESTs) display significant expression level differences between brains of ILS and ISS mice after GDA, GEM1 hybridization, and quantitative RT-PCR confirmation. Among them, 18 clones were expressed higher in ILS mice, and 23 clones were expressed higher in ISS mice. The individual gene or EST's function and mapping information have been analyzed. This study identified 41 genes that are differentially expressed between brains of ILS and ISS mice. Some of them may have biological relevance in mediation of phenotypic variation between ILS and ISS mice for ethanol sensitivity. This study also demonstrates that parallel gene expression comparison with high-density cDNA arrays is a rapid and

  19. Plasma cytokine profiles in HIV-1 infected patients developing neuropathic symptoms shortly after commencing antiretroviral therapy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Watt, Johan J; Wilkinson, Katalin A; Wilkinson, Robert J; Heckmann, Jeannine M

    2014-02-10

    'burst' between 2- and 4 weeks compared with pre-cART levels. Individuals developing neuropathic symptoms within 12 weeks of starting cART showed evidence of altered cytokine concentrations even prior to initiating cART, most notably higher circulating IL-1R-antagonist levels, and altered ratios of "pain-associated" cytokine and soluble receptors shortly after cART initiation.

  20. Multi-sensory Sculpting (MSS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wallpach, Sylvia; Kreuzer, Maria

    2013-01-01

    -conscious and modality-specific level and use multi-sensory metaphors to express embodied knowledge. Retrieving embodied brand knowledge requires methods that (a) stimulate various senses that have been involved in brand knowledge formation and (b) give consumers the opportunity to express themselves metaphorically...

  1. Sensory evaluation and electronic tongue for sensing flavored mineral water taste attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipos, László; Gere, Attila; Szöllősi, Dániel; Kovács, Zoltán; Kókai, Zoltán; Fekete, András

    2013-10-01

    In this article a trained sensory panel evaluated 6 flavored mineral water samples. The samples consisted of 3 different brands, each with 2 flavors (pear-lemon grass and josta berry). The applied sensory method was profile analysis. Our aim was to analyze the sensory profiles and to investigate the similarities between the sensitivity of the trained human panel and an electronic tongue device. Another objective was to demonstrate the possibilities for the prediction of sensory attributes from electronic tongue measurements using a multivariate statistical method (Partial Least Squares regression [PLS]). The results showed that the products manufactured under different brand name but with the same aromas had very similar sensory profiles. The panel performance evaluation showed that it is appropriate (discrimination ability, repeatability, and panel consensus) to compare the panel's results with the results of the electronic tongue. The samples can be discriminated by the electronic tongue and an accurate classification model can be built. Principal Component Analysis BiPlot diagrams showed that Brand A and B were similar because the manufacturers use the same aroma brands for their products. It can be concluded that Brand C was quite different compared to the other samples independently of the aroma content. Based on the electronic tongue results good prediction models can be obtained with high correlation coefficient (r(2) > 0.81) and low prediction error (RMSEP sensory evaluation from 0 to 100). © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Validity of Sensory Systems as Distinct Constructs

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Chia-Ting; Parham, L. Diane

    2014-01-01

    Confirmatory factor analysis testing whether sensory questionnaire items represented distinct sensory system constructs found, using data from two age groups, that such constructs can be measured validly using questionnaire data.

  3. Extra-virgin olive oil: are consumers provided with the sensory quality they want? A hedonic price model with sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Carla; Caracciolo, Francesco; Cicia, Gianni; Del Giudice, Teresa

    2018-03-01

    Over the years, niche-differentiation strategies and food policies have pushed quality standards of European extra-virgin olive oil towards a product that has a sensory profile consisting of fruity, bitter and pungent notes, with such oils having excellent healthy features. However, it is unclear whether typical consumers are ready for a richer and more complex sensory profile than the neutral one historically found on the market. This potential discrepancy is investigated in the present study aiiming to determine whether current demand is able to appreciate this path of quality enhancement. Implicit prices for each and every attribute of extra-virgin olive oil with a focus on sensory characteristics were investigated using a hedonic price model. Although confirming the importance of origin and terroir for extra-virgin olive oil, the results of the present study strongly confirm the discrepancy between what is currently valued on the market and what novel supply trends are trying to achieve in terms of the sensory properties of such products. Increasing consumer awareness about the direct link between the health quality of oils and their sensory profile appears to be necessary to make quality enhancement programs more successful on the market and hence more effective for companies. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of fermented soybean paste (Doenjang).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H G; Hong, J H; Song, C K; Shin, H W; Kim, K O

    2010-09-01

    This study was conducted to examine the sensory profiles of fermented soybean paste (Doenjang), to understand consumers' acceptability of different types of Doenjang samples and to identify the sensory characteristics that drive consumer acceptability of Doenjang products. Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptability test were conducted for 7 different types of Doenjang samples. The samples included 2 types of Doenjang made by either traditional or commercially modified methods. For the descriptive analysis, 8 trained panelists developed and evaluated 31 descriptors. There were significant differences in all 31 attributes among the samples. Principal component analysis was also performed to summarize the sensory characteristics of the samples. In consumer testing, 200 consumers evaluated the acceptability of Doenjang samples. Significant differences in consumer acceptability were observed among the samples. The consumers preferred the Doenjang samples manufactured using a commercially modified method. In overall point of view, most consumers liked the Doenjang samples that had strong "sweet" and "MSG (monosodium glutamate)" tastes. It appears that "sweet" and "MSG" tastes are the drivers of liking for Doenjang. "Salty" taste, "meju,"traditional Korean soy sauce," and "fermented fish" odor/flavors seem to be the drivers of disliking for Doenjang. Cluster analysis identified 3 subconsumer segments sharing a common preference pattern for the 7 samples within a cluster. The results showed that each consumer cluster preferred different Doenjang samples. External preference mapping was performed to establish the relationships between the sensory attributes and consumer acceptability in each cluster. Consumption of the fermented soybean products is gradually expanding around the world, due to their various health benefits. Therefore, understanding sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of Doenjang are becoming increasingly important. The intense and complex

  5. Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Whey Cheese with Pine Nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Anamaria Semeniuc

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop a value-added whey cheese through addition of pine nuts. Therefore, different concentrations of pine nuts [2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w] were added to whey cheese. The study was designed to evaluate the influence of pine nuts on physicochemical and sensory properties of whey cheese. The addition of pine nuts resulted in an increase in fat content and total solids and a decrease in moisture content. However, no statistically significant difference was found in pH values. Sensory analysis was performed using the 9-point hedonic scale, with selected assessors. The whey cheese sample with 4% pine nuts was the most appreciated (7.6 points, followed by the classic whey cheese, whey cheese with 6 and 8% pine nuts (7.4 points, and whey cheese with 2% pine nuts (7.3 points. Nevertheless, the sensory characteristics of whey cheese were not significantly influenced by the addition of pine nuts. Whey cheese sensory profiling was successful in differential characterization of whey cheese samples.

  6. Motor-sensory confluence in tactile perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saig, Avraham; Gordon, Goren; Assa, Eldad; Arieli, Amos; Ahissar, Ehud

    2012-10-03

    Perception involves motor control of sensory organs. However, the dynamics underlying emergence of perception from motor-sensory interactions are not yet known. Two extreme possibilities are as follows: (1) motor and sensory signals interact within an open-loop scheme in which motor signals determine sensory sampling but are not affected by sensory processing and (2) motor and sensory signals are affected by each other within a closed-loop scheme. We studied the scheme of motor-sensory interactions in humans using a novel object localization task that enabled monitoring the relevant overt motor and sensory variables. We found that motor variables were dynamically controlled within each perceptual trial, such that they gradually converged to steady values. Training on this task resulted in improvement in perceptual acuity, which was achieved solely by changes in motor variables, without any change in the acuity of sensory readout. The within-trial dynamics is captured by a hierarchical closed-loop model in which lower loops actively maintain constant sensory coding, and higher loops maintain constant sensory update flow. These findings demonstrate interchangeability of motor and sensory variables in perception, motor convergence during perception, and a consistent hierarchical closed-loop perceptual model.

  7. Sensory over responsivity and obsessive compulsive symptoms: A cluster analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Podoly, Tamar Yonit

    2017-02-01

    Several studies have examined the sensory component in Obsesseive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) and described an OCD subtype which has a unique profile, and that Sensory Phenomena (SP) is a significant component of this subtype. SP has some commonalities with Sensory Over Responsivity (SOR) and might be in part a characteristic of this subtype. Although there are some studies that have examined SOR and its relation to Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS), literature lacks sufficient data on this interplay. First to further examine the correlations between OCS and SOR, and to explore the correlations between SOR modalities (i.e. smell, touch, etc.) and OCS subscales (i.e. washing, ordering, etc.). Second, to investigate the cluster analysis of SOR and OCS dimensions in adults, that is, to classify the sample using the sensory scores to find whether a sensory OCD subtype can be specified. Our third goal was to explore the psychometric features of a new sensory questionnaire: the Sensory Perception Quotient (SPQ). A sample of non clinical adults (n=350) was recruited via e-mail, social media and social networks. Participants completed questionnaires for measuring SOR, OCS, and anxiety. SOR and OCI-F scores were moderately significantly correlated (n=274), significant correlations between all SOR modalities and OCS subscales were found with no specific higher correlation between one modality to one OCS subscale. Cluster analysis revealed four distinct clusters: (1) No OC and SOR symptoms (NONE; n=100), (2) High OC and SOR symptoms (BOTH; n=28), (3) Moderate OC symptoms (OCS; n=63), (4) Moderate SOR symptoms (SOR; n=83). The BOTH cluster had significantly higher anxiety levels than the other clusters, and shared OC subscales scores with the OCS cluster. The BOTH cluster also reported higher SOR scores across tactile, vision, taste and olfactory modalities. The SPQ was found reliable and suitable to detect SOR, the sample SPQ scores was normally distributed (n=350). SOR is a

  8. Sensory memory during physiological aging indexed by mismatch negativity (MMN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzzoli, Manuela; Pirulli, Cornelia; Brignani, Debora; Maioli, Claudio; Miniussi, Carlo

    2012-03-01

    Physiological aging affects early sensory-perceptual processes. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate changes in auditory sensory memory in physiological aging using the Mismatch Negativity (MMN) paradigm as index. The MMN is a marker recorded through the electroencephalogram and is used to evaluate the integrity of the memory system. We adopted a new, faster paradigm to look for differences between 3 groups of subjects of different ages (young, middle age and older adults) as a function of short or long intervals between stimuli. We found that older adults did not show MMN at long interval condition and that the duration of MMN varied according to the participants' age. The current study provides electrophysiological evidence supporting the theory that the encoding of stimuli is preserved during normal aging, whereas the maintenance of sensory memory is impaired. Considering the advantage offered by the MMN paradigm used here, these data might be a useful reference point for the assessment of auditory sensory memory in pathological aging (e.g., in neurodegenerative diseases). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Sensory Substitution and Multimodal Mental Imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanay, Bence

    2017-09-01

    Many philosophers use findings about sensory substitution devices in the grand debate about how we should individuate the senses. The big question is this: Is "vision" assisted by (tactile) sensory substitution really vision? Or is it tactile perception? Or some sui generis novel form of perception? My claim is that sensory substitution assisted "vision" is neither vision nor tactile perception, because it is not perception at all. It is mental imagery: visual mental imagery triggered by tactile sensory stimulation. But it is a special form of mental imagery that is triggered by corresponding sensory stimulation in a different sense modality, which I call "multimodal mental imagery."

  10. Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Fehrmann-Cartes, K.; Íiguez-González, G.

    2015-01-01

    with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169 ± 24. d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n = 3) 3 × 3 Latin square design that included 3...... periods of 21. d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500. g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500. g/d per cow...

  11. Mineral profiling, carcass quality and sensory evaluation of broiler ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An investigation to determine the mineral composition, carcass quality and organoleptic properties of the meat of broilers fed basal broiler feeds supplemented with different leaf meals was conducted. Four treatments: basal proprietary broiler feed only (T1 - PBF) as control, basal proprietary broiler feeds supplemented with ...

  12. Sensory augmentation for the blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Manuela Kärcher

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Enacted theories of consciousness conjecture that perception and cognition arise from an active experience of the regular relations that are tying together the sensory stimulation of different modalities and associated motor actions. Previous experiments investigated this concept by employing the technique of sensory substitution. Building on these studies, here we test a set of hypotheses derived from this framework and investigate the utility of sensory augmentation in handicapped people. We provide a late blind subject with a new set of sensorimotor laws: A vibro-tactile belt continually signals the direction of magnetic north. The subject completed a set of behavioral tests before and after an extended training period. The tests were complemented by questionnaires and interviews. This newly supplied information improved performance on different time scales. In a pointing task we demonstrate an instant improvement of performance based on the signal provided by the device. Furthermore, the signal was helpful in relevant daily tasks, often complicated for the blind, such as keeping a direction over longer distances or taking shortcuts in familiar environments. A homing task with an additional attentional load demonstrated a significant improvement after training. The subject found the directional information highly expedient for the adjustment of his inner maps of familiar environments and describes an increase in his feeling of security when exploring unfamiliar environments with the belt. The results give evidence for a firm integration of the newly supplied signals into the behavior of this late blind subject with better navigational performance and more courageous behavior in unfamiliar environments. Most importantly, the complementary information provided by the belt lead to a positive emotional impact with enhanced feeling of security. This experimental approach demonstrates the potential of sensory augmentation devices for the help of

  13. Sensory properties of irradiated foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plestenjak, A.

    1997-01-01

    Food irradiation is a simple and effective preservation technique. The changes caused by irradiation depend on composition of food, on the absorbed dose, the water content and temperature during and after irradiation. In this paper the changes of food components caused by irradiation, doses for various food irradiation treatments, foods and countries where the irradiation is allowed, and sensory properties of irradiated food are reviewed

  14. Development of Metallic Sensory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Horne, Michael R.; Messick, Peter L.

    2010-01-01

    Existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technologies are inherently limited by the physical response of the structural material being inspected and are therefore not generally effective at the identification of small discontinuities, making the detection of incipient damage extremely difficult. One innovative solution to this problem is to enhance or complement the NDE signature of structural materials to dramatically improve the ability of existing NDE tools to detect damage. To address this need, a multifunctional metallic material has been developed that can be used in structural applications. The material is processed to contain second phase sensory particles that significantly improve the NDE response, enhancing the ability of conventional NDE techniques to detect incipient damage both during and after flight. Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloys (FSMAs) are an ideal material for these sensory particles as they undergo a uniform and repeatable change in both magnetic properties and crystallographic structure (martensitic transformation) when subjected to strain and/or temperature changes which can be detected using conventional NDE techniques. In this study, the use of a ferromagnetic shape memory alloy (FSMA) as the sensory particles was investigated.

  15. Sensory impacts of food-packaging interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B

    2009-01-01

    Sensory changes in food products result from intentional or unintentional interactions with packaging materials and from failure of materials to protect product integrity or quality. Resolving sensory issues related to plastic food packaging involves knowledge provided by sensory scientists, materials scientists, packaging manufacturers, food processors, and consumers. Effective communication among scientists and engineers from different disciplines and industries can help scientists understand package-product interactions. Very limited published literature describes sensory perceptions associated with food-package interactions. This article discusses sensory impacts, with emphasis on oxidation reactions, associated with the interaction of food and materials, including taints, scalping, changes in food quality as a function of packaging, and examples of material innovations for smart packaging that can improve sensory quality of foods and beverages. Sensory evaluation is an important tool for improved package selection and development of new materials.

  16. The Chemical Background for Sensory Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Shujuan

    compounds and consequently change the sensory quality in wine which provide the useful information of wine quality management to winemakers to as well as knowledge on the behaviour of wine oxidation. Additional, studies focused on understanding the development of volatiles during accelerated cheese ripening......In the food industry, high sensory quality and stability of products are crucial factors for consumer satisfaction and market shares. Sensory quality is normally being evaluated by two major approaches: instrumental (volatile and nonvolatile compounds) approach and sensory approach by trained...... and sensory methods in understanding the pre-fermentation treatment on sensory quality of wine (Study 3). In Study 4, the RATA method was used to provide the intensity of significant sensory descriptors that discriminate the significant differences between chocolate samples. Part three step by step moves...

  17. Sensory predictions during action support perception of imitative reactions across suprasecond delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yon, Daniel; Press, Clare

    2018-04-01

    Perception during action is optimized by sensory predictions about the likely consequences of our movements. Influential theories in social cognition propose that we use the same predictions during interaction, supporting perception of similar reactions in our social partners. However, while our own action outcomes typically occur at short, predictable delays after movement execution, the reactions of others occur at longer, variable delays in the order of seconds. To examine whether we use sensorimotor predictions to support perception of imitative reactions, we therefore investigated the temporal profile of sensory prediction during action in two psychophysical experiments. We took advantage of an influence of prediction on apparent intensity, whereby predicted visual stimuli appear brighter (more intense). Participants performed actions (e.g., index finger lift) and rated the brightness of observed outcomes congruent (index finger lift) or incongruent (middle finger lift) with their movements. Observed action outcomes could occur immediately after execution, or at longer delays likely reflective of those in natural social interaction (1800 or 3600 ms). Consistent with the previous literature, Experiment 1 revealed that congruent action outcomes were rated as brighter than incongruent outcomes. Importantly, this facilitatory perceptual effect was found irrespective of whether outcomes occurred immediately or at delay. Experiment 2 replicated this finding and demonstrated that it was not the result of response bias. These findings therefore suggest that visual predictions generated during action are sufficiently general across time to support our perception of imitative reactions in others, likely generating a range of benefits during social interaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecological aspects of pain in sensory modulation disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Shalita, T; Deutsch, L; Honigman, L; Weissman-Fogel, I

    2015-01-01

    Sensory Modulation Disorder (SMD) interferes with the daily life participation of otherwise healthy individuals and is characterized by over-, under- or seeking responsiveness to naturally occurring sensory stimuli. Previous laboratory findings indicate pain hyper-sensitivity in SMD individuals suggesting CNS alteration in pain processing and modulation. However, laboratory studies lack ecological validity, and warrant clinical completion in order to elicit a sound understanding of the phenomenon studied. Thus, this study explored the association between sensory modulation and pain in a daily life context in a general population sample. Daily life context of pain and sensations were measured in 250 adults (aged 23-40 years; 49.6% males) using 4 self-report questionnaires: Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ) and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) to evaluate the sensory and cognitive aspects of pain; the Sensory Responsiveness Questionnaire (SRQ) to appraise SMD; and the Short Form - 36 Health Survey, version 2 (SF36) to assess health related Quality of Life (QoL). Thirty two individuals (12.8%) were found with over-responsiveness type of SMD, forming the SOR-SMD group. While no group differences (SOR-SMD vs. Non-SMD) were found, low-to-moderate total sample correlations were demonstrated between the SRQ-Aversive sub-scale and i) PSQ total (r=0.31, pcognitive aspect. This indicates that SMD co-occurs with daily pain sensitivity, thus reducing QoL, but less with the cognitive-catastrophizing manifestation of pain perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION Serological profiles of Herpes simplex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Mirambo

    Journal of Infectious Diseases, 185, 45-52. Watson-Jones, D., Weiss, H.A., Rusizoka, M., Changalucha, J., Baisley, K., Mugeye, K., Tanton, C.,. Ross, D., Everett, D. & Clayton, T. (2008) Effect of herpes simplex suppression on incidence of HIV among women in Tanzania. New England Journal of Medicine 358: 1560-1571.

  20. Short communication Expression profiling analyses of porcine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    identity with those of the human and mice, respectively. ... growth and development, and could be a potential candidate gene for muscle ... were sequenced commercially by Invitrogen (Invitrogen, Shanghai, China) to confirm the identity. The.

  1. Towards point of care testing for C. difficile infection by volatile profiling, using the combination of a short multi-capillary gas chromatography column with metal oxide sensor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, N D; Ewen, R J; De Lacy Costello, B; Garner, C E; Vaughan, K; Ratcliffe, N M; Probert, C S J

    2014-01-01

    Rapid volatile profiling of stool sample headspace was achieved using a combination of short multi-capillary chromatography column (SMCC), highly sensitive heated metal oxide semiconductor sensor and artificial neural network software. For direct analysis of biological samples this prototype offers alternatives to conventional gas chromatography (GC) detectors and electronic nose technology. The performance was compared to an identical instrument incorporating a long single capillary column (LSCC). The ability of the prototypes to separate complex mixtures was assessed using gas standards and homogenized in house ‘standard’ stool samples, with both capable of detecting more than 24 peaks per sample. The elution time was considerably faster with the SMCC resulting in a run time of 10 min compared to 30 min for the LSCC. The diagnostic potential of the prototypes was assessed using 50 C. difficile positive and 50 negative samples. The prototypes demonstrated similar capability of discriminating between positive and negative samples with sensitivity and specificity of 85% and 80% respectively. C. difficile is an important cause of hospital acquired diarrhoea, with significant morbidity and mortality around the world. A device capable of rapidly diagnosing the disease at the point of care would reduce cases, deaths and financial burden. (paper)

  2. Descriptive sensory analysis of Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena DOP and Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Reggio Emilia DOP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeppa, Giuseppe; Gambigliani Zoccoli, Mario; Nasi, Enrico; Masini, Giovanni; Meglioli, Giuseppe; Zappino, Matteo

    2013-12-01

    Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale (ABT) is a typical Italian vinegar available in two different forms: Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Modena DOP (ABTM) and Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale di Reggio Emilia DOP (ABTRE). ABT is obtained by alcoholic fermentation and acetic bio-oxidation of cooked grape must and aged at least 12 years in wooden casks and is known and sold around the world. Despite this widespread recognition, data on sensory characteristics of these products are very scarce. Therefore a descriptive analysis was conducted to define a lexicon for the ABT sensory profile and to create a simple, stable and reproducible synthetic ABT for training panellists. A lexicon of 20 sensory parameters was defined and validated and a synthetic ABT was prepared as standard reference. Simple standards for panellist training were also defined and the sensory profiles of ABTM and ABTRE were obtained. The obtained results confirm that descriptive analysis can be used for the sensory characterisation of ABT and that the sensory profiles of ABTM and ABTRE are very different. Furthermore, the results demonstrate that a lexicon and proper standard references are essential for describing the sensory qualities of ABT both for technical purposes and to protect the product from commercial fraud. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    SNP was screened by comparing sequences of PCR products, and the ... A sharp rise in plasma PRL level may induce incubation behaviour and thus terminate ... Therefore, PRL exhibits similar changing profiles in the reproduction cycle and.

  4. Influence of some packaging materials and of natural tocopherols on the sensory properties of breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradiso, Vito M; Caponio, Francesco; Summo, Carmine; Gomes, Tommaso

    2014-04-01

    The combined effect of natural antioxidants and packaging materials on the quality decay of breakfast cereals during storage was evaluated. Corn flakes were produced on industrial scale, using different packages and adding natural tocopherols to the ingredients, and stored for 1 year. The samples were then submitted to sensory analysis and HS-solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME/GC/MS) analysis. The packaging had a significant influence on the sensory profile of the aged product: metallized polypropylene gave the highest levels of oxidation compounds and sensory defects. The sensory profile was improved using polypropylene and especially high-density polyethylene. Natural tocopherols reduced the sensory decay of the flakes and the oxidative evolution of the volatile profile. They gave the most remarkable improvement in polypropylene (either metallized or not) packs. Polypropylene showed a barrier effect on the scalping of volatiles outside of the pack. This led to higher levels of oxidation volatiles and faster rates of the further oxidative processes involving the volatiles.

  5. Auditory sensory memory and language abilities in former late talkers: a mismatch negativity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossheinrich, Nicola; Kademann, Stefanie; Bruder, Jennifer; Bartling, Juergen; Von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2010-09-01

    The present study investigated whether (a) a reduced duration of auditory sensory memory is found in late talking children and (b) whether deficits of sensory memory are linked to persistent difficulties in language acquisition. Former late talkers and children without delayed language development were examined at the age of 4 years and 7 months using mismatch negativity (MMN) with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) of 500 ms and 2000 ms. Additionally, short-term memory, language skills, and nonverbal intelligence were assessed. MMN mean amplitude was reduced for the ISI of 2000 ms in former late talking children both with and without persistent language deficits. In summary, our findings suggest that late talkers are characterized by a reduced duration of auditory sensory memory. However, deficits in auditory sensory memory are not sufficient for persistent language difficulties and may be compensated for by some children.

  6. Sensory memory for odors is encoded in spontaneous correlated activity between olfactory glomeruli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Roberto F; Weidert, Marcel; Menzel, Randolf; Herz, Andreas V M; Galizia, C Giovanni

    2006-01-01

    Sensory memory is a short-lived persistence of a sensory stimulus in the nervous system, such as iconic memory in the visual system. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying olfactory sensory memory. We have therefore analyzed the effect of odor stimuli on the first odor-processing network in the honeybee brain, the antennal lobe, which corresponds to the vertebrate olfactory bulb. We stained output neurons with a calcium-sensitive dye and measured across-glomerular patterns of spontaneous activity before and after a stimulus. Such a single-odor presentation changed the relative timing of spontaneous activity across glomeruli in accordance with Hebb's theory of learning. Moreover, during the first few minutes after odor presentation, correlations between the spontaneous activity fluctuations suffice to reconstruct the stimulus. As spontaneous activity is ubiquitous in the brain, modifiable fluctuations could provide an ideal substrate for Hebbian reverberations and sensory memory in other neural systems.

  7. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  9. Effects of a Sensory Stimulation by Nurses and Families on Level of Cognitive Function, and Basic Cognitive Sensory Recovery of Comatose Patients With Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moattari, Marzieh; Alizadeh Shirazi, Fatemeh; Sharifi, Nasrin; Zareh, Najaf

    2016-09-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that early sensory stimulation and regular family visiting programs are potential nursing interventions to improve the outcomes of head injured comatose patients. However, little is known about the impacts of family involvement in providing sensory stimulation. To determine the effects of a sensory stimulation program conducted by nurses and families on the consciousness, level of cognitive function, and basic cognitive sensory recovery of head injury comatose patients. This was a randomized clinical trial performed at the Shiraz level I trauma center including 60 head injured comatose patients with an initial Glasgow coma score (GCS) of less than 8. Patients were randomly assigned to receive sensory stimulation by a qualified nurse (nurse group; n = 20), by the family (family group; n = 20), or usual care (control group; n = 20). The sensory stimulation program involving the nurses and patients' families was conducted, twice daily, in the morning and evening for 7 days. The level of consciousness, level of cognitive function, and basic cognitive sensory recovery of the patients were evaluated and monitored using the GCS, Rancho Los Amigos (RLA), and Western Neuro-Sensory stimulation profile (WNSSP). Data were analyzed by chi square, Kruskal-Wallis, and repeated-measures tests using SPSS. All the patients were comparable regarding their baseline characteristics, level of consciousness, level of cognitive function, and basic cognitive sensory recovery determined by GCS, RLA, and WNSSP. Although the two intervention groups of the study improved, those who received the sensory stimulation program from their families had significantly higher GCS (P = 0.001), RLA (P = 0.001), and WNSSP (P = 0.001) scores after 7 days when compared to the two other groups. The application of sensory stimulation by families led to significant increases in the consciousness, level of cognitive function, and basic cognitive sensory recovery of comatose

  10. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auer-Grumbach Michaela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7 identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN, especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra

  11. Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer-Grumbach, Michaela

    2008-03-18

    Hereditary sensory neuropathy type I (HSN I) is a slowly progressive neurological disorder characterised by prominent predominantly distal sensory loss, autonomic disturbances, autosomal dominant inheritance, and juvenile or adulthood disease onset. The exact prevalence is unknown, but is estimated as very low. Disease onset varies between the 2nd and 5th decade of life. The main clinical feature of HSN I is the reduction of sensation sense mainly distributed to the distal parts of the upper and lower limbs. Variable distal muscle weakness and wasting, and chronic skin ulcers are characteristic. Autonomic features (usually sweating disturbances) are invariably observed. Serious and common complications are spontaneous fractures, osteomyelitis and necrosis, as well as neuropathic arthropathy which may even necessitate amputations. Some patients suffer from severe pain attacks. Hypacusis or deafness, or cough and gastrooesophageal reflux have been observed in rare cases. HSN I is a genetically heterogenous condition with three loci and mutations in two genes (SPTLC1 and RAB7) identified so far. Diagnosis is based on the clinical observation and is supported by a family history. Nerve conduction studies confirm a sensory and motor neuropathy predominantly affecting the lower limbs. Radiological studies, including magnetic resonance imaging, are useful when bone infections or necrosis are suspected. Definitive diagnosis is based on the detection of mutations by direct sequencing of the SPTLC1 and RAB7 genes. Correct clinical assessment and genetic confirmation of the diagnosis are important for appropriate genetic counselling and prognosis. Differential diagnosis includes the other hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathies (HSAN), especially HSAN II, as well as diabetic foot syndrome, alcoholic neuropathy, neuropathies caused by other neurotoxins/drugs, immune mediated neuropathy, amyloidosis, spinal cord diseases, tabes dorsalis, lepra neuropathy, or decaying skin

  12. Cognitive mechanisms associated with auditory sensory gating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, L.A.; Hills, P.J.; Dick, K.M.; Jones, S.P.; Bright, P.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory gating is a neurophysiological measure of inhibition that is characterised by a reduction in the P50 event-related potential to a repeated identical stimulus. The objective of this work was to determine the cognitive mechanisms that relate to the neurological phenomenon of auditory sensory gating. Sixty participants underwent a battery of 10 cognitive tasks, including qualitatively different measures of attentional inhibition, working memory, and fluid intelligence. Participants additionally completed a paired-stimulus paradigm as a measure of auditory sensory gating. A correlational analysis revealed that several tasks correlated significantly with sensory gating. However once fluid intelligence and working memory were accounted for, only a measure of latent inhibition and accuracy scores on the continuous performance task showed significant sensitivity to sensory gating. We conclude that sensory gating reflects the identification of goal-irrelevant information at the encoding (input) stage and the subsequent ability to selectively attend to goal-relevant information based on that previous identification. PMID:26716891

  13. Taste characteristics of Chinese bayberry juice characterized by sensory evaluation, chromatography analysis, and an electronic tongue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haiyan; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Jie; Tian, Huaixiang

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese bayberry juice, four types of bayberry juice sourced from different origins and varieties were analysed using sensory evaluation, chromatography, spectroscopy analysis and an electronic tongue (E-tongue). Nine organic acids and three sugars were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Total polyphenols were measured by spectrophotometry. The overall taste profile was collected using the E-tongue. The four types of bayberry juice differed in the sensory attributes of sour, sweet, bitter, and astringent. The E-tongue responses combined with discriminant analysis were able to characterise the taste profiles of the juices. The relationships between the taste compounds and the sensory panel scores established by partial least squares showed that total polyphenols, quininic acid, maleic acid, fructose, citric acid, lactic acid, succinic acid and sucrose made significant contributions to the taste characteristics of the Chinese bayberry juice.

  14. Comparison of Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) and Descriptive sensory Analysis (DA) of model double emulsions with subtle perceptual differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, A.K.L.; Graaf, de C.; Scholten, E.; Stieger, M.A.; Piqueras Fiszman, Phd Betina

    2017-01-01

    The Rate-All-That-Apply (RATA) method, an intensity-based Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) variant, has recently been developed for sensory characterization involving untrained panellists. The aim of this study was to investigate the sensory profiles of ten model (double) emulsions with subtle perceptual

  15. Experienced Sensory Modalities in Dream Recall

    OpenAIRE

    岡田, 斉

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to survey the frequency of visual, auditory, kinaesthetic, cutaneous, organic, gustatory, and olfactory experience in dream recall. A total of 1267 undergraduate students completed a dream recall frequency questionnaire, which contained a question about dream recall frequency and about recall frequency of seven sensory modalities. Results showed that seven sensory modalities were divided into two groups; normally perceived sensory modalities in dreaming, wh...

  16. Development of auditory sensory memory from 2 to 6 years: an MMN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Elisabeth; Sachse, Steffi; von Suchodoletz, Waldemar

    2008-08-01

    Short-term storage of auditory information is thought to be a precondition for cognitive development, and deficits in short-term memory are believed to underlie learning disabilities and specific language disorders. We examined the development of the duration of auditory sensory memory in normally developing children between the ages of 2 and 6 years. To probe the lifetime of auditory sensory memory we elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN), a component of the late auditory evoked potential, with tone stimuli of two different frequencies presented with various interstimulus intervals between 500 and 5,000 ms. Our findings suggest that memory traces for tone characteristics have a duration of 1-2 s in 2- and 3-year-old children, more than 2 s in 4-year-olds and 3-5 s in 6-year-olds. The results provide insights into the maturational processes involved in auditory sensory memory during the sensitive period of cognitive development.

  17. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  18. Sensory quality of drinking water produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration followed by remineralisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska A.; Ruepert, Nienke

    2016-01-01

    to their physical-chemical properties. Sensory profiling was done by descriptive analysis using a trained panel.Significant attributes included taste intensity, the tastes bitter, sweet, salt, metal, fresh and dry mouthfeel, bitter and metal aftertaste, and rough afterfeel. Total dissolved solids (TDS) was a major...

  19. Auditory short-term memory in the primate auditory cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Brian H.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2015-01-01

    Sounds are fleeting, and assembling the sequence of inputs at the ear into a coherent percept requires auditory memory across various time scales. Auditory short-term memory comprises at least two components: an active ���working memory��� bolstered by rehearsal, and a sensory trace that may be passively retained. Working memory relies on representations recalled from long-term memory, and their rehearsal may require phonological mechanisms unique to humans. The sensory component, passive sho...

  20. Relating microstructure, sensory and instrumental texture of processed oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SALMENKALLIO-MARTTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is a part of a larger project aiming to produce new, healthy, and tasty food ingredients from oat. Germination and different heating processes can be used to improve the texture and flavour of cereals. In this study effects of germination and wet and dry heating on the microstructure, instrumental structure and sensory properties of two oat varieties were assessed. The microstructure of native, germinated, autoclaved and extruded grains of the hulled cv. Veli and hull-less cv. Lisbeth was examined by light microscopy, the texture was measured by determining the milling energy and hardness of the grains and sensory characteristics were evaluated with descriptive sensory profile analysis. In cv. Veli the cells of the starchy endosperm were smaller than in cv. Lisbeth and ß-glucan was concentrated in the subaleurone layer. In cv. Lisbeth ß-glucan was evenly distributed in the starchy endosperm. The grains of cv. Lisbeth were more extensively modified in the germination process than the grains of cv. Veli, otherwise the effects of processing on the grains of the two cultivars were similar. Germination caused cell wall degradation, autoclaving and extrusion cooking caused starch gelatinization. Autoclaving resulted in the hardest perceived texture in oat. Gelatinization of starch appeared to contribute more to the hardness of oat groats than the cell wall structure. Of the instrumental methods used in this study the milling energy measurement appeared to be the most useful method for the analysis of the effects of processing on grain structure.;

  1. Sensory evaluation of heating and air conditioning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evin, F.; Siekierski, E. [Electricite de France, Research and Development Division, Les Renardieres, Moret Sur Loing (France)

    2002-07-01

    Existing standards and models, such as ISO 7730 or the work of Fanger [Thermal Comfort], are not sufficient to characterise the satisfaction and pleasantness of end-users provided by heating or air conditioning systems. For this reason Electricite de France (EDF) has initiated a project with the aim of using sensory evaluation techniques in the design of HVAC systems. Sensory evaluation has been used for more than 30 years in the food industry, and now involves the cosmetics, the phone and the automotive industries. It is based on a dual evaluation: sensation measurements carried out by a small panel of trained expert assessors; preference studies performed by a large panel of representative consumers. A correlation between the data of both studies is then used to explain the preferences in terms of sensations (preference mapping). The first experiments performed in 1999 and 2000 have provided lists of descriptors of thermal sensation and acoustic sensation associated with heating and air conditioning appliances. They show that it is possible to define discriminative descriptors, to train a panel and to reliably quantify these descriptors. It is then possible to draw the sensory profiles of different heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The future experimental laboratory that EDF has decided to build is also presented, where the trained panels and end-users will evaluate the sensations and the preferences of real systems in eight 'realistic environmental chambers' designed, furnished and decorated like offices and flats. (author)

  2. Laser microdissection of sensory organ precursor cells of Drosophila microchaetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eulalie Buffin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Drosophila, each external sensory organ originates from the division of a unique precursor cell (the sensory organ precursor cell or SOP. Each SOP is specified from a cluster of equivalent cells, called a proneural cluster, all of them competent to become SOP. Although, it is well known how SOP cells are selected from proneural clusters, little is known about the downstream genes that are regulated during SOP fate specification. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In order to better understand the mechanism involved in the specification of these precursor cells, we combined laser microdissection, toisolate SOP cells, with transcriptome analysis, to study their RNA profile. Using this procedure, we found that genes that exhibit a 2-fold or greater expression in SOPs versus epithelial cells were mainly associated with Gene Ontology (GO terms related with cell fate determination and sensory organ specification. Furthermore, we found that several genes such as pebbled/hindsight, scabrous, miranda, senseless, or cut, known to be expressed in SOP cells by independent procedures, are particularly detected in laser microdissected SOP cells rather than in epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results confirm the feasibility and the specificity of our laser microdissection based procedure. We anticipate that this analysis will give new insight into the selection and specification of neural precursor cells.

  3. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  4. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  5. Sensory reactivity, empathizing and systemizing in autism spectrum conditions and sensory processing disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Tavassoli

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the DSM-5 added sensory symptoms as a criterion for ASC, there is a group of children who display sensory symptoms but do not have ASC; children with sensory processing disorder (SPD. To be able to differentiate these two disorders, our aim was to evaluate whether children with ASC show more sensory symptomatology and/or different cognitive styles in empathy and systemizing compared to children with SPD and typically developing (TD children. The study included 210 participants: 68 children with ASC, 79 with SPD and 63 TD children. The Sensory Processing Scale Inventory was used to measure sensory symptoms, the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ to measure autistic traits, and the Empathy Quotient (EQ and Systemizing Quotient (SQ to measure cognitive styles. Across groups, a greater sensory symptomatology was associated with lower empathy. Further, both the ASC and SPD groups showed more sensory symptoms than TD children. Children with ASC and SPD only differed on sensory under-reactivity. The ASD group did, however, show lower empathy and higher systemizing scores than the SPD group. Together, this suggest that sensory symptoms alone may not be adequate to differentiate children with ASC and SPD but that cognitive style measures could be used for differential diagnosis. Keywords: Autism spectrum conditions, Sensory processing disorder, Sensory symptoms, Empathy, Systemizing

  6. Why do unusual novel foods like insects lack sensory appeal? Investigating the underlying sensory perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan Hui Shan, Grace; Tibboel, Claudia Joyce; Stieger, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Unusual novel foods like insects generally hold little sensory appeal for consumers, but little is known about the underlying sensory perceptions and how the properties of the food contribute to acceptance. This study examined the sensory perceptions of 3 unusual novel foods (lamb brain, frog

  7. A New Conceptualization of Human Visual Sensory-Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öğmen, Haluk; Herzog, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Memory is an essential component of cognition and disorders of memory have significant individual and societal costs. The Atkinson-Shiffrin "modal model" forms the foundation of our understanding of human memory. It consists of three stores: Sensory Memory (SM), whose visual component is called iconic memory, Short-Term Memory (STM; also called working memory, WM), and Long-Term Memory (LTM). Since its inception, shortcomings of all three components of the modal model have been identified. While the theories of STM and LTM underwent significant modifications to address these shortcomings, models of the iconic memory remained largely unchanged: A high capacity but rapidly decaying store whose contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, i.e., according to how the stimulus is projected on the retina. The fundamental shortcoming of iconic memory models is that, because contents are encoded in retinotopic coordinates, the iconic memory cannot hold any useful information under normal viewing conditions when objects or the subject are in motion. Hence, half-century after its formulation, it remains an unresolved problem whether and how the first stage of the modal model serves any useful function and how subsequent stages of the modal model receive inputs from the environment. Here, we propose a new conceptualization of human visual sensory memory by introducing an additional component whose reference-frame consists of motion-grouping based coordinates rather than retinotopic coordinates. We review data supporting this new model and discuss how it offers solutions to the paradoxes of the traditional model of sensory memory.

  8. Sensory characteristics of different cod products related to consumer preferences and attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sveinsdottir, K.; Martinsdottir, E.; Green-Petersen, D.; Hyldig, G.; Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) was used to analyse the sensory quality of eight cod products, different with regard to origin (wild/farmed), storage time (short/extended) and storage method (fresh/frozen/packed in modified atmosphere). At the same time, 378 consumers in four European

  9. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-09

    Jun 9, 2015 ... Our study aimed at assessing if parasites resistance profile has been affected by the implementation of the new treatment policies. Before the policy change, several studies have reported a high level of mutants Pfcrt T76 allele up to 65% in the country [10]. This study shows a decrease of this mutation five ...

  10. Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Toro-Mujica, Paula; Enriquez-Hidalgo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We used a multivariate chemometric approach to differentiate or associate retail bovine milks with different fat contents and non-dairy beverages, using fatty acid profiles and statistical analysis. We collected samples of bovine milk (whole, semi-skim, and skim; n = 62) and non-dairy beverages (...

  11. Mechano- and Chemo-Sensory Polycystins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amanda; Delmas, Patrick; Honoré, Eric

    Polycystins belong to the superfamily of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels and comprise five PKD1-like and three PKD2-like (TRPP) subunits. In this chapter, we review the general properties of polycystins and discuss their specific role in both mechanotransduction and chemoreception. The heteromer PKD1/PKD2 expressed at the membrane of the primary cilium of kidney epithelial cells is proposed to form a mechano-sensitive calcium channel that is opened by physiological fluid flow. Dysfunction or loss of PKD1 or PKD2 polycystin genes may be responsible for the inability of epithelial cells to sense mechanical cues, thus provoking autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), one of the most prevalent genetic kidney disorders. pkd1 and pkd2 knock-out mice recapitulate the human disease. Similarly, PKD2 may function as a mechanosensory calcium channel in the immotile monocilia of the developing node transducing leftward flow into an increase in calcium and specifying the left-right axis. pkd2, unlike pkd1 knock-out embryos are characterized by right lung isomerism (situs inversus). Mechanical stimuli also induce cleavage and nuclear translocation of the PKD1 C-terminal tail, which enters the nucleus and initiates signaling processes involving the AP-1, STAT6 and P100 pathways. This intraproteolytic mechanism is implicated in the transduction of a change in renal fluid flow to a transcriptional long-term response. The heteromer PKD1L3/PKD2L1 is the basis for acid sensing in specialised sensory cells including the taste bud cells responsible for sour taste. Moreover, PKD1L3/PKD2L1 may be implicated in the chemosensitivity of neurons surrounding the spinal cord canal, sensing protons in the cerebrospinal fluid. These recent results demonstrate that polycystins fulfill a major sensory role in a variety of cells including kidney epithelial cells, taste buds cells and spinal cord neurons. Such mechanisms are involved in short- and long-term physiological

  12. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  13. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  14. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  16. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  17. The effect of culinary preparation on carbohydrate composition, texture and sensory quality of Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Vibe; Bennedbæk-Jensen, Sidsel; Kidmose, Ulla

    2013-01-01

    The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) tuber is a root vegetable with excellent gastronomic qualities, however the culinary properties are underexploited. Carbohydrate content, instrumental texture analysis and sensory profiling were used to study the effects of culinary preparation...... in three different varieties of Jerusalem artichoke tubers at two different harvest times. Texture attributes and sweetness were the best sensory attributes to discriminate between varieties, although differences in texture and taste were somewhat evened out during boiling and baking. Instrumentally...

  18. Increased Sensory Processing Atypicalities in Parents of Multiplex ASD Families Versus Typically Developing and Simplex ASD Families

    OpenAIRE

    Donaldson, Chelsea K.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; Donkers, Franc C. L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that sensory processing atypicalities may share genetic influences with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To further investigate this, the adolescent/adult sensory profile (AASP) questionnaire was distributed to 85 parents of typically developing children (P-TD), 121 parents from simplex ASD families (SPX), and 54 parents from multiplex ASD families (MPX). After controlling for gender and presence of mental disorders, results showed that MPX parents significantly d...

  19. Validation of projective mapping as potential sensory screening tool for application by the honeybush herbal tea industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelich, Erika Ilette; Muller, Magdalena; Joubert, Elizabeth; Næs, Tormod; Kidd, Martin

    2017-09-01

    Honeybush herbal tea is produced from the endemic South African Cyclopia species. Plant material subjected to a high-temperature oxidation step ("fermentation") forms the bulk of production. Production lags behind demand forcing tea merchants to use blends of available material to supply local and international markets. The distinct differences in the sensory profiles of the herbal tea produced from the different Cyclopia species require that special care is given to blending to ensure a consistent, high quality product. Although conventional descriptive sensory analysis (DSA) is highly effective in providing a detailed sensory profile of herbal tea infusions, industry requires a method that is more time- and cost-effective. Recent advances in sensory science have led to the development of rapid profiling methodologies. The question is whether projective mapping can successfully be used for the sensory characterisation of herbal tea infusions. Trained assessors performed global and partial projective mapping to determine the validity of this technique for the sensory characterisation of infusions of five Cyclopia species. Similar product configurations were obtained when comparing results of DSA and global and partial projective mapping. Comparison of replicate sessions showed RV coefficients >0.8. A similarity index, based on multifactor analysis, was calculated to determine assessor repeatability. Global projective mapping, demonstrated to be a valid method for providing a broad sensory characterisation of Cyclopia species, is thus suitable as a rapid quality control method of honeybush infusions. Its application by the honeybush industry could improve the consistency of the sensory profile of blended products. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of dietary lipid and protein sources on the sensory quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after ice storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green-Petersen, Ditte; Hyldig, Grethe; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    The influence of dietary protein and lipid sources on the quality of organic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied. The protein and oil sources were fishmeal, fish oil, and organic vegetable protein and oils. Sensory profiling was performed during 3 to 14 days of ice storage along...... with lipid analyses of the fillet. Overall, the results showed that the sensory characteristics of the trout were affected in different ways during ice storage. The source of lipid seemed to affect the sensory quality at the beginning of the storage period, while the protein source seemed to have a more...

  1. Correcting for different use of the scale and the need for further analysis of individual differences in sensory analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romano, R.; Brockhoff, Per B.; Hersleth, M.

    2008-01-01

    in descriptive sensory analysis there exist individual differences between assessors giving intensity scores on a continuous scale for a number of sensory attributes. The present paper is a study of the importance of scaling effects. In particular, different ways of reducing such effects....... The data set used in the paper is based on sensory evaluations of 14 cheese samples profiled by a panel of 12 assessors using 12 descriptors in two replicates. The paper has demonstrated that the simple standardization scalings are only proper scaling estimates under quite restrictive assumptions whilst...

  2. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution...

  3. ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei-Guang; Xu, Tian-Le

    2011-01-19

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs), which are members of the sodium-selective cation channels belonging to the epithelial sodium channel/degenerin (ENaC/DEG) family, act as membrane-bound receptors for extracellular protons as well as nonproton ligands. At least five ASIC subunits have been identified in mammalian neurons, which form both homotrimeric and heterotrimeric channels. The highly proton sensitive ASIC3 channels are predominantly distributed in peripheral sensory neurons, correlating with their roles in multimodal sensory perception, including nociception, mechanosensation, and chemosensation. Different from other ASIC subunit composing ion channels, ASIC3 channels can mediate a sustained window current in response to mild extracellular acidosis (pH 7.3-6.7), which often occurs accompanied by many sensory stimuli. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that the sustained component of ASIC3 currents can be enhanced by nonproton ligands including the endogenous metabolite agmatine. In this review, we first summarize the growing body of evidence for the involvement of ASIC3 channels in multimodal sensory perception and then discuss the potential mechanisms underlying ASIC3 activation and mediation of sensory perception, with a special emphasis on its role in nociception. We conclude that ASIC3 activation and modulation by diverse sensory stimuli represent a new avenue for understanding the role of ASIC3 channels in sensory perception. Furthermore, the emerging implications of ASIC3 channels in multiple sensory dysfunctions including nociception allow the development of new pharmacotherapy.

  4. CHEMICAL, SENSORY AND MICROBIOLOGICAL CHANGES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Adesola Osibona

    Presently, there are numerous problems facing the field of fisheries, some of which are related to the keeping ... The two main methods of assessing fish quality are sensory and non-sensory ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Sample ..... The initial lag phase of micro-organisms in the stored fish was followed by an increase in ...

  5. Sensory testing of the human gastrointestinal tract.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brock, C.; Arendt-Nielsen, L.; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.; Drewes, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this appraisal is to shed light on the various approaches to screen sensory information in the human gut. Understanding and characterization of sensory symptoms in gastrointestinal disorders is poor. Experimental methods allowing the investigator to control stimulus intensity and

  6. A THEORY OF MAXIMIZING SENSORY INFORMATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hateren, J.H. van

    1992-01-01

    A theory is developed on the assumption that early sensory processing aims at maximizing the information rate in the channels connecting the sensory system to more central parts of the brain, where it is assumed that these channels are noisy and have a limited dynamic range. Given a stimulus power

  7. Sensory neuropathy in two Border collie puppies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, K; Van Ham, L; Braund, K G; Bhatti, S; Tshamala, M; Chiers, K; Schrauwen, E

    2005-06-01

    A peripheral sensory neuropathy was diagnosed in two Border collie puppies. Neurological, electrophysiological and histopathological examinations suggested a purely sensory neuropathy with mainly distal involvement. Urinary incontinence was observed in one of the puppies and histological examination of the vagus nerve revealed degenerative changes. An inherited disorder was suspected.

  8. Artificial sensory organs: latest progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Tatsuo; Inada, Yuji; Shigeno, Keiji

    2018-03-01

    This study introduces the latest progress on the study of artificial sensory organs, with a special emphasis on the clinical results of artificial nerves and the concept of in situ tissue engineering. Peripheral nerves have a strong potential for regeneration. An artificial nerve uses this potential to recover a damaged peripheral nerve. The polyglycolic acid collagen tube (PGA-C tube) is a bio-absorbable tube stuffed with collagen of multi-chamber structure that consists of thin collagen films. The clinical application of the PGA-C tube began in 2002 in Japan. The number of PGA-C tubes used is now beyond 300, and satisfactory results have been reported on peripheral nerve repairs. This PGA-C tube is also effective for patients suffering from neuropathic pain.

  9. [Sensory integration: hierarchy and synchronization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriukov, V I

    2005-01-01

    This is the first in the series of mini-reviews devoted to the basic problems and most important effects of attention in terms of neuronal modeling. We believe that the absence of the unified view on wealth of new date on attention is the main obstacle for further understanding of higher nervous activity. The present work deals with the main ground problem of reconciling two competing architectures designed to integrate the sensory information in the brain. The other mini-reviews will be concerned with the remaining five or six problems of attention, all of them to be ultimately resolved uniformly in the framework of small modification of dominant model of attention and memory.

  10. Spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging in patients with sensory neuronopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Casseb, Raphael [University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Campinas, SP (Brazil); University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Neurophysics Group, Department of Cosmic Rays and Chronology, Institute of Physics Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Ribeiro de Paiva, Jean Levi; Teixeira Branco, Lucas Melo; Muro Martinez, Alberto Rolim; Cavalcante Franca, Marcondes Jr. [University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Reis, Fabiano [University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Lima-Junior, Jose Carlos de [University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Department of Internal Medicine, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Castellano, Gabriela [University of Campinas - UNICAMP, Neurophysics Group, Department of Cosmic Rays and Chronology, Institute of Physics Gleb Wataghin, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2016-11-15

    We investigated whether MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis of the cervical spinal cord could aid the (differential) diagnosis of sensory neuronopathies, an underdiagnosed group of diseases of the peripheral nervous system. We obtained spinal cord DTI and T2WI at 3 T from 28 patients, 14 diabetic subjects with sensory-motor distal polyneuropathy, and 20 healthy controls. We quantified DTI-based parameters and looked at the hyperintense T2W signal at the spinal cord posterior columns. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity values at C2-C3 and C3-C4 levels were compared between groups. We also compared average fractional anisotropy (mean of values at C2-C3 and C3-C4 levels). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine diagnostic accuracy of average fractional anisotropy, and we compared its sensitivity against the hyperintense signal in segregating patients from the other subjects. Mean age and disease duration were 52 ± 10 and 11.4 ± 9.3 years in the patient group. Eighteen subjects had idiopathic disease and 6 dysimmune etiology. Fractional anisotropy at C3-C4 level and average fractional anisotropy were significantly different between patients and healthy controls (p < 0.001 and <0.001) and between patients and diabetic subjects (p = 0.019 and 0.027). Average fractional anisotropy presented an area under the curve of 0.838. Moreover, it had higher sensitivity than visual detection of the hyperintense signal (0.86 vs. 0.54), particularly for patients with short disease duration. DTI-based analysis enables in vivo detection of posterior column damage in sensory neuronopathy patients and is a useful diagnostic test for this condition. It also helps the differential diagnosis between sensory neuronopathy and distal polyneuropathies. (orig.)

  11. Spinal cord diffusion tensor imaging in patients with sensory neuronopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Casseb, Raphael; Ribeiro de Paiva, Jean Levi; Teixeira Branco, Lucas Melo; Muro Martinez, Alberto Rolim; Cavalcante Franca, Marcondes Jr.; Reis, Fabiano; Lima-Junior, Jose Carlos de; Castellano, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether MR diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis of the cervical spinal cord could aid the (differential) diagnosis of sensory neuronopathies, an underdiagnosed group of diseases of the peripheral nervous system. We obtained spinal cord DTI and T2WI at 3 T from 28 patients, 14 diabetic subjects with sensory-motor distal polyneuropathy, and 20 healthy controls. We quantified DTI-based parameters and looked at the hyperintense T2W signal at the spinal cord posterior columns. Fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity values at C2-C3 and C3-C4 levels were compared between groups. We also compared average fractional anisotropy (mean of values at C2-C3 and C3-C4 levels). A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to determine diagnostic accuracy of average fractional anisotropy, and we compared its sensitivity against the hyperintense signal in segregating patients from the other subjects. Mean age and disease duration were 52 ± 10 and 11.4 ± 9.3 years in the patient group. Eighteen subjects had idiopathic disease and 6 dysimmune etiology. Fractional anisotropy at C3-C4 level and average fractional anisotropy were significantly different between patients and healthy controls (p < 0.001 and <0.001) and between patients and diabetic subjects (p = 0.019 and 0.027). Average fractional anisotropy presented an area under the curve of 0.838. Moreover, it had higher sensitivity than visual detection of the hyperintense signal (0.86 vs. 0.54), particularly for patients with short disease duration. DTI-based analysis enables in vivo detection of posterior column damage in sensory neuronopathy patients and is a useful diagnostic test for this condition. It also helps the differential diagnosis between sensory neuronopathy and distal polyneuropathies. (orig.)

  12. Sensory Metrics of Neuromechanical Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Softky, William; Benford, Criscillia

    2017-09-01

    that individuals can improve sensory and sociosensory resolution through deliberate sensory reintegration practices. We conclude that we humans are the victims of our own success, our hands so skilled they fill the world with captivating things, our eyes so innocent they follow eagerly.

  13. Application of transglutaminase and fermizyme for sensory quality improvement of pastry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hozová, Bernadetta; Kukurová, Iveta; Dodok, Ladislav

    2003-06-01

    The objective of the model experiment was to find out the improving effect of two selected enzymes, transglutaminase (i) and fermizyme (ii), added at different concentrations of 4.5 mg and 7.5 mg/300 g flour (i) and 15 mg and 60 mg/300 g flour (ii) to the pastry dough on the quality of end products. The investigation was aimed to observe some changes of the sensory parameters (sensory profile) of pastry produced from the freezer-stored dough (-18 +/- 2 degrees C/0, 1, 7 and 14 days), namely shape (camber), odour, taste, crust colour (thickness/hardness), crumb elasticity (porosity, colour, hardness), adhesiveness to palate, etc. It has been ascertained that the sensory quality is favourably affected by the addition of the lower concentration of both enzymes: transglutaminase, 4.5 mg/300 g flour and fermizyme, 15 mg/300 g flour in comparison to the control without enzymes. The cambering ratio values and other sensory profile parameters of pastry gradually decreased during the freezer storage of dough. The best sensory evaluation of both kinds of pastry was achieved after a one-day storage of doughs.

  14. Effects of gluten and transglutaminase on microstructure, sensory characteristics and instrumental texture of oat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SALMENKALLIO-MARTTILA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of added gluten and transglutaminase on microstructure, instrumental texture and sensory characteristics of bread baked with 51% wholemeal oat flour were compared in order to determine how changes in the state of macromolecules – protein and starch – correlate with changes in sensory and instrumental structure. Light microscopy, instrumental texture profile analysis, and descriptive sensory analysis were used to analyse the test breads. Addition of gluten and transglutaminase affected the structure of the protein network and distribution of water between the protein and starch phases. The differences in microstructure were quantified by determining the areas of starch and protein in the micrographs by image analysis. Breads baked with added gluten and water were softer and less gummy than the oat and wheat reference breads in the texture profile analysis. Addition of transglutaminase made the breads harder and gummier than the breads baked without the added enzyme. In the descriptive sensory analysis breads baked with added gluten or added gluten and water were evaluated as more soft and springy than the reference oat bread. Sensory characteristics of bread texture correlated well with the texture and microstructure measured instrumentally.;

  15. The relationship between sensory processing and anxiety on cars scale in autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novaković Neda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by deficits in social interactions, social communication, stereotyped behavior associated with sensory disorders occurring before the age of 3. There has been a growing trend of this neurodevelopmental disorder in recent years. Although the sensory processing problems have been noticed since the first descriptions of autism spectrum disorders, it is only the DSM-5, diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, that includes sensory problems, as the crucial symptom in diagnostic profile of autism spectrum disorder. Objective: To establish the relationship between functional areas related to sensory processing and anxiety, as well as to determine the degree of autistic disorder in adolescents and adults with autism spectrum disorder. Method: 42 participants, adolescents and adults with severe autism disorder and intellectual disability, aged 15-35, of both sexes from Belgrade were evaluated by Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS used to determine the degree of autistic disorder. The following functional areas were compared: sensory interests and anxiety in adolescents and adults with autistic spectrum of both sexes. Results: The results indicated the existence of the relationship between anxiety and unusual sensory interests and the severity of autism spectrum disorder. The results showed that there was a correlation between visual perception and the level of intellectual functioning, especially of the severity of autistic disorder and visual perception. Conclusion: These results indicate the reasons of the problems and difficulties in the field of general adaptation of the individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

  16. Sensory description of sweet wines obtained by the winemaking procedures of raisining, botrytisation and fortification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvarez, Mariana; Noguerol-Pato, Raquel; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-02-15

    The effect of winemaking procedures on the sensory modification of sweet wines was investigated. Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines were obtained by two different processes: by using raisins for vinification to obtain a naturally sweet wine and by using freshly harvested grapes with the stoppage of the fermentation by the addition of alcohol. Eight international sweet wines were also subjected to sensory analysis for comparative description purposes. Wines were described with a sensory profile by 12 trained panellists on 70 sensory attributes by employing the frequency of citation method. Analysis of variance of the descriptive data confirmed the existence of subtle sensory differences among Garnacha Tintorera-based sweet wines depending on the procedure used for their production. Cluster analysis emphasised discriminated attributes between the Garnacha Tintorera-based and the commercial groups of sweet wines for both those obtained by raisining and by fortification. Several kinds of discriminant functions were used to separate groups of sweet wines--obtained by botrytisation, raisining and fortification--to show the key descriptors that contribute to their separation and define the sensory perception of each type of wine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antfolk, Christian; D'Alonzo, Marco; Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran; Sebelius, Fredrik; Cipriani, Christian

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges facing prosthetic designers and engineers is to restore the missing sensory function inherit to hand amputation. Several different techniques can be employed to provide amputees with sensory feedback: sensory substitution methods where the recorded stimulus is not only transferred to the amputee, but also translated to a different modality (modality-matched feedback), which transfers the stimulus without translation and direct neural stimulation, which interacts directly with peripheral afferent nerves. This paper presents an overview of the principal works and devices employed to provide upper limb amputees with sensory feedback. The focus is on sensory substitution and modality matched feedback; the principal features, advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are presented.

  18. Saccadic Eye Movements Impose a Natural Bottleneck on Visual Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Sven; Rolfs, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) is a crucial repository of information when events unfold rapidly before our eyes, yet it maintains only a fraction of the sensory information encoded by the visual system. Here, we tested the hypothesis that saccadic eye movements provide a natural bottleneck for the transition of fragile content in sensory memory…

  19. Multi-Sensory Integration Impairment in Patients with Minimal Hepatic Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyoungwon; Jun, Dae Won; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Ryu, Hokyoung

    2017-11-02

    Paper-and-pencil-based psychometric tests are the gold standard for diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction in liver disease. However, they take time, can be affected by demographic factors, and lack ecological validity. This study explored multi-sensory integration ability to discriminate cognitive dysfunction in cirrhosis. Thirty-two healthy controls and 30 cirrhotic patients were recruited. The sensory integration test presents stimuli from two different modalities (e.g., image/sound) with a short time lag, and subjects judge which stimuli appeared first. Repetitive tests reveal the sensory integration capability. Performance in the sensory integration test, psychometric tests, and functional near-infrared spectroscopy for patients was compared to controls. Sensory integration capability, the perceptual threshold to discriminate the time gap between an image and sound stimulus, was significantly impaired in cirrhotic patients with minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) compared to controls (p integration test showed good correlation with psychometric tests (NCT-A, r = 0.383, p = 0.002; NCT-B, r = 0.450, p integration test was not affected. The sensory integration test, where a cut-off value for the perceptual threshold was 133.3ms, recognized MHE patients at 90% sensitivity and 86.5% specificity.

  20. Effect of micro-oxygenation on sensory characteristics and consumer preference of Cabernet Sauvignon wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpinello, Giuseppina Paola; Plumejeau, François; Maury, Chantal; Versari, Andrea

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to improve the structure of a Cabernet Sauvignon red wine in a short period of time by micro-oxygenation (MOX) at high rates (25 and 50 mL L(-1) month(-1) ), the effects of which were evaluated based on sensory characteristics and consumer preference. Sensory data were analysed by principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and ordinal logistic regression (OLR). MOX led to significant differences in the colour, colour stability and phenolic compounds of wine. Sensory characteristics also changed through MOX treatment, and wine experts were able to discriminate between MOX-treated and untreated samples, with olfactory intensity, complexity, astringency and roundness being the main discriminating characteristics. Ordinal logistic regression enabled identification of the sensory characteristics that drove consumer preference. MOX at high rates improved the sensory characteristics of wine and may therefore be considered a valid technique for obtaining structured wines in a short period of time, i.e. within just a few months after the vintage. The results highlight the need for (i) careful selection of the MOX dosage rate and duration (the 25 mL L(-1) month(-1) dose for 6 days provided the best result) and (ii) continuous monitoring of the MOX treatment. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Impact of heating on sensory properties of French Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) blue cheeses. Relationships with physicochemical parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bord, Cécile; Guerinon, Delphine; Lebecque, Annick

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the impact of heating on the sensory properties of blue-veined cheeses in order to characterise their sensory properties and to identify their specific sensory typology associated with physicochemical parameters. Sensory profiles were performed on a selection of Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) cheeses representing the four blue-veined cheese categories produced in the Massif Central (Fourme d'Ambert, Fourme de Montbrison, Bleu d'Auvergne and Bleu des Causses). At the same time, physicochemical parameters were measured in these cheeses. The relationship between these two sets of data was investigated. Four types of blue-veined cheeses displayed significantly different behaviour after heating and it is possible to discriminate these cheese categories through specific sensory attributes. Fourme d'Ambert and Bleu d'Auvergne exhibited useful culinary properties: they presented good meltability, stretchability and a weak oiling-off. However, basic tastes (salty, bitter and sour) are also sensory attributes which can distinguish heated blue cheeses. The relationship between the sensory and physicochemical data indicated a correlation suggesting that some of these sensory properties may be explained by certain physicochemical parameters of heated cheeses. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Kristina M; Martin, Alison; Lydiate, Jessica; MacDermid, Joy C; Galea, Victoria; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2012-05-10

    Arthritis of the hand can limit a person's ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception.

  3. Sensory perception: lessons from synesthesia: using synesthesia to inform the understanding of sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Joshua Paul

    2013-06-01

    Synesthesia, the conscious, idiosyncratic, repeatable, and involuntary sensation of one sensory modality in response to another, is a condition that has puzzled both researchers and philosophers for centuries. Much time has been spent proving the condition's existence as well as investigating its etiology, but what can be learned from synesthesia remains a poorly discussed topic. Here, synaesthesia is presented as a possible answer rather than a question to the current gaps in our understanding of sensory perception. By first appreciating the similarities between normal sensory perception and synesthesia, one can use what is known about synaesthesia, from behavioral and imaging studies, to inform our understanding of "normal" sensory perception. In particular, in considering synesthesia, one can better understand how and where the different sensory modalities interact in the brain, how different sensory modalities can interact without confusion - the binding problem - as well as how sensory perception develops.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sensory neuropathy type IA Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary sensory neuropathy type IA is a condition characterized by nerve abnormalities in ...

  5. Cortical plasticity as a mechanism for storing Bayesian priors in sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köver, Hania; Bao, Shaowen

    2010-05-05

    Human perception of ambiguous sensory signals is biased by prior experiences. It is not known how such prior information is encoded, retrieved and combined with sensory information by neurons. Previous authors have suggested dynamic encoding mechanisms for prior information, whereby top-down modulation of firing patterns on a trial-by-trial basis creates short-term representations of priors. Although such a mechanism may well account for perceptual bias arising in the short-term, it does not account for the often irreversible and robust changes in perception that result from long-term, developmental experience. Based on the finding that more frequently experienced stimuli gain greater representations in sensory cortices during development, we reasoned that prior information could be stored in the size of cortical sensory representations. For the case of auditory perception, we use a computational model to show that prior information about sound frequency distributions may be stored in the size of primary auditory cortex frequency representations, read-out by elevated baseline activity in all neurons and combined with sensory-evoked activity to generate a perception that conforms to Bayesian integration theory. Our results suggest an alternative neural mechanism for experience-induced long-term perceptual bias in the context of auditory perception. They make the testable prediction that the extent of such perceptual prior bias is modulated by both the degree of cortical reorganization and the magnitude of spontaneous activity in primary auditory cortex. Given that cortical over-representation of frequently experienced stimuli, as well as perceptual bias towards such stimuli is a common phenomenon across sensory modalities, our model may generalize to sensory perception, rather than being specific to auditory perception.

  6. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  7. A stroke patient with impairment of auditory sensory (echoic) memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, T; Karino, S; Yumoto, M; Funayama, M

    2014-04-01

    A 42-year-old man suffered damage to the left supra-sylvian areas due to a stroke and presented with verbal short-term memory (STM) deficits. He occasionally could not recall even a single syllable that he had heard one second before. A study of mismatch negativity using magnetoencephalography suggested that the duration of auditory sensory (echoic) memory traces was reduced on the affected side of the brain. His maximum digit span was four with auditory presentation (equivalent to the 1st percentile for normal subjects), whereas it was up to six with visual presentation (almost within the normal range). He simply showed partial recall in the digit span task, and there was no self correction or incorrect reproduction. From these findings, reduced echoic memory was thought to have affected his verbal short-term retention. Thus, the impairment of verbal short-term memory observed in this patient was "pure auditory" unlike previously reported patients with deficits of the phonological short-term store (STS), which is the next higher-order memory system. We report this case to present physiological and behavioral data suggesting impaired short-term storage of verbal information, and to demonstrate the influence of deterioration of echoic memory on verbal STM.

  8. Modeling Battery Behavior on Sensory Operations for Context-Aware Smartphone Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Yurur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption is a major concern in context-aware smartphone sensing. This paper first studies mobile device-based battery modeling, which adopts the kinetic battery model (KiBaM, under the scope of battery non-linearities with respect to variant loads. Second, this paper models the energy consumption behavior of accelerometers analytically and then provides extensive simulation results and a smartphone application to examine the proposed sensor model. Third, a Markov reward process is integrated to create energy consumption profiles, linking with sensory operations and their effects on battery non-linearity. Energy consumption profiles consist of different pairs of duty cycles and sampling frequencies during sensory operations. Furthermore, the total energy cost by each profile is represented by an accumulated reward in this process. Finally, three different methods are proposed on the evolution of the reward process, to present the linkage between different usage patterns on the accelerometer sensor through a smartphone application and the battery behavior. By doing this, this paper aims at achieving a fine efficiency in power consumption caused by sensory operations, while maintaining the accuracy of smartphone applications based on sensor usages. More importantly, this study intends that modeling the battery non-linearities together with investigating the effects of different usage patterns in sensory operations in terms of the power consumption and the battery discharge may lead to discovering optimal energy reduction strategies to extend the battery lifetime and help a continual improvement in context-aware mobile services.

  9. Modeling battery behavior on sensory operations for context-aware smartphone sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurur, Ozgur; Liu, Chi Harold; Moreno, Wilfrido

    2015-05-26

    Energy consumption is a major concern in context-aware smartphone sensing. This paper first studies mobile device-based battery modeling, which adopts the kinetic battery model (KiBaM), under the scope of battery non-linearities with respect to variant loads. Second, this paper models the energy consumption behavior of accelerometers analytically and then provides extensive simulation results and a smartphone application to examine the proposed sensor model. Third, a Markov reward process is integrated to create energy consumption profiles, linking with sensory operations and their effects on battery non-linearity. Energy consumption profiles consist of different pairs of duty cycles and sampling frequencies during sensory operations. Furthermore, the total energy cost by each profile is represented by an accumulated reward in this process. Finally, three different methods are proposed on the evolution of the reward process, to present the linkage between different usage patterns on the accelerometer sensor through a smartphone application and the battery behavior. By doing this, this paper aims at achieving a fine efficiency in power consumption caused by sensory operations, while maintaining the accuracy of smartphone applications based on sensor usages. More importantly, this study intends that modeling the battery non-linearities together with investigating the effects of different usage patterns in sensory operations in terms of the power consumption and the battery discharge may lead to discovering optimal energy reduction strategies to extend the battery lifetime and help a continual improvement in context-aware mobile services.

  10. Some Motivational Properties of Sensory Stimulation in Psychotic Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincover, Arnold; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This experiment assessed the reinforcing properties of sensory stimulation for autistic children using three different types of sensory stimulation: music, visual flickering, and visual movement. (SB)

  11. Omega-3 and -6 fatty acid supplementation and sensory processing in toddlers with ASD symptomology born preterm: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Kelly M; Gracious, Barbara; Klebanoff, Mark A; Rogers, Lynette K; Rausch, Joseph; Coury, Daniel L; Keim, Sarah A

    2017-12-01

    Despite advances in the health and long-term survival of infants born preterm, they continue to face developmental challenges including higher risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and atypical sensory processing patterns. This secondary analysis aimed to describe sensory profiles and explore effects of combined dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) supplementation on parent-reported sensory processing in toddlers born preterm who were exhibiting ASD symptoms. 90-day randomized, double blinded, placebo-controlled trial. 31 children aged 18-38months who were born at ≤29weeks' gestation. Mixed effects regression analyses followed intent to treat and explored effects on parent-reported sensory processing measured by the Infant/Toddler Sensory Profile (ITSP). Baseline ITSP scores reflected atypical sensory processing, with the majority of atypical scores falling below the mean. Sensory processing sections: auditory (above=0%, below=65%), vestibular (above=13%, below=48%), tactile (above=3%, below=35%), oral sensory (above=10%; below=26%), visual (above=10%, below=16%); sensory processing quadrants: low registration (above=3%; below=71%), sensation avoiding (above=3%; below=39%), sensory sensitivity (above=3%; below=35%), and sensation seeking (above=10%; below=19%). Twenty-eight of 31 children randomized had complete outcome data. Although not statistically significant (p=0.13), the magnitude of the effect for reduction in behaviors associated with sensory sensitivity was medium to large (effect size=0.57). No other scales reflected a similar magnitude of effect size (range: 0.10 to 0.32). The findings provide support for larger randomized trials of omega fatty acid supplementation for children at risk of sensory processing difficulties, especially those born preterm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy of Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation to Improve Locomotor Performance in a Discordant Sensory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, D. R.; De Dios, Y. E.; Layne, C. S.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to microgravity face sensorimotor challenges incurred when readapting to a gravitational environment. Sensorimotor Adaptability (SA) training has been proposed as a countermeasure to improve locomotor performance during re-adaptation, and it is suggested that the benefits of SA training may be further enhanced by improving detection of weak sensory signals via mechanisms such as stochastic resonance when a non-zero level of stochastic white noise based electrical stimulation is applied to the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS). The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of using SVS to improve short-term adaptation in a sensory discordant environment during performance of a locomotor task.

  13. Active inference, sensory attenuation and illusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Harriet; Adams, Rick A; Parees, Isabel; Edwards, Mark; Friston, Karl

    2013-11-01

    Active inference provides a simple and neurobiologically plausible account of how action and perception are coupled in producing (Bayes) optimal behaviour. This can be seen most easily as minimising prediction error: we can either change our predictions to explain sensory input through perception. Alternatively, we can actively change sensory input to fulfil our predictions. In active inference, this action is mediated by classical reflex arcs that minimise proprioceptive prediction error created by descending proprioceptive predictions. However, this creates a conflict between action and perception; in that, self-generated movements require predictions to override the sensory evidence that one is not actually moving. However, ignoring sensory evidence means that externally generated sensations will not be perceived. Conversely, attending to (proprioceptive and somatosensory) sensations enables the detection of externally generated events but precludes generation of actions. This conflict can be resolved by attenuating the precision of sensory evidence during movement or, equivalently, attending away from the consequences of self-made acts. We propose that this Bayes optimal withdrawal of precise sensory evidence during movement is the cause of psychophysical sensory attenuation. Furthermore, it explains the force-matching illusion and reproduces empirical results almost exactly. Finally, if attenuation is removed, the force-matching illusion disappears and false (delusional) inferences about agency emerge. This is important, given the negative correlation between sensory attenuation and delusional beliefs in normal subjects--and the reduction in the magnitude of the illusion in schizophrenia. Active inference therefore links the neuromodulatory optimisation of precision to sensory attenuation and illusory phenomena during the attribution of agency in normal subjects. It also provides a functional account of deficits in syndromes characterised by false inference

  14. Sensory description of marine oils through development of a sensory wheel and vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larssen, W E; Monteleone, E; Hersleth, M

    2018-04-01

    The Omega-3 industry lacks a defined methodology and a vocabulary for evaluating the sensory quality of marine oils. This study was conducted to identify the sensory descriptors of marine oils and organize them in a sensory wheel for use as a tool in quality assessment. Samples of marine oils were collected from six of the largest producers of omega-3 products in Norway. The oils were selected to cover as much variation in sensory characteristics as possible, i.e. oils with different fatty acid content originating from different species. Oils were evaluated by six industry expert panels and one trained sensory panel to build up a vocabulary through a series of language sessions. A total of 184 aroma (odor by nose), flavor, taste and mouthfeel descriptors were generated. A sensory wheel based on 60 selected descriptors grouped together in 21 defined categories was created to form a graphical presentation of the sensory vocabulary. A selection of the oil samples was also evaluated by a trained sensory panel using descriptive analysis. Chemical analysis showed a positive correlation between primary and secondary oxidation products and sensory properties such as rancidity, chemical flavor and process flavor and a negative correlation between primary oxidation products and acidic. This research is a first step towards the broader objective of standardizing the sensory terminology related to marine oils. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Sensory Substitution for Wounded Servicemembers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-28

    recently blinded individual without verbal notification (e.g., to tap his or her shoulder) can lead to a startle response as he or she can not perceive...34. WUtWt IM» 1 *• ,. .. ,„ List RtcoQWTtd °ftoflfi/n# male short a Figure 6: / eft , BrainPort® display showing stereo presentation of a

  16. Electromagnetic Characterization Of Metallic Sensory Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wincheski, Russell A.; Simpson, John; Wallace, Terryl A.; Newman, John A.; Leser, Paul; Lahue, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Ferromagnetic shape-memory alloy (FSMA) particles undergo changes in both electromagnetic properties and crystallographic structure when strained. When embedded in a structural material, these attributes can provide sensory output of the strain state of the structure. In this work, a detailed characterization of the electromagnetic properties of a FSMA under development for sensory applications is performed. In addition, a new eddy current probe is used to interrogate the electromagnetic properties of individual FSMA particles embedded in the sensory alloy during controlled fatigue tests on the multifunctional material.

  17. Understanding the sensory irregularities of esophageal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Adam D; Brock, Christina; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Gregersen, Hans; Khan, Sheeba; Lelic, Dina; Lottrup, Christian; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2016-08-01

    Symptoms relating to esophageal sensory abnormalities can be encountered in the clinical environment. Such sensory abnormalities may be present in demonstrable disease, such as erosive esophagitis, and in the ostensibly normal esophagus, such as non-erosive reflux disease or functional chest pain. In this review, the authors discuss esophageal sensation and the esophageal pain system. In addition, the authors provide a primer concerning the techniques that are available for investigating the autonomic nervous system, neuroimaging and neurophysiology of esophageal sensory function. Such technological advances, whilst not readily available in the clinic may facilitate the stratification and individualization of therapy in disorders of esophageal sensation in the future.

  18. Sensory optimization by stochastic tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurica, Peter; Gepshtein, Sergei; Tyukin, Ivan; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2013-10-01

    Individually, visual neurons are each selective for several aspects of stimulation, such as stimulus location, frequency content, and speed. Collectively, the neurons implement the visual system's preferential sensitivity to some stimuli over others, manifested in behavioral sensitivity functions. We ask how the individual neurons are coordinated to optimize visual sensitivity. We model synaptic plasticity in a generic neural circuit and find that stochastic changes in strengths of synaptic connections entail fluctuations in parameters of neural receptive fields. The fluctuations correlate with uncertainty of sensory measurement in individual neurons: The higher the uncertainty the larger the amplitude of fluctuation. We show that this simple relationship is sufficient for the stochastic fluctuations to steer sensitivities of neurons toward a characteristic distribution, from which follows a sensitivity function observed in human psychophysics and which is predicted by a theory of optimal allocation of receptive fields. The optimal allocation arises in our simulations without supervision or feedback about system performance and independently of coupling between neurons, making the system highly adaptive and sensitive to prevailing stimulation. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Sensorial saturation for infants' pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Coccina, Francesca; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Sensorial saturation (SS) is a multisensorial stimulation consisting of delicate tactile, gustative, auditory and visual stimuli. This procedure consists of simultaneously: attracting the infant's attention by massaging the infant's face; speaking to the infant gently, but firmly, and instilling a sweet solution on the infant's tongue. We performed a systematic Medline search of for articles focusing on human neonatal studies related to SS. The search was performed within the last 10 years and was current as of January 2012. We retrieved 8 articles that used a complete form of SS and 2 articles with an incomplete SS. Data show that the use of SS is effective in relieving newborns' pain. Oral solution alone are less effective than SS, but the stimuli without oral sweet solution are ineffective. the partial forms of SS have some effectiveness, but minor than the complete SS. Only one article showed lack of SS as analgesic method, after endotracheal suctioning. SS can be used for all newborns undergoing blood samples or other minor painful procedures. It is more effective than oral sugar alone. SS also promotes interaction between nurse and infant and is a simple effective form of analgesia for the neonatal intensive care unit.

  20. Behavioral guides for sensory neurophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, M

    2006-06-01

    The study of natural behavior is important for understanding the coding schemes of sensory systems. The jamming avoidance response of the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia is an excellent example of a bottom-up approach, in which behavioral analyses guided neurophysiological studies. These studies started from the electroreceptive sense organs to the motor output consisting of pacemaker neurons. Going in the opposite direction, from the central nervous system to lower centers, is the characteristic of the top-down approach. Although this approach is perhaps more difficult than the bottom-up approach, it was successfully employed in the neuroethological analysis of sound localization in the barn owl. In the latter studies, high-order neurons selective for complex natural stimuli led to the discovery of neural pathways and networks responsible for the genesis of the stimulus selectivity. Comparison of Eigenmannia and barn owls, and their neural systems, has revealed similarities in network designs, such as parallel pathways and their convergence to produce stimulus selectivity necessary for detection of natural stimuli.