WorldWideScience

Sample records for short sample limit

  1. Waste tank characterization sampling limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ''TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories'' (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel

  2. An information capacity limitation of visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, David K; Lilburn, Simon D; Smith, Philip L

    2014-12-01

    Research suggests that visual short-term memory (VSTM) has both an item capacity, of around 4 items, and an information capacity. We characterize the information capacity limits of VSTM using a task in which observers discriminated the orientation of a single probed item in displays consisting of 1, 2, 3, or 4 orthogonally oriented Gabor patch stimuli that were presented in noise for 50 ms, 100 ms, 150 ms, or 200 ms. The observed capacity limitations are well described by a sample-size model, which predicts invariance of ∑(i)(d'(i))² for displays of different sizes and linearity of (d'(i))² for displays of different durations. Performance was the same for simultaneous and sequentially presented displays, which implicates VSTM as the locus of the observed invariance and rules out explanations that ascribe it to divided attention or stimulus encoding. The invariance of ∑(i)(d'(i))² is predicted by the competitive interaction theory of Smith and Sewell (2013), which attributes it to the normalization of VSTM traces strengths arising from competition among stimuli entering VSTM. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. A short TE gradient-echo sequence using asymmetric sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Norihiko; Harada, Kohshi; Sakurai, Kosuke; Nakanishi, Katsuyuki; Kim, Shyogen; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1990-01-01

    We have developed a gradient-echo pulse sequence with a short TE less than 4 msec using a data set of asymmetric off-center sampling with a broad bandwidth. The use of such a short TE significantly reduces T 2 * dephasing effect even in a two-dimensional mode, and by collecting an off-center echo, motion-induced phase dispersion is also considerably decreased. High immunity of this sequence to these dephasing effects permits clear visualization of anatomical details near the skull base where large local field inhomogeneities and rapid blood flow such as in the internal carotid artery are present. (author)

  4. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nause, Ariel; Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham

    2014-01-01

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect

  5. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nause, Ariel, E-mail: arielnau@post.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Exact Sciences, Department of Physics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physical Electronics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2014-08-15

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect.

  6. Be-7 as a tracer for short-term soil surface changes - opportunities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    Within the last 20 years the cosmogenic nuclide Beryllium-7 was successfully established as a suitable tracer element to detect soil surface changes with a high accuracy. Particularly soil erosion rates from single precipitation events are in the focus of different studies due to the short radioactive half-life of the Be-7 isotope. High sorption at topmost soil particles and immobility at given pH-values enable fine-scaled erosion modelling down to 2 mm increments. But some important challenging limitations require particular attention, starting from sampling up to the final data evaluation. E.g. these are the realisation of the fine increment soil collection, the limiting amount of measurable samples per campaign due to the short radioactive half-life and the specific requirements for the detector measurements. Both, the high potential and the challenging limitations are presented as well as future perspectives of that tracer method.

  7. Understanding the Sampling Distribution and the Central Limit Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Charla P.

    The sampling distribution is a common source of misuse and misunderstanding in the study of statistics. The sampling distribution, underlying distribution, and the Central Limit Theorem are all interconnected in defining and explaining the proper use of the sampling distribution of various statistics. The sampling distribution of a statistic is…

  8. A distance limited method for sampling downed coarse woody debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey H. Gove; Mark J. Ducey; Harry T. Valentine; Michael S. Williams

    2012-01-01

    A new sampling method for down coarse woody debris is proposed based on limiting the perpendicular distance from individual pieces to a randomly chosen sample point. Two approaches are presented that allow different protocols to be used to determine field measurements; estimators for each protocol are also developed. Both protocols are compared via simulation against...

  9. Capacitive effects in IGBTs limiting their reliability under short circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Rahimo, Munaf

    2017-01-01

    The short-circuit oscillation mechanism in IGBTs is investigated in this paper by the aid of semiconductor device simulation tools. A 3.3-kV IGBT cell has been used for the simulations demonstrating that a single IGBT cell is able to oscillate together with the external circuit parasitic elements....... The work presented here through both circuit and device analysis, confirms that the oscillations can be understood with focus on the device capacitive effects coming from the interaction between carrier concentration and the electric field. The paper also shows the 2-D effects during one oscillation cycle...

  10. Limitation of short-circuit power due to distributed generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morren, J.; Reckers, T.J.M.; Berende, M.J.C.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction of DG units in the network will result in increasing fault current levels. In this contribution several solutions are described to limit the fault currents in the network, in order to avoid overloading and destruction of components in the networks. The main focus of the paper is on the

  11. Sample Preparation for Electron Probe Microanalysis—Pushing the Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Joseph D.; Engle, Paul D.

    2002-01-01

    important, and, under certain conditions, may even be the limiting factor in the analytical uncertainty budget. This paper considers preparing samples to get known geometries. It will not address the analysis of samples with irregular, unprepared surfaces or unknown geometries. PMID:27446757

  12. Sample Preparation for Electron Probe Microanalysis-Pushing the Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Joseph D; Engle, Paul D

    2002-01-01

    important, and, under certain conditions, may even be the limiting factor in the analytical uncertainty budget. This paper considers preparing samples to get known geometries. It will not address the analysis of samples with irregular, unprepared surfaces or unknown geometries.

  13. UNLABELED SELECTED SAMPLES IN FEATURE EXTRACTION FOR CLASSIFICATION OF HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGES WITH LIMITED TRAINING SAMPLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kianisarkaleh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Feature extraction plays a key role in hyperspectral images classification. Using unlabeled samples, often unlimitedly available, unsupervised and semisupervised feature extraction methods show better performance when limited number of training samples exists. This paper illustrates the importance of selecting appropriate unlabeled samples that used in feature extraction methods. Also proposes a new method for unlabeled samples selection using spectral and spatial information. The proposed method has four parts including: PCA, prior classification, posterior classification and sample selection. As hyperspectral image passes these parts, selected unlabeled samples can be used in arbitrary feature extraction methods. The effectiveness of the proposed unlabeled selected samples in unsupervised and semisupervised feature extraction is demonstrated using two real hyperspectral datasets. Results show that through selecting appropriate unlabeled samples, the proposed method can improve the performance of feature extraction methods and increase classification accuracy.

  14. Short Note An integrated remote sampling approach for aquatic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sampling method and apparatus for collecting meaningful and quantifiable samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates, and the macrophytes they are associated with, are presented. Where physical danger from wildlife is a significant factor, especially in Africa, this apparatus offers some safety in that it can be operated from a ...

  15. Development of a short sample test facility for evaluating superconducting wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.R.; Kulkarni, D.G.; Sahni, V.C.; Ravikumar, G.; Patel, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we describe a short sample test facility we have set up at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). This facility has been used to measure critical currents of NbTi/Cu composite superconducting wires by recording V versus I data at 4.2 K. It offers sample current as large as 1500 A and a transverse magnetic field up to 7.4 T. A power law, V ∼I n( H) is fitted to the resistive transition region to estimate the exponent n, which is a measure of the uniformity of superconducting filaments in composite wires. It is observed that inadequate thermal stabilization of sample wire results in thermal runaway, which limits the V-I data to∼ 2μ V . This in turn affects the reliability of estimated filament uniformity. To mitigate this problem, we have used a sample holder made of OFHC-Cu which enhances thermal stabilization of the sample. With this sample holder, the results of measurements carried out on wires developed by the Atomic Fuel Division, BARC show a high filament uniformity (n ∼ 58). (author)

  16. Including Below Detection Limit Samples in Post Decommissioning Soil Sample Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Yim, Man Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    To meet the required standards the site owner has to show that the soil at the facility has been sufficiently cleaned up. To do this one must know the contamination of the soil at the site prior to clean up. This involves sampling that soil to identify the degree of contamination. However there is a technical difficulty in determining how much decontamination should be done. The problem arises when measured samples are below the detection limit. Regulatory guidelines for site reuse after decommissioning are commonly challenged because the majority of the activity in the soil at or below the limit of detection. Using additional statistical analyses of contaminated soil after decommissioning is expected to have the following advantages: a better and more reliable probabilistic exposure assessment, better economics (lower project costs) and improved communication with the public. This research will develop an approach that defines an acceptable method for demonstrating compliance of decommissioned NPP sites and validates that compliance. Soil samples from NPP often contain censored data. Conventional methods for dealing with censored data sets are statistically biased and limited in their usefulness.

  17. The Impact of Including Below Detection Limit Samples in Post Decommissioning Soil Sample Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Hwan; Yim, Man-Sung [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    To meet the required standards the site owner has to show that the soil at the facility has been sufficiently cleaned up. To do this one must know the contamination of the soil at the site prior to clean up. This involves sampling that soil to identify the degree of contamination. However there is a technical difficulty in determining how much decontamination should be done. The problem arises when measured samples are below the detection limit. Regulatory guidelines for site reuse after decommissioning are commonly challenged because the majority of the activity in the soil at or below the limit of detection. Using additional statistical analyses of contaminated soil after decommissioning is expected to have the following advantages: a better and more reliable probabilistic exposure assessment, better economics (lower project costs) and improved communication with the public. This research will develop an approach that defines an acceptable method for demonstrating compliance of decommissioned NPP sites and validates that compliance. Soil samples from NPP often contain censored data. Conventional methods for dealing with censored data sets are statistically biased and limited in their usefulness. In this research, additional methods are performed using real data from a monazite manufacturing factory.

  18. Pedagogical Simulation of Sampling Distributions and the Central Limit Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagtvedt, Reidar; Jones, Gregory Todd; Jones, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Students often find the fact that a sample statistic is a random variable very hard to grasp. Even more mysterious is why a sample mean should become ever more Normal as the sample size increases. This simulation tool is meant to illustrate the process, thereby giving students some intuitive grasp of the relationship between a parent population…

  19. Short-Term Memory Limitations in Children: Capacity or Processing Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Michelene T. H.

    1976-01-01

    Evaluates the assertion that short-term memory (STM) capacity increases with age and concludes that the STM capacity limitation in children is due to the deficits in the processing strategies and speeds, which presumably improve with age through cumulative learning. (JM) Available from: Memory and Cognition, Psychonomic Society, 1018 West 34…

  20. Robustness of Majorana bound states in the short-junction limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sticlet, D.C.; Nijholt, B.; Akhmerov, A.R.

    2017-01-01

    We study the effects of strong coupling between a superconductor and a semiconductor nanowire on the creation of the Majorana bound states, when the quasiparticle dwell time in the normal part of the nanowire is much shorter than the inverse superconducting gap. This "short-junction" limit is

  1. CSR Wake for a Short Magnet in Ultra-Relativistic Limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emma, Paul J

    2002-01-01

    Using results for the CSR wake in a short magnet [1] we obtain expressions for the wake in the limit of very large values of the relativistic factor γ, γ → ∞, for both the entrance and exit of the magnet. The analytical results are illustrated with numerical computation of the wakes, energy loss and energy spread for magnets of different lengths

  2. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perk, Marcel van der [Department of Physical Geography, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80115, 3508 TC Utrecht (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.vanderperk@geo.uu.nl; De Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria [Agenzia per la Protezione dell' Ambiente e per i Servizi Tecnici (APAT), Servizio Laboratori, Misure ed Attivita di Campo, Via di Castel Romano, 100-00128 Roma (Italy); Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Agency' s Laboratories Seibersdorf, A-1400 Vienna (Austria); Jeran, Zvonka; Jacimovic, Radojko [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2008-11-15

    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  3. The effect of short-range spatial variability on soil sampling uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Perk, Marcel; de Zorzi, Paolo; Barbizzi, Sabrina; Belli, Maria; Fajgelj, Ales; Sansone, Umberto; Jeran, Zvonka; Jaćimović, Radojko

    2008-11-01

    This paper aims to quantify the soil sampling uncertainty arising from the short-range spatial variability of elemental concentrations in the topsoils of agricultural, semi-natural, and contaminated environments. For the agricultural site, the relative standard sampling uncertainty ranges between 1% and 5.5%. For the semi-natural area, the sampling uncertainties are 2-4 times larger than in the agricultural area. The contaminated site exhibited significant short-range spatial variability in elemental composition, which resulted in sampling uncertainties of 20-30%.

  4. The Nature of the Capacity Limitations in Visual Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    Several studies have explored the nature and in particular the limitations of human visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 objects has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...... either Arabic or Japanese. Our results indicate that VSTM capacity for familiar items - compared to unfamiliar - is larger, irrespective of their visual complexity, hereby suggesting that visual long-term memory representation and training play an important role in regard to the capacity limitations...

  5. Dense graph limits under respondent-driven sampling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siva Athreya

    Types of network. Food. Political. Social. Linkedin. Protien. Professional. Source: IUPUI Network Sampling course. Page 3. Techniques to Analyse Networks. Network Characteristics: • Distribution: degree, clustering coefficient, hop-plot. ... Hypothesis Testing: H0: Graph is a linkedin network. H1: Graph is a facebook network ...

  6. On the transition from short-range diffusion-limited to collision-limited growth in alloy solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.J.; Boettinger, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Short-range diffusion-limited growth, collision-limited growth, and the transition between the two regimes are explained as natural consequences of a single model for the kinetics of alloy solidification. Analytical expressions are developed for the velocity-undercooling function of a planar interface during dilute alloy solidification, using Turnbull's collision-limited growth model and the Continuous Growth Solute Trapping Model of Aziz and Kaplan both with and without a solute drag effect. The interface mobility, -dv/dT, is shown to be very high (proportional to the speed of sound) if the alloy is sufficiently dilute or if the growth rate is sufficiently rapid for nearly complete solute trapping. The interface mobility is reduced by the three orders of magnitude (becoming proportional to the diffusive speed) at intermediate growth rates where partial solute trapping occurs. Differences in low velocity predictions of the models with and without solute drag are also discussed. Comparison of the results of the analytical expressions to numerical solutions of the non-dilute kinetic model for Al-Be alloys shows that the dilute approximation breaks down at melt compositions on the order of 10 at.%. Similar variations in the interface mobility are shown for the disorder-trapping model of Boettinger and Aziz

  7. Prioritization to limit sampling and drilling in site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major goals of the Environmental Research Division of Argonne National Laboratory is to develop and provide governmental agencies with technically sound, cost-effective frameworks for environmental site characterization and remedial programs. An example of the development of such a framework for preremedial site characterization is presented in this paper. Specifically, this paper presents portions of an expanded site investigation program developed for landfills suspected of containing hazardous waste. The work was sponsored by the New Mexico State Office of the US Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The emphasis of the BLM program was on identifying initial characterization procedures that would decrease the need for sampling and drilling on a random grid

  8. DURATION LIMIT OF LASER PULSES EMITTED FROM A Ce-DOPED CRYSTAL SHORT CAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Hoang Hai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the rate equation set for broadband cavities, the dependence of pulse duration on cavity and pumping parameters is analyzed. The cavity uses a Ce-doped crystal as a gain medium. Computation results show the variation of the pulse width with the change of cavity length, mirror reflectivity, pumping energy and pumping pulse duration. A significant influence of multiple-pulse operation in limiting pulse duration is realized and a pulse-width of the order 200 ps is found to be the limit for the direct generation of ultraviolet single picosecond pulses from a Ce:LLF short cavity.

  9. Determination of short-lived trace elements in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardani, S.; Sihombing, E.; Hamzah, A.; Rochidi; Hery, P.S.; Hartaman, S.; Iman, J.

    1998-01-01

    Concentration of a short-lived trace elements in environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, a counting loss often occur due to the high counting rate. A Pile-Up Rejecter (PUR) electric circuit was installed in counting a short-lived trace elements by a γ-ray spectrometer in order to correct a counting loss. The samples were irradiated for 30∼60 seconds at neutron flux of 3.5 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 , then the samples cooled for 120 second and counted for 180 second using this system. The nuclides concentration in the varieties environmental samples have a difference analysis result, was more accurate and precise, which the measured result would be 30 % more higher by PUR system than the result would be counted using a conventional γ-ray spectrometry method

  10. Validation of the Short Form of the Career Development Inventory with an Iranian High School Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Ahmad; Baghban, Iran; Bahrami, Fatemeh; Ahmadi, Ahmad; Creed, Peter

    2011-01-01

    A short 33-item form of the Career Development Inventory was validated on a sample of 310 Iranian high school students. Factor analysis indicated that attitude and cognitive subscale items loaded on their respective factors, and that internal reliability coefficients at all levels were satisfactory to good. Support for validity was demonstrated by…

  11. The frontal eye fields limit the capacity of visual short-term memory in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Min; Ahn, Kyung-Ha

    2013-01-01

    The frontal eye fields (FEF) in rhesus monkeys have been implicated in visual short-term memory (VSTM) as well as control of visual attention. Here we examined the importance of the area in the VSTM capacity and the relationship between VSTM and attention, using the chemical inactivation technique and multi-target saccade tasks with or without the need of target-location memory. During FEF inactivation, serial saccades to targets defined by color contrast were unaffected, but saccades relying on short-term memory were impaired when the target count was at the capacity limit of VSTM. The memory impairment was specific to the FEF-coded retinotopic locations, and subject to competition among targets distributed across visual fields. These results together suggest that the FEF plays a crucial role during the entry of information into VSTM, by enabling attention deployment on targets to be remembered. In this view, the memory capacity results from the limited availability of attentional resources provided by FEF: The FEF can concurrently maintain only a limited number of activations to register the targets into memory. When lesions render part of the area unavailable for activation, the number would decrease, further reducing the capacity of VSTM.

  12. The frontal eye fields limit the capacity of visual short-term memory in rhesus monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Min Lee

    Full Text Available The frontal eye fields (FEF in rhesus monkeys have been implicated in visual short-term memory (VSTM as well as control of visual attention. Here we examined the importance of the area in the VSTM capacity and the relationship between VSTM and attention, using the chemical inactivation technique and multi-target saccade tasks with or without the need of target-location memory. During FEF inactivation, serial saccades to targets defined by color contrast were unaffected, but saccades relying on short-term memory were impaired when the target count was at the capacity limit of VSTM. The memory impairment was specific to the FEF-coded retinotopic locations, and subject to competition among targets distributed across visual fields. These results together suggest that the FEF plays a crucial role during the entry of information into VSTM, by enabling attention deployment on targets to be remembered. In this view, the memory capacity results from the limited availability of attentional resources provided by FEF: The FEF can concurrently maintain only a limited number of activations to register the targets into memory. When lesions render part of the area unavailable for activation, the number would decrease, further reducing the capacity of VSTM.

  13. Shared filtering processes link attentional and visual short-term memory capacity limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettencourt, Katherine C; Michalka, Samantha W; Somers, David C

    2011-09-30

    Both visual attention and visual short-term memory (VSTM) have been shown to have capacity limits of 4 ± 1 objects, driving the hypothesis that they share a visual processing buffer. However, these capacity limitations also show strong individual differences, making the degree to which these capacities are related unclear. Moreover, other research has suggested a distinction between attention and VSTM buffers. To explore the degree to which capacity limitations reflect the use of a shared visual processing buffer, we compared individual subject's capacities on attentional and VSTM tasks completed in the same testing session. We used a multiple object tracking (MOT) and a VSTM change detection task, with varying levels of distractors, to measure capacity. Significant correlations in capacity were not observed between the MOT and VSTM tasks when distractor filtering demands differed between the tasks. Instead, significant correlations were seen when the tasks shared spatial filtering demands. Moreover, these filtering demands impacted capacity similarly in both attention and VSTM tasks. These observations fail to support the view that visual attention and VSTM capacity limits result from a shared buffer but instead highlight the role of the resource demands of underlying processes in limiting capacity.

  14. 14CO2 analysis of soil gas: Evaluation of sample size limits and sampling devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wotte, Anja; Wischhöfer, Philipp; Wacker, Lukas; Rethemeyer, Janet

    2017-12-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) analysis of CO2 respired from soils or sediments is a valuable tool to identify different carbon sources. The collection and processing of the CO2, however, is challenging and prone to contamination. We thus continuously improve our handling procedures and present a refined method for the collection of even small amounts of CO2 in molecular sieve cartridges (MSCs) for accelerator mass spectrometry 14C analysis. Using a modified vacuum rig and an improved desorption procedure, we were able to increase the CO2 recovery from the MSC (95%) as well as the sample throughput compared to our previous study. By processing series of different sample size, we show that our MSCs can be used for CO2 samples of as small as 50 μg C. The contamination by exogenous carbon determined in these laboratory tests, was less than 2.0 μg C from fossil and less than 3.0 μg C from modern sources. Additionally, we tested two sampling devices for the collection of CO2 samples released from soils or sediments, including a respiration chamber and a depth sampler, which are connected to the MSC. We obtained a very promising, low process blank for the entire CO2 sampling and purification procedure of ∼0.004 F14C (equal to 44,000 yrs BP) and ∼0.003 F14C (equal to 47,000 yrs BP). In contrast to previous studies, we observed no isotopic fractionation towards lighter δ13C values during the passive sampling with the depth samplers.

  15. Monkeys have a limited form of short-term memory in audition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Mishkin, Mortimer; Yin, Pingbo

    2012-07-24

    A stimulus trace may be temporarily retained either actively [i.e., in working memory (WM)] or by the weaker mnemonic process we will call passive short-term memory, in which a given stimulus trace is highly susceptible to "overwriting" by a subsequent stimulus. It has been suggested that WM is the more robust process because it exploits long-term memory (i.e., a current stimulus activates a stored representation of that stimulus, which can then be actively maintained). Recent studies have suggested that monkeys may be unable to store acoustic signals in long-term memory, raising the possibility that they may therefore also lack auditory WM. To explore this possibility, we tested rhesus monkeys on a serial delayed match-to-sample (DMS) task using a small set of sounds presented with ~1-s interstimulus delays. Performance was accurate whenever a match or a nonmatch stimulus followed the sample directly, but it fell precipitously if a single nonmatch stimulus intervened between sample and match. The steep drop in accuracy was found to be due not to passive decay of the sample's trace, but to retroactive interference from the intervening nonmatch stimulus. This "overwriting" effect was far greater than that observed previously in serial DMS with visual stimuli. The results, which accord with the notion that WM relies on long-term memory, indicate that monkeys perform serial DMS in audition remarkably poorly and that whatever success they had on this task depended largely, if not entirely, on the retention of stimulus traces in the passive form of short-term memory.

  16. Contamination profiles of short-chain polychlorinated n-alkanes in foodstuff samples from Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, Hidenori; Kurunthachalam, S; Ohi, Etsumasa; Takasuga, Takumi [Shimadzu Techno Research, Inc., Kyoto (Japan); Iino, Fukuya; Nakanishi, Junko [National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Polychlorinated n-alkanes (PCAs) are group of chemicals manufactured by chlorination of liquid n-paraffin or paraffin wax that contain 30 to 70% chlorine by weight. Large amounts of PCAs are widely used as plasticizers for vinyl chloride, lubricants, paints, and flame retardants and number of other industrial applications. Annual global production of PCAs is approximately 300 kilo tones, with a majority having medium-carbon-chain (C14-C19) length. According to the investigation made by Kagaku Kogyo Nippon-Sha, the annual consumption of PCAs in Japan was about 83,000 tons in between 1986-2001. Short-carbon-chain (C10-C13) has been placed on the Priority Substance List under Canadian Environmental Protection Act and on the Environmental Protection Agency Toxic Release Inventory in the USA due to its potential to act as tumor promoters in mammals. Data on environment levels of PCAs is meager, nevertheless, PCAs have been measured at relatively high concentrations in biota from Sweden, biota, sediment from Canada and marine biota and human milk from the Canadian Arctic. In our earlier study, we reported concentrations of short-chain PCAs from sewage treatment plant (STP) collected from Tama River, Tokyo and river water and sediment from Tokyo and Osaka. STP influent water contained greater shortchain PCAs concentrations than STP effluent. In addition, some river water and sediment samples contained detectable concentrations of short-chain PCAs, which was similar to other industrial countries. However, there is no study conducted to explore the contamination profiles of short-chain PCAs in human foodstuff samples. In the present study, we analyzed eleven foodstuff samples that were purchased from various supermarkets in order to know the short-chain PCAs concentrations in the foodstuff and possible human total daily intake (TDI) amounts.

  17. Psychometric properties of Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) original and short forms in an African American community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Erin L; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Roesch, Scott C; Ko, Celine M; Emerson, Marc; Roma, Vincenzo G; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2013-12-01

    The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) has been widely used as a self-report measure of affect in community and clinical contexts. However, evaluations of the psychometric properties of PANAS scores have been limited in diverse ethnic groups. Several short forms of the PANAS have also been proposed, but very little is known about the psychometric properties of these versions. The present study investigated the psychometric properties, including the factor structure of the original PANAS and two short forms in an African American community sample (N=239). Descriptive, internal consistency reliability, factorial validity, and measurement invariance analyses were conducted. All PANAS subscales from the original and short forms had adequate internal consistency. For the original PANAS, the model specifying three correlated factors (Positive Affect, Afraid, Upset) with correlated uniquenesses from redundant items provided the best fit to the data. However, the two-factor model (Positive Affect, Negative Affect) with correlated uniquenesses was also supported. For both short forms, the two-factor model with correlated uniquenesses fit the data best. Factors from all forms were generally invariant across age and gender, although there was some minor invariance at the item level. Participants were from a limited geographic area and one ethnic group. Indicators of anxiety, depression, and cultural characteristics were not measured. The factor structure was replicated, suggesting no immediate concerns regarding the valid interpretation of PANAS scores. The results support the reliability and validity of the PANAS and its short forms for use among African Americans. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  19. Creel survey sampling designs for estimating effort in short-duration Chinook salmon fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Joshua L.; Quist, Michael C.; Schill, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Chinook Salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha sport fisheries in the Columbia River basin are commonly monitored using roving creel survey designs and require precise, unbiased catch estimates. The objective of this study was to examine the relative bias and precision of total catch estimates using various sampling designs to estimate angling effort under the assumption that mean catch rate was known. We obtained information on angling populations based on direct visual observations of portions of Chinook Salmon fisheries in three Idaho river systems over a 23-d period. Based on the angling population, Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the properties of effort and catch estimates for each sampling design. All sampling designs evaluated were relatively unbiased. Systematic random sampling (SYS) resulted in the most precise estimates. The SYS and simple random sampling designs had mean square error (MSE) estimates that were generally half of those observed with cluster sampling designs. The SYS design was more efficient (i.e., higher accuracy per unit cost) than a two-cluster design. Increasing the number of clusters available for sampling within a day decreased the MSE of estimates of daily angling effort, but the MSE of total catch estimates was variable depending on the fishery. The results of our simulations provide guidelines on the relative influence of sample sizes and sampling designs on parameters of interest in short-duration Chinook Salmon fisheries.

  20. Limited BRC rulemaking: Regulatory approach and experience in Texas for short-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBurney, Ruth E.; Pollard, Christine G.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, the Texas Department of Health (TDH) implemented a rule to allow, under certain conditions, wastes containing limited concentrations of short- lived radionuclides (less than 300-day half-life) to be disposed of in Type I sanitary landfills. The rule was based on a technical analysis that demonstrated the degree of safety for approximately 340 m of radioactive waste generated annually in Texas and identified major restrictions and conditions for disposal. TDH's Bureau of Radiation Control staff have been able to maintain an account of licensees utilizing the rule during the past years. Several research and industrial facilities in the state have saved significantly on waste disposal expenses. Public concerns and economic impacts for licensees as well as other regulatory aspects and experiences with the rule are discussed. (author)

  1. Theoretical analysis of saturation and limit cycles in short pulse FEL oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piovella, N.; Chaix, P.; Jaroszynski, D. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    We derive a model for the non linear evolution of a short pulse oscillator from low signal up to saturation in the small gain regime. This system is controlled by only two independent parameters: cavity detuning and losses. Using a closure relation, this model reduces to a closed set of 5 non linear partial differential equations for the EM field and moments of the electron distribution. An analysis of the linearised system allows to define and calculate the eigenmodes characterising the small signal regime. An arbitrary solution of the complete nonlinear system can then be expanded in terms of these eigenmodes. This allows interpreting various observed nonlinear behaviours, including steady state saturation, limit cycles, and transition to chaos. The single mode approximation reduces to a Landau-Ginzburg equation. It allows to obtain gain, nonlinear frequency shift, and efficiency as functions of cavity detuning and cavity losses. A generalisation to two modes allows to obtain a simple description of the limit cycle behaviour, as a competition between these two modes. An analysis of the transitions to more complex dynamics is also given. Finally, the analytical results are compared to the experimental data from the FELIX experiment.

  2. An Application of the Short-Term Forecasting with Limited Data in the Healthcare Traveling Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoang-Sa Dang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In real practice, forecasting under the limited data has attracted more attention in business activities, especially in the healthcare traveling industry in its current stage. However, there are only a few research studies focusing on this issue. Thus, the purposes of this paper were to determine the forecasted performance of several current forecasting methods as well as to examine their applications. Taking advantage of the small data requirement for model construction, three models including the exponential smoothing model, the Grey model GM(1,1, and the modified Lotka-Volterra model (L.V., were used to conduct forecasting analyses based on the data of foreign patients from 2001 to 2013 in six destinations. The results indicated that the L.V. model had higher prediction power than the other two models, and it obtained the best forecasting performance with an 89.7% precision rate. In conclusion, the L.V. model is the best model for estimating the market size of the healthcare traveling industry, followed by the GM(1,1 model. The contribution of this study is to offer a useful statistical tool for short-term planning, which can be applied to the healthcare traveling industry in particular, and for other business forecasting under the conditions of limited data in general.

  3. Influence of short-term sampling parameters on the uncertainty of the Lden environmental noise indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus, M; Carrilho, J Dias; Da Silva, M Gameiro

    2015-01-01

    The present study deals with the influence of the sampling parameters on the uncertainty of noise equivalent level in environmental noise measurements. The study has been carried out through the test of different sampling strategies doing resampling trials over continuous monitoring noise files obtained previously in an urban location in the city of Coimbra, in Portugal. On short term measurements, not only the duration of the sampling episodes but also its number have influence on the uncertainty of the result. This influence is higher for the time periods where sound levels suffer a greater variation, such as during the night period. In this period, in case both parameters (duration and number of sampling episodes) are not carefully selected, the uncertainty level can reach too high values contributing to a loss of precision of the measurements. With the obtained data it was investigated the sampling parameters influence on the long term noise indicator uncertainty, calculated according the Draft 1st CD ISO 1996-2:2012 proposed method. It has been verified that this method allows the possibility of defining a general methodology which enables the setting of the parameters once the precision level is fixed. For the three reference periods defined for environmental noise (day, evening and night), it was possible to derive a two variable power law representing the uncertainty of the determined values as a function of the two sampling parameters: duration of sampling episode and number of episodes

  4. A severe capacity limit in the consolidation of orientation information into visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mark W; Miller, James R; Liu, Taosheng

    2013-04-01

    Previous research has suggested that two color patches can be consolidated into visual short-term memory (VSTM) via an unlimited parallel process. Here we examined whether the same unlimited-capacity parallel process occurs for two oriented grating patches. Participants viewed two gratings that were presented briefly and masked. In blocks of trials, the gratings were presented either simultaneously or sequentially. In Experiments 1 and 2, the presentation of the stimuli was followed by a location cue that indicated the grating on which to base one's response. In Experiment 1, participants responded whether the target grating was oriented clockwise or counterclockwise with respect to vertical. In Experiment 2, participants indicated whether the target grating was oriented along one of the cardinal directions (vertical or horizontal) or was obliquely oriented. Finally, in Experiment 3, the location cue was replaced with a third grating that appeared at fixation, and participants indicated whether either of the two test gratings matched this probe. Despite the fact that these responses required fairly coarse coding of the orientation information, across all methods of responding we found superior performance for sequential over simultaneous presentations. These findings suggest that the consolidation of oriented gratings into VSTM is severely limited in capacity and differs from the consolidation of color information.

  5. Short-Run Contexts and Imperfect Testing for Continuous Sampling Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Rodriguez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Continuous sampling plans are used to ensure a high level of quality for items produced in long-run contexts. The basic idea of these plans is to alternate between 100% inspection and a reduced rate of inspection frequency. Any inspected item that is found to be defective is replaced with a non-defective item. Because not all items are inspected, some defective items will escape to the customer. Analytical formulas have been developed that measure both the customer perceived quality and also the level of inspection effort. The analysis of continuous sampling plans does not apply to short-run contexts, where only a finite-size batch of items is to be produced. In this paper, a simulation algorithm is designed and implemented to analyze the customer perceived quality and the level of inspection effort for short-run contexts. A parameter representing the effectiveness of the test used during inspection is introduced to the analysis, and an analytical approximation is discussed. An application of the simulation algorithm that helped answer questions for the U.S. Navy is discussed.

  6. Measurement of radon-222 concentration in environment sampled within short time using charcoal detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Sekiyama, Shigenobu; Tokin, Mina; Nakayasu, Yumiko; Watanabe, Tamaki.

    1994-01-01

    The concentration of 222 Rn in air sampled within a very short period of time was measured using activated charcoal as the adsorber. The detector is the plastic canister containing mixture of the activated charcoal and the silica gel. The radon gas was adsorbed in the charcoal in the radon chamber at the temperature of 25degC. A little amount of liquid scintillation cocktail was added into the vial of liquid scintillation counter with the canister. The radon in the charcoal was extracted in the liquid scintillation cocktail. Alpha particles emitted from radon and its daughter nuclei in the cocktail were detected using the liquid scintillation counter. Present method has advantages of not only short sampling time of air but also adsorption of radon in charcoal under a constant temperature. The concentration of radon in air down to 2 Bq/m 3 could be detected. A kinetic model for adsorption of radon in the charcoal is also presented. The ratio of radon concentration in the charcoal to that in air under the equilibrium state of adsorption was estimated to be from 6.1 to 6.8 m 3 /kg at the temperature of 25degC. (author)

  7. A low-volume cavity ring-down spectrometer for sample-limited applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowasser, C.; Farinas, A. D.; Ware, J.; Wistisen, D. W.; Rella, C.; Wahl, E.; Crosson, E.; Blunier, T.

    2014-08-01

    In atmospheric and environmental sciences, optical spectrometers are used for the measurements of greenhouse gas mole fractions and the isotopic composition of water vapor or greenhouse gases. The large sample cell volumes (tens of milliliters to several liters) in commercially available spectrometers constrain the usefulness of such instruments for applications that are limited in sample size and/or need to track fast variations in the sample stream. In an effort to make spectrometers more suitable for sample-limited applications, we developed a low-volume analyzer capable of measuring mole fractions of methane and carbon monoxide based on a commercial cavity ring-down spectrometer. The instrument has a small sample cell (9.6 ml) and can selectively be operated at a sample cell pressure of 140, 45, or 20 Torr (effective internal volume of 1.8, 0.57, and 0.25 ml). We present the new sample cell design and the flow path configuration, which are optimized for small sample sizes. To quantify the spectrometer's usefulness for sample-limited applications, we determine the renewal rate of sample molecules within the low-volume spectrometer. Furthermore, we show that the performance of the low-volume spectrometer matches the performance of the standard commercial analyzers by investigating linearity, precision, and instrumental drift.

  8. Dried blood spot measurement: application in tacrolimus monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chi Yuen; van der Heijden, Jaques; Hoogtanders, Karin; Christiaans, Maarten; Liu, Yan Lun; Chan, Yiu Han; Choi, Koon Shing; van de Plas, Afke; Shek, Chi Chung; Chau, Ka Foon; Li, Chun Sang; van Hooff, Johannes; Stolk, Leo

    2008-02-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry have been developed in monitoring tacrolimus levels. Our center favors the use of limited sampling strategy and abbreviated formula to estimate the area under concentration-time curve (AUC(0-12)). However, it is inconvenient for patients because they have to wait in the center for blood sampling. We investigated the application of DBS method in tacrolimus level monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation approach. Duplicate venous samples were obtained at each time point (C(0), C(2), and C(4)). To determine the stability of blood samples, one venous sample was sent to our laboratory immediately. The other duplicate venous samples, together with simultaneous fingerprick blood samples, were sent to the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands. Thirty six patients were recruited and 108 sets of blood samples were collected. There was a highly significant relationship between AUC(0-12), estimated from venous blood samples, and fingerprick blood samples (r(2) = 0.96, P AUC(0-12) strategy as drug monitoring.

  9. Decreasing of the detection limit for gamma-ray Spectrometry with the influence of sample treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, M.; Sadighzadeh, A.; Asgharizadeh, F.; Sardari, D.; Tavassoli, A.; Arbabi, A.; Hochaghani, O.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In this study the ash method has been applied for environmental sample treatment in order to decrease of the detection limit in gamma-ray spectrometry for low level radioactivity measurements. Detection limit in gamma ray spectrometry is the smallest expectation value of the net counting rate that can be detected on given probabilities. The environmental test samples have been changed into ash using a suitable oven. The heating were made under controlled temperature to avoid the escape of some radionuclides such as radiocaesium. The ash samples were measured by high resolution gamma-ray spectrometry system. (author)

  10. The beryllium quandary: will the lower exposure limits spur new developments in sampling and analysis?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisson, Michael

    2013-06-03

    At the time this article was written, new rulemakings were under consideration at OSHA and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) that would propose changes to occupational exposure limits for beryllium. Given these developments, it’s a good time to review the tools and methods available to IHs for assessing beryllium air and surface contamination in the workplace—what’s new and different, and what’s tried and true. The article discusses limit values and action levels for beryllium, problematic aspects of beryllium air sampling, sample preparation, sample analysis, and data evaluation.

  11. Short Communication: Comparison of Maxim and Sedia Limiting Antigen Assay Performance for Measuring HIV Incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlusser, Katherine E; Konikoff, Jacob; Kirkpatrick, Allison R; Morrison, Charles; Chipato, Tsungai; Chen, Pai-Lien; Munjoma, Marshall; Eshleman, Susan H; Laeyendecker, Oliver

    2017-06-01

    Accurate methods for cross-sectional incidence estimation are needed for HIV prevention research. The Limiting Antigen Avidity (LAg-Avidity) assay has been marketed by two vendors, Maxim Biomedical and Sedia BioSciences Corporation. Performance differences between the two versions of the assay are unknown. We tested a total 1,410 treatment-naive samples with both versions of the assay. The samples came from 176 seroconverters from the Zimbabwe Hormonal Contraception and HIV Study. The correlation between the two versions of the assay was 0.93 for the optical density (OD) and 0.86 for the normalized OD. As the difference was more pronounced for the normalized OD, the difference in assays can be attributed to the calibrators. The mean duration of recent infection (MDRI), the average time individuals infected 1,000 copies/ml. The MDRI was 137 days for Sedia and 157 days for Maxim, with a difference of 20 days (95% CI 11-30). The MDRIs decreased to 102 and 120 days with the inclusion of a viral load cutoff of >1,000 copies/ml. These results imply that use of the Sedia LAg-Avidity will result in estimates of incidence ∼13% lower than those using the Maxim LAg-Avidity.

  12. Limited-area short-range ensemble predictions targeted for heavy rain in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sattler

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Inherent uncertainties in short-range quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF from the high-resolution, limited-area numerical weather prediction model DMI-HIRLAM (LAM are addressed using two different approaches to creating a small ensemble of LAM simulations, with focus on prediction of extreme rainfall events over European river basins. The first ensemble type is designed to represent uncertainty in the atmospheric state of the initial condition and at the lateral LAM boundaries. The global ensemble prediction system (EPS from ECMWF serves as host model to the LAM and provides the state perturbations, from which a small set of significant members is selected. The significance is estimated on the basis of accumulated precipitation over a target area of interest, which contains the river basin(s under consideration. The selected members provide the initial and boundary data for the ensemble integration in the LAM. A second ensemble approach tries to address a portion of the model-inherent uncertainty responsible for errors in the forecasted precipitation field by utilising different parameterisation schemes for condensation and convection in the LAM. Three periods around historical heavy rain events that caused or contributed to disastrous river flooding in Europe are used to study the performance of the LAM ensemble designs. The three cases exhibit different dynamic and synoptic characteristics and provide an indication of the ensemble qualities in different weather situations. Precipitation analyses from the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD are used as the verifying reference and a comparison of daily rainfall amounts is referred to the respective river basins of the historical cases.

  13. Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limited short-wavelength optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M.; Jackson, KeithH.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, John S.; Sommargren, Gary E.; Chapman, Henry N.; Phillion, Donald W.; Johnson, Michael; Barty, Anton; Soufli, Regina; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Bajt, Sasa

    2005-01-01

    Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-(angstrom) and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date

  14. The Effect of Current-Limiting Reactors on the Tripping of Short Circuits in High-Voltage Electrical Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, M. S.; Gusev, Yu. P.; Monakov, Yu. V.; Cho, Gvan Chun

    2016-01-01

    The insertion of current-limiting reactors into electrical equipment operating at a voltage of 110 and 220 kV produces a change in the parameters of the transient recovery voltages at the contacts of the circuit breakers for disconnecting short circuits, which could be the reason for the increase in the duration of the short circuit, damage to the electrical equipment and losses in the power system. The results of mathematical modeling of the transients, caused by tripping of the short circuit in a reactive electric power transmission line are presented, and data are given on the negative effect of a current-limiting resistor on the rate of increase and peak value of the transient recovery voltages. Methods of ensuring the standard requirements imposed on the parameters of the transient recovery voltages when using current-limiting reactors in the high-voltage electrical equipment of power plants and substations are proposed and analyzed

  15. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio De Franchi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  16. Short Rotation Forestry (SRF in a Mediterranean Environment Under Limited Energy Inputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Lovelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is comparing the two year performance (diameter, total height and mortality of twenty tree and shrub species in a semi arid environment. The research also wants to supply recommendation on the agronomic cropping techniques in areas where rainfall is the main limiting factor and water use is strictly limited. Woody biomass is gaining increasing importance for energy production in Italy. During the last five years, roughly 5000 ha of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF have been planted, mostly in northern Italy, especially using poplar clones. However, in Southern Italy, due to the poor rainfall and the lack of knowledge existing on the species to use, few groves have been established. The studied groves were set in December 2005 in a Mediterranean area where the total year rainfall is not higher than 600 mm (mostly in autumn and winter. Twenty species (Salix cinerea, Ulmus carpinifolia, Corylus avellana, Spartium junceum, Acer saccharinum, Morus alba, Saphora japonica, Eleagnus angustifolia, Fraxinus angustifolia (var oxicarpa, Sambucus nigra, Robinia pseudoacacia, Populus nigra, Albizia julibrissis, Populus alba, Salix alba, Ailanthus altissima, Alnus cordata, Ficus carica, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Celtis australis were planted in “collection” plots and set in singular plots on single rows (3 m X 0.5 m spacing. Six species (R. pseudoacacia, P. nigra, P. alba, S. nigra, E. camaldulensis, and A. altissima were planted in eighteen random “experimental” split-plots, using single and twin rows (0.5 m spacing between plants. Plots had a rectangular plant spacing (3 m between singular and twin rows, 0.5 m on each row. Plant density was roughly 6670 cuttings ha-1 in “collection” plots with singular rows and 10950 cuttings ha-1 in “experimental” plots using single and twin rows. The expected harvest interval ranges from 2 to 5 years, depending on the first results. In the “collection” plots, the first results showed

  17. A Volume-Limited Sample of L and T Dwarfs Defined by Parallaxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene; Dupuy, Trent

    2018-01-01

    Volume-limited samples are the gold standard for stellar population studies, as they enable unbiased measurements of space densities and luminosity functions. Parallaxes are the most direct measures of distance and are therefore essential for defining high-confidence volume limited samples. Previous efforts to model the local brown dwarf population were hampered by samples based on a small number of parallaxes. We are using UKIRT/WFCAM to conduct the largest near-infrared program to date to measure parallaxes and proper motions of L and T dwarfs. For the past 3+ years we have monitored over 350 targets, ≈90% of which are too faint to be observed by Gaia. We present preliminary results from our observations. Our program more than doubles the number of known L and T dwarf parallaxes, defining a volume-limited sample of ≈400 L0-T6 dwarfs out to 25 parsecs, the first L and T dwarf sample of this size and depth based entirely on parallaxes. Our sample will combine with the upcoming stellar census from Gaia DR2 parallaxes to form a complete volume-limited sample of nearby stars and brown dwarfs.

  18. Technical Study on Improvement of Endurance Capability of Limit Short-circuit Current of Charge Control SMART Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, W. W.; Du, Z. Z.; Yuan, R. m.; Xiong, D. Z.; Shi, E. W.; Lu, G. N.; Dai, Z. Y.; Chen, X. Q.; Jiang, Z. Y.; Lv, Y. G.

    2017-10-01

    Smart meter represents the development direction of energy-saving smart grid in the future. The load switch, one of the core parts of smart meter, should be of high reliability, safety and endurance capability of limit short-circuit current. For this reason, this paper discusses the quick simulation of relationship between attraction and counterforce of load switch without iteration, establishes dual response surface model of attraction and counterforce and optimizes the design scheme of load switch for charge control smart meter, thus increasing electromagnetic attraction and spring counterforce. In this way, this paper puts forward a method to improve the withstand capacity of limit short-circuit current.

  19. Short time-scale optical variability properties of the largest AGN sample observed with Kepler/K2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranzana, E.; Körding, E.; Uttley, P.; Scaringi, S.; Bloemen, S.

    2018-05-01

    We present the first short time-scale (˜hours to days) optical variability study of a large sample of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Kepler/K2 mission. The sample contains 252 AGN observed over four campaigns with ˜30 min cadence selected from the Million Quasar Catalogue with R magnitude <19. We performed time series analysis to determine their variability properties by means of the power spectral densities (PSDs) and applied Monte Carlo techniques to find the best model parameters that fit the observed power spectra. A power-law model is sufficient to describe all the PSDs of our sample. A variety of power-law slopes were found indicating that there is not a universal slope for all AGNs. We find that the rest-frame amplitude variability in the frequency range of 6 × 10-6-10-4 Hz varies from 1to10 per cent with an average of 1.7 per cent. We explore correlations between the variability amplitude and key parameters of the AGN, finding a significant correlation of rest-frame short-term variability amplitude with redshift. We attribute this effect to the known `bluer when brighter' variability of quasars combined with the fixed bandpass of Kepler data. This study also enables us to distinguish between Seyferts and blazars and confirm AGN candidates. For our study, we have compared results obtained from light curves extracted using different aperture sizes and with and without detrending. We find that limited detrending of the optimal photometric precision light curve is the best approach, although some systematic effects still remain present.

  20. Correction to the count-rate detection limit and sample/blank time-allocation methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, Joseph L.

    2013-01-01

    A common form of count-rate detection limits contains a propagation of uncertainty error. This error originated in methods to minimize uncertainty in the subtraction of the blank counts from the gross sample counts by allocation of blank and sample counting times. Correct uncertainty propagation showed that the time allocation equations have no solution. This publication presents the correct form of count-rate detection limits. -- Highlights: •The paper demonstrated a proper method of propagating uncertainty of count rate differences. •The standard count-rate detection limits were in error. •Count-time allocation methods for minimum uncertainty were in error. •The paper presented the correct form of the count-rate detection limit. •The paper discussed the confusion between count-rate uncertainty and count uncertainty

  1. POOR FERTILITY, SHORT LONGEVITY AND LOW ABUNDANCE IN THE SOIL SEED BANK LIMIT VOLUNTEER SUGARCANE FROM SEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann S Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a two year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half life between 1.5 and 2.1 months. This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment.

  2. Poor Fertility, Short Longevity, and Low Abundance in the Soil Seed Bank Limit Volunteer Sugarcane from Seed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Johann S; Perroux, Jai; Whan, Alex; Rae, Anne L; Bonnett, Graham D

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of genetically modified sugarcane, with the aim of commercial production, requires an understanding of the potential risks of increased weediness of sugarcane as a result of spread and persistence of volunteer sugarcane. As sugarcane is propagated vegetatively from pieces of stalk and the seed plays no part in the production cycle, the fate of seed in the environment is yet to be studied. In this study, sugarcane seed samples, collected in fields over a 2-year period, were used to determine the overall level of sugarcane fertility, seed dormancy, and longevity of seed under field conditions. A survey of the soil seed bank in and around sugarcane fields was used to quantify the presence of sugarcane seeds and to identify and quantify the weeds that would compete with sugarcane seedlings. We demonstrated that under field conditions, sugarcane has low fertility and produces non-dormant seed. The viability of the seeds decayed rapidly (half-life between 1.5 and 2.1 months). This means that, in Australia, sugarcane seeds die before they encounter climatic conditions that could allow them to germinate and establish. Finally, the soil seed bank analysis revealed that there were very few sugarcane seeds relative to the large number of weed seeds that exert a large competitive effect. In conclusion, low fertility, short persistence, and poor ability to compete limit the capacity of sugarcane seed spread and persistence in the environment.

  3. Short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI-short) with and without the Future-Negative scale, verified on nationally representative samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Košťál, Jaroslav; Klicperová-Baker, Martina; Lukavská, K.; Lukavský, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2016), s. 169-192 ISSN 0961-463X Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : ZTPI * ZTPI-short * time perspective * temporal orientation * representative sample Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.206, year: 2016

  4. Effect of model choice and sample size on statistical tolerance limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, B.S.; Campbell, K.

    1980-03-01

    Statistical tolerance limits are estimates of large (or small) quantiles of a distribution, quantities which are very sensitive to the shape of the tail of the distribution. The exact nature of this tail behavior cannot be ascertained brom small samples, so statistical tolerance limits are frequently computed using a statistical model chosen on the basis of theoretical considerations or prior experience with similar populations. This report illustrates the effects of such choices on the computations

  5. Effect of sample matrix composition on INAA sample weights, measurement precisions, limits of detection, and optimum conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guinn, V.P.; Nakazawa, L.; Leslie, J.

    1984-01-01

    The instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Advance Prediction Computer Program (APCP) is extremely useful in guiding one to optimum subsequent experimental analyses of samples of all types of matrices. By taking into account the contributions to the cumulative Compton-continuum levels from all significant induced gamma-emitting radionuclides, it provides good INAA advance estimates of detectable photopeaks, measurement precisions, concentration lower limits of detection (LOD's) and optimum irradiation/decay/counting conditions - as well as of the very important maximum allowable sample size for each set of conditions calculated. The usefulness and importance of the four output parameters cited in the title are discussed using the INAA APCP outputs for NBS SRM-1632 Coal as the example

  6. Criterion validity of a Wechsler-III Scale Short Form in a sample of brazilian elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banhato, Eliane Ferreira Carvalho; Leite, Isabel Cristina Gonçalves; Guedes, Danielle Viveiros; Chaoubah, Alfredo

    2010-01-01

    Although a normative process, changes in cognitive functioning vary among older adults. The differential diagnosis between normal and pathological aging must be made early using psychometrically adequate measures. To assess the evidence of criterion validity of a Short Form (SF) of the Wechsler-III Scale containing eight subtests (SF8) by determining its sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and cut-off points for Brazilian elderly from different age groups. 168 individuals, aged 60 years or above, living in the community or in an institution, were assigned to case and control groups, and investigated according to age range. Measures included a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Verbal Fluency Test, Clock-Drawing Test and the SF8. More than two thirds of the sample was women (73.8%), mean age was 74.5 years (SD=8.9), mean education was 6.2 years (SD=4.8) and 40.5% were widows/widowers. In the total sample, the best cut-off point for the SF8 was 142 while cut offs among individuals aged 60 to 69 years, 70 to 79 years, and more than 80 years were 160, 129 and 129, respectively. The results demonstrated the importance of different cut-off points for different age ranges. Sensitivity and specificity values of the SF8 were sufficiently high to warrant the use of the SF8 as an instrument to identify cognitive impairment in the elderly.

  7. Limited-sampling strategies for anti-infective agents: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Denise A; Ensom, Mary H H

    2009-09-01

    Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) is a pharmacokinetic parameter that represents overall exposure to a drug. For selected anti-infective agents, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameters, such as AUC/MIC (where MIC is the minimal inhibitory concentration), have been correlated with outcome in a few studies. A limited-sampling strategy may be used to estimate pharmacokinetic parameters such as AUC, without the frequent, costly, and inconvenient blood sampling that would be required to directly calculate the AUC. To discuss, by means of a systematic review, the strengths, limitations, and clinical implications of published studies involving a limited-sampling strategy for anti-infective agents and to propose improvements in methodology for future studies. The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched using the terms "anti-infective agents", "limited sampling", "optimal sampling", "sparse sampling", "AUC monitoring", "abbreviated AUC", "abbreviated sampling", and "Bayesian". The reference lists of retrieved articles were searched manually. Included studies were classified according to modified criteria from the US Preventive Services Task Force. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Six of the studies (involving didanosine, zidovudine, nevirapine, ciprofloxacin, efavirenz, and nelfinavir) were classified as providing level I evidence, 4 studies (involving vancomycin, didanosine, lamivudine, and lopinavir-ritonavir) provided level II-1 evidence, 2 studies (involving saquinavir and ceftazidime) provided level II-2 evidence, and 8 studies (involving ciprofloxacin, nelfinavir, vancomycin, ceftazidime, ganciclovir, pyrazinamide, meropenem, and alpha interferon) provided level III evidence. All of the studies providing level I evidence used prospectively collected data and proper validation procedures with separate, randomly selected index and validation groups. However, most of the included studies did not provide an adequate description of the methods or

  8. Category Specific Knowledge Modulate Capacity Limitations of Visual Short-Term Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jonas Olsen; Watanabe, Katsumi; Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    2016-01-01

    We explore whether expertise can modulate the capacity of visual short-term memory, as some seem to argue that training affects capacity of short-term memory [13] while others are not able to find this modulation [12]. We extend on a previous study [3] demonstrating expertise effects by investiga...... are in line with the theoretical interpretation that visual short-term memory reflects the sum of the reverberating feedback loops to representations in long-term memory.......We explore whether expertise can modulate the capacity of visual short-term memory, as some seem to argue that training affects capacity of short-term memory [13] while others are not able to find this modulation [12]. We extend on a previous study [3] demonstrating expertise effects......), and expert observers (Japanese university students). For both the picture and the letter condition we find no performance difference in memory capacity, however, in the critical hiragana condition we demonstrate a systematic difference relating expertise differences between the groups. These results...

  9. Limited sampling strategy for determining metformin area under the plasma concentration-time curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Ana Beatriz; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to develop and validate limited sampling strategy (LSS) models to predict the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for metformin. METHODS: Metformin plasma concentrations (n = 627) at 0-24 h after a single 500 mg dose were used for LSS development, based on all su...

  10. Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution of thin-sample field-emission electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yugo; Hamada, Kotaro; Urano, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The minimum detection limit and spatial resolution for a thinned semiconductor sample were determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) using a Schottky field emission (FE) electron gun and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the FE-EPMA results with those obtained using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with scanning transmission electron microscopy, confirmed that FE-EPMA is largely superior in terms of detection sensitivity. Thin-sample FE-EPMA is demonstrated as a very effective method for high resolution, high sensitivity analysis in a laboratory environment because a high probe current and high signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved. - Highlights: • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution determined for FE-EPMA. • Detection sensitivity of FE-EPMA greatly superior to that of STEM-EDX. • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution controllable by probe current

  11. Criterion validity of a Wechsler-III scale short form in a sample of Brazilian Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Ferreira Carvalho Banhato

    Full Text Available Abstract Although a normative process, changes in cognitive functioning vary among older adults. The differential diagnosis between normal and pathological aging must be made early using psychometrically adequate measures. Objectives: To assess the evidence of criterion validity of a Short Form (SF of the Wechsler-III Scale containing eight subtests (SF8 by determining its sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and cut-off points for Brazilian elderly from different age groups. Methods: 168 individuals, aged 60 years or above, living in the community or in an institution, were assigned to case and control groups, and investigated according to age range. Measures included a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE, Verbal Fluency Test, Clock-Drawing Test and the SF8. Results: More than two thirds of the sample was women (73.8%, mean age was 74.5 years (SD=8.9, mean education was 6.2 years (SD=4.8 and 40.5% were widows/widowers. In the total sample, the best cut-off point for the SF8 was 142 while cut offs among individuals aged 60 to 69 years, 70 to 79 years, and more than 80 years were 160, 129 and 129, respectively. Conclusions: The results demonstrated the importance of different cut-off points for different age ranges. Sensitivity and specificity values of the SF8 were sufficiently high to warrant the use of the SF8 as an instrument to identify cognitive impairment in the elderly.

  12. The effects of sampling location and turbulence on discharge estimates in short converging turbine intakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero-Gomez, P.; Harding, S. F.; Richmond, M. C.

    2017-01-01

    Standards provide recommendations for best practices when installing current meters to measure fluid flow in closed conduits. A central guideline requires the velocity distribution to be regular and the flow steady. Because of the nature of the short converging intakes typical of low-head hydroturbines, these assumptions may be invalid if current meters are intended to be used to estimate discharge. Usual concerns are (1) the effects of the number of devices, (2) the sampling location and (3) the high turbulence caused by blockage from submersible traveling screens usually deployed for safe downstream fish passage. These three effects were examined in the present study by using 3D simulated flow fields in both steady-state and transient modes. In the process of describing an application at an existing hydroturbine intake at Ice Harbor Dam, the present work outlined the methods involved, which combined computational fluid dynamics, laboratory measurements in physical models of the hydroturbine, and current meter performance evaluations in experimental settings. The main conclusions in this specific application were that a steady-state flow field sufficed to determine the adequate number of meters and their location, and that both the transverse velocity and turbulence intensity had a small impact on estimate errors. However, while it may not be possible to extrapolate these findings to other field conditions and measuring devices, the study laid out a path to conduct similar assessments in other applications.

  13. Short torch design for direct liquid sample introduction using conventional and micro-nebulizers for plasma spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montaser, Akbar [Potomac, MD; Westphal, Craig S [Landenberg, PA; Kahen, Kaveh [Montgomery Village, MD; Rutkowski, William F [Arlington, VA

    2008-01-08

    An apparatus and method for providing direct liquid sample introduction using a nebulizer are provided. The apparatus and method include a short torch having an inner tube and an outer tube, and an elongated adapter having a cavity for receiving the nebulizer and positioning a nozzle tip of the nebulizer a predetermined distance from a tip of the outer tube of the short torch. The predetermined distance is preferably about 2-5 mm.

  14. Limited sampling strategy models for estimating the AUC of gliclazide in Chinese healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ji-Han; Wang, Kun; Huang, Xiao-Hui; He, Ying-Chun; Li, Lu-Jin; Sheng, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Juan; Zheng, Qing-Shan

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work is to reduce the cost of required sampling for the estimation of the area under the gliclazide plasma concentration versus time curve within 60 h (AUC0-60t ). The limited sampling strategy (LSS) models were established and validated by the multiple regression model within 4 or fewer gliclazide concentration values. Absolute prediction error (APE), root of mean square error (RMSE) and visual prediction check were used as criterion. The results of Jack-Knife validation showed that 10 (25.0 %) of the 40 LSS based on the regression analysis were not within an APE of 15 % using one concentration-time point. 90.2, 91.5 and 92.4 % of the 40 LSS models were capable of prediction using 2, 3 and 4 points, respectively. Limited sampling strategies were developed and validated for estimating AUC0-60t of gliclazide. This study indicates that the implementation of an 80 mg dosage regimen enabled accurate predictions of AUC0-60t by the LSS model. This study shows that 12, 6, 4, 2 h after administration are the key sampling times. The combination of (12, 2 h), (12, 8, 2 h) or (12, 8, 4, 2 h) can be chosen as sampling hours for predicting AUC0-60t in practical application according to requirement.

  15. Embracing equifinality with efficiency: Limits of Acceptability sampling using the DREAM(LOA) algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrugt, Jasper A.; Beven, Keith J.

    2018-04-01

    This essay illustrates some recent developments to the DiffeRential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) MATLAB toolbox of Vrugt (2016) to delineate and sample the behavioural solution space of set-theoretic likelihood functions used within the GLUE (Limits of Acceptability) framework (Beven and Binley, 1992, 2014; Beven and Freer, 2001; Beven, 2006). This work builds on the DREAM(ABC) algorithm of Sadegh and Vrugt (2014) and enhances significantly the accuracy and CPU-efficiency of Bayesian inference with GLUE. In particular it is shown how lack of adequate sampling in the model space might lead to unjustified model rejection.

  16. The Limitations of Short-Term Orthodontics and Why We Still Need Specialists – A Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqmani, Sana

    2017-01-01

    Short-term orthodontics (STO) serves to align anterior teeth. It has become popular in cosmetic dentistry as an alternative to destructive veneers and lengthy conventional orthodontics. The aim of this article is to raise awareness of the clinical limitations of STO and highlight some of the difficulties encountered with orthodontic retention. It also gives an overview of accredited training available to dentists who wish to develop their orthodontic skills. Clinical relevance: Greater awareness of the clinical limitations of short-term orthodontics will aid GDPs in appropriately selecting their cases and obtaining informed consent from patients. In addition, the article serves as encouragement for those GDPs wishing to develop their orthodontic skills and pursue further accredited training.

  17. Physiological responses to short-term thermal stress in mayfly (Neocloeon triangulifer) larvae in relation to upper thermal limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Sun; Chou, Hsuan; Funk, David H; Jackson, John K; Sweeney, Bernard W; Buchwalter, David B

    2017-07-15

    Understanding species' thermal limits and their physiological determinants is critical in light of climate change and other human activities that warm freshwater ecosystems. Here, we ask whether oxygen limitation determines the chronic upper thermal limits in larvae of the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer , an emerging model for ecological and physiological studies. Our experiments are based on a robust understanding of the upper acute (∼40°C) and chronic thermal limits of this species (>28°C, ≤30°C) derived from full life cycle rearing experiments across temperatures. We tested two related predictions derived from the hypothesis that oxygen limitation sets the chronic upper thermal limits: (1) aerobic scope declines in mayfly larvae as they approach and exceed temperatures that are chronically lethal to larvae; and (2) genes indicative of hypoxia challenge are also responsive in larvae exposed to ecologically relevant thermal limits. Neither prediction held true. We estimated aerobic scope by subtracting measurements of standard oxygen consumption rates from measurements of maximum oxygen consumption rates, the latter of which was obtained by treating with the metabolic uncoupling agent carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy) pheylhydrazone (FCCP). Aerobic scope was similar in larvae held below and above chronic thermal limits. Genes indicative of oxygen limitation (LDH, EGL-9) were only upregulated under hypoxia or during exposure to temperatures beyond the chronic (and more ecologically relevant) thermal limits of this species (LDH). Our results suggest that the chronic thermal limits of this species are likely not driven by oxygen limitation, but rather are determined by other factors, e.g. bioenergetics costs. We caution against the use of short-term thermal ramping approaches to estimate critical thermal limits (CT max ) in aquatic insects because those temperatures are typically higher than those that occur in nature. © 2017. Published by The Company of

  18. A method to measure the diffusion coefficient by neutron wave propagation for limited samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woznicka, U.

    1986-03-01

    A study has been made of the use of the neutron wave and pulse propagation method for measurement of thermal neutron diffusion parameters. Earlier works an homogenous and heterogeneous media are reviewed. A new method is sketched for the determination of the diffusion coefficient for samples of limited size. The principle is to place a relatively thin slab of the material between two blocks of a medium with known properties. The advantages and disadvantages of the method are discussed. (author)

  19. Determination of short half-life elements in biological, foodstuff, and environmental samples qualitatively by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syukria Kurniawati; Muhayatun Santoso; Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2010-01-01

    NAA applications at routine operation power of 15 MW at Multipurpose Reactor GA Siwabessy (MPR-GAS) for sample matrices analysis have been widely applied. However, the results are not optimum for some matrices especially for short half-live elements. Preliminary study of short half-life elements determination in biological, foodstuff, and environmental samples using 1 MW power have been conducted to solve this problem. The samples were irradiated in rabbit system of MPR-GAS for 5 minutes, counted for 200 seconds by HPGe detector, and the spectrum were analyzed further using software Genie 2000 and Bandung NAA Utility. Analysis under 1 MW power on biological and foodstuff samples were capable to detect eight elements: Al, Br, CI, Ca, I, K, Mg, Ti, and Na for biological samples; Al, Br, CI, Ca, I, K, Mg, Mn, and Na for foodstuff samples, while at 15 MW power only three elements (CI, K, Na) were detected. At 1 MW power the counting process is more optimum due to smaller radiation exposure and dead time. For the environmental samples, the number of elements detected by 1 MW and 15 MW powers did not differ significantly. Generally, the results on the three types of samples showed that the elements of short half-life are better detected at 1 MW than that of 15 MW power. Further research needs to be done to obtain the optimum analytical conditions for irradiation and counting time determination. (author)

  20. Background estimation in short-wave region during determination of total sample composition by x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, V.A.; Kordyukov, S.V.; Petrov, E.N.

    1988-01-01

    Method of background estimation in short-wave spectral region during determination of total sample composition by X-ray fluorescence method is described. 13 types of different rocks with considerable variations of base composition and Zr, Nb, Th, U content below 7x10 -3 % are investigated. The suggested method of background accounting provides for a less statistical error of the background estimation than direct isolated measurement and reliability of its determination in a short-wave region independent on the sample base. Possibilities of suggested method for artificial mixtures conforming by the content of main component to technological concemtrates - niobium, zirconium, tantalum are estimated

  1. Detection limits of Legionella pneumophila in environmental samples after co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The efficiency of recovery and the detection limit of Legionella after co-culture with Acanthamoeba polyphaga are not known and so far no investigations have been carried out to determine the efficiency of the recovery of Legionella spp. by co-culture and compare it with that of conventional culturing methods. This study aimed to assess the detection limits of co-culture compared to culture for Legionella pneumophila in compost and air samples. Compost and air samples were spiked with known concentrations of L. pneumophila. Direct culturing and co-culture with amoebae were used in parallel to isolate L. pneumophila and recovery standard curves for both methods were produced for each sample. Results The co-culture proved to be more sensitive than the reference method, detecting 102-103 L. pneumophila cells in 1 g of spiked compost or 1 m3 of spiked air, as compared to 105-106 cells in 1 g of spiked compost and 1 m3 of spiked air. Conclusions Co-culture with amoebae is a useful, sensitive and reliable technique to enrich L. pneumophila in environmental samples that contain only low amounts of bacterial cells. PMID:23442526

  2. The first DC performance test and analysis of CC conductor short sample at ASIPP conductor test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yi; Wu Yu; Liu Huajun; Long Feng; Qian Li; Ren Zhibin; Li Shaolei; Liu Bo; Chen Jinglin

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this study the first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil conductor short sample have been carried out in ASIPP test facility. ► A CC conductor short sample was fabricated and tested to confirm the capability of this test facility for qualification tests of CC conductors. ► There is no obvious impact of cycling on DC performance measurement. ► Those measured results of current sharing temperature are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling - Abstract: The first DC performance experiments of ITER correction coil (CC) conductor short sample have been carried out in the conductor test facility of Institute of Plasma Physics, CAS (ASIPP) in January this year. Those experiments aim to investigate the DC performance of ITER CC conductor. The tested conductor short sample is bended as a half circle with the diameter of 270 mm to meet the background magnetic field shape. The half circle part of sample is longer than the final twist pitch. The current sharing temperature (T cs ) in the 3.86 T external magnetic field (B ex ), ≤12 kA could be measured including the critical current (I c ) run. There is no obvious impact of 1000 cycles on DC performance. Those measured T cs results are in agreement with the expected results from strand scaling.

  3. Discrete capacity limits and neuroanatomical correlates of visual short-term memory for objects and spatial locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, Nikos; Constantinidou, Fofi; Kanai, Ryota

    2017-02-01

    Working memory is responsible for keeping information in mind when it is no longer in view, linking perception with higher cognitive functions. Despite such crucial role, short-term maintenance of visual information is severely limited. Research suggests that capacity limits in visual short-term memory (VSTM) are correlated with sustained activity in distinct brain areas. Here, we investigated whether variability in the structure of the brain is reflected in individual differences of behavioral capacity estimates for spatial and object VSTM. Behavioral capacity estimates were calculated separately for spatial and object information using a novel adaptive staircase procedure and were found to be unrelated, supporting domain-specific VSTM capacity limits. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses revealed dissociable neuroanatomical correlates of spatial versus object VSTM. Interindividual variability in spatial VSTM was reflected in the gray matter density of the inferior parietal lobule. In contrast, object VSTM was reflected in the gray matter density of the left insula. These dissociable findings highlight the importance of considering domain-specific estimates of VSTM capacity and point to the crucial brain regions that limit VSTM capacity for different types of visual information. Hum Brain Mapp 38:767-778, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Limit cycles and the benefits of a short memory in rock-paper-scissors games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, James

    2015-10-01

    When playing games in groups, it is an advantage for individuals to have accurate statistical information on the strategies of their opponents. Such information may be obtained by remembering previous interactions. We consider a rock-paper-scissors game in which agents are able to recall their last m interactions, used to estimate the behavior of their opponents. At critical memory length, a Hopf bifurcation leads to the formation of stable limit cycles. In a mixed population, agents with longer memories have an advantage, provided the system has a stable fixed point, and there is some asymmetry in the payoffs of the pure strategies. However, at a critical concentration of long memory agents, the appearance of limit cycles destroys their advantage. By introducing population dynamics that favors successful agents, we show that the system evolves toward the bifurcation point.

  5. Limit cycles and the benefits of a short memory in rock-paper-scissors games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, James

    2015-10-01

    When playing games in groups, it is an advantage for individuals to have accurate statistical information on the strategies of their opponents. Such information may be obtained by remembering previous interactions. We consider a rock-paper-scissors game in which agents are able to recall their last m interactions, used to estimate the behavior of their opponents. At critical memory length, a Hopf bifurcation leads to the formation of stable limit cycles. In a mixed population, agents with longer memories have an advantage, provided the system has a stable fixed point, and there is some asymmetry in the payoffs of the pure strategies. However, at a critical concentration of long memory agents, the appearance of limit cycles destroys their advantage. By introducing population dynamics that favors successful agents, we show that the system evolves toward the bifurcation point.

  6. Vortex-homogenized matrix solid-phase dispersion for the extraction of short chain chlorinated paraffins from indoor dust samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hsuan; Chang, Chia-Yu; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2016-11-11

    A simple and effective method for determining short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in indoor dust is presented. The method employed a modified vortex-homogenized matrix solid-phase dispersion (VH-MSPD) prior to its detection by gas chromatography - electron-capture negative-ion mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) operating in the selected-ion-monitoring (SIM) mode. Under the best extraction conditions, 0.1-g of dust sample was dispersed with 0.1-g of silica gel by using vortex (2min) instead of using a mortar and pestle (3min). After that step, the blend was transferred to a glass column containing 3-g acidic silica gel, 2-g basic silica gel, and 2-g of deactivated silica gel, used as clean-up co-sorbents. Then, target analytes were eluted with 5mL of n-hexane/dichloromethane (2:1, v/v) mixture. The extract was evaporated to dryness under a gentle stream of nitrogen. The residue was then re-dissolved in n-hexane (10μL), and subjected to GC-ECNI-MS analysis. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) ranged from 0.06 to 0.25μg/g for each SCCP congener. Precision was less than 7% for both intra- and inter-day analysis. Trueness was above 89%, which was calculated by mean extraction recovery. The VH-MSPD combined with GC-ECNI-MS was successfully applied to quantitatively detect SCCPs from various indoor dust samples, and the concentrations ranged from 1.2 to 31.2μg/g. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Short communication: Influence of the sampling device on somatic cell count variation in cow milk samples (by official recording)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fouz, R.; Vilar, M.J.; Yus, E.; Sanjuán, M.L.; Diéguez, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in cow´s milk somatic cell counts (SCC) depending on the type of milk meter used by dairy farms for official milk recording. The study was performed in 2011 and 2012 in the major cattle area of Spain. In total, 137,846 lactations of Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed at 1,912 farms. A generalised least squares regression model was used for data analysis. The model showed that the milk meter had a substantial effect on the SCC for individual milk samples obtained for official milk recording. The results suggested an overestimation of the SCC in milk samples from farms that had electronic devices in comparison with farms that used portable devices and underestimation when volumetric meters are used. A weak positive correlation was observed between the SCC and the percentage of fat in individual milk samples. The results underline the importance of considering this variable when using SCC data from milk recording in the dairy herd improvement program or in quality milk programs. (Author)

  8. Short communication: Influence of the sampling device on somatic cell count variation in cow milk samples (by official recording)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouz, R.; Vilar, M.J.; Yus, E.; Sanjuán, M.L.; Diéguez, F.J.

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the variability in cow´s milk somatic cell counts (SCC) depending on the type of milk meter used by dairy farms for official milk recording. The study was performed in 2011 and 2012 in the major cattle area of Spain. In total, 137,846 lactations of Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed at 1,912 farms. A generalised least squares regression model was used for data analysis. The model showed that the milk meter had a substantial effect on the SCC for individual milk samples obtained for official milk recording. The results suggested an overestimation of the SCC in milk samples from farms that had electronic devices in comparison with farms that used portable devices and underestimation when volumetric meters are used. A weak positive correlation was observed between the SCC and the percentage of fat in individual milk samples. The results underline the importance of considering this variable when using SCC data from milk recording in the dairy herd improvement program or in quality milk programs. (Author)

  9. The Short Version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): Factor Structure in a Young Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Marianna

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the factor structure of the short form of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995b) in a young adolescent sample. A group of 484 high school students ("Mean" age = 13.62 years, Min = 11.83, Max = 15.67 years, 52 % boys) completed the DASS-21. Several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor…

  10. On the limiting resolution of silicon detectors for short-range particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbitskaya, E M; Eremin, V K; Malyarenko, A M; Strokan, N B; Sukhanov, V L

    1986-10-20

    The transition to planar tecnology has lead to substantial improvement of energy resolution of Si detectors of strongly ionizing nuclear radiations. For 5 MeV ..cap alpha..-particles the resolution (delta/sub ..cap alpha../) is equal 9.2 keV. The application of the method of local diffusion permitted to attain delta/sub ..cap alpha../=8.1-8.4 keV. The comparison of the new resolution level with the theoretical limit is carried out. It is shown that the combination of partial contributions of fluctuations caused by fundamental mechanisms practically determined delta/sub ..cap alpha../ of obtained detectors.

  11. Impaired verbal short-term memory in Down syndrome reflects a capacity limitation rather than atypically rapid forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Purser, Harry R; Jarrold, Christopher

    2005-05-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome suffer from relatively poor verbal short-term memory. Recent work has indicated that this deficit is not caused by problems of audition, speech, or articulatory rehearsal within the phonological loop component of Baddeley and Hitch's working memory model. Given this, two experiments were conducted to investigate whether abnormally rapid decay underlies the deficit. In a first experiment, we attempted to vary the time available for decay using a modified serial recall procedure that had both verbal and visuospatial conditions. No evidence was found to suggest that forgetting is abnormally rapid in phonological memory in Down syndrome, but a selective phonological memory deficit was indicated. A second experiment further investigated possible problems of decay in phonological memory, restricted to item information. The results indicated that individuals with Down syndrome do not show atypically rapid item forgetting from phonological memory but may have a limited-capacity verbal short-term memory system.

  12. Mass Limit for the standard model Higgs boson with the full LEP I ALEPH data sample

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Nief, J Y; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Delfino, M C; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Padilla, C; Park, I C; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Alemany, R; Bazarko, A O; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Lutters, G; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Moneta, L; Oest, T; Pacheco, A; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wagner, A; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rosnet, P; Rossignol, J M; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Casper, David William; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Curtis, L; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Teixeira-Dias, P; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Abbaneo, D; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Williams, M D; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Betteridge, A P; Bowdery, C K; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Giehl, I; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Konstantinidis, N P; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Sadouki, A; Thulasidas, M; Trabelsi, K; Aleppo, M; Ragusa, F; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wolf, G; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Choi, Y; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Höcker, A; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Chambers, J T; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Wright, A E; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Brew, C A J; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Köksal, A; Lehto, M H; Newton, W M; Reeve, J; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Büscher, V; Cowan, G D; Grupen, Claus; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Greening, T C; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    background from the electroweak process e+e- --> l+ l- q qbar. This search results in a 95% C.L. lower limit on the Higgs boson mass of $63.9$~\\Gcs. The reaction e+e- --> HZ* is used to search for the standard model Higgs boson in the H nu nubar and the H l+ l- channels. The data sample corresponds to about 4.5 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH experiment at LEP from 1989 to 1995 at centre-of-mass energies at and around the Z peak. Three candidate events are found in the H mu+ mu- channel, in agreement with the expected

  13. Convolutional neural network using generated data for SAR ATR with limited samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Longjian; Gao, Lei; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Peng

    2018-03-01

    Being able to adapt all weather at all times, it has been a hot research topic that using Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) for remote sensing. Despite all the well-known advantages of SAR, it is hard to extract features because of its unique imaging methodology, and this challenge attracts the research interest of traditional Automatic Target Recognition(ATR) methods. With the development of deep learning technologies, convolutional neural networks(CNNs) give us another way out to detect and recognize targets, when a huge number of samples are available, but this premise is often not hold, when it comes to monitoring a specific type of ships. In this paper, we propose a method to enhance the performance of Faster R-CNN with limited samples to detect and recognize ships in SAR images.

  14. Short-term Rn-222 concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, Lidia; Przylibski, Tadeusz A.

    2010-05-01

    Authors conducted research on radon concentration in two underground structures located in the vicinity of Kletno (Sudety Mts., SW Poland), which are accessible for visitors. One of these structures is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave, and the second one is the part of former uranium mine - Fluorite Adit. Both selected underground structures are characterized by almost constant temperature, changing within the range from +5 to +7° C and also constant relative humidity, close to 100%. Both these parameters testify that air exchange with the atmosphere is very limited. Air exchange is limited particularly in Niedźwiedzia Cave, which microclimate is protected i.e. by applying of locks at the entrance and exit of tourist route. The measurements were conducted between 16.05.2008. and 15.11.2009., by the use of a new Polish equipment - SRDN-3 devices with semiconductor detector. SRDN-3 device records every hour radon concentration as well as atmospheric parameters - relative humidity and temperature. At the same time authors conducted measurements of basic parameters in the open atmosphere close to Niedźwiedzia Cave. Obtained results of atmospheric parameters measurements may be used for both underground structures; because they are located within the distance of about 1 km. Atmospheric parameters were measured by the use of automatic weather station VantagePro2. On the base of conducted research authors corroborate, that the differences of radon concentration in both underground structures reach three orders of magnitude during a year. In Niedźwiedzia Cave these values are in the range from below 88 Bq/m3 (detection limit of the SRDN-3 device) up to 12 kBq/m3. Related values in Fluorite Adit are between < 88 Bq/m3 and 35 kBq/m3. It was observed also the different course of daily radon concentration changes in both structures. Additionally, authors registered that daily course of radon concentration changes differs due to season of the year. Such changes are observed in

  15. A simulation study provided sample size guidance for differential item functioning (DIF) studies using short scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scott, Neil W.; Fayers, Peter M.; Bottomley, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) analyses are increasingly used to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) instruments, which often include relatively short subscales. Computer simulations were used to explore how various factors including scale length affect analysis of DIF by ordinal...... logistic regression....

  16. Course and Short-Term Outcomes of Separation Anxiety Disorder in a Community Sample of Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Debra L.; Pickles, Andrew; Maes, Hermine M.; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the course and short-term outcomes associated with separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in a community setting. Method: The subjects were 161 of 2,061 8- to 17-year-old twins with SAD from a community-based twin study. Subjects were born between 1974 and 1983. Subjects and parents were personally interviewed about the subject's…

  17. Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m...... from eddy-covariance systems featuring short (4 m) and very short (1 m) sampling lines running at the same clover field and show that relative humidity effects persist also for these setups, and should not be neglected. Starting from the work of Ibrom and co-workers, we propose a mixed method...... and correction method proposed here is deemed applicable to closed-path systems featuring a broad range of sampling lines, and indeed applicable also to passive gases as a special case. The methods described in this paper are incorporated, as processing options, in the free and open-source eddy...

  18. Measuring limitations in activities of daily living: a population-based validation of a short questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Cronenberg, Sonja; Grebner, Simone; Tamcan, Oezguer; Müller, Urs

    2017-12-01

    A newly developed questionnaire assessing limitations in activity of daily living (LADL-Q) that should improve assessment of LADL is tested in a large population-based validation study. This survey was paper-based. Overall, 16,634 individuals who were representative of the working population in the German-speaking part of Switzerland participated in the study. Item analysis was used the final version of the LADL-Q to four items per subscale that correspond to potential problems in three body regions (back and neck, upper extremities, lower extremities). Analysis included tests for reliability, internal consistency, dimensionality and convergent validity. Test-retest reliability coefficients after 2 weeks ranged from 0.82 to 0.99 (Mdn = 0.87), with no item having a coefficient below 0.60. The median item-total coefficients ranged between moderate and good. Correlation coefficients between LADL-Q subscales and three validated clinical instruments (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, shoulder pain disability index, Oswestry) ranged from 0.63 to 0.81. In structural equation modeling the three subscales were significantly related with two important outcomes in occupational rehabilitation: self-reported general health and daily task performance. The new LADL-Q is a brief, reliable and valid tool for assessment of LADL in studies on musculoskeletal health.

  19. The quasi-classical limit of scattering amplitude - L2-approach for short range potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, K.; Vienna Univ.

    1984-01-01

    We are concerned with the asymptotic behaviour as Planck's constant h → 0 of the scattering operator Ssup(h) associated with the pair of Schroedinger equations i h/2π delta u/delta t = - ((h/2π) 2 /2m)Δu + V(x) u equivalent to Hsup(h)u and i h/2π delta u/delta t = - ((h/2π) 2 /2m)Δu equivalent to Hsup(h) 0 u. We shall show under certain conditions that the scattering matrix S-circumflexsup(h)(p,q), the distribution kernel of Ssup(h) in momentum representation, may be expressed in terms of a Fourier integral operator. Then applying the stationary phase method to it, we shall prove that S-circumflexsup(h) has an asymptotic expansion in powers of h/2π up to any order in L 2 -space and that the limit as h → 0 of the total cross section is twice the one of classical mechanics, in generic. (Author)

  20. Limited influence of climate change mitigation on short-term glacier mass loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzeion, Ben; Kaser, Georg; Maussion, Fabien; Champollion, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    Glacier mass loss is a key contributor to sea-level change1,2, slope instability in high-mountain regions3,4 and the changing seasonality and volume of river flow5-7. Understanding the causes, mechanisms and time scales of glacier change is therefore paramount to identifying successful strategies for mitigation and adaptation. Here, we use temperature and precipitation fields from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 output to force a glacier evolution model, quantifying mass responses to future climatic change. We find that contemporary glacier mass is in disequilibrium with the current climate, and 36 ± 8% mass loss is already committed in response to past greenhouse gas emissions. Consequently, mitigating future emissions will have only very limited influence on glacier mass change in the twenty-first century. No significant differences between 1.5 and 2 K warming scenarios are detectable in the sea-level contribution of glaciers accumulated within the twenty-first century. In the long-term, however, mitigation will exert strong control, suggesting that ambitious measures are necessary for the long-term preservation of glaciers.

  1. Digital Droplet Multiple Displacement Amplification (ddMDA for Whole Genome Sequencing of Limited DNA Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsoung Rhee

    Full Text Available Multiple displacement amplification (MDA is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently, the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/μL of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet, ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology.

  2. A Faint Flux-limited Ly α Emitter Sample at z ∼ 0.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wold, Isak G. B.; Finkelstein, Steven L. [Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Barger, Amy J.; Rosenwasser, Benjamin [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 475 North Charter Street, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Cowie, Lennox L., E-mail: wold@astro.as.utexas.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    We present a flux-limited sample of z ∼ 0.3 Ly α emitters (LAEs) from Galaxy Evolution Explorer ( GALEX ) grism spectroscopic data. The published GALEX z ∼ 0.3 LAE sample is pre-selected from continuum-bright objects and thus is biased against high equivalent width (EW) LAEs. We remove this continuum pre-selection and compute the EW distribution and the luminosity function of the Ly α emission line directly from our sample. We examine the evolution of these quantities from z ∼ 0.3 to 2.2 and find that the EW distribution shows little evidence for evolution over this redshift range. As shown by previous studies, the Ly α luminosity density from star-forming (SF) galaxies declines rapidly with declining redshift. However, we find that the decline in Ly α luminosity density from z = 2.2 to z = 0.3 may simply mirror the decline seen in the H α luminosity density from z = 2.2 to z = 0.4, implying little change in the volumetric Ly α escape fraction. Finally, we show that the observed Ly α luminosity density from AGNs is comparable to the observed Ly α luminosity density from SF galaxies at z = 0.3. We suggest that this significant contribution from AGNs to the total observed Ly α luminosity density persists out to z ∼ 2.2.

  3. Allele Frequency Data for 17 Short Tandem Repeats in a Czech Population Sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, H.; Faltus, Václav; Marván, Richard; Pexa, T.; Stenzl, V.; Brouček, J.; Hořínek, A.; Mazura, Ivan; Zvárová, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 1 (2009), e15-e17 ISSN 1872-4973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : short tandem repeat (STR) * allelic frequency * PowerPlex 16 System * AmpflSTR Identifiler * population genetics * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.421, year: 2009

  4. Gaps in sampling and limitations to tree biomass estimation: a review of past sampling efforts over the past 50 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron Weiskittel; Jereme Frank; James Westfall; David Walker; Phil Radtke; David Affleck; David Macfarlane

    2015-01-01

    Tree biomass models are widely used but differ due to variation in the quality and quantity of data used in their development. We reviewed over 250 biomass studies and categorized them by species, location, sampled diameter distribution, and sample size. Overall, less than half of the tree species in Forest Inventory and Analysis database (FIADB) are without a...

  5. Clinical usefulness of limited sampling strategies for estimating AUC of proton pump inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niioka, Takenori

    2011-03-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 (CYP2C19) genotype is regarded as a useful tool to predict area under the blood concentration-time curve (AUC) of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). In our results, however, CYP2C19 genotypes had no influence on AUC of all PPIs during fluvoxamine treatment. These findings suggest that CYP2C19 genotyping is not always a good indicator for estimating AUC of PPIs. Limited sampling strategies (LSS) were developed to estimate AUC simply and accurately. It is important to minimize the number of blood samples because of patient's acceptance. This article reviewed the usefulness of LSS for estimating AUC of three PPIs (omeprazole: OPZ, lansoprazole: LPZ and rabeprazole: RPZ). The best prediction formulas in each PPI were AUC(OPZ)=9.24 x C(6h)+2638.03, AUC(LPZ)=12.32 x C(6h)+3276.09 and AUC(RPZ)=1.39 x C(3h)+7.17 x C(6h)+344.14, respectively. In order to optimize the sampling strategy of LPZ, we tried to establish LSS for LPZ using a time point within 3 hours through the property of pharmacokinetics of its enantiomers. The best prediction formula using the fewest sampling points (one point) was AUC(racemic LPZ)=6.5 x C(3h) of (R)-LPZ+13.7 x C(3h) of (S)-LPZ-9917.3 x G1-14387.2×G2+7103.6 (G1: homozygous extensive metabolizer is 1 and the other genotypes are 0; G2: heterozygous extensive metabolizer is 1 and the other genotypes are 0). Those strategies, plasma concentration monitoring at one or two time-points, might be more suitable for AUC estimation than reference to CYP2C19 genotypes, particularly in the case of coadministration of CYP mediators.

  6. The attention-weighted sample-size model of visual short-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Philip L.; Lilburn, Simon D.; Corbett, Elaine A.

    2016-01-01

    exceeded that predicted by the sample-size model for both simultaneously and sequentially presented stimuli. Instead, the set-size effect and the serial position curves with sequential presentation were predicted by an attention-weighted version of the sample-size model, which assumes that one of the items...

  7. Mass limit for the standard model Higgs boson with the full LEP I ALEPH data sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Lucotte, A.; Minard, M.-N.; Nief, J.-Y.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Casado, M. P.; Chmeissani, M.; Crespo, J. M.; Delfino, M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Garrido, Ll.; Juste, A.; Martinez, M.; Orteu, S.; Padilla, C.; Park, I. C.; Pascual, A.; Perlas, J. A.; Riu, I.; Sanchez, F.; Teubert, F.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Gelao, G.; Girone, M.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Marinelli, N.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Ouyang, Q.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, R.; Xue, S.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Alemany, R.; Bazarko, A. O.; Bonvicini, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Comas, P.; Coyle, P.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Frank, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Janot, P.; Jost, B.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Lutters, G.; Martin, E. B.; Mato, P.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Mir, Ll. M.; Moneta, L.; Oest, T.; Pacheco, A.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rensing, P.; Rolandi, L.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Schmitt, M.; Schneider, O.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Venturi, A.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wagner, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Barrès, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Monteil, S.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Rosnet, P.; Rossignol, J.-M.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Nilsson, B. S.; Rensch, B.; Wäänänen, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Markou, C.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Valassi, A.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Focardi, E.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Casper, D.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Passalacqua, L.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Curtis, L.; Dorris, S. J.; Halley, A. W.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; O'Shea, V.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, F.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Becker, U.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hansper, G.; Hepp, V.; Kluge, E. E.; Putzer, A.; Schmidt, M.; Sommer, J.; Stenzel, H.; Tittel, K.; Werner, S.; Wunsch, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Dornan, P. J.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Stacey, A. M.; Williams, M. D.; Dissertori, G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Betteridge, A. P.; Bowdery, C. K.; Colrain, P.; Crawford, G.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Sloan, T.; Williams, M. I.; Galla, A.; Giehl, I.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Quast, G.; Renk, B.; Rohne, E.; Sander, H.-G.; van Gemmeren, P.; Zeitnitz, C.; Aubert, J. J.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Bujosa, G.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Diaconu, C.; Etienne, F.; Konstantinidis, N.; Payre, P.; Rousseau, D.; Talby, M.; Sadouki, A.; Thulasidas, M.; Trabelsi, K.; Aleppo, M.; Ragusa, F.; Abt, I.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Ganis, G.; Gotzhein, C.; Jakobs, K.; Kroha, H.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Moser, H.-G.; Richter, R.; Rosado-Schlosser, A.; Schael, S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Denis, R. St.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wolf, G.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Choi, Y.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Höcker, A.; Jacquet, M.; Kim, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Nikolic, I.; Park, H. J.; Schune, M.-H.; Simion, S.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Zerwas, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Fantechi, R.; Ferrante, I.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sciabà, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Vannini, C.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Blair, G. A.; Bryant, L. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chambers, J. T.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Medcalf, T.; Perrodo, P.; Strong, J. A.; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J. H.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Maley, P.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Wright, A. E.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Trabelsi, A.; Vallage, B.; Black, S. N.; Dann, J. H.; Johnson, R. P.; Kim, H. Y.; Litke, A. M.; McNeil, M. A.; Taylor, G.; Booth, C. N.; Boswell, R.; Brew, C. A. J.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Koksal, A.; Letho, M.; Newton, W. M.; Reeve, J.; Thompson, L. F.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Büscher, V.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Minguet-Rodriguez, J.; Rivera, F.; Saraiva, P.; Smolik, L.; Stephan, F.; Apollonio, M.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Musolino, G.; Rothberg, J.; Wasserbaech, S.; Armstrong, S. R.; Elmer, P.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; González, S.; Grahl, J.; Greening, T. C.; Hayes, O. J.; Hu, H.; McNamara, P. A.; Nachtman, J. M.; Orejudos, W.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Scott, I. J.; Walsh, A. M.; Lan Wu, Sau; Wu, X.; Yamartino, J. M.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1996-02-01

    The reaction e +e - → HZ ∗ is used to search for the standard model Higgs boson in the Hν overlineν and the Hℓ +ℓ - channels. The data sample corresponds to about 4.5 million hadronic Z decays collected by the ALEPH experiment at LEP from 1989 to 1995 at centre-of-mass energies at and around the Z peak. Three candidate events are found in the H μ+μ- channel, in agreement with the expected background from the electroweak process e +e -ℓ +ℓ -q overlineq. This search results in a 95% C.L. lower limit on the Higgs boson mass of 63.9 GeV/ c2.

  8. A shared, flexible neural map architecture reflects capacity limits in both visual short-term memory and enumeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knops, André; Piazza, Manuela; Sengupta, Rakesh; Eger, Evelyn; Melcher, David

    2014-07-23

    Human cognition is characterized by severe capacity limits: we can accurately track, enumerate, or hold in mind only a small number of items at a time. It remains debated whether capacity limitations across tasks are determined by a common system. Here we measure brain activation of adult subjects performing either a visual short-term memory (vSTM) task consisting of holding in mind precise information about the orientation and position of a variable number of items, or an enumeration task consisting of assessing the number of items in those sets. We show that task-specific capacity limits (three to four items in enumeration and two to three in vSTM) are neurally reflected in the activity of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC): an identical set of voxels in this region, commonly activated during the two tasks, changed its overall response profile reflecting task-specific capacity limitations. These results, replicated in a second experiment, were further supported by multivariate pattern analysis in which we could decode the number of items presented over a larger range during enumeration than during vSTM. Finally, we simulated our results with a computational model of PPC using a saliency map architecture in which the level of mutual inhibition between nodes gives rise to capacity limitations and reflects the task-dependent precision with which objects need to be encoded (high precision for vSTM, lower precision for enumeration). Together, our work supports the existence of a common, flexible system underlying capacity limits across tasks in PPC that may take the form of a saliency map. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/349857-10$15.00/0.

  9. Short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit smoking in a sample of smokers in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Thaddeus; Pokhrel, Pallav; Kawamoto, Crissy T

    2015-01-01

    Despite its potential for usefulness in informing the development of smoking cessation interventions, short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit is a relatively understudied topic. To assess the prevalence of smokers' day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit, and to assess associations of day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit with several established cessation-related variables. A cross-sectional survey was administered to smokers in Hawaii (N = 1,567). To assess short-term fluctuations in motivation to quit smoking, participants were asked to respond "True" or "False" to the statement: "My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next." Other items measured desire to quit smoking, intention to quit, confidence in quitting, cigarette dependence, and other cessation-related variables. "My motivation to quit smoking changes from one day to the next" was endorsed as true by 64.7% of smokers, and false by 35.3%. Analyses revealed that smokers who indicated fluctuating motivation were significantly more interested in quitting as compared to smokers without fluctuations. Fluctuations in motivation to quit also were associated with greater confidence in quitting, lesser cigarette dependence, and more recent quitting activity (all p motivation to quit are common. Day-to-day fluctuations in motivation to quit are strongly associated with higher motivation to quit, greater confidence in future quitting, and other positive cessation-relevant trends.

  10. A Faint Flux-limited Lyα Emitter Sample at z ˜ 0.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, Isak G. B.; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Barger, Amy J.; Cowie, Lennox L.; Rosenwasser, Benjamin

    2017-10-01

    We present a flux-limited sample of z ˜ 0.3 Lyα emitters (LAEs) from Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) grism spectroscopic data. The published GALEX z ˜ 0.3 LAE sample is pre-selected from continuum-bright objects and thus is biased against high equivalent width (EW) LAEs. We remove this continuum pre-selection and compute the EW distribution and the luminosity function of the Lyα emission line directly from our sample. We examine the evolution of these quantities from z ˜ 0.3 to 2.2 and find that the EW distribution shows little evidence for evolution over this redshift range. As shown by previous studies, the Lyα luminosity density from star-forming (SF) galaxies declines rapidly with declining redshift. However, we find that the decline in Lyα luminosity density from z = 2.2 to z = 0.3 may simply mirror the decline seen in the Hα luminosity density from z = 2.2 to z = 0.4, implying little change in the volumetric Lyα escape fraction. Finally, we show that the observed Lyα luminosity density from AGNs is comparable to the observed Lyα luminosity density from SF galaxies at z = 0.3. We suggest that this significant contribution from AGNs to the total observed Lyα luminosity density persists out to z ˜ 2.2. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W.M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  11. Microcomputer-based systems for automatic control of sample irradiation and chemical analysis of short-lived isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Two systems resulted from the need for the study of the nuclear decay of short-lived radionuclides. Automation was required for better repeatability, speed of chemical separation after irradiation and for protection from the high radiation fields of the samples. A MCS-8 computer was used as the nucleus of the automatic sample irradiation system because the control system required an extensive multiple-sequential circuit. This approach reduced the sequential problem to a computer program. The automatic chemistry control system is a mixture of a fixed and a computer-based programmable control system. The fixed control receives the irradiated liquid sample from the reactor, extracts the liquid and disposes of the used sample container. The programmable control executes the chemistry program that the user has entered through the teletype. (U.S.)

  12. Short communication: Ability of dogs to detect cows in estrus from sniffing saliva samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Tenhagen, C; Tenhagen, B-A; Heuwieser, W

    2013-02-01

    Efficient estrus detection in high-producing dairy cows is a permanent challenge for successful reproductive performance. In former studies, dogs have been trained to identify estrus-specific odor in vaginal fluid, milk, urine, and blood samples under laboratory conditions with an accuracy of more than 80%. For on-farm utilization of estrus-detection dogs it would be beneficial in terms of hygiene and safety if dogs could identify cows from the feed alley. The objective of this proof of concept study was to test if dogs can be trained to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. Saliva samples were collected from cows in estrus and diestrus. Thirteen dogs of various breeds and both sexes were trained in this study. Five dogs had no experience in scent detection, whereas 8 dogs had been formerly trained for detection of narcotics or cancer. In the training and test situation, dogs had to detect 1 positive out of 4 samples. Dog training was based on positive reinforcement and dogs were rewarded with a clicker and food for indicating saliva samples of cows in estrus. A false indication was ignored and documented in the test situation. Dogs with and without prior training were trained for 1 and 5 d, respectively. For determining the accuracy of detection, the position of the positive sample was unknown to the dog handler, to avoid hidden cues to the dog. The overall percentage of correct positive indications was 57.6% (175/304), with a range from 40 (1 dog) to 75% (3 dogs). To our knowledge, this is the first indication that dogs are able to detect estrus-specific scent in saliva of cows. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Validation of the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire Short Scale (NARQ-S) in convenience and representative samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckelt, Marius; Wetzel, Eunike; Gerlach, Tanja M; Ackerman, Robert A; Miller, Joshua D; Chopik, William J; Penke, Lars; Geukes, Katharina; Küfner, Albrecht C P; Hutteman, Roos; Richter, David; Renner, Karl-Heinz; Allroggen, Marc; Brecheen, Courtney; Campbell, W Keith; Grossmann, Igor; Back, Mitja D

    2018-01-01

    Due to increased empirical interest in narcissism across the social sciences, there is a need for inventories that can be administered quickly while also reliably measuring both the agentic and antagonistic aspects of grandiose narcissism. In this study, we sought to validate the factor structure, provide representative descriptive data and reliability estimates, assess the reliability across the trait spectrum, and examine the nomological network of the short version of the Narcissistic Admiration and Rivalry Questionnaire (NARQ-S; Back et al., 2013). We used data from a large convenience sample (total N = 11,937) as well as data from a large representative sample (total N = 4,433) that included responses to other narcissism measures as well as related constructs, including the other Dark Triad traits, Big Five personality traits, and self-esteem. Confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory were used to validate the factor structure and estimate the reliability across the latent trait spectrum, respectively. Results suggest that the NARQ-S shows a robust factor structure and is a reliable and valid short measure of the agentic and antagonistic aspects of grandiose narcissism. We also discuss future directions and applications of the NARQ-S as a short and comprehensive measure of grandiose narcissism. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The temporal evolution of electromagnetic markers sensitive to the capacity limits of visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Daniel J; Cusack, Rhodri

    2011-01-01

    An electroencephalographic (EEG) marker of the limited contents of human visual short-term memory (VSTM) has previously been described. Termed contralateral delay activity, this consists of a sustained, posterior, negative potential that correlates with memory load and is greatest contralateral to the remembered hemifield. The current investigation replicates this finding and uses magnetoencephalography (MEG) to characterize its magnetic counterparts and their neural generators as they evolve throughout the memory delay. A parametric manipulation of memory load, within and beyond capacity limits, allows separation of signals that asymptote with behavioral VSTM performance from additional responses that contribute to a linear increase with set-size. Both EEG and MEG yielded bilateral signals that track the number of objects held in memory, and contralateral signals that are independent of memory load. In MEG, unlike EEG, the contralateral interaction between hemisphere and item load is much weaker, suggesting that bilateral and contralateral markers of memory load reflect distinct sources to which EEG and MEG are differentially sensitive. Nonetheless, source estimation allowed both the bilateral and the weaker contralateral capacity-limited responses to be localized, along with a load-independent contralateral signal. Sources of global and hemisphere-specific signals all localized to the posterior intraparietal sulcus during the early delay. However the bilateral load response peaked earlier and its generators shifted later in the delay. Therefore the hemifield-specific response may be more closely tied to memory maintenance while the global load response may be involved in initial processing of a limited number of attended objects, such as their individuation or consolidation into memory.

  15. The temporal evolution of electromagnetic markers sensitive to the capacity limits of visual short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel James Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An electroencephalographic (EEG marker of the limited contents of human visual short-term memory (VSTM has previously been described. Termed contralateral delay activity (CDA, this consists of a sustained, posterior, negative potential that correlates with memory load and is greatest contralateral to the remembered hemifield. The current investigation replicates this finding and uses magnetoencephalography (MEG to characterise its magnetic counterparts and their neural generators as they evolve throughout the memory delay. A parametric manipulation of memory load, within and beyond capacity limits, allows separation of signals that asymptote with behavioural VSTM performance from additional responses that contribute to a linear increase with set-size. Both EEG and MEG yielded bilateral signals that track the number of objects held in memory, and contralateral signals that are independent of memory load. In MEG, unlike EEG, the contralateral interaction between hemisphere and item load is much weaker, suggesting that bilateral and contralateral markers of memory load reflect distinct sources to which EEG and MEG are differentially sensitive. Nonetheless, source estimation allowed both the bilateral and the weaker contralateral capacity-limited responses to be localised, along with a load-independent contralateral signal. Sources of global and hemisphere-specific signals all localised to the posterior intraparietal sulcus during the early delay. However the bilateral load response peaked earlier and its generators shifted later in the delay. Therefore the hemifield-specific response may be more closely tied to memory maintenance while the global load response may be involved in initial processing of a limited number of attended objects, such as their individuation or consolidation into memory.

  16. Applications of pooled DNA samples to the assessment of population affinities: short tandem repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, M H; Banerjee, P; Demarchi, D A; Zlojutro, M; McComb, J; Livshits, G; Henneberg, M; Mosher, M J; Schanfield, M S; Knowles, J A

    2005-12-01

    Pooled DNA samples have been used in association studies of Mendelian disease genes. This method involves combining equal quantities of DNA from patients and control subjects into separate pools and comparing the pools for distributions of genetic markers. In this study identical quantities of DNA from 300 individuals representing 6 populations were pooled and amplified for 296 loci using the touchdown polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. The purpose of this study is to test the efficacy of pooled DNA markers in the reconstruction of the genetic structure of human populations. The populations sampled included Chuvash, Buryats, Kizhi, Native Americans, South Africans, and New York City whites. To test the accuracy of the allele-frequency distributions, we genotyped the Buryats and New York samples individually for six microsatellite markers and compared their frequencies to the allele frequencies derived from the electropherogram peak heights for the pooled DNA, producing a correlation of 0.9811 with a variance of less than 0.04. Two-dimensional scaling of genetic distances among the six populations produced clusters that reflected known historical relationships. A distance matrix was created using all 296 loci, and matrices based on individual chromosomes were correlated against the total matrix. As expected, the largest chromosomes had the highest correlations with the total matrix, whereas one of the smallest chromosomes, chromosome 22, had the lowest correlation and differed most from the combined STR distance matrix.

  17. Short sample training behavior of Nb-Ti fibers at 4. 2 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.S.; Judd, B.A.; Ocampo, G.; Hutchison, T.S.

    1987-05-01

    Experimental results are presented for the stress required to cause quenching during successive runs when bare fibers of Nb-Ti are carrying subcritical currents with no cross field. The data fall into two distinct regimes attributed to regions of magnetic flux stability and instability. Microplastic deformation is believed to supply the energy to initiate the flux jump process in the magnetic instability regime, and is the only source of heat available for triggering a quench when the fiber is magnetically stable. In both cases, quenching is observed at stresses well below the mechanically observed elastic limit. Simple techniques for one-step training and detraining are also described.

  18. Evaluation of cognitive function in patients with limited small cell lung cancer prior to and shortly following prophylactic cranial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Meyers, Christina A; Shin, Dong M; Garden, Adam S; Byrne, Kevin; Nickens, Judy A; Cox, James D

    1995-08-30

    Purpose: Cognitive deficits after treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) have been attributed to prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). A prospective study of neuropsychological function was undertaken to document the evolution and magnitude of neuropsychologic deficits. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with limited stage SCLC who responded well (29 complete response (CR), 1 partial response (PR)) to combination chemotherapy plus thoracic irradiation or resection were studied with neuropsychological tests in the cognitive domains of intelligence, frontal lobe function, language, memory, visual-perception, and motor dexterity prior to a planned course of PCI. Nine patients had a neurologic history that could influence testing. Results: An unexpected 97% (29 out of 30) of patients had evidence of cognitive dysfunction prior to PCI. The most frequent impairment was verbal memory, followed by frontal lobe dysfunction, and fine motor incoordination. Of the patients with no prior neurologic or substance abuse history, 20 out of 21 (95%) had impairments on neuropsychological assessment. This neurologically normal group was just as impaired as the group with such a history with respect to delayed verbal memory and frontal lobe executive function. Eleven patients had neuropsychological testing 6 to 20 months after PCI; no significant differences were found from their pretreatment tests. Conclusions: A high proportion of neurologically normal patients with limited SCLC and favorable responses to combination chemotherapy have specific cognitive deficits before receiving PCI. Short-term (6 to 20 months) observations after PCI have shown no significant deterioration.

  19. Evaluation of cognitive function in patients with limited small cell lung cancer prior to and shortly following prophylactic cranial irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Meyers, Christina A.; Shin, Dong M.; Garden, Adam S.; Byrne, Kevin; Nickens, Judy A.; Cox, James D.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Cognitive deficits after treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) have been attributed to prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI). A prospective study of neuropsychological function was undertaken to document the evolution and magnitude of neuropsychologic deficits. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients with limited stage SCLC who responded well (29 complete response (CR), 1 partial response (PR)) to combination chemotherapy plus thoracic irradiation or resection were studied with neuropsychological tests in the cognitive domains of intelligence, frontal lobe function, language, memory, visual-perception, and motor dexterity prior to a planned course of PCI. Nine patients had a neurologic history that could influence testing. Results: An unexpected 97% (29 out of 30) of patients had evidence of cognitive dysfunction prior to PCI. The most frequent impairment was verbal memory, followed by frontal lobe dysfunction, and fine motor incoordination. Of the patients with no prior neurologic or substance abuse history, 20 out of 21 (95%) had impairments on neuropsychological assessment. This neurologically normal group was just as impaired as the group with such a history with respect to delayed verbal memory and frontal lobe executive function. Eleven patients had neuropsychological testing 6 to 20 months after PCI; no significant differences were found from their pretreatment tests. Conclusions: A high proportion of neurologically normal patients with limited SCLC and favorable responses to combination chemotherapy have specific cognitive deficits before receiving PCI. Short-term (6 to 20 months) observations after PCI have shown no significant deterioration

  20. Scheduling sampling to maximize information about time dependence in experiments with limited resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2013-01-01

    Looking for periodicity in sampled data requires that periods (lags) of different length are represented in the sampling plan. We here present a method to assist in planning of temporal studies with sparse resources, which optimizes the number of observed time lags for a fixed amount of samples w...

  1. [Real-time quantification to analyze historical Colombian samples detecting a short fragment of hypervariable region II of mitochondrial DNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Luz Adriana; Rodríguez, Freddy; Langebaek, Carl Henrik; Groot, Helena

    2016-09-01

    Unlike other molecular biology studies, the analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) requires special infrastructure and methodological conditions to guarantee the quality of the results. One of the main authenticity criteria is DNA quantification, where quantitative real-time PCR is often used given its sensitivity and specificity. Nevertheless, the implementation of these conditions and methodologies to fulfill authenticity criteria imply higher costs. Objective: To develop a simple and less costly method for mitochondrial DNA quantification suitable for highly degraded samples. Materials and methods: The proposed method is based on the use of mini-primers for the specific amplification of short fragments of mitochondrial DNA. The subsequent purification of these amplified fragments allows a standard curve to be constructed with concentrations in accordance to the state of degradation of the samples. Results: The proposed method successfully detected DNA from ancient samples including bone remains and mummified tissue. DNA inhibitory substances were also detected. Conclusion: The proposed method represents a simpler and cost-effective way to detect low amounts of aDNA, and a tool to differentiate DNA-free samples from samples with inhibitory substances.

  2. Unidirectionality Between Borderline Personality Disorder Traits and Psychopathology in a Residential Addictions Sample: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Troy A; Kiselica, Andrew M; Arango, Alejandra; Rojas, Elizabeth; Neale, Michael C; Bornovalova, Marina A

    2015-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a barrier to treatment, yet the relationship between BPD features and other psychopathology symptoms in residential addictions treatment samples is understudied. Using a sample of adults enrolled in a residential drug treatment facility measured at baseline and 2-3 month follow-up, the authors examined the prospective relationship between BPD features and five indices of psychopathology: depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism, as well as psychopathology global severity. There was no effect of time on any of the forms of psychopathology, but females reported higher levels of BPD features, anxiety symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity than males. A series of latent change score models indicated that BPD features predicted increases in all psychopathology scales at follow-up, while the reverse was not true. These results suggest that targeting BPD features in residents of drug treatment facilities may reduce the emergence of new psychopathology in the short term.

  3. Signal processing of data from short sample tests for the projection of conductor performance in ITER magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martovetsky, Nicolai

    2008-01-01

    Qualification of the ITER conductor is absolutely necessary. Testing large scale conductors is expensive and time-consuming. To test 3-4 m long straight samples in a bore of a split solenoid is a relatively economical way in comparison with the fabrication of a coil to be tested in a bore of a background field solenoid. However, testing short samples may give ambiguous results due to different constraints in current redistribution in the cable or other end effects which are not present in the large magnet. This paper discusses the processes taking place in the ITER conductor, conditions when conductor performance could be distorted and possible signal processing to deduce the behaviour of ITER conductors in ITER magnets from the test data

  4. Fast screening of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in indoor dust samples by graphene-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiu; Liu, Qian; Gao, Wei; Wang, Yawei; Nie, Zhou; Yao, Shouzhuo; Jiang, Guibin

    2018-03-01

    As an important class of emerging chemical contaminants, short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are considered as one of the most challenging groups of compounds to analyze. In this paper, we report a new method for fast screening of SCCPs based on matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) with graphene as a matrix and 2,5,6,9-tetrachlorodecane as an internal standard. We found that the use of graphene as MALDI matrix generated high peak intensities for SCCPs while producing few background noises. The ion fragmentation mechanisms of SCCPs in MALDI are discussed in detail. Under the optimized conditions, much lower detection limits of SCCP congeners (0.1-5ng/mL) than those reported previously were obtained. Other distinct advantages such as short analysis time and simplified sample preparation procedures are also demonstrated. The method was successfully applied in fast screening of SCCPs in indoor dust samples and monitoring of human exposure levels to SCCPs, and the results were verified by gas chromatography coupled to negative chemical ionization quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry. This work not only offers a new promising tool for SCCP studies, but also further demonstrates the promise of graphene as a new generation of MALDI matrix. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A short version of the revised 'experience of close relationships questionnaire': investigating non-clinical and clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongpakaran, Tinakon; Wongpakaran, Nahathai

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to investigate the psychometric properties of the short version of the revised 'Experience of Close Relationships' questionnaire, comparing non-clinical and clinical samples. In total 702 subjects participated in this study, of whom 531 were non-clinical participants and 171 were psychiatric patients. They completed the short version of the revised 'Experience of Close Relationships' questionnaire (ECR-R-18), the Perceived Stress Scale-10(PSS-10), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and the UCLA Loneliness scale. A retest of the ECR-R-18 was then performed at four-week intervals. Then, confirmatory factor analyses were performed to test the validity of the new scale. The ECR-R-18 showed a fair to good internal consistency (α 0.77 to 0.87) for both samples, and the test-retest reliability was found to be satisfactory (ICC = 0.75). The anxiety sub-scale demonstrated concurrent validity with PSS-10 and RSES, while the avoidance sub-scale showed concurrent validity with the UCLA Loneliness Scale. Confirmatory factor analysis using method factors yielded two factors with an acceptable model fit for both groups. An invariance test revealed that the ECR-R-18 when used on the clinical group differed from when used with the non-clinical group. The ECR-R-18 questionnaire revealed an overall better level of fit than the original 36 item questionnaire, indicating its suitability for use with a broader group of samples, including clinical samples. The reliability of the ECR-R- 18 might be increased if a modified scoring system is used and if our suggestions with regard to future studies are followed up.

  6. Limitations of a Short Demographic Questionnaire for Bedside Estimation of Patients’ Global Cognitive Functioning in Epilepsy Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Gorny

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesThe German socio-demographic estimation scale was developed by Jahn et al. (1 to quickly predict premorbid global cognitive functioning in patients. So far, it has been validated in healthy adults and has shown a good correlation with the full and verbal IQ of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS in this group. However, there are no data regarding its use as a bedside test in epilepsy patients.MethodsForty native German speaking adult patients with refractory epilepsy were included. They completed a neuropsychological assessment, including a nine scale short form of the German version of the WAIS-III and the German socio-demographic estimation scale by Jahn et al. (1 during their presurgical diagnostic stay in our center. We calculated means, correlations, and the rate of concordance (range ±5 and ±7.5 IQ score points between these two measures for the whole group, and a subsample of 19 patients with a global cognitive functioning level within 1 SD of the mean (IQ score range 85–115 and who had completed their formal education before epilepsy onset.ResultsThe German demographic estimation scale by Jahn et al. (1 showed a significant mean overestimation of the global cognitive functioning level of eight points in the epilepsy patient sample compared with the short form WAIS-III score. The accuracy within a range of ±5 or ±7.5 IQ score points for each patient was similar to that of the healthy controls reported by Jahn et al. (1 in our subsample, but not in our whole sample.ConclusionOur results show that the socio-demographic scale by Jahn et al. (1 is not sufficiently reliable as an estimation tool of global cognitive functioning in epilepsy patients. It can be used to estimate global cognitive functioning in a subset of patients with a normal global cognitive functioning level who have completed their formal education before epilepsy onset, but it does not reliably predict global cognitive functioning in epilepsy patients

  7. Limitations of 64-Detector-Row Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography: Calcium and Motion but not Short Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir-Akbari, H.; Ripsweden, J.; Jensen, J.; Pichler, P.; Sylven, C.; Cederlund, K.; Rueck, A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Recently, 64-detector-row computed tomography coronary angiography (CTA) has been introduced for the noninvasive diagnosis of coronary artery disease. Purpose: To evaluate the diagnostic capacity and limitations of a newly established CTA service. Material and Methods: In 101 outpatients with suspected coronary artery disease, 64-detector-row CTA (VCT Lightspeed 64; GE Healthcare, Milwaukee, WI., USA) was performed before invasive coronary angiography (ICA). The presence of >50% diameter coronary stenosis on CTA was rated by two radiologists recently trained in CTA, and separately by an experienced colleague. Diagnostic performance of CTA was calculated on segment, vessel, and patient levels, using ICA as a reference. Segments with a proximal reference diameter <2 mm or with stents were not analyzed. Results: In 51 of 101 patients and 121 of 1280 segments, ICA detected coronary stenosis. In 274 of 1280 (21%) segments, CTA had non-diagnostic image quality, the main reasons being severe calcifications (49%), motion artifacts associated with high or irregular heart rate (45%), and low contrast opacification (14%). Significantly more women (43%) had non-diagnostic scans compared to men (20%). A heart rate above 60 beats per minute was associated with significantly more non-diagnostic patients (38% vs. 18%). In the 1006 diagnostic segments, CTA had a sensitivity of 78%, specificity of 95%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 54%, and negative predictive value (NPV) of 98% for detecting significant coronary stenosis. In 29 patients, CTA was non-diagnostic. In the remaining 72 patients, sensitivity was 100%, specificity 65%, PPV 79%, and NPV 100%. The use of a more experienced CTA reader did not improve diagnostic performance. Conclusion: CTA had a very high negative predictive value, but the number of non-diagnostic scans was high, especially in women. The main limitations were motion artifacts and vessel calcifications, while short experience in CTA did not

  8. Hexadactyly case at a Rana kl. esculenta sample from the north-western part of Romania (Short Notes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan SAS

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available At 17 June 2006, in a habitat close to Gherta Mica locality (47°56'0'' N, 23°14'0'' E, Satu-Mare County, Romania we had found a sample of Rana kl. esculenta which presented hexadactyly at both of its posterior feet. The captured sample of edible frog had fully formed extra (sixth toes, with phalanges (bones. The hexadactyly was perfectly symmetrical at both of the posterior feet. At this individual we did not discovered any other malformations, the biometrical characters situating in the variations limits of the other green frogs from the studied habitat. A symmetric hexadacytly can be a result of atavism.

  9. [Formal sample size calculation and its limited validity in animal studies of medical basic research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, B; Muche, R

    2013-01-01

    Animal studies are highly relevant for basic medical research, although their usage is discussed controversially in public. Thus, an optimal sample size for these projects should be aimed at from a biometrical point of view. Statistical sample size calculation is usually the appropriate methodology in planning medical research projects. However, required information is often not valid or only available during the course of an animal experiment. This article critically discusses the validity of formal sample size calculation for animal studies. Within the discussion, some requirements are formulated to fundamentally regulate the process of sample size determination for animal experiments.

  10. Tuberculosis: limitations and strengths of Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course Tuberculosis: límites y potencialidades del tratamiento supervisado Tuberculose: limites e potencialidades do tratamento supervisionado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisangela Martins de Queiroz

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the limitations and strengths of the Directly Observed Treatment Short-Course (DOTS for tuberculosis from the perspective of patients and healthcare providers in a Technical Health Supervision unit in the city of São Paulo, SP, Brazil. Four patients and 17 healthcare providers from nine Primary Care Units were interviewed from April to June 2006, after signing free and informed consent forms. The reports were decoded according to the speech analysis technique. The Theory of the Social Determination of the Health-Disease Process was adopted as the theoretical framework. The strengths were: establishment of bonds between healthcare providers and patients and the introduction of incentives, which promotes treatment adherence. Limitations included: restricted involvement of DOTS' healthcare providers and reconciling patients' working hours with supervision. Treatment adherence goes beyond the biological sphere and healthcare providers should acknowledge patients' needs that go beyond the supervision of medication taken.Se objetivó analizar potencialidades y límites de la estrategia del Tratamiento Supervisado (DOTS para la tuberculosis bajo la percepción de los usuarios en tratamiento y de los trabajadores de la salud de una Supervisión Técnica de Salud del Municipio de Sao Paulo. Se entrevistaron 4 usuarios y 17 profesionales de salud de nueve Unidades Básicas de Salud, entre abril y junio de 2006, después del consentimiento libre e informado. Las declaraciones fueron decodificadas según la técnica de análisis de discurso. Como marco teórico se adoptó la Teoría de la Determinación Social del Proceso Salud-Enfermedad. Las potencialidades encontradas fueron la creación de vínculo entre profesional/usuario y los incentivos al tratamiento, los que favorece la adhesión. Los límites fueron el reducido envolvimiento de los profesionales en el DOTS y el conciliar el horario de trabajo del usuario con la supervisi

  11. Limited interlaboratory comparison of Schmallenberg virus antibody detection in serum samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Poel, W. H. M.; Cay, B.; Zientara, S.

    2014-01-01

    Eight veterinary institutes in seven different countries in Europe participated in a limited interlaboratory comparison trial to evaluate laboratory performances of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) antibody detection in serum. Seven different sheep sera and three different cattle sera were circulated, a...

  12. Short-wavelength attenuated polychromatic white light during work at night : Limited melatonin suppression without substantial decline of alertness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werken, Maan; Giménez, Marina C; de Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G M; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    Exposure to light at night increases alertness, but light at night (especially short-wavelength light) also disrupts nocturnal physiology. Such disruption is thought to underlie medical problems for which shiftworkers have increased risk. In 33 male subjects we investigated whether short-wavelength

  13. Selectivity and limitations of carbon sorption tubes for capturing siloxanes in biogas during field sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansel, Berrin; Surita, Sharon C

    2016-06-01

    Siloxane levels in biogas can jeopardize the warranties of the engines used at the biogas to energy facilities. The chemical structure of siloxanes consists of silicon and oxygen atoms, alternating in position, with hydrocarbon groups attached to the silicon side chain. Siloxanes can be either in cyclic (D) or linear (L) configuration and referred with a letter corresponding to their structure followed by a number corresponding to the number of silicon atoms present. When siloxanes are burned, the hydrocarbon fraction is lost and silicon is converted to silicates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of activated carbon gas samplers for quantitative analysis of siloxanes in biogas samples. Biogas samples were collected from a landfill and an anaerobic digester using multiple carbon sorbent tubes assembled in series. One set of samples was collected for 30min (sampling 6-L gas), and the second set was collected for 60min (sampling 12-L gas). Carbon particles were thermally desorbed and analyzed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). The results showed that biogas sampling using a single tube would not adequately capture octamethyltrisiloxane (L3), hexamethylcyclotrisiloxane (D3), octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4), decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) and dodecamethylcyclohexasiloxane (D6). Even with 4 tubes were used in series, D5 was not captured effectively. The single sorbent tube sampling method was adequate only for capturing trimethylsilanol (TMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (L2). Affinity of siloxanes for activated carbon decreased with increasing molecular weight. Using multiple carbon sorbent tubes in series can be an appropriate method for developing a standard procedure for determining siloxane levels for low molecular weight siloxanes (up to D3). Appropriate quality assurance and quality control procedures should be developed for adequately quantifying the levels of the higher molecular weight siloxanes in biogas with sorbent tubes

  14. Limitations and potential of spectral subtractions in fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy of soil samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil science research is increasingly applying Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis of soil organic matter (SOM). However, the compositional complexity of soils and the dominance of the mineral component can limit spectroscopic resolution of SOM and other minor components. The...

  15. Limited Sampling Strategies for Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Linezolid in Patients With Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; van Altena, Richard; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Proost, Johannes H.

    Introduction: Linezolid is a potential drug for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis but its use is limited because of severe adverse effects such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and peripheral neuropathy. This study aimed to develop a model for the prediction of linezolid area. under the

  16. Method to Solve the Problem of the Radioactivity Detection in Environmental Samples. Characteristic Limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasco, C.; Martinez, M.; Heras, M.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of the detection or when the radioactivity can be considered as higher than the background using different measurement techniques has been the objective of several statistical studies and controversies. The detection limit and the critical limit were studied by Currie in year 1968 and used by radiochemistry laboratories considering different ways of calculation that introduced confusion and not correct implementations. In the last few years, and due to the increasing number of standardization processes on the field of radioactivity and accreditation, several international institutions have chosen to unify the criteria for using common determination of detection limits. The most used methods are those developed by MARLAP and International Standard Organization ISO (Standard-11929). In this report are summarised both standards doing a comparative study and giving some examples of how to apply these limits. In same cases, little differences in the uncertainty calculation have been observed but the final results have been concordant. A deeply study of these standards can be done consulting the web page of the American Labs that developed MARLAP or buying the original ISO standard ISO-11929 recently approved (2009). (Author) 17 refs

  17. Occurrence of Radio Minihalos in a Mass-limited Sample of Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacintucci, Simona; Clarke, Tracy E. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Code 7213, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Markevitch, Maxim [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Cassano, Rossella; Venturi, Tiziana; Brunetti, Gianfranco, E-mail: simona.giacintucci@nrl.navy.mil [INAF—Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy)

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the occurrence of radio minihalos—diffuse radio sources of unknown origin observed in the cores of some galaxy clusters—in a statistical sample of 58 clusters drawn from the Planck Sunyaev–Zel’dovich cluster catalog using a mass cut ( M {sub 500} > 6 × 10{sup 14} M {sub ⊙}). We supplement our statistical sample with a similarly sized nonstatistical sample mostly consisting of clusters in the ACCEPT X-ray catalog with suitable X-ray and radio data, which includes lower-mass clusters. Where necessary (for nine clusters), we reanalyzed the Very Large Array archival radio data to determine whether a minihalo is present. Our total sample includes all 28 currently known and recently discovered radio minihalos, including six candidates. We classify clusters as cool-core or non-cool-core according to the value of the specific entropy floor in the cluster center, rederived or newly derived from the Chandra X-ray density and temperature profiles where necessary (for 27 clusters). Contrary to the common wisdom that minihalos are rare, we find that almost all cool cores—at least 12 out of 15 (80%)—in our complete sample of massive clusters exhibit minihalos. The supplementary sample shows that the occurrence of minihalos may be lower in lower-mass cool-core clusters. No minihalos are found in non-cool cores or “warm cores.” These findings will help test theories of the origin of minihalos and provide information on the physical processes and energetics of the cluster cores.

  18. Limit theory for the sample autocorrelations and extremes of a GARCH (1,1) process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mikosch, T; Starica, C

    2000-01-01

    The asymptotic theory for the sample autocorrelations and extremes of a GARCH(I, 1) process is provided. Special attention is given to the case when the sum of the ARCH and GARCH parameters is close to 1, that is, when one is close to an infinite Variance marginal distribution. This situation has

  19. Limited sampling hampers "big data" estimation of species richness in a tropical biodiversity hotspot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engemann, Kristine; Enquist, Brian J; Sandel, Brody; Boyle, Brad; Jørgensen, Peter M; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Peet, Robert K; Violle, Cyrille; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2015-02-01

    Macro-scale species richness studies often use museum specimens as their main source of information. However, such datasets are often strongly biased due to variation in sampling effort in space and time. These biases may strongly affect diversity estimates and may, thereby, obstruct solid inference on the underlying diversity drivers, as well as mislead conservation prioritization. In recent years, this has resulted in an increased focus on developing methods to correct for sampling bias. In this study, we use sample-size-correcting methods to examine patterns of tropical plant diversity in Ecuador, one of the most species-rich and climatically heterogeneous biodiversity hotspots. Species richness estimates were calculated based on 205,735 georeferenced specimens of 15,788 species using the Margalef diversity index, the Chao estimator, the second-order Jackknife and Bootstrapping resampling methods, and Hill numbers and rarefaction. Species richness was heavily correlated with sampling effort, and only rarefaction was able to remove this effect, and we recommend this method for estimation of species richness with "big data" collections.

  20. Measurement facilities and accuracy limits of sampling digital interferometers. Meresi lehetoesegek es hibaanalizis digitalis mintavetelezoe interferometeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czitrovszky, A.; Jani, P.; Szoter, L.

    1990-12-15

    We discuss the measurement facilities of a recently development sampling digital interferometer for machine tool testing. As opposed to conventional interferometers the present device provides possibilities for the digital storage up to 4 kHz of the complete information of the motion so that displacement, velocity, acceleration and power density spectrum measurement can be performed. An estimation is given for the truncation, round-off, jitter and frequency-aliasing sources of error of the reconstructed motion parameters. On the basis of the Shannon sampling theory optimal conditions of measurement parameters are defined for the case when the accuracy of the reconstructed part of motion and vibration is equal to the resolution of the conventional interferometer. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Bayesian Reliability Estimation for Deteriorating Systems with Limited Samples Using the Maximum Entropy Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Ning-Cong; Li, Yan-Feng; Wang, Zhonglai; Peng, Weiwen; Huang, Hong-Zhong

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the combinations of maximum entropy method and Bayesian inference for reliability assessment of deteriorating system is proposed. Due to various uncertainties, less data and incomplete information, system parameters usually cannot be determined precisely. These uncertainty parameters can be modeled by fuzzy sets theory and the Bayesian inference which have been proved to be useful for deteriorating systems under small sample sizes. The maximum entropy approach can be used to cal...

  2. Sweat: a sample with limited present applications and promising future in metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Bravo, A; Luque de Castro, M D

    2014-03-01

    Sweat is a biofluid with present scant use as clinical sample. This review tries to demonstrate the advantages of sweat over other biofluids such as blood or urine for routine clinical analyses and the potential when related to metabolomics. With this aim, critical discussion of sweat samplers and equipment for analysis of target compounds in this sample is made. Well established routine analyses in sweat as is that to diagnose cystic fibrosis, and the advantages and disadvantages of sweat versus urine or blood for doping control have also been discussed. Methods for analytes such as essential metals and xenometals, ethanol and electrolytes in sweat in fact constitute target metabolomics approaches or belong to any metabolomics subdiscipline such as metallomics, ionomics or xenometabolomics. The higher development of biomarkers based on genomics or proteomics as omics older than metabolomics is discussed and also the potential role of metabolomics in systems biology taking into account its emergent implementation. Normalization of the volume of sampled sweat constitutes a present unsolved shortcoming that deserves investigation. Foreseeable trends in this area are outlined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Short-term 222Rn activity concentration changes in underground spaces with limited air exchange with the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fijałkowska-Lichwa, L.; Przylibski, T. A.

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated short-time changes in 222Rn activity concentration occurring yearly in two underground tourist facilities with limited air exchange with the atmosphere. One of them is Niedźwiedzia (Bear) Cave in Kletno, Poland - a natural space equipped with locks ensuring isolation from the atmosphere. The other site is Fluorite Adit in Kletno, a section of a disused uranium mine. This adit is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, operated periodically outside the opening times (at night). Both sites are situated within the same metamorphic rock complex, at similar altitudes, about 2 km apart. The measurements conducted revealed spring and autumn occurrence of convective air movements. In Bear Cave, this process causes a reduction in 222Rn activity concentration in the daytime, i.e. when tourists, guides and other staff are present in the cave. From the point of view of radiation protection, this is the best situation. For the rest of the year, daily concentrations of 222Rn activity in the cave are very stable. In Fluorite Adit, on the other hand, significant variations in daily 222Rn activity concentrations are recorded almost all year round. These changes are determined by the periods of activity and inactivity of mechanical ventilation. Unfortunately this is inactive in the daytime, which results in the highest values of 222Rn activity concentration at the times when tourists and staff are present in the adit. Slightly lower concentrations of radon in Fluorite Adit are recorded in the winter season, when convective air movements carry a substantial amount of radon out into the atmosphere. The incorrect usage of mechanical ventilation in Fluorite Adit results in the most unfavourable conditions in terms of radiation protection. The staff working in that facility are exposed practically throughout the year to the highest 222Rn activity concentrations, both at work (in the adit) and at home (outside their working hours). Therefore, not very well

  4. Evaluation of 5-FU pharmacokinetics in cancer patients with DPD deficiency using a Bayesian limited sampling strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kuilenburg, A.; Hausler, P.; Schalhorn, A.; Tanck, M.; Proost, J.H.; Terborg, C.; Behnke, D.; Schwabe, W.; Jabschinsky, K.; Maring, J.G.

    Aims: Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is the initial enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and DPD deficiency is an important pharmacogenetic syndrome. The main purpose of this study was to develop a limited sampling strategy to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of 5FU and to detect

  5. Validation of limited sampling models (LSM) for estimating AUC in therapeutic drug monitoring - is a separate validation group required?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proost, J. H.

    Objective: Limited sampling models (LSM) for estimating AUC in therapeutic drug monitoring are usually validated in a separate group of patients, according to published guidelines. The aim of this study is to evaluate the validation of LSM by comparing independent validation with cross-validation

  6. RNA Profiling for Biomarker Discovery: Practical Considerations for Limiting Sample Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny J. Kelly

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We have compared microarray data generated on Affymetrix™ chips from standard (8 micrograms or low (100 nanograms amounts of total RNA. We evaluated the gene signals and gene fold-change estimates obtained from the two methods and validated a subset of the results by real time, polymerase chain reaction assays. The correlation of low RNA derived gene signals to gene signals obtained from standard RNA was poor for less to moderately abundant genes. Genes with high abundance showed better correlation in signals between the two methods. The signal correlation between the low RNA and standard RNA methods was improved by including a reference sample in the microarray analysis. In contrast, the fold-change estimates for genes were better correlated between the two methods regardless of the magnitude of gene signals. A reference sample based method is suggested for studies that would end up comparing gene signal data from a combination of low and standard RNA templates; no such referencing appears to be necessary when comparing fold-changes of gene expression between standard and low template reactions.

  7. Use of a multigrid technique to study effects of limited sampling of heterogeneity on transport prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, C.R.; Foote, H.P.

    1987-02-01

    Reliable ground water transport prediction requires accurate spatial and temporal characterization of a hydrogeologic system. However, cost constraints and the desire to maintain site integrity by minimizing drilling can restrict the amount of spatial sampling that can be obtained to resolve the flow parameter variability associated with heterogeneities. This study quantifies the errors in subsurface transport predictions resulting from incomplete characterization of hydraulic conductivity heterogeneity. A multigrid technique was used to simulate two-dimensional flow velocity fields with high resolution. To obtain these velocity fields, the finite difference code MGRID, which implements a multigrid solution technique, was applied to compute stream functions on a 256-by-256 grid for a variety of hypothetical systems having detailed distributions of hydraulic conductivity. Spatial variability in hydraulic conductivity distributions was characterized by the components in the spectrum of spatial frequencies. A low-pass spatial filtering technique was applied to the base case hydraulic conductivity distribution to produce a data set with lower spatial frequency content. Arrival time curves were then calculated for filtered hydraulic conductivity distribution and compared to base case results to judge the relative importance of the higher spatial frequency components. Results indicate a progression from multimode to single-mode arrival time curves as the number and extent of distinct flow pathways are reduced by low-pass filtering. This relationship between transport predictions and spatial frequencies was used to judge the consequences of sampling the hydraulic conductivity with reduced spatial resolution. 22 refs., 17 figs

  8. Bayesian Reliability Estimation for Deteriorating Systems with Limited Samples Using the Maximum Entropy Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning-Cong Xiao

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the combinations of maximum entropy method and Bayesian inference for reliability assessment of deteriorating system is proposed. Due to various uncertainties, less data and incomplete information, system parameters usually cannot be determined precisely. These uncertainty parameters can be modeled by fuzzy sets theory and the Bayesian inference which have been proved to be useful for deteriorating systems under small sample sizes. The maximum entropy approach can be used to calculate the maximum entropy density function of uncertainty parameters more accurately for it does not need any additional information and assumptions. Finally, two optimization models are presented which can be used to determine the lower and upper bounds of systems probability of failure under vague environment conditions. Two numerical examples are investigated to demonstrate the proposed method.

  9. Evaluation of limited sampling models for prediction of oral midazolam AUC for CYP3A phenotyping and drug interaction studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Silke C; Drewelow, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) after oral midazolam administration is commonly used for cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A phenotyping studies. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate a limited sampling strategy for the prediction of AUC with oral midazolam. A total of 288 concentration-time profiles from 123 healthy volunteers who participated in four previously performed drug interaction studies with intense sampling after a single oral dose of 7.5 mg midazolam were available for evaluation. Of these, 45 profiles served for model building, which was performed by stepwise multiple linear regression, and the remaining 243 datasets served for validation. Mean prediction error (MPE), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean squared error (RMSE) were calculated to determine bias and precision The one- to four-sampling point models with the best coefficient of correlation were the one-sampling point model (8 h; r (2) = 0.84), the two-sampling point model (0.5 and 8 h; r (2) = 0.93), the three-sampling point model (0.5, 2, and 8 h; r (2) = 0.96), and the four-sampling point model (0.5,1, 2, and 8 h; r (2) = 0.97). However, the one- and two-sampling point models were unable to predict the midazolam AUC due to unacceptable bias and precision. Only the four-sampling point model predicted the very low and very high midazolam AUC of the validation dataset with acceptable precision and bias. The four-sampling point model was also able to predict the geometric mean ratio of the treatment phase over the baseline (with 90 % confidence interval) results of three drug interaction studies in the categories of strong, moderate, and mild induction, as well as no interaction. A four-sampling point limited sampling strategy to predict the oral midazolam AUC for CYP3A phenotyping is proposed. The one-, two- and three-sampling point models were not able to predict midazolam AUC accurately.

  10. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (Hc2) and critical temperature (Tc). The critical current (Ic) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new Ic measurement system that can carry out accurate Ic measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The Ic measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa2Cu3O7-x(YBCO) tapes Ic determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  11. Validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) in an Italian-speaking sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacis, Lucia; Palo, Valeria de; Griffiths, Mark D; Sinatra, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Background and aims The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has increased the interest of researchers in the development of new standardized psychometric tools for the assessment of such a disorder. To date, the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale - Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) has only been validated in English, Portuguese, and Slovenian languages. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in an Italian-speaking sample. Methods A total of 757 participants were recruited to the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group analyses were applied to assess the construct validity. Reliability analyses comprised the average variance extracted, the standard error of measurement, and the factor determinacy coefficient. Convergent and criterion validities were established through the associations with other related constructs. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine an empirical cut-off point. Results Findings confirmed the single-factor structure of the instrument, its measurement invariance at the configural level, and the convergent and criterion validities. Satisfactory levels of reliability and a cut-off point of 21 were obtained. Discussion and conclusions The present study provides validity evidence for the use of the Italian version of the IGDS9-SF and may foster research into gaming addiction in the Italian context.

  12. Validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) in an Italian-speaking sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monacis, Lucia; de Palo, Valeria; Griffiths, Mark D.; Sinatra, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in Section III of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders has increased the interest of researchers in the development of new standardized psychometric tools for the assessment of such a disorder. To date, the nine-item Internet Gaming Disorder Scale – Short-Form (IGDS9-SF) has only been validated in English, Portuguese, and Slovenian languages. Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to examine the psychometric properties of the IGDS9-SF in an Italian-speaking sample. Methods A total of 757 participants were recruited to the present study. Confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group analyses were applied to assess the construct validity. Reliability analyses comprised the average variance extracted, the standard error of measurement, and the factor determinacy coefficient. Convergent and criterion validities were established through the associations with other related constructs. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to determine an empirical cut-off point. Results Findings confirmed the single-factor structure of the instrument, its measurement invariance at the configural level, and the convergent and criterion validities. Satisfactory levels of reliability and a cut-off point of 21 were obtained. Discussion and conclusions The present study provides validity evidence for the use of the Italian version of the IGDS9-SF and may foster research into gaming addiction in the Italian context. PMID:27876422

  13. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei

    2018-01-01

    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (H c2 ) and critical temperature (T c ). The critical current (I c ) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new I c measurement system that can carry out accurate I c measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The I c measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) tapes I c determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  14. Development of controller of acquisition and sample positioner for activation for use in measurements of short half-life radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secco, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    High resolution gamma spectroscopy measurements have several applications. Those involving short half-life radioisotope measurements may present low precision problems when the radioactive source is far from detector end cup and in the very high activity situations also can present accuracy loss due to dead time and pile-up effects. A way to overcome these problems is changing the source detector distance as the activity is decreasing, and thereby maximizing the statistical counting. In the present study, the Controller of Acquisition and Sample Positioner for Activation (CASPA) was developed. It is a low cost and weight device, made with low atomic number materials designed to assist gamma spectroscopy measurements, which is able to control the distance between the source and the detector, even allowing that there is a change of this distance during the measurement process. Because it is automated it optimizes the time of the operator, who has complete freedom to program their routine measurements in the device besides minimizing the radiation dose in the operator. An interface that allow the user control the CASPA system and to program the acquisition system was created. Tests aiming to optimize the operation of CASPA system were carried out and the safety of the CASPA operation was verified, it was not presented any failure during their tests. It was applied the repeatability tests by the acquisition 60 Co standard source and was found that the positioning of automated system has reproduced the results of static system with a 95% of confidence level. (author)

  15. Impaired Verbal Short-Term Memory in down Syndrome Reflects a Capacity Limitation Rather than Atypically Rapid Forgetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Purser, H.R.; Jarrold, C.

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome suffer from relatively poor verbal short-term memory. Recent work has indicated that this deficit is not caused by problems of audition, speech, or articulatory rehearsal within the phonological loop component of Baddeley and Hitch's working memory model. Given this, two experiments were conducted to investigate…

  16. Pushing the limits: detecting H2 emission from faint bipolar planetary nebulae in the IPHAS sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Larios, G.; Guerrero, M. A.; Sabin, L.; Santamaría, E.

    2017-09-01

    We have obtained deep narrowband images in the near-infrared H2 λ2.122 μm emission line for a sample of 15 faint Isaac Newton Telescope Photometric H α Survey (IPHAS) bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) to search for molecular material. H2 emission is found in most of them (14 out of 15), mostly associated with rings at their equatorial regions and with their bipolar lobes. These detections add to the high occurrence of H2 emission among bipolar PNe reported in previous works, resulting from the large reservoir of molecular material in these sources and the suitable excitation conditions for H2 emission. The correlation between detailed bipolar morphology and H2 luminosity is also confirmed: bipolar PNe with broad equatorial rings (R-BPNe) have almost no continuum emission, are H2 brighter and have larger H2/Br γ line ratio than bipolar PNe with pinched equatorial waists (W-BPNe). The origin of this dichotomy is unclear. The larger size and age of R-BPNe are consistent with shock excitation of H2, whereas ultraviolet pumping is most likely the excitation mechanism in the smaller and younger W-BPNe, which would explain their lower H2 luminosity. Although both types of bipolar PNe seem to proceed from the same progenitor population, this does not imply that R-BPNe descend from W-BPNe. Otherwise, we note that some of the H2-weak bipolar PNe harbor post-common envelope binary systems and symbiotic stars. Finally, we suggest that the long-living H2 emission from R-BPNe arises from a discrete distribution of compact knots embedded within the ionized gas at the equatorial region.

  17. The X-Ray Weakness of GPS Radio Galaxies: A Volume-Limited Complete Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Siemiginowska, Aneta (Principal Investigator)

    2004-01-01

    The XMM observations of Mkn 668 have been analyzed. We found soft X-ray signatures of a hot plasma (kT approximately 10^7 approximately K) and a hard X-ray emission from the nucleus. The X-ray spectrum above 2.5 approximately keV is characterized by a very flat (observed photon index, Gamma approximately 0.5) power-law continuum, alongside with a strong Fe-K-alpha neutral iron fluorescent line (EW approximately 600 approximately eV). The best explanation for the origin of this high energy X-ray emission is in terms of the Compton-reflection of the nuclear emission. The primary X-ray emission is obscured by a Compton-thick (N_H approximately 10^24 approximately cm-2) matter which becomes transparent at higher energies. The observed above 2.5-keV X-rays are mostly due to reflection which is indicated by a strong Fe-K-alpha line. This represents the second hard X-ray detection of the GPS galaxy ever (the first one being 1345+125; O Dea et al. 2000). Interestingly, the both such trend is confirmed by our on going XMM-Newton observations of a larger GPS sample, it would lead us to looking into the question on how the dense nuclear environment impacts the nature and evolution of a GPS source, and more generally, on the history of radio power in the universe. The paper summarizing the results has been submitted to Astronomy and Astrophysics in December 2003.

  18. Sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book has never had a competitor. It is the only book that takes a broad approach to sampling . . . any good personal statistics library should include a copy of this book." —Technometrics "Well-written . . . an excellent book on an important subject. Highly recommended." —Choice "An ideal reference for scientific researchers and other professionals who use sampling." —Zentralblatt Math Features new developments in the field combined with all aspects of obtaining, interpreting, and using sample data Sampling provides an up-to-date treat

  19. Psychometric properties of the Ruminative Response Scale-short form in a clinical sample of patients with major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parola N

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nathalie Parola,1,2,* Xavier Yves Zendjidjian,1,3,* Marine Alessandrini,1 Karine Baumstarck,1 Anderson Loundou,1 Guillaume Fond,4,5 Fabrice Berna,4,6 Christophe Lançon,1–3 Pascal Auquier,1 Laurent Boyer1 1Public Health, Chronic Diseases and Quality of Life – Research Unit EA 3279, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, 2Department of Psychiatry, Sainte-Marguerite University Hospital, Marseille, 3Department of Psychiatry, La Conception University Hospital, Marseille, 4Fondation FondaMental, Créteil, 5Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, Henri Mondor University Hospital, INSERM U955, Eq 15 Genetic Psychiatry and Psychopathology, Paris Est-Créteil University, Créteil, 6Department of Psychiatry, INSERM U1114, Fédération de Médecine Translationnelle de Strasbourg, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: The Ruminative Response Scale (RRS-short form is one of the most widely used measures of rumination, comprising ten items and two components: reflection and brooding. The aim of this study was to investigate RRS validity and reliability in a clinical sample of French patients with major depressive disorder (MDD.Subjects and methods: Outpatients with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of MDD were recruited from a public academic hospital in France. Depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Beck Depression Inventory, anxiety by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory – state scale, and quality of life by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36 questionnaire. Confirmatory factor analyses, item-dimension correlations, Cronbach’s α-coefficients, Rasch statistics, and external validity were tested. Differential item functioning analyses were performed for sex.Results: A total of 109 patients participated. The final reflection–brooding two-factor model of the RRS showed a good fit (root-mean-square error of approximation 0.041, comparative fit index 0.987, standardized root

  20. PREDOMINANTLY LOW METALLICITIES MEASURED IN A STRATIFIED SAMPLE OF LYMAN LIMIT SYSTEMS AT Z  = 3.7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glidden, Ana; Cooper, Thomas J.; Simcoe, Robert A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cooksey, Kathy L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Hawai‘i at Hilo, 200 West Kāwili Street, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); O’Meara, John M., E-mail: aglidden@mit.edu, E-mail: tjcooper@mit.edu, E-mail: simcoe@space.mit.edu, E-mail: kcooksey@hawaii.edu, E-mail: jomeara@smcvt.edu [Department of Physics, Saint Michael’s College, One Winooski Park, Colchester, VT 05439 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    We measured metallicities for 33 z = 3.4–4.2 absorption line systems drawn from a sample of H i-selected-Lyman limit systems (LLSs) identified in Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar spectra and stratified based on metal line features. We obtained higher-resolution spectra with the Keck Echellette Spectrograph and Imager, selecting targets according to our stratification scheme in an effort to fully sample the LLS population metallicity distribution. We established a plausible range of H i column densities and measured column densities (or limits) for ions of carbon, silicon, and aluminum, finding ionization-corrected metallicities or upper limits. Interestingly, our ionization models were better constrained with enhanced α -to-aluminum abundances, with a median abundance ratio of [ α /Al] = 0.3. Measured metallicities were generally low, ranging from [M/H] = −3 to −1.68, with even lower metallicities likely for some systems with upper limits. Using survival statistics to incorporate limits, we constructed the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for LLS metallicities. Recent models of galaxy evolution propose that galaxies replenish their gas from the low-metallicity intergalactic medium (IGM) via high-density H i “flows” and eject enriched interstellar gas via outflows. Thus, there has been some expectation that LLSs at the peak of cosmic star formation ( z  ≈ 3) might have a bimodal metallicity distribution. We modeled our CDF as a mix of two Gaussian distributions, one reflecting the metallicity of the IGM and the other representative of the interstellar medium of star-forming galaxies. This bimodal distribution yielded a poor fit. A single Gaussian distribution better represented the sample with a low mean metallicity of [M/H] ≈ −2.5.

  1. Separation and screening of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in environmental samples using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with micro electron capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dan; Gao, Lirong; Zhu, Shuai; Zheng, Minghui

    2014-11-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are highly complex technical mixtures with thousands of isomers and numerous homologs. They are classified as priority candidate persistent organic pollutants under the Stockholm Convention for their persistence, bioaccumulation, and toxicity. Analyzing SCCPs is challenging because of the complexity of the mixtures. Chromatograms of SCCPs acquired using one-dimensional (1D) gas chromatography (GC) contain a large characteristic "peak" with a broad and unresolved profile. Comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GC×GC) shows excellent potential for separating complex mixtures. In this study, GC×GC coupled with micro electron capture detection (μECD) was used to separate and screen SCCPs. The chromatographic parameters, including the GC column types, oven temperature program, and modulation period, were systematically optimized. The SCCP congeners were separated into groups using a DM-1 column connected to a BPX-50 column. The SCCP congeners in technical mixtures were separated according to the number of chlorine substituents for a given carbon chain length and according to the number of carbon atoms plus chlorine atoms for different carbon chain lengths. A fish tissue sample was analyzed to illustrate the feasibility of the GC×GC-μECD method in analyzing biological samples. Over 1,500 compounds were identified in the fish extract, significantly more than were identified using 1D GC. The detection limits for five selected SCCP congeners were between 1 and 5 pg/L using the GC×GC method, and these were significantly lower than those achieved using 1D GC. This method is a good choice for analysis of SCCPs in environmental samples, exhibiting good separation and good sensitivity.

  2. Possibilities for decreasing detection limits of analytical methods for determination of transformation products of unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine in environmental samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulat Kenessov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most rockets of middle and heavy class launched from Kazakhstan, Russia, China and other countries still use highly toxic unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH as a liquid propellant. Study of migration, distribution and accumulation of UDMH transformation products in environment and human health impact assessment of space rocket activity are currently complicated due to the absence of analytical methods allowing detection of trace concentrations of these compounds in analyzed samples. This paper reviews methods and approaches, which can be applied for development of such methods. Detection limits at a part-per-trillion (ppt level may be achieved using most selective and sensitive methods based on gas or liquid chromatography in combination of tandem or high-resolution mass spectrometry. In addition, 1000-fold concentration of samples or integrated sample preparation methods, e.g., dynamic headspace extraction, are required. Special attention during development and application of such methods must be paid to purity of laboratory air, reagents, glassware and analytical instruments.

  3. Earlier flowering did not alter pollen limitation in an early flowering shrub under short-term experimental warming

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Cheng-Chen; Feng, Qi; Zhao, Ha-Lin; Liu, Lin-De; Li, Yu-Lin; Li, Yu-Qiang; Zhang, Tong-Hui; Yu, Xiao-Ya

    2017-01-01

    In animal pollinated plants, phenological shifts caused by climate change may have important ecological consequences. However, no empirical evidence exists at present on the consequences that flowering phenology shifts have on the strength of pollen limitation under experimental warming. Here, we investigated the effects of experimental warming on flowering phenology, flower density, reproductive success, and pollen limitation intensity in Caragana microphylla and evaluated whether earlier fl...

  4. HPV self-sampling in Japanese women: A feasibility study in a population with limited experience of tampon use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Sharon Jb; Fujita, Hiromasa; Yokoyama, Susumu; Kunisawa, Shiori; Tamakoshi, Akiko; Dong, Peixin; Kobayashi, Noriko; Watari, Hidemichi; Kudo, Masataka; Sakuragi, Noriaki

    2016-09-01

    Cervical cancer incidence and mortality is increasing in Japanese women under age 50. Screening uptake is low and proactive recommendations for human papillomavirus vaccination have been suspended. Other cervical cancer prevention initiatives are urgently needed. We assessed whether human papillomavirus self-sampling might be an acceptable alternative to physician-led screening, particularly in women with limited experience of tampon use. We also sought to identify any practical, logistical, or safety issues in women already attending for screening, before carrying out further large-scale studies in non-responders. In total, 203 women aged 20-49 attending their annual workplace healthcheck in Sapporo, northern Japan, performed unsupervised human papillomavirus self-sampling before undergoing a physician-led cervical smear and human papillomavirus test, and completing a measure of acceptability for both tests. Ninety per cent of participants stated they would use self-sampling again. They found instructions easy to follow and reported no issues with the usability of the self-sampling device. Compared with physician-led testing, women found self-sampling significantly less painful, less embarrassing and could relax more (p Women lacked confidence the test had been performed correctly, despite no unsatisfactory samples. No safety issues were reported. Self-sampling was highly acceptable in this population of women. They could perform the test safely unsupervised, but lacked confidence the test has been carried out correctly. Japanese women need to be educated about the accuracy of human papillomavirus self-sampling and further large-scale studies are necessary in non-responders. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Quantification of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in environmental samples by gas chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2016-06-24

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are technical products produced and used in bulk for a number of purposes. However, the analysis of CPs is challenging, as they are complex mixtures of compounds and isomers. We herein report the development of an analytical method for the analysis of short-chain CPs (SCCPs) and medium-chain CPs (MCCPs) using quadrupole time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-NCI-qTOF-HRMS). This method employs gas chromatography with a chemical ionization source working in negative mode. The linear relationship between chlorination and the CP total response factors was applied to quantify the CP content and the congener group distribution patterns. In a single injection, 24 SCCP formula groups and 24 MCCP formula groups were quantified. Extraction of accurate masses using qTOF-HRMS allowed the SCCPs and MCCPs to be distinguished, with interference from other chemicals (e.g., PCBs) being largely avoided. The SCCP and MCCP detection limits were 24-81ng/mL and 27-170ng/mL, respectively. Comparison of the obtained results with analytical results from gas chromatography coupled with electron capture negative ionization low-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-LRMS) indicate that the developed technique is a more accurate and convenient method for the analysis of CPs in samples from a range of matrices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Using a short-pulse diffraction-limited laser beam to probe filamentation of a random phase plate smoothed beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kline, J. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Flippo, K. A.; Johnson, R. P.; Rose, H. A.; Shimada, T.; Williams, E. A.

    2008-01-01

    A short pulse (few picoseconds) laser probe provides high temporal resolution measurements to elucidate details of fast dynamic phenomena not observable with typical longer laser pulse probes and gated diagnostics. Such a short pulse laser probe (SPLP) has been used to measure filamentation of a random phase plate (RPP) smoothed laser beam in a gas-jet plasma. The plasma index of refraction due to driven density and temperature fluctuations by the RPP beam perturbs the phase front of a SPLP propagating at a 90 deg. angle with respect to the RPP interaction beam. The density and temperature fluctuations are quasistatic on the time scale of the SPLP (∼2 ps). The transmitted near-field intensity distribution from the SPLP provides a measure of the phase front perturbation. At low plasma densities, the transmitted intensity pattern is asymmetric with striations across the entire probe beam in the direction of the RPP smoothed beam. As the plasma density increases, the striations break up into smaller sizes along the direction of the RPP beam propagation. The breakup of the intensity pattern is consistent with self-focusing of the RPP smoothed interaction beam. Simulations of the experiment using the wave propagation code, PF3D, are in qualitative agreement demonstrating that the asymmetric striations can be attributed to the RPP driven density fluctuations. Quantification of the beam breakup measured by the transmitted SPLP could lead to a new method for measuring self-focusing of lasers in underdense plasmas.

  7. Using a short-pulse diffraction-limited laser beam to probe filamentation of a random phase plate smoothed beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, J L; Montgomery, D S; Flippo, K A; Johnson, R P; Rose, H A; Shimada, T; Williams, E A

    2008-10-01

    A short pulse (few picoseconds) laser probe provides high temporal resolution measurements to elucidate details of fast dynamic phenomena not observable with typical longer laser pulse probes and gated diagnostics. Such a short pulse laser probe (SPLP) has been used to measure filamentation of a random phase plate (RPP) smoothed laser beam in a gas-jet plasma. The plasma index of refraction due to driven density and temperature fluctuations by the RPP beam perturbs the phase front of a SPLP propagating at a 90 degree angle with respect to the RPP interaction beam. The density and temperature fluctuations are quasistatic on the time scale of the SPLP (approximately 2 ps). The transmitted near-field intensity distribution from the SPLP provides a measure of the phase front perturbation. At low plasma densities, the transmitted intensity pattern is asymmetric with striations across the entire probe beam in the direction of the RPP smoothed beam. As the plasma density increases, the striations break up into smaller sizes along the direction of the RPP beam propagation. The breakup of the intensity pattern is consistent with self-focusing of the RPP smoothed interaction beam. Simulations of the experiment using the wave propagation code, PF3D, are in qualitative agreement demonstrating that the asymmetric striations can be attributed to the RPP driven density fluctuations. Quantification of the beam breakup measured by the transmitted SPLP could lead to a new method for measuring self-focusing of lasers in underdense plasmas.

  8. Clinical validation of three short forms of the Dutch Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) in a mixed clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouman, Zita; Hendriks, Marc P H; Van Der Veld, William M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Kessels, Roy P C

    2016-06-01

    The reliability and validity of three short forms of the Dutch version of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV-NL) were evaluated in a mixed clinical sample of 235 patients. The short forms were based on the WMS-IV Flexible Approach, that is, a 3-subtest combination (Older Adult Battery for Adults) and two 2-subtest combinations (Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction and Logical Memory and Designs), which can be used to estimate the Immediate, Delayed, Auditory and Visual Memory Indices. All short forms showed good reliability coefficients. As expected, for adults (16-69 years old) the 3-subtest short form was consistently more accurate (predictive accuracy ranged from 73% to 100%) than both 2-subtest short forms (range = 61%-80%). Furthermore, for older adults (65-90 years old), the predictive accuracy of the 2-subtest short form ranged from 75% to 100%. These results suggest that caution is warranted when using the WMS-IV-NL Flexible Approach short forms to estimate all four indices. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Remote sensing of atmospheric particulates: Technological innovation and physical limitations in applications to short-range weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, R. J.; Kropfil, R.; Hallett, J.

    1984-01-01

    Techniques for remote sensing of particles, from cloud droplet to hailstone size, using optical and microwave frequencies are reviewed. The inherent variability of atmospheric particulates is examined to delineate conditions when the signal can give information to be effectively utilized in a forecasting context. The physical limitations resulting from the phase, size, orientation and concentration variability of the particulates are assessed.

  10. Validation of a 16-Item Short Form of the Czech Version of the Experiences in Close Relationships Revised Questionnaire in a Representative Sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaščáková, N.; Husárová, D.; Hašto, J.; Kolarčik, P.; Poláčková Šolcová, Iva; Madarasová Gecková, A.; Tavel, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 3 (2016), s. 804-825 ISSN 0033-2941 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : Short form of the ECR-R * Experiences in Close Relationships Revised Questionnaire * validation * attachment anxiety * attachment avoidance * attachment styles * representative sample Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.629, year: 2016

  11. Pressure-assisted introduction of urine samples into a short capillary for electrophoretic separation with contactless conductivity and UV spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrlíková, Anna; Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr

    2015-08-01

    A computer-controlled hydrodynamic sample introduction method has been proposed for short-capillary electrophoresis. In the method, the BGE flushes sample from the loop of a six-way sampling valve and is carried to the injection end of the capillary. A short pressure impulse is generated in the electrolyte stream at the time when the sample zone is at the capillary, leading to injection of the sample into the capillary. Then the electrolyte flow is stopped and the separation voltage is turned on. This way of sample introduction does not involve movement of the capillary and both of its ends remain constantly in the solution during both sample injection and separation. The amount of sample introduced to the capillary is controlled by the duration of the pressure pulse. The new sample introduction method was tested in the determination of ammonia, creatinine, uric acid, and hippuric acid in human urine. The determination was performed in a capillary with an overall length of 10.5 cm, in two BGEs with compositions 50 mM MES + 5 mM NaOH (pH 5.1) and 1 M acetic acid + 1.5 mM crown ether 18-crown-6 (pH 2.4). A dual contactless conductivity/UV spectrometric detector was used for the detection. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Short communication: Limit feeding dairy heifers: effect of feed bunk space and provision of a low-nutritive feedstuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, A M; Kitts, B L; Devries, T J

    2011-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the behavioral effects of providing limit-fed dairy heifers an increased amount of feed bunk space compared with recommended feed bunk allowance, and to determine if the effects of provision of extra bunk space would be comparable to those seen when limit-fed heifers are provided a low-nutritive feedstuff. Twelve Holstein dairy heifers (381.1 ± 44.8 d of age, 417.3 ± 47.9 kg), divided into groups of 4, were exposed to each of 3 treatments using a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 7-d periods. The treatments were (1) 0.68 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.68), (2) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer (TMR-0.34), and (3) 0.34 m of feed bunk space/heifer with an additional 0.34 m of feed bunk space available for free-choice straw (TMR-S). The total mixed ration was fed once daily at a restricted level (1.83% of body weight) and contained (dry matter basis) 19.9% alfalfa/grass haylage, 20.1% corn silage, 49.6% high-moisture corn, and 10.4% protein supplement. Group dry matter intake (DMI) was recorded daily. Behavior at the feed bunk was recorded for the last 4 d of each treatment period. Due to the provision of straw, DMI was highest on the TMR-S treatment compared with the other treatments (9.4 vs. 7.8 kg/d). Heifers spent the most time feeding when on the TMR-S treatment (147.7 min/d), with no difference in feeding time between the limit-fed TMR treatments (64.5 min/d). Within the TMR-S treatment, feeding time on the straw was 76.9 min/d; thus, the rate of consumption of only the TMR was similar across all treatments. Unrewarded time at the feed bunk (when no feed was present) did not differ between treatments. Heifers did not differ in competitive behavior when on the limit-fed TMR treatments (13.1 displacements/heifer per day). However, while on the TMR-S treatment, heifers displaced each other more frequently (23.8 displacements/heifer per day) than while on the other 2 treatments. Overall, results suggest that neither

  13. A qualitative analysis of peer recruitment pressures in respondent driven sampling: Are risks above the ethical limit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Heather I; Moorthi, Gayatri; Li, JiangHong; Weeks, Margaret R

    2015-09-01

    This paper examines peer recruitment dynamics through respondent driven sampling (RDS) with a sample of injection drug users in Hartford, CT to understand the strategies participants use to recruit peers into a study and the extent to which these strategies may introduce risks above the ethical limit despite safeguards in RDS. Out of 526 injection drug users who participated in a mixed-method RDS methodology evaluation study, a nested sample of 61 participants completed an in-depth semi-structured interview at a 2-month follow-up to explore their experiences with the recruitment process. Findings revealed that participants used a variety of strategies to recruit peers, ranging from one-time interactions to more persistent strategies to encourage participation (e.g., selecting peers that can easily be found and contacted later, following up with peers to remind them of their appointment, accompanying peers to the study site, etc.). Some participants described the more persistent strategies as helpful, while some others experienced these strategies as minor peer pressure, creating a feeling of obligation to participate. Narratives revealed that overall, the probability of experiencing study-related risks remains relatively low for most participants; however, a disconcerting finding was that higher study-related risks (e.g., relationship conflict, loss of relationship, physical fights, violence) were seen for recruits who participated but switched coupons or for recruits who decided not to participate in the study and did not return the coupon to the recruiter. Findings indicate that peer recruitment practices in RDS generally pose minimal risk, but that peer recruitment may occasionally exceed the ethical limit, and that enhanced safeguards for studies using peer recruitment methods are recommended. Suggestions for possible enhancements are described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytological preparations for molecular analysis: A review of technical procedures, advantages and limitations for referring samples for testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Santos, G; Saieg, M A; Troncone, G; Zeppa, P

    2018-04-01

    Minimally invasive procedures such as endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) must yield not only good quality and quantity of material for morphological assessment, but also an adequate sample for analysis of molecular markers to guide patients to appropriate targeted therapies. In this context, cytopathologists worldwide should be familiar with minimum requirements for refereeing cytological samples for testing. The present manuscript is a review with comprehensive description of the content of the workshop entitled Cytological preparations for molecular analysis: pre-analytical issues for EBUS TBNA, presented at the 40th European Congress of Cytopathology in Liverpool, UK. The present review emphasises the advantages and limitations of different types of cytology substrates used for molecular analysis such as archival smears, liquid-based preparations, archival cytospin preparations and FTA (Flinders Technology Associates) cards, as well as their technical requirements/features. These various types of cytological specimens can be successfully used for an extensive array of molecular studies, but the quality and quantity of extracted nucleic acids rely directly on adequate pre-analytical assessment of those samples. In this setting, cytopathologists must not only be familiar with the different types of specimens and associated technical procedures, but also correctly handle the material provided by minimally invasive procedures, ensuring that there is sufficient amount of material for a precise diagnosis and correct management of the patient through personalised care. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A study on the short-circuit test by fault angle control and the recovery characteristics of the fault current limiter using coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, D.K.; Kim, Y.J.; Ahn, M.C.; Yang, S.E.; Seok, B.-Y.; Ko, T.K.

    2007-01-01

    Superconducting fault current limiters (SFCLs) have been developed in many countries, and they are expected to be used in the recent electric power systems, because of their great efficiency for operating these power system stably. It is necessary for resistive FCLs to generate resistance immediately and to have a fast recovery characteristic after the fault clearance, because of re-closing operation. Short-circuit tests are performed to obtained current limiting operational and recovery characteristics of the FCL by a fault controller using a power switching device. The power switching device consists of anti-parallel connected thyristors. The fault occurs at the desired angle by controlling the firing angle of thyristors. Resistive SFCLs have different current limiting characteristics with respect to the fault angle in the first swing during the fault. This study deals with the short-circuit characteristic of FCL coils using two different YBCO coated conductors (CCs), 344 and 344s, by controlling the fault angle and experimental studies on the recovery characteristic by a small current flowing through the SFCL after the fault clearance. Tests are performed at various voltages applied to the SFCL in a saturated liquid nitrogen cooling system

  16. Cross-cultural adaptation of the short-form condom attitude scale: validity assessment in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Tapash; Anderson, Claire; Evans, Catrin; Rahman, Mohammad Shafiqur; Rahman, Mosiur

    2013-03-19

    The reliable and valid measurement of attitudes towards condom use are essential to assist efforts to design population specific interventions aimed at promoting positive attitude towards, and increased use of condoms. Although several studies, mostly in English speaking western world, have demonstrated the utility of condom attitude scales, very limited culturally relevant condom attitude measures have been developed till to date. We have developed a scale and evaluated its psychometric properties in a sub-sample of rural-to-urban migrant workers in Bangladesh. This paper reports mostly on cross-sectional survey components of a mixed methods sexual health research in Bangladesh. The survey sample (n = 878) comprised rural-to-urban migrant taxi drivers (n = 437) and restaurant workers (n = 441) in Dhaka (aged 18-35 years). The study also involved focus group sessions with same populations to establish the content validity and cultural equivalency of the scale. The current scale was administered with a large sexual health survey questionnaire and consisted of 10 items. Quantitative and qualitative data were assessed with statistical and thematic analysis, respectively, and then presented. The participants found the scale simple and easy to understand and use. The internal consistency (α) of the scale was 0.89 with high construct validity (the first component accounted for about 52% of variance and second component about 20% of the total variance with an Eigen-value for both factors greater than one). The test-retest reliability (repeatability) was also found satisfactory with high inter-item correlations (the majority of the intra-class correlation coefficient values was above 2 and was significant for all items on the scale, p < 0.001). The 2-week repeatability assessed by the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was 0.75. The results indicated that Bengali version of the scale have good metric properties for assessing attitudes toward

  17. Developing a short form of the simple Rathus assertiveness schedule using a sample of adults with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenerette, Coretta; Dixon, Jane

    2010-10-01

    Ethnic and cultural norms influence an individual's assertiveness. In health care, assertiveness may play an important role in health outcomes, especially for predominantly minority populations, such as adults with sickle cell disease. Therefore, it is important to develop measures to accurately assess assertiveness. It is also important to reduce response burden of lengthy instruments while retaining instrument reliability and validity. The purpose of this article is to describe development of a shorter version of the Simple Rathus Assertiveness Schedule (SRAS). Data from a cross-sectional descriptive study of adults with sickle cell disease were used to construct a short form of the SRAS, guided by stepwise regression analysis. The 19-item Simple Rathus Assertiveness Scale-Short Form (SRAS-SF) had acceptable reliability (α = .81) and construct validity and was highly correlated with the SRAS (r = .98, p = .01). The SRAS-SF reduces response burden, while maintaining reliability and validity.

  18. Short exposure to acetylene to distinguish between nitrifier and denitrifier nitrous oxide production in soil and sediment samples

    OpenAIRE

    Kester, R.A.; Boer, W. de; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    The contribution of nitrifiers and denitrifiers to the nitrous oxide production in slurries of calcareous silt loam and river bank sediment at different oxygen concentrations was determined using acetylene as nitrification inhibitor. The addition of 10 Pa acetylene resulted in inhibition of nitrous oxide production at oxic conditions, but strongly enhanced the nitrous oxide production at oxygen-poor and anoxic conditions. Inhibition of nitrification by short exposure (1 to 24 h) to high conce...

  19. Measuring volitional competences: psychometric properties of a short form of the Volitional Components Questionnaire (VCQ) in a clinical sample

    OpenAIRE

    Forstmeier, Simon; Rüddel, H

    2008-01-01

    Volitional competences (skills of will), including self-regulation skills such as self-motivation and emotion regulation and self-control skills such as impulse control, are particularly necessary for patients with psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders. The Volitional Components Questionnaire (VCQ) is an instrument designed to measure volitional competences. However, its length of 190 items prevents its routine application in clinical settings. This study evaluates a new 36-item short form ...

  20. Short Communication: A Simple Method for Performing Worm-Egg Counts on Sodium Acetate Formaldehyde-Preserved Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne Melrose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kato Katz method is the most common way of performing worm-egg counts on human faecal samples, but it must be done in the field using freshly collected samples. This makes it difficult to use in remote, poorly accessible situations. This paper describes a simple method for egg counts on preserved samples collected in the field and sent to a central location for further processing.

  1. Development of a Short-term Failure Assessment of High Density Polyethylene Pipe Welds - Application of the Limit Load Analysis -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ho-Wan; Han, Jae-Jun; Kim, Yun-Jae [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Sung [Sunchon National University, Suncheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Jang, Chang-Heui [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    In the US, the number of cases of subterranean water contamination from tritium leaking through a damaged buried nuclear power plant pipe continues to increase, and the degradation of the buried metal piping is emerging as a major issue. A pipe blocked from corrosion and/or degradation can lead to loss of cooling capacity in safety-related piping resulting in critical issues related to the safety and integrity of nuclear power plant operation. The ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Codes Committee (BPVC) has recently approved Code Case N-755 that describes the requirements for the use of polyethylene (PE) pipe for the construction of Section III, Division 1 Class 3 buried piping systems for service water applications in nuclear power plants. This paper contains tensile and slow crack growth (SCG) test results for high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe welds under the environmental conditions of a nuclear power plant. Based on these tests, the fracture surface of the PENT specimen was analyzed, and the fracture mechanisms of each fracture area were determined. Finally, by using 3D finite element analysis, limit loads of HDPE related to premature failure were verified.

  2. Mg II ABSORPTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A VOLUME-LIMITED SAMPLE OF GALAXIES AT z ∼ 0.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barton, Elizabeth J.; Cooke, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    We present an initial survey of Mg II absorption characteristics in the halos of a carefully constructed, volume-limited subsample of galaxies embedded in the spectroscopic part of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We observed quasars near sightlines to 20 low-redshift (z ∼ 0.1), luminous (M r + 5log h ≤-20.5) galaxies in SDSS DR4 and DR6 with the LRIS-B spectrograph on the Keck I telescope. The primary systematic criteria for the targeted galaxies are a redshift z ∼> 0.1 and the presence of an appropriate bright background quasar within a projected 75 h -1 kpc of its center, although we preferentially sample galaxies with lower impact parameters and slightly more star formation within this range. Of the observed systems, six exhibit strong (W eq (2796) ≥ 0.3 A) Mg II absorption at the galaxy's redshift, six systems have upper limits which preclude strong Mg II absorption, while the remaining observations rule out very strong (W eq (2796) ≥ 1-2 A) absorption. The absorbers fall at higher impact parameters than many non-absorber sightlines, indicating a covering fraction f c ∼ -1 kpc (f c ∼ 0.25). The data are consistent with a possible dependence of covering fraction and/or absorption halo size on the environment or star-forming properties of the central galaxy.

  3. The importance of the sampling frequency in determining short-time-averaged irradiance and illuminance for rapidly changing cloud cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaunay, J.J.; Rommel, M.; Geisler, J.

    1994-01-01

    The sampling interval is an important parameter which must be chosen carefully, if measurements of the direct, global, and diffuse irradiance or illuminance are carried out to determine their averages over a given period. Using measurements from a day with rapidly moving clouds, we investigated the influence of the sampling interval on the uncertainly of the calculated 15-min averages. We conclude, for this averaging period, that the sampling interval should not exceed 60 s and 10 s for measurement of the diffuse and global components respectively, to reduce the influence of the sampling interval below 2%. For the direct component, even a 5 s sampling interval is too long to reach this influence level for days with extremely quickly changing insolation conditions. (author)

  4. Limited-sampling strategy models for estimating the pharmacokinetic parameters of 4-methylaminoantipyrine, an active metabolite of dipyrone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suarez-Kurtz G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Bioanalytical data from a bioequivalence study were used to develop limited-sampling strategy (LSS models for estimating the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC and the peak plasma concentration (Cmax of 4-methylaminoantipyrine (MAA, an active metabolite of dipyrone. Twelve healthy adult male volunteers received single 600 mg oral doses of dipyrone in two formulations at a 7-day interval in a randomized, crossover protocol. Plasma concentrations of MAA (N = 336, measured by HPLC, were used to develop LSS models. Linear regression analysis and a "jack-knife" validation procedure revealed that the AUC0-¥ and the Cmax of MAA can be accurately predicted (R²>0.95, bias 0.85 of the AUC0-¥ or Cmax for the other formulation. LSS models based on three sampling points (1.5, 4 and 24 h, but using different coefficients for AUC0-¥ and Cmax, predicted the individual values of both parameters for the enrolled volunteers (R²>0.88, bias = -0.65 and -0.37%, precision = 4.3 and 7.4% as well as for plasma concentration data sets generated by simulation (R²>0.88, bias = -1.9 and 8.5%, precision = 5.2 and 8.7%. Bioequivalence assessment of the dipyrone formulations based on the 90% confidence interval of log-transformed AUC0-¥ and Cmax provided similar results when either the best-estimated or the LSS-derived metrics were used.

  5. Effect of sampling and short isolation methodologies on the recovery of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig tonsils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Damme, Inge; Berkvens, Dirk; De Zutter, Lieven

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sampling (swab samples compared to destructive samples) on isolation rates of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica from pig tonsils. Moreover, the relative efficiency of different rapid, routinely applicable isolation methods was evaluated. Therefore, swab and destructive samples from tonsils of 120 pigs at slaughter were analyzed in parallel using direct plating and different enrichment methods. Salmonella-Shigella-desoxycholate-calcium chloride (SSDC) agar, cefsulodin-irgasan-novobiocin (CIN) agar, and Yersinia enterocolitica chromogenic medium (YeCM) were used as selective agar media. For enrichment, irgasan-ticarcillin-potassium chlorate (ITC) broth and peptone-sorbitol-bile (PSB) broth were incubated at 25°C for 48 h. Overall, 55 tonsils (45.8%) were positive for Y. enterocolitica bioserotype 4/O:3. Recovery was significantly higher using the destructive method compared to the swabbing method. Direct plating resulted in 47 and 28 Y. enterocolitica-positive destructive and swab samples, respectively. Alkali treatment of PSB and ITC enrichment broths significantly increased recovery of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from destructive tonsil samples. The performance of YeCM for qualitative and quantitative isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from pig tonsils was equal to SSDC and CIN. In conclusion, direct plating and ISO 10273: 2003 with minor modifications are suitable and rapid methods for isolation of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica from destructive tonsil samples.

  6. Combined short scale roughness and surface dielectric function gradient effects on the determination of tip-sample force in atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gusso, André, E-mail: gusso@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Departamento de Ciências Exatas-EEIMVR, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Volta Redonda, RJ 27255-125 (Brazil)

    2013-11-11

    The contribution of tip roughness to the van der Waals force between an atomic force microscopy probe tip and the sample is calculated using the multilayer effective medium model, which allows us to consider the relevant case of roughness characterized by correlation length and amplitude in the nanometer scale. The effect of the surface dielectric function gradient is incorporated in the tip-sample force model. It is concluded that for rms roughness in the few nanometers range the effect of short scale tip roughness is quite significant.

  7. Resolution of a serum sample mix-up through the use of short tandem repeat DNA typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert W; Pritchard, Jane K

    2004-12-01

    A sample mix-up occurred in a tissue procurement laboratory in which aliquots of serum from two tissue donors were accidentally mislabeled. The clues to the apparent mixup involved discrepant Hepatitis C test results. In an attempt to resolve the apparent mix up, DNA typing was performed using serum samples as a possible source of genomic DNA. Two hundred microliter aliquots of two reference sera and aliquots prepared from them were subjected to DNA extraction. PCR amplification of 9 STR loci was performed on the extracts and amplicons were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis. About 1 microg/ml of DNA was recovered from all serum samples and was of sufficient quality to direct the amplification of most, if not all STR loci allowing the mislabeled specimens to be traced to the proper tissue donor. Serum is a useful source of genomic DNA for STR analysis in situations in which such samples are the only source of DNA for testing. Interestingly, one of the tissue donors on life support and repeatedly receiving blood products, exhibited a mixed DNA profile indicative of the presence of DNA from multiple individuals in the bloodstream.

  8. [Determination of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolutimi gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Loimeng; Gao, Yuan; Hou, Xiaohong; Zhang, Haijun; Zhang, Yichi; Chen, Jiping

    2016-02-01

    An analytical method for quantifying short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in ambient air using high-volume sampling combined with high resolution gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-low resolution mass spectrometry ( HRGC-ECNI-LRMS) was developed. An acidified silica gel column and a basic alumina column were used to optimize the cleanup procedures. The results showed a good linearity (R2>0. 99) between the total response factors and the degree of chlorination of SCCPs in the content range of 58. 1%-63. 3%. The limits of detection (S/N ≥3) and the limits of quantification (S/N ≥ 10) were 4. 2 and 12 µg, respectively. The method detection limit (MDL) for SCCPs was 0. 34 ng/m3 (n = 7). The recoveries of SCCPs in air samples were in the range of 81. 9% to 94. 2%. It is demonstrated that the method is suitable for the quantitative analysis of SCCPs in air samples.

  9. Sample limited characterization of a novel disulfide-rich venom peptide toxin from terebrid marine snail Terebra variegata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachi Anand

    Full Text Available Disulfide-rich peptide toxins found in the secretions of venomous organisms such as snakes, spiders, scorpions, leeches, and marine snails are highly efficient and effective tools for novel therapeutic drug development. Venom peptide toxins have been used extensively to characterize ion channels in the nervous system and platelet aggregation in haemostatic systems. A significant hurdle in characterizing disulfide-rich peptide toxins from venomous animals is obtaining significant quantities needed for sequence and structural analyses. Presented here is a strategy for the structural characterization of venom peptide toxins from sample limited (4 ng specimens via direct mass spectrometry sequencing, chemical synthesis and NMR structure elucidation. Using this integrated approach, venom peptide Tv1 from Terebra variegata was discovered. Tv1 displays a unique fold not witnessed in prior snail neuropeptides. The novel structural features found for Tv1 suggest that the terebrid pool of peptide toxins may target different neuronal agents with varying specificities compared to previously characterized snail neuropeptides.

  10. Life course persistent and adolescence limited conduct disorder in a nationally representative US sample: prevalence, predictors, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ashlee A; Silberg, Judy L; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Mezuk, Briana

    2017-04-01

    The course of conduct disorder (CD) is heterogeneous. Moffitt proposed the heuristic of life course persistent (LCP) and adolescence limited (AL) to differentiate etiologically distinct forms of antisocial behavior (AB), each with distinct predictors and consequences, although a few studies have assessed this demarcation within the context of CD. The objective of this study was to apply Moffitt's taxonomy in a nationally representative US sample to investigate the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of LCP and AL CD. Data come from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies, a set of population-based nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (N = 20,130). Predictors included harsh discipline, maternal and paternal closeness, poverty in childhood, history of learning disability, parental deviance, and nativity. Outcomes included substance use, employment status, education attainment, marital status, income level, and self-rated mental and physical health. The prevalence of LCP and AL CD was 0.5 and 4.6%, respectively, for females, and 1.9 and 5.1%, respectively, for males. Low childhood SES [Odds Ratio (OR) = 3.49], lack of maternal closeness (OR = 2.50), and history of harsh discipline (OR = 2.17) increased odds of LCP group membership. The LCP group had higher odds of developing substance use disorders (OR = 2.00) relative to AL. LCP CD is more strongly influenced by childhood environment and confers increased odds for substance use problems in adulthood relative to AL CD.

  11. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeren, Alexandre; Ceschi, Grazia; Valentiner, David P; Dethier, Vincent; Philippot, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear. A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively. Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361). The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.

  12. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of geochemical samples by k{sub 0} standardization method using short lived nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oura, Yasuji; Kanzaki, Chinatsu; Ebihara, Mitsuru [Tokyo Metropolitan Univ., Graduate School of Science, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Mg, Al, Ca, Ti, V, and Mn contents in geochemical and cosmochemical samples were analyzed by both k{sub 0} standardization INAA and conventional INAA by a comparison method. The contents of Mg, Al, and Mn by k{sub 0} method were consistent with recommended values and ones by comparison methods. For Ti and V their values are slightly higher than recommended ones. The values by k{sub 0} method were reliable within {+-}10%. (author)

  13. Phytochemical Screening of Aqueous Extract of Luffa aegyptiaca (Sponge gourd) Leave Sample from Northern Nigeria: A Short Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Mhya DH; Mankilik, M

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous extract of the leaves of Luffa aegyptiaca was preliminary screened with the aim of assessing the availability of some biologically active compounds. Pulverized leaves sample of Luffa aegyptiaca was extracted with water; the filtrate was concentrated on water bath and then air-dried at 25oC. The prepared aqueous-extract was used for the phytochemical screening study which was carried out using standard methods. The phytochemicals screened from the aqueous extract of Luffa aegyptiaca sh...

  14. Reliability of the Arabic Smartphone Addiction Scale and Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version in Two Different Moroccan Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfendla, Anis; Laita, Meriame; Nejjar, Basma; Souirti, Zouhayr; Touhami, Ahami Ahmed Omar; Senhaji, Meftaha

    2018-05-01

    The extensive accessibility to smartphones in the last decade raises the concerns of addictive behavior patterns toward these technologies worldwide and in developing countries, and Arabic ones in particular. In an area of stigmatized behavior such as Internet and smartphone addiction, the hypothesis extends to whether there is a reliable instrument that can assess smartphone addiction. To our knowledge, no scale in Arabic language is available to assess maladaptive behavior associated with smartphone use. This study aims to assess the factorial validity and internal reliability of the Arabic Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS) and Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version (SAS-SV) in a Moroccan surveyed population. Participants (N = 440 and N = 310) completed an online survey, including SAS, SAS-SV, and questions about sociodemographic status. Factor analysis results showed six factors with factor loading ranging from 0.25 to 0.99 for SAS. Reliability, based on Cronbach's alpha, was excellent (α = 0.94) for this instrument. The SAS-SV showed one factor (unidimensional construct), and internal reliability was in the good range with an alpha coefficient of (α = 0.87). The prevalence of excessive users was 55.8 percent with highest symptom prevalence reported for tolerance and preoccupation. This study proved factor validity of the Arabic SAS and SAS-SV instruments and confirmed their internal reliability.

  15. Short communication: Anti-HIV-1 envelope immunoglobulin Gs in blood and cervicovaginal samples of Beninese commercial sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batraville, Laurie-Anne; Richard, Jonathan; Veillette, Maxime; Labbé, Annie-Claude; Alary, Michel; Guédou, Fernand; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Poudrier, Johanne; Finzi, Andrés; Roger, Michel

    2014-11-01

    Characterization of the immune correlates of protection against HIV infection is crucial for the development of preventive strategies. This study examined HIV-1 envelope (Env) glycoproteins, specifically immunoglobulin G (IgG), in systemic and mucosal compartments of female Beninese commercial sex workers (CSWs). Samples of 23 HIV-1-positive and 20 highly exposed HIV-1-seronegative (HESN) CSWs were studied. HIV-1 Env-specific IgG detection in sera and cervicovaginal lavages (CVLs) from the study population was done by cell-based ELISA. The HIV neutralizing activity was evaluated with a neutralization assay. The HIV-1-specific antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) response of the cohort was measured with a FACS-based assay evaluating the ADCC-mediated elimination of gp120-coated target cells. No anti-HIV-1 Env-specific IgG neutralizing or ADCC activities were detected in samples from HESN CSWs. Samples from HIV-1-infected CSWs presented ADCC activity in both sera and CVLs. Anti-Env IgG from sera and CVLs from HIV-1-infected CSWs preferentially recognized Env in its CD4-bound conformation. HIV-1-infected CSWs have ADCC-mediating IgG that preferentially recognizes Env in its CD4-bound conformation at the mucosal site.

  16. Matrix effect on the detection limit and accuracy in total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements in environmental and biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karjou, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of matrix contents on the detection limit of total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis was experimentally investigated using a set of multielement standard solutions (500 ng/mL of each element) in variable concentrations of NH 4 NO 3 . It was found that high matrix concentration, i.e. 0.1-10% NH 4 NO 3 , had a strong effect on the detection limits for all investigated elements, whereas no effect was observed at lower matrix concentration, i.e. 0-0.1% NH 4 NO 3 . The effect of soil and blood sample masses on the detection limit was also studied. The results showed decreasing the detection limit (in concentration unit, μg/g) with increasing the sample mass. However, the detection limit increased (in mass unit, ng) with increasing sample mass. The optimal blood sample mass of ca. 200 μg was sufficient to improve the detection limit of Se determination by total reflection X-ray fluorescence. The capability of total reflection X-ray fluorescence to analyze different kinds of samples was discussed with respect to the accuracy and detection limits based on certified and reference materials. Direct analysis of unknown water samples from several sources was also presented in this work

  17. The young schema questionnaire 3 short form (YSQ-S3),Psychometric properties and association with personality disorders in a Danish mixed sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Simonsen, Erik; Christoffersen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Early Maladaptive Schemas, as measured with the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ), are proposed to underlie a variety of mental health problems, in particular Personality Disorders. The latest short version of the instrument measuring all 18 schemas, the YSQ-S3, has only been examined to a limited...... for the assessment of Early Maladaptive Schemas in both clinical and research settings. Findings are discussed in relation to Personality Disorders and the Schema Therapy model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)...

  18. Time perspective in hereditary cancer: psychometric properties of a short form of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a community and clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Claire E; Homewood, Judi; Taylor, Alan; Mahmut, Mehmet; Meiser, Bettina

    2010-10-01

    We aimed to assess the psychometric properties of a 25-item short form of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory in a community sample (N = 276) and in individuals with a strong family history of cancer, considering genetic testing for cancer risk (N = 338). In the community sample, individuals with high past-negative or present-fatalistic scores had higher levels of distress, as measured by depression, anxiety, and aggression. Similarly, in the patient sample, past-negative time perspective was positively correlated with distress, uncertainty, and postdecision regret when making a decision about genetic testing. Past-negative-oriented individuals were also more likely to be undecided about, or against, genetic testing. Hedonism was associated with being less likely to read the educational materials they received at their clinic, and fatalism was associated with having lower knowledge levels about genetic testing. The assessment of time perspective in individuals at increased risk of cancer can provide valuable clinical insights. However, further investigation of the psychometric properties of the short form of this scale is warranted, as it did not meet the currently accepted criteria for psychometric validation studies.

  19. Sample pretreatment optimization for the analysis of short chain chlorinated paraffins in soil with gas chromatography-electron capture negative ion-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Laiguo; Huang, Yumei; Han, Shuang; Feng, Yongbin; Jiang, Guo; Tang, Caiming; Ye, Zhixiang; Zhan, Wei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Sukun

    2013-01-25

    Accurately quantifying short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in soil samples with gas chromatograph coupled with electron capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (GC-ECNI-MS) is difficult because many other polychlorinated pollutants are present in the sample matrices. These pollutants (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and toxaphene) can cause serious interferences during SCCPs analysis with GC-MS. Four main columns packed with different adsorbents, including silica gel, Florisil and alumina, were investigated in this study to determine their performance for separating interfering pollutants from SCCPs. These experimental results suggest that the optimum cleanup procedure uses a silica gel column and a multilayer silica gel-Florisil composite column. This procedure completely separated 22 PCB congeners, 23 OCPs and three toxaphene congeners from SCCPs. However, p,p'-DDD, cis-nonachlor and o,p'-DDD were not completely removed and only 53% of the total toxaphene was removed. This optimized method was successfully and effectively applied for removing interfering pollutants from real soil samples. SCCPs in 17 soil samples from different land use areas within a suburban region were analyzed with the established method. The concentrations of SCCPs in these samples were between 7 and 541 ng g(-1) (mean: 84 ng g(-1)). Similar homologue SCCPs patterns were observed between the soil samples collected from different land use areas. In addition, lower chlorinated (Cl(6/7)) C(10)- and C(11)- SCCPs were the dominant congeners. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Rocks: A Concrete Activity That Introduces Normal Distribution, Sampling Error, Central Limit Theorem and True Score Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duzer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This report introduces a short, hands-on activity that addresses a key challenge in teaching quantitative methods to students who lack confidence or experience with statistical analysis. Used near the beginning of the course, this activity helps students develop an intuitive insight regarding a number of abstract concepts which are key to…

  1. Reproduction and structure of the population of the Chaetognath Parasagitta friderici in Guanabara Bay (Brazil based on short term sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Mendes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the total density, densities of developmental stages and the reproduction period of Parasagitta friderici. Weekly samples were collected at one station in the channel of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, during one year. Three vertical hauls were made for each sample, and P. friderici was separated, the developmental stages were identified, and body length (BL, ovary length (OL and seminal vesicle width (SVW were measured. Throughout the year P. friderici was the most abundant chaetognath species occurring in all four developmental stages, the densities of which varied from week to week. Higher densities of adults occurred in the spring, followed by peaks of juveniles in the summer. Although P. friderici seems to reproduce continuously in Guanabara Bay, a reproductive peak was apparent during the spring. The intensification of reproduction during the spring, with juveniles occurring in the summer, seems to be related to the period of higher food supply during the rainy season and intrusions of the South Atlantic Central Water.O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever a densidade total, densidades dos estágios de desenvolvimento e o período reprodutivo de Parasagitta friderici. As coletas foram realizadas semanalmente durante um ano em uma estação no canal da Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro. Foram realizados três arrastos verticais em cada amostragem e, P. friderici foi separada, os estágios de desenvolvimento identificados e o comprimento do corpo, comprimento dos ovários e a largura da vesícula seminal foram medidos. Ao longo do ano, P. friderici foi a espécie de Chaetognatha mais abundante, ocorrendo em todos os quatro estágios de desenvolvimento, dos quais as densidades variaram entre as semanas. As densidades mais altas de adultos ocorreram na primavera seguidas de picos de juvenis no verão. Embora, P. friderici se reproduza continuamente na baía de Guanabara, um pico reprodutivo foi aparente

  2. Possibilities and limitations of dynamic headspace sampling as a pre-concentration technique for trace analysis of organics by capillary gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curvers, J.M.P.M.; Noij, T.H.M.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Rijks, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The possibilities, the limitations and the quantitative performance of dynamic headspace sampling, in particular closed-loop stripping, were investigated for various classes of organic substances in aqueous samples with concentrations down to the parts per 1012 (ppt) level. The effects of variations

  3. Limited sampling strategies drawn within 3 hours postdose poorly predict mycophenolic acid area-under-the-curve after enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, B.C. de; Gelder, T. van; Mathôt, R.A.A.; Glander, P.; Tedesco-Silva, H.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Budde, K.; Hest, R.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies predicted that limited sampling strategies (LSS) for estimation of mycophenolic acid (MPA) area-under-the-curve (AUC(0-12)) after ingestion of enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS) using a clinically feasible sampling scheme may have poor predictive performance. Failure of

  4. Classroom Research: Assessment of Student Understanding of Sampling Distributions of Means and the Central Limit Theorem in Post-Calculus Probability and Statistics Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, M. Leigh; Rowell, Ginger Holmes; Goodson-Espy, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    We applied a classroom research model to investigate student understanding of sampling distributions of sample means and the Central Limit Theorem in post-calculus introductory probability and statistics courses. Using a quantitative assessment tool developed by previous researchers and a qualitative assessment tool developed by the authors, we…

  5. The Consequence of Self-field and Non-uniform Current Distribution on Short Sample Tests of Superconducting Cables

    CERN Document Server

    Verweij, A P

    1998-01-01

    Electrical measurements on samples of superconducting cables are usually performed in order to determine the critical current $I_c$ and the n-value, assuming that the voltage U at the transition from the superconducting to the normal state follows the power law, U\\sim($I/I_c$)$^n$. An accurate measurement of $I_c$ and n demands, first of all, good control of temperature and field, and precise measurement of current and voltage. The critical current and n-value of a cable are influenced by the self-field of the cable, an effect that has to be known in order to compare the electrical characteristics of the cable with those of the strands from which it is made. The effect of the self-field is dealt with taking into account the orientation and magnitude of the applied field and the n-value of the strands. An important source of inaccuracy is related to the distribution of the currents among the strands. Non-uniform distributions, mainly caused by non-equal resistances of the connections between the strands of the...

  6. Comparison of SHOX and associated elements duplications distribution between patients (Lėri-Weill dyschondrosteosis/idiopathic short stature) and population sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschfeldova, Katerina; Solc, Roman

    2017-09-05

    The effect of heterozygous duplications of SHOX and associated elements on Lėri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD) and idiopathic short stature (ISS) development is less distinct when compared to reciprocal deletions. The aim of our study was to compare frequency and distribution of duplications within SHOX and associated elements between population sample and LWD (ISS) patients. A preliminary analysis conducted on Czech population sample of 250 individuals compared to our previously reported sample of 352 ISS/LWD Czech patients indicated that rather than the difference in frequency of duplications it is the difference in their distribution. Particularly, there was an increased frequency of duplications residing to the CNE-9 enhancer in our LWD/ISS sample. To see whether the obtained data are consistent across published studies we made a literature survey to get published cases with SHOX or associated elements duplication and formed the merged LWD, the merged ISS, and the merged population samples. Relative frequency of particular region duplication in each of those merged samples were calculated. There was a significant difference in the relative frequency of CNE-9 enhancer duplications (11 vs. 3) and complete SHOX (exon1-6b) duplications (4 vs. 24) (p-value 0.0139 and p-value 0.000014, respectively) between the merged LWD sample and the merged population sample. We thus propose that partial SHOX duplications and small duplications encompassing CNE-9 enhancer could be highly penetrant alleles associated with ISS and LWD development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The quantification of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediment samples using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography with μECD detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscalu, Alina M; Morse, Dave; Reiner, Eric J; Górecki, Tadeusz

    2017-03-01

    The analysis of persistent organic pollutants in environmental samples is a challenge due to the very large number of compounds with varying chemical and physical properties. Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are complex mixtures of chlorinated n-alkanes with varying chain lengths (C 10 to C 30 ) and degree of chlorination (30 to 70% by weight). Their physical-chemical properties make these compounds persistent in the environment and able to bioaccumulate in living organisms. Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC × GC) coupled with micro-electron capture detection (μECD) was used to separate and quantify short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCP) in sediment samples. Distinct ordered bands were observed in the GC × GC chromatograms pointing to group separation. Using the Classification function of the ChromaTOF software, summary tables were generated to determine total area counts to set up multilevel-calibration curves for different technical mixes. Fortified sediment samples were analyzed by GC × GC-μECD with minimal extraction and cleanup. Recoveries ranged from 120 to 130%. To further validate the proposed method for the analysis of SCCPs, the laboratory participated in interlaboratory studies for the analysis of standards and sediment samples. The results showed recoveries between 75 and 95% and z-score values <2, demonstrating that the method is suitable for the analysis of SCCPs in soil/sediment samples. Graphical abstract Quantification of SCCPs by 2D-GC-μECD.

  8. The attention-weighted sample-size model of visual short-term memory: Attention capture predicts resource allocation and memory load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Philip L; Lilburn, Simon D; Corbett, Elaine A; Sewell, David K; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2016-09-01

    We investigated the capacity of visual short-term memory (VSTM) in a phase discrimination task that required judgments about the configural relations between pairs of black and white features. Sewell et al. (2014) previously showed that VSTM capacity in an orientation discrimination task was well described by a sample-size model, which views VSTM as a resource comprised of a finite number of noisy stimulus samples. The model predicts the invariance of [Formula: see text] , the sum of squared sensitivities across items, for displays of different sizes. For phase discrimination, the set-size effect significantly exceeded that predicted by the sample-size model for both simultaneously and sequentially presented stimuli. Instead, the set-size effect and the serial position curves with sequential presentation were predicted by an attention-weighted version of the sample-size model, which assumes that one of the items in the display captures attention and receives a disproportionate share of resources. The choice probabilities and response time distributions from the task were well described by a diffusion decision model in which the drift rates embodied the assumptions of the attention-weighted sample-size model. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Analysis of short-chain chlorinated paraffins in sediment samples from the mouth of the Daliao River by HRGC/ECNI-LRMS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yuan; Wang, Cheng; Zhang, Hai-jun; Zou, Li-li; Tian, Yu-zeng; Chen, Ji-ping

    2010-08-01

    An analytical method for quantifying short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) by high-resolution gas chromatography/electron capture negative ion low-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/ECNI-LRMS) was presented. The cleanup procedure with an acid silica gel column and activated neutral alumina column was optimized to remove the interferences. As illustration of the application of the method to environmental samples, it is found that lower chlorinated C10 and C11 compounds were the main SCCPs compounds in six sediment samples from the mouth of the Daliao River. The concentrations of SCCPs in sediments were determined to be in the range of 64.9-407.0 ng/g and showed a decreasing tendency from the shore to the remote location.

  10. Capillary ion chromatography with on-column focusing for ultra-trace analysis of methanesulfonate and inorganic anions in limited volume Antarctic ice core samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Estrella Sanz; Poynter, Sam; Curran, Mark; Haddad, Paul R; Shellie, Robert A; Nesterenko, Pavel N; Paull, Brett

    2015-08-28

    Preservation of ionic species within Antarctic ice yields a unique proxy record of the Earth's climate history. Studies have been focused until now on two proxies: the ionic components of sea salt aerosol and methanesulfonic acid. Measurement of the all of the major ionic species in ice core samples is typically carried out by ion chromatography. Former methods, whilst providing suitable detection limits, have been based upon off-column preconcentration techniques, requiring larger sample volumes, with potential for sample contamination and/or carryover. Here, a new capillary ion chromatography based analytical method has been developed for quantitative analysis of limited volume Antarctic ice core samples. The developed analytical protocol applies capillary ion chromatography (with suppressed conductivity detection) and direct on-column sample injection and focusing, thus eliminating the requirement for off-column sample preconcentration. This limits the total sample volume needed to 300μL per analysis, allowing for triplicate sample analysis with Application to composite ice-core samples is demonstrated, with coupling of the capillary ion chromatograph to high resolution mass spectrometry used to confirm the presence and purity of the observed methanesulfonate peak. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. An ultra-short screening version of the Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE-US and its factor structure in a representative German sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrowski Katja

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Recalled Parental Rearing Behavior questionnaire (FEE, [1,2] assesses perceived parental rearing behavior separately for each parent. An ultra-short screening version (FEE-US with the same three scales each for the mother and the father is reported and factor-analytically validated. Methods N = 4,640 subjects aged 14 to 92 (M = 48.4 years were selected by the random-route sampling method. The ultra-short questionnaire version was derived from the long version through item and factor analyses. In a confirmatory factor analysis framework, the hypothesized three-factorial structure was fitted to the empirical data and tested for measurement invariance, differential item functioning, item discriminability, and convergent and discriminant factorial validity. Effects of gender or age were assessed using MANOVAs. Results The a-priori hypothesized model resulted in mostly adequate overall fit. Neither gender nor age group yielded considerable effects on the factor structure, but had small effects on means of raw score sums. Factorial validities could be confirmed. Scale sums are well-suited to rank respondents along the respective latent dimension. Conclusion The structure of the long version with the factors Rejection & Punishment, Emotional Warmth, and Control & Overprotection could be replicated for both father and mother items in the ultra-short screening version using confirmatory factor analyses. These results indicate that the ultra-short screening version is a time-saving and promising screening instrument for research settings and in individual counseling. However, the shortened scales do not necessarily represent the full spectrum covered by the full-scale dimensions.

  12. Contribution to the study of the dependence in the limit between various statistics of a sample; Contribution a l'etude des liaisons limites entre differentes statistiques d'un echantillon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosengard, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-02-01

    With a view to the investigation of the dependence in the limit between some statistics, we give general definitions of the independence in the limit and some of their properties are investigated. We then give some necessary and sufficient conditions for the independence in the limit between sample mean and orders statistics, in particular quantities and extreme values. For example, we show that, for bounded variance laws, the sample mean and orders statistics, in particular quantities and extreme values. For example, we show that, for bounded variance laws, the sample mean tends to become independent of the extreme values, whereas it is asymptotically dependent on the quantities, with a positive correlation coefficient for which an expression is given. We investigate also the case in which variance is unbounded. (author) [French] Afin d'etudier la liaison limite entre certaines statistiques d'un echantillon, on est amene a donner des definitions generales de l'independance limite, et a en etudier quelques proprietes. On donne ensuite les conditions necessaires et suffisantes pour l'independance limite des statistiques d'ordre, et on etudie la liaison limite entre la moyenne et les statistiques d'ordre, en particulier quantites et valeurs extremes. On montre par exemple, que pour des lois dont la variance est finie, la moyenne tend a devenir independante des valeurs extremes, alors qu'elle est asymptotiquement liee aux quantites, avec un coefficient de correlation positif, dont on donne l'expression. On etudie egalement le cas ou la variance est infinie. (auteur)

  13. Chain sampling plan (ChSP-1) for desired acceptable quality level (AQL) and limiting quality level (LQL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, C.; Vidya, R.

    2017-11-01

    Chain Sampling Plan is widely used whenever a small sample attributes plan is required to be used for situations involving destructive products coming out of continuous production process [1, 2]. This paper presents a procedure for the construction and selection of a ChSP-1 by attributes inspection based on membership functions [3]. A procedure using search technique is developed for obtaining the parameters of single sampling plan for a given set of AQL and LQL values. A sample of tables providing ChSP-1 plans for various combinations of AQL and LQL values are presented [4].

  14. Assessing public speaking fear with the short form of the Personal Report of Confidence as a Speaker scale: confirmatory factor analyses among a French-speaking community sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heeren A

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Alexandre Heeren,1,2 Grazia Ceschi,3 David P Valentiner,4 Vincent Dethier,1 Pierre Philippot11Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2National Fund for Scientific Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USABackground: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS, one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear.Methods: A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively.Results: Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361.Conclusion: The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.Keywords: social phobia, public speaking, confirmatory

  15. Factors influencing use of long-acting versus short-acting contraceptive methods among reproductive-age women in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaijuka, Leevan; Odongo, Robert; Welikhe, Emma; Mukisa, Wilber; Kugonza, Lilian; Busingye, Imelda; Nabukalu, Phelomena; Ngonzi, Joseph; Asiimwe, Stephen B; Bajunirwe, Francis

    2017-04-04

    Unplanned pregnancy remains a common problem in many resource-limited settings, mostly due to limited access to modern family planning (FP) services. In particular, use of the more effective long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods (i.e., intrauterine devices and hormonal implants) remains low compared to the short-acting methods (i.e., condoms, hormonal pills, injectable hormones, and spermicides). Among reproductive-age women attending FP and antenatal care clinics in Uganda, we assessed perceptions and practices regarding the use of modern contraceptive methods. We specifically aimed to evaluate factors influencing method selection. We performed a mixed-methods cross-sectional study, in which we administered structured interviews to 180 clients, and conducted 4 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 36 clients and 8 in-depth personal qualitative interviews with health service providers. We summarized quantitative data and performed latent content analysis on transcripts from the FGDs and qualitative interviews. The prevalence of ever use for LARC methods was 23%. Method characteristics (e.g., client control) appeared to drive method selection more often than structural factors (such as method availability) or individual client characteristics (such as knowledge and perceptions). The most common reasons for choosing LARC methods were: longer protection; better child-spacing; and effectiveness. The most common reasons for not choosing LARC methods included requiring a client-controlled method and desiring to conceive in the near future. The most common reasons for choosing short-acting methods were ease of access; lower cost; privacy; perceived fewer side effects; and freedom to stop using a method without involving the health provider. The personal characteristics of clients, which appeared to be important were client knowledge and number of children. The structural factor which appeared to be important was method availability. Our results suggest that

  16. A follow-up urine sample has limited value after treatment for urinary tract infection in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Kaalund-Jørgensen, Kristine; Ahmed, Akhlaq

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A routine follow-up urine sample (FUS) in the form of a midstream urine sample (MSU) is recommended after treatment for urinary tract infection (UTI) according to the Danish Paediatric Society (DPS) and "Lægehåndbogen" published by Danish Regions. We studied the effect of FUS...

  17. Limitations of Using Propidium Monoazide with qPCR to Discriminate between Live and Dead in Biofilm Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurately quantifying Legionella for regulatory purposes to protect public health is essential. Real-time PCR (qPCR has been proposed as a better method for detecting and enumerating Legionella in samples than conventional culture method. However, since qPCR amplifies any target DNA in the sample, the technique's inability to discriminate between live and dead cells means that counts are generally significantly overestimated. Propidium monoazide (PMA has been used successfully in qPCR to aid live/dead discrimination. We tested PMA use as a method to count only live Legionella cells in samples collected from a modified chemostat that generates environmentally comparable samples. Counts from PMA-treated samples that were pretreated with either heat or three types of disinfectants (to kill the cells were highly variable, with the only consistent trend being the relationship between biofilm mass and numbers of Legionella cells. Two possibilities explain this result: 1. PMA treatment worked and the subsequent muted response of Legionella to disinfection treatment is a factor of biofilm/microbiological effects; although this does not account for the relationship between the amount of biofilm sampled and the viable Legionella count as determined by PMA-qPCR; or 2. PMA treatment did not work, and any measured decrease or increase in detectable Legionella is because of other factors affecting the method. This is the most likely explanation for our results, suggesting that higher concentrations of PMA might be needed to compensate for the presence of other compounds in an environmental sample or that lower amounts of biofilm need to be sampled. As PMA becomes increasingly toxic at higher concentrations and is very expensive, augmenting the method to include higher PMA concentrations is both counterproductive and cost prohibitive. Conversely, if smaller volumes of biofilm are used, the reproducibility of the method is reduced. Our results suggest that

  18. DNA isolation protocols affect the detection limit of PCR approaches of bacteria in samples from the human gastrointestinal tract

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoetendal, E.G.; Ben-Amor, K.; Akkermans, A.D.L.; Abee, T.; Vos, de W.M.

    2001-01-01

    A major concern in molecular ecological studies is the lysis efficiency of different bacteria in a complex ecosystem. We used a PCR-based 16S rDNA approach to determine the effect of two DNA isolation protocols (i.e. the bead beating and Triton-X100 method) on the detection limit of seven

  19. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  20. The short-form version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21): construct validity and normative data in a large non-clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Julie D; Crawford, John R

    2005-06-01

    To test the construct validity of the short-form version of the Depression anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21), and in particular, to assess whether stress as indexed by this measure is synonymous with negative affectivity (NA) or whether it represents a related, but distinct, construct. To provide normative data for the general adult population. Cross-sectional, correlational and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The DASS-21 was administered to a non-clinical sample, broadly representative of the general adult UK population (N = 1,794). Competing models of the latent structure of the DASS-21 were evaluated using CFA. The model with optimal fit (RCFI = 0.94) had a quadripartite structure, and consisted of a general factor of psychological distress plus orthogonal specific factors of depression, anxiety, and stress. This model was a significantly better fit than a competing model that tested the possibility that the Stress scale simply measures NA. The DASS-21 subscales can validly be used to measure the dimensions of depression, anxiety, and stress. However, each of these subscales also taps a more general dimension of psychological distress or NA. The utility of the measure is enhanced by the provision of normative data based on a large sample.

  1. Adolescents' perceptions of parental behavior: psychometric properties of the short Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran-Adolescent version (S-EMBU-A) in a clinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penelo, Eva; Viladrich, Carme; Domènech, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the short Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran-Adolescent version (S-EMBU-A) in a clinical context. The S-EMBU-A is a 22-item self-report questionnaire, based on the original 64-item EMBU-A, that assesses perceived parental rearing style in adolescents, comprising 3 subscales (Rejection, Emotional Warmth, and Overprotection). The questionnaire was administered to a clinical sample of 281 Spanish psychiatric outpatients aged 13 to 18 years. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed, analyzing the adolescents' reports about their parents' rearing style. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded an acceptable fit to data of the 3-factor model (comparative fit index = 0.90; root mean squared error of approximation = 0.054) and parameters were equivalent for the ratings assigned to fathers and mothers. Satisfactory internal consistency reliability was obtained for the 3 scales (Cronbach α ≥ .74). The influence of gender (of adolescents and parents) and age on scale scores was inappreciable. High scores for Rejection and low scores for Emotional Warmth were related to bad relationships with parents, absence of family support, presence of rejection, harsh discipline, and lack of parental supervision. The Spanish version of S-EMBU-A can be used with psychometric guarantees to identify rearing style in psychiatric outpatients, because evidence of quality in clinical setting matches that obtained in community samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Quantitative analysis from limited sampling: influence of the chemical composition of apatites on their resistance to irradiation damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribet, I.; Petit, J.C.; CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance

    1998-01-01

    Apatites are investigated as possible high performance radioactive waste matrices for specific actinides. In this paper, we have quantified the influence of the chemical composition of apatites on their fission-track annealing behaviour. We aimed to evaluate the capability of apatites to self-anneal high densities of radiation damages produced during disposal. The thermal annealing kinetics, at 280 deg. C, of induced fission tracks has been determined for six different apatite compositions. We show that the chemical composition of apatites is a critical parameter with respect to their annealing behaviour. A mathematical treatment of the data, based upon the methodology of optimum design of experiments, allowed the quantification of the role of substitution for two major elements, of the apatite structure (Ca, P), for chlorine and for the two groups of minor elements, actinides (U+Th) and lanthanides (La+Ce+Y), which are relevant in the nuclear waste disposal context. A high actinide content enhances the annealing of fission-tracks in apatites, which is a very favourable feature of these minerals as radioactive waste matrices. This work also points to a new strategy for the best use of information provided by geological samples. In particular, the mathematical methodology proposed here allows, first, to evaluate the 'quality' of the information obtained and, second, to improve it by a proper choice of additional samples to investigate. (authors)

  3. A follow-up urine sample has limited value after treatment for urinary tract infection in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Kaalund-Jørgensen, Kristine; Ahmed, Akhlaq

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A routine follow-up urine sample (FUS) in the form of a midstream urine sample (MSU) is recommended after treatment for urinary tract infection (UTI) according to the Danish Paediatric Society (DPS) and "Lægehåndbogen" published by Danish Regions. We studied the effect of FUS...... with a focus on patients without symptoms at the time of FUS. METHODS: Consecutive patients below 16.0 years treated for upper or lower UTI from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009 at Hvidovre Hospital in accordance with the guidelines of the department and the DPS. All patients were asked to provide a FUS...... within 21 days. RESULTS: A total of 87 patients were treated for upper UTI: 59 girls and 28 boys, the median age was 1.1 year (range: 0.1-15.6 years); and 42 girls were treated for lower UTI, their median age was 8.2 years (range: 2.5-15.3 years). After treatment, the risk of a UTI was 0% (0/87) after...

  4. A follow-up urine sample has limited value after treatment for urinary tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytzen, Rebekka; Kaalund-Jørgensen, Kristine; Ahmed, Akhlaq; Abd-El-Redda, Haidar Karim; Thorup, Jørgen; Knudsen, Jenny Dahl; Cortes, Dina

    2015-01-01

    A routine follow-up urine sample (FUS) in the form of a midstream urine sample (MSU) is recommended after treatment for urinary tract infection (UTI) according to the Danish Paediatric Society (DPS) and "Lægehåndbogen" published by Danish Regions. We studied the effect of FUS with a focus on patients without symptoms at the time of FUS. Consecutive patients below 16.0 years treated for upper or lower UTI from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2009 at Hvidovre Hospital in accordance with the guidelines of the department and the DPS. All patients were asked to provide a FUS within 21 days. A total of 87 patients were treated for upper UTI: 59 girls and 28 boys, the median age was 1.1 year (range: 0.1-15.6 years); and 42 girls were treated for lower UTI, their median age was 8.2 years (range: 2.5-15.3 years). After treatment, the risk of a UTI was 0% (0/87) after upper UTI versus 19% (8/42) after lower UTI (Fisher's exact test (FE), p UTI was 0% (0/75) (95% confidence interval (CI): 0-4.9%) after upper UTI versus 4% (1/26) (95% CI: 0.1-19.6%) after lower UTI (FE, p = 0.2754). The cost of requesting a FUS in patients without symptoms was 166 euro after treatment for upper UTI and 66 euro after treatment of lower UTI. We do not recommend a FUS after treatment for UTI as the 95% CI of risk of missing UTI after treatment for upper UTI was below 5%. This strategy will save the patients/families and the health-care system. However, if a child has symptoms after treatment for UTI, it must be examined. not relevant. The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (J. no. 2007-58-0015).

  5. The short-circuit test results of 6.9 kV/2.3 kV 400 kVA-class YBCO model transformer with fault current limiting function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomioka, A.; Bohno, T.; Kakami, S.; Isozaki, M.; Watanabe, K.; Toyama, K.; Sugiyama, S.; Konno, M.; Gosho, Y.; Okamoto, H.; Hayashi, H.; Tsutsumi, T.; Iwakuma, M.; Saito, T.; Tanabe, K.; Shiohara, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We manufactured the 400 kV A-class YBCO model transformer with FCL function. ► Short-circuit test was performed by applying 6.9 kV on primary side. ► The short-circuit current was limited to 174 A for a prospective current of 559 A. ► It agreed with the design and we also confirmed the I c did not degrade. ► The results suggest the possibility to design YBCO transformers with FCL function. -- Abstract: We are developing an elemental technology for 66/6.9 kV 20 MVA-class superconducting power transformer with fault current limiting function. In order to obtain the characteristics of YBCO conductor when the AC over current supplied to the conductor, the model coils were manufactured with YBCO tapes and tested. Based on these results, we manufactured the 6.9 kV/2.3 kV 400 kVA-class YBCO model transformer with fault current limiting function and performed short-circuit test. At the 0.25 s after short-circuit, the short-circuit current of primary winding was limited to about 174 A for a prospective current of 559 A. It was consistent with the design. The I–V characteristics of the winding did not change before and after the test. We consider the model transformer to be able to withstand AC over-current with the function of current limiting. The results suggest the possibility to design YBCO superconducting transformers with fault current limiting function for practical power grid

  6. Measurement of volatile organic compounds during start-up of bioremediation of French limited superfund site in Crosby Texas using wind dependent whole-air sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleil, J.D.; Fortune, C.R.; Yoong, M.; Oliver, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    Whole-air sampling was performed before and after the start-up of the bioremediation of an industrial (primarily petrochemical) waste lagoon in Crosby Texas, near Houston. Four 'Sector Samplers' were deployed at the four corners of the French Limited Superfund Site. These samplers collect air into one of two SUMMA polished canisters depending upon wind direction and speed. When the wind blows at the sampler from across the waste lagoon, air is routed to the 'IN' sector canister, otherwise sample is collected in the 'OUT' sector canister. As such, each sampler provides its own background sample, and, upon gas chromatographic analysis, individual compounds can be associated with the waste lagoon. Five sets of 24-hour sector samples were taken; the first set was collected prior to the start of the bioremediation effort and the remaining four sets were taken sequentially for four 24-hour periods after the start-up of the procedure

  7. Use of oxidative and reducing vapor generation for reducing the detection limits of iodine in biological samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtorushina, Eh.A.; Saprykin, A.I.; Knapp, G.

    2009-01-01

    Procedures of microwave combustion in an oxygen flow and microwave acid decomposition of biological samples were optimized for the subsequent determination of iodine. A new method was proposed for the generation of molecular iodine from periodate iona using hydrogen peroxide as a reductant. Procedures were developed for determining iodine in biological samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using oxidative and reducing vapor generation; these allowed the detection limit for iodine to be lowered by 3-4 orders of magnitude. The developed procedures were used to analyze certified reference materials of milk (Skim Milk Powder BCR 150) and seaweed (Sea Lettuce BCR 279) and a Supradyn vitamin complex

  8. Intervalo hídrico ótimo na avaliação de sistemas de pastejo contínuo e rotacionado Least limiting water range in the evaluation of continuous and short-duration grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. Leão

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade física do solo sob sistemas de pastejo contínuo e rotacionado foi avaliada pelo Intervalo Hídrico Ótimo (IHO. A amostragem foi realizada na área experimental da Embrapa Gado de Corte. Foi estudado um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Foram avaliados quatro piquetes, sendo dois no sistema de pastejo contínuo e dois no sistema de pastejo rotacionado. No sistema de pastejo contínuo, implementado com a espécie Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, foram retiradas 30 amostras por piquete, não tendo um dos piquetes recebido adubação de manutenção (Cs, enquanto o outro havia recebido adubação bianual de manutenção (Cc. No sistema de pastejo rotacionado, implementado com a espécie Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, foram retiradas 30 amostras por piquete; em um dos piquetes, o resíduo pós-pastejo era mantido entre 2,0 e 2,5 t ha-1 de matéria seca total (MST (R1, enquanto no outro era mantido entre 3,0 e 3,5 t ha-1 MST (R2. As amostras foram submetidas a um gradiente de tensão de água e, posteriormente, utilizadas nas determinações da densidade do solo (Ds, resistência do solo à penetração (RP, umidade volumétrica (tetav e do IHO. O sistema de pastejo rotacionado apresentou piores condições físicas do solo para o crescimento vegetal, avaliadas pelo critério do IHO. Os maiores valores de Ds e menor IHO foram observados no R1, o que foi atribuído às taxas de lotação mais elevadas aplicadas neste piquete.Soil physical quality in continuous and short-duration rotational cattle grazing systems was evaluated using the Least Limiting Water Range (LLWR approach. Soil samples were collected on an experimental site at the Embrapa - Beef Cattle Research Center (Campo Grande, MS, Brazil. The studied soil was a Typic Acrudox. Four sampling sites were selected: two under a short-duration continuous grazing system and two under intensive short-duration rotational grazing system. Thirty soil cores were collected in each site

  9. Source of ultra-short laser pulses at 1,55μm in vertical-external-cavity for linear optical sampling applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khadour, A.

    2009-12-01

    The objectives of this thesis were, in a first step, to develop and implement VECSEL structures containing an active zone formed by GaAlInAs/InP quantum wells located at the anti-nodes of the resonant electric field, positioned on a Bragg mirror, all this being bonded to a substrate of good thermal conductivity. For this, we have designed structures optimizing the evacuation of heat generated in the active zone. This has greatly improved the VECSEL performances, especially their output power. The VECSEL performances were evaluated in a simple cavity with two mirrors (plane-concave). The second point was to develop and implement SESAM structures which, owing to their nonlinear characteristics, would allow a passively mode-locked laser operation. The structures contained InGaAsN/GaAs quantum wells. The studied parameters were the number of quantum wells, and the resonant or anti-resonant behavior of the structure. The linear and nonlinear optical characterizations were used to optimize the SESAM structure and estimate their performances. Finally, the compatibility between the VECSEL and SESAM structures, in terms of modulation depth and resonance wavelength, made it possible to obtain the passive mode locking operation. The obtained pulses show two different behaviors depending on the dispersion properties of the structures. With low dispersion, we have made the first demonstration of a passively mode-locked VECSEL at 1550 nm, operating at room temperature. An all-optical sampling device implementing the linear optical sampling technique using short laser pulses has been realized and tested. This device will allow displaying eye diagrams and constellation diagrams with an expected sensitivity around -20 dBm of average power. Testing the device allowed to visualize the acquisition of very high repetition rate signals (40 Gb/s). (author)

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short-Form (PIUQ-SF-6) in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Koronczai, Beatrix; Griffiths, Mark D; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item) version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87) and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities). Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30) was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item) PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short-Form (PIUQ-SF-6) in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Király, Orsolya; Koronczai, Beatrix; Griffiths, Mark D.; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Tamás, Domokos; Kun, Bernadette; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Urbán, Róbert

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item) version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ) on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87) and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities). Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30) was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item) PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates. PMID:27504915

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire Short-Form (PIUQ-SF-6 in a Nationally Representative Sample of Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Demetrovics

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of measurement tools developed to assess problematic Internet use, numerous studies use measures with only modest investigation into their psychometric properties. The goal of the present study was to validate the short (6-item version of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire (PIUQ on a nationally representative adolescent sample (n = 5,005; mean age 16.4 years, SD = 0.87 and to determine a statistically established cut-off value. Data were collected within the framework of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs project. Results showed an acceptable fit of the original three-factor structure to the data. In addition, a MIMIC model was carried out to justify the need for three distinct factors. The sample was divided into users at-risk of problematic Internet use and those with no-risk using a latent profile analysis. Two latent classes were obtained with 14.4% of adolescents belonging to the at-risk group. Concurrent and convergent validity were tested by comparing the two groups across a number of variables (i.e., time spent online, academic achievement, self-esteem, depressive symptoms, and preferred online activities. Using the at-risk latent profile analysis class as the gold standard, a cut-off value of 15 (out of 30 was suggested based on sensitivity and specificity analyses. In conclusion, the brief version of the (6-item PIUQ also appears to be an appropriate measure to differentiate between Internet users at risk of developing problematic Internet use and those not at risk. Furthermore, due to its brevity, the shortened PIUQ is advantageous to utilize within large-scale surveys assessing many different behaviors and/or constructs by reducing the overall number of survey questions, and as a consequence, likely increasing completion rates.

  13. Limited Sampling Strategy for Accurate Prediction of Pharmacokinetics of Saroglitazar: A 3-point Linear Regression Model Development and Successful Prediction of Human Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shuchi N; Srinivas, Nuggehally R; Parmar, Deven V

    2018-03-01

    Our aim was to develop and validate the extrapolative performance of a regression model using a limited sampling strategy for accurate estimation of the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve for saroglitazar. Healthy subject pharmacokinetic data from a well-powered food-effect study (fasted vs fed treatments; n = 50) was used in this work. The first 25 subjects' serial plasma concentration data up to 72 hours and corresponding AUC 0-t (ie, 72 hours) from the fasting group comprised a training dataset to develop the limited sampling model. The internal datasets for prediction included the remaining 25 subjects from the fasting group and all 50 subjects from the fed condition of the same study. The external datasets included pharmacokinetic data for saroglitazar from previous single-dose clinical studies. Limited sampling models were composed of 1-, 2-, and 3-concentration-time points' correlation with AUC 0-t of saroglitazar. Only models with regression coefficients (R 2 ) >0.90 were screened for further evaluation. The best R 2 model was validated for its utility based on mean prediction error, mean absolute prediction error, and root mean square error. Both correlations between predicted and observed AUC 0-t of saroglitazar and verification of precision and bias using Bland-Altman plot were carried out. None of the evaluated 1- and 2-concentration-time points models achieved R 2 > 0.90. Among the various 3-concentration-time points models, only 4 equations passed the predefined criterion of R 2 > 0.90. Limited sampling models with time points 0.5, 2, and 8 hours (R 2 = 0.9323) and 0.75, 2, and 8 hours (R 2 = 0.9375) were validated. Mean prediction error, mean absolute prediction error, and root mean square error were prediction of saroglitazar. The same models, when applied to the AUC 0-t prediction of saroglitazar sulfoxide, showed mean prediction error, mean absolute prediction error, and root mean square error model predicts the exposure of

  14. Effects of Kapton Sample Cell Windows on the Detection Limit of Smectite: Implications for CheMin on the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. N.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, R. V.; Blake, D. F.

    2012-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity is an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) instrument capable of providing the mineralogical and chemical compositions of rocks and soils on the surface of Mars. CheMin uses a microfocus X-ray tube with a Co target, transmission geometry, and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D XRD patterns and energy-dispersive X-ray histograms from powdered samples. CheMin has two different window materials used for sample cells -- Mylar and Kapton. Instrument details are provided elsewhere. Fe/Mg-smectite (e.g., nontronite) has been identified in Gale Crater, the MSL future landing site, by CRISM spectra. While large quantities of phyllosilicate minerals will be easily detected by CheMin, it is important to establish detection limits of such phases to understand capabilities and limitations of the instrument. A previous study indicated that the (001) peak of smectite at 15 Ang was detectable in a mixture of 1 wt.% smectite with olivine when Mylar is the window material for the sample cell. Complications arise when Kapton is the window material because Kapton itself also has a diffraction peak near 15 Ang (6.8 deg 2 Theta). This study presents results of mineral mixtures of smectite and olivine to determine smectite detection limits for Kapton sample cells. Because the intensity and position of the smectite (001) peak depends on the hydration state, we also analyzed mixtures with "hydrated" and "dehydrated"h smectite to examine the effects of hydration state on detection limits.

  15. Improvement of detection limits in the annular 241Am radioisotope-excited X-ray fluorescence analysis for minor elements of environmental sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thai My Phe; Ngo Quang Huy; Nguyen Van Suc; Tran Van Luyen; Nguyen Van Mai; Dao Van Hoang; Trinh Thi Bich

    2003-01-01

    The improvement of limit detection to elements Pb, Sr, Zr, Nd, and Ba in mud samples is presented. Two ways for reducing background radiation are: 1/ choosing the optimum γ-ray-excited X-ray assembly such as scattering angle (θ), filter for primary beam, excited holder, collimator for fluorescent lines, etc; 2/ using the chemical separation method to remove major composition for matrix reduction. (NHA)

  16. A statistical rationale for establishing process quality control limits using fixed sample size, for critical current verification of SSC superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, D.A.; Brown, G.; Capone, D.W. II; Christopherson, D.; Seuntjens, J.M.; Woltz, J.

    1992-01-01

    This work has demonstrated the statistical concepts behind the XBAR R method for determining sample limits to verify billet I c performance and process uniformity. Using a preliminary population estimate for μ and σ from a stable production lot of only 5 billets, we have shown that reasonable sensitivity to systematic process drift and random within billet variation may be achieved, by using per billet subgroup sizes of moderate proportions. The effects of subgroup size (n) and sampling risk (α and β) on the calculated control limits have been shown to be important factors that need to be carefully considered when selecting an actual number of measurements to be used per billet, for each supplier process. Given the present method of testing in which individual wire samples are ramped to I c only once, with measurement uncertainty due to repeatability and reproducibility (typically > 1.4%), large subgroups (i.e. >30 per billet) appear to be unnecessary, except as an inspection tool to confirm wire process history for each spool. The introduction of the XBAR R method or a similar Statistical Quality Control procedure is recommend for use in the superconducing wire production program, particularly when the program transitions from requiring tests for all pieces of wire to sampling each production unit

  17. Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements. Part 2: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements with the influence of sample treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This part of ISO 11929 addresses the field of ionizing radiation measurements in which events (in particular pulses) on samples are counted after treating them (e.g. aliquotation, solution, enrichment, separation). It considers, besides the random character of radioactive decay and of pulse counting, all other influences arising from sample treatment, (e.g. weighing, enrichment, calibration or the instability of the test setup). ISO 11929 consists of the following parts, under the general title Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements: Part 1: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements without the influence of sample treatment; Part 2: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements with the influence of sample treatment; Part 3: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements by high resolution gamma spectrometry, without the influence of sample treatment; Part 4: Fundamentals and application to measurements by use of linear scale analogue ratemeters, without the influence of sample treatment. This part of ISO 11929 was prepared in parallel with other International Standards prepared by WG 2 (now WG 17): ISO 11932:1996, Activity measurements of solid materials considered for recycling, re-use or disposal as non radioactive waste, and ISO 11929-1, ISO 11929-3 and ISO 11929-4 and is, consequently, complementary to these documents

  18. Psychometric properties of the problematic online gaming questionnaire short-form and prevalence of problematic online gaming in a national sample of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pápay, Orsolya; Urbán, Róbert; Griffiths, Mark D; Nagygyörgy, Katalin; Farkas, Judit; Kökönyei, Gyöngyi; Felvinczi, Katalin; Oláh, Attila; Elekes, Zsuzsanna; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2013-05-01

    The rise and growing popularity of online games has led to the appearance of excessive gaming that in some cases can lead to physical and psychological problems. Several measures have been developed to explore the nature and the scale of the phenomenon. However, few measures have been validated psychometrically. The aim of the present study was to test the psychometric properties of the 12-item Problematic Online Gaming Questionnaire Short-Form (POGQ-SF) and to assess the prevalence of problematic online gaming. Data collection was carried out to assess the prevalence of problematic online gaming in a national representative adolescent sample by using an offline (pen and pencil) method. A total of 5,045 secondary school students were assessed (51% male, mean age 16.4 years, SD=0.9 years) of which 2,804 were gamers (65.4% male, mean age 16.4 years, SD=0.9 years). Confirmatory factor analysis was applied to test the measurement model of problematic online gaming, and latent profile analysis was used to identify the proportion of gamers whose online game use can be considered problematic. Results showed that the original six-factor model yielded appropriate fit to the data, and thus the POGQ-SF has appropriate psychometric properties. Latent profile analysis revealed that 4.6% of the adolescents belong to a high risk group and an additional 13.3% to a low risk group. Due to its satisfactory psychometric characteristics, the 12-item POGQ-SF appears to be an adequate tool for the assessment of problematic online gaming.

  19. Using ecological momentary assessment to investigate short-term variations in sexual functioning in a sample of peri-menopausal women from Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir H Pakpour

    Full Text Available The investigation of short-term changes in female sexual functioning has received little attention so far. The aims of the study were to gain empirical knowledge on within-subject and within- and across-variable fluctuations in women's sexual functioning over time. More specifically, to investigate the stability of women´s self-reported sexual functioning and the moderating effects of contextual and interpersonal factors. A convenience sample of 206 women, recruited across eight Health care Clinics in Rasht, Iran. Ecological momentary assessment was used to examine fluctuations of sexual functioning over a six week period. A shortened version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI was applied to assess sexual functioning. Self-constructed questions were included to assess relationship satisfaction, partner's sexual performance and stress levels. Mixed linear two-level model analyses revealed a link between orgasm and relationship satisfaction (Beta = 0.125, P = 0.074 with this link varying significantly between women. Analyses further revealed a significant negative association between stress and all six domains of women's sexual functioning. Women not only reported differing levels of stress over the course of the assessment period, but further differed from each other in how much stress they experienced and how much this influenced their sexual response. Orgasm and sexual satisfaction were both significantly associated with all other domains of sexual function (P<0.001. And finally, a link between partner performance and all domains of women`s sexual functioning (P<0.001 could be detected. Except for lubrication (P = 0.717, relationship satisfaction had a significant effect on all domains of the sexual response (P<0.001. Overall, our findings support the new group of criteria introduced in the DSM-5, called "associated features" such as partner factors and relationship factors. Consideration of these criteria is important and necessary for

  20. Comparison of false-negative rates and limits of detection following macrofoam-swab sampling of Bacillus anthracis surrogates via Rapid Viability PCR and plate culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, J R; Piepel, G F; Amidan, B G; Hess, B M; Sydor, M A; Deatherage Kaiser, B L

    2018-05-01

    We evaluated the effects of Bacillus anthracis surrogates, low surface concentrations, surface materials and assay methods on false-negative rate (FNR) and limit of detection (LOD 95 ) for recovering Bacillus spores using a macrofoam-swab sampling procedure. Bacillus anthracis Sterne or Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura spores were deposited over a range of low target concentrations (2-500 per coupon) onto glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile and plastic. Samples were assayed using a modified Rapid Viability-PCR (mRV-PCR) method and the traditional plate culture method to obtain FNR and LOD 95 results. Mean FNRs tended to be lower for mRV-PCR compared to culturing, and increased as spore concentration decreased for all surface materials. Surface material, but not B. anthracis surrogate, influenced FNRs with the mRV-PCR method. The mRV-PCR LOD 95 was lowest for glass and highest for vinyl tile. LOD 95 values overall were lower for mRV-PCR than for the culture method. This study adds to the limited data on FNR and LOD 95 for mRV-PCR and culturing methods with low concentrations of B. anthracis sampled from various surface materials by the CDC macrofoam-swab method. These are key inputs for planning characterization and clearance studies for low contamination levels of B. anthracis. © 2018 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  1. Multielement detection limits and sample nebulization efficiencies of an improved ultrasonic nebulizer and a conventional pneumatic nebulizer in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.W.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Fassel, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Two important aspects of the analytical performance of a newly developed ultrasonic nebulizer and a specially designed pneumatic nebulizer have been compared for use in inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The ultrasonic nebulizer, when combined with a conventional aerosol desolvation apparatus, provided an order of magnitude or more improvement in simultaneous multielement detection limits as compared to those obtained when the pneumatic nebulizer was used either with or without desolvation. Application of a novel method for direct measurement of the overall efficiency of nebulization to the two systems showed that an approximately tenfold greater rate of sample delivery to the plasma torch was primarily responsible for the superior detection limits afforded by the ultrasonic nebulizer. A unique feature of the ultrasonic nebulizer described is the protection against chemical attack which is achieved by completely enclosing the transducer in an acoustically coupled borosilicate glass cylinder. Direct sample introduction, convenient sample change, and rapid cleanout are other important characteristics of the system which make it an attractive alternate to pneumatic nebulizer systems

  2. Moving your laboratories to the field – Advantages and limitations of the use of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka, E-mail: Agnieszka.Galuszka@ujk.edu.pl [Geochemistry and the Environment Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Migaszewski, Zdzisław M. [Geochemistry and the Environment Division, Institute of Chemistry, Jan Kochanowski University, 15G Świętokrzyska St., 25-406 Kielce (Poland); Namieśnik, Jacek [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT), 11/12 G. Narutowicz St., 80-233 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2015-07-15

    The recent rapid progress in technology of field portable instruments has increased their applications in environmental sample analysis. These instruments offer a possibility of cost-effective, non-destructive, real-time, direct, on-site measurements of a wide range of both inorganic and organic analytes in gaseous, liquid and solid samples. Some of them do not require the use of reagents and do not produce any analytical waste. All these features contribute to the greenness of field portable techniques. Several stationary analytical instruments have their portable versions. The most popular ones include: gas chromatographs with different detectors (mass spectrometer (MS), flame ionization detector, photoionization detector), ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared spectrophotometers, X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, ion mobility spectrometers, electronic noses and electronic tongues. The use of portable instruments in environmental sample analysis gives a possibility of on-site screening and a subsequent selection of samples for routine laboratory analyses. They are also very useful in situations that require an emergency response and for process monitoring applications. However, quantification of results is still problematic in many cases. The other disadvantages include: higher detection limits and lower sensitivity than these obtained in laboratory conditions, a strong influence of environmental factors on the instrument performance and a high possibility of sample contamination in the field. This paper reviews recent applications of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis and discusses their analytical capabilities. - Highlights: • Field portable instruments are widely used in environmental sample analysis. • Field portable instruments are indispensable for analysis in emergency response. • Miniaturization of field portable instruments reduces resource consumption. • In situ analysis is in agreement with green analytical chemistry

  3. Moving your laboratories to the field – Advantages and limitations of the use of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M.; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    The recent rapid progress in technology of field portable instruments has increased their applications in environmental sample analysis. These instruments offer a possibility of cost-effective, non-destructive, real-time, direct, on-site measurements of a wide range of both inorganic and organic analytes in gaseous, liquid and solid samples. Some of them do not require the use of reagents and do not produce any analytical waste. All these features contribute to the greenness of field portable techniques. Several stationary analytical instruments have their portable versions. The most popular ones include: gas chromatographs with different detectors (mass spectrometer (MS), flame ionization detector, photoionization detector), ultraviolet–visible and near-infrared spectrophotometers, X-ray fluorescence spectrometers, ion mobility spectrometers, electronic noses and electronic tongues. The use of portable instruments in environmental sample analysis gives a possibility of on-site screening and a subsequent selection of samples for routine laboratory analyses. They are also very useful in situations that require an emergency response and for process monitoring applications. However, quantification of results is still problematic in many cases. The other disadvantages include: higher detection limits and lower sensitivity than these obtained in laboratory conditions, a strong influence of environmental factors on the instrument performance and a high possibility of sample contamination in the field. This paper reviews recent applications of field portable instruments in environmental sample analysis and discusses their analytical capabilities. - Highlights: • Field portable instruments are widely used in environmental sample analysis. • Field portable instruments are indispensable for analysis in emergency response. • Miniaturization of field portable instruments reduces resource consumption. • In situ analysis is in agreement with green analytical chemistry

  4. Natural activity in Hudson River estuary samples and their influence on the detection limits for gamma emitting radionuclides using NaI gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wrenn, M.E.; Jinks, S.M.; Hairr, L.M.; Paschoa, A.S.; Lentsch, J.W.

    1972-01-01

    Sources of natural radioactivity in Hudson River Estuary are described. The technique of analysis for gamma spectrometry of environmental samples is presented and its pros and cons discussed. The distribution of natural radioactivity in water, biota and sediment was reported as well as the role played by the vertical distribution of cesium-137 in sediments as an indicator of the rate of sedimentation. The effect of the presence of natural radionuclides on the detection limits of man-made nuclides in the Hudson River environment is thoroughly examined. The results obtained with a 4-in. sodium iodide well crystal housed in a low background mercury shielding compare favorably with a more sophisticated Ge(Li) system which uses anticoincidence, as far as the analysis of environmental samples is concerned. (U.S.)

  5. Maternal short stature does not predict their children's fatness indicators in a nutritional dual-burden sample of urban Mexican Maya.

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, HJ; Dickinson, F; Griffiths, PL; Bogin, B; Hobbs, M; Varela-Silva, MI

    2014-01-01

    The co-existence of very short stature due to poor chronic environment in early life and obesity is becoming a public health concern in rapidly transitioning populations with high levels of poverty. Individuals who have very short stature seem to be at an increased risk of obesity in times of relative caloric abundance. Increasing evidence shows that an individual is influenced by exposures in previous generations. This study assesses whether maternal poor early life environment predicts her ...

  6. Determination of Fe-55 and Ni-63 in Environmental Samples. Analytical Problems. Characteristic Limits. Automatized Calculation; Determinacion de 55{sup F}e y 63{sup N}i en Muestras Ambientales. Problemas Analiticos. Limites Caracteristicos. Calculo Automatizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C; Navarro, N; Gonzalez, P; Heras, M C; Gapan, M P; Alonso, C; Calderon, A; Sanchez, D; Morante, R; Fernandez, M; Gajate, A; Alvarez, A

    2008-08-06

    The Department of Vigilance Radiologica y Radiactividad Ambiental from CIEMAT has developed an appropriate analytical methodology for Fe-55 and Ni-63 sequential determination in environmental samples based on the procedure used by RIS0 Laboratories. The experimental results obtained in the mayor and minor elements behaviour (soil and air constituents) in the different types of resins used for separating Fe-55 and Ni-63 are showed in this report. The measuring method of both isotopes by scintillation counting has been optimized with Ultima Gold liquid with different concentrations of stable element Fe and Ni. The decontamination factors of different gamma-emitters are experimentally determined in this method with the presence of soil matrix. The Fe-55 and Ni-63 activity concentrations and their associated uncertainties have been calculated from the counting data and sample preparation. A computer application has been implemented in Visual Basic in excel sheets for: (I) obtaining the counting data from spectrometer and counts in each window, (II) representing graphically the background and sample spectrums, (III) determining the activity concentration and its associated uncertainty and (IV) calculating the characteristic limits using ISO 11929 (2007) with various confidence levels. (Author) 30 refs.

  7. Psychometric properties and validation of the Italian version of the Family Assessment Measure Third Edition - Short Version - in a nonclinical sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Ramaci, Tiziana; Parrello, Santa; Guariglia, Paola; Giaimo, Flavio

    2017-01-01

    Family functioning plays an important role in developing and maintaining dysfunctional behaviors, especially during adolescence. The lack of indicators of family functioning, as determinants of personal and interpersonal problems, represents an obstacle to the activities aimed at developing preventive and intervention strategies. The Process Model of Family Functioning provides a conceptual framework organizing and integrating various concepts into a comprehensive family assessment; this model underlines that through the process of task accomplishment, each family meets objectives central to its life as a group. The Family Assessment Measure Third Edition (FAM III), based on the Process Model of Family Functioning, is among the most frequently used self-report instruments to measure family functioning. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Family Assessment Measure Third Edition - Short Version (Brief FAM-III). It consists of three modules: General Scale, which evaluates the family as a system; Dyadic Relationships Scale, which examines how each family member perceives his/her relationship with another member; and Self-Rating Scale, which indicates how each family member is perceived within the nucleus. The developed Brief FAM-III together with the Family Assessment Device were administered to 484 subjects, members of 162 Italian families, formed of 162 fathers aged between 35 and 73 years; 162 mothers aged between 34 and 69 years; and 160 children aged between 12 and 35 years. Correlation, paired-sample t -test, and reliability analyses were carried out. General item analysis shows good indices of reliability with Cronbach's α coefficients equal to 0.96. The Brief FAM-III has satisfactory internal consistency, with Cronbach's α equal to 0.90 for General Scale, 0.94 for Dyadic Relationships Scale, and 0.88 for the Self-Rating Scale. The Brief FAM-III can be a psychometrically reliable and valid measure for

  8. Psychometric properties and validation of the Italian version of the Family Assessment Measure Third Edition – Short Version – in a nonclinical sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone,1 Tiziana Ramaci,1 Santa Parrello,2 Paola Guariglia,1 Flavio Giaimo1 1Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, 2Department of Humanities Studies, “Federico II” University of Naples, Napoli, Italy Background: Family functioning plays an important role in developing and maintaining dysfunctional behaviors, especially during adolescence. The lack of indicators of family functioning, as determinants of personal and interpersonal problems, represents an obstacle to the activities aimed at developing preventive and intervention strategies. The Process Model of Family Functioning provides a conceptual framework organizing and integrating various concepts into a comprehensive family assessment; this model underlines that through the process of task accomplishment, each family meets objectives central to its life as a group. The Family Assessment Measure Third Edition (FAM III, based on the Process Model of Family Functioning, is among the most frequently used self-report instruments to measure family functioning. Materials and methods: The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Family Assessment Measure Third Edition – Short Version (Brief FAM-III. It consists of three modules: General Scale, which evaluates the family as a system; Dyadic Relationships Scale, which examines how each family member perceives his/her relationship with another member; and Self-Rating Scale, which indicates how each family member is perceived within the nucleus. The developed Brief FAM-III together with the Family Assessment Device were administered to 484 subjects, members of 162 Italian families, formed of 162 fathers aged between 35 and 73 years; 162 mothers aged between 34 and 69 years; and 160 children aged between 12 and 35 years. Correlation, paired-sample t-test, and reliability analyses were carried out. Results: General item analysis shows good indices of

  9. Clinical Application of Picodroplet Digital PCR Technology for Rapid Detection of EGFR T790M in Next-Generation Sequencing Libraries and DNA from Limited Tumor Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsu, Laetitia; Intrieri, Julie; Thampi, Linta; Yu, Helena; Riely, Gregory; Nafa, Khedoudja; Chandramohan, Raghu; Ladanyi, Marc; Arcila, Maria E

    2016-11-01

    Although next-generation sequencing (NGS) is a robust technology for comprehensive assessment of EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas with acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, it may not provide sufficiently rapid and sensitive detection of the EGFR T790M mutation, the most clinically relevant resistance biomarker. Here, we describe a digital PCR (dPCR) assay for rapid T790M detection on aliquots of NGS libraries prepared for comprehensive profiling, fully maximizing broad genomic analysis on limited samples. Tumor DNAs from patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinomas and acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors were prepared for Memorial Sloan-Kettering-Integrated Mutation Profiling of Actionable Cancer Targets sequencing, a hybrid capture-based assay interrogating 410 cancer-related genes. Precapture library aliquots were used for rapid EGFR T790M testing by dPCR, and results were compared with NGS and locked nucleic acid-PCR Sanger sequencing (reference high sensitivity method). Seventy resistance samples showed 99% concordance with the reference high sensitivity method in accuracy studies. Input as low as 2.5 ng provided a sensitivity of 1% and improved further with increasing DNA input. dPCR on libraries required less DNA and showed better performance than direct genomic DNA. dPCR on NGS libraries is a robust and rapid approach to EGFR T790M testing, allowing most economical utilization of limited material for comprehensive assessment. The same assay can also be performed directly on any limited DNA source and cell-free DNA. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Problems, possibilities and limitations of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in the determination of platinum, palladium and rhodium in samples with different matrix composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, P.; Velichkov, S. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str. bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Velitchkova, N. [Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str., bl.24, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Havezov, I. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str. bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Daskalova, N., E-mail: das15482@svr.igic.bas.b [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str. bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-02-15

    The economic and geological importance of platinum group of elements has led to the development of analytical methods to quantify them in different types of samples. In the present paper the quantitative information for spectral interference in radial viewing 40.68 MHz inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in the determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in the presence of complex matrix, containing Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, P and Ti as matrix constituents was obtained. The database was used for optimum line selections. By using the selected analysis lines the following detection limits in ng g{sup -1} were obtained: Pt 1700, Pd-1440, Rh-900. The reached detection limits determine the possibilities and limitation of the direct ICP-AES method in the determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in geological and environmental materials. The database for spectral interferences in the presence of aluminum can be used for the determination of platinum group of elements in car catalysts. The accuracy of the analytical results was experimentally demonstrated by two certified reference materials that were analyzed: SARM 7, Pt ore and recycled auto-catalyst certified reference material SRM 2556.

  11. Solid phase extraction of large volume of water and beverage samples to improve detection limits for GC-MS analysis of bisphenol A and four other bisphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Popovic, Svetlana

    2018-01-01

    Solid phase extraction (SPE) of large volumes of water and beverage products was investigated for the GC-MS analysis of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol AF (BPAF), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol E (BPE), and bisphenol B (BPB). While absolute recoveries of the method were improved for water and some beverage products (e.g. diet cola, iced tea), breakthrough may also have occurred during SPE of 200 mL of other beverages (e.g. BPF in cola). Improvements in method detection limits were observed with the analysis of large sample volumes for all bisphenols at ppt (pg/g) to sub-ppt levels. This improvement was found to be proportional to sample volumes for water and beverage products with less interferences and noise levels around the analytes. Matrix effects and interferences were observed during SPE of larger volumes (100 and 200 mL) of the beverage products, and affected the accurate analysis of BPF. This improved method was used to analyse bisphenols in various beverage samples, and only BPA was detected, with levels ranging from 0.022 to 0.030 ng/g for products in PET bottles, and 0.085 to 0.32 ng/g for products in cans.

  12. The ATLAS3D project - I. A volume-limited sample of 260 nearby early-type galaxies: science goals and selection criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellari, Michele; Emsellem, Eric; Krajnović, Davor; McDermid, Richard M.; Scott, Nicholas; Verdoes Kleijn, G. A.; Young, Lisa M.; Alatalo, Katherine; Bacon, R.; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Bureau, M.; Davies, Roger L.; Davis, Timothy A.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Khochfar, Sadegh; Kuntschner, Harald; Lablanche, Pierre-Yves; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

    2011-05-01

    The ATLAS3D project is a multiwavelength survey combined with a theoretical modelling effort. The observations span from the radio to the millimetre and optical, and provide multicolour imaging, two-dimensional kinematics of the atomic (H I), molecular (CO) and ionized gas (Hβ, [O III] and [N I]), together with the kinematics and population of the stars (Hβ, Fe5015 and Mg b), for a carefully selected, volume-limited (1.16 × 105 Mpc3) sample of 260 early-type (elliptical E and lenticular S0) galaxies (ETGs). The models include semi-analytic, N-body binary mergers and cosmological simulations of galaxy formation. Here we present the science goals for the project and introduce the galaxy sample and the selection criteria. The sample consists of nearby (D 15°) morphologically selected ETGs extracted from a parent sample of 871 galaxies (8 per cent E, 22 per cent S0 and 70 per cent spirals) brighter than MK statistically representative of the nearby galaxy population. We present the size-luminosity relation for the spirals and ETGs and show that the ETGs in the ATLAS3D sample define a tight red sequence in a colour-magnitude diagram, with few objects in the transition from the blue cloud. We describe the strategy of the SAURON integral field observations and the extraction of the stellar kinematics with the pPXF method. We find typical 1σ errors of ΔV≈ 6 km s-1, Δσ≈ 7 km s-1, Δh3≈Δh4≈ 0.03 in the mean velocity, the velocity dispersion and Gauss-Hermite (GH) moments for galaxies with effective dispersion σe≳ 120 km s-1. For galaxies with lower σe (≈40 per cent of the sample) the GH moments are gradually penalized by pPXF towards zero to suppress the noise produced by the spectral undersampling and only V and σ can be measured. We give an overview of the characteristics of the other main data sets already available for our sample and of the ongoing modelling projects.

  13. Enhancement of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) Detection limit using a low-pressure and short-pulse laser-induced plasma process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhen Zhen; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Kuwahara, Masakazu; Yan, Jun Jie; Liu, Ji Ping

    2013-11-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technology is an appealing technique compared with many other types of elemental analysis because of the fast response, high sensitivity, real-time, and noncontact features. One of the challenging targets of LIBS is the enhancement of the detection limit. In this study, the detection limit of gas-phase LIBS analysis has been improved by controlling the pressure and laser pulse width. In order to verify this method, low-pressure gas plasma was induced using nanosecond and picosecond lasers. The method was applied to the detection of Hg. The emission intensity ratio of the Hg atom to NO (IHg/INO) was analyzed to evaluate the LIBS detection limit because the NO emission (interference signal) was formed during the plasma generation and cooling process of N2 and O2 in the air. It was demonstrated that the enhancement of IHg/INO arose by decreasing the pressure to a few kilopascals, and the IHg/INO of the picosecond breakdown was always much higher than that of the nanosecond breakdown at low buffer gas pressure. Enhancement of IHg/INO increased more than 10 times at 700 Pa using picosecond laser with 35 ps pulse width. The detection limit was enhanced to 0.03 ppm (parts per million). We also saw that the spectra from the center and edge parts of plasma showed different features. Comparing the central spectra with the edge spectra, IHg/INO of the edge spectra was higher than that of the central spectra using the picosecond laser breakdown process.

  14. Evaluation of Multiple Linear Regression-Based Limited Sampling Strategies for Enteric-Coated Mycophenolate Sodium in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Emily K; Tett, Susan E; Isbel, Nicole M; McWhinney, Brett; Staatz, Christine E

    2018-04-01

    Although multiple linear regression-based limited sampling strategies (LSSs) have been published for enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium, none have been evaluated for the prediction of subsequent mycophenolic acid (MPA) exposure. This study aimed to examine the predictive performance of the published LSS for the estimation of future MPA area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 12 hours (AUC0-12) in renal transplant recipients. Total MPA plasma concentrations were measured in 20 adult renal transplant patients on 2 occasions a week apart. All subjects received concomitant tacrolimus and were approximately 1 month after transplant. Samples were taken at 0, 0.33, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6, and 8 hours and 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, and 12 hours after dose on the first and second sampling occasion, respectively. Predicted MPA AUC0-12 was calculated using 19 published LSSs and data from the first or second sampling occasion for each patient and compared with the second occasion full MPA AUC0-12 calculated using the linear trapezoidal rule. Bias (median percentage prediction error) and imprecision (median absolute prediction error) were determined. Median percentage prediction error and median absolute prediction error for the prediction of full MPA AUC0-12 were multiple linear regression-based LSS was not possible without concentrations up to at least 8 hours after the dose.

  15. Corrigendum to “Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines” [Agric. Forest Meteorol. 165 (2012) 53–63

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m...... from eddy-covariance systems featuring short (4 m) and very short (1 m) sampling lines running at the same clover field and show that relative humidity effects persist also for these setups, and should not be neglected. Starting from the work of Ibrom and co-workers, we propose a mixed method...... and correction method proposed here is deemed applicable to closed-path systems featuring a broad range of sampling lines, and indeed applicable also to passive gases as a special case. The methods described in this paper are incorporated, as processing options, in the free and open-source eddy...

  16. Limitations for phytoextraction management on metal-polluted soils with poplar short rotation coppice-evidence from a 6-year field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michels, E; Annicaerta, B; De Moor, S; Van Nevel, L; De Fraeye, M; Meiresonne, L; Vangronsveld, J; Tack, F M G; Ok, Y S; Meers, Erik

    2018-01-02

    Poplar clones were studied for their phytoextraction capacity in the second growth cycle (6-year growth) on a site in the Belgian Campine region, which is contaminated with Cd and Zn via historic atmospheric deposition of nearby zinc smelter activities. The field trial revealed regrowth problems for some clones that could not be predicted in the first growth cycle. Four allometric relations were assessed for their capacity to predict biomass yield in the second growth cycle. A power function based on the shoot diameter best estimates the biomass production of poplar with R 2 values between 0.94 and 0.98. The woody biomass yield ranged from 2.1 to 4.8 ton woody Dry Mass (DM) ha -1 y -1 . The primary goal was to reduce soil concentrations of metals caused by phytoextraction. Nevertheless, increased metal concentrations were determined in the topsoil. This increase can partially be explained by the input of metals from deeper soil layers in the top soil through litterfall. The phytoextraction option with poplar short rotation coppice in this setup did not lead to the intended soil remediation in a reasonable time span. Therefore, harvest of the leaf biomass is put forward as a crucial part of the strategy for soil remediation through Cd/Zn phytoextraction.

  17. New limits on 2ε, εβ{sup +} and 2β{sup +} decay of {sup 136}Ce and {sup 138}Ce with deeply purified cerium sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belli, P.; Bernabei, R. [INFN Sezione Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Boiko, R.S. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv (Ukraine); Cappella, F. [INFN Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Cerulli, R.; Laubenstein, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi (Italy); Danevich, F.A.; Kropivyansky, B.N.; Polischuk, O.G.; Tretyak, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); Incicchitti, A. [INFN Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy); Universita di Roma ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); Mokina, V.M. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Kyiv (Ukraine); INFN Sezione Roma, Rome (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    A search for double electron capture (2ε), electron capture with positron emission (εβ{sup +}), and double positron emission (2β{sup +}) in {sup 136}Ce and {sup 138}Ce was realized with a 465 cm{sup 3} ultra-low background HP Ge γ spectrometer over 2299 h at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory. A 627 g sample of cerium oxide deeply purified by liquid-liquid extraction method was used as a source of γ quanta expected in double β decay of the cerium isotopes. New improved half-life limits were set on different modes and channels of double β decay of {sup 136}Ce and {sup 138}Ce at the level of T{sub 1/2} > 10{sup 17}-10{sup 18} yr. (orig.)

  18. Method of estimating maximum VOC concentration in void volume of vented waste drums using limited sampling data: Application in transuranic waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.J.; Connolly, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    A test program has been conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate that the concentration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the innermost layer of confinement in a vented waste drum can be estimated using a model incorporating diffusion and permeation transport principles as well as limited waste drum sampling data. The model consists of a series of material balance equations describing steady-state VOC transport from each distinct void volume in the drum. The primary model input is the measured drum headspace VOC concentration. Model parameters are determined or estimated based on available process knowledge. The model effectiveness in estimating VOC concentration in the headspace of the innermost layer of confinement was examined for vented waste drums containing different waste types and configurations. This paper summarizes the experimental measurements and model predictions in vented transuranic waste drums containing solidified sludges and solid waste

  19. High-frequency, long-duration water sampling in acid mine drainage studies: a short review of current methods and recent advances in automated water samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hand-collected grab samples are the most common water sampling method but using grab sampling to monitor temporally variable aquatic processes such as diel metal cycling or episodic events is rarely feasible or cost-effective. Currently available automated samplers are a proven, widely used technology and typically collect up to 24 samples during a deployment. However, these automated samplers are not well suited for long-term sampling in remote areas or in freezing conditions. There is a critical need for low-cost, long-duration, high-frequency water sampling technology to improve our understanding of the geochemical response to temporally variable processes. This review article will examine recent developments in automated water sampler technology and utilize selected field data from acid mine drainage studies to illustrate the utility of high-frequency, long-duration water sampling.

  20. Validation of a short questionnaire to measure symptoms and functional limitations associated with hand-foot syndrome and mucositis in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Jin-Shei; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Diaz, Jose; Khan, Sadya; Cella, David

    2016-01-15

    Hand-foot syndrome and mucositis/stomatitis are frequent adverse events (AEs) of treatment with tyrosine kinase inhibitors in cancer therapy. Quality-of-life instruments that measure the functional consequences of these AEs are needed to assess the impact of therapeutic interventions and to guide patient care. The Hand-Foot and Mucositis Symptom and Impact Questionnaire (HAMSIQ [formerly the Supplementary Quality of Life Questionnaire]) was used in the COMPARZ trial (Pazopanib vs Sunitinib in the Treatment of Locally Advanced and/or Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma [national clinical trial no. NCT00720941]) and the PISCES study (Patient Preference Study of Pazopanib vs Sunitinib in Advanced or Metastatic Kidney Cancer [clinicaltrials.gov NCT01064310]) to assess mouth/throat and hand/foot soreness symptoms and subsequent limitations in patients receiving pazopanib or sunitinib for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. The objective of the current analysis was to validate the HAMSIQ using data from the PISCES study. The HAMSIQ was administered in the PISCES study at baseline and every 2 weeks over two 10-week periods to patients who were receiving pazopanib or sunitinib. Data from the first 10-week period were used to assess the feasibility, validity, and responsiveness of the HAMSIQ. In total, ≥85% of 169 patients completed the HAMSIQ (excluding the item concerning days off work). Correlations among items within the same limitation subscale generally were high (Cronbach α ≥ .80). HAMSIQ limitation scores differentiated patients according to their baseline performance status and severity of soreness. Small-to-moderate correlations were observed for the symptoms/limitation scores and for changes from baseline scores between the HAMSIQ and the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy fatigue survey. The HAMSIQ demonstrated responsiveness to changes in clinical status and the development of hand-foot syndrome AEs over time. The HAMSIQ is a feasible, valid

  1. Development of a safety case for the use of current limiting devices to manage short circuit currents on electrical distribution networks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The original objective of this study was to review the safety issues associated with the use of current limiting devices and to write a risk assessment in accordance with good practice. But, when legislative procedures became apparent, the scope was changed to include involvement with the HSE, the DTI and Ofgem. It turned out that it would have been very difficult to write a safety case that would satisfy all of the agencies, or a risk assessment that would cover all applications. The scope of the study was therefore changed to focus on how the existing barriers should be tackled and the implications of the existing legislation. The approach to the study is described; it included reviews of background information and literature, questionnaires to manufacturers, a review of the reliability and hazards of the devices, and a review of UK safety legislation. The Final Report describes all this and includes discussion on the consequences of failure of fault current limiting devices, control measures which could be used to minimise risk, and recommendations for a way forward.

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials for the management of limited vertical height in the posterior region: short implants (5 to 8 mm) vs longer implants (> 8 mm) in vertically augmented sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ah; Lee, Chun-Teh; Fu, Martin M; Elmisalati, Waiel; Chuang, Sung-Kiang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review with meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the rates of survival, success, and complications of short implants to those of longer implants in the posterior regions. Electronic literature searches were conducted through the MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE databases to locate all relevant articles published between January 1, 1990, and April 30, 2013. Eligible studies were selected based on inclusion criteria, and quality assessments were conducted. After data extraction, meta-analyses were performed. In total, 539 dental implants (265 short implants [length 5 to 8 mm] and 274 control implants [length > 8 mm]) from four RCTs were included. The fixed prostheses of multiple short and control implants were all splinted. The mean follow-up period was 2.1 years. The 1-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates (CSR) were 98.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.8% to 99.5%) and 93.6% (95% CI, 89.8% to 97.5%), respectively, for the short implant group and 98.0% (95% CI, 96.9% to 99.1%) and 90.3% (95% CI, 85.2% to 95.4%), respectively, for the control implant group. The CSRs of the two groups did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference. There were also no statistically significant differences in success rates, failure rates, or complications between the two groups. Placement of short dental implants could be a predictable alternative to longer implants to reduce surgical complications and patient morbidity in situations where vertical augmentation procedures are needed. However, only four studies with potential risk of bias were selected in this meta-analysis. Within the limitations of this meta-analysis, these results should be confirmed with robust methodology and RCTs with longer follow-up duration.

  3. Glyphosate has limited short-term effects on commensal bacterial community composition in the gut environment due to sufficient aromatic amino acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lene Nørby; Roager, Henrik M; Casas, Mònica Escolà; Frandsen, Henrik L; Gosewinkel, Ulrich; Bester, Kai; Licht, Tine Rask; Hendriksen, Niels Bohse; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2018-02-01

    Recently, concerns have been raised that residues of glyphosate-based herbicides may interfere with the homeostasis of the intestinal bacterial community and thereby affect the health of humans or animals. The biochemical pathway for aromatic amino acid synthesis (Shikimate pathway), which is specifically inhibited by glyphosate, is shared by plants and numerous bacterial species. Several in vitro studies have shown that various groups of intestinal bacteria may be differently affected by glyphosate. Here, we present results from an animal exposure trial combining deep 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the bacterial community with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) based metabolic profiling of aromatic amino acids and their downstream metabolites. We found that glyphosate as well as the commercial formulation Glyfonova ® 450 PLUS administered at up to fifty times the established European Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI = 0.5 mg/kg body weight) had very limited effects on bacterial community composition in Sprague Dawley rats during a two-week exposure trial. The effect of glyphosate on prototrophic bacterial growth was highly dependent on the availability of aromatic amino acids, suggesting that the observed limited effect on bacterial composition was due to the presence of sufficient amounts of aromatic amino acids in the intestinal environment. A strong correlation was observed between intestinal concentrations of glyphosate and intestinal pH, which may partly be explained by an observed reduction in acetic acid produced by the gut bacteria. We conclude that sufficient intestinal levels of aromatic amino acids provided by the diet alleviates the need for bacterial synthesis of aromatic amino acids and thus prevents an antimicrobial effect of glyphosate in vivo. It is however possible that the situation is different in cases of human malnutrition or in production animals. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  5. Electrical impedance scanning as a new imaging modality in breast cancer detection - a short review of clinical value on breast application, limitations and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malich, A.; Boehm, T.; Facius, M.; Kleinteich, I.; Fleck, M.; Sauner, D.; Anderson, R.; Kaiser, W.A.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. Cancer cells exhibit altered local dielectric properties compared to normal cells, measurable as different electrical conductance and capacitance using electrical impedance scanning (EIS). Therefore, active biocompatible current is applied to the patient for calculation of both parameters taking into account frequency, voltage and current flow. Subjects and methods. 240 women with 280 sonographically and/or mammographically suspicious findings were examined using EIS. All lesions were histologically proven. A lesion was scored as positive, when a focal increased conductance and/or capacitance was measurable using EIS. The lesion was visible as a bright area in a 256 grey-scale computer output. Due to system limitations patients having a pacemaker or pregnant had to be excluded from the study. Results. 91/113 malignant and 108/167 benign lesions were correctly identified using EIS (80.5% sensitivity, 64.7% specificity). NPV and PPV of 83.1% and 60.7% were observed, respectively. Accuracy was 0.73. A wide range of factors can induce false positive results, although by an experienced observer a number of these findings can be detected such as scars, skin alterations, contact artefacts, air bubbles and naevi, hairs and interfering bone. Based upon visibility on ultrasound (194 lesions visible, 86 not visible) significant differences in the detection rate occurred. Histology-dependent detectability rate varied significantly with lowest rate in CIS-cases (50%). Specificity values varied histology-depending, too; probably depending on the rate of proliferation between 75% (inflammatory lesions) and papillomata (50%). Best detectability was observed in malignant lesions with a size between 20 and 30 mm. Further possible applications will be discussed regarding the currently available literature (lymph nodes, salivary glands, mathematical and animal based models). Conclusion. EIS appears to be a promising new additional technology providing a rather high

  6. Short communication prevalence of susceptibility to etravirine by genotype and phenotype in samples received for routine HIV type 1 resistance testing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchio, Gaston; Vingerhoets, Johan; Tambuyzer, Lotke; Coakley, Eoin; Haddad, Mojgan; Witek, James

    2011-12-01

    Abstract The prevalence of susceptibility to etravirine was investigated among clinical samples submitted for routine clinical testing in the United States using two separate weighted genotypic scoring systems. The presence of etravirine mutations and susceptibility to etravirine by phenotype of clinical samples from HIV-1-infected patients, submitted to Monogram Biosciences for routine resistance testing between June 2008 and June 2009, were analyzed. Susceptibility by genotype was determined using the Monogram and Tibotec etravirine-weighted genotypic scoring systems, with scores of ≤3 and ≤2, respectively, indicating full susceptibility. Susceptibility by phenotype was determined using the PhenoSense HIV assay, with lower and higher clinical cut-offs of 2.9 and 10, respectively. The frequency of individual etravirine mutations and the impact of the K103N mutation on susceptibility to etravirine by genotype were also determined. Among the 5482 samples with ≥1 defined nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) mutations associated with resistance, 67% were classed as susceptible to etravirine by genotype by both scoring systems. Susceptibility to etravirine by phenotype was higher (76%). The proportion of first-generation NNRTI-resistant samples with (n=3598) and without (n=1884) K103N with susceptibility to etravirine by genotype was 77% and 49%, respectively. Among samples susceptible to first-generation NNRTIs (n=9458), >99% of samples were susceptible to etravirine by phenotype (FC <2.9); the remaining samples had FC ≥2.9-10. In summary, among samples submitted for routine clinical testing in the United States, a high proportion of samples with first-generation NNRTI resistance was susceptible to etravirine by genotype and phenotype. A higher proportion of NNRTI-resistant samples with K103N than without was susceptible to etravirine.

  7. Using a Process Dissociation Approach to Assess Verbal Short-Term Memory for Item and Order Information in a Sample of Individuals with a Self-Reported Diagnosis of Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoli; Xuan, Yifu; Jarrold, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have examined whether difficulties in short-term memory for verbal information, that might be associated with dyslexia, are driven by problems in retaining either information about to-be-remembered items or the order in which these items were presented. However, such studies have not used process-pure measures of short-term memory for item or order information. In this work we adapt a process dissociation procedure to properly distinguish the contributions of item and order processes to verbal short-term memory in a group of 28 adults with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia and a comparison sample of 29 adults without a dyslexia diagnosis. In contrast to previous work that has suggested that individuals with dyslexia experience item deficits resulting from inefficient phonological representation and language-independent order memory deficits, the results showed no evidence of specific problems in short-term retention of either item or order information among the individuals with a self-reported diagnosis of dyslexia, despite this group showing expected difficulties on separate measures of word and non-word reading. However, there was some suggestive evidence of a link between order memory for verbal material and individual differences in non-word reading, consistent with other claims for a role of order memory in phonologically mediated reading. The data from the current study therefore provide empirical evidence to question the extent to which item and order short-term memory are necessarily impaired in dyslexia.

  8. Short communication: Comparison of pH, volatile fatty acids, and microbiome of rumen samples from preweaned calves obtained via cannula or stomach tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terré, M; Castells, L; Fàbregas, F; Bach, A

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare rumen samples from young dairy calves obtained via a stomach tube (ST) or a ruminal cannula (RC). Five male Holstein calves (46±4.0 kg of body weight and 11±4.9 d of age) were ruminally cannulated at 15 d of age. Calves received 4 L/d of a commercial milk replacer (25% crude protein and 19.2% fat) at 12.5% dry matter, and were provided concentrate and chopped oats hay ad libitum throughout the study (56 d). In total, 29 paired rumen samples were obtained weekly throughout the study in most of the calves by each extraction method. These samples were used to determine pH and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, and to quantify Prevotella ruminicola and Streptococcus bovis by quantitative PCR. Furthermore, a denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis was performed on rumen samples harvested during wk 8 of the study to determine the degree of similarity between rumen bacteria communities. Rumen pH was 0.30 units greater in ST compared with RC samples. Furthermore, total VFA concentrations were greater in RC than in ST samples. However, when analyzing the proportion of each VFA by ANOVA, no differences were found between the sampling methods. The quantification of S. bovis and P. ruminicola was similar in both extraction methods, and values obtained using different methods were highly correlated (R(2)=0.89 and 0.98 for S. bovis and P. ruminicola, respectively). Fingerprinting analysis showed similar bacteria band profiles between samples obtained from the same calves using different extraction methods. In conclusion, when comparing rumen parameters obtained using different sampling techniques, it is recommended that VFA profiles be used rather than total VFA concentrations, as total VFA concentrations are more affected by the method of collection. Furthermore, although comparisons of pH across studies should be avoided when samples are not obtained using the same sampling method, the comparison of fingerprinting of a

  9. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Deatherage Kaiser, Brooke L [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sydor, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barrett, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in. × 2 in.) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results will be discussed in a subsequent report.

  10. Recovery Efficiency, False Negative Rate, and Limit of Detection Performance of a Validated Macrofoam-Swab Sampling Method with Low Surface Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hutchison, Janine R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kaiser, Brooke L. D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Amidan, Brett G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Sydor, Michael A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barrett, Christopher A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-06-16

    The performance of a macrofoam-swab sampling method was evaluated using Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura (BG) spores applied at nine low target amounts (2-500 spores) to positive-control plates and test coupons (2 in × 2 in) of four surface materials (glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic). Test results from cultured samples were used to evaluate the effects of surrogate, surface concentration, and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), and limit of detection. For RE, surrogate and surface material had statistically significant effects, but concentration did not. Mean REs were the lowest for vinyl tile (50.8% with BAS, 40.2% with BG) and the highest for glass (92.8% with BAS, 71.4% with BG). FNR values ranged from 0 to 0.833 for BAS and 0 to 0.806 for BG, with values increasing as concentration decreased in the range tested (0.078 to 19.375 CFU/cm2, where CFU denotes ‘colony forming units’). Surface material also had a statistically significant effect. A FNR-concentration curve was fit for each combination of surrogate and surface material. For both surrogates, the FNR curves tended to be the lowest for glass and highest for vinyl title. The FNR curves for BG tended to be higher than for BAS at lower concentrations, especially for glass. Results using a modified Rapid Viability-Polymerase Chain Reaction (mRV-PCR) analysis method were also obtained. The mRV-PCR results and comparisons to the culture results are discussed in a separate report.

  11. Short communication: measurements of methane emissions from feed samples in filter bags or dispersed in the medium in an in vitro gas production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramin, M; Krizsan, S J; Jančík, F; Huhtanen, P

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare methane (CH4) emissions from different feeds when incubated within filter bags for in vitro analysis or directly dispersed in the medium in an automated gas in vitro system. Four different concentrates and 4 forages were used in this study. Two lactating Swedish Red cows were used for the collection of rumen fluid. Feed samples were milled to pass a 1.0-mm screen. Aliquots (0.5 g) of samples were weighed directly in the bottles or within the F 0285 filter bags that were placed in the bottles. Gas samples were taken during 24 and 48 h of incubation, and CH4 concentration was determined. The data were analyzed using a general linear model. Feeds differed significantly in CH4 emission both at 24 and at 48 h of incubation. The interaction between feed and method on methane emission in vitro was significant, indicating that the ranking of feeds was not consistent between the methods. Generally, greater amounts of CH4 were emitted from samples directly dispersed in the medium compared with those incubated within the filter bags, which could be a result of lower microbial activity within the filter bags. The ratio of CH4 to total gas was greater when the feeds were incubated within bags compared with samples directly dispersed in the medium. Incubating samples in filter bags during 48 h of incubation cannot be recommended for determination of CH4 emission of feeds in vitro. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Profiling a multiplex short tandem repeat loci from human urine with use of low cost on-site technology for verification of sample authenticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Nuno M M; Tao Dong; Berntzen, Lasse; Lonningdal, Torill

    2017-07-01

    This work focuses on the development of a sophisticated technique via STR typing to unequivocally verify the authenticity of urine samples before sent to laboratories. STR profiling was conducted with the CSF1PO, TPOX, TH01 Multiplex System coupled with a smartphone-based detection method. The promising capability of the method to identify distinct STR profiles from urine of different persons opens the possibility to conduct sample authenticity tests. On-site STR profiling could be realized with a self-contained autonomous device with an integrated PCR microchip shown hereby.

  13. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  14. Biased visualization of hypoperfused tissue by computed tomography due to short imaging duration: improved classification by image down-sampling and vascular models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Tietze, Anna; Oestergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim [Aarhus University Hospital, Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus C (Denmark); Jones, P.S.; Alawneh, Josef [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salva [Dr. Josep Trueta Girona University Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Girona Biomedical Research Institute, Girona (Spain); Gillard, Jonathan H. [University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Warburton, Elisabeth A. [Cambrigde University Hospitals, Addenbrooke, Stroke Unit, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Baron, Jean-Claude [University of Cambridge, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Centre Hospitalier Sainte Anne, INSERM U894, Paris (France)

    2015-07-15

    Lesion detection in acute stroke by computed-tomography perfusion (CTP) can be affected by incomplete bolus coverage in veins and hypoperfused tissue, so-called bolus truncation (BT), and low contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We examined the BT-frequency and hypothesized that image down-sampling and a vascular model (VM) for perfusion calculation would improve normo- and hypoperfused tissue classification. CTP datasets from 40 acute stroke patients were retrospectively analysed for BT. In 16 patients with hypoperfused tissue but no BT, repeated 2-by-2 image down-sampling and uniform filtering was performed, comparing CNR to perfusion-MRI levels and tissue classification to that of unprocessed data. By simulating reduced scan duration, the minimum scan-duration at which estimated lesion volumes came within 10 % of their true volume was compared for VM and state-of-the-art algorithms. BT in veins and hypoperfused tissue was observed in 9/40 (22.5 %) and 17/40 patients (42.5 %), respectively. Down-sampling to 128 x 128 resolution yielded CNR comparable to MR data and improved tissue classification (p = 0.0069). VM reduced minimum scan duration, providing reliable maps of cerebral blood flow and mean transit time: 5 s (p = 0.03) and 7 s (p < 0.0001), respectively. BT is not uncommon in stroke CTP with 40-s scan duration. Applying image down-sampling and VM improve tissue classification. (orig.)

  15. Biased visualization of hypoperfused tissue by computed tomography due to short imaging duration: improved classification by image down-sampling and vascular models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, Irene Klaerke; Ribe, Lars Riisgaard; Bekke, Susanne Lise; Tietze, Anna; Oestergaard, Leif; Mouridsen, Kim; Jones, P.S.; Alawneh, Josef; Puig, Josep; Pedraza, Salva; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Warburton, Elisabeth A.; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Lesion detection in acute stroke by computed-tomography perfusion (CTP) can be affected by incomplete bolus coverage in veins and hypoperfused tissue, so-called bolus truncation (BT), and low contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). We examined the BT-frequency and hypothesized that image down-sampling and a vascular model (VM) for perfusion calculation would improve normo- and hypoperfused tissue classification. CTP datasets from 40 acute stroke patients were retrospectively analysed for BT. In 16 patients with hypoperfused tissue but no BT, repeated 2-by-2 image down-sampling and uniform filtering was performed, comparing CNR to perfusion-MRI levels and tissue classification to that of unprocessed data. By simulating reduced scan duration, the minimum scan-duration at which estimated lesion volumes came within 10 % of their true volume was compared for VM and state-of-the-art algorithms. BT in veins and hypoperfused tissue was observed in 9/40 (22.5 %) and 17/40 patients (42.5 %), respectively. Down-sampling to 128 x 128 resolution yielded CNR comparable to MR data and improved tissue classification (p = 0.0069). VM reduced minimum scan duration, providing reliable maps of cerebral blood flow and mean transit time: 5 s (p = 0.03) and 7 s (p < 0.0001), respectively. BT is not uncommon in stroke CTP with 40-s scan duration. Applying image down-sampling and VM improve tissue classification. (orig.)

  16. Tell es-Sultan (Jericho) : Radiocarbon results of short-lived cereal and multiyear charcoal samples from the end of the Middle Bronze Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, HJ; VanDerPlicht, J; Bruins, Hendrik J.; Cook, G.T.; Harkness, D.D.; Miller, B.F.; Scott, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Samples from Tell es-Sultan, Jericho, were selected for high-precision C-14 dating as a contribution toward the establishment of an independent radiocarbon chronology of Near Eastern archaeology. The material derives from archaeological excavations conducted by K. M. Kenyon in the 1950s. We present

  17. Short communication: Evaluation of the microbiota of kefir samples using metagenetic analysis targeting the 16S and 26S ribosomal DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Leclercq, M; Nezer, C; Crevecoeur, S; Ferauche, C; Detry, E; Delcenserie, V; Daube, G

    2015-06-01

    Milk kefir is produced by fermenting milk in the presence of kefir grains. This beverage has several benefits for human health. The aim of this experiment was to analyze 5 kefir grains (and their products) using a targeted metagenetic approach. Of the 5 kefir grains analyzed, 1 was purchased in a supermarket, 2 were provided by the Ministry of Agriculture (Namur, Belgium), and 2 were provided by individuals. The metagenetic approach targeted the V1-V3 fragment of the 16S ribosomal (r)DNA for the grains and the resulting beverages at 2 levels of grain incorporation (5 and 10%) to identify the bacterial species population. In contrast, the 26S rDNA pyrosequencing was performed only on kefir grains with the aim of assessing the yeast populations. In parallel, pH measurements were performed on the kefir obtained from the kefir grains using 2 incorporation rates. Regarding the bacterial population, 16S pyrosequencing revealed the presence of 20 main bacterial species, with a dominance of the following: Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Lactococcus lactis ssp. cremoris, Gluconobacter frateurii, Lactobacillus kefiri, Acetobacter orientalis, and Acetobacter lovaniensis. An important difference was noticed between the kefir samples: kefir grain purchased from a supermarket (sample E) harbored a much higher proportion of several operational taxonomic units of Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. This sample of grain was macroscopically different from the others in terms of size, apparent cohesion of the grains, structure, and texture, probably associated with a lower level of Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens. The kefir (at an incorporation rate of 5%) produced from this sample of grain was characterized by a lower pH value (4.5) than the others. The other 4 samples of kefir (5%) had pH values above 5. Comparing the kefir grain and the kefir, an increase in the population of Gluconobacter in grain sample B was observed. This was also the case for Acetobacter orientalis

  18. Sampling and analytical methods for assessing the levels of organic pollutants in the atmosphere: PAH, phthalates and psychotropic substances: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Mastroianni, Daniele; Perilli, Mattia

    2012-07-01

    This short review presents the procedures used to monitor PAHs, phthalates and psychotropic substances in the air, and the results of some measurements made in Italy and abroad. Organic contaminants are characterized by a variety of physical and chemical properties, including aggregation phase, concentration level, and life time. This variety widens the spectrum of procedures developed to assess their occurrence in the environment and biota, but prevents the complete speciation of the "organic fraction" of air, waters and particulates, and attention is paid to a few substances. The progress in health sciences stimulates the concern on contaminants and the development of new instrumental apparatuses and methods; new chemicals are continuously identified or recognized as capable of injuring the environment and organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and persistent biologically active toxicants are subject to regulation and extensively measured by means of standard procedures. For instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorobiphenyls and polychlorodibenzodioxins are recovered from air through phase partition, thermal desorption or solvent extraction, then separated and detected through GC-MS or HPLC-MS procedures. By contrast, dedicated methods must be still optimized to monitor candidates or possible candidates as emerging organic pollutants, e.g. phthalates, flame retardants and perfluoroalkanes. Also, psychotropic substances appear of potential concern. Legal and illicit substances are commonly detected in the urban air besides waste and surface waters. If nicotine, caffeine and cocaine will result to enough persistence in the air, their monitoring will become an important issue of global chemical watching in the next future.

  19. Banking of environmental samples for short-term biochemical and chemical monitoring of organic contamination in coastal marine environments: the GICBEM experience (1986-1990). Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes, Marins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrigues, P; Narbonne, J F; Lafaurie, M; Ribera, D; Lemaire, P; Raoux, C; Michel, X; Salaun, J P; Monod, J L; Romeo, M

    1993-11-01

    The GICBEM (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie des Ecosystèmes Marins) program consists of an evaluation of the ecosystem health status in the Mediterranean Sea mainly based on chemical and biochemical approaches. Specific chemical contaminants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorobiphenyls (PCB), heavy metals) in waters, sediments, and related biotransformation indicators in target organisms (mussels, fish) have been selected for a complete survey of the coastal waters. In order to provide an appropriate sampling program for standardization for each sampling cruise, various aspects have been studied: (a) parameters for the choice of the sample sites; (b) ways of collection the samples (waters, sediments, marine organisms); and (c) preparation of the samples for a short term storage on board ship and for further analyses in the ground laboratory. Methods of preparation and storage of the samples are described and could be used to initiate an environmental banking program including both possible retrospective analyses of chemical pollutants and biochemical indicators. Moreover, the correlation between chemicals (PAH) and biochemical (mixed function oxygenase activities) parameters has been studied and this demonstrates the capability of the enzyme activities as reliable pollution biomarkers.

  20. Suicidal Ideation and Interpersonal Needs: Factor Structure of a Short Version of the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire in an At-Risk Military Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Nicholas P; Gros, Daniel F; Hom, Melanie A; Joiner, Thomas E; Stecker, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide posits that perceived burdensomeness (PB; i.e., the belief that others would be better off if one were dead) and thwarted belongingness (TB; i.e., the belief that one lacks meaningful social connections) are both necessary risk factors for the development of suicidal ideation. To test these relations, measures are needed that are well validated, especially in samples of at-risk adults. The current study was designed to examine the factor structure of an eight-item version of the Interpersonal Needs Questionnaire (INQ) in a sample of 405 U.S. past and current military personnel (M age  = 31.57 years, SD = 7.28; 90.4% male) who endorsed either current suicidal ideation and/or a past suicide attempt. Analyses were conducted using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). A bifactor model comprising a general factor, labeled interpersonal needs, and two specific factors, labeled PB and TB, fit the data best. The general factor captured a high proportion of overall variance (81.9%). In contrast, the TB factor captured only a modest amount of variance in items meant to capture this factor (59.1%) and the PB factor captured very little variance in items meant to capture this factor (13.5%). Further, only the interpersonal needs factor was associated with lifetime and past-week suicidal ideation as well as suicidal ideation frequency and duration. The current findings indicate that, for the INQ-8 in high-risk military personnel, a general interpersonal needs factor accounted for the relations PB and TB share with suicidal ideation.

  1. On the Bipolar DC Flow Field-Effect-Transistor for Multifunctional Sample Handing in Microfluidics: A Theoretical Analysis under the Debye–Huckel Limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available We present herein a novel method of bipolar field-effect control on DC electroosmosis (DCEO from a physical point of view, in the context of an intelligent and robust operation tool for stratified laminar streams in microscale systems. In this unique design of the DC flow field-effect-transistor (DC-FFET, a pair of face-to-face external gate terminals are imposed with opposite gate-voltage polarities. Diffuse-charge dynamics induces heteropolar Debye screening charge within the diffuse double layer adjacent to the face-to-face oppositely-polarized gates, respectively. A background electric field is applied across the source-drain terminal and forces the face-to-face counterionic charge of reversed polarities into induced-charge electroosmotic (ICEO vortex flow in the lateral direction. The chaotic turbulence of the transverse ICEO whirlpool interacts actively with the conventional plug flow of DCEO, giving rise to twisted streamlines for simultaneous DCEO pumping and ICEO mixing of fluid samples along the channel length direction. A mathematical model in thin-layer approximation and the low-voltage limit is subsequently established to test the feasibility of the bipolar DC-FFET configuration in electrokinetic manipulation of fluids at the micrometer dimension. According to our simulation analysis, an integrated device design with two sets of side-by-side, but upside-down gate electrode pair exhibits outstanding performance in electroconvective pumping and mixing even without any externally-applied pressure difference. Moreover, a paradigm of a microdevice for fully electrokinetics-driven analyte treatment is established with an array of reversed bipolar gate-terminal pairs arranged on top of the dielectric membrane along the channel length direction, from which we can obtain almost a perfect liquid mixture by using a smaller magnitude of gate voltages for causing less detrimental effects at a small Dukhin number. Sustained by theoretical

  2. Method to Solve the Problem of the Radioactivity Detection in Environmental Samples. Characteristic Limits; Metodos para la Resolucion del Problema de la Detecfcion de Radiactividad en Muestras Ambientales. Limites Caracteristicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, C.; Martinez, M.; Heras, M.

    2009-07-21

    The problem of the detection or when the radioactivity can be considered as higher than the background using different measurement techniques has been the objective of several statistical studies and controversies. The detection limit and the critical limit were studied by Currie in year 1968 and used by radiochemistry laboratories considering different ways of calculation that introduced confusion and not correct implementations. In the last few years, and due to the increasing number of standardization processes on the field of radioactivity and accreditation, several international institutions have chosen to unify the criteria for using common determination of detection limits. The most used methods are those developed by MARLAP and International Standard Organization ISO (Standard-11929). In this report are summarised both standards doing a comparative study and giving some examples of how to apply these limits. In same cases, little differences in the uncertainty calculation have been observed but the final results have been concordant. A deeply study of these standards can be done consulting the web page of the American Labs that developed MARLAP or buying the original ISO standard ISO-11929 recently approved (2009). (Author) 17 refs.

  3. Self-harm in young adolescents (12-16 years): onset and short-term continuation in a community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, Paul; Spears, Melissa; Montgomery, Alan A; Phillips, Rhiannon; Sayal, Kapil

    2013-12-02

    To investigate the prevalence of self-harm in young adolescents and factors associated with onset and continuity over a one year period. Prospective longitudinal study. Participants were young adolescents (n = 3964) aged 12-16 years attending 8 secondary schools in the Midlands and South West of England. Over a one year period 27% of young adolescents reported thoughts of self-harm and 15% reported at least one act of self-harm. Of those who self-harmed, less than one in five (18%) had sought help for psychological problems of anxiety or depression. Compared with boys, girls were at increased risk of developing thoughts (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.26-2.06) and acts (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06-1.84) of self-harm, particularly amongst those girls in school year 9 (aged 13/14, thoughts adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 1.97, 95% CI 1.27-3.04; acts aOR 2.59, 95% CI 1.52-4.41). Of those reporting thoughts of self-harm at baseline, 60% also reported these thoughts at follow-up. Similarly 55% of those who reported an act of self-harm at baseline also reported that they had self-harmed at follow-up. Insecure peer relationships increased the likelihood that boys and girls would develop self-harming behaviours, as did being bullied for boys. Low mood was associated with the development of self-harming thoughts and behaviours for boys and girls, whilst a strong sense of school membership was associated with a reduced risk of developing thoughts of self-harm for boys and increased the likelihood of self-harming thoughts and behaviours ceasing for girls. Self harm in young adolescents is common with one in four reporting self-harming thoughts and one in six engaging in self-harming behaviour over a one year period. Self-harm is already established by 12/13 years of age and for over half of our sample, self-harming thoughts and behaviour persisted over the year. Secure peer and strong school relationships were associated with less self-harm. Few seek help for psychological problems, suggesting a

  4. Self-harm in young adolescents (12–16 years): onset and short-term continuation in a community sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To investigate the prevalence of self-harm in young adolescents and factors associated with onset and continuity over a one year period. Method Prospective longitudinal study. Participants were young adolescents (n = 3964) aged 12–16 years attending 8 secondary schools in the Midlands and South West of England. Results Over a one year period 27% of young adolescents reported thoughts of self-harm and 15% reported at least one act of self-harm. Of those who self-harmed, less than one in five (18%) had sought help for psychological problems of anxiety or depression. Compared with boys, girls were at increased risk of developing thoughts (OR 1.61, 95% CI 1.26-2.06) and acts (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.06-1.84) of self-harm, particularly amongst those girls in school year 9 (aged 13/14, thoughts adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) 1.97, 95% CI 1.27-3.04; acts aOR 2.59, 95% CI 1.52-4.41). Of those reporting thoughts of self-harm at baseline, 60% also reported these thoughts at follow-up. Similarly 55% of those who reported an act of self-harm at baseline also reported that they had self-harmed at follow-up. Insecure peer relationships increased the likelihood that boys and girls would develop self-harming behaviours, as did being bullied for boys. Low mood was associated with the development of self-harming thoughts and behaviours for boys and girls, whilst a strong sense of school membership was associated with a reduced risk of developing thoughts of self-harm for boys and increased the likelihood of self-harming thoughts and behaviours ceasing for girls. Conclusion Self harm in young adolescents is common with one in four reporting self-harming thoughts and one in six engaging in self-harming behaviour over a one year period. Self-harm is already established by 12/13 years of age and for over half of our sample, self-harming thoughts and behaviour persisted over the year. Secure peer and strong school relationships were associated with less self-harm. Few seek help for

  5. Narcissism and the Strategic Pursuit of Short-Term Mating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, David P.; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the curr...... limitations of these cross-culturally universal findings and presents suggestions for future research into revealing the precise psychological features of narcissism that facilitate the strategic pursuit of short-term mating....

  6. Improving the Phosphoproteome Coverage for Limited Sample Amounts Using TiOsub>2sub>-SIMAC-HILIC (TiSH) Phosphopeptide Enrichment and Fractionation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engholm-Keller, Kasper; Larsen, Martin R

    2016-01-01

    spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Due to the sample loss resulting from fractionation, this procedure is mainly performed when large quantities of sample are available. To make large-scale phosphoproteomics applicable to smaller amounts of protein we have recently combined highly specific TiO2-based...... protocol we describe the procedure step by step to allow for comprehensive coverage of the phosphoproteome utilizing only a few hundred micrograms of protein....

  7. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  8. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  9. A statistical rationale for establishing process quality control limits using fixed sample size, for critical current verification of SSC superconducting wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, D.A.; Brown, G.; Capone, D.W. II; Christopherson, D.; Seuntjens, J.M.; Woltz, J.

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate a statistical method for verifying superconducting wire process stability as represented by I c . The paper does not propose changing the I c testing frequency for wire during Phase 1 of the present Vendor Qualification Program. The actual statistical limits demonstrated for one supplier's data are not expected to be suitable for all suppliers. However, the method used to develop the limits and the potential for improved process through their use, may be applied equally. Implementing the demonstrated method implies that the current practice of testing all pieces of wire from each billet, for the purpose of detecting manufacturing process errors (i.e. missing a heat-treatment cycle for a part of the billet, etc.) can be replaced by other less costly process control measures. As used in this paper process control limits for critical current are quantitative indicators of the source manufacturing process uniformity. The limits serve as alarms indicating the need for manufacturing process investigation

  10. Water quality of stormwater generated from an airport in a cold climate, function of an infiltration pond, and sampling strategy with limited resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yu; Ehlert, Ludwig; Wahlskog, Cecilia; Lundberg, Angela; Maurice, Christian

    2017-12-05

    Monitoring pollutants in stormwater discharge in cold climates is challenging. An environmental survey was performed by sampling the stormwater from Luleå Airport, Northern Sweden, during the period 2010-2013, when urea was used as a main component of aircraft deicing/anti-icing fluids (ADAFs). The stormwater collected from the runway was led through an oil trap to an infiltration pond to store excess water during precipitation periods and enhance infiltration and water treatment. Due to insufficient capacity, an emergency spillway was established and equipped with a flow meter and an automatic sampler. This study proposes a program for effective monitoring of pollutant discharge with a minimum number of sampling occasions when use of automatic samplers is not possible. The results showed that 90% of nitrogen discharge occurs during late autumn before the water pipes freeze and during snow melting, regardless of the precipitation during the remaining months when the pollutant discharge was negligible. The concentrations of other constituents in the discharge were generally low compared to guideline values. The best data quality was obtained using flow controlled sampling. Intensive time-controlled sampling during late autumn (few weeks) and snow melting (2 weeks) would be sufficient for necessary information. The flow meters installed at the rectangular notch appeared to be difficult to calibrate and gave contradictory results. Overall, the spillway was dry, as water infiltrated into the pond, and stagnant water close to the edge might be registered as flow. Water level monitoring revealed that the infiltration capacity gradually decreased with time.

  11. In silico serotyping of E. coli from short read data identifies limited novel O-loci but extensive diversity of O:H serotype combinations within and between pathogenic lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Danielle J; Valcanis, Mary; Kuzevski, Alex; Tauschek, Marija; Inouye, Michael; Stinear, Tim; Levine, Myron M; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Holt, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    The lipopolysaccharide (O) and flagellar (H) surface antigens of Escherichia coli are targets for serotyping that have traditionally been used to identify pathogenic lineages. These surface antigens are important for the survival of E. coli within mammalian hosts. However, traditional serotyping has several limitations, and public health reference laboratories are increasingly moving towards whole genome sequencing (WGS) to characterize bacterial isolates. Here we present a method to rapidly and accurately serotype E. coli isolates from raw, short read WGS data. Our approach bypasses the need for de novo genome assembly by directly screening WGS reads against a curated database of alleles linked to known and novel E. coli O-groups and H-types (the EcOH database) using the software package srst2. We validated the approach by comparing in silico results for 197 enteropathogenic E. coli isolates with those obtained by serological phenotyping in an independent laboratory. We then demonstrated the utility of our method to characterize isolates in public health and clinical settings, and to explore the genetic diversity of >1500 E. coli genomes from multiple sources. Importantly, we showed that transfer of O- and H-antigen loci between E. coli chromosomal backbones is common, with little evidence of constraints by host or pathotype, suggesting that E. coli ' strain space' may be virtually unlimited, even within specific pathotypes. Our findings show that serotyping is most useful when used in combination with strain genotyping to characterize microevolution events within an inferred population structure.

  12. Limitations in the Use of Archived Vent Mussel Samples to Assess Genetic Connectivity Among Seafloor Massive Sulfide Deposits: A Case Study with Implications for Environmental Management

    OpenAIRE

    Boschen, Rachel E.; Rowden, Ashley A.; Clark, Malcolm R.; Gardner, Jonathan P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic connectivity studies can inform the design of mitigation strategies used in environmental management. However, the expense of developing species-specific molecular markers and collecting samples at appropriate spatial and temporal scales can be prohibitive. Using archived material and existing molecular markers may provide a cost-effective way to assess population connectivity. Genetic connectivity studies are increasingly in demand in the deep sea in response to mounting anthropogeni...

  13. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  14. Mitigating Satellite-Based Fire Sampling Limitations in Deriving Biomass Burning Emission Rates: Application to WRF-Chem Model Over the Northern sub-Saharan African Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Yue, Yun; Wang, Yi; Ichoku, Charles; Ellison, Luke; Zeng, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Largely used in several independent estimates of fire emissions, fire products based on MODIS sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua polar-orbiting satellites have a number of inherent limitations, including (a) inability to detect fires below clouds, (b) significant decrease of detection sensitivity at the edge of scan where pixel sizes are much larger than at nadir, and (c) gaps between adjacent swaths in tropical regions. To remedy these limitations, an empirical method is developed here and applied to correct fire emission estimates based on MODIS pixel level fire radiative power measurements and emission coefficients from the Fire Energetics and Emissions Research (FEER) biomass burning emission inventory. The analysis was performed for January 2010 over the northern sub-Saharan African region. Simulations from WRF-Chem model using original and adjusted emissions are compared with the aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from MODIS and AERONET as well as aerosol vertical profile from CALIOP data. The comparison confirmed an 30-50% improvement in the model simulation performance (in terms of correlation, bias, and spatial pattern of AOD with respect to observations) by the adjusted emissions that not only increases the original emission amount by a factor of two but also results in the spatially continuous estimates of instantaneous fire emissions at daily time scales. Such improvement cannot be achieved by simply scaling the original emission across the study domain. Even with this improvement, a factor of two underestimations still exists in the modeled AOD, which is within the current global fire emissions uncertainty envelope.

  15. Evaluation of the highly sensitive Roche thyroglobulin II assay and establishment of a reference limit for thyroglobulin-negative patient samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien M. Rotteveel-de Groot

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Thyroglobulin (Tg measurements are used to monitor for residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablative therapy. In recent years highly sensitive Tg assays have been developed. In this study the analytical performance of the new Roche Elecsys Tg II assay was evaluated and compared with the well documented Access2 Tg assay (Beckman–Coulter. Design and methods: Analytical performance was examined using various Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI evaluation protocols. Tg negative patient sera were used to establish an upper reference limit (URL for the Elecsys Tg II assay. Results: Non-linearity, drift and carry-over according to CLSI EP10 and EP6 in a measuring range of 0.04–500 ng/mL were non-significant. Total precision according to CLSI EP5 was 10% at a Tg concentration of 0.08 ng/mL. A patient serum comparison performed according to a modified CLSI EP9 protocol showed a significant difference of a factor of approximately 1.4, despite using an identical CRM calibrator. The Elecsys Tg II assay measured Tg with a two-fold higher sensitivity than the Access2 assay. Finally, using human sera without Tg, an URL of 0.05 ng/mL was determined. Conclusions: In our hands the highly sensitive Elecsys Tg II assay shows a good analytical performance and a higher sensitivity compared to the Access2 Tg assay. An URL of 0.05 ng/mL for the Elecsys Tg II assay was determined which may improve the clinical utility of the assay for the detection of residual DTC or disease recurrence. Keywords: Thyroglobulin, Roche Elecsys Tg II assay, validation, reporting limit

  16. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  17. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  19. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  20. Multiple analyte adduct formation in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry - Advantages and limitations in the analysis of biologically-related samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadosz, Marek

    2018-05-01

    Multiple analyte adduct formation was examined and discussed in the context of reproducible signal detection in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry applied in the analysis of biologically-related samples. Appropriate infusion solutions were prepared in H 2 O/methanol (3/97, v/v) with 1 mM sodium acetate and 10 mM acetic acid. An API 4000 QTrap tandem mass spectrometer was used for experiments performed in the negative scan mode (-Q1 MS) and the negative enhanced product ion mode (-EPI). γ‑Hydroxybutyrate and its deuterated form were used as model compounds to highlight both the complexity of adduct formation in popular mobile phases used and the effective signal compensation by the application of isotope-labelled analytes as internal standards. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring the clinical utility of the DSM-5 conduct disorder specifier of 'with limited prosocial emotions' in an adolescent inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanwoerden, Salome; Reuter, Tyson; Sharp, Carla

    2016-08-01

    With the recent addition of a callous-unemotional (CU) specifier to the diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) in the DSM-5, studies are needed to evaluate the clinical utility of this specifier and the best ways to identify youth meeting criteria for this specifier in clinical samples. To this end, the current study examined cross-sectional correlates and treatment response across four groups of inpatient adolescents (N=382, ages 12-17): those with CD without the specifier, with CD and the CU specifier, CU alone, and a group of psychiatric controls. We used two different measures to identify adolescents with high levels of CU traits: the Antisocial Process Screening Device (APSD) [1] and the Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (ICU) [2]. Questionnaires and structured interviews were used to evaluate a range of outcomes including presence of baseline levels and treatment outcomes of both externalizing and internalizing problems. Results indicated that the ICU, but not the APSD differentiated between conduct disordered youth with and without the specifier on externalizing behaviors in both cross-sectional relations and treatment response. The results of the current study caution the use of the most frequently used measure to identify the CU specifier, and make suggestions about alternatives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of the highly sensitive Roche thyroglobulin II assay and establishment of a reference limit for thyroglobulin-negative patient samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotteveel-de Groot, Dorien M; Ross, H Alec; Janssen, Marcel J R; Netea-Maier, Romana T; Oosting, Janine D; Sweep, Fred C G J; van Herwaarden, Antonius E

    2016-08-01

    Thyroglobulin (Tg) measurements are used to monitor for residual thyroid tissue in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) after thyroidectomy and radioiodine ablative therapy. In recent years highly sensitive Tg assays have been developed. In this study the analytical performance of the new Roche Elecsys Tg II assay was evaluated and compared with the well documented Access2 Tg assay (Beckman-Coulter). Analytical performance was examined using various Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) evaluation protocols. Tg negative patient sera were used to establish an upper reference limit (URL) for the Elecsys Tg II assay. Non-linearity, drift and carry-over according to CLSI EP10 and EP6 in a measuring range of 0.04-500 ng/mL were non-significant. Total precision according to CLSI EP5 was 10% at a Tg concentration of 0.08 ng/mL. A patient serum comparison performed according to a modified CLSI EP9 protocol showed a significant difference of a factor of approximately 1.4, despite using an identical CRM calibrator. The Elecsys Tg II assay measured Tg with a two-fold higher sensitivity than the Access2 assay. Finally, using human sera without Tg, an URL of 0.05 ng/mL was determined. In our hands the highly sensitive Elecsys Tg II assay shows a good analytical performance and a higher sensitivity compared to the Access2 Tg assay. An URL of 0.05 ng/mL for the Elecsys Tg II assay was determined which may improve the clinical utility of the assay for the detection of residual DTC or disease recurrence.

  3. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  4. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  5. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-09-29

    Sep 29, 1995 ... During September 1993, afler the St Lucia estuary had been closed to the sea for about nine months, two samples of live plankton were collected at the mouth inside the closed estuary. Fish eggs from these samples were hatched and identified by the characteristics of the eggs and early larvae. Pomadasys ...

  7. Validity and reliability of Spanish versions of the Ruminative Responses Scale-Short Form and the Distraction Responses Scale in a sample of Spanish high school and college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2006-02-01

    This study investigated the construct validity and reliability of the Spanish Ruminative Responses Scale-Short From, and the Distraction Responses Scale of the Response Styles Questionnaire for a sample of 727 Spanish high school and college students who responded anonymously and voluntarily to a questionnaire (293 men, 434 women; ages 16 to 29 years, M=18.8, SD=3.0). In addition to the above scales, the questionnaire included the Spanish forms of the Beck Depression Inventory, the Trait Anxiety Scale from the State-Trait Anxiety Scale, the Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Subjective Happiness Scale. The internal consistency of the scales was satisfactory (Cronbach alpha=.86 for the Ruminative Responses Scale and .78 for the Distraction Responses Scale). As expected, scores on the Spanish Ruminative Responses Scale showed positive correlations with those on the Beck Depression Inventory and the Trait Anxiety Scale and negative associations with the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Subjective Happiness Scale. Conversely, the Spanish Distraction Responses Scale was negatively correlated with the Beck Depression Inventory and positively associated with the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Subjective Happiness Scale. These results provide evidence of appropriate reliability for research purposes. Furthermore, the correlational analysis supported prior findings that ruminative response and distraction response styles are differentially associated with reported depressed and positive moods.

  8. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    home

    2014-03-17

    Mar 17, 2014 ... alcohol soluble extractive value and moisture content and which was found to be 4.31, 2.8,. 0.4 and 10.4% /5gm of the sample powder respectively with light .... Table 1: Properties and percentage yield of the extracts obtained ...

  9. Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Toro-Mujica, Paula; Enriquez-Hidalgo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We used a multivariate chemometric approach to differentiate or associate retail bovine milks with different fat contents and non-dairy beverages, using fatty acid profiles and statistical analysis. We collected samples of bovine milk (whole, semi-skim, and skim; n = 62) and non-dairy beverages (...

  10. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-10-25

    Oct 25, 2011 ... Korea) rapid kits on mothers´ serum samples. For all HIV positive women, CD4 cell counts were measured in the referral laboratory. The method used a flow cytometer for measuring the percentage of CD4 T cells; an automated blood cell counter helped to measure the total number of lymphocytes. Results ...

  11. Short Communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    densities, diet composition, seed predation by captive rodents and published .... Although small, this was a suituble sample size, since the percenwge of prey ... in the wild after 4 days, and rodent feeding preference for Acacia seeds. (Kelnck ef at. ..... rodents. birds and ants: the relationship of seed auributes and seed usc.

  12. Comparison of false-negative rates and limits of detection following macrofoam-swab sampling of Bacillus anthracis surrogates via Rapid Viability PCR and plate culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchison, J. R. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Piepel, G. F. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Amidan, B. G. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Hess, B. M. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Sydor, M. A. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Deatherage Kaiser, B. L. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2018-03-13

    Aims: We evaluated the effects of Bacillus anthracis surrogates, low surface concentrations, surface materials, and assay methods on false-negative rate (FNR) and limit of detection (LOD95) for recovering Bacillus spores using a macrofoam-swab sampling procedure. Methods and Results: Bacillus anthracis Sterne or Bacillus atrophaeus Nakamura spores were deposited over a range of low target concentrations (2 – 500 coupon-1) onto glass, stainless steel, vinyl tile, and plastic. Samples were assayed using a modified Rapid Viability-PCR (mRV-PCR) method and the traditional plate culture method to obtain FNR and LOD95 results. Conclusions: Mean FNRs tended to be lower for mRV-PCR compared to culturing, and increased as spore concentration decreased for all surface materials. Surface material, but not B. anthracis surrogate, influenced FNRs with the mRV-PCR method. The mRV-PCR LOD95 was lowest for glass and highest for vinyl tile. LOD95 values overall were lower for mRV-PCR than for the culture method. Significance and Impact of Study: This study adds to the limited data on FNR and LOD95 for mRV-PCR and culturing methods with low concentrations of B. anthracis sampled from various surface materials by the CDC macrofoam-swab method. These are key inputs for planning characterization and clearance studies for low contamination levels of B. anthracis.

  13. Insights into head-column field-amplified sample stacking: Part II. Study of the behavior of the electrophoretic system after electrokinetic injection of cationic compounds across a short water plug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šesták, Jozef; Thormann, Wolfgang

    2017-08-25

    Part I on head-column field-amplified sample stacking comprised a detailed study of the electrokinetic injection of a weak base across a short water plug into a phosphate buffer at low pH. The water plug is converted into a low conductive acidic zone and cationic analytes become stacked at the interface between this and a newly formed phosphoric acid zone. The fundamentals of electrokinetic processes occurring thereafter were studied experimentally and with computer simulation and are presented as part II. The configuration analyzed represents a discontinuous buffer system. Computer simulation revealed that the phosphoric acid zone at the plug-buffer interface becomes converted into a migrating phosphate buffer plug which corresponds to the cationically migrating system zone of the phosphate buffer system. Its mobility is higher than that of the analytes such that they migrate behind the system zone in a phosphate buffer comparable to the applied background electrolyte. The temporal behaviour of the current and the conductivity across the water plug were monitored and found to reflect the changes in the low conductivity plug. Determination of the buffer flow in the capillary revealed increased pumping caused by the mismatch of electroosmosis within the low conductivity plug and the buffer. This effect becomes elevated with increasing water plug length. For plug lengths up to 1% of the total column length the flow quickly drops to the electroosmotic flow of the buffer and simulations with experimentally determined current and flow values predict negligible band dispersion and no loss of resolution for both low and large molecular mass components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements. Part 3: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements by high resolution gamma spectrometry, without the influence of sample treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This part of ISO 11929 addresses the field of ionizing radiation measurements in which events (in particular pulses) are counted by high resolution gamma spectrometry registrating a pulse-heights distribution (acquisition of a multichannel spectrum), for example on samples. It considers exclusively the random character of radioactive decay and of pulse counting and ignores all other influences (e.g. arising from sample treatment, weighing, enrichment or the instability of the test setup). It assumes that the distance of neighbouring peaks of gamma lines is not smaller than four times the full width half maximum (FWHM) of gamma line and that the background near to gamma line is nearly a straight line. Otherwise ISO 11929-1 or ISO 11929-2 should be used. ISO 11929 consists of the following parts, under the general title Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements: Part 1: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements without the influence of sample treatment; Part 2: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements with the influence of sample treatment; Part 3: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements by high resolution gamma spectrometry, without the influence of sample treatment; Part 4: Fundamentals and application to measurements by use of linear scale analogue ratemeters, without the influence of sample treatment. This part of ISO 11929 was prepared in parallel with other International Standards prepared by WG2 (now WG 17): ISO 11932:1996, Activity measurements of solid materials considered for recycling, re-use or disposal as nonradioactive waste, and ISO 11929-1, ISO 11929-2 and ISO 11929-4, and is, consequently, complementary to these documents

  15. Three dimensional sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions-short time of the inversion recovery sequence for the post-ganglionic segments of the brachial plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Naiqi; Zhou Hongyu; Zheng Zhuozhao; Zhao Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the contrast-enhanced 3D sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions-short TI inversion recovery sequence (SPACE-STIR) for the imaging of the post-ganglionic segments of the brachial plexus. Methods: Forty-three patients with suspected brachial plexus lesions were examined with 3D SPACE-STIR and contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR prospectively. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR), and the conspicuousness of roots, trunks,divisions and cords of the brachial plexus of the two 3D sequences were retrospectively compared. Statistical analysis was performed by using student t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Compared with 3D SPACE-STIR, contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR provided the similar SNRs (left, 37.41 ± 7.34 vs 36.27 ± 7.66, t = 1.574, P = 0.123, right, 43.85 ± 9.56 vs 42.34 ± 9.74, t = 1.937, P = 0.073), but significantly higher nerve-to-muscle CNRs (left, 24.01 ± 6.31 vs 26.39 ± 6.95, right, 29.31 ± 7.84 vs 31.77 ± 8.85, t = -3.278, -3.278, both P < 0.01) and nerve-to-lymph gland CNRs(left, -0.84 ± 10.51 vs 15.35 ± 8.02, right, -8.47 ± 10.85 vs 19.30 ± 10.35, t = -15.984, -15.651, both P < 0.01). The conspicuousness of roots and trunks on contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR was significantly better than that on 3D SPACE-STIR (Z = -3.606, -4.472, P < 0.01), while the conspicuousness of divisions and cords was similar(Z = -1.732, -1.414, P = 0.083, 0.157). The signal intensity of neoplastic lesions on contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR tended to decrease rapidly, thus the lesion conspicuousness was worse than that on 3D SPACE-STIR. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR has obvious advantages in displaying normal brachial plexus and revealing non-neoplastic lesions of the brachial plexus, but may be insufficient for the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of the brachial plexus. (authors)

  16. 46 CFR 15.725 - Sailing short.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sailing short. 15.725 Section 15.725 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.725 Sailing short. Whenever a vessel is deprived of the service of a... vessel is sufficiently manned for the voyage. A report of sailing short must be filed in writing with the...

  17. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapinski, M.

    2012-01-01

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  18. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  19. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  20. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) questionnaire: application in a sample of short-term survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Antonio; Trujillo-Martín, Maria del Mar; Rueda, Antonio; Pérez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Avis, Nancy E; Bilbao, Amaia

    2015-11-16

    The aim of this study was to validate the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) in short-term Spanish cancer survivor's patients. Patients with breast, colorectal or prostate cancer that had finished their initial cancer treatment 3 years before the beginning of this study completed QLACS, WHOQOL, Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, EORTC-QLQ-BR23 and EQ-5D. Cultural adaptation was made based on established guidelines. Reliability was evaluated using internal consistency and test-retest. Convergent validity was studied by mean of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Structural validity was determined by a second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis was used to assess the unidimensionality of the Generic and Cancer-specific scales. Cronbach's alpha were above 0.7 in all domains and summary scales. Test-retest coefficients were 0.88 for Generic and 0.82 for Cancer-specific summary scales. QLACS generic summary scale was correlated with other generic criterion measures, SF-36 MCS (r = - 0.74) and EQ-VAS (r = - 0.63). QLACS cancer-specific scale had lower values with the same constructs. CFA provided satisfactory fit indices in all cases. The RMSEA value was 0.061 and CFI and TLI values were 0.929 and 0.925, respectively. All factor loadings were higher than 0.40 and statistically significant (P validity and reliability of QLACS questionnaire to be used in short-term cancer survivors.

  1. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  2. Quantification of the total Na,K-ATPase concentration in atria and ventricles from mammalian species by measuring 3H-ouabain binding to intact myocardial samples. Stability to short term ischemia reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Thomas A; Svendsen, J H; Haunsø, S

    1990-01-01

    ,K-ATPase may be less than 1% due to loss during purification. A higher Na,K-ATPase concentration is found in small animals than in large animals. A relationship between higher concentration of Na,K-ATPase and larger pressure work in ventricles compared to atria is suggested. Myocardial 3H-ouabain binding sites...... were found to be stable for 20 min of ischemia, followed by 1 h of reperfusion, supporting the concept that myocyte injury induced by short term ischemia may be reversible and that reperfusion may result in normalization....

  3. Quantification of the total Na,K-ATPase concentration in atria and ventricles from mammalian species by measuring 3H-ouabain binding to intact myocardial samples. Stability to short term ischemia reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, T A; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Haunsø, S

    2011-01-01

    ,K-ATPase may be less than 1% due to loss during purification. A higher Na,K-ATPase concentration is found in small animals than in large animals. A relationship between higher concentration of Na,K-ATPase and larger pressure work in ventricles compared to atria is suggested. Myocardial 3H-ouabain binding sites...... were found to be stable for 20 min of ischemia, followed by 1 h of reperfusion, supporting the concept that myocyte injury induced by short term ischemia may be reversible and that reperfusion may result in normalization....

  4. INAA of human and animal whole blood samples by short term reactor irradiation. [Au, Br, Cd, Ce, Cl, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, La, Mn, Na, P, Sc, Zn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samudralwar, D L; Garg, A N

    1986-11-03

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was employed for the determination of 15 major, minor and trace elements in human and animal blood samples. Dry whole blood samples along with NBS and IAEA standards were irradiated for 5 min, 1 h, 5 h and 10 h with reactor thermal neutrons and counted using high resolution ..gamma..-spectrometry at successive intervals. Data for a new IAEA proposed CRM Mixed Human Diet (H-9) is reported. 28 references, 4 tables.

  5. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  6. Shorts due to diagnostic leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.F.; Lubell, M.S.; Pillsbury, R.D.; Shen, S.S.; Thome, R.J.; Walstrom, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The superconducting toroidal field coils that are being tested in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) are heavily instrumented. General Electric coil, a lead wire of an internal sensor became shorted across an estimated three or four turns of the pancake winding. This short occurred during the final stages of the winding fabrication and was not accessible for repair. Resistance, voltage gradient, and transient voltage decay measurements were performed to characterize the short and the magnetic damping of the large steel bobbin and outer structural ring. The 32-gage wire causing the short was estimated to be about 10 cm long, with a resistance of 55 mΩ. As a safety measure, we decided to burn out the shorted wire at room temperature before installing the coil in LCTF. Tests were made to determine the energy needed to vaporize a small wire. Computer calculations indicated that within the voltage limits set for the coil, it was not feasible to burn out the wire by rapidly dumping the coil from a low-current dc charge-up. We accomplished the burnout by applying 800 V at 3.25 A, and 60 Hz for about 1 s. Transient voltage decay measurements made after the burnout and compared with those made before the attempt confirmed that the short had indeed been opened

  7. How Sample Size Affects a Sampling Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulekar, Madhuri S.; Siegel, Murray H.

    2009-01-01

    If students are to understand inferential statistics successfully, they must have a profound understanding of the nature of the sampling distribution. Specifically, they must comprehend the determination of the expected value and standard error of a sampling distribution as well as the meaning of the central limit theorem. Many students in a high…

  8. The patient safety climate in healthcare organizations (PSCHO) survey: Short-form development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzer, Justin K; Meterko, Mark; Singer, Sara J

    2017-08-01

    Measures of safety climate are increasingly used to guide safety improvement initiatives. However, cost and respondent burden may limit the use of safety climate surveys. The purpose of this study was to develop a 15- to 20-item safety climate survey based on the Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations survey, a well-validated 38-item measure of safety climate. The Patient Safety Climate in Healthcare Organizations was administered to all senior managers, all physicians, and a 10% random sample of all other hospital personnel in 69 private sector hospitals and 30 Veterans Health Administration hospitals. Both samples were randomly divided into a derivation sample to identify a short-form subset and a confirmation sample to assess the psychometric properties of the proposed short form. The short form consists of 15 items represented 3 overarching domains in the long-form scale-organization, work unit, and interpersonal. The proposed short form efficiently captures 3 important sources of variance in safety climate: organizational, work-unit, and interpersonal. The short-form development process was a practical method that can be applied to other safety climate surveys. This safety climate short form may increase response rates in studies that involve busy clinicians or repeated measures. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. Inherent limitations of fixed time servo-controlled radiometric calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, J.R.; Duff, M.F.; Lemming, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    There has been some interest in low precision, short run time calorimetry measurements. This type of calorimetry measurement has been proposed for use when high precision measurements are not required, for example, to screen scrap containers to determine if there is enough material to be measured more accurately of for confirmatory measurements that only require low precision results. The equipment needed to make these measurements is a servo-controlled calorimeter with a sample preequilibration bath. The preequilibration bath temperature is set to the internal temperature of the calorimeter running at a fixed servo-controlled wattage level. The sample power value is determined at a fixed time form the sample loading into the calorimeter. There are some limitations and areas of uncertainties in the use of data obtained by this method. Data collected under controlled conditions demonstrate the limitations. Sample packaging, preequilibration time, and item wattage were chosen as the variables most likely to be encountered in a plant environment

  10. Insights into head-column field-amplified sample stacking: Part II. Study of the behavior of the electrophoretic system after electrokinetic injection of cationic compounds across a short water plug

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jozef; Thormann, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1512, AUG (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : head- column field-amplified sample stacking * capillary electrophoresis * water plug Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  11. Insights into head-column field-amplified sample stacking: Part II. Study of the behavior of the electrophoretic system after electrokinetic injection of cationic compounds across a short water plug

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šesták, Jozef; Thormann, W.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 1512, AUG (2017), s. 124-132 ISSN 0021-9673 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : head-column field-amplified sample stacking * capillary electrophoresis * water plug Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 3.981, year: 2016

  12. The Demonstration of Short-Term Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Results of seven experiments involving 112 college students or staff using a dual-task approach provide evidence that encoding information into short-term memory involves a distinct process termed short-term consolidation (STC). Results suggest that STC has limited capacity and that it requires central processing mechanisms. (SLD)

  13. Improved testing of recent HIV-1 infections with the BioRad avidity assay compared to the limiting antigen avidity assay and BED Capture enzyme immunoassay: evaluation using reference sample panels from the German Seroconverter Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Hauser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The variety and limitations of current laboratory methods for estimating HIV-incidence has driven attempts to improve and standardize the performance of serological 'Tests for Recent HIV-Infections' (TRI. Primary and follow-up HIV-1 positive plasma samples from individuals with well-defined dates of infection collected as part of the German Seroconverter Cohort provided specimens highly suitable for use in comparing the performance of three TRIs: the AWARE™ BED™ EIA HIV-1 Incidence test (BED-CEIA, Genetic systems HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA antibody avidity-based assay (BioRad Avidity and Sedia™ HIV-1 LAg Avidity EIA (LAg Avidity. METHODS: The evaluation panel included 180 specimens: 44 from antiretroviral (ARV-naïve individuals with recently acquired HIV-infection (≤ 130 days; 25 B and 19 non-B subtypes and 136 from long-term (>12 months infected individuals [101 ARV-naïve subtype B, 16 non-B subtypes, 14 ARV-treated individuals, 5 slow progressors (SLP]. RESULTS: For long-term infected, ARV-naïve individuals the false recent rates (FRR of both the BioRad and LAg Avidity assays were 2% (2/101 for subtype B and 6% (1/16 for subtype 'non-B', while the FRR of the BED-CEIA was 7% (7/101 for subtype B and 25% (4/16 for subtype 'non-B' (all p>0.05. Misclassification of ARV-treated individuals and SLP was rare by LAg (1/14, 0/5 and BioRad Avidity assays (2/14, 1/5 but more frequent by BED-CEIA (5/14, 3/5. Among recently-infected individuals (subtype B, 60% (15/25 were correctly classified by BED-CEIA, 88% (22/25 by BioRad Avidity and significantly fewer by LAg (48%, 12/25 compared to BioRad Avidity (p = 0.005 with a higher true-recency rate among non-B infections for all assays. CONCLUSIONS: This study using well-characterized specimens demonstrated lower FRRs for both avidity methods than with the BED-CEIA. For recently infected individuals the BioRad Avidity assay was shown to give the most accurate results.

  14. Boat sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Citanovic, M.; Bezlaj, H.

    1994-01-01

    This presentation describes essential boat sampling activities: on site boat sampling process optimization and qualification; boat sampling of base material (beltline region); boat sampling of weld material (weld No. 4); problems accompanied with weld crown varieties, RPV shell inner radius tolerance, local corrosion pitting and water clarity. The equipment used for boat sampling is described too. 7 pictures

  15. Graph sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, L.-C.; Patone, M.

    2017-01-01

    We synthesise the existing theory of graph sampling. We propose a formal definition of sampling in finite graphs, and provide a classification of potential graph parameters. We develop a general approach of Horvitz–Thompson estimation to T-stage snowball sampling, and present various reformulations of some common network sampling methods in the literature in terms of the outlined graph sampling theory.

  16. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  17. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  18. PTSD-8: A Short PTSD Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Palic, Sabina; Mackrill, Thomas

    2010-09-28

    Traumatic events pose great challenges on mental health services in scarcity of specialist trauma clinicians and services. Simple short screening instruments for detecting adverse psychological responses are needed. Several brief screening instruments have been developed. However, some are limited, especially in relation to reflecting the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Recently, several studies have challenged pre-existing ideas about PTSD's latent structure. Factor analytic research currently supports two four factor models. One particular model contains a dysphoria factor which has been associated with depression and anxiety. The symptoms in this factor have been hailed as less specific to PTSD. The scope of this article is therefore to present a short screening instrument, based on this research; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) - 8 items. The PTSD-8 is shown to have good psychometric properties in three independent samples of whiplash patients (n=1710), rape victims (n=305), and disaster victims (n=516). Good test-rest reliability is also shown in a pilot study of young adults from families with alcohol problems (n=56).

  19. Rapidly-administered short forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-3rd edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Alison J; Pliskin, Neil; Holdnack, James; Axelrod, Bradley; Randolph, Christopher

    2007-11-01

    Although the Wechsler Full Scale IQ (FSIQ) is a common component of most neuropsychological evaluations, there are many clinical situations where the complete administration of this battery is precluded by various constraints, including limitations of time and patient compliance. These constraints are particularly true for dementia evaluations involving elderly patients. The present study reports data on two short forms particularly suited to dementia evaluations, each requiring less than 20min of administration time. One of the short forms was previously validated in dementia for the WAIS-R [Randolph, C., Mohr, E., & Chase, T. N. (1993). Assessment of intellectual function in dementing disorders: Validity of WAIS-R short forms for patients with Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and Parkinson's disease. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 15, 743-753]; the second was developed specifically for patients with motor disabilities. These short forms were validated using the WAIS-III normative standardization sample (N=2450), neurologic sample (N=63), and matched controls (N=49), and a separate mixed clinical sample (N=70). The results suggest that each short form provides an accurate and reliable estimate of WAIS-III FSIQ, validating their use in appropriate clinical contexts. The present data support the use of these short forms for dementia evaluations, and suggests that they may be applicable for the evaluation of other neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders that involve acquired neurocognitive impairment.

  20. Focused conformational sampling in proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Marco; Langini, Cassiano; Vymětal, Jiří; Caflisch, Amedeo; Vitalis, Andreas

    2017-11-01

    A detailed understanding of the conformational dynamics of biological molecules is difficult to obtain by experimental techniques due to resolution limitations in both time and space. Computer simulations avoid these in theory but are often too short to sample rare events reliably. Here we show that the progress index-guided sampling (PIGS) protocol can be used to enhance the sampling of rare events in selected parts of biomolecules without perturbing the remainder of the system. The method is very easy to use as it only requires as essential input a set of several features representing the parts of interest sufficiently. In this feature space, new states are discovered by spontaneous fluctuations alone and in unsupervised fashion. Because there are no energetic biases acting on phase space variables or projections thereof, the trajectories PIGS generates can be analyzed directly in the framework of transition networks. We demonstrate the possibility and usefulness of such focused explorations of biomolecules with two loops that are part of the binding sites of bromodomains, a family of epigenetic "reader" modules. This real-life application uncovers states that are structurally and kinetically far away from the initial crystallographic structures and are also metastable. Representative conformations are intended to be used in future high-throughput virtual screening campaigns.

  1. Balanced sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brus, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    In balanced sampling a linear relation between the soil property of interest and one or more covariates with known means is exploited in selecting the sampling locations. Recent developments make this sampling design attractive for statistical soil surveys. This paper introduces balanced sampling

  2. Quality Control Samples for the Radiological Determination of Tritium in Urine Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ost'pezuk, P.; Froning, M.; Laumen, S.; Richert, I.; Hill, P.

    2004-01-01

    The radioactive decay product of tritium is a low energy beta that cannot penetrate the outer dead layer of human skin. Therefore , the main hazard associated with tritium is internal exposure. In addition, due to the relatively long half life and short biological half life, tritium must be ingested in large amounts to pose a significant health risk. On the other hand, the internal exposure should be kept as low as practical. For incorporation monitoring of professional radiation workers the quality control is of utmost importance. In the Research Centre Juelich GmbH (FZJ) a considerable fraction of monitoring by excretion analysis relates to the isotope Tritium. Usually an aliquot of an urine sample is mixed with a liquid scintillator and measured in a liquid scintillation counter. Quality control samples in the form of three kind of internal reference samples (blank, reference samples with low activity and reference sample with elevated activity) were prepared from a mixed, Tritium (free) urine samples. 1 ml of these samples were pipetted into a liquid scintillation vial. In the part of theses vials a known amounts of Tritium were added. All these samples were stored at 20 degrees. Based on long term use of all these reference samples it was possible to construct appropriate control charts with the upper and lower alarm limits. Daily use of these reference samples decrease significantly the risk for false results in original urine with no significant increase of the determination time. (Author) 2 refs

  3. Ensemble Sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Xiuyuan; Van Roy, Benjamin

    2017-01-01

    Thompson sampling has emerged as an effective heuristic for a broad range of online decision problems. In its basic form, the algorithm requires computing and sampling from a posterior distribution over models, which is tractable only for simple special cases. This paper develops ensemble sampling, which aims to approximate Thompson sampling while maintaining tractability even in the face of complex models such as neural networks. Ensemble sampling dramatically expands on the range of applica...

  4. Superconducting dc fault current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cointe, Y.

    2007-12-01

    Within the framework of the electric power market liberalization, DC networks have many interests compared to alternative ones, but their protections need to use new systems. Superconducting fault current limiters enable by an overstepping of the critical current to limit the fault current to a preset value, lower than the theoretical short-circuit current. For these applications, coated conductors offer excellent opportunities. We worked on the implementation of these materials and built a test bench. We carried out limiting experiments to estimate the quench homogeneity at various short-circuit parameters. An important point is the temperature measurement by deposited sensors on the ribbon, results are in good correlation with the theoretical models. Improved quench behaviours for temperatures close to the critical temperature have been confirmed. Our results enable to better understand the limitation mechanisms of coated conductors. (author)

  5. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...

  6. The density limit in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alladio, F.

    1985-01-01

    A short summary of the present status of experimental observations, theoretical ideas and understanding of the density limit in tokamaks is presented. It is the result of the discussion that was held on this topic at the 4th European Tokamak Workshop in Copenhagen (December 4th to 6th, 1985). 610 refs

  7. Laser sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatenko, A A; Revina, E I

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to the major advances in laser sampling. The advantages and drawbacks of the technique are considered. Specific features of combinations of laser sampling with various instrumental analytical methods, primarily inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, are discussed. Examples of practical implementation of hybrid methods involving laser sampling as well as corresponding analytical characteristics are presented. The bibliography includes 78 references

  8. Superconducting fault current limiter using high-resistive YBCO tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazawa, T. [Power and Industrial System R and D Center, Toshiba Corporation, 2-4 Suehiro, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan)], E-mail: takashi.yazawa@toshiba.co.jp; Koyanagi, K.; Takahashi, M.; Ono, M.; Toba, K.; Takigami, H.; Urata, M. [Power and Industrial System R and D Center, Toshiba Corporation, 2-4 Suehiro, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Iijima, Y.; Saito, T. [Fujikura Ltd., 1-5-1 Kiba, Koto, Tokyo 135-0042 (Japan); Ameniya, N. [Yokohama National University, 79-1 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Shiohara, Y. [Superconductivity Research Laboratory, ISTEC, 1-10-13 Shinonome, Koto, Tokyo 135-0062 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    One of the programs in the Ministry of Economy and Trade and Industry (METI) project regarding R and D on YBCO conductor is to evaluate the applicability of the developed conductor toward several applications. This paper focuses on a fault current limiter (FCL) as one of the expected power applications. YBCO tape conductors with ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) substrate are used in this work. In order to obtain high resistance of the conductor, which is preferable to an FCL, the thickness of the protecting layer made of silver was decreased as possible. Then high-resistive metal stabilizing layer is attached on the silver layer to improve stability. Obtaining the relevant current limiting performance on short sample experiments, model coils were developed to aim the 6.6 kV-class FCL. Short circuit experiments were implemented with a short circuit generator. The coil successfully restricted the short circuit current over 17 kA to about 700 A by the applied voltage of 3.8 kV, which is nominal phase-to-ground voltage. The experimental results show good agreement with computer analyses and show promising toward the application.

  9. "Fate: The short film"

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Quintana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    "Fate: The Short Film" is a four minute short film which reflects the idea that nobody can escape from the fate. It has a good picture and sound quality with an understandable message for all public and with the collaboration of actors, filmmaker, stylist, script advisor and media technician.

  10. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  11. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  12. Validation of the Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire for Taiwanese College Students (TSSRQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Yang-Hsueh Chen; Yu-Ju Lin

    2018-01-01

    While self-regulation has long been recognized as an important characteristic of an individual, instruments assessing the general aptitude of self-regulation remain limited especially in Asian countries. This study re-validated Carey et al.'s (2004) Short Self-Regulation Questionnaire based on a national sample of Taiwanese college students (N = 1,988). Item analysis, exploratory factor analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) yielded 22 items in five internally consistent factors. De...

  13. Soil sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, G.U.; Banfi, C.; Pasturenzi, M.

    1994-01-01

    This study attempts to survey the problems associated with techniques and strategies of soil sampling. Keeping in mind the well defined objectives of a sampling campaign, the aim was to highlight the most important aspect of representativeness of samples as a function of the available resources. Particular emphasis was given to the techniques and particularly to a description of the many types of samplers which are in use. The procedures and techniques employed during the investigations following the Seveso accident are described. (orig.)

  14. Superconductive AC current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhaled, M.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an AC current limiter for a power transport line including a power supply circuit and feeding a load circuit via an overload circuit-breaker member. The limiter comprises a transformer having a primary winding connected in series between the power supply circuit and the load circuit and at least one secondary winding of superconductor material contained in a cryogenic enclosure and short-circuited on itself. The leakage reactance of the transformer as seen from the primary winding is low, and the resistance of the at least one secondary winding when in the non-superconducting state and as seen from the primary is much greater than the nominal impedance of the transformer. The improvement whereby the at least one secondary winding of the transformer comprises an active winding in association with a set of auxiliary windings. The set of auxiliary windings is constituted by an even number of series-connected auxiliary windings wound in opposite directions, with the total number of turns in one direction being equal to the total number of turns in the opposite direction, and with the thermal capacity of the secondary winding as a whole being sufficiently high to limit the expansion thereof to a value which remains small during the time it takes the circuit-breaking member to operate

  15. Language sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan; Bakker, Dik

    1998-01-01

    This article has two aims: [1] to present a revised version of the sampling method that was originally proposed in 1993 by Rijkhoff, Bakker, Hengeveld and Kahrel, and [2] to discuss a number of other approaches to language sampling in the light of our own method. We will also demonstrate how our...... sampling method is used with different genetic classifications (Voegelin & Voegelin 1977, Ruhlen 1987, Grimes ed. 1997) and argue that —on the whole— our sampling technique compares favourably with other methods, especially in the case of exploratory research....

  16. Title I Preschool Program in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS): Short- and Long-Term Outcomes. Eye on Evaluation. E&R Report No.11.16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baenen, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    The longitudinal study of the 2005-06 preschool in Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) found short-term gains during the preschool year, but limited impact by kindergarten and no average impact by the end of 3rd grade on achievement, retention rates, special education placements, or attendance. Small sample sizes limit conclusions that can be…

  17. Pythons in Burma: Short-tailed python (Reptilia: Squamata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zug, George R.; Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.

    2011-01-01

    Short-tailed pythons, Python curtus species group, occur predominantly in the Malayan Peninsula, Sumatra, and Borneo. The discovery of an adult female in Mon State, Myanmar, led to a review of the distribution of all group members (spot-mapping of all localities of confirmed occurrence) and an examination of morphological variation in P. brongersmai. The resulting maps demonstrate a limited occurrence of these pythons within peninsular Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo with broad absences in these regions. Our small samples limit the recognition of regional differentiation in the morphology of P. brongersmai populations; however, the presence of unique traits in the Myanmar python and its strong allopatry indicate that it is a unique genetic lineage, and it is described as Python kyaiktiyo new species.

  18. Imaging in short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-09-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  19. Imaging in short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  20. Sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Sample preparation prior to HPLC analysis is certainly one of the most important steps to consider in trace or ultratrace analysis. For many years scientists have tried to simplify the sample preparation process. It is rarely possible to inject a neat liquid sample or a sample where preparation may not be any more complex than dissolution of the sample in a given solvent. The last process alone can remove insoluble materials, which is especially helpful with the samples in complex matrices if other interactions do not affect extraction. Here, it is very likely a large number of components will not dissolve and are, therefore, eliminated by a simple filtration process. In most cases, the process of sample preparation is not as simple as dissolution of the component interest. At times, enrichment is necessary, that is, the component of interest is present in very large volume or mass of material. It needs to be concentrated in some manner so a small volume of the concentrated or enriched sample can be injected into HPLC. 88 refs

  1. Sampling Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolph, Karen E.; Robinson, Scott R.

    2011-01-01

    Research in developmental psychology requires sampling at different time points. Accurate depictions of developmental change provide a foundation for further empirical studies and theories about developmental mechanisms. However, overreliance on widely spaced sampling intervals in cross-sectional and longitudinal designs threatens the validity of…

  2. Environmental sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puckett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental Sampling (ES) is a technology option that can have application in transparency in nuclear nonproliferation. The basic process is to take a sample from the environment, e.g., soil, water, vegetation, or dust and debris from a surface, and through very careful sample preparation and analysis, determine the types, elemental concentration, and isotopic composition of actinides in the sample. The sample is prepared and the analysis performed in a clean chemistry laboratory (CCL). This ES capability is part of the IAEA Strengthened Safeguards System. Such a Laboratory is planned to be built by JAERI at Tokai and will give Japan an intrinsic ES capability. This paper presents options for the use of ES as a transparency measure for nuclear nonproliferation

  3. Short bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, L.G.J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)

  4. Catapults fall short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.

  5. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  6. Imaging in short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano

    2012-01-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions ...

  7. Spherical sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Freeden, Willi; Schreiner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    This book presents, in a consistent and unified overview, results and developments in the field of today´s spherical sampling, particularly arising in mathematical geosciences. Although the book often refers to original contributions, the authors made them accessible to (graduate) students and scientists not only from mathematics but also from geosciences and geoengineering. Building a library of topics in spherical sampling theory it shows how advances in this theory lead to new discoveries in mathematical, geodetic, geophysical as well as other scientific branches like neuro-medicine. A must-to-read for everybody working in the area of spherical sampling.

  8. DupuytrEn Treatment EffeCtiveness Trial (DETECT): a protocol for prospective, randomised, controlled, outcome assessor-blinded, three-armed parallel 1:1:1, multicentre trial comparing the effectiveness and cost of collagenase clostridium histolyticum, percutaneous needle fasciotomy and limited fasciectomy as short-term and long-term treatment strategies in Dupuytren's contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räisänen, Mikko P; Karjalainen, Teemu; Göransson, Harry; Reito, Aleksi; Kautiainen, Hannu; Malmivaara, Antti; Leppänen, Olli V

    2018-03-28

    Dupuytren's contracture (DC) is a chronic fibroproliferative disorder of the palmar fascia which leads to flexion contracture in one or more fingers. There is no definitive cure for DC, and treatment aims at relieving symptoms by releasing the contracture using percutaneous or operative techniques. We planned a prospective, randomised, controlled, outcome assessor-blinded, three-armed parallel 1:1:1, multicentre trial comparing the effectiveness and cost of (1) collagenase clostridium histolyticum injection followed by limited fasciectomy in non-responsive cases, (2) percutaneous needle fasciotomy followed by limited fasciectomy in non-responsive cases and (3) primary limited fasciectomy during short-term and long-term follow-up for Tubiana I-III stages DC. We will recruit participants from seven national centres in Finland. Primary outcome is the rate of success in the treatment arm at 5 years after recruitment. Success is a composite outcome comprising (1) at least 50% contracture release from the date of recruitment and (2) participants in a patient-accepted symptom state (PASS). Secondary outcomes are (1) angle of contracture, (2) quick disabilities of the arm, a shoulder and hand outcome measure (QuickDASH), (3) perceived hand function, (4) EQ-5D-3L, (5) rate of major adverse events, (6) patient's trust of the treatment, (7) global rating, (8) rate of PASS, (9) rate of minimal clinically important improvement, (10) expenses, (11) progression of disease, (12) progression-free survival, (13) favoured treatment modality, (14) patients achieving full contracture release and >50% improvement and (15) patient satisfaction with the treatment effect. Predictive factors for achieving the PASS will also be analysed. The protocol was approved by the Tampere University Hospital Institutional Review Board and Finnish Medicine Agency. The study will be performed according to the principles of good clinical practice. The results of the trial will be disseminated as

  9. Fluidic sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, E.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper covers the development of the fluidic sampler and its testing in a fluidic transfer system. The major findings of this paper are as follows. Fluidic jet samples can dependably produce unbiased samples of acceptable volume. The fluidic transfer system with a fluidic sampler in-line will transfer water to a net lift of 37.2--39.9 feet at an average ratio of 0.02--0.05 gpm (77--192 cc/min). The fluidic sample system circulation rate compares very favorably with the normal 0.016--0.026 gpm (60--100 cc/min) circulation rate that is commonly produced for this lift and solution with the jet-assisted airlift sample system that is normally used at ICPP. The volume of the sample taken with a fluidic sampler is dependant on the motive pressure to the fluidic sampler, the sample bottle size and on the fluidic sampler jet characteristics. The fluidic sampler should be supplied with fluid having the motive pressure of the 140--150 percent of the peak vacuum producing motive pressure for the jet in the sampler. Fluidic transfer systems should be operated by emptying a full pumping chamber to nearly empty or empty during the pumping cycle, this maximizes the solution transfer rate

  10. The HARPS search for southern extra-solar planets . XXXII. New multi-planet systems in the HARPS volume limited sample: a super-Earth and a Neptune in the habitable zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Curto, G.; Mayor, M.; Benz, W.; Bouchy, F.; Hébrard, G.; Lovis, C.; Moutou, C.; Naef, D.; Pepe, F.; Queloz, D.; Santos, N. C.; Segransan, D.; Udry, S.

    2013-03-01

    The vast diversity of planetary systems detected to date is defying our capability of understanding their formation and evolution. Well-defined volume-limited surveys are the best tool at our disposal to tackle the problem, via the acquisition of robust statistics of the orbital elements. We are using the HARPS spectrograph to conduct our survey of ≈850 nearby solar-type stars, and in the course of the past nine years we have monitored the radial velocity of HD 103774, HD 109271, and BD-061339. In this work we present the detection of five planets orbiting these stars, with msin (i) between 0.6 and 7 Neptune masses, four of which are in two multiple systems, comprising one super-Earth and one planet within the habitable zone of a late-type dwarf. Although for strategic reasons we chose efficiency over precision in this survey, we have the capability to detect planets down to the Neptune and super-Earth mass range as well as multiple systems, provided that enough data points are made available. Based on observations made with the HARPS instrument on the ESO 3.6 m telescope at La Silla (Chile), under the GTO program ID 072.C-0488 and the regular programs: 085.C-0019, 087.C-0831 and 089.C-0732. RV data are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A59

  11. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  12. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  13. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Crotti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1, KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2 and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3. The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.

  14. Short notice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchkarev, V.

    1998-01-01

    For 30 years the IAEA safeguards system have evolved and have been strengthened by the regular introduction of new methods and techniques, improving both its effectiveness and efficiency. The member States of the IAEA have indicated their willingness to accept new obligations and associated technical measure that greatly strengthen the nuclear safeguards system. One element of this is the extent to which the IAEA inspectors have physical access to relevant locations for the purpose of providing independent verification of the exclusively peaceful intent of a State nuclear program. The Protocol to Safeguards granted new legal authority with respect to information on, and short notice inspector access to, all buildings on a nuclear site and administrative agreements that improve the process of designating inspectors and IAEA access to modern means of communication. This report is a short description of unannounced or short notice inspections as measures on which the new strengthened and cost efficient system will be based

  15. Detecting short circuits during assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.

  16. Transient nanobubbles in short-time electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2013-01-01

    Water electrolysis in a microsystem is observed and analyzed on a short-time scale of ∼10 μs. The very unusual properties of the process are stressed. An extremely high current density is observed because the process is not limited by the diffusion of electroactive species. The high current is

  17. Database of Samples Irradiated at Reactor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhd Husamuddin Abdul Khalil; Mohd Amin Sharifuldin Salleh; Julia Abdul Karim

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation has been made to data of irradiated samples for the type of sample requested for activation at RTP. Sample types are grouped with percentage of total throughputs to rule out the weight percent of every respective group. The database consists of radionuclide inventory of short and long half-life and high activity radionuclides such as Br and Au have been identified and that database has been constructed using a user-friendly Microsoft Access. Through this, trend of gamma exposure will easily be evaluated at experimental facilities and could ensure radiological effect towards safety and health is limited per Radiation Protection (Basic Safety Standard) Regulation 1988. This database places an important parameter to improve management system in acquiring information of the samples irradiated at RTP and will enhance the safety assurance and reliability of the experimental design basis. (author)

  18. Sampling methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loughran, R.J.; Wallbrink, P.J.; Walling, D.E.; Appleby, P.G.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for the collection of soil samples to determine levels of 137 Cs and other fallout radionuclides, such as excess 210 Pb and 7 Be, will depend on the purposes (aims) of the project, site and soil characteristics, analytical capacity, the total number of samples that can be analysed and the sample mass required. The latter two will depend partly on detector type and capabilities. A variety of field methods have been developed for different field conditions and circumstances over the past twenty years, many of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of them inherited or adapted from soil science and sedimentology. The use of 137 Cs in erosion studies has been widely developed, while the application of fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be is still developing. Although it is possible to measure these nuclides simultaneously, it is common for experiments to designed around the use of 137 Cs along. Caesium studies typically involve comparison of the inventories found at eroded or sedimentation sites with that of a 'reference' site. An accurate characterization of the depth distribution of these fallout nuclides is often required in order to apply and/or calibrate the conversion models. However, depending on the tracer involved, the depth distribution, and thus the sampling resolution required to define it, differs. For example, a depth resolution of 1 cm is often adequate when using 137 Cs. However, fallout 210 Pb and 7 Be commonly has very strong surface maxima that decrease exponentially with depth, and fine depth increments are required at or close to the soil surface. Consequently, different depth incremental sampling methods are required when using different fallout radionuclides. Geomorphic investigations also frequently require determination of the depth-distribution of fallout nuclides on slopes and depositional sites as well as their total inventories

  19. Minimalism in the modern short story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Razi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Short story has recently become the focus of attention in the late decades in Iran. The expanding value of writing short story is actually a reasonable outcome of the dominance of minimalism- a movement which is based upon simplicity and shortness. Minimalist writers, leaving out redundant features of narration, mainly focus on essentialities through applying a variety of techniques such as cuttings from the interesting moments of real life, evading introduction, applying inter-referents, choice of words, short stanzas and sentences and so on. Looking upon critic’s opinion about such a tendency over the past and present, this article will come up with a brief explanation of the properties of such stories. Finally a sample story “candles will never go dead” will be analyzed and discussed in the lights of such techniques.

  20. Efficiently sampling conformations and pathways using the concurrent adaptive sampling (CAS) algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Surl-Hee; Grate, Jay W.; Darve, Eric F.

    2017-08-21

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are useful in obtaining thermodynamic and kinetic properties of bio-molecules but are limited by the timescale barrier, i.e., we may be unable to efficiently obtain properties because we need to run microseconds or longer simulations using femtoseconds time steps. While there are several existing methods to overcome this timescale barrier and efficiently sample thermodynamic and/or kinetic properties, problems remain in regard to being able to sample un- known systems, deal with high-dimensional space of collective variables, and focus the computational effort on slow timescales. Hence, a new sampling method, called the “Concurrent Adaptive Sampling (CAS) algorithm,” has been developed to tackle these three issues and efficiently obtain conformations and pathways. The method is not constrained to use only one or two collective variables, unlike most reaction coordinate-dependent methods. Instead, it can use a large number of collective vari- ables and uses macrostates (a partition of the collective variable space) to enhance the sampling. The exploration is done by running a large number of short simula- tions, and a clustering technique is used to accelerate the sampling. In this paper, we introduce the new methodology and show results from two-dimensional models and bio-molecules, such as penta-alanine and triazine polymer

  1. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antzelevitch

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Long QT intervals in the ECG have long been associated with sudden cardiac death. The congenital long QT syndrome was first described in individuals with structurally normal hearts in 1957.1 Little was known about the significance of a short QT interval. In 1993, after analyzing 6693 consecutive Holter recordings Algra et al concluded that an increased risk of sudden death was present not only in patients with long QT interval, but also in patients with short QT interval (<400 ms.2 Because this was a retrospective analysis, further evaluation of the data was not possible. It was not until 2000 that a short-QT syndrome (SQTS was proposed as a new inherited clinical syndrome by Gussak et al.3 The initial report was of two siblings and their mother all of whom displayed persistently short QT interval. The youngest was a 17 year old female presenting with several episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation requiring electrical cardioversion.3 Her QT interval measured 280 msec at a heart rate of 69. Her 21 year old brother displayed a QT interval of 272 msec at a heart rate of 58, whereas the 51 year old mother showed a QT of 260 msec at a heart rate of 74. The authors also noted similar ECG findings in another unrelated 37 year old patient associated with sudden cardiac death.

  2. SHORT COMMUNICATION POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF K+ IONS USING A K+-SELECTIVE. ELECTRODE WITH MACROCYCLIC LIQUID MEMBRANE. Cezar Spinu*, Marian Isvoranu, Maria Pleniceanu and Cristian Tigae. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza 13, Craiova, Romania. (Received ...

  3. Biorefineries: A Short Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Kurt; Tippkötter, Nils

    2018-04-13

    The terms bioeconomy and biorefineries are used for a variety of processes and developments. This short introduction is intended to provide a delimitation and clarification of the terminology as well as a classification of current biorefinery concepts. The basic process diagrams of the most important biorefinery types are shown.

  4. Short circuit in deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Kazuhiro; Miyagi, Yasushi; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Hayami, Takehito; Kishimoto, Junji; Katano, Mitsuo; Kamikaseda, Kazufumi

    2012-11-01

    The authors undertook this study to investigate the incidence, cause, and clinical influence of short circuits in patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). After the incidental identification of a short circuit during routine follow-up, the authors initiated a policy at their institution of routinely evaluating both therapeutic impedance and system impendence at every outpatient DBS follow-up visit, irrespective of the presence of symptoms suggesting possible system malfunction. This study represents a report of their findings after 1 year of this policy. Implanted DBS leads exhibiting short circuits were identified in 7 patients (8.9% of the patients seen for outpatient follow-up examinations during the 12-month study period). The mean duration from DBS lead implantation to the discovery of the short circuit was 64.7 months. The symptoms revealing short circuits included the wearing off of therapeutic effect, apraxia of eyelid opening, or dysarthria in 6 patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and dystonia deterioration in 1 patient with generalized dystonia. All DBS leads with short circuits had been anchored to the cranium using titanium miniplates. Altering electrode settings resulted in clinical improvement in the 2 PD cases in which patients had specific symptoms of short circuits (2.5%) but not in the other 4 cases. The patient with dystonia underwent repositioning and replacement of a lead because the previous lead was located too anteriorly, but did not experience symptom improvement. In contrast to the sudden loss of clinical efficacy of DBS caused by an open circuit, short circuits may arise due to a gradual decrease in impedance, causing the insidious development of neurological symptoms via limited or extended potential fields as well as shortened battery longevity. The incidence of short circuits in DBS may be higher than previously thought, especially in cases in which DBS leads are anchored with miniplates. The circuit impedance of DBS

  5. Development of controller of acquisition and sample positioner for activation for use in measurements of short half-life radioisotopes; Desenvolvimento de dispositivo movimentador automatizado de amostras com vista a aplicacao em medidas de radioisotopos que possuem curto tempo de meia-vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secco, Marcello

    2016-08-01

    High resolution gamma spectroscopy measurements have several applications. Those involving short half-life radioisotope measurements may present low precision problems when the radioactive source is far from detector end cup and in the very high activity situations also can present accuracy loss due to dead time and pile-up effects. A way to overcome these problems is changing the source detector distance as the activity is decreasing, and thereby maximizing the statistical counting. In the present study, the Controller of Acquisition and Sample Positioner for Activation (CASPA) was developed. It is a low cost and weight device, made with low atomic number materials designed to assist gamma spectroscopy measurements, which is able to control the distance between the source and the detector, even allowing that there is a change of this distance during the measurement process. Because it is automated it optimizes the time of the operator, who has complete freedom to program their routine measurements in the device besides minimizing the radiation dose in the operator. An interface that allow the user control the CASPA system and to program the acquisition system was created. Tests aiming to optimize the operation of CASPA system were carried out and the safety of the CASPA operation was verified, it was not presented any failure during their tests. It was applied the repeatability tests by the acquisition {sup 60}Co standard source and was found that the positioning of automated system has reproduced the results of static system with a 95% of confidence level. (author)

  6. Sample Stacking in capillary zone electrophoresis : Principles, advantages and limitations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.L.; Bocek, P.

    2000-01-01

    The principles of stacking procedures are described and their properties are discussed, including the fundamentals of the behavior of zone boundaries and the consequences of the self-correcting properties of boundaries in moving boundary electrophoresis, isotachophoresis, and zone electrophoresis.

  7. A dispersal-limited sampling theory for species and alleles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, R.S.; Alonso, D.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of dispersal for biodiversity has long been recognized. However, it was never advertised as vigorously as Stephen Hubbell did in the context of his neutral community theory. After his book appeared in 2001, several scientists have sought and found analytical expressions for the effect

  8. Limited-sampling strategies for anidulafungin in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wanrooy, Marjolijn J.P.; Proost, Johannes H.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Uges, Donald R.A.; Kosterink, Jos G.W.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    2015-01-01

    Efficacy of anidulafungin is driven by the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio. Determination of the anidulafungin AUC along with MIC values can therefore be useful. Since obtaining a full concentration-time curve to determine an AUC is not always feasible or appropriate,

  9. Short pulse neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  10. Short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  11. Thermal modeling of core sampling in flammable gas waste tanks. Part 1: Push-mode sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Stroh, K.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.

    1997-01-01

    The radioactive waste stored in underground storage tanks at Hanford site is routinely being sampled for waste characterization purposes. The push- and rotary-mode core sampling is one of the sampling methods employed. The waste includes mixtures of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite with organic compounds that can produce violent exothermic reactions if heated above 160 C during core sampling. A self-propagating waste reaction would produce very high temperatures that eventually result in failure of the tank and radioactive material releases to environment. A two-dimensional thermal model based on a lumped finite volume analysis method is developed. The enthalpy of each node is calculated from the first law of thermodynamics. A flash temperature and effective contact area concept were introduced to account the interface temperature rise. No maximum temperature rise exceeding the critical value of 60 C was found in the cases studied for normal operating conditions. Several accident conditions are also examined. In these cases it was found that the maximum drill bit temperature remained below the critical reaction temperature as long as a 30 scfm purge flow is provided the push-mode drill bit during sampling in rotary mode. The failure to provide purge flow resulted in exceeding the limiting temperatures in a relatively short time

  12. Passive fault current limiting device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Daniel J.; Cha, Yung S.

    1999-01-01

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  13. Mechanical properties of short doughs and their corresponding biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltsavias, A.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanical properties of short doughs of various composition were determined in small amplitude oscillatory experiments and in uniaxial compression. Regardless of composition, the linear region was very limited; beyond that, pronounced yielding and flow occurred. Conductimetry was

  14. Short QT syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Gaita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The short QT syndrome (SQTS is a recently described genetic arrhythmogenic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT intervals on surface electrocardiogram (ECG and a high incidence of sudden death (SD during life, including the first months of life. The inheritance of SQTS is autosomal dominant, with genetic heterogeneity. Gain-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding potassium channels have been associated to the disease: KCNH2 encoding IKr (SQT1, KCNQ1 encoding IKs (SQT2, and KCNJ2 encoding IK1 (SQT3. Loss-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding the cardiac L-type calcium channel, CACNA1C, CACNB2b and CACNA2D1 may underlie a mixed phenotype of Brugada pattern ECG (or non-specific repolarization changes in case of CACNA2D1 and shorter than normal QT intervals. Clinical presentation is often severe, as cardiac arrest represents the first clinical presentation in most subjects. Moreover, often a noticeable family history of cardiac SD is present. Atrial fibrillation may be observed, also in young individuals. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, and atrial and ventricular fibrillation are easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The outcome of patients with SQTS becomes relatively safe when they are identified and treated. Currently, the suggested therapeutic strategy is an implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (ICD in patients with personal history of aborted SD or syncope. In asymptomatic adult patients from highly symptomatic families and in newborn children pharmacological treatment with hydroquinidine, which has been shown to prolong the QT interval and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, may be proposed.

  15. Predicting Kenya Short Rains Using the Indian Ocean SST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X.; Albertson, J. D.; Steinschneider, S.

    2017-12-01

    The rainfall over the Eastern Africa is charaterized by the typical bimodal monsoon system. Literatures have shown that the monsoon system is closely connected with the large-scale atmospheric motion which is believed to be driven by sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA). Therefore, we may make use of the predictability of SSTA in estimating future Easter Africa monsoon. In this study, we tried predict the Kenya short rains (Oct, Nov and Dec rainfall) based on the Indian Ocean SSTA. The Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) regression is used to avoid over-fitting issues. Models for different lead times are trained using a 28-year training set (2006-1979) and are tested using a 10-year test set (2007-2016). Satisfying prediciton skills are achieved at relatively long lead times (i.e., 8 and 10 months) in terms of correlation coefficient and sign accuracy. Unlike some of the previous work, the prediction models are obtained from a data-driven method. Limited predictors are selected for each model and can be used in understanding the underlying physical connection. Still, further investigation is needed since the sampling variability issue cannot be excluded due to the limited sample size.

  16. Thermoluminescence and chemiluminescence measurement as routine screening method for identification of irradiated spices. Studies to establish limiting values for differentiation of irradiated and non-irradiated samples. Thermolumineszenz- und Chemilumineszenzmessungen als Routine-Methoden zur Identifizierung strahlenbehandelter Gewuerze. Untersuchungen zur Festlegung von Grenzwerten fuer die Unterscheidung bestrahlter von unbestrahlten Proben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heide, L; Albrich, S; Mentele, E; Boegl, W

    1987-04-01

    The reported experiments with non-irradiated and ..gamma..-irradiated spices of different origin were conducted to determine the variation in chemiluminescence and thermoluminescence intensity for each individual spice. 29 spices from 7 to 10 different manufacturers have been examined, taking into account the influence of storage time. In order to evaluate the methods, the results are represented in diagrams and tables enabling light emission limits to be given for differentiation between irradiated and non-irradiated samples. The final section of this report contains a conclusive evaluation of the present state of chemiluminescence and thermoluminescence analysis for the detection of irradiated spices.

  17. Development of a Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: the FFNI-SF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Emily D; Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Campbell, W Keith; Widiger, Thomas A; Crego, Cristina; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI; Glover, Miller, Lynam, Crego, & Widiger, 2012) is a 148-item self-report inventory of 15 traits designed to assess the basic elements of narcissism from the perspective of a 5-factor model. The FFNI assesses both vulnerable (i.e., cynicism/distrust, need for admiration, reactive anger, and shame) and grandiose (i.e., acclaim seeking, arrogance, authoritativeness, entitlement, exhibitionism, exploitativeness, grandiose fantasies, indifference, lack of empathy, manipulativeness, and thrill seeking) variants of narcissism. The present study reports the development of a short-form version of the FFNI in 4 diverse samples (i.e., 2 undergraduate samples, a sample recruited from MTurk, and a clinical community sample) using item response theory. The validity of the resultant 60-item short form was compared against the validity of the full scale in the 4 samples at both the subscale level and the level of the grandiose and vulnerable composites. Results indicated that the 15 subscales remain relatively reliable, possess a factor structure identical to the structure of the long-form scales, and manifest correlational profiles highly similar to those of the long-form scales in relation to a variety of criterion measures, including basic personality dimensions, other measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, and indicators of externalizing and internalizing psychopathology. Grandiose and vulnerable composites also behave almost identically across the short- and long-form versions. It is concluded that the FFNI-Short Form (FFNI-SF) offers a well-articulated assessment of the basic traits comprising grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, particularly when assessment time is limited. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Short Mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma) in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chia W; Malcolm, Tan T H; Kuan, Chee H; Thung, Tze Y; Chang, Wei S; Loo, Yuet Y; Premarathne, Jayasekara M K J K; Ramzi, Othman B; Norshafawatie, Mohd F S; Yusralimuna, Nordin; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-01-01

    Numerous prevalence studies and outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection have been extensively reported in shellfish and crustaceans. Information on the quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in finfish species is limited. In this study, short mackerels ( Rastrelliger brachysoma ) obtained from different retail marketplaces were monitored with the presence of total and pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus . Out of 130 short mackerel samples, 116 (89.2%) were detected with the presence of total V. parahaemolyticus and microbial loads of total V. parahaemolyticus ranging from 10 5 MPN/g. Prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus was found highest in wet markets (95.2%) followed by minimarkets (89.1%) and hypermarkets (83.3%). Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains ( tdh + and/or trh +) were detected in 16.2% (21 of 130) of short mackerel samples. The density of tdh + V. parahaemolyticus strains were examined ranging from 3.6 to >10 5 MPN/g and microbial loads of V. parahaemolyticus strains positive for both tdh and trh were found ranging from 300 to 740 MPN/g. On the other hand, antibiotic susceptibility profiles of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from short mackerels were determined through disc diffusion method in this study. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of V. parahaemolyticus revealed majority of the isolates were highly susceptible to ampicillin sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, and imipenem, but resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Two isolates (2.99%) exhibited the highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index value of 0.41 which shown resistance to 7 antibiotics. Results of the present study demonstrated that the occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains in short mackerels and multidrug resistance of V. parahaemolyticus isolates could be a potential public health concerns to the consumer. Furthermore, prevalence data attained from the current study can be further used to develop a microbial risk

  19. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Short Mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma) in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chia W.; Malcolm, Tan T. H.; Kuan, Chee H.; Thung, Tze Y.; Chang, Wei S.; Loo, Yuet Y.; Premarathne, Jayasekara M. K. J. K.; Ramzi, Othman B.; Norshafawatie, Mohd F. S.; Yusralimuna, Nordin; Rukayadi, Yaya; Nakaguchi, Yoshitsugu; Nishibuchi, Mitsuaki; Radu, Son

    2017-01-01

    Numerous prevalence studies and outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection have been extensively reported in shellfish and crustaceans. Information on the quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in finfish species is limited. In this study, short mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma) obtained from different retail marketplaces were monitored with the presence of total and pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus. Out of 130 short mackerel samples, 116 (89.2%) were detected with the presence of total V. parahaemolyticus and microbial loads of total V. parahaemolyticus ranging from 105 MPN/g. Prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus was found highest in wet markets (95.2%) followed by minimarkets (89.1%) and hypermarkets (83.3%). Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains (tdh+ and/or trh+) were detected in 16.2% (21 of 130) of short mackerel samples. The density of tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus strains were examined ranging from 3.6 to >105 MPN/g and microbial loads of V. parahaemolyticus strains positive for both tdh and trh were found ranging from 300 to 740 MPN/g. On the other hand, antibiotic susceptibility profiles of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from short mackerels were determined through disc diffusion method in this study. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of V. parahaemolyticus revealed majority of the isolates were highly susceptible to ampicillin sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, and imipenem, but resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Two isolates (2.99%) exhibited the highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index value of 0.41 which shown resistance to 7 antibiotics. Results of the present study demonstrated that the occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains in short mackerels and multidrug resistance of V. parahaemolyticus isolates could be a potential public health concerns to the consumer. Furthermore, prevalence data attained from the current study can be further used to develop a microbial risk

  20. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Vibrio parahaemolyticus Isolated from Short Mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia W. Tan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerous prevalence studies and outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection have been extensively reported in shellfish and crustaceans. Information on the quantitative detection of V. parahaemolyticus in finfish species is limited. In this study, short mackerels (Rastrelliger brachysoma obtained from different retail marketplaces were monitored with the presence of total and pathogenic strains of V. parahaemolyticus. Out of 130 short mackerel samples, 116 (89.2% were detected with the presence of total V. parahaemolyticus and microbial loads of total V. parahaemolyticus ranging from <3 to >105 MPN/g. Prevalence of total V. parahaemolyticus was found highest in wet markets (95.2% followed by minimarkets (89.1% and hypermarkets (83.3%. Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains (tdh+ and/or trh+ were detected in 16.2% (21 of 130 of short mackerel samples. The density of tdh+ V. parahaemolyticus strains were examined ranging from 3.6 to >105 MPN/g and microbial loads of V. parahaemolyticus strains positive for both tdh and trh were found ranging from 300 to 740 MPN/g. On the other hand, antibiotic susceptibility profiles of V. parahaemolyticus strains isolated from short mackerels were determined through disc diffusion method in this study. Assessment of antimicrobial susceptibility profile of V. parahaemolyticus revealed majority of the isolates were highly susceptible to ampicillin sulbactam, meropenem, ceftazidime, and imipenem, but resistant to penicillin G and ampicillin. Two isolates (2.99% exhibited the highest multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR index value of 0.41 which shown resistance to 7 antibiotics. Results of the present study demonstrated that the occurrence of pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus strains in short mackerels and multidrug resistance of V. parahaemolyticus isolates could be a potential public health concerns to the consumer. Furthermore, prevalence data attained from the current study can be further used to develop a

  1. Partnerships – Limited partnerships and limited liability limited partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Henning, Johan J.

    2000-01-01

    Consideration of the Limited Liability Partnership Act 2000 which introduced a new corporate entity, carrying the designations “partnership” and “limited” which allow members to limit their liability whilst organising themselves internally as a partnership. Article by Professor Johan Henning (Director of the Centre for Corporate Law and Practice, IALS and Dean of the Faculty of Law, University of the Free State, South Africa). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced ...

  2. Short bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2012-02-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  3. Multicultural personality questionnaire : Development of a short form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Zee, Karen; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Fietzer, Alexander W.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the development of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire-Short Form among 511 participants. Using a split-sample scale validation design, Study 1 (N = 260) employed a principal component analysis and rigorous item selection criteria to extract a 40-item short form

  4. SITE WIDE SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARRATT, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Energy requested that Fluor Hanford develop a plan to update the electrical distribution studies for FH managed facilities. Toward this end, an assessment of FH's nuclear facilities was performed to determine whether a current short circuit study of the facility electrical distribution system exists, and the status of such study. This report presents the methodology and results of that assessment. The assessment identified 29 relevant facilities. Of these, a short circuit study could not be identified for 15 facilities. A short circuit study was found to exist for fourteen facilities, however, of these 14, four were not released into a controlled document system, and two were not performed for the entire electrical distribution system. It is recommended that for four of the facilities no further action is required based upon the limited nature of the existing electrical system, or as in the case of PFP, the status of the existing short circuit study was determined adequate. For the majority of the facilities without a short circuit study, it is recommended that one is performed, and released into a controlled document system. Two facilities require further evaluation due to missing or conflicting documentation. For the remainder of the facilities, the recommendations are to review and revise as appropriate the existing study, and release into a controlled document system. A summation of the recommendations is presented

  5. Brownian motion in short range random potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.H.; Romero, A.H.; Sancho, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical study of Brownian motion of noninteracting particles in random potentials is presented. The dynamics are modeled by Langevin equations in the high friction limit. The random potentials are Gaussian distributed and short ranged. The simulations are performed in one and two dimensions. Different dynamical regimes are found and explained. Effective subdiffusive exponents are obtained and commented on. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  6. Short Communications A description of gametogenesis in the panga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-09-25

    Sep 25, 1996 ... Short Communications. A description of ... In this communication, descriptions ... Each fish sampled was sexed using visual criteria (Table I) and gonadal ..... dilated portions owing to different degrees of inflation caused. R.

  7. Dyadic Short Forms of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, David A; Ringe, Wendy K; Lacritz, Laura H

    2015-08-01

    Full Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) administration can be time-consuming and may not be necessary when intelligence quotient estimates will suffice. Estimated Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ) and General Ability Index (GAI) scores were derived from nine dyadic short forms using individual regression equations based on data from a clinical sample (n = 113) that was then cross validated in a separate clinical sample (n = 50). Derived scores accounted for 70%-83% of the variance in FSIQ and 77%-88% of the variance in GAI. Predicted FSIQs were strongly associated with actual FSIQ (rs = .73-.88), as were predicted and actual GAIs (rs = .80-.93). Each of the nine dyadic short forms of the WAIS-IV was a good predictor of FSIQ and GAI in the validation sample. These data support the validity of WAIS-IV short forms when time is limited or lengthier batteries cannot be tolerated by patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Cell short circuit, preshort signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1980-01-01

    Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.

  9. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on HUD...

  10. Short circuit experiment on an FCL coil wound with YBCO tape with a high-resistance stabilizing layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazawa, T; Iijima, Y; Saito, T [Toshiba Corporation, Fujikura Ltd (Japan); Amemiya, N [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama National University (Japan); Shiohara, Y [Toshiba Corporation, ISTEC SRL (Japan); Koyanagi, K; Ono, M; Urata, M, E-mail: takashi.yazawa@toshiba.co.jp

    2008-02-15

    One of the programs in the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry regarding R and D for developing YBCO conductors is to evaluate the suitability of the conductors in several applications. This paper focuses on one of the expected power applications, namely, a fault current limiter (FCL). YBCO tape conductors with ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) substrates are used in this work. In order to increase the resistivity of the conductor, which is preferable for FCL applications, the thickness of a protective layer made of silver was decreased as much as possible. After obtaining the required current limiting performance in short sample experiments, a model coil was developed aiming at 6.6 kV-class FCLs. Short circuit experiments were conducted with a short-circuit generator. The coil successfully suppressed a short-circuit current of over 1.4 kA to about 500 A under an applied voltage of 3.8 kV, which is the nominal phase-to-ground voltage. The coil also suppressed a short-circuit current of 17 kA down to 700 A. The experimental results are as expected and show promise toward FCL applications.

  11. Short circuit experiment on an FCL coil wound with YBCO tape with a high-resistance stabilizing layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazawa, T; Iijima, Y; Saito, T; Amemiya, N; Shiohara, Y; Koyanagi, K; Ono, M; Urata, M

    2008-01-01

    One of the programs in the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry regarding R and D for developing YBCO conductors is to evaluate the suitability of the conductors in several applications. This paper focuses on one of the expected power applications, namely, a fault current limiter (FCL). YBCO tape conductors with ion beam assisted deposition (IBAD) substrates are used in this work. In order to increase the resistivity of the conductor, which is preferable for FCL applications, the thickness of a protective layer made of silver was decreased as much as possible. After obtaining the required current limiting performance in short sample experiments, a model coil was developed aiming at 6.6 kV-class FCLs. Short circuit experiments were conducted with a short-circuit generator. The coil successfully suppressed a short-circuit current of over 1.4 kA to about 500 A under an applied voltage of 3.8 kV, which is the nominal phase-to-ground voltage. The coil also suppressed a short-circuit current of 17 kA down to 700 A. The experimental results are as expected and show promise toward FCL applications

  12. Micro-organism distribution sampling for bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    Purpose of sampling distribution is to characterize sample-to-sample variation so statistical tests may be applied, to estimate error due to sampling (confidence limits) and to evaluate observed differences between samples. Distribution could be used for bioassays taken in hospitals, breweries, food-processing plants, and pharmaceutical plants.

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATION SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the determination of oxalic acid in biological samples such as tea is significant. At present the methods for the determination of oxalic acid include chemical luminescence [2], fluorimetry [3,4], and permanganimetric titration. [5]. These methods have different extent of defects, such as instrumental operation complexity,.

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    deviation of the method was from 1.34% to 1.78% for 11 replicate determinations. ... A sample solution was prepared by adding a suitable amount of the standard .... Under the optimum conditions, the effect of the amount of 0.2, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8,.

  15. Optimizing Sampling Efficiency for Biomass Estimation Across NEON Domains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, H. H.; Meier, C. L.; Spencer, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the course of 30 years, the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) will measure plant biomass and productivity across the U.S. to enable an understanding of terrestrial carbon cycle responses to ecosystem change drivers. Over the next several years, prior to operational sampling at a site, NEON will complete construction and characterization phases during which a limited amount of sampling will be done at each site to inform sampling designs, and guide standardization of data collection across all sites. Sampling biomass in 60+ sites distributed among 20 different eco-climatic domains poses major logistical and budgetary challenges. Traditional biomass sampling methods such as clip harvesting and direct measurements of Leaf Area Index (LAI) involve collecting and processing plant samples, and are time and labor intensive. Possible alternatives include using indirect sampling methods for estimating LAI such as digital hemispherical photography (DHP) or using a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. These LAI estimations can then be used as a proxy for biomass. The biomass estimates calculated can then inform the clip harvest sampling design during NEON operations, optimizing both sample size and number so that standardized uncertainty limits can be achieved with a minimum amount of sampling effort. In 2011, LAI and clip harvest data were collected from co-located sampling points at the Central Plains Experimental Range located in northern Colorado, a short grass steppe ecosystem that is the NEON Domain 10 core site. LAI was measured with a LI-COR 2200 Plant Canopy Analyzer. The layout of the sampling design included four, 300 meter transects, with clip harvests plots spaced every 50m, and LAI sub-transects spaced every 10m. LAI was measured at four points along 6m sub-transects running perpendicular to the 300m transect. Clip harvest plots were co-located 4m from corresponding LAI transects, and had dimensions of 0.1m by 2m. We conducted regression analyses

  16. Limits on fundamental limits to computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, Igor L

    2014-08-14

    An indispensable part of our personal and working lives, computing has also become essential to industries and governments. Steady improvements in computer hardware have been supported by periodic doubling of transistor densities in integrated circuits over the past fifty years. Such Moore scaling now requires ever-increasing efforts, stimulating research in alternative hardware and stirring controversy. To help evaluate emerging technologies and increase our understanding of integrated-circuit scaling, here I review fundamental limits to computation in the areas of manufacturing, energy, physical space, design and verification effort, and algorithms. To outline what is achievable in principle and in practice, I recapitulate how some limits were circumvented, and compare loose and tight limits. Engineering difficulties encountered by emerging technologies may indicate yet unknown limits.

  17. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  18. ITOUGH2 sample problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finsterle, S.

    1997-11-01

    This report contains a collection of ITOUGH2 sample problems. It complements the ITOUGH2 User's Guide [Finsterle, 1997a], and the ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b]. ITOUGH2 is a program for parameter estimation, sensitivity analysis, and uncertainty propagation analysis. It is based on the TOUGH2 simulator for non-isothermal multiphase flow in fractured and porous media [Preuss, 1987, 1991a]. The report ITOUGH2 User's Guide [Finsterle, 1997a] describes the inverse modeling framework and provides the theoretical background. The report ITOUGH2 Command Reference [Finsterle, 1997b] contains the syntax of all ITOUGH2 commands. This report describes a variety of sample problems solved by ITOUGH2. Table 1.1 contains a short description of the seven sample problems discussed in this report. The TOUGH2 equation-of-state (EOS) module that needs to be linked to ITOUGH2 is also indicated. Each sample problem focuses on a few selected issues shown in Table 1.2. ITOUGH2 input features and the usage of program options are described. Furthermore, interpretations of selected inverse modeling results are given. Problem 1 is a multipart tutorial, describing basic ITOUGH2 input files for the main ITOUGH2 application modes; no interpretation of results is given. Problem 2 focuses on non-uniqueness, residual analysis, and correlation structure. Problem 3 illustrates a variety of parameter and observation types, and describes parameter selection strategies. Problem 4 compares the performance of minimization algorithms and discusses model identification. Problem 5 explains how to set up a combined inversion of steady-state and transient data. Problem 6 provides a detailed residual and error analysis. Finally, Problem 7 illustrates how the estimation of model-related parameters may help compensate for errors in that model

  19. Spectral concentration in the nonrelativistic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesztesy, F.; Grosse, H.; Thaller, B.

    1982-01-01

    First order relativistic corrections to the Schroedinger operator according to Foldy and Wouthuysen are rigorously discussed in the framework of singular perturbation theory. For Coulomb plus short-range interactions we investigate the corresponding spectral properties and prove spectral concentration and existence of first order pseudoeigenvalues in the nonrelativistic limit. (Author)

  20. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of approx 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts - the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width - continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (approx 6 X 10(exp -10) erg / sq cm/ s) is approx > 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (approx 60,000 s) is approx 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into more dense environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently p()wers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  1. HETEROGENEITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels, Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample is comprised of 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales-durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals-for EE bursts are factors of ∼2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts-the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width-continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition, we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (∼6x10 -10 erg cm -2 s -1 ) is ∼>20x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (∼60,000 s) is ∼30x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into denser environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently powers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  2. What value, detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currie, L.A.

    1986-01-01

    Specific approaches and applications of LLD's to nuclear and ''nuclear-related'' measurements are presented in connection with work undertaken for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the International Atomic Energy Agency. In this work, special attention was given to assumptions and potential error sources, as well as to different types of analysis. For the former, the authors considered random and systematic error associated with the blank and the calibration and sample preparation processes, as well as issues relating to the nature of the random error distributions. Analysis types considered included continuous monitoring, ''simple counting'' involving scalar quantities, and spectrum fitting involving data vectors. The investigation of data matrices and multivariate analysis is also described. The most important conclusions derived from this study are: that there is a significant lack of communication and compatibility resulting from diverse terminology and conceptual bases - including no-basis ''ad hoc'' definitions; that the distinction between detection decisions and detection limits is frequently lost sight of; and that quite erroneous LOD estimates follow from inadequate consideration of the actual variability of the blank, and systematic error associated with the blank, the calibration-recovery factor, matrix effects, and ''black box'' data reduction models

  3. Improved backward ray tracing with stochastic sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seung Taek; Yoon, Kyung-Hyun

    1999-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique that enhances the diffuse interreflection with the concepts of backward ray tracing. In this research, we have modeled the diffuse rays with the following conditions. First, as the reflection from the diffuse surfaces occurs in all directions, it is impossible to trace all of the reflected rays. We confined the diffuse rays by sampling the spherical angle out of the reflected rays around the normal vector. Second, the traveled distance of reflected energy from the diffuse surface differs according to the object's property, and has a comparatively short reflection distance. Considering the fact that the rays created on the diffuse surfaces affect relatively small area, it is very inefficient to trace all of the sampled diffused rays. Therefore, we set a fixed distance as the critical distance and all the rays beyond this distance are ignored. The result of this research is that as the improved backward ray tracing can model the illumination effects such as the color bleeding effects, we can replace the radiosity algorithm under the limited environment.

  4. The role of central attention in retrieval from visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magen, Hagit

    2017-04-01

    The role of central attention in visual short-term memory (VSTM) encoding and maintenance is well established, yet its role in retrieval has been largely unexplored. This study examined the involvement of central attention in retrieval from VSTM using a dual-task paradigm. Participants performed a color change-detection task. Set size varied between 1 and 3 items, and the memory sample was maintained for either a short or a long delay period. A secondary tone discrimination task was introduced at the end of the delay period, shortly before the appearance of a central probe, and occupied central attention while participants were searching within VSTM representations. Similarly to numerous previous studies, reaction time increased as a function of set size reflecting the occurrence of a capacity-limited memory search. When the color targets were maintained over a short delay, memory was searched for the most part without the involvement of central attention. However, with a longer delay period, the search relied entirely on the operation of central attention. Taken together, this study demonstrates that central attention is involved in retrieval from VSTM, but the extent of its involvement depends on the duration of the delay period. Future studies will determine whether the type of memory search (parallel or serial) carried out during retrieval depends on the nature of the attentional mechanism involved the task.

  5. Temperature dependence of dynamical permeability characterization of magnetic thin films using shorted microstrip line probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiling; Li, Chengyi; Chai, Guozhi

    2017-01-01

    A temperature dependence microwave permeability characterization system of magnetic thin film up to 10 GHz is designed and fabricated. This system can be used at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 200 °C, and is based on a shorted microstrip probe, which is made by microwave printed circuit board. Without contacting the magnetic thin films to the probe, the microwave permeability of the film can be detected without any limitations of sample size and with almost the same accuracy, as shown by comparison with the results obtained from a shorted microstrip transmission-line fixture. The complex permeability can be deduced by an analytical approach from the measured reflection coefficient of a strip line ( S 11 ) with and without a ferromagnetic film material on it. The procedures are the same with the shorted microstrip transmission-line method. The microwave permeability of an oblique deposited CoZr thin film was investigated with this probe. The results show that the room temperature dynamic permeability of the CoZr film is in good agreement with the results obtained from the established short-circuited microstrip perturbation method. The temperature dependence permeability results fit well with the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. Development of the temperature-dependent measurement of the magnetic properties of magnetic thin film may be useful for the high-frequency application of magnetic devices at high temperatures. (paper)

  6. Screening of short- and medium-chain chlorinated paraffins in selected riverine sediments and sludge from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribylová, Petra; Klánová, Jana; Holoubek, Ivan

    2006-11-01

    Wide distribution of chlorinated paraffins in the environment has already been demonstrated in several studies; however, information about their levels in the Central Europe is still very limited. First study focused on the SCCP contamination of the Czech aquatic environment have been performed recently, and its results motivated the authors to analyze sediments from a wide set of the Czech rivers in order to obtain more detailed information. Thirty-six sediment samples from eleven rivers and five drainage vents neighboring the chemical factories were analyzed; special attention was paid to the industrial areas. For the first time in the Czech Republic, medium-chain in addition to short-chain chlorinated paraffins were analyzed using GC-ECNI-MS. Chlorinated paraffins were detected in sediment samples on the concentration levels up to 347 ngg(-1) for short-chain chlorinated paraffins, and 5575 ngg(-1) for medium-chain chlorinated paraffins. Average chlorination degree of SCCPs was 65%.

  7. Measurements of astrophysical reaction rates for radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, P.E.; O'Brien, H.A.; Bowman, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Reaction rates for both big-bang and stellar nucleosynthesis can be obtained from the measurement of (n,p) and (n,γ) cross sections for radioactive nuclei. In the past, large backgrounds associated with the sample activity limited these types of measurements to radioisotopes with very long half lives. The advent of the low-energy, high-intensity neutron source at the Los Alamos Neutron Scattering CEnter (LANSCE) has greatly increased the number of nuclei which can be studied. Results of (n,p) measurements on samples with half lives as short as fifty-three days will be given. The astrophysics to be learned from these data will be discussed. Additional difficulties are encountered when making (n,γ) rather than (n,p) measurements. However, with a properly designed detector, and with the high peak neutron intensities now available, (n,γ) measurements can be made for nuclei with half lives as short as several weeks. Progress on the Los Alamos (n,γ) cross-section measurement program for radioactive samples will be discussed. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  8. Newnes short wave listening handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pritchard, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Short Wave Listening Handbook is a guide for starting up in short wave listening (SWL). The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss the basics and fundamental concepts of short wave radio listening. The coverage of the text includes electrical principles; types of signals that can be heard in the radio spectrum; and using computers in SWL. The book also covers SWL equipment, such as receivers, converters, and circuits. The text will be of great use to individuals who want to get into short wave listening.

  9. Simplified polymer characterization after microwave assisted sample preparation (T9)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafer, M.; Kettisch, P.; Gfrerrer, M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Beside the determination of fillers and heavy metals in polymers after decomposition more often stabilizers, fire inhibitors and antistatic additive agents are measured alter using fast microwave accelerated solvent extraction. Determination of heavy metal traces for example in food packaging materials needs high sample weight to detect small amounts of impurities. High sample weight is also needed for plastic waste providing the homogeneity for representative analysis. Due to the high concentration of' organic carbon and the fact that the materials swim on the acid surface, closed vessel digestion had limits concerning sample weight. A new vessel insert in combination with extremely fast reaction control allows now to double or triple usual sample weights. High performance vessels can also be used to decompose polymers filled with TiO 2 , talcum, fibers or similar within short one or two step procedures gaining solutions without precipitates. Additional filtration or sample treatment is not necessary. For the determination of organic components more and more classical, but time consuming methods are replaced by microwave assisted solvent extraction. Instead of hours or even half days using Soxhlet extraction samples can be extracted within minutes using vessels and rotors similar to those used for decomposition. The dual use of one basic microwave instrument for both, analysis of inorganic as well as organic parameters will help to increase efficiency by reduced costs. (author)

  10. Definition of the electric requirements for the equipment associated to the limiter reactor on a 550 kV line occurring from manoeuvres under short circuits; Definicao dos requisitos eletricos dos equipamentos associados ao reator limitador em 550 kV, em decorrencia de manobras sob curtos-circuitos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado Junior, Camilo; Furuoka, Nita; Rose, Eber Havila [ELETRONORTE, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)]. E-mail: eber@eln.gov.br; Violin, Airton; Martinez, Manuel Luis Barreira [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba (EFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Engenharia Eletrica. Lab. de Alta Tensao; Saraiva, Carlos Alberto Moura [Consorcio THEMAG-ENGEVIX, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the ascertaining based on the TRT study results performed to the definition of the new circuit breakers characteristics for the second stage of the Tucurui hydroelectric power plant, placed at the northern Brazil and with final configuration of two power houses and two air isolated substations, amounting 9 GVA. To reduce the short-circuit level to satisfactory values series reactors were used among the 550 kV substations. The result of the studies associated to the circuit breaker specifications are presented.

  11. Electrical characteristics of an ideal tokamak limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    The intrusion of an equipotential poloidal limiter into the edge plasma of a circular tokamak discharge distorts the axisymmetry in several ways: (1) it (partially) shorts out the top-to-bottom Pfirsch-Schlueter potentials, (2) it creates zones of reversed equilibrium current flow into the limiter, and (3) it generates an electrostatic field opposing the loop current. The resulting boundary mismatch between the outer layers and the inner axisymmetric Pfirsch-Schlueter layer increases the free energy available to drive the edge plasma unstable. A number of special limiters are proposed to symmetrize the edge plasma and thereby reduce the electrical and MHD activity in the boundary layer. (author)

  12. Field Optimization for short Period Undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Peiffer, P; Rossmanith, R; Schoerling, D

    2011-01-01

    Undulators dedicated to low energy electron beams, like Laser Wakefield Accelerators, require very short period lengths to achieve X-ray emission. However, at these short period length (LambdaU ~ 5 mm) it becomes difficult to reach magnetic field amplitudes that lead to a K parameter of >1, which is generally desired. Room temperature permanent magnets and even superconductive undulators using Nb-Ti as conductor material have proven insufficient to achieve the desired field amplitudes. The superconductor Nb$_{3}$Sn has the theoretical potential to achieve the desired fields. However, up to now it is limited by several technological challenges to much lower field values than theoretically predicted. An alternative idea for higher fields is to manufacture the poles of the undulator body from Holmium instead of iron or to use Nb-Ti wires with a higher superconductor/copper ratio. The advantages and challenges of the different options are compared in this contribution.

  13. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  14. Integrable discretizations of the short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose integrable semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the short pulse (SP) equation. The key construction is the bilinear form and determinant structure of solutions of the SP equation. We also give the determinant formulas of N-soliton solutions of the semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the SP equations, from which the multi-loop and multi-breather solutions can be generated. In the continuous limit, the full-discrete SP equation converges to the semi-discrete SP equation, and then to the continuous SP equation. Based on the semi-discrete SP equation, an integrable numerical scheme, i.e. a self-adaptive moving mesh scheme, is proposed and used for the numerical computation of the short pulse equation.

  15. INCAP - Applying short-term flexibility to control inventories

    OpenAIRE

    Lödding , Hermann; Lohmann , Steffen

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Inventory Based Capacity Control (INCAP) is a very simple method that allows inventory levels to be effectively controlled by using short-term capacity flexibility in make-to-stock settings. Moreover, INCAP can be used for finished goods inventories as well as for semi-finished goods inventories. The basic idea is to define upper and lower inventory limits and to adjust capacities if the inventory level reaches either limit. Should the inventory fall below the lower limit,...

  16. Robust test limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Willem/Wim; Kallenberg, W.C.M.; Otten, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    Because of inaccuracies of the measurement process inspection of manufactured parts requires test limits which are more strict than the given specification limits. Test limits derived under the assumption of normality for product characteristics turn out to violate the prescribed bound on the

  17. Short-Term Memory and Aphasia: From Theory to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkina, Irene; Rosenberg, Samantha; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e.g., semantic, lexical, and phonological features) during language production and comprehension tasks. Empirical evidence supporting this model, which views short-term memory in the context of the processes it subserves, is outlined. Studies that use a classic measure of verbal short-term memory (i.e., number of words/digits correctly recalled in immediate serial recall) as well as those that use more intricate measures (e.g., serial position effects in immediate serial recall) are discussed. Treatment research that uses verbal short-term memory tasks in an attempt to improve language processing is then summarized, with a particular focus on word retrieval. A discussion of the limitations of current research and possible future directions concludes the review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  18. Nested Sampling with Constrained Hamiltonian Monte Carlo

    OpenAIRE

    Betancourt, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Nested sampling is a powerful approach to Bayesian inference ultimately limited by the computationally demanding task of sampling from a heavily constrained probability distribution. An effective algorithm in its own right, Hamiltonian Monte Carlo is readily adapted to efficiently sample from any smooth, constrained distribution. Utilizing this constrained Hamiltonian Monte Carlo, I introduce a general implementation of the nested sampling algorithm.

  19. LANSCE beam current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallegos, F.R.

    1996-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. Active instrumentation, such as the Beam Current Limiter, is a component of the RSS. The current limiter is designed to limit the average current in a beam line below a specific level, thus minimizing the maximum current available for a beam spill accident. The beam current limiter is a self-contained, electrically isolated toroidal beam transformer which continuously monitors beam current. It is designed as fail-safe instrumentation. The design philosophy, hardware design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  20. Short-circuit impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating the short-circuit impedance in the power grid are investigated for various voltage levels and situations. The short-circuit impedance is measured, preferably from naturally occurring load changes in the grid, and it is shown that such a measurement system faces different...

  1. Separating metagenomic short reads into genomes via clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaseichuk Olga

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The metagenomics approach allows the simultaneous sequencing of all genomes in an environmental sample. This results in high complexity datasets, where in addition to repeats and sequencing errors, the number of genomes and their abundance ratios are unknown. Recently developed next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies significantly improve the sequencing efficiency and cost. On the other hand, they result in shorter reads, which makes the separation of reads from different species harder. Among the existing computational tools for metagenomic analysis, there are similarity-based methods that use reference databases to align reads and composition-based methods that use composition patterns (i.e., frequencies of short words or l-mers to cluster reads. Similarity-based methods are unable to classify reads from unknown species without close references (which constitute the majority of reads. Since composition patterns are preserved only in significantly large fragments, composition-based tools cannot be used for very short reads, which becomes a significant limitation with the development of NGS. A recently proposed algorithm, AbundanceBin, introduced another method that bins reads based on predicted abundances of the genomes sequenced. However, it does not separate reads from genomes of similar abundance levels. Results In this work, we present a two-phase heuristic algorithm for separating short paired-end reads from different genomes in a metagenomic dataset. We use the observation that most of the l-mers belong to unique genomes when l is sufficiently large. The first phase of the algorithm results in clusters of l-mers each of which belongs to one genome. During the second phase, clusters are merged based on l-mer repeat information. These final clusters are used to assign reads. The algorithm could handle very short reads and sequencing errors. It is initially designed for genomes with similar abundance levels and then

  2. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees

    OpenAIRE

    DeCamp, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joce; Hecht, Shelby; Barry, Michele; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, ?Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.? The curriculum was deve...

  3. Short on long iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polczer, S.

    2000-12-01

    Industry experts agree that without the ability to explore the deeper horizons of North America's supply basins the growing demand for natural gas, which is expected to reach 30 Tcf per year in the United States alone by 2010, will not be reached. At the same time, a recent survey of drilling equipment in Western Canada determined that only 134 rigs were able to drill deeper than 3,050 metres or 9,000 feet, and those able to drill to over 10,000 feet number less than two dozen. Consequently, the lack of 'deeper iron' is limiting exploration in the Deep Basin and the Alberta Foothills. With world natural gas prices close to $8 per gigajoule, and oil prices holding firm at around US$30 per barrel, several drilling companies have come to the conclusion that it is time to increase the depth capacity of their rigs. Accordingly, AKITA/EQUTAK, Bonus, Tekonta, and Command Drilling Corporation, among others, have new rigs rated at 4,000 metres (about 15,000 feet) under construction, with more to come later. Service rig construction is also struggling to keep pace as indicated by Treeline Well Services Inc.'s recent announcement of the completion of its second Class III mobile double-triple service rig rated to 3,700 metres with a 5,000 psi circulating system. This service rig features a 107-foot mast rated to 220,000 lbs, compared to the 96 feet of most double-triple. The extra height gives it a range of versatility to work deeper holes in addition to medium ones. The rig is expected to see extensive service in the gas-prone regions of central Alberta west of Red Deer and Edmonton. 6 photos.

  4. 7 CFR 1400.204 - Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limited partnerships, limited liability partnerships..., limited liability partnerships, limited liability companies, corporations, and other similar legal entities. (a) A limited partnership, limited liability partnership, limited liability company, corporation...

  5. Determination of the Meteor Limiting Magnitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingery, A.; Blaauw, R.; Cooke, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The limiting meteor magnitude of a meteor camera system will depend on the camera hardware and software, sky conditions, and the location of the meteor radiant. Some of these factors are constants for a given meteor camera system, but many change between meteor shower or sporadic source and on both long and short timescales. Since the limiting meteor magnitude ultimately gets used to calculate the limiting meteor mass for a given data set, it is important to have an understanding of these factors and to monitor how they change throughout the night, as a 0.5 magnitude uncertainty in limiting magnitude translates to a uncertainty in limiting mass by a factor of two.

  6. Health Outcomes Survey - Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) limited data sets (LDS) are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  7. Bottom sample taker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbarenko, O V; Slonimskiy, L D

    1982-01-01

    In order to improve the quality of the samples taken during offshore exploration from benthic sediments, the proposed design of the sample taker has a device which makes it possible to regulate the depth of submersion of the core lifter. For this purpose the upper part of the core lifter has an inner delimiting ring, and within the core lifter there is a piston suspended on a cable. The position of the piston in relation to the core lifter is previously assigned depending on the compactness of the benthic sediments and is fixed by tension of the cable which is held by a clamp in the cover of the core taker housing. When lowered to the bottom, the core taker is released, and under the influence of hydrostatic pressure of sea water, it enters the sediments. The magnitude of penetration is limited by the distance between the piston and the stopping ring. The piston also guarantees better preservation of the sample when the instrument is lifted to the surface.

  8. Sample-taking apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanov, Y I; Ismailov, R A; Orazov, A

    1980-10-07

    The invention refers to the equipment for testing water-bearing levels in loose rocks. Its purpose is to simultaneously remove with the rock sample a separate fluid sample from the assigned interval. The sample-taking apparatus contains a core lifter which can be submerged into the casting string with housing and front endpiece in the form of a rod with a piston which covers the cavity of the core lifter, as well as mechanism for fixing and moving the endpiece within the core lifter cavity. The device differs from the known similar devices because the upper part of the housing of the core lifter is equipped with a filter and mobile casting which covers the filter. In this case the casing is connected to the endpiece rod and the endpiece is installed with the possibility of movement which is limited with fixing in the upper position and in the extreme upper position it divides the core lifter cavity into two parts, filter settling tank and core-receiving cavity.

  9. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory`s Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of {sup 137}Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of {sup 7}Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of {sup 7}Be and {sup 210}Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of {sup 7}Be, {sup 95}Zr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 144}Ce, and {sup 210}Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites.

  10. EML Surface Air Sampling Program, 1990--1993 data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.J.; Sanderson, C.G.; Kada, J.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements of the concentrations of specific atmospheric radionuclides in air filter samples collected for the Environmental Measurements Laboratory's Surface Air Sampling Program (SASP) during 1990--1993, with the exception of April 1993, indicate that anthropogenic radionuclides, in both hemispheres, were at or below the lower limits of detection for the sampling and analytical techniques that were used to collect and measure them. The occasional detection of 137 Cs in some air filter samples may have resulted from resuspension of previously deposited debris. Following the April 6, 1993 accident and release of radionuclides into the atmosphere at a reprocessing plant in the Tomsk-7 military nuclear complex located 16 km north of the Siberian city of Tomsk, Russia, weekly air filter samples from Barrow, Alaska; Thule, Greenland and Moosonee, Canada were selected for special analyses. The naturally occurring radioisotopes that the authors measure, 7 Be and 210 Pb, continue to be detected in most air filter samples. Variations in the annual mean concentrations of 7 Be at many of the sites appear to result primarily from changes in the atmospheric production rate of this cosmogenic radionuclide. Short-term variations in the concentrations of 7 Be and 210 Pb continued to be observed at many sites at which weekly air filter samples were analyzed. The monthly gross gamma-ray activity and the monthly mean surface air concentrations of 7 Be, 95 Zr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, and 210 Pb measured at sampling sites in SASP during 1990--1993 are presented. The weekly mean surface air concentrations of 7 Be, 95 Zr, 137 Cs, 144 Ce, and 210 Pb for samples collected during 1990--1993 are given for 17 sites

  11. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  12. Improved Short-Circuit Protection for Power Cells in Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2008-01-01

    A scheme for protection against short circuits has been devised for series strings of lithium electrochemical cells that contain built-in short-circuit protection devices, which go into a high-resistance, current-limiting state when heated by excessive current. If cells are simply connected in a long series string to obtain a high voltage and a short circuit occurs, whichever short-circuit protection device trips first is exposed to nearly the full string voltage, which, typically, is large enough to damage the device. Depending on the specific cell design, the damage can defeat the protective function, cause a dangerous internal short circuit in the affected cell, and/or cascade to other cells. In the present scheme, reverse diodes rated at a suitably high current are connected across short series sub-strings, the lengths of which are chosen so that when a short-circuit protection device is tripped, the voltage across it does not exceed its rated voltage. This scheme preserves the resetting properties of the protective devices. It provides for bypassing of cells that fail open and limits cell reversal, though not as well as does the more-expensive scheme of connecting a diode across every cell.

  13. JET pump limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnenberg, K.; Deksnis, E.; Shaw, R.; Reiter, D.

    1988-01-01

    JET plans to install two pump limiter modules which can be used for belt-limiter, inner-wall and X-point discharges and, also, for 1-2s as the main limiter. A design is presented which is compatible with two diagnostic systems, and which allows partial removal of the pump limiter to provide access for remote-handling operations. The high heat-flux components are initially cooled during a pulse. Heat is removed between discharges by radiation and pressure contacts to a water-cooled support structure. The pumping edge will be made of annealed pyrolytic graphite. Exhaust efficiency has been estimated, for a 1-d edge model, using a Monte-Carlo calculation of neutral gas transport. When the pump limiter is operated together with other wall components we expect an efficiency of ≅ 5% (2.5 x 10 21 part/s). As a main limiter the efficiency increases to about 10%. (author)

  14. Modeling Timbre Similarity of Short Music Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence from a number of recent studies that most listeners are able to extract information related to song identity, emotion, or genre from music excerpts with durations in the range of tenths of seconds. Because of these very short durations, timbre as a multifaceted auditory attribute appears as a plausible candidate for the type of features that listeners make use of when processing short music excerpts. However, the importance of timbre in listening tasks that involve short excerpts has not yet been demonstrated empirically. Hence, the goal of this study was to develop a method that allows to explore to what degree similarity judgments of short music clips can be modeled with low-level acoustic features related to timbre. We utilized the similarity data from two large samples of participants: Sample I was obtained via an online survey, used 16 clips of 400 ms length, and contained responses of 137,339 participants. Sample II was collected in a lab environment, used 16 clips of 800 ms length, and contained responses from 648 participants. Our model used two sets of audio features which included commonly used timbre descriptors and the well-known Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as well as their temporal derivates. In order to predict pairwise similarities, the resulting distances between clips in terms of their audio features were used as predictor variables with partial least-squares regression. We found that a sparse selection of three to seven features from both descriptor sets-mainly encoding the coarse shape of the spectrum as well as spectrotemporal variability-best predicted similarities across the two sets of sounds. Notably, the inclusion of non-acoustic predictors of musical genre and record release date allowed much better generalization performance and explained up to 50% of shared variance ( R 2 ) between observations and model predictions. Overall, the results of this study empirically demonstrate that both acoustic features related

  15. Simple Predictions Fueled by Capacity Limitations: When Are They Successful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaissmaier, Wolfgang; Schooler, Lael J.; Rieskamp, Jorg

    2006-01-01

    Counterintuitively, Y. Kareev, I. Lieberman, and M. Lev (1997) found that a lower short-term memory capacity benefits performance on a correlation detection task. They assumed that people with low short-term memory capacity (low spans) perceived the correlations as more extreme because they relied on smaller samples, which are known to exaggerate…

  16. Ordered short-term memory differs in signers and speakers: Implications for models of short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers (Boutla, Supalla, Newport, & Bavelier, 2004). Here, we test the hypothesis that this population difference reflects differences in the way speakers and signers maintain temporal order information in short-te...

  17. Reactor limit control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubbel, F.E.

    1982-01-01

    The very extensive use of limitations in the operational field between protection system and closed-loop controls is an important feature of German understanding of operational safety. The design of limitations is based on very large activities in the computational field but mostly on the high level of the plant-wide own commissioning experience of a turnkey contractor. Limitations combine intelligence features of closed-loop controls with the high availability of protection systems. (orig.)

  18. Detector limitations, STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, D. G.

    1998-07-13

    Every detector has limitations in terms of solid angle, particular technologies chosen, cracks due to mechanical structure, etc. If all of the presently planned parts of STAR [Solenoidal Tracker At RHIC] were in place, these factors would not seriously limit our ability to exploit the spin physics possible in RHIC. What is of greater concern at the moment is the construction schedule for components such as the Electromagnetic Calorimeters, and the limited funding for various levels of triggers.

  19. Performance limitations at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keil, E.

    1975-01-01

    The transverse stability of coasting beams in the planned ISABELLE storage rings was studied. The beam--beam tune shift limitation at 0.005 can be avoided, and a computer simulation seems to show 0.005 is a pessimistic limit. For beams of reasonable smoothness on the edge, the actual limit should be somewhat higher. Some coupling effects due to the beam--beam interaction are also examined

  20. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1983-01-01

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author) [pt

  1. Limit analysis via creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taroco, E.; Feijoo, R.A.

    1981-07-01

    In this paper it is presented a variational method for the limit analysis of an ideal plastic solid. This method has been denominated as Modified Secundary Creep and enables to find the collapse loads through a minimization of a functional and a limit process. Given an ideal plastic material it is shown how to determinate the associated secundary creep constitutive equation. Finally, as an application, it is found the limit load in an pressurized von Mises rigid plastic sphere. (Author) [pt

  2. Air sampling program at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulett, S.H.

    1975-01-01

    An extensive air sampling program has been developed at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant for monitoring the concentrations of radioactive aerosols present in the atmosphere on plantsite as well as in the environs. The program is designed to minimize exposures of employees and the environment to airborne radioactive particulates. Five different air sampling systems, utilizing either filtration or impaction, are employed for measuring airborne alpha and beta-gamma activity produced from 235 U and 234 Th, respectively. Two of the systems have particle selection capabilities: a personal sampler with a 10-mm nylon cyclone eliminates most particles larger than about 10 microns in diameter; and an Annular Kinetic Impactor collects particulates greater than 0.4 microns in diameter which have a density greater than 12-15 gm/cm 3 . A Hi-Volume Air Sampler and an Eberline Model AIM-3 Scintillation Air Monitor are used in collecting short-term samples for assessing compliance with ''ceiling'' standards or peak concentration limits. A film-sort aperture IBM card system is utilized for continuous 8-hour samples. This sampling program has proven to be both practical and effective for assuring accurate monitoring of the airborne activity associated with plant operations

  3. Considerations on measurements of radioactivity in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascanzoni, D.

    1986-01-01

    Radioactivity in biological samples and particularly in foodstuffs can be measured with several procedures, depending on the type of sample and radiation. In case of a radioactive fallout like the one from Chernobyl 1986, contamination in biological samples varies with time, being high immediately after the accident and decreasing successively with time. During the first stage, accurate measurements of gamma-emission should be made with high-resolution instruments, like HPGe-detectors coupled to multichannel analyzers in order to be able to assess the fallout's composition and separate the different nuclides. Even portable GM-counters and NaI(Tl)-detectors can be used, but they provide very limited information and the resolution of NaI(Tl) is too poor to make them suitable for other than survey purposes. In this case, they can be used for monitoring the activity in a certain area, or scanning a large amount of samples. After some months, when the activity has decayed and only a few nuclides are still active, the most important parameter is not resolution any longer, but sensitivity, since the content of radionuclides has decreased. At this stage NaI(Tl)-detectors assume greater importance and their sensitivity can permit the detection of low activity levels in relatively short time. The laboratory procedures for sample handling and preparation is also very important: established routines concentrated upon reducing the risk of contamination and minimizing sources of error must be used

  4. Superconducting cyclotron magnet coil short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, M.L.; Blosser, H.G.; Clark, D.J.; Launer, H.; Lawton, D.; Miller, P.; Resmini, F.

    1982-01-01

    In February 1981, a short circuit appeared in the superconducting coil of the K500 cyclotron. The short is resistive in character and therefore has no effect on steady state operation of the magnet. The resistance of the short varies, sometimes being below threshold of detection as a heat load on the cooling system and sometimes being significant. The resistance under certain conditions shows approximately cyclic phenomena with time constants in the range of seconds and other approximately cyclic phenomena which correlate with gross operating parameters of the magnet (shifting current from one coil to another at high field and lowering and raising the liquid helium level). A number of diagnostic studies of the short have been made, using 1) an array of flux sensing loops to sense the magnetic effect of the short, 2) voltage comparisons between upper and lower sections of the coil, 3) comparisons of forces in the nine member coil support system and 4) the effect of the short on the thermal charactersitics of the coil. Insulation failure or a metal chip shorting out turns have been explored in some detail but a convincing determination of the exact cause of the short may never be available, (even the extreme step of unwinding the coil having a significant probability that an imperfection with the observed characteristics would pass unnoticed). Analysis of the characteristics of the short indicated that the most serious consequence would be failure of the coils mechanical support system in the event that the magnet was quickly discharged, as in a dump or quench. To deal with this hazard, the support system has been modified by installing solid supports which prevent the coil from moving by an amount sufficient to damage the support system. We have also reexamined the data and calculations used in the original coil design and have made some additional measurements of the properties of the materials (yield strength, friction coefficient, Young's modulus) used in the

  5. Enhanced sampling algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsutake, Ayori; Mori, Yoshiharu; Okamoto, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    In biomolecular systems (especially all-atom models) with many degrees of freedom such as proteins and nucleic acids, there exist an astronomically large number of local-minimum-energy states. Conventional simulations in the canonical ensemble are of little use, because they tend to get trapped in states of these energy local minima. Enhanced conformational sampling techniques are thus in great demand. A simulation in generalized ensemble performs a random walk in potential energy space and can overcome this difficulty. From only one simulation run, one can obtain canonical-ensemble averages of physical quantities as functions of temperature by the single-histogram and/or multiple-histogram reweighting techniques. In this article we review uses of the generalized-ensemble algorithms in biomolecular systems. Three well-known methods, namely, multicanonical algorithm, simulated tempering, and replica-exchange method, are described first. Both Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics versions of the algorithms are given. We then present various extensions of these three generalized-ensemble algorithms. The effectiveness of the methods is tested with short peptide and protein systems.

  6. Quantum Metropolis sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temme, K; Osborne, T J; Vollbrecht, K G; Poulin, D; Verstraete, F

    2011-03-03

    The original motivation to build a quantum computer came from Feynman, who imagined a machine capable of simulating generic quantum mechanical systems--a task that is believed to be intractable for classical computers. Such a machine could have far-reaching applications in the simulation of many-body quantum physics in condensed-matter, chemical and high-energy systems. Part of Feynman's challenge was met by Lloyd, who showed how to approximately decompose the time evolution operator of interacting quantum particles into a short sequence of elementary gates, suitable for operation on a quantum computer. However, this left open the problem of how to simulate the equilibrium and static properties of quantum systems. This requires the preparation of ground and Gibbs states on a quantum computer. For classical systems, this problem is solved by the ubiquitous Metropolis algorithm, a method that has basically acquired a monopoly on the simulation of interacting particles. Here we demonstrate how to implement a quantum version of the Metropolis algorithm. This algorithm permits sampling directly from the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian, and thus evades the sign problem present in classical simulations. A small-scale implementation of this algorithm should be achievable with today's technology.

  7. Nitrate addition has minimal short-term impacts on greenland ice sheet supraglacial prokaryotes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Karen A.; Stibal, Marek; Chrismas, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Tropospheric nitrate levels are predicted to increase throughout the 21st century, with potential effects on terrestrial ecosystems, including the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS). This study considers the impacts of elevated nitrate concentrations on the abundance and composition of dominant bulk...... and active prokaryotic communities sampled from in situ nitrate fertilization plots on the GrIS surface. Nitrate concentrations were successfully elevated within sediment-filled meltwater pools, known as cryoconite holes; however, nitrate additions applied to surface ice did not persist. Estimated bulk...... cryoconite communities were not nitrate limited at the time of sampling. Instead, temporal changes in biomass and community composition were more pronounced. As these in situ incubations were short (6 weeks), and the community composition across GrIS surface ice is highly variable, we suggest that further...

  8. Numerical Limit Analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Limit State analysis has a long history and many prominent researchers have contributed. The theoretical foundation is based on the upper- and lower-bound theorems which give a very comprehensive and elegant formulation on complicated physical problems. In the pre-computer age Limit State analysis...... also enabled engineers to solve practical problems within reinforced concrete, steel structures and geotechnics....

  9. Advanced limiters for ISX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mioduszewski, P.K.; Edmonds, P.H.; Sheffield, J.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous removal of heat and particles becomes a vital necessity in future steady-state fusion devices. The pump limiter seems to be an attractive concept to combine these two tasks. On ISX, various schemes of pump limiters are being explored with the final goal to furnish the ISX--C device with a pump limiter to handle heat removal and particle control in steady state. The emphasis of the present paper is on pump limiters based on ballistic particle collection. If this concept turns out to be successful in supplying sufficient pumping efficiency, it may be possible to design pump limiters without a leading edge. Analytical calculations of the particle collection efficiency are given for various limiter configurations. Pumping efficiencies of approximately 4--10%, depending on the specific configuration, seem to be feasible and should be sufficient for steady-state operation. Initial experimental results on pump limiter studies in ISX--B confirm the calculated collection efficiencies. By measuring the ion saturation current to the limiter blade and the pressure buildup simultaneously, we found a correlation between the incident particle flux and the pressure rise that agrees well with a simple model

  10. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  11. Radiance limits of ceramic phosphors under high excitation fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenef, Alan; Kelso, John; Zheng, Yi; Tchoul, Maxim

    2013-09-01

    Ceramic phosphors, excited by high radiance pump sources, offer considerable potential for high radiance conversion. Interestingly, thermodynamic arguments suggest that the radiance of the luminescent spot can even exceed that of the incoming light source. In practice, however, thermal quenching and (non-thermal) optical saturation limit the maximum attainable radiance of the luminescent source. We present experimental data for Ce:YAG and Ce:GdYAG ceramics in which these limits have been investigated. High excitation fluxes are achieved using laser pumping. Optical pumping intensities exceeding 100W/mm2 have been shown to produce only modest efficiency depreciation at low overall pump powers because of the short Ce3+ lifetime, although additional limitations exist. When pump powers are higher, heat-transfer bottlenecks within the ceramic and heat-sink interfaces limit maximum pump intensities. We find that surface temperatures of these laser-pumped ceramics can reach well over 150°C, causing thermal-quenching losses. We also find that in some cases, the loss of quantum efficiency with increasing temperature can cause a thermal run-away effect, resulting in a rapid loss in converted light, possibly over-heating the sample or surrounding structures. While one can still obtain radiances on the order of many W/mm2/sr, temperature quenching effects ultimately limit converted light radiance. Finally, we use the diffusion-approximation radiation transport models and rate equation models to simulate some of these nonlinear optical pumping and heating effects in high-scattering ceramics.

  12. Mitigating greenhouse: Limited time, limited options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, Patrick; Honnery, Damon

    2008-01-01

    Most human-caused climate change comes from fossil fuel combustion emissions. To avoid the risk of serious climate change, very recent research suggests that emission reductions will need to be both large and rapidly implemented. We argue that technical solutions-improving energy efficiency, use of renewable and nuclear energy, and carbon capture and sequestration-can only be of minor importance, mainly given the limited time available to take effective climate action. Only curbing energy use, perhaps through 'social efficiency' gains, particularly in the high-energy consumption countries, can provide the rapid emissions reductions needed. The social efficiency approach requires a basic rethinking in how we can satisfy our human needs with low environmental impacts. Large cuts in emissions could then occur rapidly, but only if resistance to such changes can be overcome. Particularly in transport, there are also serious potential conflicts between the technical and the social efficiency approaches, requiring a choice to be made

  13. Modeling Complex Time Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Svatos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze complexity of time limits we can find especially in regulated processes of public administration. First we review the most popular process modeling languages. There is defined an example scenario based on the current Czech legislature which is then captured in discussed process modeling languages. Analysis shows that the contemporary process modeling languages support capturing of the time limit only partially. This causes troubles to analysts and unnecessary complexity of the models. Upon unsatisfying results of the contemporary process modeling languages we analyze the complexity of the time limits in greater detail and outline lifecycles of a time limit using the multiple dynamic generalizations pattern. As an alternative to the popular process modeling languages there is presented PSD process modeling language, which supports the defined lifecycles of a time limit natively and therefore allows keeping the models simple and easy to understand.

  14. Moving toroidal limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari; Miyahara, Akira.

    1983-06-01

    The concept of the limiter-divertor proposed by Mirnov is extended to a toroidal limiter-divertor (which we call moving toroidal limiter) using the stream of ferromagnetic balls coated with a low Z materials such as plastics, graphite and ceramics. An important advantage of the use of the ferromagnetic materials would be possible soft landing of the balls on a catcher, provided that the temperature of the balls is below Curie point. Moreover, moving toroidal limiter would work as a protector of the first wall not only against the vertical movement of plasma ring but also against the violent inward motion driven by major disruption because the orbit of the ball in the case of moving toroidal limiter distributes over the small major radius side of the toroidal plasma. (author)

  15. Improved sample preparation and counting techniques for enhanced tritium measurement sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, J.; Aalseth, C.; Bailey, V. L.; Mace, E. K.; Overman, C.; Seifert, A.; Wilcox Freeburg, E. D.

    2015-12-01

    Tritium (T) measurements offer insight to a wealth of environmental applications including hydrologic tracking, discerning ocean circulation patterns, and aging ice formations. However, the relatively short half-life of T (12.3 years) limits its effective age dating range. Compounding this limitation is the decrease in atmospheric T content by over two orders of magnitude (from 1000-2000 TU in 1962 to testing in the 1960's. We are developing sample preparation methods coupled to direct counting of T via ultra-low background proportional counters which, when combined, offer improved T measurement sensitivity (~4.5 mmoles of H2 equivalent) and will help expand the application of T age dating to smaller sample sizes linked to persistent environmental questions despite the limitations above. For instance, this approach can be used to T date ~ 2.2 mmoles of CH4 collected from sample-limited systems including microbial communities, soils, or subsurface aquifers and can be combined with radiocarbon dating to distinguish the methane's formation age from C age in a system. This approach can also expand investigations into soil organic C where the improved sensitivity will permit resolution of soil C into more descriptive fractions and provide direct assessments of the stability of specific classes of organic matter in soils environments. We are employing a multiple step sample preparation system whereby organic samples are first combusted with resulting CO2 and H2O being used as a feedstock to synthesize CH4. This CH4 is mixed with Ar and loaded directly into an ultra-low background proportional counter for measurement of T β decay in a shallow underground laboratory. Analysis of water samples requires only the addition of geologic CO2 feedstock with the sample for methane synthesis. The chemical nature of the preparation techniques enable high sample throughput with only the final measurement requiring T decay with total sample analysis time ranging from 2 -5 weeks

  16. The Short Selling Regulation in the EU: Assessing the Authorization Granted for ESMA to Prohibit Short Selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Huhtilainen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the renewed short selling regulation (Regulation (EU No 236/2012 in the European Union. The focus is on the provisions that deal with prohibiting short selling in exceptional market circumstances. The Regulation further enforces certain obligations to report and disclose short positions. It is concluded that banning short selling is not an effective tool to contain extreme price volatility. The difference-in-differences regression and repeated measures GLM were used to test whether short selling bans were successful in containing volatility of those Spanish and Italian stocks that were subject to two back-to-back prohibitions during the years 2011-2013. The results are consistent with the majority of previous research, suggesting that the effectiveness of short sale constraints in reducing volatility is limited at best. Furthermore, there are evidence of counterproductive effects: constraints on short selling may actually increase volatility as well as deteriorate liquidity. However, based on theory and previous studies, reporting and disclosure requirements shall be favored provided they improve market efficiency as well as supervisory work of regulatory bodies.This paper discusses the renewed short selling regulation (Regulation (EU No 236/2012 in the European Union. The focus is on the provisions that deal with prohibiting short selling in exceptional market circumstances. The Regulation further enforces certain obligations to report and disclose short positions. It is concluded that banning short selling is not an effective tool to contain extreme price volatility. The difference-in-differences regression and repeated measures GLM were used to test whether short selling bans were successful in containing volatility of those Spanish and Italian stocks that were subject to two back-to-back prohibitions during the years 2011-2013. The results are consistent with the majority of previous research, suggesting that the

  17. Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klages, R [School of Mathematical Sciences, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-20

    This book is a new volume of a series designed to introduce the curious reader to anything from ancient Egypt and Indian philosophy to conceptual art and cosmology. Very handy in pocket size, Chaos promises an introduction to fundamental concepts of nonlinear science by using mathematics that is 'no more complicated than X=2. Anyone who ever tried to give a popular science account of research knows that this is a more challenging task than writing an ordinary research article. Lenny Smith brilliantly succeeds to explain in words, in pictures and by using intuitive models the essence of mathematical dynamical systems theory and time series analysis as it applies to the modern world. In a more technical part he introduces the basic terms of nonlinear theory by means of simple mappings. He masterly embeds this analysis into the social, historical and cultural context by using numerous examples, from poems and paintings over chess and rabbits to Olbers' paradox, card games and 'phynance'. Fundamental problems of the modelling of nonlinear systems like the weather, sun spots or golf balls falling through an array of nails are discussed from the point of view of mathematics, physics and statistics by touching upon philosophical issues. At variance with Laplace's demon, Smith's 21st century demon makes 'real world' observations only with limited precision. This poses a severe problem to predictions derived from complex chaotic models, where small variations of initial conditions typically yield totally different outcomes. As Smith argues, this difficulty has direct implications on decision-making in everyday modern life. However, it also asks for an inherently probabilistic theory, which somewhat reminds us of what we are used to in the microworld. There is little to criticise in this nice little book except that some figures are of poor quality thus not really reflecting the beauty of fractals and other wonderful objects in this

  18. Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klages, R

    2007-01-01

    This book is a new volume of a series designed to introduce the curious reader to anything from ancient Egypt and Indian philosophy to conceptual art and cosmology. Very handy in pocket size, Chaos promises an introduction to fundamental concepts of nonlinear science by using mathematics that is 'no more complicated than X=2. Anyone who ever tried to give a popular science account of research knows that this is a more challenging task than writing an ordinary research article. Lenny Smith brilliantly succeeds to explain in words, in pictures and by using intuitive models the essence of mathematical dynamical systems theory and time series analysis as it applies to the modern world. In a more technical part he introduces the basic terms of nonlinear theory by means of simple mappings. He masterly embeds this analysis into the social, historical and cultural context by using numerous examples, from poems and paintings over chess and rabbits to Olbers' paradox, card games and 'phynance'. Fundamental problems of the modelling of nonlinear systems like the weather, sun spots or golf balls falling through an array of nails are discussed from the point of view of mathematics, physics and statistics by touching upon philosophical issues. At variance with Laplace's demon, Smith's 21st century demon makes 'real world' observations only with limited precision. This poses a severe problem to predictions derived from complex chaotic models, where small variations of initial conditions typically yield totally different outcomes. As Smith argues, this difficulty has direct implications on decision-making in everyday modern life. However, it also asks for an inherently probabilistic theory, which somewhat reminds us of what we are used to in the microworld. There is little to criticise in this nice little book except that some figures are of poor quality thus not really reflecting the beauty of fractals and other wonderful objects in this field. I feel that occasionally the book

  19. The short-term impacts of Earned Income Tax Credit disbursement on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehkopf, David H; Strully, Kate W; Dow, William H

    2014-12-01

    There are conflicting findings regarding long- and short-term effects of income on health. Whereas higher average income is associated with better health, there is evidence that health behaviours worsen in the short-term following income receipt.Prior studies revealing such negative short-term effects of income receipt focus on specific subpopulations and examine a limited set of health outcomes. The United States Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) is an income supplement tied to work, and is the largest poverty reduction programme in the USA. We utilize the fact that EITC recipients typically receive large cash transfers in the months of February,March and April, in order to examine associated changes in health outcomes that can fluctuate on a monthly basis. We examine associations with 30 outcomes in the categories of diet, food security, health behaviours, cardiovascular biomarkers, metabolic biomarkers and infection and immunity among 6925 individuals from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Survey. Our research design approximates a natural experiment,since whether individuals were sampled during treatment or non-treatment months is independent of social, demographic and health characteristics that do not vary with time. There are both beneficial and detrimental short-term impacts of income receipt.Although there are detrimental impacts on metabolic factors among women, most other impacts are beneficial, including those for food security, smoking and trying to lose weight. The short-term impacts of EITC income receipt are not universally health promoting, but on balance there are more health benefits than detriments.

  20. Short and inflamed cervix predicts spontaneous preterm birth (COLIBRI study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiche, Evelyne; Ouellet, Annie; Berthiaume, Maryse; Rousseau, Éric; Pasquier, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-01

    To develop a new strategy of predicting spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) by combination of transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) assessment and inflammatory proteins detection in vaginal secretions. Prospective study of 87 women referred for cervical length assessment with a standardized TVUS combined to vaginal secretions sampling. Samples were analyzed for presence of 10 cytokines. Main outcome was sPTB (women at a median gestational age of 35.6 weeks of gestation. Short cervix (women with a short inflamed cervix. COLIBRI study used a novel, single-step method of vaginal secretions sampling during TVUS and demonstrated that combination of short cervix and IL-8 in vaginal secretions is a promising sPTB predictive test.

  1. Modern survey sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arijit

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to SamplingAbstract Introduction Concepts of Population, Sample, and SamplingInitial RamificationsAbstract Introduction Sampling Design, Sampling SchemeRandom Numbers and Their Uses in Simple RandomSampling (SRS)Drawing Simple Random Samples with and withoutReplacementEstimation of Mean, Total, Ratio of Totals/Means:Variance and Variance EstimationDetermination of Sample SizesA.2 Appendix to Chapter 2 A.More on Equal Probability Sampling A.Horvitz-Thompson EstimatorA.SufficiencyA.LikelihoodA.Non-Existence Theorem More Intricacies Abstract Introduction Unequal Probability Sampling StrategiesPPS Sampling Exploring Improved WaysAbstract Introduction Stratified Sampling Cluster SamplingMulti-Stage SamplingMulti-Phase Sampling: Ratio and RegressionEstimationviiviii ContentsControlled SamplingModeling Introduction Super-Population ModelingPrediction Approach Model-Assisted Approach Bayesian Methods Spatial SmoothingSampling on Successive Occasions: Panel Rotation Non-Response and Not-at-Homes Weighting Adj...

  2. An evaluation of short-term exposures of brake mechanics to asbestos during automotive and truck brake cleaning and machining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Richard O; Finley, Brent L; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Williams, Pamela R D; Sheehan, Patrick J

    2009-07-01

    Historically, the greatest contributions to airborne asbestos concentrations during brake repair work were likely due to specific, short-duration, dust-generating activities. In this paper, the available short-term asbestos air sampling data for mechanics collected during the cleaning and machining of vehicle brakes are evaluated to determine their impact on both short-term and daily exposures. The high degree of variability and lack of transparency for most of the short-term samples limit their use in reconstructing past asbestos exposures for brake mechanics. However, the data are useful in evaluating how reducing short-term, dust-generating activities reduced long-term exposures, especially for auto brake mechanics. Using the short-term dose data for grinding brake linings from these same studies, in combination with existing time-weighted average (TWA) data collected in decades after grinding was commonplace in rebuilding brake shoes, an average 8-h TWA of approximately 0.10 f/cc was estimated for auto brake mechanics that performed arc grinding of linings during automobile brake repair (in the 1960s or earlier). In the 1970s and early 1980s, a decline in machining activities led to a decrease in the 8-h TWA to approximately 0.063 f/cc. Improved cleaning methods in the late 1980s further reduced the 8-h TWA for most brake mechanics to about 0.0021 f/cc. It is noteworthy that when compared with the original OSHA excursion level, only 15 of the more than 300 short-term concentrations for brake mechanics measured during the 1970s and 1980s possibly exceeded the standard. Considering exposure duration, none of the short-term exposures were above the current OSHA excursion level.

  3. Short-term LNG-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom; Lund, Arne-Christian; Miltersen, Kristian; Rud, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry has experienced substantial growth in the past decades. In the traditional trade patterns of LNG the product has typically been handled within a dedicated chain of plants and vessels fully committed by long term contracts or common ownership, providing risk sharing of large investments in a non-liquid market. Increasing gas prices and substantial cost reductions in all parts of the LNG chain have made LNG projects viable even if only part of the capacity is secured by long-term contracts, opening for more flexible trade of the remainder. Increasing gas demand, especially in power generation, combined with cost reductions in the cost of LNG terminals, open new markets for LNG. For the LNG supplier, the flexibility of shifting volumes between regions represents an additional value. International trade in LNG has been increasing, now accounting for more than one fifth of the world's cross-border gas trade. Despite traditional vertical chain bonds, increased flexibility has contributed in fact to an increasing LNG spot trade, representing 8% of global trade in 2002. The focus of this paper is on the development of global short-term LNG markets, and their role with respect to efficiency and security of supply in European gas markets. Arbitrage opportunities arising from price differences between regional markets (such as North America versus Europe) are important impetuses for flexible short-term trade. However, the short-term LNG trade may suffer from problems related to market access, e.g. limited access to terminals and regulatory issues, as well as rigidities connected to vertical binding within the LNG chain. Important issues related to the role of short-term LNG-trade in the European gas market are: Competition, flexibility in meeting peak demand, security of supply and consequences of differences in pricing policies (oil-linked prices in Europe and spot market prices in North America). (Author)

  4. Systematic sampling with errors in sample locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziegel, Johanna; Baddeley, Adrian; Dorph-Petersen, Karl-Anton

    2010-01-01

    analysis using point process methods. We then analyze three different models for the error process, calculate exact expressions for the variances, and derive asymptotic variances. Errors in the placement of sample points can lead to substantial inflation of the variance, dampening of zitterbewegung......Systematic sampling of points in continuous space is widely used in microscopy and spatial surveys. Classical theory provides asymptotic expressions for the variance of estimators based on systematic sampling as the grid spacing decreases. However, the classical theory assumes that the sample grid...... is exactly periodic; real physical sampling procedures may introduce errors in the placement of the sample points. This paper studies the effect of errors in sample positioning on the variance of estimators in the case of one-dimensional systematic sampling. First we sketch a general approach to variance...

  5. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.

    1984-05-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been done with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a region may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this Z-mode of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described

  6. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1984-01-01

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6 MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been performed with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scrape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a regime may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this 'Z-mode' of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described. (orig.)

  7. Evaluation of Drinking Water Disinfectant Byproducts Compliance Data as an Indirect Measure for Short-Term Exposure in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvez, Shahid; Frost, Kali; Sundararajan, Madhura

    2017-05-20

    In the absence of shorter term disinfectant byproducts (DBPs) data on regulated Trihalomethanes (THMs) and Haloacetic acids (HAAs), epidemiologists and risk assessors have used long-term annual compliance (LRAA) or quarterly (QA) data to evaluate the association between DBP exposure and adverse birth outcomes, which resulted in inconclusive findings. Therefore, we evaluated the reliability of using long-term LRAA and QA data as an indirect measure for short-term exposure. Short-term residential tap water samples were collected in peak DBP months (May-August) in a community water system with five separate treatment stations and were sourced from surface or groundwater. Samples were analyzed for THMs and HAAs per the EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) standard methods (524.2 and 552.2). The measured levels of total THMs and HAAs were compared temporally and spatially with LRAA and QA data, which showed significant differences ( p water stations showed higher levels than LRAA or QA. Significant numbers of samples in surface water stations exceeded regulatory permissible limits: 27% had excessive THMs and 35% had excessive HAAs. Trichloromethane, trichloroacetic acid, and dichloroacetic acid were the major drivers of variability. This study suggests that LRAA and QA data are not good proxies of short-term exposure. Further investigation is needed to determine if other drinking water systems show consistent findings for improved regulation.

  8. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  9. Novel limiter pump topologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topologies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure

  10. Tritium sampling and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.J.; McElroy, R.G.; Surette, R.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Current methods for sampling and measuring tritium are described. Although the basic techniques have not changed significantly over the last 10 y, there have been several notable improvements in tritium measurement instrumentation. The design and quality of commercial ion-chamber-based and gas-flow-proportional-counter-based tritium monitors for tritium-in-air have improved, an indirect result of fusion-related research in the 1980s. For tritium-in-water analysis, commercial low-level liquid scintillation spectrometers capable of detecting tritium-in-water concentrations as low as 0.65 Bq L-1 for counting times of 500 min are available. The most sensitive method for tritium-in-water analysis is still 3He mass spectrometry. Concentrations as low as 0.35 mBq L-1 can be detected with current equipment. Passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers are now being used for workplace monitoring and even in some environmental sampling applications. The reliability, convenience, and low cost of passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers make them attractive options for many monitoring applications. Airflow proportional counters currently under development look promising for measuring tritium-in-air in the presence of high gamma and/or noble gas backgrounds. However, these detectors are currently limited by their poor performance in humidities over 30%. 133 refs

  11. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. Materials and methods The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. Results The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. Conclusions The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in

  12. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Engle, Kelly; Sefa, Eunice; Adimazoya, Edward Akolgo; Yartey, Emmanuel; Lenzi, Rachel; Tarpo, Cindy; Heward-Mills, Nii Lante; Lew, Katherine; Ampeh, Yvonne

    2018-01-01

    Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample. The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census. The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample. The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in comparison to household surveys. Random digit dialing of mobile

  13. Survey research with a random digit dial national mobile phone sample in Ghana: Methods and sample quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly L'Engle

    Full Text Available Generating a nationally representative sample in low and middle income countries typically requires resource-intensive household level sampling with door-to-door data collection. High mobile phone penetration rates in developing countries provide new opportunities for alternative sampling and data collection methods, but there is limited information about response rates and sample biases in coverage and nonresponse using these methods. We utilized data from an interactive voice response, random-digit dial, national mobile phone survey in Ghana to calculate standardized response rates and assess representativeness of the obtained sample.The survey methodology was piloted in two rounds of data collection. The final survey included 18 demographic, media exposure, and health behavior questions. Call outcomes and response rates were calculated according to the American Association of Public Opinion Research guidelines. Sample characteristics, productivity, and costs per interview were calculated. Representativeness was assessed by comparing data to the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and the National Population and Housing Census.The survey was fielded during a 27-day period in February-March 2017. There were 9,469 completed interviews and 3,547 partial interviews. Response, cooperation, refusal, and contact rates were 31%, 81%, 7%, and 39% respectively. Twenty-three calls were dialed to produce an eligible contact: nonresponse was substantial due to the automated calling system and dialing of many unassigned or non-working numbers. Younger, urban, better educated, and male respondents were overrepresented in the sample.The innovative mobile phone data collection methodology yielded a large sample in a relatively short period. Response rates were comparable to other surveys, although substantial coverage bias resulted from fewer women, rural, and older residents completing the mobile phone survey in comparison to household surveys. Random digit

  14. Sodium nitrate combustion limit tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beitel, G.A.

    1976-04-01

    Sodium nitrate is a powerful solid oxidant. Energetically, it is capable of exothermically oxidizing almost any organic material. Rate-controlling variables such as temperature, concentration of oxidant, concentration of fuel, thermal conductivity, moisture content, size, and pressure severely limit the possibility of a self-supported exothermic reaction (combustion). The tests reported in this document were conducted on one-gram samples at atmospheric pressure. Below 380 0 C, NaNO 3 was stable and did not support combustion. At moisture concentrations above 22 wt percent, exothermic reactions did not propagate in even the most energetic and reactive compositions. Fresh resin and paraffin were too volatile to enable a NaNO 2 -supported combustion process to propagate. Concentrations of NaNO 3 above 95 wt percent or below 35 wt percent did not react with enough energy release to support combustion. The influence of sample size and confining pressure, both important factors, was not investigated in this study

  15. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  16. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  17. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  18. Limited Denial of Participation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...

  19. Towards Improved Optical Limiters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huffman, Peter

    2002-01-01

    .... The first approach was to synthesize and study soluble thallium phthalocyanines. Thallium, due to its proximity to lead and indium on the periodic table, should exhibit favorable optical limiting properties...

  20. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...