WorldWideScience

Sample records for short sale ban

  1. Are bans on kidney sales unjustifiably paternalistic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Erik

    2014-03-01

    This paper challenges the view that bans on kidney sales are unjustifiably paternalistic, that is, that they unduly deny people the freedom to make decisions about their own bodies in order to protect them from harm. I argue that not even principled anti-paternalists need to reject such bans. This is because their rationale is not hard paternalism, which anti-paternalists repudiate, but soft paternalism, which they in principle accept. More precisely, I suggest that their rationale is what Franklin Miller and Alan Wertheimer call 'group soft paternalism'. Group soft paternalistic policies restrict the freedom of autonomous individuals, not for their own good (hard paternalism), but as an unavoidable consequence of seeking to protect other, non-autonomous individuals from harms that they have not voluntarily chosen (soft paternalism). Group soft paternalism supports prohibiting kidney sales on three conditions: (1) that such sales are potentially harmful to vendors, (2) that many vendors would suffer impaired autonomy, and (3) that distinguishing between autonomous and non-autonomous vendors and interfering only with the latter is unfeasible. I provide reasons for thinking that these conditions will often hold. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Why ban the sale of cigarettes? The case for abolition

    OpenAIRE

    Proctor, Robert N

    2013-01-01

    The cigarette is the deadliest artefact in the history of human civilisation. Most of the richer countries of the globe, however, are making progress in reducing both smoking rates and overall consumption. Many different methods have been proposed to steepen this downward slope, including increased taxation, bans on advertising, promotion of cessation, and expansion of smoke-free spaces. One option that deserves more attention is the enactment of local or national bans on the sale of cigarett...

  3. Clove cigar sales following the US flavoured cigarette ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delnevo, Cristine D; Hrywna, Mary

    2015-12-01

    Following the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act in 2009, flavoured cigarettes, including clove cigarettes, were banned based on the rationale that such cigarettes appealed to youth. However, the ban on characterising flavours was not extended to cigars. This study reviewed industry documents from Kretek International, the parent company behind Djarum clove cigars, to document the changes in their marketing and production strategies following the flavour ban on cigarettes. To assess sales trends following the ban, data for clove cigar sales in the USA from 2009 to 2012 were analysed using Nielsen's Convenience Track retail scanner database. Additionally, data on tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia were obtained from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service's Global Agricultural Trade System for the years 2008-2012. In anticipation of Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) flavour ban on cigarettes and recognising the regulatory advantages of cigars, Kretek International began developing Djarum clove cigars in 2007. Immediately following the flavour ban, sales of this product increased by more than 1400% between 2009 and 2012. During this same period, tobacco imports to the USA from Indonesia, a leader in clove tobacco production, shifted from cigarettes to almost exclusively cigars. Kretek International, like other tobacco manufacturers, manipulated its products following the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act as a way to capitalise on regulatory loopholes and replace its now banned clove cigarettes. As a result, consumption of the company's Djarum clove cigars increased exponentially in recent years. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-01-01

    Regulatory authorities have consulted on the option of banning embedded sales commissions for Canadian financial advisors. Such an action would create more problems than it would solve. It would have serious ramifications for Canadians’ access to financial advice and raise issues of choice, industry concentration and price transparency for clients seeking advice on investments and retirement. Financial advisors have much greater knowledge of investments than their clients, who rightly expect ...

  5. Why ban the sale of cigarettes? The case for abolition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Robert N

    2013-05-01

    The cigarette is the deadliest artefact in the history of human civilisation. Most of the richer countries of the globe, however, are making progress in reducing both smoking rates and overall consumption. Many different methods have been proposed to steepen this downward slope, including increased taxation, bans on advertising, promotion of cessation, and expansion of smoke-free spaces. One option that deserves more attention is the enactment of local or national bans on the sale of cigarettes. There are precedents: 15 US states enacted bans on the sale of cigarettes from 1890 to 1927, for instance, and such laws are still fully within the power of local communities and state governments. Apart from reducing human suffering, abolishing the sale of cigarettes would result in savings in the realm of healthcare costs, increased labour productivity, lessened harms from fires, reduced consumption of scarce physical resources, and a smaller global carbon footprint. Abolition would also put a halt to one of the principal sources of corruption in modern civilisation, and would effectively eliminate one of the historical forces behind global warming denial and environmental obfuscation. The primary reason for abolition, however, is that smokers themselves dislike the fact they smoke. Smoking is not a recreational drug, and abolishing cigarettes would therefore enlarge rather than restrict human liberties. Abolition would also help cigarette makers fulfil their repeated promises to 'cease production' if cigarettes were ever found to be causing harm.

  6. Bans on electronic cigarette sales to minors and smoking among high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouk, Rahi; Adams, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Many states have banned electronic cigarette sales to minors under the rationale that using e-cigarettes leads to smoking traditional combustion cigarettes. Such sales bans would be counterproductive, however, if e-cigarettes and traditional cigarettes are substitutes, as bans might push teenagers back to smoking the more dangerous combustion cigarettes. We provide evidence that these sales bans reduce the incidence of smoking conventional cigarettes among high school seniors. Moreover, we provide evidence suggesting that sales bans reduced e-cigarette usage as well. This evidence suggests that not only are e-cigarettes and smoking regular cigarettes positively related and not substitutes for young people, banning retail sales to minors is an effective policy tool in reducing tobacco use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Why Banning Embedded Sales Commissions Is a Public Policy Issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri-Paul Rousseau

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Regulatory authorities have consulted on the option of banning embedded sales commissions for Canadian financial advisors. Such an action would create more problems than it would solve. It would have serious ramifications for Canadians’ access to financial advice and raise issues of choice, industry concentration and price transparency for clients seeking advice on investments and retirement. Financial advisors have much greater knowledge of investments than their clients, who rightly expect value from their advisors’ services. Advisors may also face conflicts of interest when they make recommendations about a financial product whose manufacturer might be paying the advisor for selling its products. Banning sales commissions from the manufacturers and having the client pay the advisor directly instead brings its own problems. This is because financial advice is a good with peculiar characteristics. Firstly, financial advice has three fundamental components – the alpha, beta and gamma factors. Together, they define the roles financial advisors play: (alpha asset or portfolio manager, (beta asset allocator (rebalancing a client’s portfolio, and (gamma coach with regard to savings discipline and financial planning. Financial advice has value thanks to the interplay between the three factors. Studies of the issue which have focused on one factor at a time, usually the alpha, produce results that are skewed; however, when studies measure all three factors, the evidence shows that financial advice has significant value, greater than the usual cost charged to clients. Secondly, financial advice is an “experience good”, meaning that clients don’t know ahead of time how good financial advice is until they see how it works out. Assessing the value of financial advice may take many years. Since they can’t immediately measure what they’re paying for, clients with modest incomes or wealth are usually willing only to pay low fees, or not pay

  8. The tobacco endgame in Hong Kong: public support for a total ban on tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man Ping; Wang, Xin; Lam, Tai Hing; Viswanath, Kasisomayajula; Chan, Sophia S

    2015-03-01

    Tobacco endgame policies are increasingly advocated to end tobacco use. This study investigated public support for a total ban on tobacco sales, use and possession in Hong Kong. A telephone survey was conducted among 1537 randomly selected residents in 2012 to assess their support for a total ban on tobacco sales, usage and possession. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, smoking, and second hand smoke exposure were collected. Logistic regression was used to investigate factors associated with support for a total ban. Most of the never smokers (75.3%), ex-smokers (63.9%), and nearly half of current smokers (48.9%) backed some form of a total ban on tobacco. A total ban on tobacco sales was the most popular option among the three groups, with over half (64.8%) of all respondents supporting a ban within 10 years. Current smoking and higher educational attainment were associated with less support for a total ban on tobacco sales. Among current smokers, having quit intentions and attempts to quit were associated with support for a total ban. A total ban on tobacco sales was supported by most respondents. Ex-smokers and current smokers also voiced substantial support, although less than never smokers. A total ban on tobacco sales before 2022 should be the goal as it is supported by most of the respondents. Interim tobacco control measures, such as tax increases, expansion of smoking cessation services and plain packaging should be implemented to help current smokers quit and reduce smoking initiation before implementation of the ban. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Equity Options During the Shorting Ban of 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nusret Cakici

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Securities and Exchange Commission’s 2008 emergency order introduced a shorting ban of some 800 financials traded in the US. This paper provides an empirical analysis of the options market around the ban period. Using transaction level data from OPRA (The Options Price Reporting Authority, we study the options volume, spreads, pricing measures and option trade volume informativeness during the ban. We also consider the put–call parity relationship. While mostly statistically significant, economic magnitudes of our results suggest that the impact of the ban on the equity options market was likely not as dramatic as initially thought.

  10. Global evidence on the effect of point-of-sale display bans on smoking prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yanyun; Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2018-01-13

    Since Iceland became the first country to impose a ban on point-of-sale (POS) tobacco product displays in 2001, 20 countries have implemented POS display bans as of 2016. This study examined the effect that POS display bans have on smoking prevalence. Data were sourced from Euromonitor International and the WHO MPOWER package for 2007-2014 from 77 countries worldwide. generalised linear models with country and year fixed effects were estimated to analyse the effect of POS display bans on smoking prevalence. Having a POS display ban reduced overall adult daily smoking, male smoking and female smoking by about 7%, 6% and 9%, respectively. Having a POS display ban is likely to reduce smoking prevalence and generate public health benefits. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  11. Public Smoking Bans, Youth Access Laws, and Cigarette Sales at Vending Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Kvasnicka, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco control policies have proliferated in many countries in recent years, in particular youth access laws and public smoking bans. The effectiveness of youth access laws is still disputed, however, as are the costs of public smoking bans to the hospitality industry. Using a unique data set on cigarette sales at more than 100k vending machines that provides first objective evidence on the outgoing and customer behavior of smokers, we study both outcome dimensions by investigating several r...

  12. Point-of-sale tobacco advertising in Beirut, Lebanon following a national advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salloum, Ramzi G; Nakkash, Rima T; Myers, Allison E; Wood, Kathryn A; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2013-06-03

    The objective of this study was to conduct an audit of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and assess compliance with an advertising ban in a large district of Beirut, Lebanon. The audit was conducted 3 months following the ban on tobacco advertising. Trained students observed all tobacco retail outlets (n = 100) and entered data into a web-based form using iPad(®) technology. Presence of tobacco advertisements was assessed to determine compliance with the national advertising ban. Among the 100 tobacco retail outlets, 62% had tobacco advertisements, including 7% with a tobacco brand logo as part of the main exterior store sign. POS tobacco advertising is widespread in Beirut despite the national advertising ban. These findings point to an urgent need for the enforcement of the advertisement ban with tobacco retail outlets in Lebanon.

  13. Alcohol consumption and attitudes towards banning alcohol sales on campus among European university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, C; Mikolajczyk, R; Bloomfield, K; Maxwell, A E; Ozcebe, H; Petkeviciene, J; Naydenova, V; Marin-Fernandez, B; El-Ansari, W; Krämer, A

    2009-02-01

    The European Commission's new health strategy for improving health at the European Union (EU) level includes tackling alcohol consumption. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of alcohol consumption and problem drinking, as well as students' attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. In total, 5826 students from universities in seven European countries (Denmark, Germany, Spain, Lithuania, Poland, Bulgaria and Turkey) took part in this cross-sectional study. A self-administered questionnaire assessed sociodemographic information, frequency of alcohol consumption, problem drinking and attitudes towards banning the sale of alcohol on campus. The highest prevalence of drinking alcohol more than once per week was reported in Bulgarian (males 46%, females 64%) and Spanish students (males 59%, females 64%). Among those students who drank alcohol (n=3170), problem drinking (CAGE score >1) was found in 24% of males and 13% of females. Male gender, depressive moods and a low importance of good grades at university were risk factors for drinking alcohol more than once per week as well as for problem drinking. There were substantial country differences in the proportion of students who would support a ban of alcohol sales on campus (23% in Denmark, 88% in Poland). Support for a ban was higher among female students and among students who drank alcohol once or less per week. Problem drinking is a concern among students in many European countries, especially among males. Students' support for banning the sale of alcohol on campus varies between countries and should be considered in developing EU policy.

  14. Reducing Disparities in Tobacco Retailer Density by Banning Tobacco Product Sales Near Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Luke, Douglas A; Bohannon, Doneisha L; Sorg, Amy A; Moreland-Russell, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    This study examined whether a policy of banning tobacco product retailers from operating within 1000 feet of schools could reduce existing socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density. We geocoded all tobacco retailers in Missouri (n = 4730) and New York (n = 17 672) and linked them with Census tract characteristics. We then tested the potential impact of a proximity policy that would ban retailers from selling tobacco products within 1000 feet of schools. Our results confirmed socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in tobacco retailer density, with more retailers found in areas with lower income and greater proportions of African American residents. A high proportion of retailers located in these areas were in urban areas, which also have stores located in closer proximity to schools. If a ban on tobacco product sales within 1000 feet of schools were implemented in New York, the number of tobacco retailers per 1000 people would go from 1.28 to 0.36 in the lowest income quintile, and from 0.84 to 0.45 in the highest income quintile. In New York and Missouri, a ban on tobacco product sales near schools would either reduce or eliminate existing disparities in tobacco retailer density by income level and by proportion of African American. Proximity-based point of sale (POS) policies banning tobacco product sales near schools appear to be more effective in reducing retailer density in lower income and racially diverse neighborhoods than in higher income and white neighborhoods, and hold great promise for reducing tobacco-related disparities at the POS. Given the disparities-reducing potential of policies banning tobacco product sales near schools, jurisdictions with tobacco retailer licensing should consider adding this provision to their licensing requirements. Since relatively few jurisdictions currently ban tobacco sales near schools, future research should examine ways to increase and monitor the uptake of this policy, and assess

  15. Short-sale Constraints and Credit Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venter, Gyuri

    ), creditors with high private signals are more lenient to roll over debt, and a bank with lower asset quality remains solvent. This leads to higher allocative efficiency in the real economy. My result thus implies that the decrease in average informativeness due to short-sale constraints can be more than......This paper studies how short-sale constraints affect the informational efficiency of market prices and the link between prices and economic activity. I show that under short-sale constraints security prices contain less information. However, short-sale constraints increase the informativeness...... the price of an asset the bank holds. I show that short-selling constraints in the financial market lead to the revival of self-fulfilling beliefs about the beliefs and actions of others, and create multiple equilibria. In the equilibrium where agents rely more on public information (i.e., the price...

  16. Banning Tobacco Sales at the Retail Pharmacy: Natural Evolution of Drug Store As Responsible Health Provider Or Effective Marketing Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Trigo, Paula; Khanfar, Nile M; Alameddine, Sarah; Harrington, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    CVS Health has taken a strategic marketing move by banning tobacco sales. They risk losing customers who buy medications and cigarettes at their drugstores. They estimate they will lose 2 billion dollars by banning cigarette sales. CVS Health believes they will benefit from being regarded as health care partner by insurers and banning cigarette sales is an important step in being recognized as such. The Affordable Care Act expanded access to pharmacy-based medical clinics, increased affordability of medications, and expanded the clinical role of pharmacists. CVS Health is positioning itself to take advantage of these changes.

  17. The tobacco sales ban and tobacco purchases by adolescents: a general population study in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Knibbe, Ronald A; Bieleman, Bert; de Groot, Henk N; de Vries, Hein

    2008-10-01

    The study aimed to assess the effect of the introduction on 1 January 2003 of a legal tobacco sales ban in The Netherlands on tobacco purchases by smoking and non-smoking adolescents aged <16 years. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted among adolescents aged 13 through 15 years, one at end 1999 (n = 4751) and the other at end 2003 (n = 13 298). The percentage of adolescents buying tobacco decreased significantly from 26.3% in 1999 to 10.8% in 2003 (P < 0.001). Further analysis showed that, after the ban, the proportion of smokers among buyers almost tripled [Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.9], while the likelihood of non-smokers buying tobacco decreased strongly (OR = 0.17). A difference in the pattern of purchasing tobacco also emerged after the ban. In 2003, the proportion of smokers buying at least weekly in commercial outlets was larger than in 1999. For non-smokers there was no difference between 1999 and 2003 in the proportion buying weekly. The variety of commercial outlets in which purchases were made increased among both smoking and non-smoking purchasers of tobacco. Implementation of the 2003 tobacco sales ban has had the (intended) effect of lowering tobacco purchases among adolescents. This was mainly due to the decrease in the likelihood of buying tobacco among those who regard themselves as a non-smoker. The decrease in buying tobacco is associated with a decrease in prevalence of smoking. The sales ban has probably contributed to a stronger decrease in prevalence of smoking.

  18. Short sales, differences of opinion and fundamental value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Porras Prado, M.; Ling, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the role of short sale constraints in explaining the variation in premiums to Net Asset Value (NAV) in REIT pricing. We use proprietary information on short sales between June 2006 and September 2008 to examine how short sales and short sale constraints affect the variation in

  19. Violation of Bans on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion at Points of Sale in Viet Nam: Trend from 2009 - 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Son, Phung Xuan; Huyen, Do Phuc; Linh, Phan Thuy; Bich, Nguyen Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Xuan; Anh, Le Vu; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion were introduced through tobacco control legislation in Viet Nam, but it has been established that violations of the bans are very common. This study was conducted to explore the trend in violations of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in Viet Nam in the past six years and to explore any differences in the violation situations before and after the Law on Tobacco Control came into effect on 1st May 2013. Quantitative data were collected through observation of violations of the bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in 10 provinces throughout Viet Nam in four survey rounds (2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015). Variation in violation prevalence over time was examined by chi-square test using a Bonferini method. Binary logistic regression was employed to identify the factors that may have influences on different types of violation. A level of significance of padvertising increased while violations on promotion ban and on displaying tobacco decreased through time. Some factors associated with the tobacco advertising and promotion bans included surveyed years, types of points of sale, regions and areas where the points of sale were located. The enforcement of the bans did not improve even after the issuance and the enactment of the Law on Tobacco Control. This suggests that the monitoring and enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale should be strengthened. Penalties should be strictly applied for violators as indicated in the current tobacco control legislation.

  20. Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising and Display Bans: Policy Evaluation Study in Five Russian Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Grant, Ashley; Spires, Mark; Cohen, Joanna E

    2017-08-15

    The tobacco industry uses point-of-sale (POS) advertising, promotion, and product display to increase consumption of its products among current users, to attract new consumers, and to encourage former customers to resume tobacco use. As part of a comprehensive tobacco control effort, Russia-having one of the highest tobacco use prevalence rates in the world-enacted legislation that banned tobacco POS advertising, effective November 15, 2013, and banned the display of tobacco and the sale of cigarettes in kiosks, effective June 1, 2014. The objective of the study was to evaluate the implementation of the national law by assessing the state of POS advertising, promotion, and product display, and sales in kiosks across Russia. Two waves of observations were conducted to measure compliance with the POS restrictions: wave 1 took place in April-May 2014 after the advertising ban was in effect and again in August-September 2014 after the display ban and elimination of tobacco sales in kiosks came into effect. Observations were conducted by local trained staff that traveled to 5 populous cities in different regions of Russia (Moscow, St. Petersburg, Kazan, Ekaterinburg, and Novosibirsk). Staff followed a published POS evaluation protocol and used mobile phones to collect data. Observations were conducted in a roughly equal number of supermarket chains, convenience stores, and kiosks. Observed items included advertising at POS, product displays, and cigarette sales in kiosks. Observations were made in 780 venues in wave 1 and in 779 revisited venues in wave 2. In wave 1, approximately a third of supermarkets and convenience stores (34.2%, 184/538) were advertising cigarettes using light boxes, and over half of observed venues (54.3%, 292/538) had signage such as banners or shelf liners that used colors or images related to cigarette brands. Product displays were common in wave 1. In wave 2, compliance with advertising restrictions was very good: there were virtually no

  1. Impact of the smoking ban on the volume of bar sales in Ireland: evidence from time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelsen, Laura; Normand, Charles

    2012-05-01

    This paper is the first to estimate the economic impact of a comprehensive smoking ban in all enclosed public places of work, on bars in Ireland. The demand in bars, represented by a monthly index of sales volume, is explained by relative prices in bars, prices of alcohol sold in off-licences and the aggregate retail sales (ARS) as a proxy for general economic activity and incomes. The smoking ban is included into the model as a step dummy and the modelling is done using ARIMAX strategy. The results show a reduction in the volume of sales in bars by -4.6% (p<0.01) following the ban. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Are retailers compliant with zoning regulations that ban tobacco sales near schools in Changsha, China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; Lu, Bo; Wewers, Mary Ellen; Foraker, Randi E; Xie, Mengyao; Ferketich, Amy K

    2017-07-01

    Tobacco retail sales are prohibited within 100 m of schools in many large cities in China. However, little is known about the enforcement of this zoning regulation. The objectives of this study were to estimate tobacco retailers' compliance with the regulation, examine the density of tobacco retail stores, describe the types of tobacco products sold in stores and how they are marketed, and determine if there are displays of warning messages in retail stores around schools and in neighbourhoods in Changsha, China. Tobacco retail stores located within 200 m of 36 schools and 36 residential neighbourhoods were audited by trained students with a validated audit form. On average, there were about 3 tobacco retail stores within 100 m of the front entrance of schools. The density of the stores and the types of tobacco products sold in the stores were similar near schools and in neighbourhoods. Over one-fourth of the stores had exterior tobacco advertisements. Interior advertising was slightly less prevalent, and it was most prevalent among tobacco shops (62.5%). Tobacco displays that target children were pervasive, with about 83% of tobacco retail stores displaying cigarettes within 1 m of the floor and 59% displaying cigarettes within 0.3 m of toys and candy. About 40% of stores within 100 m of a school had a visible retail licence. Only 19.6% of the stores had a 'smoke-free' sign and 22.2% had a 'no sales to minors' sign. We observed low enforcement of the regulation that bans tobacco retail sales near schools and high prevalence of tobacco displays that target children in Changsha, China. Chinese officials should act to effectively enforce the regulation bans of tobacco sales near schools. In addition, regulations are urgently needed to limit tobacco marketing practices at the point of sale, especially those targeting youth. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  3. EU sales ban on new cosmetics tested on animals: impact on alternative methods, WTO implications and animal welfare aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, Irmela W

    2004-06-01

    In 1993, the European Union (EU) adopted Directive 93/35/EEC, calling for a sales ban on new cosmetic products containing ingredients tested on animals after 1 January, 1998, provided that alternative methods had been developed by then. In May 2000, for the second time, the European Commission postponed that ban. The Commission justified the repeated postponement of the sales ban by saying that no animal-free methods were available, although three in vitro methods were scientifically approved in 1997. With three years delay, these methods have been published and therefore "made available" in the EU. OECD acceptance is still awaited. Another reason for the postponement was the fear of possible World Trade Organisation (WTO) conflicts. However, according to WTO rules, the protection of public morality or animal health could justify a restriction of the free trade principle. From the animal welfare point of view, an unqualified EU sales ban, combined with an animal testing ban, would provide the incentive to further promote the development and acceptance of alternative methods and to prove that ethical standards are legitimate concerns under WTO rules.

  4. The opinions of adults about the ban on cigarette sales to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcebe, H; Bilir, N; Inal, E; Unlu, H; Beser, E; Can, G; Evci Kiraz, E D; Okyay, P; Arslantas, D; Abacigil, F; Senol, V; Turhan, E; Gokgoz, S; Calıkoglu, E O; Kocan, Z

    2016-01-01

    Selling of tobacco products to minors has been banned since 1996 by the tobacco control law in Turkey. However, it is also important for the public to support practices that prevent the access of tobacco products to minors. In addition, every individual has the responsibility of carrying out society based programs that restrict access to tobacco products especially to children and the youths. Social sensitivity is considered an important factor in the prevention of tobacco use. This study aims to learn about the opinions and attitudes of adults with regards to minors access to tobacco products. The study was a descriptive study conducted in nine city centers in Turkey. The total number of participants reached was 3241. The questionnaire was developed by the research team and consisted of 22 questions concerning knowledge and behaviors of adults on restriction of tobacco sales to minors and their observations with regards tobacco sales to minors. Data was collected through face to face interview. Pearson chi-square test was used for the bivariate analysis whereas logistic regression was investigate the relationship between "the participant's response against tobacco sales to minors" and the following explanatory variables; "age", "educational status", "income level", "working status", "minors access to cigarettes", "smoking ratio in high school" and "sales of tobacco to minors". More than half of the participants (60.5%) belonged to the age group 25-44 years, 61.3% graduated from high school or university. Most of the participants were smoker (39.2%) or ex-smoker (19.1%), and 41.7% of the participants was non-smoker. A greater proportion of the participants (76.2%) believed that smoking prevalence was greater than 40% among high school students. One in four (27.8%) adults did not know that tobacco control law bans sell of tobacco products to minors in Turkey. More than half of the participants (57.1%) ever witnessed tobacco sales to minors and 63.6% of them did not

  5. Impact of a point-of-sale tobacco display ban on smokers' spontaneous purchases: comparisons from postpurchase interviews before and after the ban in Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Owen B J; Phan, Tina; Mills, Brennen W

    2015-03-01

    To assess the impact of the Western Australian tobacco point-of-sale display ban on spontaneous purchase behaviours. Daily adult smokers (n=402) observed purchasing cigarettes were recruited via exit interviews either 2 months before or after the implementation of the display ban. Smokers were asked if they had intended to purchase cigarettes before entering the store to assess spontaneous purchase behaviours. Whether smokers had noticed the displays before their purchase and the extent to which this influenced their purchase decision was also assessed via non-prompting questions. When compared with before the ban, fewer smokers after the ban noticed the displays (27.1% vs 1.1%, pmaking spontaneous purchases (28.2% vs 19.8%, ppurchase decisions (free recall 5.0% vs 1.1%, ppurchasers were more likely than planned purchasers to suggest the displays influenced their purchase decisions (free recall 9.7% vs 3.2%, ppurchasers nominating the influence of displays fell substantially (free recall 9.7% vs 5.6%, p=NS; cued recall 40.0% vs 11.1%, ppurchasers (free recall 3.2% vs 0.0%, pmaking spontaneous tobacco purchases after implementation of the Western Australian tobacco display ban and between a fivefold and sixfold reduction in the proportion suggesting displays influenced their decision to purchase cigarettes. These data are consistent with previous research suggesting tobacco displays encourage spontaneous purchases and their removal corresponds to reductions in the same. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Support for a ban on tobacco powerwalls and other point-of-sale displays: findings from focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Allen, Jane A; Kosa, Katherine M; Curry, Laurel E

    2015-02-01

    This study uses focus group data to document consumer perceptions of powerwall and other point-of-sale (POS) tobacco displays, and support for a ban on tobacco displays. Four focus groups were conducted in 2012 by a trained moderator. The study comprised 34 adult residents of New York State, approximately half with children under age 18 years living at home. Measures used in the study were awareness and perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, and level of support for a ban on tobacco displays. Analysis focused on perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, level of support for a ban on tobacco displays and reasons participants oppose a display ban. This study documents a general lack of concern about tobacco use in the community, which does not appear to be associated with support for a ban on POS tobacco displays. Although all participants had seen tobacco powerwalls and most considered them to be a form of advertising, participants were divided as to whether they played a role in youth smoking. Additional research is warranted to determine what factors individuals weigh in assigning value to a ban on POS tobacco displays and other tobacco control policies and how educational efforts can influence those assessments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Impact of point-of-sale tobacco display bans: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Cummings, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing restrictions in Australia and Canada, in relation to the United Kingdom and the United States where there were no such restrictions during the study period (2006–10). The data came from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective multi-country cohort survey of adult smokers. In jurisdictions where POS display bans were implemented, smokers’ reported exposure to tobacco marketing declined markedly....

  8. Breaking Bad in Mississippi: Do County-Level Alcohol Sale Bans Encourage Crystal Methamphetamine Production and Consumption?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Granger Maury

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available If alcohol has substitutes, changes in its relative price can encourage the production and consumption of other illicit and harmful drugs. This paper considers if county-level bans on the sale of alcohol in the state of Mississippi encourage the production and consumption of crystal methamphetamine. We estimate the parameters of a drug production function in which the inputs are the density of people and firms, underscoring the importance of learning and knowledge spillovers to production and consumption. Poisson and Negative Binomial parameter estimates reveal that county-level bans on hard liquor sales; but not on beer and wine, increase the number of crystal methamphetamine labs. In the absence of such laws, there would be approximately 308 fewer crystal methamphetamine labs in the state of Mississippi. Our findings suggest that in Mississippi, which is the least healthiest state in the nation, county-level bans on hard liquor sales are not welfare improving as they encourage substitution for a drug that is potentially more harmful to individual health than alcohol.

  9. Effectiveness of the California State Ban on the Sale of Caulerpa Species in Aquarium Retail Stores in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Stephanie; Smith, Jayson R.; Zaleski, Susan F.; Murray, Steven N.

    2012-07-01

    The invasion of the aquarium strain of the green alga Caulerpa taxifolia and subsequent alteration of community structure in the Mediterranean Sea raised awareness of the potential for non-native seaweeds to impact coastal communities. An introduction of C. taxifolia in southern California in 2000, presumably from the release of aquarium specimens, cost ~7 million for eradication efforts. Besides C. taxifolia, other Caulerpa species being sold for aquarium use also may have the potential to invade southern Californian and U.S. waters. Surveys of the availability of Caulerpa species in southern California aquarium retail stores in 2000-2001 revealed that 26 of 50 stores sold at least one Caulerpa species (52 %) with seven stores selling C. taxifolia. In late 2001, California imposed a ban on the importation, sale, or possession of nine Caulerpa species; the City of San Diego expanded these regulations to include the entire genus. To determine the effectiveness of the California ban, we resurveyed Caulerpa availability at 43 of the 50 previously sampled retail stores in southern California in ~2006, ~4 years following the ban. Of the 43 stores, 23 sold Caulerpa (53 %) with four stores selling C. taxifolia. A χ2 test of frequency of availability before and after the California ban suggests that the ban has not been effective and that the aquarium trade continues to represent a potential vector for distributing Caulerpa specimens, including C. taxifolia. This study underscores the need for increased enforcement and outreach programs to increase awareness among the aquarium industry and aquarium hobbyists.

  10. Impact of the Irish smoking ban on sales in bars using a large business-level data set from 1999 to 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelsen, Laura; Normand, Charles

    2014-09-01

    Ireland introduced comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation in 2004. This study evaluates the economic impact of the workplace smoking ban on the value of sales in bars. Data on the value of bar sales were derived from a large, nationally representative, annual business-level survey from 1999 to 2007. The economic impact of the smoking ban was evaluated according to geographical region and bar size. Analysis was based on an econometric model which controlled for background changes in population income and wealth and for investments made by the bars during this period. The overall impact of the Irish smoking ban on bar sales appears to be very small. The ban was associated with an increase in sales among medium to large bars in the Border-Midland-West (more rural) region of Ireland, and a small reduction in sales among large bars in the more urban, South-East region. We failed to find any evidence of a change in bar sales in the remaining categories studied. The results indicate that although some bars saw positive effects and some negative, the overall impact of the smoking ban on the value of sales in bars was negligible. These findings provide further supporting evidence that comprehensive smoke-free workplace legislation does not harm hospitality businesses while having positive health effects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Tobacco companies' use of retailer incentives after a ban on point-of-sale tobacco displays in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Eadie, Douglas; Purves, Richard I; Moodie, Crawford; Haw, Sally

    2017-07-31

    Incentives have been used by tobacco companies for many years to encourage retailers to sell and promote their products. However, few studies have examined the use of retailer incentives in countries with a ban on the open display of tobacco products in stores. As part of the DISPLAY(Determining the Impact of Smoking Point of Sale Legislation Among Youth) study, annual qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 small retailers in four Scottish communities. This article focuses on data collected in June to July 2015 and June to July 2016 after a ban on the open display of tobacco was fully implemented in Scotland. Retailers described being offered and benefiting from a range of financial and other incentives, typically offered via tobacco company representatives ('reps'). Most of the retailers received tobacco manufacturer support for converting their storage unit to be compliant with the new regulations, and several participated in manufacturer 'loyalty' or 'reward' schemes. Incentives were additionally offered for maintaining stock levels and availability, positioning brands in specified spaces in the public-facing storage units (even though products were covered up), increasing sales, trialling new products and participating in specific promotions, such as verbally recommending specific brands to customers. Even in a market where the open display of tobacco is prohibited, tobacco companies continue to incentivise retailers to sell and promote their brands and have developed new promotional strategies. For countries that have implemented tobacco display bans, or are considering doing so, one option to combat these practices would be to ban promotional communications between manufacturers and retailers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Impact of point-of-sale tobacco display bans: findings from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Fong, Geoffrey T.; Thrasher, James F.; Hammond, David; Cummings, Kenneth M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of point-of-sale (POS) tobacco marketing restrictions in Australia and Canada, in relation to the United Kingdom and the United States where there were no such restrictions during the study period (2006–10). The data came from the International Tobacco Control Four Country Survey, a prospective multi-country cohort survey of adult smokers. In jurisdictions where POS display bans were implemented, smokers’ reported exposure to tobacco marketing declined markedly. From 2006 to 2010, in Canada, the percentages noticing POS tobacco displays declined from 74.1 to 6.1% [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.26, P advertising decreased from 40.3 to 14.1% (adjusted OR = 0.61, P marketing in the United States and United Kingdom remained high during this period. In parallel, there were declines in reported exposures to other forms of advertising/promotion in Canada and Australia, but again, not in the United States or United Kingdom. Impulse purchasing of cigarettes was lower in places that enacted POS display bans. These findings indicate that implementing POS tobacco display bans does result in lower exposure to tobacco marketing and less frequent impulse purchasing of cigarettes. PMID:23640986

  13. Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans in Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Southeast Asia Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Borland, Ron; Yong, Hua-Hie; Sirirassamee, Buppha; Hamann, Stephen; Omar, Maizurah; Quah, Anne C K

    2015-08-13

    In September 2005 Thailand became the first Asian country to implement a complete ban on the display of cigarettes and other tobacco products at point-of-sale (POS). This paper examined the impact of the POS tobacco display ban in Thailand, with Malaysia (which did not impose bans) serving as a comparison. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (2005-2011), a prospective cohort survey designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of tobacco control policies. Main measures included smokers' reported awareness of tobacco displays and advertising at POS. At the first post-ban survey wave over 90% of smokers in Thailand were aware of the display ban policy and supported it, and about three quarters thought the ban was effective. Noticing tobacco displays in stores was lowest (16.9%) at the first post-ban survey wave, but increased at later survey waves; however, the levels were consistently lower than those in Malaysia. Similarly, exposure to POS tobacco advertising was lower in Thailand. The display ban has reduced exposure to tobacco marketing at POS. The trend toward increased noticing is likely at least in part due to some increase in violations of the display bans and/or strategies to circumvent them.

  14. Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans in Thailand: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC Southeast Asia Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In September 2005 Thailand became the first Asian country to implement a complete ban on the display of cigarettes and other tobacco products at point-of-sale (POS. This paper examined the impact of the POS tobacco display ban in Thailand, with Malaysia (which did not impose bans serving as a comparison. The data came from the International Tobacco Control Southeast Asia Survey (2005–2011, a prospective cohort survey designed to evaluate the psychosocial and behavioral impacts of tobacco control policies. Main measures included smokers’ reported awareness of tobacco displays and advertising at POS. At the first post-ban survey wave over 90% of smokers in Thailand were aware of the display ban policy and supported it, and about three quarters thought the ban was effective. Noticing tobacco displays in stores was lowest (16.9% at the first post-ban survey wave, but increased at later survey waves; however, the levels were consistently lower than those in Malaysia. Similarly, exposure to POS tobacco advertising was lower in Thailand. The display ban has reduced exposure to tobacco marketing at POS. The trend toward increased noticing is likely at least in part due to some increase in violations of the display bans and/or strategies to circumvent them.

  15. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ce Shang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Methods: Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO “MPOWER” tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. Results: The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p p p < 0.001. Conclusions: POS advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  16. The Association between Point-of-Sale Advertising Bans and Youth Experimental Smoking: Findings from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    while existing research has demonstrated a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising and youth smoking, there is limited evidence on the relationship between POS advertising restrictions and experimental smoking among youth. This study aims to fill this research gap by analyzing the association between POS advertising bans and youths' experimental smoking. Global Youth Tobacco Surveys from 130 countries during 2007-2011 were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" tobacco control policy measures to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and experimental smoking using weighted logistic regressions. All analyses were clustered at the country level and controlled for age, parents' smoking status, GDP per capita, and country-level tobacco control scores in monitoring tobacco use, protecting people from smoke, offering help to quit, warning about the dangers of tobacco, enforcing promotion/advertising bans, and raising taxes on tobacco. The results suggest that a POS advertising ban is significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth (OR = 0.63, p advertising bans are significantly associated with reduced experimental smoking among youth. Adopting POS advertising bans has the potential to reduce tobacco use among their youth in countries currently without such bans.

  17. Impact on smoking of England's 2012 partial tobacco point of sale display ban: a repeated cross-sectional national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Mirte A G; Beard, Emma; Hitchman, Sara C; Brown, Jamie; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E; McNeill, Ann; West, Robert

    2017-03-01

    A partial tobacco point of sale (PoS) display ban was introduced in large shops (>280 m 2 floor area) in England on 6 April 2012. The aim of this study was to assess the medium-term effects of the partial tobacco PoS display ban on smoking in England. Data were used from 129 957 respondents participating in monthly, cross-sectional household surveys of representative samples of the English adult population aged 18+ years from January 2009 to February 2015. Interrupted-time series regression models assessed step changes in the level of current smoking and cigarette consumption in smokers and changes in the trends postban compared with preban. Models were adjusted for sociodemographic variables and e-cigarette use, seasonality and autocorrelation. Potential confounding by cigarette price was accounted for by time, as price was almost perfectly correlated with time. Following the display ban, there was no immediate step level change in smoking (-3.69% change, 95% CI -7.94 to 0.75, p=0.102) or in cigarette consumption (β -0.183, 95% CI -0.602 to 0.236). There was a significantly steeper decline in smoking post display ban (-0.46% change, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.20, p=0.001). This effect was demonstrated by respondents in manual occupations (-0.62% change, 95% CI -0.72 to -0.20, p=0.001), but not for those in non-manual occupations (-0.42, 95% CI -0.90 to 0.06, p=0.084). Cigarette consumption declined preban period (β -0.486, 95% CI -0.633 to -0.339, p<0.001), but no significant change in cigarette consumption trend was observed (β 0.019, 95% CI -0.006 to 0.042, p=0.131). The partial tobacco PoS display ban introduced in England in April 2012 did not lead to an immediate decline in smoking, but was followed by a decline in the trend of smoking prevalence that could not be accounted for by seasonal factors, e-cigarette use or price changes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Brand placement on price boards after tobacco display bans: a point-of-sale audit in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Melanie; Zacher, Meghan; Scollo, Michelle; Durkin, Sarah

    2012-11-01

    This study aims to explore how cigarette brands are arranged on boards listing tobacco products and/or prices following the 1 January 2011 ban on point-of-sale tobacco displays in Victoria, Australia. An audit undertaken in late 2011 gathered information on the prevalence and contents of tobacco product information displays ('price boards'). We examined how often all or most of the brands listed at the top of price boards were owned by the same tobacco company, and whether premium, mainstream and value brands were listed in prominent positions more frequently in different store types and socio-economic areas (SES). Of the 281 stores audited, 64% (179) had legible price boards. Of the 178 with factory-made products, 11% arranged brands alphabetically, 2% by price and 87% did so in some other way. In 65% of stores where brands were arranged in some other way, at least three of the top four positions were devoted to brands owned by the same tobacco company. Premium brands were given greater prominence than would be expected by market share. Neighbourhood SES was significantly related to the representation in the most prominent price board positions of brands from the most appropriate market segment. Price boards are being used to target brands to consumers. Jurisdictions should also prohibit price board display when they ban tobacco product display; prices might instead be itemised in alphabetical order on a list only viewable upon customer request.

  19. The opinions of adults about the ban on cigarette sales to minors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ozcebe

    2016-12-01

    Although laws prohibiting the sale of tobacco products to the under age group is very important with regards to accessibility of minors to tobacco products, most of the study participants believed that minors can still easily access tobacco products, and more than half of the participants did not act when confronted with the event. The education, information and monitoring program most especially as it concerns salesman, should be reviewed and strengthened to obey the rules on sales of tobacco products to minors. Education program should be carried out to increase the knowledge and awareness of the community for sale of tobacco to minors. Social sensitivity is important for the prevention of tobacco use and every individual have a responsibility in carrying out this society based program, most especially as it related to prevention of tobacco usage among children and youths.

  20. Do Blue Laws Save Lives? The Effect of Sunday Alcohol Sales Bans on Fatal Vehicle Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovenheim, Michael F.; Steefel, Daniel P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of state-level Sunday alcohol sales restrictions ("blue laws") on fatal vehicle accidents, which is an important parameter in assessing the desirability of these laws. Using a panel data set of all fatal vehicle accidents in the U.S. between 1990 and 2009 combined with 15 state repeals of blue laws, we show that…

  1. A store cohort study of compliance with a point-of-sale cigarette display ban in Melbourne, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacher, Meghan; Germain, Daniella; Durkin, Sarah; Hayes, Linda; Scollo, Michelle; Wakefield, Melanie

    2013-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate compliance with legislation which restricted cigarette displays in retail outlets, and to assess prevalence of pro- and anti-tobacco elements in stores pre- and post-legislation. METHODS Three audits of 302 stores in Melbourne, Australia by trained observers who gathered information on point-of-sale tobacco displays 2-3 months before and 3-4 and 11-12 months after the enactment of new restrictions. Between the first and second audits, nine stores stopped selling tobacco and three stores had either shut down or were closed for renovations. Of the remaining 290 stores, 94.1% observed the full ban on cigarette package visibility, while new restrictions on price board size and new requirements for graphic health warnings were followed in 85.9% and 67.2% of stores, respectively. Between the second and third audits, another seven stores ended tobacco sales and two stores closed. In Audit 3, 89.7% of the remaining 281 stores complied with price board restrictions, and 82.2% of stores followed requirements for graphic health warnings. Overall, the prevalence of anti-tobacco signage increased and pro-tobacco features decreased between audits for every store type and neighborhood socio-economic status. Tobacco retailers were almost universally compliant with placing cigarettes out of sight and a substantial majority were compliant with regulations on price board size and display of graphic health warnings, demonstrating that such legislation can be implemented successfully.

  2. Use of social media to circumvent sales and advertising ban of electronic cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Güner

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background There are no legal electronic cigarette products available in Turkey. According to the law whether including tobacco or not products that resemble tobacco products can not be advertised, promoted and sold through internet.However the use of electronic cigarettes are frequently observed. This study was carried out in order to find out the sales outlet and advertising media of the publicly available products. Methods Internet search of the key words "e-cigarettes and electronic cigarettes" in Turkish language was carried out . The survey of the forum and websites identified were further analyzed to detect the presence of advertising, promotion and trading elements. Results There were 94 websites and one social forum with 69,354 members on electronic cigarettes in Turkish language. Of the websites 95 % had advertising and facilitated online sales. Social media forum had a section for beginners which was accessible by non-member, containing information about the device, liquids and usage. Under the heading" starter kit for beginners" 143 brands were promoted. The suppliers were introduced under 74 headings and 44774 messages. 25 suppliers sold e-cigarettes through the forum by 221 various advertising. Online shopping section was consisted of 1990 topics and 179.100 messages. The forum also facilitated exchange of products between members, as well as international sales without customs. All the websites had Turkish domain names and used regular shipping companies for the delivery of the products. The social media forum had an international hosting. Advertising contained false claims about the safety of the products referring to reputable international organizations.Social media forum provided home-made recipes and the names and adresses of chemical supplier companies. Conclusions Social media was extensively used for the sale and advertising of electronic cigarettes that were not licenced in Turkey. Laws need to be enforced not only in

  3. Disentangling the roles of point-of-sale ban, tobacco retailer density and proximity on cessation and relapse among a cohort of smokers: findings from ITC Canada Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L; Lozano, Paula; Wu, Yun-Hsuan; Hardin, James W; Meng, Gang; Liese, Angela D; Fong, Geoffrey T; Thrasher, James F

    2018-03-08

    To examine how point-of-sale (POS) display bans, tobacco retailer density and tobacco retailer proximity were associated with smoking cessation and relapse in a cohort of smokers in Canada, where provincial POS bans were implemented differentially over time from 2004 to 2010. Data from the 2005 to 2011 administrations of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Canada Survey, a nationally representative cohort of adult smokers, were linked via residential geocoding with tobacco retailer data to derive for each smoker a measure of retailer density and proximity. An indicator variable identified whether the smoker's province banned POS displays at the time of the interview. Outcomes included cessation for at least 1 month at follow-up among smokers from the previous wave and relapse at follow-up among smokers who had quit at the previous wave. Logistic generalised estimating equation models were used to determine the relationship between living in a province with a POS display ban, tobacco retailer density and tobacco retailer proximity with cessation (n=4388) and relapse (n=866). Provincial POS display bans were not associated with cessation. In adjusted models, POS display bans were associated with lower odds of relapse which strengthened after adjusting for retailer density and proximity, although results were not statistically significant (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.07, p=0.089). Neither tobacco retailer density nor proximity was associated with cessation or relapse. Banning POS retail displays shows promise as an additional tool to prevent relapse, although these results need to be confirmed in larger longitudinal studies. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  4. Cohort study investigating the effects of first stage of the English tobacco point-of-sale display ban on awareness, susceptibility and smoking uptake among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovica, Ilze; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2017-01-23

    A prospective evaluation of the effect of 2012 point-of-sale (PoS) display ban in supermarkets in England on perceived exposure to PoS displays, and on changes in susceptibility and smoking uptake among young people. Cohort study. Seven schools in Nottinghamshire, England. 1035 11-16-year-old school children. Changes in reported exposure to PoS displays before and after prohibition, and the association between exposure to and awareness of PoS displays and change in susceptibility to smoking and smoking status between 2011 and 2012 (before the ban) and 2012 and 2013 (after the ban). The proportion of children noticing tobacco PoS displays in supermarkets most or every time they visited a shop changed little between 2011 and 2012 (59.6% (95% CI 56.6% to 62.6%) and 58.8% (95% CI 55.8% to 61.8%), respectively); but decreased by about 13 percentage points to 45.7% (95% CI 42.7% to 48.7%) in 2013, after the ban. However, after adjusting for confounders, implementation of the first stage of the PoS ban in 2012 did not result in significant changes in the relation between susceptibility to smoking and smoking status and exposure to and awareness of PoS displays. Prohibition of PoS in large supermarkets resulted in a decline in the proportion of young people noticing PoS displays in large shops, but little or no change in smoking uptake or susceptibility. It remains to be seen whether extension of the PoS ban to all shops in 2015 has a more marked effect. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. 26 CFR 1.1233-1 - Gains and losses from short sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... makes a short sale of shares of stock and covers the short sale by purchasing and delivering shares...) Treatment of losses. The third rule, which is set forth in section 1233(d), is applicable whenever property... loss attributable to so much of the property sold short as exceeds in quantity the substantially...

  6. New Zealand tobacco retailers' attitudes to selling tobacco, point-of-sale display bans and other tobacco control measures: a qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaine, Richard; Russell, Marie; Edwards, Richard; Thomson, George

    2014-06-20

    We aimed to explore New Zealand tobacco retailers' views on selling tobacco, the forthcoming 2012 point of sale display ban and two other potential tobacco control interventions in the retail setting: compulsory sales of nicotine replacement therapy and licensing of tobacco retailers. We carried out in-depth interviews with 18 retailers from a variety of store types where tobacco was sold. Stores were selected from a range of locations with varying levels of deprivation. We used thematic analysis to analyse the data. All but four of the retailers were ambivalent about selling tobacco, would rather not sell it, or fell back on a business imperative for justification. Only one retailer was explicitly unconcerned about selling tobacco products. Most participants had few or no concerns about the removal of point-of-sale displays. Issues which were raised were mainly practical and logistical issues with the removal of displays. Only three thought sales would definitely be reduced. The majority of the retailers were not opposed to a possible requirement that nicotine replacement therapy products be made available wherever tobacco products are sold. Ten supported a licensing or registration scheme for tobacco retailers, and only three were opposed. We found widespread ambivalence about selling tobacco. There was considerable support for the licensing of tobacco retailers and other potential tobacco control measures. The retailers' attitudes about potential financial costs and security issues from a tobacco display ban were at odds with the tobacco industry predictions and the views of retailers' organisations. Some retailers appear to be potential allies for tobacco control. This is in contrast to retailer organisations, which may be out of step with many of their members in their strong opposition to retail tobacco control interventions.

  7. How compliant are tobacco vendors to india's tobacco control legislation on Ban of advertisments at point of sale? A three jurisdictions review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonu; Kumar, Ravinder; Lal, Pranay; Tripathi, Jp; Singh, Rana J; Rathinam, Arul; Christian, Anant

    2014-01-01

    Section 5 of India's tobacco control legislation "Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Act (COTPA), 2003"comprehensively prohibits all kinds of tobacco advertisement, promotion and sponsorship (TAPS), but permits advertisments at the point-of-sale (POS) under certain conditions. This provision has been exploited by the tobacco companies to promote their products. To measure compliance with the provisions of Section 5 of Indian tobacco control legislation (COTPA, 2003) at point of sale. A cross-sectional survey using an observation checklist was conducted in 1860 POS across three jurisdictions (Chennai city, District Vadodara and District Mohali) in India. The most common mode of advertisement of tobacco products was product showcasing (51.1%), followed by dangles (49.6%), stickers (33.8%) and boards (27.1%). More than one fourth of POS were found violating legal provisions for displaying advertisement boards in one or other forms (oversized, extended to full body lenth of POS, displayed brandname/ packshot and promotional messages). Advertisement boards (16.3%) without health warnings were also found and wherever found, more than 90% health warning were not as per the specification in respect to size, font and background color. Point of sale advertising is aggressively used by the tobacco industry to promote their products. There is an urgent need of effective implementation of a comprehensive ban on tobacco product advertisement, promotion and sponsorship at point of sale.

  8. 13 CFR 107.1240 - Funding of Licensee's draw request through sale to short-term investor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... through sale to short-term investor. 107.1240 Section 107.1240 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...'s draw request through sale to short-term investor. (a) Licensee's authorization of SBA to arrange sale of securities to short-term investor. By submitting a request for a draw of Debenture or...

  9. Exploring the potential for a mass media campaign to influence support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the point of sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jane A; Davis, K C; Kamyab, K; Farrelly, M C

    2015-02-01

    This study explores whether exposure to advertisements that focus on the negative effects of tobacco industry advertising and promotion at the point of sale (anti-POS advertising) influence: (i) attitude toward POS advertising; (ii) perceived impact of POS advertising on youth smoking; and (iii) support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the POS among adult non-smokers in New York. Data are from a split-sample, experimental study, using an online media tracking survey with embedded TV, radio and print advertising. Exposure to anti-POS advertising was associated with higher odds of holding a negative attitude toward POS advertising (OR 2.43, P promotion at the POS (OR 1.77, P advertisements on youth smoking. Findings suggest the possibility that a mass media campaign could be used to influence public attitude toward POS advertising and support for a ban on tobacco promotion at the POS. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. E-Cigarette Users' Attitudes on the Banning of Sales of Nicotine E-Liquid, Its Implication on E-Cigarette Use Behaviours and Alternative Sources of Nicotine E-Liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Li Ping; Alias, Haridah; Agha Mohammadi, Nasrin; Ghadimi, Azadeh; Hoe, Victor Chee Wai

    2017-12-01

    The banning of sales of nicotine e-liquid in e-cigarette shops has been implemented in several states in Malaysia. The distribution of nicotine e-liquid can only be allowed by licensed pharmacies or registered medical practitioners. This study aimed to evaluate e-cigarette users' responses to the control policy in a cross-sectional survey of 851 e-cigarette users by utilizing a self-report questionnaire that assessed (1) attitudes on regulation policy of e-cigarette banning; (2) e-cigarette use behaviors; and (3) sources of e-liquid after the regulation policy has been implemented. Participants from the state of Selangor where the banning policy was implemented were surveyed. The majority (95.8%) opposed the banning and believed e-cigarettes should be sold to anyone aged 18 years or above as with tobacco cigarettes, only a minority believed that nicotine e-liquid should only be available for sale over the counter in pharmacy stores (14.6%) and in clinics with a doctor's prescription (11.8%). The majority (44.2%) reported that they would continue their e-cigarette use as before the banning policy, while 20% plan to completely stop e-cigarette usage without replacing it with any alternatives. The vast majority (87.9%) was still able to obtained nicotine e-liquid from e-cigarette shops in spite of the ban and the second most common source was from online purchase (63.1%). The sales of nicotine e-liquid from black-market were evidenced as many reported obtaining zero nicotine e-liquid from the black market (54.4%). Self- or home-made (30.8%) nicotine e-liquid was also reported. Majority of respondents that self-made e-liquid were from the average monthly income group (below MYR3000). Obtaining nicotine from the pharmacy was least preferred (21.4%). Provision of professional advice to nicotine e-liquid users along with the ban may lessen the likelihood of users switching to tobacco cigarettes or other nicotine alternatives. Banning of sales of nicotine e-liquid in e

  11. The impact of a tobacco point-of-sale display ban on youth in the United Kingdom: findings from a repeat cross-sectional survey pre-, mid- and post-implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Ford

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The display of tobacco products at the point-of-sale (POS allows tobacco companies to showcase their products and communicate with consumers. Evidence suggests that exposure to POS tobacco displays is associated with impulse tobacco purchasing among adult smokers and smoking susceptibility among never smoking youth. In the United Kingdom (UK a ban on the open display of tobacco products was phased in between 2012 and 2015. Three waves of the Youth Tobacco Policy Survey were used to examine the impact of the ban on youth pre-, mid- and post-implementation. Methods A repeat cross-sectional survey was conducted with 11-16 year olds across the UK. Data was collected via an in-home face-to-face interview and self-completion questionnaire at three time points: pre- (2011, n=1373, mid- (2014, n=1205, and post-display ban (2016, n=1213. We examined whether the salience of displays was associated with smoking susceptibility among never smokers. Measures also explored cigarette brand awareness, attractiveness of displays and support for a display ban. Results In 2011, pre-ban, susceptibility to smoke was positively associated with noticing cigarettes displayed at POS and higher brand awareness. Susceptibility to smoke decreased from 28% in 2011 (pre-ban to 18% in 2016 (post-ban, with the mean number of brands recalled falling from 1.56 (SD=1.88 in 2011 to 1.01 (SD=1.42 in 2016. With respect to support for the ban, in 2016 the vast majority of our sample (87% indicated that shops should have to keep cigarettes behind closed shutters. They also felt that having them behind closed shutters made them seem unappealing (73% and made them think that it's not ok to smoke (83%. Conclusions That smoking susceptibility was lower following the ban suggests that placing tobacco out of sight helps safeguard young people and justifies this policy approach in the UK and elsewhere.

  12. The Impact of Short-Sale Constraints on Asset Allocation Strategies via the Backward Markov Chain Approximation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Chiarella; Chih-Ying Hsiao

    2005-01-01

    This paper considers an asset allocation strategy over a finite period under investment uncertainty and short-sale constraints as a continuous time stochastic control problem. Investment uncertainty is characterised by a stochastic interest rate and inflation risk. If there are no short-sale constraints, the optimal asset allocation strategy can be solved analytically. We consider several kinds of short-sale constraints and employ the backward Markov chain approximation method to explore the ...

  13. Sale

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    On Tuesday 28 November, a sale in aid of the animal protection society 'SOS Animaux Pays de Gex' will be held at the entrance to Restaurant No. 1 from 9 am to 5 pm. Mr Mpntagnel, a balloon sculptor, will also be on hand to create whatever kind of characters or animals your heart may desire.

  14. Sale

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    On Tuesday 28 November, a sale in aid of the animal protection society 'SOS Animaux Pays de Gex' will be held at the entrance to Restaurant 1 from 9 am to 5 pm. Mr Montagnel, a balloon sculptor, will also be on hand to create whatever kind of characters or animals your heart may desire.

  15. Out of Sight and Out of Mind? Evaluating the Impact of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Display Bans on Smoking-Related Beliefs and Behaviors in a Sample of Australian Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Sally; Kite, James; Grunseit, Anne C; Rissel, Chris; Perez, Donna A; Dessaix, Anita; Cotter, Trish; Bauman, Adrian; Young, Jane; Currow, David

    2015-07-01

    The Australian states of New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland implemented bans on tobacco pack displays at point-of-sale (PoS) in July 2010 and November 2011, respectively. This study evaluated the medium-term impact of the bans on youth. Data were drawn from the Tobacco Promotion Impact Study, a repeated cross-sectional survey of youth (12-24 years) in NSW and Queensland conducted yearly 2010-2012 (n = 6,014). Regression analyses examined differences in youth's recall of PoS tobacco displays, smoking-related beliefs, and smoking behaviors in relation to the timing of the PoS display bans. Recall of PoS tobacco displays was significantly less likely for youth interviewed after the bans versus before (OR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.39, 0.52, p brand awareness (OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.62, 0.92, p < .01), to over-estimate peer smoking (OR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.74, 0.96, p < .01), or be current smokers (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55, 0.96, p < .05). Stratified analyses showed that these differences were primarily apparent in the group of youth most likely to be affected by tobacco PoS displays: those who visit tobacco retailers most frequently. After the bans, smokers were less likely to report that they think about smoking as a result of seeing PoS tobacco displays (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.37, 0.97, p < .039). Our findings suggest an immediate impact of display bans on youth's exposure to tobacco pack displays, and likely impacts on smoking-related outcomes. These results suggest that removing tobacco displays from retail environments can positively contribute to the denormalization of smoking among youth. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. The smoking ban next door: do hospitality businesses in border areas have reduced sales after a statewide smoke-free policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Hood, Nancy E

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous studies demonstrating no significant economic effects on hospitality businesses following a statewide smoke-free (SF) policy, regional concerns suggest that areas near states without SF policies may experience a loss of hospitality sales across the border. The present study evaluated the impact of Ohio's statewide SF policy on taxable restaurant and bar sales in border and non-border areas. Spline regression analysis was used to assess changes in monthly taxable sales at the county level in full-service restaurants and bars in Ohio. Data were analyzed from four years prior to policy implementation to three years post-policy. Change in the differences in the slope of taxable sales for border (n = 21) and non-border (n = 67) counties were evaluated for changes following the statewide SF policy enforcement, adjusted for unemployment rates, general trends in the hospitality sector, and seasonality. After adjusting for covariates, there was no statistically significant change in the difference in slope for taxable sales for either restaurants (β = 0.9, p = 0.09) or bars (β = 0.2, p = 0.07) following the SF policy for border areas compared to non-border areas of Ohio. Border regions in Ohio did not experience a significant change in bar and restaurant sales compared to non-border areas following a statewide SF policy. Results support that Ohio's statewide SF policy did not impact these two areas differently, and provide additional evidence for the continued use of SF policies to provide protection from exposure to secondhand smoke for both workers and the general public. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Banning Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trede, Mildred

    1991-01-01

    The "Game of Decisions" is presented to encourage students to consider the consequences of banning books and/or ideas. The game involves story writing, creating probability graphs, writing a letter protesting censorship from a chosen historical period, and examining a controversial science issue. Three thesis statements for generating group…

  18. TECHNICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SHORT SELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BORES

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing insight into some of the implication of short selling for markets, investors as well as regulators. Findings show that capital flows are adversely affected by strict regulation and bans of short sales, while market liquidity, and bid-ask spread can be improved by allowing short selling. Additionally portfolios that incorporate short selling strategies can have lower volatility in returns. The informational content of short sales can provide important feedback for informed investors and lead to better price discovery.

  19. Short-term associations between air pollution and respiratory drug sales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitard, Alexandre; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Courseaux, Annabelle; Lamberty, Jackie; Delmas, Veronique; Fossard, J.L.; Villet, Herve

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: This research was implemented to assess the effect of air pollution on anti-asthmatic, bronchodilator, and cough and cold preparation sales in the city of Rouen (France) based on the Upper Normandy Regional Union of Health Insurance Offices database and the Air Quality Monitoring Network database. Design: An ecological time-series analysis was performed for a period of 2 years (July 1998-June 2000). Generalized additive model yields to relative risks and 95% confidence interval (CI) estimates were also carried out. Main results: The 10-day cumulative effect of a 10-μg/m 3 black smoke increase was significantly associated with a 6.2% (95% CI, 2.4-10.1%) increase in the sales of anti-asthmatics and bronchodilators and to a 9.2% (95% CI, 5.9-12.6%) increase in the sales of cough and cold preparation for children aged under 15 years. The cumulative effect of a 10-μg/m 3 increase in SO 2 was associated with an 11.8% (95% CI, 6.7-17.1%) increase in cough and cold preparation sales for children aged under 15 years. The cumulative effect of 10-μg/m 3 increase in NO 2 was associated with an 13.6% (95% CI, 8-18.3%) increase in cough and cold preparation sales for children under 15 years of age. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that an increase in drugs sales was directly related to air pollutant concentration increases in the city of Rouen (France)

  20. Why Ban Batasuna?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourne, Angela

    2015-01-01

    and Batasuna. These parties were banned by Spanish authorities for their integration in a terrorist network led by Euskadi Ta Askatasuna. The hypotheses are that democracies ban anti-system parties a) that do not unambiguously eschew violence; b) when alternatives to proscription are not effective. and c) when...... relevant office holders, or those holding a majority in parliament, have reason to believe they will not be disadvantaged electorally for supporting the ban....

  1. Perlindungan Hukum Dalam Transaksi Margin Trading Dan Short Sales Di Pasar Modal

    OpenAIRE

    Kiandi, Ferry

    2015-01-01

    In the world of capital markets, there are many facilities offered by the securities, among other things, are margin trading and short selling. Margin trading is one of the facilities provided by the brokerage firm to investors. In margin trading, securuties (effects) purchase transactions made by the customers are financed by securities companies. So the investor can make the transaction exceeding the amount of money he has. In this facility, investors do not have to return th...

  2. Voices of the Banned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Thomas Friis

    2018-01-01

    of patrons as rational actors, as well as linear notions of cause and effect, this article challenges such conceptions. Instead, this article draws on actor network theory, and an understanding of banned youth as situated in networks of relations, in order to provide insights into how the effects of banning...

  3. The effects of tobacco sales promotion on initiation of smoking--experiences from Finland and Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimpelä, M K; Aarø, L E; Rimpelä, A H

    1993-01-01

    Norway and Finland were among the first countries to adopt a total ban on tobacco sales promotion. Such legislation came into force in Norway and Finland in 1975 and 1978 respectively. These two countries are sometimes referred to as illustrations that such legislation has been successfully used as a means to reduce tobacco consumption. Tobacco industry spokesmen seem to interpret available evidence in the opposite way and maintain that the prohibition has not contributed to reducing the use of tobacco. Among the publications referred to and misused by tobacco industry spokesmen are publications from the authors of the present report. The effects of a ban on advertising can only be properly examined after describing a reasonable conceptual model. Such a model has to take into account (i) other social and cultural predictors of smoking, (ii) tobacco sales promotion in the contexts of all other mass communication, (iii) control measures other than a ban, and (iv) the degree of success in implementing the ban on advertising. Like any other kind of mass communication tobacco advertising influences the individual in a rather complex way. Behaviour change may be regarded as the outcome of an interpersonal and intrapersonal process. Social science research on tobacco advertising and the effects of banning such advertising has a short history, most studies having been carried out in the late 1980s. After examining available evidence related to the effects of tobacco advertising on the smoking habits of adolescents we conclude as follows: the few scientifically valid reports available today give both theoretical and empirical evidence for a causal relationship. Tobacco sales promotion seems both to promote and to reinforce smoking among young people. The dynamic tobacco market represented by children and adolescents is probably the main target of tobacco sales promotion. In Finland, there have been few studies explicitly addressing the causal links between tobacco sales

  4. FCTC followed by accelerated implementation of tobacco advertising bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiilamo, Heikki; Glantz, Stanton

    2017-07-01

    We sought to evaluate changes in countries' enacting advertising bans after the effect of ratifying the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). We compared adoption of advertising bans on five areas (TV and radio, print media, billboards, point-of-sale, sponsorship) in countries that did versus did not ratify the FCTC, accounting for years since the ratification of the Convention. On average, passage of complete advertising bans accelerated after FCTC ratification. The development was strongest among lower middle-income countries. Lack of state capacity was associated with lower likelihood of countries implementing complete advertising bans. Implementation of complete advertising bans slowed after 2007. Implementation of FCTC Article 13 was followed by increased progress towards complete advertising bans, but progress is incomplete, especially among low-income countries. Low-income countries need comprehensive support to implement FCTC as part of a broad effort to reinvigorate progress on global implementation of the FCTC. Enforcing complete bans requires constant monitoring and attacking of tobacco industry efforts to circumvent them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Short Summary European Reports on Retail Sector, Motor Vehicle Repair and Sales Sector, Food and Beverages Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, Berlin (Germany).

    This document is composed of European synthesis reports on retail trade, the agro-food sector, and the motor vehicle sales and repair sector. They are based on the most important findings of the European report and the 12 national reports for each sector. Section 1, "Retail Sector," deals in part 1 with the structure of retailing in the…

  6. Short notes and reviews Birds in the sales catalogue of Adriaan Vroeg described by Pallas and Vosmaer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rookmaaker, L.C.; Pieters, Florence F.J.M.

    2000-01-01

    On 6 October 1764, Adriaan Vroeg sold his collection of birds, insects and a few other animals by auction. The sales catalogue was published anonymously, but contained several scientific names of birds, which have nomenclatorial standing. Only three copies of this catalogue are known. The appendix

  7. Internet cigarette vendor compliance with credit card payment and shipping bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2014-02-01

    Most Internet cigarette sales have violated taxation and youth access laws, leading to landmark 2005 agreements with credit card companies, PayPal, and private shippers (United Parcel Service, Federal Express, DHL) to cease participation in these transactions. Despite their promise at the time, loopholes allowed for check payment and U.S. Postal Service (USPS) shipping. This study assessed actual vendor compliance with the payment and shipping bans using a purchase survey. In late 2007 and early 2008, an adult buyer attempted to order cigarettes from the 97 most popular Internet cigarette vendors (ICVs) using banned payment and shipping methods. When banned payment or shipping methods were unavailable, purchases were attempted with alternate methods (e.g., checks, e-checks, USPS). Twenty-seven of 100 orders were placed with (banned) credit cards; 23 were successfully received. Seventy-one orders were placed with checks (60 successfully received). Four orders were delivered using banned shippers; 79 of 83 successfully received orders were delivered by the USPS. About a quarter of ICVs violated the payment ban, others adapted by accepting checks. Most vendors complied with the shipping ban, perhaps because USPS was an easy substitute shipping option. Better enforcement of the bans is needed; the 2009 Prevent All Cigarette Trafficking Act closed the USPS loophole by making cigarettes nonmailable material; evaluation of enforcement efforts and adaptations by vendors are needed. These sorts of bans are a promising approach to controlling the sale of restricted goods online.

  8. Tobacco Industry Marketing Practices at Point-of-Sale (Argentina ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Point-of-sale advertising refers to the display of promotional materials where tobacco ... a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship as mandated by ... Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity.

  9. Internationalization of Oman Fisheries Firms After the European Union Ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zaibet

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impacts of the l998 ban on Oman fish exports to the EU markets and ensuing the internationalization of Oman fish companies. The ban raises two concerns that the paper intends to answer: (i how firms have responded to surmount the ban, and (ii which strategies are more effective in the process of internationalization. The paper distinguishes three sets of actions: during the ban and immediate actions; short term actions; and long term actions. Besides government support for the implementation of international norms of quality and safety control, firms have responded individually to the EU ban. The actions subsequently undertaken by firms in response to the ban were selected: identification of new markets (alternatives; implementation of the required regulations and needed support to continue exporting to traditional European markets (competence; and long term business and marketing strategies (strategic thinking. These actions or steps represent the internationalization process or approach followed by the fisheries firms in Oman. All these actions have been undertaken after the EU ban, which leads to the conclusion that the ban has indeed worked as a driving force to internationalize, i.e. to develop the requisites of international markets.

  10. 76 FR 26787 - Short Sale Reporting Study Required by Dodd-Frank Act Section 417(a)(2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... likely effect of these possible future reporting regimes on the securities markets, including their... Division of Risk, Strategy, and Financial Innovation (``Division''), is requesting public comment with... companies would agree to have all trades of their shares marked ``long,'' ``short,'' ``market maker short...

  11. Flying Under the Radar: The Effects of Short-Sale Disclosure Rules on Investor Behavior and Stock Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Jank (Stephan); C. Roling (Christoph); E. Smajlbegovic (Esad)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThis paper analyzes how newly introduced transparency requirements for short positions affect investors' behavior and security prices. Employing a unique data set, which contains both public positions above and confidential positions below the regulatory disclosure threshold, we offer

  12. Editorial: Sales Strategy (2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris McPhee

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The editorial theme for this issue of the OSBR is Sales Strategy. While "marketing" is everything a company does to build interest in its offers, "sales" consists of converting these offers into cash. By "sales strategy," we refer to all sales planning and process development activities leading up to the actual selling of a product or service. In his recent blog post at MaRS Discovery District, Mark Zimmerman answered a question he is frequently asked by the founders of startups: "How do we find a good sales person?" In short, his answer is "Don't." This is not meant as a slight to sales professionals, but rather, Zimmerman is advocating that companies should not equate having sales professionals to having a sales strategy. Sales professionals have a critical role to play in a company's success, but they are being given an impossible task if asked to sell something that has not been validated with customers. Zimmerman explains that sales professionals should be hired only once a company has validated that the value proposition resonates with customers and that the sales model will be effective. This lesson also applies to established companies, where existing sales staff require this same foundation to be effective. So how does a company determine whether its value proposition resonates with customers? The answer, of course, is to talk to customers. In the OSBR and elsewhere, the need for early customer input is a dominant theme in recent discussions of product development, marketing, and now sales strategy. By talking to customers, listening to how they describe their needs, and interpreting how their needs could be met, a value proposition can tested and refined. It is far more efficient and effective to iteratively refine a value proposition before attempting to sell than to attempt a salvage operation in response to slumping sales. Customer input is also a critical ingredient in developing an effective sales strategy. In this issue of the

  13. Comparative study of holt-winters triples exponential smoothing and seasonal Arima: Forecasting short term seasonal car sales in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katleho Daniel Makatjane

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, both Seasonal ARIMA and Holt-Winters models are developed to predict the monthly car sales in South Africa using data for the period of January 1994 to December 2013. The purpose of this study is to choose an optimal model suited for the sector. The three error metrics; mean absolute error, mean absolute percentage error and root mean square error were used in making such a choice. Upon realizing that the three forecast errors could not provide concrete basis to make conclusion, the power test was calculated for each model proving Holt-Winters to having about 0.3% more predictive power. Empirical results also indicate that Holt-Winters model produced more precise short-term seasonal forecasts. The findings also revealed a structural break in April 2009, implying that the car industry was significantly affected by the 2008 and 2009 US financial crisis

  14. Nuclear test ban's last chance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnaby, F.

    1976-01-01

    It is argued that if nuclear disarmament is the aim then some arms control treaties have been counterproductive. The two great powers have conducted, albeit underground, more nuclear explosions in the 12 years since the partial test ban than they did in the preceding 18 years, 1945 to 1963. The partial test ban treaty obliges the parties to negotiate a ban on 'all test explosions of nuclear weapons for all time'. After 12 years of negotiations very little progress has been made to this end. The USA and the USSR signed a bilateral Threshold Test Ban Treaty in 1974 banning 'any underground nuclear weapon tests having a yield exceeding 150 kilo-tons... beginning 31 March, 1976', a protocol describes how compliance is to be verified, and Article III requires that an agreement is to be negotiated governing peaceful nuclear explosions. From the point of view of disarmament it would be much better if the threshold test ban treaty were not ratified and a comprehensive test ban treaty were negotiated instead. The main official reason given for the failure to negotiate such a treaty is the problem of verification. However it is argued that due to recent progress in seismology there are no longer significant technical obstacles to the negotiation of a comprehensive test ban treaty. But there is lack of political will to obtain such a treaty. (U.K.)

  15. Assessing storefront tobacco advertising after the billboard ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A; Pokorny, Steven B; Mikulski, Kathy; Schoeny, Michael E

    2004-03-01

    This study examined storefront tobacco advertisements in 11 towns in Illinois from 1999 through 2001 to assess possible changes in these types of advertisements since the master tobacco settlement, which banned tobacco advertisements on billboards. Observers assessed the number of merchant- and industry-made tobacco storefront advertisements in Illinois stores and whether these advertisements were either brand- or price-focused. The relationship between the amount of tobacco advertisements and underage tobacco sales to minors was also explored. Findings indicated no significant relationships between tobacco advertisements and underage tobacco sales. However, industry price advertisements decreased over time because of tobacco price increases resulting from the master settlement, whereas industry brand advertisements increased over time, perhaps in an effort by the tobacco industry to retain sales of their products through brand recognition.

  16. The Short Selling Regulation in the EU: Assessing the Authorization Granted for ESMA to Prohibit Short Selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Huhtilainen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the renewed short selling regulation (Regulation (EU No 236/2012 in the European Union. The focus is on the provisions that deal with prohibiting short selling in exceptional market circumstances. The Regulation further enforces certain obligations to report and disclose short positions. It is concluded that banning short selling is not an effective tool to contain extreme price volatility. The difference-in-differences regression and repeated measures GLM were used to test whether short selling bans were successful in containing volatility of those Spanish and Italian stocks that were subject to two back-to-back prohibitions during the years 2011-2013. The results are consistent with the majority of previous research, suggesting that the effectiveness of short sale constraints in reducing volatility is limited at best. Furthermore, there are evidence of counterproductive effects: constraints on short selling may actually increase volatility as well as deteriorate liquidity. However, based on theory and previous studies, reporting and disclosure requirements shall be favored provided they improve market efficiency as well as supervisory work of regulatory bodies.This paper discusses the renewed short selling regulation (Regulation (EU No 236/2012 in the European Union. The focus is on the provisions that deal with prohibiting short selling in exceptional market circumstances. The Regulation further enforces certain obligations to report and disclose short positions. It is concluded that banning short selling is not an effective tool to contain extreme price volatility. The difference-in-differences regression and repeated measures GLM were used to test whether short selling bans were successful in containing volatility of those Spanish and Italian stocks that were subject to two back-to-back prohibitions during the years 2011-2013. The results are consistent with the majority of previous research, suggesting that the

  17. Can a smoking ban save your heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzonna, Fabrizio; Salari, Paola

    2018-06-04

    This paper evaluates the causal effect of environmental tobacco exposure on health by exploiting the time and geographical variation in public-place smoking bans implemented in Switzerland between 2007 and 2011. We use administrative data on hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction, which allow to measure the short-run effects of the policy on an objective metric of health. We show that the incidence of acute myocardial infarction decreases by approximately 8% immediately after implementation of the law with large heterogeneity across regions. Our results indicate that the policy was effective in reducing the negative externality of smoking with potential spillovers on health inequality. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Kelder, Steven H; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students’ in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Meth...

  19. [Recent developments on the European ban on animal experiments for cosmetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhdel, I W

    2001-01-01

    For the second time the European Commission has postponed the sales ban on cosmetics products that have been developed and tested in animal experiments now until 2002. In the meantime the Commission wants to adopt the Seventh Amendment of the EU Cosmetics Directive. In its draft the Commission proposes to scrap the sales ban and replace it with an animal testing ban. This change would avoid possible conflicts with the WTO, however, from the animal welfare point of view would result in animal testing moving into third countries instead of avoiding them. This is because cosmetics products tested on animals outside the EU could be sold in the EU without any restrictions. As a consequence this measure would take the pressure from authorities and industry to further develop and adopt alternative methods. Other proposed measures are not acceptable from the animal welfare point of view, e.g. because they contradict Directive 86/609 and would result in a delay of the application of validated alternative methods. The Deutscher Tierschutzbund therefore still demands an immediate and complete sales ban in connection with an animal testing ban within the EU.

  20. The Limited Test Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, B.S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the Limited Test Ban Treaty which came at the end of nearly five years of frustrated efforts to obtain a comprehensive test ban. Negotiations toward that end had begun in October 1958. At the same time a voluntary, informal moratorium on tests was initiated. The negotiations soon stalled over the Soviet Union's resistance to internationally supervised inspections on its soil. In April 1959 a phased ban that was to be limited at first to atmospheric tests conducted below an altitude of 50 kilometers. Such tests were thought to be easily verifiable. The Soviets rejected this idea and continued to insist that a complete test ban need not require numerous inspections. The two sides nevertheless appeared to be nearing agreement on a treaty to ban all but relatively small underground tests when, in May 1960, an U.S. U-2 reconnaissance plane was shot down over Soviet territory. After a thorough review of the U.S. position, the Kennedy administration proposed in April 1961 a draft treaty that made several concessions toward the Soviet position. Nevertheless, the Soviets, still disagreeing with the provisions for verification and with the makeup of the control organization, rejected it

  1. Sales promotions and food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Corinna

    2009-06-01

    Sales promotions are widely used to market food to adults, children, and youth. Yet, in contrast to advertising, practically no attention has been paid to their impacts on dietary behaviors, or to how they may be used more effectively to promote healthy eating. This review explores the available literature on the subject. The objective is to identify if and what literature exists, examine the nature of this literature, and analyze what can be learned from it about the effects of sales promotions on food consumption. The review finds that while sales promotions lead to significant sales increases over the short-term, this does not necessarily lead to changes in food-consumption patterns. Nevertheless, there is evidence from econometric modeling studies indicating that sales promotions can influence consumption patterns by influencing the purchasing choices of consumers and encouraging them to eat more. These effects depend on the characteristics of the food product, sales promotion, and consumer. The complexity of the effects means that sales promotions aiming to encourage consumption of nutritious foods need to be carefully designed. These conclusions are based on studies that use mainly sales data as a proxy for dietary intake. The nutrition (and economics) research communities should add to this existing body of research to provide evidence on the impact of sales promotions on dietary intake and related behaviors. This would help support the development of a sales promotion environment conducive to healthy eating.

  2. Copper disinfection ban causes storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Alan

    2013-05-01

    Since 1 February this year, under the EU's Biocidal Products Directive, it has been illegal to sell or use water treatment systems that use elemental copper, a practice employed historically by a significant number of UK healthcare facilities to combat Legionella. Alan Lester, managing director of specialist supplier of 'environmentally-friendly' water treatment systems, Advanced Hydro, says the ban has caused 'a storm of giant proportion,' with advocates of copper ion-based treatment systems arguing that this disinfection method dates back 3,000 years to Egyptian times, making it an 'undoubtedly proven' technology. Here he explains why the ban came into force, considers why the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is seeking a derogation, looks at the ban's likely impact, and gives a personal viewpoint on the 'pros and cons' of some of the alternative treatment technologies, including a titanium dioxide-based system marketed by Advanced Hydro itself in the UK.

  3. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  4. Effectiveness of state and federal government agreements with major credit card and shipping companies to block illegal Internet cigarette sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M; Williams, Rebecca S; Gizlice, Ziya; Herring, Amy H

    2011-02-14

    Most Internet vendors offer tax-free cigarettes making them cheaper than those sold at stores. This undermines the impact that higher prices have upon reducing consumption. Most Internet tobacco sales have violated taxation and youth access laws, which led to landmark voluntary agreements in 2005 with the major credit card companies and major private shippers to ban payment transactions and shipments for all Internet cigarette sales. To assess whether these bans increased the rate of Internet Cigarette Vendors (ICVs) ceasing online sales, decreased the proportion of vendors offering banned payment and shipping options, and decreased consumer traffic to the most popular ICVs. Websites in a longitudinal study of ICVs were visited in 2003 (n = 338), 2004 (n = 775), 2005 (n = 664), 2006 (n = 762), and 2007 (n = 497) to assess whether they were in business and monitor their advertised sales practices. The number of unique monthly visitors to the 50 most popular ICVs at baseline was examined for the period one year before and two years after the bans to determine whether the bans altered traffic. Following the bans, the rate of ICVs ceasing online sales year to year increased, but due to an influx of new vendors, there was a net increase in ICVs. The proportion of vendors accepting banned payment options dropped from 99.2% to 37.4% after the bans, and the proportion offering banned shipping options dropped from 32.2% to 5.6%, but there was a corresponding increase in vendors offering non-banned payment options (e.g., personal checks) and shipping options (e.g., US Postal Service). Following the bans, there was a 3.5 fold decline in traffic to the most popular ICV websites. This promising approach to controlling the sale of restricted goods online has implications for regulating other products such as alcohol, firearms, quack cures, and medicines sold without a prescription.

  5. The Political Economy of Local Fracking Bans

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua C. Hall; Christopher Shultz; E. Frank Stephenson

    2015-01-01

    Concerns about harmful effects arising from the increased use of hydraulic fracturing (fracking) to extract underground fuel resources has led to efforts to ban the practice. Many townships in western New York, which lies above the gas-rich Marcellus shale formation, have enacted bans or moratoria. Using spatial econometric techniques, we examine factors related to townships' choice to adopt fracking bans and document the importance of spatial dependence when analyzing fracking bans. We find ...

  6. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  7. Decomposing the sales promotion bump with store data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, H.J.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    2004-01-01

    Sales promotions generate substantial short-term sales increases. To determine whether the sales promotion bump is truly beneficial from a managerial perspective, we propose a system of store-level regression models that decomposes the sales promotion bump into three parts: cross-brand effects

  8. From BAN to AmI-BAN: micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Val; Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or in the body which provides mobile services to the user. The BAN may also communicate to remote users such as healthcare providers via external network services such as GPRS or UMTS. The generic BAN...

  9. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia A McDaniel

    Full Text Available In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization.We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales.Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative.Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  10. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Malone, Ruth E

    2014-01-01

    In the US, denormalizing tobacco use is key to tobacco control; less attention has been paid to denormalizing tobacco sales. However, some localities have placed limits on the number and type of retailers who may sell tobacco, and some retailers have abandoned tobacco sales voluntarily. Understanding community norms surrounding tobacco sales may help accelerate tobacco denormalization. We conducted 15 focus groups with customers of California, New York, and Ohio retailers who had voluntarily discontinued tobacco sales to examine normative assumptions about where cigarettes should or should not be sold, voluntary decisions to discontinue tobacco sales, and government limits on such sales. Groups in all three states generally agreed that grocery stores that sold healthy products should not sell tobacco; California groups saw pharmacies similarly, while this was a minority opinion in the other two states. Convenience stores were regarded as a natural place to sell tobacco. In each state, it was regarded as normal and commendable for some stores to want to stop selling tobacco, although few participants could imagine convenience stores doing so. Views on government's role in setting limits on tobacco sales varied, with California and New York participants generally expressing support for restrictions, and Ohio participants expressing opposition. However, even those who expressed opposition did not approve of tobacco sales in all possible venues. Banning tobacco sales entirely was not yet normative. Limiting the ubiquitous availability of tobacco sales is key to ending the tobacco epidemic. Some limits on tobacco sales appear to be normative from the perspective of community members; it may be possible to shift norms further by problematizing the ubiquitous presence of cigarettes and drawing connections to other products already subject to restrictions.

  11. The ban on smokeless tobacco products is systematically violated in Chennai, India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidhubala, E.; Pisinger, C.; Basumallik, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: India is the world's third largest consumer of tobacco. There are twice as many users of smokeless tobacco products (STPs) as cigarette smokers. The Government of Tamil Nadu has banned the sale of gutkha and pan masala in 2013. Our aim was to identify the varieties of illegal STP...... not have a pictorial warning; a text warning was printed on 80.8%, but only two products had the messages in Tamil; 70% had promotional messages printed, and 57% had their registration numbers printed. Conclusion: The ban on STP is being systematically violated in Chennai. STP are cheap and easily...

  12. A comprehensive nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The conclusion of a comprehensive nuclear test ban is of critical importance for the future of arms limitation and disarmament. As the 1980 report of the Secretary-General concluded, a comprehensive nuclear test ban is regarded as the first and most urgent step towards the cessation of the nuclear arms race and, in particular, of its qualitative aspects. It could serve as an important measure for the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons, both vertical and horizontal. It would have a major arms limitation impact in that it would make it difficult, if not impossible, to develop new designs of nuclear weapons and would also place constraints on the modification of existing weapon designs. The permanent cessation of all nuclear-weapon tests has long been sought by the world community and its achievement would be an event of great international significance

  13. Kidney sales and the analogy with dangerous employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmqvist, Erik

    2015-06-01

    Proponents of permitting living kidney sales often argue as follows. Many jobs involve significant risks; people are and should be free to take these risks in exchange for money; the risks involved in giving up a kidney are no greater than the risks involved in acceptable hazardous jobs; so people should be free to give up a kidney for money, too. This paper examines this frequently invoked but rarely analysed analogy. Two objections are raised. First, it is far from clear that kidney sales and dangerous jobs involve comparable risks on an appropriately broad comparison. Second, and more importantly, even if they do involve comparable risks it does not follow that kidney sales must be permitted because dangerous jobs are. The analogy assumes that kidney sales are banned for paternalistic reasons. But there may be other, non-paternalistic reasons for the ban. And paternalists, too, can consistently defend the ban even if kidney sales are no riskier than occupations that they find acceptable. Soft paternalists may want to protect would-be vendors from harms that they have not voluntarily chosen. Egalitarian hard paternalists may want to protect already badly off vendors from further worsening their situation. For neither species of paternalist is the size of the risk prevented decisive. I conclude that the analogy with dangerous jobs, while rhetorically powerful, pulls little real argumentative weight. Future debates on living kidney sales should therefore proceed without it.

  14. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the economic impact of smoking bans in restaurants and bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelsen, Laura; McGowan, Yvonne; Currie-Murphy, Laura M; Normand, Charles

    2014-05-01

    To review systematically the literature on the economic impact of smoking bans in bars and restaurants and provide an estimate of the impact size using meta-analysis. Studies were identified by systematic database searches and screening references of reviews and relevant studies. Google and web-pages of tobacco control agencies were also searched. The review identified 56 studies using absolute sales, sales ratio or employment data and employing regression methods to evaluate the impact of smoking bans in the United States, Australia or in countries in South America or Europe. The meta-analysis included 39 comparable studies, with 129 cases identified based on the outcome measure, scope of the ban, type of establishment and geographical location. Methodological quality was assessed based on four pre-determined criteria. Study and case selection and data extraction were conducted independently by two researchers. Random-effects meta-analysis of all cases showed no associations between smoking bans and changes in absolute sales or employment. An increase in the share of bar and restaurant sector sales in total retail sales was associated with smoking bans [0.23 percentage-points; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.375]. When cases were separated by business type (bars or restaurants or wider hospitality including bars and restaurants), some differential impacts emerged. Meta-analysis of the economic impact of smoking bans in hospitality sector showed overall no substantial economic gains or losses. Differential impacts were observed across individual business types and outcome variable, but at aggregate level these appear to balance out. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  15. Global Evidence on the Association between POS Advertising Bans and Youth Smoking Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Ce; Huang, Jidong; Cheng, Kai-Wen; Li, Qing; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2016-03-09

    Point-of-sale (POS) tobacco advertising has been linked to youth smoking susceptibility and experimental smoking. However, there is limited evidence of the association between POS advertising bans and youth smoking participation. This study aims to examine how such bans are associated with current smoking, daily smoking, and regular smoking (≥ 1 cigarettes per day) participation among youth. one to two waves (primarily one wave) of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey were conducted in 130 countries between 2007 and 2011. These surveys were linked to the WHO "MPOWER" data using country and year identifiers to analyze the association between POS advertising bans (a dichotomous measure of the existence of such bans) and smoking participation in the past month. Weighted logistic regressions were employed to analyze this association while controlling for age, gender, parents' smoking status, 6 MPOWER policy scores, and GDP per capita. We find that in countries with POS advertising bans, current smoking (OR = 0.73, p ≤ 0.1), daily smoking (OR = 0.70, p ≤ 0.1), and regular smoking (OR = 0.75, p ≤ 0.05) participation in the past month is significantly lower, suggesting that POS promotion bans can potentially reduce youth smoking. This study provides evidence to support the implementation of POS promotion regulations by the US FDA and implementation of the WHO FCTC guidelines regarding restrictions on tobacco POS promotion.

  16. Free E-Books May Increase Print Sales: A Study with Mixed Results. A Review of: Hilton, J. III, & Wiley, D. (2010. The short-term influence of free digital versions of books on print sales. Journal of Electronic Publishing, 13(1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R. Williams

    2011-03-01

    requiring registration in order to download the books was substantially different from the models used by the other publishers.Conclusion – The study suggests a positive relationship may exist between free digital books and short-term print sales. However, the availability of free digital books did not always lead to increased print sales. The authors acknowledge a number of factors not fully accounted for, including the timing of the free digital release, the promotion it received, and the differences in the size of the audiences for the various books studied. Ultimately, however, the authors believe the data indicates that when free digital books are offered for a period of time longer than a week, without requiring registration, print sales will increase.

  17. The Blasphemy Ban in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassmè; Lassen, Eva Maria

    2017-01-01

    , it can seem odd why Denmark would not have followed the trend of most other European states, including those with which Denmark normally compares itself, to abolish the article. Denmark is a highly secularised society with generally a relaxed attitude towards religion. And finally, surveys indicate...... the potential to bring the ban on blasphemy back to life by bringing it into play with penal systems of other countries with blasphemy laws. The article proceeds to outline the reactions of international human rights bodies to art. 140, focussing on the statement of the UN Special Rapporteur on Religion...

  18. Banning nuclear power at sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handler, J.

    1993-01-01

    This article argues that now that the East-West conflict is over, nuclear-powered vessels should be retired. Nuclear-powered ships and submarines lack military missions, are expensive to build and operate, generate large amounts of long-lived deadly nuclear waste from their normal operations and when they are decommissioned, and are subject to accidents or deliberate attack which can result in the sinking of nuclear reactors and the release of radiation. With the costs of nuclear-powered vessels mounting, the time has come to ban nuclear power at sea. (author)

  19. The Impact of Banning Juvenile Gun Possession.

    OpenAIRE

    Marvell, Thomas B

    2001-01-01

    A 1994 federal law bans possession of handguns by persons under 18 years of age. Also in 1994, 11 states passed their own juvenile gun possession bans. Eighteen states had previously passed bans, 15 of them between 1975 and 1993. These laws were intended to reduce homicides, but arguments can be made that they have no effect on or that they even increase the homicide rate. This paper estimates the laws' impacts on various crime measures, primarily juvenile gun homicide victimizations and suic...

  20. Ban the Hickory Stick. Issues in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Nita H.

    1991-01-01

    Maintains that corporal punishment should be banned from every school as a means of classroom discipline, and presents teachers and administrators with workable alternatives to disciplining children. (BB)

  1. Local responses to the Maharashtra gutka and pan masala ban: a report from Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, S; Schensul, J J; Bilgi, S; Kadam, V; D'Mello, S; Donta, B

    2012-01-01

    The Maharashtra government has banned the production, sale, distribution and storage of gutka, and pan masala in the Maharashtra State due to the increasing burden of cancer and reproductive health problems attributable to the use of these products. In view of this, it is important to understand the way producers', sellers' and users' are adapting to the ban. During the two months following the ban (July 19 th through Sept 30, 2012), a research team studying smokeless tobacco use and promotion in a low income community of Mumbai conducted rapid surveillance to assess the impact of the ban in the study community. Assessment involved documenting new points of sale, informal observations of tobacco use, and interviews with thirteen shop owners and eight gutka users'. Overall changes in accessibility, availability, patterns of use of tobacco products, perception of ban, social norms and surveillance activities were assessed. Tobacco companies were marketing new products that resembled gutka, under similar brand logos. Surveillance, financial and social cost of selling gutka or using it in public have had an immediate effect on reducing local supply, demand and use and increasing stigma associated with its use. There was an increased recognition of ill-effects of gutka on cancer among sellers' but not overall. To reduce the overall consumption of tobacco in the community, it is critical to include programs that create awareness about effects of smokeless tobacco on health and sustain surveillance levels. This would maintain requirements of the ban, and sustain limits on accessibility, availability and use of these products in the community and other similar communities.

  2. Responding book banning in indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aji, RNB; Artono; Liana, C.

    2018-01-01

    The prohibition of books conducted by the government through its apparatus without any due process of law is unfortunate. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Indonesia (MKRI) in 2010 was decided that book banning is contradictory to the 1945 Constitution (UUD 1945). The purpose of this paper is to know Indonesia, according to the Constitutional Court must absolutely carry out the function of due process of law that is law enforcement in a judicial system when it wants to prohibit printed material which is a book, whether it is a book that is considered criticism and books that teach radicalism. It would be wise for anyone who disagrees with a book, and then responds by writing through a book. The result of this article is to support and suggest that the government and its apparatus in the state of the law should not arbitrarily impose a book ban. Likewise, people should not take violence action to respond this issue. In historical records, the prohibition of books without due process of law is always followed by the withdrawal of books and make people unable to deal with differences, especially in knowledge. That’s why, the government and its apparatus must create a conducive situation and support the creation of various perspectives in the framework of the progress of science through a book. It would implicate that people can respect in any perspective and thought.

  3. From BAN to AmI-BAN : micro and nano technologies in future Body Area Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, Val

    2006-01-01

    At the University of Twente we have been researching mobile healthcare applications since 1999. Since 2002 the University of Twente and partners have been developing health Body Area Networks (BANs) and a BAN service platform. We define a BAN as a network of communicating devices worn on, around or

  4. On BAN logics for industrial security protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agray, N.; Hoek, van der W.; Vink, de E.P.; Dunin-Keplicz, B.; Nawarecki, E.

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports on two case-studies of applying BAN logic to industrial strength security protocols. These studies demonstrate the flexibility of the BAN language, as it caters for the addition of appropriate constructs and rules. We argue that, although a semantical foundation of the formalism

  5. Best Sale Mobile Application

    OpenAIRE

    Chittugnanamoorthy, Balakumar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to find a best way to advertise short-term sales and reduce paper waste. Another aim was to help the seller to identify a potential customer for a specific product, by means of providing a number of people accessing an advertisement. A mobile phone is one of the widely used electronic devices by many people. Modern mobile phones support a good internet connection. Also, people carry their mobile devices with them even outside their homes. So a mobile application ...

  6. Auction Sale Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This dataset contains sale data information for Agency reported items sold via GSA Auctions® Sales. The data is for closed sales during FY2009. GSA Auctions® offers...

  7. Oil sales up, gasoline sales down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tusa, J.

    1999-01-01

    Sales of petroleum products rose by 4.3 % in 1998 compared to 1997, and totalled 9.15 million tonnes. Sales of traffic fuels increased by 1.1 %, and those of heating and fuel oil by 3.7 %. The last time sales of petroleum products were at an equivalent level was back in 1990

  8. Out of sight, out of mind? Removal of point-of-sale tobacco displays in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffels, Janne; Lavik, Randi

    2013-05-01

    To evaluate retailer's compliance and consumer's perceptions of and experiences with the point-of-sale (POS) tobacco display ban in Norway, implemented 1 January 2010. Retailer compliance was measured using audit surveys. Consumer's perceptions of the ban were assessed in three web surveys: one conducted before and two after implementation of the ban. The sample for each of these consisted of about 900 people aged 15-54 years and an extra sample of smokers and snus users. 10 focus group interviews with male and female daily, occasional and former smokers aged 16-50 years (N=62) were also conducted, before and after implementation of the ban. Immediately following implementation of the POS display ban, compliance was 97% for cigarettes and rolling tobacco and 98% for snus. Preimplementation, young people were tempted by tobacco products when seeing them in the shop more often than older people. Postimplementation, young people also more often found it difficult to choose brand. The POS tobacco display ban was supported by a majority of the population, and by one out of three daily smokers. The removal of POS tobacco displays was perceived as a barrier for young people's access to tobacco products, as affecting attachment to cigarette brands and as contributing to tobacco denormalisation. Retailer's compliance with the POS display ban in Norway was high, and the ban was well supported in the population. Consumers believed that the ban could contribute to preventing smoking initiation among young people and to some extent also support cessation efforts.

  9. Experimental economics' inconsistent ban on deception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersch, Gil

    2015-08-01

    According to what I call the 'argument from public bads', if a researcher deceived subjects in the past, there is a chance that subjects will discount the information that a subsequent researcher provides, thus compromising the validity of the subsequent researcher's experiment. While this argument is taken to justify an existing informal ban on explicit deception in experimental economics, it can also apply to implicit deception, yet implicit deception is not banned and is sometimes used in experimental economics. Thus, experimental economists are being inconsistent when they appeal to the argument from public bads to justify banning explicit deception but not implicit deception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty

  11. Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty was adopted by the General Assembly on 10 September 1996 (Res/50/245) and was open for signature by all states on 24 September 1996. It will enter into force 180 days after the date of deposit of the instruments of ratification by all states listed in Annex 2 to the Treaty. This document reproduces the text of the Treaty and the Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Protocol to the Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty. 4 tabs.

  12. Sales Force Recruitment

    OpenAIRE

    Flaviu MEGHISAN

    2008-01-01

    The sales plan is put into practice through the tasks associated with sales plan implementation. Whereas sales plan formulation focuses on "doing the right things," implementation emphasizes "doing things right." The three major tasks involved in implementing a sales plan are (1) salesforce recruitment and selection, (2) salesforce training, and (3) salesforce motivation and compensation.

  13. Do Workplace Smoking Bans Reduce Smoking?

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew C. Farrelly; William N. Evans; Edward Montgomery

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been a heightened public concern over the potentially harmful effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). In response, smoking has been banned on many jobs. Using data from the 1991 and 1993 National Health Interview Survey and smoking supplements to the September 1992 and May 1993 Current Population Survey, we investigate whether these workplace policies reduce smoking prevalence and smoking intensity among workers. Our estimates suggest that workplace bans reduce...

  14. Effectiveness of state and federal government agreements with major credit card and shipping companies to block illegal Internet cigarette sales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt M Ribisl

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Most Internet vendors offer tax-free cigarettes making them cheaper than those sold at stores. This undermines the impact that higher prices have upon reducing consumption. Most Internet tobacco sales have violated taxation and youth access laws, which led to landmark voluntary agreements in 2005 with the major credit card companies and major private shippers to ban payment transactions and shipments for all Internet cigarette sales.To assess whether these bans increased the rate of Internet Cigarette Vendors (ICVs ceasing online sales, decreased the proportion of vendors offering banned payment and shipping options, and decreased consumer traffic to the most popular ICVs.Websites in a longitudinal study of ICVs were visited in 2003 (n = 338, 2004 (n = 775, 2005 (n = 664, 2006 (n = 762, and 2007 (n = 497 to assess whether they were in business and monitor their advertised sales practices. The number of unique monthly visitors to the 50 most popular ICVs at baseline was examined for the period one year before and two years after the bans to determine whether the bans altered traffic.Following the bans, the rate of ICVs ceasing online sales year to year increased, but due to an influx of new vendors, there was a net increase in ICVs. The proportion of vendors accepting banned payment options dropped from 99.2% to 37.4% after the bans, and the proportion offering banned shipping options dropped from 32.2% to 5.6%, but there was a corresponding increase in vendors offering non-banned payment options (e.g., personal checks and shipping options (e.g., US Postal Service. Following the bans, there was a 3.5 fold decline in traffic to the most popular ICV websites.This promising approach to controlling the sale of restricted goods online has implications for regulating other products such as alcohol, firearms, quack cures, and medicines sold without a prescription.

  15. Trans Fat Bans and Human Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has linked consumption of trans fatty acids to cardiovascular disease. To promote public health, numerous state and local governments in the United States have banned the use of artificial trans fats in restaurant foods, and additional bans may follow. Although these policies may have a positive impact on human health, they open the door to excessive government control over food, which could restrict dietary choices, interfere with cultural, ethnic, and religious traditions, and exacerbate socioeconomic inequalities. These slippery slope concerns cannot be dismissed as far-fetched, because the social and political pressures are place to induce additional food regulations. To protect human freedom and other values, policies that significantly restrict food choices, such as bans on types of food, should be adopted only when they are supported by substantial scientific evidence, and when policies that impose fewer restrictions on freedom, such as educational campaigns and product labeling, are likely to be ineffective. PMID:20229412

  16. Short-Selling, Leverage and Systemic Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Amelia; Stork, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    During the Global Financial Crisis, regulators imposed short-selling bans to protect financial institutions. The rationale behind the bans was that “bear raids”, driven by short-sellers, would increase the individual and systemic risk of financial institutions, especially for institutions with high leverage. This study uses Extreme Value Theory to estimate the effect of short-selling on financial institutions’ individual and systemic risks in France, Italy and Spain; it also analyses the rela...

  17. India and the nuclear test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1998-01-01

    India has sought a nuclear-test ban for the last 42 years bur is now unable to sign the Comprehensive Test ban Treaty (CTBT) when it is in its final form and moved to block its transmittal from the Conference on Disarmament to the UN General assembly. The negotiating mandate for the CTBT required it to effectively contribute to the process of disarmament. It is towards this end that India proposed amendments. Nuclear disarmament is fundamental for India's strategic and security interests. The only viable solution to India's security concerns related to nuclear weapons is in pursuing total elimination of nuclear weapons from national arsenals

  18. Clerics urge ban on altering germline cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, C

    1983-06-24

    A resolution calling for a ban on genetic engineering of human reproductive cells has been signed by leaders of almost every major church group in the United States. Some of the religious leaders, while not certain that a total moratorium should be placed on altering germline cells, signed the statement in order to stimulate public debate on the issue. Legislation has recently been introduced in Congress to set up a committee to monitor genetic engineering and its human applications, but author Jeremy Rifkin, the impetus behind the church leaders' resolution, argues that such tampering threatens the gene pool and should be banned altogether.

  19. The Danish trans-fatty acids ban

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2017-01-01

    In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled the crea......In 2003 an executive order was issued banning industrially produced trans-fatty acids above a low level in food items in Denmark. To date, only a few other countries have followed Denmark’s example. The way health consequences of trans fats were translated by the different actors enabled...

  20. 卖空约束下金融市场欧式期权定价研究%Pricing European Options in a Financial Market with Short-sale Constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎露

    2012-01-01

    摘 要:针对存在卖空约束金融市场上的期权定价问题,总结了3种定价方法,并在讨论超复制方法的基础上计算出无套利区间和唯一平价.重点分析了在超复制方法的模型中考虑参数股息率g(t),得出了无套利区间端点的更加有效的表述形式.%Aiming at the option pricing method in a financial market with short - sale constraints,three most important methods in this area were summarized. And especially based on the super - replicating method, the arbitrage - free interval and the u-nique fair price were figured out. Furthermore,the new parameter - dividend rate g(t) in the model was investigated and a more effective representation was obtained for the endpoints of the arbitrage - free interval.

  1. [The impact of policies on tobacco sales to young people at the point of purchase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihălţan, Florin

    2013-01-01

    In a concerted policy to tobacco control nothing noteworthy. However, point of sales and distributors of tobacco products have escaped the rigors of the law. In this article are analyzed the consequences of the absence of ban advertising at the level of distributors and retailers and exposed how to break this vicious circle.

  2. Here's Why Junk Food Still Is on Sale at Some Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, M. Chester

    1984-01-01

    A 1983 federal appeals court decision says the Secretary of Agriculture cannot establish time and place restrictions on the sale of snack items in schools. If snack items are to be banned from schools, the School Lunch Act must be reworded. (MD)

  3. Impact of sales promotion on purchase decision of consumers: An application in tourism sector

    OpenAIRE

    Hülya Bakırtaş

    2013-01-01

    Sales promotion is generally used to increase sales in the short term by businesses and especially used widely to influence consumers by businesses and agents of the consumer good markets. To identify and select the appropriate sales promotion techniques for businesses is an important decision. In the context businesses should well know target customers and decide to appropriate sales promotion techniques. This research evaluates impact on purchase decision of consumers of sales promotional t...

  4. Compliance to Gutka ban and other provisons of COTPA in Mumbai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimple, S; Gunjal, S; Mishra, G A; Pednekar, M S; Majmudar, P; Shastri, S S

    2014-12-01

    Cigarettes and other tobacco products act 2003 (COTPA) is the principal law governing tobacco control in India. Government of Maharashtra in one of its landmark decisions also banned manufacturing, sale and distribution of gutka and pan masala since July 2012. The desired impact and level of enforcement of the COTPA legislation and the gutka and pan masala ban in Maharashtra State, however, needs assessment. Among the many provisions within COTPA, the present study seeks to assess compliance to implementation and enforcement of Section 5 and 6 of COTPA including compliance to gutka and pan masala ban in Mumbai, India. Six educational institutes (EI) within the Mumbai metropolitan region were selected in a two stage random sampling process. Area around each EI was manually mapped and all the tobacco products selling outlets with in the 100 yards distance were listed by trained Field Social Investigators and were observed to determine compliance for Section 5 and Section 6 of the COTPA legislation and for gutka and pan masala ban. The vendors/shop owners manning these outlets were also interviewed for their personal sociodemographic details, self-tobacco use, awareness and perception about ill-effects of tobacco and existing tobacco control legislation in the country. A total of 222 tobacco retail outlets were listed within 100 yards of the EI in violation to the provisions of Section 6 of COTPA, of which 72 (32.4%) were selling tobacco products on mobile structures. About 53.2% of the tobacco vendors were also users of some form of tobacco. Whereas, nearly 217 (97.7%) vendors were aware about the gutka and pan masala ban in the State, only 48.2% were aware about the existence of COTPA legislation. None of the EI had a display board prohibiting the sale of tobacco products within a radius of 100 yards of their EI. Only 56.3% tobacco outlets had complied with the mandatory warning display boards indicating tobacco products will not be sold to people below 18 years of

  5. Should We Ban Instant Messaging In School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texley, Sharon; DeGennaro, Donna

    2005-01-01

    This article is a brief debate on the pros and cons of allowing students to use instant messaging (IM) in school. On one hand, teenagers' desire to socialize can overcome other priorities and schools may set policies to ban instant messaging. The contrary view is that schools should embrace the IM technology being popularized by youth and find…

  6. Smoking bans and the secondhand smoking problem: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Annette; Nell, Martin

    2012-06-01

    Smoking bans are gaining widespread support in the European Union and other countries. The vast majority of these bans are partial bans given that smoking is still permitted in certain places. This article investigates the role of partial smoking bans in coping with externalities caused by the secondhand smoking problem. Although it is widely known that Pigouvian taxation is superior to a perfect ban, this result does not necessarily carry over to a partial ban because taxes cannot (easily) be differentiated according to location. We show that under an easy and intuitive condition, (1) enacting a partial smoking ban alone always improves social welfare (a) in an unregulated society and (b) even in a regulated society if externalities can be eliminated, and (2) it is ensured that a combination of Pigouvian tax and a partial smoking ban leads to a higher social optimum than implementing corrective Pigouvian taxation alone.

  7. [High time for a total ban on smoking in the hotel, restaurant and catering industry: the arguments are mounting].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassink, R J; Franke, L J A

    2007-02-24

    Active and passive smoking are well-known causes of disease, including respiratory and cardiovascular disease and cancer. In 2004 the Dutch government introduced new legislation to regulate smoking in the workplace. However, smoking is still allowed in hotels, bars and restaurants, despite the fact that two-thirds of the Dutch population support a total ban on smoking in public places. Several other European countries and American states have banned smoking in public places. Studies performed in these regions show that the new smoking regulations have had no negative economic effects. Moreover, various studies have shown that smoking bans have a positive impact on public health, even in the short-term, including a significant decrease in respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There is therefore no reason to continue to exclude hotels, bars and restaurants from the smoking ban in all public places in The Netherlands.

  8. [Impact of the Italian smoking ban and comparison with the evaluation of the Scottish ban].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    The Italian smoking ban entered into force on January 10th, 2005, and banned smoking from enclosed workplaces and hospitality premises (HPs), even though provided separated smoking areas. Actually, only 1-2%of HPs built these areas, while no figures are available on the prevalence of smoking rooms in workplaces other than HPs. Italians were more in favour of the law after the ban. In 2008 Italians were the Europeans most in favour of a national smoking ban (88%). Measurements of environmental nicotine and particulate matter with a diameter hospitality sector against the ban in 2004, no studies on impact of the ban on hospitality industry businesses were conducted in Italy. We used the conceptual model for the evaluation of the impact of smoke-free policies, proposed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), to compare Italian and Scottish evaluations of the bans. The Scottish evaluation was planned some years before the implementation, and was based on a network of researchers of different disciplines. The quantification of decrease in second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in the general population and in hospitality workers was one of the main objectives of the Scottish evaluation. The Italian evaluation devoted more attention to distal (reduction of hospital admissions) and incidental effects of the law (trend in smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption). Qualitative studies in bars, homes, and communities recording changes in attitudes on tobacco smoking after the introduction of the ban, were conducted only in Scotland. In Italy the main problem was to develop and fund a network of researchers involved on a shared evaluation plan.

  9. INNOVATIVE SALES METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxana L. IONESCU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Companies operating in a global economy that is constantly changing and developming, especially during the financial crisis and political instability. It is necessary to adapt and develop sales methods in such environment. For large companies who base their activity on sales it has become a necessity to learn different types of sales approaches because their knowledge enables them to grow the number of customers and therefore the sales and the turnover. This paper aims to exame the most effective sales methods used on the highly sensitive economic and social environment – the insurance market. In the field of insurances, the sales process is even more important because sellers need to sell an intangible product that may materialize in the future, but there is no certainty.

  10. Gender and Power Dynamics in Transnational Marriage Brokerage: The Ban on Commercial Matchmaking in Taiwan Reconsidered

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsun-Hui Tseng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Taiwan attracted a considerable number of marriage migrants from Southeast Asia and China through brokers in the late 1990s and early 2000s. With widely circulated, sensational news stories about foreign spouses being abused and advertisements of foreign brides as objects for sale, women involved in the business were gradually seen by the public as victims of transnational marriage brokerage. Under pressure from some women’s groups in Taiwan and the anti-trafficking campaign in the international community, the Taiwanese government eventually banned transnational commercial matchmaking in 2008. This article examines the gender politics behind the ban by reviewing the debate over this policy. It also provides an ethnographic study of women’s power relationships with other parties involved in the marriage business. By exposing the market and cultural logic that made this business blossom, this article challenges the binaries of perpetrator/victim and exploitation/freedom in the dominant representations of the transnational marriage market. It calls for a transnational and transclass perspective to understand these women’s “active submission” to the market and concludes that, without this consideration, the enforcement of the 2008 ban ends up serving only to save the international reputation of the host country and fulfill the liberal middle-class imaginary of moral order of the host society, rather than solving women’s problems per se.

  11. Ending the war between Sales & Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Philip; Rackham, Neil; Krishnaswamy, Suj

    2006-01-01

    Sales departments tend to believe that marketers are out of touch with what's really going on in the marketplace. Marketing people, in turn, believe the sales force is myopic--too focused on individual customer experiences, insufficiently aware of the larger market, and blind to the future. In short, each group undervalues the other's contributions. Both stumble (and organizational performance suffers) when they are out of sync. Yet few firms seem to make serious overtures toward analyzing and enhancing the relationship between these two critical functions. Curious about the misalignment between Sales and Marketing, the authors interviewed pairs of chief marketing officers and sales vice presidents to capture their perspectives. They looked in depth at the relationship between Sales and Marketing in a variety of companies in different industries. Their goal was to identify best practices that could enhance the joint performance and increase the contributions of these two functions. Among their findings: The marketing function takes different forms in different companies at different product life cycle stages. Marketing's increasing influence in each phase of an organization's growth profoundly affects its relationship with Sales. The strains between Sales and Marketing fall into two main categories: economic (a single budget is typically divided, between Sales and Marketing, and not always evenly) and cultural (the two functions attract very different types of people who achieve success by spending their time in very different ways). In this article, the authors describe the four types of relationships Sales and Marketing typically exhibit. They provide a diagnostic to help readers assess their companies' level of integration, and they offer recommendations for more closely aligning the two functions.

  12. How online sales and promotion of snus contravenes current European Union legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Silvy; Gilmore, Anna B

    2013-07-01

    The European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive that bans sales of snus (a form of oral tobacco) in EU countries other than Sweden is currently under review. Major tobacco companies favour the ban being overturned. This study aims to explore compliance with the current ban on snus sales and examines the conduct of online snus vendors, including their compliance with two other EU Directives on excise and tobacco advertising and Swedish legislation banning sales of snus outside Sweden. To determine who is currently distributing snus via the internet in the EU, searches were carried out in Google, followed by searches in the WHOIS and Amadeus databases. Five online test purchases of snus were made in each of 10 EU Member States using a standardised protocol. Feedback from the test purchases and further analysis of the websites accessed for test purchases were used to critically examine snus retailers' conduct. The majority of online vendors operate from Sweden and target non-Swedish EU citizens. Test purchases were successfully made in all 10 EU Member States; of 43 orders placed, only two failed. Age verification relied only on self-report. The majority of sales applied Swedish taxes, contrary to EU requirements. Copious sales promotion activities, many price based, are incorporated in these websites contravening the EU regulation, and three test purchases were delivered with gifts. Snus is currently being sold on the single market via the internet in contravention of Swedish legislation and three EU Directives. The apparent willingness of the tobacco industry to contravene EU and Swedish legislation and profit from unlawful sales raises questions about their status as stakeholders in consultations on future policy developments. The findings highlight how national and regional tobacco control legislation can be undermined in an increasingly globalised world.

  13. AORN sales professional course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, R; Thompson, J

    1996-04-01

    The sales professional course "Introduction to the Operating Room" offered by the AORN Center for Nursing Practice, Health Policy, and Research is an introductory program in OR etiquette. Its purpose is to provide sales professionals a working knowledge of OR protocol for them to function appropriately in OR settings. Sales professionals who have completed this course establish mutually beneficial perioperative partnerships with OR personnel. Sales professionals' effectiveness is strengthened as a result of their newly acquired knowledge of OR protocol, and patient safety is protected. An AORN Certificate of Recognition is awarded on completion of the course.

  14. Editorial: Sales Strategy (2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Chris McPhee

    2010-01-01

    The editorial theme for this issue of the OSBR is Sales Strategy. While "marketing" is everything a company does to build interest in its offers, "sales" consists of converting these offers into cash. By "sales strategy," we refer to all sales planning and process development activities leading up to the actual selling of a product or service. In his recent blog post at MaRS Discovery District, Mark Zimmerman answered a question he is frequently asked by the founders of startups: "How do we f...

  15. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...... and the urgency of the sale also affect the average discount: Discounts are larger when house prices contract, in thin markets where demand is lower, and when the sale is more likely to be a fire sale because of financial or liquidity constraints. Late fire sales are more likely when the house price...... forced sales lead to fire sale discounts....

  16. Is it time to ban alcohol advertising?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Peter

    2009-04-01

    Children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of alcohol, with heavy drinking risking impaired brain development and future alcohol dependence. Advertisements increase expectancies about alcohol, leading to a greater likelihood of drinking. A systematic review of 13 longitudinal studies of over 38,000 young people found convincing evidence of an impact of media exposure and alcohol advertising on subsequent alcohol use, including initiation of drinking and heavier drinking among existing drinkers. All European countries, with the exception of the UK, have a ban on one or more types of advertising. Since self-regulation is reported as failing to prevent marketing which has an impact on younger people, and since advertising commonly crosses country borders, there is an argument to approximate advertising rules across Europe banning alcohol advertising targeted at young people, a highly cost-effective measure to reduce harmful alcohol use, and one supported by European citizens and case law.

  17. Communicating contentious health policy: lessons from Ireland's workplace smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Declan; Trench, Brian; Clancy, Luke

    2012-05-01

    The Irish workplace smoking ban has been described as possibly a tipping point for public health worldwide. This article presents the first analysis of the newspaper coverage of the ban over the duration of the policy formation process. It adds to previous studies by analyzing how health communication strategists engaged, over time, with a newsworthy topic, viewed as being culturally controversial. It analyzes a sample of media content (n = 1,154) and firsthand accounts from pro-ban campaigners and journalists (n = 10). The analysis shows that the ban was covered not primarily as a health issue: Economic, political, social, democratic, and technical aspects also received significant attention. It shows how coverage followed controversy and examines how pro-ban campaigners countered effectively the anti-ban communication efforts of influential social actors in the economic and political spheres. The analysis demonstrates that medical-political sources successfully defined the ban's issues as centrally concerned with public health.

  18. Japan. Human cloning ban allows some research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normile, D

    2000-12-08

    TOKYO--Japanese legislators last week approved a ban on human cloning that leaves room for the use of certain techniques in basic research. The action comes at the same time officials in two other countries--China and France--aired similar proposals that would prohibit so-called reproductive cloning while recognizing the possible importance of the technology in combating disease and improving human health.

  19. The hasty British ban on commercial surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahams, D

    1987-02-01

    While commercial surrogate parenting arrangements continue to flourish in the U.S., Britain has made it a criminal offense for third parties to benefit from surrogacy. Voluntary surrogacy, however, is still within the law. Banning commercial surrogacy while leaving voluntary surrogacy lawful seems neither logical nor fair. A more equitable solution would be to license stringently and control both commercial and nonprofit agencies to provide these services.

  20. Should Selecting Saviour Siblings be Banned?

    OpenAIRE

    Sheldon, Sally; Wilkinson, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. \\ud \\ud This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour ...

  1. ILO to promote global asbestos ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Rory

    2006-01-01

    The International Labour Office (ILO) is to pursue a global ban on asbestos, the world's biggest ever industrial killer. The landmark decision came with the adoption of a resolution on 14 June 2006 at the ILO conference in Geneva and followed a high level union campaign. Rory O'Neill asked Jukka Takala, director of ILO's Safe Work program, what ILO will now do to help make the world asbestos-free.

  2. History of Asbestos Ban in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Kwan Wong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available As millions of immigrants moved to Hong Kong (HK from China in the recent decades, large amount of residential housings were built in the early years and a substantial proportion of those buildings used asbestos-containing materials (ACMs. Since the number of new cases of ARDs diagnosed has increased year by year since 1990’s, the remarkable increase of incidences had drawn the attention of the public and most importantly the HK government. It became one of the trigger points leading to asbestos ban in HK history. Comparatively, non-governmental organizations (NGOs, labor unions and patients’ self-help organizations demonstrated a more aggressive and proactive attitude than the HK government and have played a key role in the development of asbestos banning policy in HK. After numerous petitions and meetings with the government representatives by those parties in the past decade, the HK government eventually changed its attitude and started to consider terminating the endless threat from asbestos by amending the policy, and the new clause of legislation for banning of all forms of asbestos was enacted on 4 April 2014. Other than the restriction of asbestos use, the compensation system about ARDs has also made some great moves by the effort of those parties as well. Based on the experience we learnt through the years, efforts from different stakeholders including patients’ self-help organizations, NGOs, legislative councilors, and media power are absolutely essential to the success of progression and development in today’s asbestos banning in HK.

  3. Food sales prediction: "If only it knew what we know"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulstee, P.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sales prediction is an important problem for different companies involved in manufacturing, logistics, marketing, wholesaling and retailing. Food companies are more concerned with sales prediction of products having a short shelf-life and seasonal changes in demand. The demand may depend on many

  4. Banning banking in EU emissions trading?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Ehrhart, Karl-Martin; Hoppe, Christian; Seifert, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    Admitting banking in emissions trading systems reduces overall compliance costs by allowing for inter-temporal flexibility: cost savings can be traded over time. However, unless individual EU Member States (MS) decide differently, the transfer of unused allowances from the period of 2005-2007 into the first commitment period under the Kyoto Protocol, i.e. 2008-2012, will be prohibited. In this paper, we first explore the implications of such a ban on banking when initial emission targets are lenient. This analysis is based on a simulation which was recently carried out in Germany with companies and with a student control group. The findings suggest that a EU-wide ban on banking would lead to efficiency losses in addition to those losses which arise from the lack of inter-temporal flexibility. Second, we use simple game-theoretic considerations to argue that, under reasonable assumptions, such a EU-wide ban on banking will be the equilibrium outcome. Thus, to avoid a possible prisoners' dilemma, MS should have co-ordinated their banking decisions

  5. Towards a nuclear-test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    A survey of international efforts from the partial test-ban Treaty (in atmosphere, in outer space and under water) in 1963 to the Soviet-USA negotiations on verification measures for the threshold test-ban Treaty is given. As was the case in the bilateral and trilateral negotiations, the question of adequate verification procedures has remained one of the major problems in the multilateral considerations on a comprehensive test ban. Over the years, a number of proposals have been made in order to solve the issue, in particular by Sweden and by the Soviet Union. In 1988, the four experimental data centres, situated in Canberra, Moscow, Stockholm and Washington, carried out separate and joint experiments in analysis methodology. Communication techniques between the four international data centres and a number of national seismological stations were also tested. In addition, a global data-gathering experiment was conducted, resulting in the creation of an initial research data base at the experimental data centre in Canberra. Further technical experiments are planned for 1989, an in 1990 a large-scale experiment in data exchange and analysis, involving up to a hundred seismological stations globally and lasting several months, is foreseen

  6. Restricting or banning alcohol advertising to reduce alcohol consumption in adults and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegfried, Nandi; Pienaar, David C; Ataguba, John E; Volmink, Jimmy; Kredo, Tamara; Jere, Mlenga; Parry, Charles D H

    2014-11-04

    found that young men exposed to movies with a low-alcohol content drank less than men exposed to movies with a high-alcohol content (mean difference (MD) -0.65 drinks; 95% CI -1.2, -0.07; p value = 0.03, very-low-quality evidence). Young men exposed to commercials with a neutral content compared with those exposed to commercials for alcohol drank less (MD -0.73 drinks; 95% CI -1.30, -0.16; p value = 0.01, very-low-quality evidence). Outcomes were assessed immediately after the end of the intervention (lasting 1.5 hours), so no follow-up data were available. Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach, the quality of the evidence was rated as very low due to a serious risk of bias, serious indirectness of the included population and serious level of imprecision.Two of the ITS studies evaluated the implementation of an advertising ban and one study evaluated the lifting of such a ban. Each of the three ITS studies evaluated a different type of ban (partial or full) compared with different degrees of restrictions or no restrictions during the control period. The results from the three ITS studies were inconsistent. A meta-analysis of the two studies that evaluated the implementation of a ban showed an overall mean non-significant increase in beer consumption in the general population of 1.10% following the ban (95% CI -5.26, 7.47; p value = 0.43; I(2) = 83%, very-low-quality evidence). This finding is consistent with an increase, no difference, or a decrease in alcohol consumption. In the study evaluating the lifting of a total ban on all forms of alcohol advertising to a partial ban on spirits advertising only, which utilised an Abrupt Auto-regressive Integrated Moving Average model, the volume of all forms of alcohol sales decreased by 11.11 kilolitres (95% CI -27.56, 5.34; p value = 0.19) per month after the ban was lifted. In this model, beer and wine sales increased per month by 14.89 kilolitres (95% CI 0.39, 29.39; p value = 0

  7. Effective Retail Sales Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canei, Robert A.

    The manual is a 12-hour program for adults who are working or preparing to work as retail salespeople. It can also be used as a summarization manual for high school students. The manual consists of five sessions which take the individual from the human aspect of sales to the related sales technique. The sessions are entitled: employee and customer…

  8. Sales Forecasting for Fashion Retailing Service Industry: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sales forecasting is crucial for many retail operations. It is especially critical for the fashion retailing service industry in which product demand is very volatile and product’s life cycle is short. This paper conducts a comprehensive literature review and selects a set of papers in the literature on fashion retail sales forecasting. The advantages and the drawbacks of different kinds of analytical methods for fashion retail sales forecasting are examined. The evolution of the respective forecasting methods over the past 15 years is revealed. Issues related to real-world applications of the fashion retail sales forecasting models and important future research directions are discussed.

  9. Implications of lifting the ban on the export of Alaskan crude oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-26

    Present legislation effectively bans the export of crude oil produced in the United States. The ban has been in effect for years and is particularly stringent with respect to crude oil produced in Alaska, particularly on the North Slope. The Alaska crude export ban is specifically provided for in the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act of 1973 and in other legislation. It was imposed for two reasons. The first was to reduce US dependence on imported crude oil. The Arab oil embargo had been imposed shortly before the Act was passed and a greater measure of energy independence was considered imperative at that time. The second reason was to assure that funds expended in building an Alaskan pipeline would benefit domestic users rather than simply employed to facilitate shipments to other countries. The main objective of this report is to estimate the potential impacts on crude oil prices that would result from lifting the export ban Alaskan crude oil. The report focuses on the Japanese market and the US West Coast market. Japan is the principal potential export market for Alaskan crude oil. Exports to that market would also affect the price of Alaskan crude oil as well as crude oil and product prices on the West Coast and the volume of petroleum imported in that area. 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  10. Advertising and alcohol sales: a legal impact study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowsky, C R; Whitehead, P C

    1991-11-01

    According to the single distribution theory increases in the availability of alcoholic beverages in the general population are associated with increases in average consumption and increases in alcohol-related damage. If it can be demonstrated that advertising contributes to availability, perhaps in the form of what has been called social or subjective availability, then advertising could be considered an appropriate target of prevention. A 58-year ban on advertising of alcoholic beverages was lifted in Saskatchewan in 1983. Data on monthly sales of beer, wine and distilled spirits were examined for the years 1981 to 1987. Box-Jenkins time series techniques were used to estimate the statistical relationship between the policy change and volume of sales of alcoholic beverages. The results revealed that sales of beer increased and sales of spirits decreased following the change in legislation that permitted alcohol advertising in Saskatchewan. The main finding is that there was no impact on wine and total alcohol sales from the introduction of alcohol advertising. Alcohol advertising may have produced a substitution effect with respect to beer and spirits, but this was not predicted. This evaluation suggests that alcohol advertising is not a contributory force that influences the overall level of alcohol consumption. The place of advertising in the single distribution theory remains not proven, and the place of advertising as an instrument of public policy with respect to the prevention of alcohol-related damage remains in question.

  11. Analisis dan Perancangan Aplikasi Pendukung Erp Sap R/3 Modul Sales And Distribution PT. United Tractors, Tbk

    OpenAIRE

    Johan, Johan; Susanto, Yokie; Joe, Yusmin; Robby, Robby

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to analyse sales process having been implementing Sales and Distribution module of ERP SAP R/3 and also to design a supporting application for sales process at PT United Tractor, Tbk. The benefit of this application is to help sales person and customer in doing inquiries, quotation and sales order also material information through short message. The method of this research is data capturing, literature review, object oriented analysis and design and Rational Un...

  12. Sales of diesel fuel up, gasoline sales down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nupponen, J.

    2000-01-01

    The combined sales of petroleum products in Finland during 1999 totalled more than nine million tonnes, which was little changed from the figure for 1998. Sales of traffic fuels increased, while those of fuel oil fell. Diesel fuel sales reached a record level, while sales of gasoline continued their downward trend

  13. Marketing/Sales Students' Understanding of What Counts as Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshower, Leon; Gupta, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    Improper sales revenue recognition is the single largest issue contributing to financial restatements. Understanding and applying the rules of sales revenue recognition is not just an accounting problem; it is a marketing problem, too. Thus, it is important that the sales force has a basic understanding of the rules of sales recognition and be…

  14. Burqa Ban, Freedom of Religion and ‘Living Together’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2015-01-01

    In the summer of 2014, the European Court of Human Rights ruled that the French 2010 law banning face-covering clothing in public spaces, the so-called burqa ban, did not violate the right to freedom of religion. Due to the ‘wide margin of appreciation’, the Court deemed the ban proportionate...... to the French state’s legitimate aim with the ban of preserving the conditions of ‘living together’. The paper analyses and provides an internal criticism of the Court’s justification for this judgement focusing on the aim of living together and the right to freedom of religion. The Court’s justification...

  15. Effect of British hunting ban on fox numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip J; Harris, Stephen; Webbon, Charlotte C

    2002-09-05

    Pressure to ban the hunting of foxes with hounds in Britain has fuelled debate about its contribution to the control of fox populations. We took advantage of a nationwide one-year ban on fox-hunting during the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in 2001 to examine this issue and found that the ban had no measurable impact on fox numbers in randomly selected areas. Our results argue against suggestions that fox populations would increase markedly in the event of a permanent ban on hunting.

  16. Understanding Sex for Sale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book Understanding Sex for Sale: Meanings and Moralities of Sexual Commerce is dedicated to the exploration of the ways in which sex prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are taken for granted by particularly looking at how the relation between sex and money is interpreted and enacted....... This interdisciplinary book aims to understand how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale are defined, delineated, contested and understood in different places and times. The book offers contributions from a number of scholars who, based on their on their own research, discuss on going theoretical issues and analytical...... challenges Some chapters focuses on how prostitution, sex work or sex for sale have been regulated by the authorities and what understandings this regulation builds on. Other chapters investigate the experiences of the sex workers and sex buyers asking how these actors adjust to or resist the categorisation...

  17. Allegheny County Sheriff Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List of properties up for auction at a Sheriff Sale. Datasets labeled "Current" contain this month's postings, while those labeled "Archive" contain a running list...

  18. Gross Sales Tax Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    City of Jackson, Mississippi — This data is captured directly from the MS Department of Revenue and specific to the City of Jackson. It is compiled from Gross Sales Tax reported by taxpayers each...

  19. Effectiveness of the ban on tobacco industry sponsorship in Brazil: findings from the ITC Brazil Wave 1 to 3 Surveys (2009 to 2016 - 17)

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Pinho; Andre Szklo; Cristina Perez; Geoffrey Fong; Lorraine Craig; Grace Li; Mi Yan

    2018-01-01

    Background In 2000, Brazil implemented a comprehensive ban on tobacco advertising (except point-of-sale), promotion, and sponsorship, including sponsorship by tobacco brands of national sporting and arts events, then in 2005 adding international sport events. However, a loophole in the law permits company names for sponsorship. This study examines whether this loophole has been exploited by the industry via Brazilians' awareness of tobacco company sponsorship of ...

  20. Towards a nuclear-test ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    In 1986 and again in 1987 the General Assembly adopted resolutions by which it called on States conducting nuclear-test explosions to notify the Secretary-General, within one week of each explosion, of the time, place, yield and site characteristics of the test and also invited all other States to provide any such data on nuclear explosions that they might have. Over the years, in the Conference on Disarmament, members of the Group of 21 (mostly neutral and non-aligned countries) have continued to attach the utmost importance to the urgent conclusion of a comprehensive test-ban treaty as a significant contribution to the aim of ending the qualitative refinement of nuclear weapons and the development of new types of such weapons as well as of reversing the nuclear-arms race and achieving nuclear disarmament. In 1995 a conference will be convened to decide whether the non-proliferation Treaty will continue in force indefinitely, or will be extended for an additional fixed period or periods. Many States support the view that a comprehensive test ban would be a significant contribution to the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons; and some believe that, without a cessation of nuclear testing, it may not be possible to extend the NPT well beyond 1995. Other States, however, are of the opinion that the NPT, independently, offers benefits for the security of all States and, by its extension, will continue to do so

  1. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates when forced sales of real estate turn into fire sales by using a natural experiment that allows us to separate supply and demand effects: Forced sales result from sudden death of house owners and are thus unrelated to current market conditions. We find that forced sales...

  2. Better sales networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustüner, Tuba; Godes, David

    2006-01-01

    Anyone in sales will tell you that social networks are critical. The more contacts you have, the more leads you'll generate, and, ultimately, the more sales you'll make. But that's a vast oversimplification. Different configurations of networks produce different results, and the salesperson who develops a nuanced understanding of social networks will outshine competitors. The salesperson's job changes over the course of the selling process. Different abilities are required in each stage of the sale: identifying prospects, gaining buy-in from potential customers, creating solutions, and closing the deal. Success in the first stage, for instance, depends on the salesperson acquiring precise and timely information about opportunities from contacts in the marketplace. Closing the deal requires the salesperson to mobilize contacts from prior sales to act as references. Managers often view sales networks only in terms of direct contacts. But someone who knows lots of people doesn't necessarily have an effective network because networks often pay off most handsomely through indirect contacts. Moreover, the density of the connections in a network is important. Do a salesperson's contacts know all the same people, or are their associates widely dispersed? Sparse networks are better, for example, at generating unique information. Managers can use three levers--sales force structure, compensation, and skills development--to encourage salespeople to adopt a network-based view and make the best possible use of social webs. For example, the sales force can be restructured to decouple lead generation from other tasks because some people are very good at building diverse ties but not so good at maintaining other kinds of networks. Companies that take steps of this kind to help their sales teams build better networks will reap tremendous advantages.

  3. revenue management–sales relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Noone, B. M; Hultberg, T.

    2011-01-01

    Revenue management and sales staffs collaborate substantially in making decisions regarding rate setting, accepting group business, and forecasting. However, according to a survey of 82 sales and revenue management executives at three hotel chains (47 revenue managers and 35 sales executives), hotels could foster even better coordination between revenue management and sales by educating each group regarding the other group’s responsibilities. This might reduce sales staff frustrations about t...

  4. Research gaps related to tobacco product marketing and sales in the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Kurt M

    2012-01-01

    This paper is part of a collection that identifies research priorities that will help guide the efforts of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as it regulates tobacco products. This paper examines the major provisions related to tobacco product advertising, marketing, sales, and distribution included in Public Law 111-31, the "Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act". This paper covers 5 areas related to (a) marketing regulations (e.g., ban on color and imagery in ads, ban on nontobacco gifts with purchase); (b) granting FDA authority over the sale, distribution, accessibility, advertising, and promotion of tobacco and lifting state preemption over advertising; (c) remote tobacco sales (mail order and Internet); (d) prevention of illicit and cross-border trade; and (e) noncompliant export products. Each of the 5 sections of this paper provides a description and brief history of regulation, what is known about this regulatory strategy, and research opportunities.

  5. BAN-Based m-health Services: Experiences and Prospects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baarda, Marianne; Jones, Valerie M.; Stemerding, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    The University of Twente and partners are developing and prototyping Body Area networks (BANs) for healthcare. We define a BAN as a network of devices worn on or around the body which communicate amongst themselves and perform a set of services for the user. Our work began with the European

  6. The Operational Impact of the U.S. Assassination Ban

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Berg, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    ... banned its use regardless of the nature of the conflict or the status of the leader. The United States should eliminate the assassination ban. As potentially one of the most effective and efficient means for combating and deterring aggression from rogue states and terrorists, assassination or at least the credible threat of assassination, should be an option available to the United States.

  7. The Impact of the Workplace Smoking Ban in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Beomsoo Kim

    2009-01-01

    A full work area smoking ban reduced the current smoking rate by 9.6 percentage points among males and the average daily consumption among smokers by 24 percent relative to no smoking ban. Secondhand smoke showed a dramatic decrease of 88 percent from the sample mean among males. The public anti-smoking campaign did not show any significant impact on smoking behavior.

  8. Book Banning in the High Schools, 1975-81.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John Anthony

    1982-01-01

    Describes recent cases of high school book banning illustrating patterns of censorship in the United States. The author examines reasons for book banning, the motivations behind this kind of censorship, and the ideological orientation of groups responsible for it. A bibliography of information on censorship is included. (AM)

  9. Global Banning of a Diffused Controversial Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurses, Kerem; Giones, Ferran; Mehta, Kandarpkumar

    2017-01-01

    We study the deinstitutionalization of a controversial practice that had previously reached a level of international diffusion. We draw on international diffusion and deinstitutionalization theory to study the emergence and diffusion of the third-party ownership practice in the soccer industry. We...... use an inductive case study combining archival and interview data to study the determinants of the international diffusion of a controversial practice at a global scale, the contestation, and finally the deinstitutionalization process that resulted from the ban of the practice. We find...... that the opacity of the practice can be a diffusion driver, locally and at the international level, nevertheless the opacity also may lead to different meaning creation attempts and potential discursive battles between actors, and eventually to deinstitutionalization of the practice. This article advances our...

  10. Should selecting saviour siblings be banned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, S; Wilkinson, S

    2004-12-01

    By using tissue typing in conjunction with preimplantation genetic diagnosis doctors are able to pick a human embryo for implantation which, if all goes well, will become a "saviour sibling", a brother or sister capable of donating life-saving tissue to an existing child. This paper addresses the question of whether this form of selection should be banned and concludes that it should not. Three main prohibitionist arguments are considered and found wanting: (a) the claim that saviour siblings would be treated as commodities; (b) a slippery slope argument, which suggests that this practice will lead to the creation of so-called "designer babies"; and (c) a child welfare argument, according to which saviour siblings will be physically and/or psychologically harmed.

  11. Experience of Japan in Achieving a Total Ban on Asbestos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugio Furuya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine the process through which a total ban on asbestos was achieved in Japan. We reconstructed the process, analyzed the roles of involved parties/events, and drew lessons from the Japanese experience of achieving the ban. In Japan, a bill to phase out asbestos was proposed in 1992 but rejected without deliberation. Wide support for such a ban subsequently grew, however, largely due to the actions of trade unions and civil societies in establishing a coalition, raising awareness, organizing asbestos victims and their families, and propagating information on international developments. A governmental decision towards a ban was made in 2002 based on several national and international factors. A huge asbestos scandal in 2005 preponed the achievement of a total ban and led to the establishment of comprehensive measures to tackle asbestos issues. However, challenges remain for the elimination of asbestos-related diseases.

  12. The association between state bans on soda only and adolescent substitution with other sugar-sweetened beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taber, Daniel R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Vuillaume, Renee; Kelder, Steven H; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2015-07-27

    Across the United States, many states have actively banned the sale of soda in high schools, and evidence suggests that students' in-school access to soda has declined as a result. However, schools may be substituting soda with other sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), and national trends indicate that adolescents are consuming more sports drinks and energy drinks. This study examined whether students consumed more non-soda SSBs in states that banned the sale of soda in school. Student data on consumption of various SSBs and in-school access to vending machines that sold SSBs were obtained from the National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study (NYPANS), conducted in 2010. Student data were linked to state laws regarding the sale of soda in school in 2010. Students were cross-classified based on their access to vending machines and whether their state banned soda in school, creating 4 comparison groups. Zero-inflated negative binomial models were used to compare these 4 groups with respect to students’ self-reported consumption of diet soda, sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, or other SSBs. Students who had access to vending machines in a state that did not ban soda were the reference group. Models were adjusted for race/ethnicity, sex, grade, home food access, state median income, and U.S. Census region. Students consumed more servings of sports drinks, energy drinks, coffee/tea, and other SSBs if they resided in a state that banned soda in school but attended a school with vending machines that sold other SSBs. Similar results were observed where schools did not have vending machines but the state allowed soda to be sold in school. Intake was generally not elevated where both states and schools limited SSB availability – i.e., states banned soda and schools did not have SSB vending machines. State laws that ban soda but allow other SSBs may lead students to substitute other non-soda SSBs. Additional longitudinal research is needed to confirm this

  13. To ban or not to ban: direct-to-consumer advertising and human rights analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Wellington

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues surrounding Direct-To-Consumer Advertising of pharmaceuticals are ripe for scrutiny through the lens of Human Rights analysis. Among the human rights most decisively engaged by DTCA is the right to autonomy in health-related decision making, which in turn incorporates right of access to health-related information. The latter incorporates, in part, right of access to reliable and beneficial information through the avenues of commercial speech among others. Another crucial human right is the right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence. The most commonly invoked policy options in the context of DTCA are either an outright ban or strengthening regulatory oversight in combination with voluntary guidelines. Banning Direct-To-Consumer Advertising risks being both over inclusive and under inclusive as a policy option. A wholesale ban risks being over inclusive in that it could deprive consumers of information about medications with a positive benefit-risk profile, ones that could enhance their quality of health and well being. Thus it risks being overly paternalistic. Banning DTCA, by itself, is under inclusive in that it is insufficient to address the ways that unadvertised drugs can pose significant risks to consumers. Other policy measures would be most optimal to deal with the very serious deficits in the processes by which prescription drugs undergo clinical trials, and garner regulatory approval prior to their promotion in the marketplace. A more finely tuned approach to regulatory oversight is endorsed, one involving a proactive and precautionary approach reliant upon prior approval. Such an approach could help to address the very serious concerns about potential infringements of the human right not to be harmed by unsafe consumer products through corporate malfeasance or negligence.

  14. Banning the bulb: Institutional evolution and the phased ban of incandescent lighting in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howarth, Nicholas A.A.; Rosenow, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Much academic attention has been directed at analysing energy efficiency investments through the lens of ‘behavioural failure’. These studies have challenged the neoclassical framing of regulation which emphasises the efficiency benefits of price based policy, underpinned by the notion of rational individual self-mastery. The increasing use of a regulatory ban on electric lamps in many countries is one of the most recent and high profile flash points in this dialectic of ‘freedom-versus-the-state’ in the public policy discourse. This paper interrogates this debate through a study of electric lamp diffusion in Germany. It is argued that neoclassical theory and equilibrium analysis is inadequate as a tool for policy analysis as it takes the formation of market institutions, such as existing regulations, for granted. Further still, it may be prone to encourage idealistic debates around such grand narratives which may in practice simply serve those who benefit most from the status quo. Instead we argue for an evolutionary approach which we suggest offers a more pragmatic framing tool which focuses on the formation of market institutions in light of shifting social norms and political goals—in our case, progress towards energy efficiency and environmental goals. - Highlights: • Empirical data on the ban of incandescent lamps in Germany is presented. • The political debate on the ban is positioned within key bodies of theory. • Discourse was found to have positively influenced diffusion of efficient lighting. • Tools for the reframing of political debate are proposed for policy makers

  15. Assessing the Impact of the National Smoking Ban in Indoor Public Places in China: Evidence from Quit Smoking Related Online Searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Zheng, Rong; Emery, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the tremendous economic and health costs imposed on China by tobacco use, China lacks a proactive and systematic tobacco control surveillance and evaluation system, hampering research progress on tobacco-focused surveillance and evaluation studies. Methods This paper uses online search query analyses to investigate changes in online search behavior among Chinese Internet users in response to the adoption of the national indoor public place smoking ban. Baidu Index and Google Trends were used to examine the volume of search queries containing three key search terms “Smoking Ban(s),” “Quit Smoking,” and “Electronic Cigarette(s),” along with the news coverage on the smoking ban, for the period 2009–2011. Findings Our results show that the announcement and adoption of the indoor public place smoking ban in China generated significant increases in news coverage on smoking bans. There was a strong positive correlation between the media coverage of smoking bans and the volume of “Smoking Ban(s)” and “Quit Smoking” related search queries. The volume of search queries related to “Electronic Cigarette(s)” was also correlated with the smoking ban news coverage. Interpretation To the extent it altered smoking-related online searches, our analyses suggest that the smoking ban had a significant effect, at least in the short run, on Chinese Internet users’ smoking-related behaviors. This research introduces a novel analytic tool, which could serve as an alternative tobacco control evaluation and behavior surveillance tool in the absence of timely or comprehensive population surveillance system. This research also highlights the importance of a comprehensive approach to tobacco control in China. PMID:23776504

  16. Effects of the 2003 advertising/promotion ban in the United Kingdom on awareness of tobacco marketing: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, F; MacKintosh, A M; Anderson, S; Hastings, G; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Hammond, D

    2006-01-01

    Background In February 2003, a comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion came into effect in the United Kingdom, which prohibited tobacco marketing through print and broadcast media, billboards, the internet, direct mail, product placement, promotions, free gifts, coupons and sponsorships. Objective To investigate the impact of the UK's comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion on adult smokers' awareness of tobacco marketing in the UK relative to Canada, the United States and Australia. Design A total of 6762 adult smokers participated in two waves of a random digit dialled telephone survey across the four countries. Wave 1 was conducted before the UK ban (October–December 2002) and Wave 2 was conducted after the UK ban (May–September 2003). Key measures Awareness of a range of forms of tobacco marketing. Results Levels of tobacco promotion awareness declined significantly among smokers in the UK after implementation of the advertising ban. Declines in awareness were greater in those channels regulated by the new law and change in awareness of tobacco promotions was much greater in the UK than the other three countries not affected by the ban. At least in the short term, there was no evidence that the law resulted in greater exposure to tobacco promotions in the few media channels not covered by the law. Notwithstanding the apparent success of the UK advertising ban and the controls in other countries, 9–22% of smokers in the four countries still reported noticing things that promoted smoking “often or very often” at Wave 2. Conclusions The UK policy to ban tobacco advertising and promotion has significantly reduced exposure to pro‐tobacco marketing influences. These findings support the effectiveness of comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion, as included in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. PMID:16754943

  17. Effects of the 2003 advertising/promotion ban in the United Kingdom on awareness of tobacco marketing: findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, F; MacKintosh, A M; Anderson, S; Hastings, G; Borland, R; Fong, G T; Hammond, D; Cummings, K M

    2006-06-01

    In February 2003, a comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion came into effect in the United Kingdom, which prohibited tobacco marketing through print and broadcast media, billboards, the internet, direct mail, product placement, promotions, free gifts, coupons and sponsorships. To investigate the impact of the UK's comprehensive ban on tobacco promotion on adult smokers' awareness of tobacco marketing in the UK relative to Canada, the United States and Australia. A total of 6762 adult smokers participated in two waves of a random digit dialled telephone survey across the four countries. Wave 1 was conducted before the UK ban (October-December 2002) and Wave 2 was conducted after the UK ban (May-September 2003). Awareness of a range of forms of tobacco marketing. Levels of tobacco promotion awareness declined significantly among smokers in the UK after implementation of the advertising ban. Declines in awareness were greater in those channels regulated by the new law and change in awareness of tobacco promotions was much greater in the UK than the other three countries not affected by the ban. At least in the short term, there was no evidence that the law resulted in greater exposure to tobacco promotions in the few media channels not covered by the law. Notwithstanding the apparent success of the UK advertising ban and the controls in other countries, 9-22% of smokers in the four countries still reported noticing things that promoted smoking "often or very often" at Wave 2. The UK policy to ban tobacco advertising and promotion has significantly reduced exposure to pro-tobacco marketing influences. These findings support the effectiveness of comprehensive bans on advertising and promotion, as included in the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  18. SALES, STORAGE AND SALVAGE

    CERN Multimedia

    Division SPL, groupe logistique; A. Notar

    2000-01-01

    From 3 January 2000 there will be a security barrier in front of the storage-recycling area in bldg 133, which will be accessible only to authorised staff and contractors.You are reminded that the equipment delivered to this area must be unpolluted and non-radioactive. The cost of recycling the equipment will be debited to the budget code of the Division concerned, with the prior approval of the Group Leader.Reminder relating to equipment salesThe Sales Section is open on Thursdays from 13.30 to 15.00 hours only.SPL DivisionLogistics GroupA. Notari

  19. The Case for a Global Ban on Asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDou, Joseph; Castleman, Barry; Frank, Arthur; Gochfeld, Michael; Greenberg, Morris; Huff, James; Joshi, Tushar Kant; Landrigan, Philip J.; Lemen, Richard; Myers, Jonny; Soffritti, Morando; Soskolne, Colin L.; Takahashi, Ken; Teitelbaum, Daniel; Terracini, Benedetto; Watterson, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Background All forms of asbestos are now banned in 52 countries. Safer products have replaced many materials that once were made with it. Nonetheless, many countries still use, import, and export asbestos and asbestos-containing products, and in those that have banned other forms of asbestos, the so-called “controlled use” of chrysotile asbestos is often exempted from the ban. In fact, chrysotile has accounted for > 95% of all the asbestos used globally. Objective We examined and evaluated the literature used to support the exemption of chrysotile asbestos from the ban and how its exemption reflects the political and economic influence of the asbestos mining and manufacturing industry. Discussion All forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, are proven human carcinogens. All forms cause malignant mesothelioma and lung and laryngeal cancers, and may cause ovarian, gastrointestinal, and other cancers. No exposure to asbestos is without risk. Illnesses and deaths from asbestos exposure are entirely preventable. Conclusions All countries of the world have an obligation to their citizens to join in the international endeavor to ban the mining, manufacture, and use of all forms of asbestos. An international ban is urgently needed. There is no medical or scientific basis to exempt chrysotile from the worldwide ban of asbestos. PMID:20601329

  20. How you slice it: smarter segmentation for your sales force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaser, Ernest; Dahneke, Marshall; Pekkarinen, Michael; Weissel, Michael

    2004-03-01

    Three years ago, 70-year-old Hill-Rom Incorporated was in a position familiar to many mature businesses: The company was strong but needed to be stronger. It was a top producer of hospital beds and specialty mattresses, its core product lines. It also had competitive complementary lines of stretchers, furniture, and architectural equipment. It had an extensive customer base, a respected sales force, and solid profit margins. But by the time Ernest Waaser took over as chief executive in early 2001, revenue growth had been slowing, and competition was on the rise. To secure Hill-Rom's place in the market, Waaser decided to focus first on the sales organization--partly because the cost of sales had risen gradually over the past five years and partly because acquisitions and other initiatives had made the sales organization more complex. The CEO took several steps to restructure the sales force. First, the company changed its customer segments to better reflect customers' demands and financial status, ultimately targeting two main groups: key and prime customers. It then changed the overall structure of the sales organization so it could tailor its approach to these two segments; key customers received more specialized service than prime customers. Finally, Hill-Rom adjusted the sales force after the company took an in-depth look at historical data on products and services and sales completed. Reasons for staffing changes were carefully communicated to the sales force. Because of Hill-Rom's initiatives, the cost of sales is down, short-term revenue growth is up, the outlook for long-term revenue growth looks bright, sales and profit margins are up, and customer satisfaction has increased. Best practice, indeed.

  1. Vendor compliance with Ontario's tobacco point of sale legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubray, Jolene M; Schwartz, Robert M; Garcia, John M; Bondy, Susan J; Victor, J Charles

    2009-01-01

    On May 31, 2006, Ontario joined a small group of international jurisdictions to implement legislative restrictions on tobacco point of sale promotions. This study compares the presence of point of sale promotions in the retail tobacco environment from three surveys: one prior to and two following implementation of the legislation. Approximately 1,575 tobacco vendors were randomly selected for each survey. Each regionally-stratified sample included equal numbers of tobacco vendors categorized into four trade classes: chain convenience, independent convenience and discount, gas stations, and grocery. Data regarding the six restricted point of sale promotions were collected using standardized protocols and inspection forms. Weighted estimates and 95% confidence intervals were produced at the provincial, regional and vendor trade class level using the bootstrap method for estimating variance. At baseline, the proportion of tobacco vendors who did not engage in each of the six restricted point of sale promotions ranged from 41% to 88%. Within four months following implementation of the legislation, compliance with each of the six restricted point of sale promotions exceeded 95%. Similar levels of compliance were observed one year later. Grocery stores had the fewest point of sale promotions displayed at baseline. Compliance rates did not differ across vendor trade classes at either follow-up survey. Point of sale promotions did not differ across regions in any of the three surveys. Within a short period of time, a high level of compliance with six restricted point of sale promotions was achieved.

  2. Schedule Sales Query Raw Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...

  3. BUILDING AN EFFECTIVE SALES FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building an effective sales force starts with selecting good salespeople, but good salespeople are very difficult to find. The reason for this is that most sales jobs are very demanding and require a great deal from the salesperson. There are many different types of sales jobs. Before it can hire salespeople, each company must do a careful job analysis to see what particular types of selling and other skills are necessary for each sales job. One task of the market planner is to establish clear objectives each year for the entire sales force, for each region, each sales office, and each salesperson. Sales jobs are different from in-house jobs in some significant ways. Nevertheless, each company must continually work on building and maintaining an effective sales force using the following steps: recruitment, selection, training, compensation and evaluation of each salesperson.

  4. Investigating the cross-sales effect of product associations

    OpenAIRE

    Vindevogel, B.; Van de Poel, D.; WETS, Geert

    2004-01-01

    In this research, we use the framework of association rule discovery to find 1,350 interesting product associations between two sku’s. Using multivariate time series techniques, we successively simulate a price promotion in both products and measure the impact on the sales of the associated product. This approach allows us to model both the short run and long run cross-sales effect. For both complement and substitute relationships, we investigate the moderating effect of several covariates on...

  5. Changes in tobacco industry advertising around high schools in Greece following an outdoor advertising ban: a follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Girvalaki, Charis; Lazuras, Lambros; Triantafylli, Danai; Lionis, Christos; Connolly, Gregory N; Behrakis, Panagiotis

    2013-09-01

    As tobacco advertising bans are enacted in accordance with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, it is essential to assess enforcement and how the industry may circumvent such measures. During this longitudinal study, we compared the characteristics of points-of-sale (POS) advertising within 300 m of all high schools in Heraklion, Greece before (n=101 POS and 44 billboards in 2007) and after (n=106 POS in 2011) an outdoor advertising ban was implemented in 2009. Cigarette advertisements in all retailers near all high schools were assessed. Following the ban, tobacco industry billboards around schools were eradicated (from 44 to 0). The proportion of POS that had external advertisements dropped from 98% to 66% (padvertisements on the door (79.5% to 20.4%, padvertisements per POS fell from 7.4 to 3.9 (padvertising restriction in Greece has led to a reduced number of tobacco advertisements per POS, and the eradication of billboard advertising. Nevertheless, there is a need to regulate kiosks, which were identified as a key vector for tobacco advertising, and to increase compliance among regulated convenience stores.

  6. Automated interactive sales processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Klos (Tomas); D.J.A. Somefun (Koye); J.A. La Poutré (Han)

    2010-01-01

    htmlabstractWhen we look at successful sales processes occurring in practice, we find they combine two techniques which have been studied separately in the literature. Recommender systems are used to suggest additional products or accessories to include in the bundle under consideration, and

  7. BA Sales Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts-Clay, Jennifer

    1979-01-01

    Describes the programs and courses of the sales training department at British Airways from induction to management level. The staff uses one of the largest commercial computer facilities in the world to provide seat reservations, fare quotations and tickets, hotel reservations, and tours. (MF)

  8. Gun Sales. Firearm Facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duker, Laurie, Ed.

    Minimal federal regulations on firearm sales have facilitated the proliferation of guns, gun owners, and gun dealers in the United States. This fact sheet offers data on the growing number of firearm dealers, the relative ease of obtaining and keeping a license to sell guns from the Federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms, the lack of…

  9. Sales and operations planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsdotter, Linea; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Kaipia, Riikka

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates sales and operations planning (S&OP) at four Scandinavian industrial food producers in order to explore how the use of S&OP might help leaders to deal with the challenges set by the planning environment. Variables connected to the product and market, e.g., frequency of new...

  10. Sales and operations planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsdotter, Linea; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra; Kaipia, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores how the use of sales and operations planning (S&OP) may deal with the challenges set by the planning environment by investigating S&OP at four Scandinavian industrial food producers. Variables connected to the product and market, e.g. perishability, customer service elements...

  11. Creating XML/PHP Interface for BAN Interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragkos, Vasileios; Katzis, Konstantinos; Despotou, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in medical and electronic technologies have introduced the use of Body Area Networks as a part of e-health, for constant and accurate monitoring of patients and the transmission as well as processing of the data to develop a holistic Electronic Health Record. The rising global population, different BAN manufacturers and a variety of medical systems pose the issue of interoperability between BANs and systems as well as the proper way to propagate medical data in an organized and efficient manner. In this paper, we describe BANs and propose the use of certain web technologies to address this issue.

  12. Tracking sales activities in agribusiness

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jiayu

    2015-01-01

    Decisions in the sales area, including customer and product selection and margin discipline, shape profits for companies in agribusiness. Management of the sales function takes place at the organizational, managerial, and practitioner level, each of which requires data about the process. Individual salespeople benefit from better knowledge of customers (Dixon & Adamson, 2011), and sales managers benefit from understanding the activities of salespeople. Organizationally, data on sales activiti...

  13. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? Methods In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk–which will be referred to as chocolate milk–was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Results Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (pchocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Conclusions Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose. PMID:24740451

  14. Chocolate milk consequences: a pilot study evaluating the consequences of banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Hanks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk. If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? METHODS: In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP were compared year to date. RESULTS: Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01. Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001, 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. CONCLUSIONS: Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose.

  15. Possession divestment by sales in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekerdt, David J; Addington, Aislinn

    2015-08-01

    Residential relocation in later life is almost always a downsizing, with many possessions to be divested in a short period of time. This article examines older movers' capacities for selling things, and ways that selling attenuates people's ties to those things, thus accomplishing the human dis-possession of the material convoy. In qualitative interviews in 79 households in the Midwestern United States, older adults reported their experience with possession sales associated with residential relocation. Among this group, three-quarters of the households downsized by selling some belongings. Informal sales seemed the least fraught of all strategies, estate sales had mixed reviews, and garage sales were recalled as laborious. Sellers' efforts were eased by social relations and social networks as helpers and buyers came forward. As selling proceeded, sentiment about possessions waned as their materiality and economic value came to the fore, easing their detachment from the household. Possession selling is challenging because older adults are limited in the knowledge, skills, and efforts that they can apply to the recommodification of their belongings. Selling can nonetheless be encouraged as a divestment strategy as long as the frustrations and drawbacks are transparent, and the goal of ridding is kept in view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Perception of Stakeholders to the Proposed Ban on Cow Hide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Cow hide consumption, cow hide value chain, ponmo .... value chain;. 2. identify sources of information of the respondents on the proposed ban; ..... the health risk associated with the consumption of ponmo may favour its proposed.

  17. Networks of global bird invasion altered by regional trade ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reino, Luís; Figueira, Rui; Beja, Pedro; Araújo, Miguel B; Capinha, César; Strubbe, Diederik

    2017-11-01

    Wildlife trade is a major pathway for introduction of invasive species worldwide. However, how exactly wildlife trade influences invasion risk, beyond the transportation of individuals to novel areas, remains unknown. We analyze the global trade network of wild-caught birds from 1995 to 2011 as reported by CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora). We found that before the European Union ban on imports of wild-caught birds, declared in 2005, invasion risk was closely associated with numbers of imported birds, diversity of import sources, and degree of network centrality of importer countries. After the ban, fluxes of global bird trade declined sharply. However, new trade routes emerged, primarily toward the Nearctic, Afrotropical, and Indo-Malay regions. Although regional bans can curtail invasion risk globally, to be fully effective and prevent rerouting of trade flows, bans should be global.

  18. Commercial sales: the Common European Sales Law compared to the Vienna Sales Convention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, M.B.M.; Schelhaas, H.

    2013-01-01

    If the Common European Sales Law (CESL) is adopted, commercial parties will have the opportunity to choose between two international legal instruments for the regulation of their international commercial sales contracts. Whereas CESL is available to both consumer and commercial sales contracts, the

  19. Sales Education Efficacy: Examining the Relationship between Sales Education and Sales Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolander, William; Bonney, Leff; Satornino, Cinthia

    2014-01-01

    Sales education is on the rise and for good reason. Statistics say that sales jobs will continue to grow at a rapid rate over the next few years. Many universities are preparing their students to start their careers in the professional selling function through the inclusion of sales education in their business curriculum. Yet little research…

  20. Indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activates CYP3A4 gene transcription through the human pregnane X receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Takeshi; Aratsu, Yusuke; Sugawara, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Takamitsu; Miyairi, Shinichi; Nagata, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Ban-Lan-Gen is the common name for the dried roots of indigo plants, including Polygonum tinctorium, Isatis indigotica, Isatis tinctoria, and Strobilanthes cusia. Ban-Lan-Gen is frequently used as an anti-inflammatory and an anti-viral for the treatment of hepatitis, influenza, and various types of inflammation. One of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP3A4, is responsible for the metabolism of a wide variety of xenobiotics, including an estimated 60% of all clinically used drugs. In this study, we investigated the effect of Ban-Lan-Gen on the transcriptional activation of the CYP3A4 gene. Ban-Lan-Gen extract increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner. Indirubin, one of the biologically active ingredients in the Ban-Lan-Gen, also dose-dependently increased CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Expression of short hairpin RNA for the human pregnane X receptor (hPXR-shRNA) inhibited CYP3A4 gene reporter activity, and overexpression of human PXR increased indirubin- and rifampicin-induced CYP3A4 gene reporter activity. Furthermore, indirubin induced CYP3A4 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells. Taken together, these results indicate that indirubin, a component of Ban-Lan-Gen, activated CYP3A4 gene transcription through the activation of the human PXR. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. sponsorship ban in Lebanon: a baseline cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Chaaya

    2016-05-01

    This study provided information about compliance to the smoking ban in Beirut. The advertising sector's compliance would hopefully decrease the tobacco industry’s influence on the public. Further studies aiming at understanding the underlying factors behind the lack of compliance to the indoor smoking ban and finding effective solutions in a politically unstable country with weak rule of law like Lebanon are crucial and can serve as an example for similar developing countries.

  2. [Acceptance of a total smoking ban in schools: students' attitudes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, M; Wiborg, G; Hanewinkel, R

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure students' attitudes towards a total smoking ban in schools and towards impositions in cases of violation. Cross-sectional survey of 1 738 students of 12 public schools in Schleswig-Holstein (grades 7-13, age 11-20 years). Data were collected by means of written questionnaires administered during class time. The following variables were assessed: attitude towards smoking ban, attitude towards impositions, age, sex, citizenship, perceived school climate, current smoking, lifetime smoking; for smokers, and additionally, the "Heaviness of Smoking Index". 76.5% of all students agreed with a total smoking ban, 66.4% agreed with the punishment of violations. Higher acceptance rates were found among girls, young students (11-15 years of age), for never-smokers, and for students who feel comfortable at school. Acceptance of the smoking ban is closely related to current smoking status: 93% of the non-smoking students, but only 14% of the daily smoking students agreed with the regulations. Refusal of the ban increased with increasing physical dependence. The intensification of the smoking ban in public schools meets approval by the majority of students. Smoking students should be more strongly involved in the implementation process, e.g., by supplemental cessation programmes.

  3. An Analysis of Lost Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey E. Jarrett

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this manuscript is to shed light on problems associated with lost sales and the incurring of cost associated with lost sales. An investigation is made to determine if seasonality in sales and lost sales have effects on the efficient operations of supply chains. Optimization is always a goal of management supply chains, but cost increases due to insufficient inventory, low-quality product and the like lead to customers not returning. These are lost sales that occur for many reasons. We study a data set to determine if the ignoring of time series component also has an effect on the variation in lost sales. If so, can we measure the magnitude of the effects of seasonal variation in lost sales, and what are their consequences?

  4. Impulse sales cooler. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Per Henrik (DTI, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2010-11-15

    In the past years, the use of impulse coolers has increased considerably and it is estimated that at least 30.000 are installed in shops in Denmark. In addition, there are many small barrel-shaped can coolers. Most impulse coolers are open, which results in a large consumption of energy, and the refrigeration systems are often quite inefficient. A typical impulse cooler uses app. 5 - 8 kWh/day corresponding to a consumption of energy in the magnitude of 60 GWh/year. For several years, the Danish company Vestfrost A/S has produced an impulse sales cooler in the high-efficiency end and the energy consumption of the cooler is measured to be 4.15 kWh/day. The POS72 cooler formed the baseline of this project. At the start-up meeting in 2008, several ideas were discussed with the objective to reduce energy consumption and to use natural refrigerants. Among the ideas were better air curtains, removable lids, better condensers, use of R600a refrigeration system and better insulation. Three generations of prototypes were built and tested in a climate chamber at Danish Technological Institute and the third generation showed very good performance: the energy consumption was measured to 2.215 kWh/day, which is a 47% reduction compared to the baseline. That was achieved by: 1) Improving the cold air cycling system including the air curtain. 2) Using the natural refrigerant R600a (isobutane) and the Danfoss NLE9KTK compressor, which has better efficiency compared to the compressor in the baseline product. 3) Using a box type condenser without fins (preventing dust build-up) and with a relatively high surface area. 4) Improving the insulation value of the plastic cabinet by reducing turbulence in the air gap between the plastic walls and improving the insulation value of the EPS moulded insulation surrounding the refrigeration system at the bottom of the cooler. 5) Preventing short-circuit of warm air around the condenser. 6) The improvements are cost efficient and will not add

  5. Personal sale process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Experience from prior successful sale of many companies from different business activities, tells us that it is necessary to create approach system, flexible to different buyers and environment. The base of this system is a belief that salesmen can stimulate big buyers to make buying decisions, if the selling process is done well. Emphasis is made on practical selling techniques which are used in the whole selling process.

  6. Cardiorespiratory hospitalisation and mortality reductions after smoking bans in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Röösli, Martin; Radovanovic, Dragana; Grize, Leticia; Witassek, Fabienne; Schindler, Christian; Perez, Laura

    2017-01-19

    Smoking bans are considered one of the most effective policies to reduce population exposure to tobacco smoke and prevent adverse health outcomes. However, evidence on the effect of contextual variables on the effectiveness of smoking bans is still lacking. The patchwork of cantonal smoke-free laws in Switzerland was used as a quasi-experimental setting to assess changes after their introduction in: hospitalisations and mortality due to cardiorespiratory diseases in adults; total hospitalisations and hospitalisations due to respiratory disorders in children; and the modifying effects of contextual factors and the effectiveness of the laws. Using hospital and mortality registry data for residents in Switzerland (2005-2012), we conducted canton-specific interrupted time-series analyses followed by random effects meta-analyses to obtain nationwide smoking ban estimates by subgroups of age, sex and causes of hospitalisation or death. Heterogeneity of the impact caused by strictness of the ban and other smoking-related characteristics of the cantons was explored through meta-regression. Total hospitalisation rates due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases did not significantly change after the introduction of the ban. Post-ban changes were detected in ischaemic heart disease hospitalisations, with a 2.5% reduction (95% confidence interval [CI)] -6.2 to 1.3%) for all ages and 5.5% (95% CI -10.8 to -0.2%) in adults 35-64 years old. Total mortality due to respiratory diseases decreased by 8.2% (95% CI -15.2 to -0.6%) over all ages, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality decreased by 14.0% (95% CI -22.3 to -4.5%) in adults ≥65 years old. Cardiovascular mortality did not change after the introduction of the ban, but there was an indication of post-ban reductions in mortality due to hypertensive disorders (-5.4%, 95% CI -12.6 to 2.3%), and congestive heart failure (-6.0%, 95% CI -14.5 to 3.4%). No benefits were observed for hospitalisations due to

  7. Sales Territory Alignment: A Review and Model

    OpenAIRE

    Andris A. Zoltners; Prabhakant Sinha

    1983-01-01

    The sales territory alignment problem may be viewed as the problem of grouping small geographic sales coverage units into larger geographic clusters called sales territories in a way that the sales territories are acceptable according to managerially relevant alignment criteria. This paper first reviews sales territory alignment models which have appeared in the marketing literature. A framework for sales territory alignment and several properties of a good sales territory alignment are devel...

  8. Third quarter 2005 sales figures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    With manufacturing facilities in over 40 countries and a sales network in over 100, AREVA offers customers technological solutions for nuclear power generation and electricity transmission and distribution. The group also provides interconnect systems to the telecommunications, computer and automotive markets. This document presents the sales figures of the group for the third quarter of 2005: sales revenues in the front end division, in the reactor and services division, in the back end division and in the transmission and distribution division

  9. Timing of Seasonal Sales.

    OpenAIRE

    Courty, Pascal; Li, Hao

    1999-01-01

    We present a model of timing of seasonal sales where stores choose several designs at the beginning of the season without knowing wich one, if any, will be fashionable. Fashionable designs have a chance to fetch high prices in fashion markets while non-fashionable ones must be sold in a discount market. In the beginning of the season, stores charge high prices in the hope of capturing their fashion market. As the end of the season approaches with goods still on the shelves, stores adjust down...

  10. Buzz vs. Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komtesse af Rosenborg, Desiree Christina; Buhl-Andersen, Ida; Nilsson, Line Bygvrå

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between social media engagement and financial performance of the global fast fashion company, H&M. We analyze big social data from Facebook on the seven H&M style collections that occurred during 2012 and 2013 to investigate if style icon campaigns have a larger...... effect on quarterly sales than designer collaborations. We find that style icons such as David Beckham generate more social buzz than designer collaborations. Social Set Analysis of the Facebook data shows that the overlap between the users H&M reach with their different style collections is fairly small...

  11. Electric sales and revenue 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenue, and average revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels

  12. 27 CFR 11.22 - Consignment sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consignment sales. 11.22... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS CONSIGNMENT SALES Unlawful Sales Arrangements § 11.22 Consignment sales. Consignment sales are arrangements wherein the trade buyer is under no obligation to pay for distilled spirits...

  13. 32 CFR 644.544 - Negotiated sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Negotiated sales. 644.544 Section 644.544... ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Sale Procedure § 644.544 Negotiated sales. (a) To private parties. Negotiated sales to private parties are not viewed with favor. Generally, such negotiated sales will be approved...

  14. Drivers of peak sales for pharmaceutical brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Marc; Leeflang, Peter S. H.; Verhoef, Peter C.

    2010-01-01

    Peak sales are an important metric in the pharmaceutical industry. Specifically, managers are focused on the height-of-peak-sales and the time required achieving peak sales. We analyze how order of entry and quality affect the level of peak sales and the time-to-peak-sales of pharmaceutical brands.

  15. 29 CFR 779.327 - Wholesale sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wholesale sales. 779.327 Section 779.327 Labor Regulations... Particular Industryâ § 779.327 Wholesale sales. A wholesale sale, of course, is not recognized as a retail sale. If an establishment derives more than 25 percent of its annual dollar volume from sales made at...

  16. A Sales Representative Is Made: An Innovative Sales Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael A.; Peterson, Lori T.

    2016-01-01

    Job openings for nonscientific business-to-business sales professionals will increase over the next 10 years. A small private university in the Midwest has developed an innovative sales course to help create professionals who are ready to fill this need. This article addresses the challenges of creating a meaningful, hands-on, experiential course…

  17. FORECASTING NEW PRODUCT SALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Siriram

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This paper tests the accuracy of using Linear regression, Logistics regression, and Bass curves in selected new product rollouts, based on sales data. The selected new products come from the electronics and electrical engineering and information and communications technology industries. The eight selected products are: electronic switchgear, electric motors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems, programmable logic controllers, cell phones, wireless modules, routers, and antennas. We compare the Linear regression, Logistics regression and Bass curves with respect to forecasting using analysis of variance. The accuracy of these three curves is studied and conclusions are drawn. We use an expert panel to compare the different curves and provide lessons for managers to improve forecasting new product sales. In addition, comparison between the two industries is drawn, and areas for further research are indicated.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel toets die akkuraatheid van die gebruik van linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes by die bekendstelling van nuwe produkte gebaseer op verkoopsdata. Die geselekteerde nuwe produkte is uit die elektriese en elektroniese asook informasietegnologie- en kommunikasie bedrywe. Linêere regressie, logistiese regressie en Bass-krommes word vergelyk ten opsigte van vooruitskatting deur variansie te ontleed. Die akkuraatheid word ontleed en gevolgtrekkings gemaak. Die doel is om vooruitskatting van nuwe produkverkope te verbeter.

  18. Sediments indicate the continued use of banned antifouling compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egardt, Jenny; Nilsson, Per; Dahllöf, Ingela

    2017-12-15

    Antifouling paints are widely used to avoid organisms settling on boat hulls. The active ingredients in the paints have differed over the years where lead, TBT, irgarol and diuron have been deemed too harmful to non-target organisms and subsequently been banned within the EU. Most of these compounds however are persistent in the environment and can cause problems long after they are deposited. We have examined if present-day and banned substances used in antifouling paints can be found in sediments in a national park on the Swedish west coast. Sampled locations include waterways, natural harbours and small marinas for leisure crafts to investigate if number of visiting boats affect the concentration of antifouling compounds in sediments. Few significant differences were found when comparing the different locations types, suggesting that overall boat presence is more important than specific mooring sites, however, several banned antifouling compounds were found in the surface sediments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Environment Canada defends decision to ban PCB waste exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    The position of Environment Canada in banning the export of PCB waste to the United States was defended as falling within their jurisdiction under provisions of the the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. The United States had previously banned the import of Canadian PCBs, but when it reversed its decision Environment Canada posted an Interim Order, upholding the ban. The decision to do so was based on protection of the large investment that was made to develop the Canadian PCB incineration facility in Swan Lake, Alberta. Canada also had an obligation under the Basel Convention to reduce it cross boundary movement of hazardous waste and provide adequate destruction facilities in Canada. Legal implications of PCB exports and the uncertainty of continuing access to American facilities were also cited as reasons for issuing the Interim Order

  20. Analisis dan Perancangan Aplikasi Pendukung Erp Sap R/3 Modul Sales and Distribution PT. United Tractors, Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Johan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to analyse sales process having been implementing Sales and Distribution module of ERP SAP R/3 and also to design a supporting application for sales process at PT United Tractor, Tbk. The benefit of this application is to help sales person and customer in doing inquiries, quotation and sales order also material information through short message. The method of this research is data capturing, literature review, object oriented analysis and design and Rational Unified process including UML ( Unified Modeling Language for application design. Based on the problem, we designed a web based and sms gateway application to support Sales and Distribution module ERP SAP R/3 to help customer and sales person in doing sales transaction and information inquiry. 

  1. Banned prints in the National and University Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozina Švent

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the formation and operation of the D-collection (a special collection of banned prints in the National and University Library (NUL. The functioning of the collection was constantly faced with different complications caused either by legislation or by librarians themselves, due to a too strict adherence to some unwritten rules ("better one more then one less". In the 50-years period, a unique collection of at that tirne banned prints was formed,complemented by over 17000 articles indexed from different periodicals.

  2. The effects of taxes and bans on passive smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome Adda; Francesca Cornaglia

    2005-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of excise taxes and bans on smoking in public places on the exposure to tobacco smoke of non-smokers. We use a novel way of quantifying passive smoking: we use data on cotinine concentration- a metabolite of nicotine- measured in a large population of non-smokers over time. Exploiting state and time variation across US states, we reach two important conclusions. First, excise taxes have a significant effect on passive smoking. Second, smoking bans have on avera...

  3. The Effect of Taxes and Bans on Passive Smoking

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Adda; Francesca Cornaglia

    2006-01-01

    This paper evaluates the effect of excise taxes and bans on smoking in public places on the exposure to tobacco smoke of non-smokers. We use a novel way of quantifying passive smoking: we use data on cotinine concentration- a metabolite of nicotine- measured in a large population of non-smokers over time. Exploiting state and time variation across US states, we reach two important conclusions. First, excise taxes have a significant effect on passive smoking. Second, smoking bans have on avera...

  4. In pursuit of a nuclear test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmalberger, T.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this guide is to focus on the political issues in the test ban debate in the conference of Disarmament, and to produce a guide providing diplomats, researchers, and the interested public with background information. Such a complex negotiating process requires a selection of proposals, comments and technical details. The criterion from selecting material was based upon the importance for present negotiations. The first part of this guide provides a historical perspective on the arguments used for and against nuclear testing, and on the record of negotiating activities on this subject. The second part examines the test ban debate in the Conference on Disarmament during the past ten years. Figs

  5. Paraquat use among farmers in Korea after the ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Ye Jin; Kim, Jaeyoung; Lee, Won Jin

    2017-07-04

    The purpose of this study was to examine the proportion of paraquat use among farmers and to describe their epidemiologic characteristics after the paraquat ban in 2012. We interviewed 249 farmers in Korea in 2014. Approximately 20% of the farmers reported using paraquat in 2014. Farmers with longer farming experience, longer pesticide application years, and upland farming reported an increased risk of paraquat use although the trend was not statistically significant. The majority of the farmers used preexisting paraquat (85.7%), but some farmers purchased it illegally (14.3%). Farmers who used paraquat perceived paraquat as a dangerous chemical; however, they disagreed with the necessity of the paraquat ban.

  6. 21 CFR 1314.100 - Sales limits for mail-order sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales limits for mail-order sales. 1314.100 Section 1314.100 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Mail-Order Sales § 1314.100 Sales limits for mail-order sales. (a) Each...

  7. Electric sales and revenue: 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1993. Operating revenue includes energy charges, demand charges, consumer service charges, environmental surcharges, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. Because electric rates vary based on energy usage, average revenue per kilowatthour are affected by changes in the volume of sales. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour data provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  8. Electric sales and revenue 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1996. 16 figs., 20 tabs.

  9. Global Sales Training's Balancing Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehle, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    A one-size-fits-all global sales strategy that fails to take into account the cultural, regulatory, geographic, and economic differences that exist across borders is a blueprint for failure. For training organizations tasked with educating globally dispersed sales forces, the challenge is adapting to these differences while simultaneously…

  10. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - National Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  11. 48 CFR 245.7302 - Competitive sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7302 Competitive sales. ...

  12. Examples of sales promotion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkel, L.

    The Gas, Electricity and Water Works Cologne (GEW) supplies 4,115 objects with district heat. The connected load totals 830,000 kJ/s, which over the last 10 years has been expanded by an average of 5.3% annually and is currently 2.2% above the national average. The extension of district heat supply has been accomplished without subsidies from the two ZIP programmes. The major objects in Cologne city are to a large extent linked to the GEW district heating network. The goal now is to win more smaller objects in the supply area. To achieve notable new connected load increases in the future, the GEW is conducting a sales promotion drive together with Cologne heating construction firms. The promotion is running under the slogan 'Magically Simple: Heating with District Heat'. Its strategy and execution are described here by the author.

  13. Impact on alcohol purchasing of a ban on multi-buy promotions: a quasi-experimental evaluation comparing Scotland with England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Ryota; Suhrcke, Marc; Pechey, Rachel; Morciano, Marcello; Roland, Martin; Marteau, Theresa M

    2014-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the impact of the 2011 Scottish ban on multi-buy promotions of alcohol in retail stores. Design and setting Difference-in-differences analysis was used to estimate the impact of the ban on the volume of alcohol purchased by Scottish households, compared with those in England and Wales, between January 2010 and June 2012. Participants A total of 22 356 households in Scotland, England and Wales. Measurements Records of alcohol purchasing from each of four categories (beer and cider, wine, spirits and flavoured alcoholic beverages), as well as total volume of pure alcohol purchased. Findings Controlling for general time trends and household heterogeneity, there was no significant effect of the multi-buy ban in Scotland on volume of alcohol purchased either for the whole population or for individual socio-economic groups. There was also no significant effect on those who were large pre-ban purchasers of alcohol. Most multi-buys were for beer and cider or for wine. The frequency of shopping trips involving beer and cider purchases increased by 9.2% following the ban (P purchased on each trip decreased by 8.1% (P purchasing in the short term. Wider regulation of price promotion and price may be needed to achieve this. PMID:24251415

  14. Public and policy maker support for point-of-sale tobacco policies in New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Carol L; Juster, Harlan R; Dench, Daniel; Willett, Jeffrey; Curry, Laurel E

    2014-01-01

    To compare public and policy maker support for three point-of-sale tobacco policies. Two cross-sectional surveys--one of the public from the New York Adult Tobacco Survey and one of policy makers from the Local Opinion Leader Survey; both collected and analyzed in 2011. Tobacco control programs focus on educating the public and policy makers about tobacco control policy solutions. Six hundred seventy-six county-level legislators in New York's 62 counties and New York City's five boroughs (response rate: 59%); 7439 New York residents aged 18 or older. Landline response rates: 20.2% to 22%. Cell phone response rates: 9.2% to 11.1%. Gender, age, smoking status, presence of a child aged 18 years or younger in the household, county of residence, and policy maker and public support for three potential policy solutions to point-of-sale tobacco marketing. t-tests to compare the demographic makeup for the two samples. Adjusted Wald tests to test for differences in policy support between samples. The public was significantly more supportive of point-of-sale policy solutions than were policy makers: cap on retailers (48.0% vs. 19.2%, respectively); ban on sales at pharmacies (49.1% vs. 38.8%); and ban on retailers near schools (53.3% vs. 42.5%). cross-sectional data, sociodemographic differences, and variations in item wording. Tobacco control programs need to include information about implementation, enforcement, and potential effects on multiple constituencies (including businesses) in their efforts to educate policy makers about point-of-sale policy solutions.

  15. Elements of a system for verifying a Comprehensive Test Ban

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The paper discusses the goals of a monitoring system for a CTB, its functions, the challenges to verification, discrimination techniques, and some recent developments. It is concluded technical, military and political efforts are required to establish and verify test ban treaties which will contribute to stability in the long term. It currently appears there will be a significant number of unidentified events

  16. The comprehensive test ban treaty negotiations: a view from Geneva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weston, Michael.

    1995-01-01

    The United Kingdom- one of the alliance's three nuclear powers is fully and actively involved in the search for a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) which would play an important role in both non-proliferation and disarmament objectives. This article considers how the negotiations are proceeding and assesses the prospects in a number of key areas. (author)

  17. Verification methods for treaties limiting and banning nuclear tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloshin, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests and treaty on world banning of nuclear tests contribute to and accompany the process of nuclear disarmament. Test ban in three (Moscow treaty of 1963) as well as the Threshold Test Ban up to 1991 was controlled only with national means. But since 1991 nuclear test threshold of 150 kt has been measured with hydrodynamic and tele seismic methods and checked by the inspection. Distinctive feature of this control is that control is that it is bilateral. This conforms to Treaty on limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests signed by two countries - USA and USSR. The inspection at the place of tests requires monitoring of the test site of the party conducting a test and geological information of rock in the area of explosion. In the treaty of the World Nuclear Test Ban the following ways of international control are provided for: - seismologic measurements; - radionuclide measurements; - hydro-acoustics measurements; - infra-sound measurements; - inspection at the place of the tests conduction

  18. Effects of New Jersey's cell phone and text ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Since March 1, 2008 there has been a ban on wireless telephone and electronic : communication devices in New Jersey while operating a motor vehicle. But from general : observation on any roadway, it appears that there are still drivers who are talkin...

  19. Autonomous Operation of Super-Regenerative Receiver in BAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalyanasundaram, P.; Huang, L.; Dolmans, G.; Imamura, K.

    2012-01-01

    Super-regenerative receiver is one of the potential candidates to achieve ultra low power wireless communication in body area network (BAN). The main limitations of the super-regenerative receiver include the difficulty in choosing a good quench waveform to optimize its sensitivity and selectivity,

  20. Referendum 1978 - Nuclear power plant ban Act 1978 - legal consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staudinger, F.

    1981-10-01

    This paper discusses the legal consequences of the 1978 Act banning nuclear power production. It provides a summary outline of the relevant rules of the Austrian Constitution and reviews the legal basis for the organisation of the national electricity system. (NEA) [fr

  1. The Impact of Affirmative Action Bans in Graduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garces, Liliana M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether bans on affirmative action across four states-- Texas (during "Hopwood v. State of Texas"), California (with Proposition 209), Washington (with Initiative 200), and Florida (with One Florida Initiative)--have reduced the enrollment rates of underrepresented students of color in graduate studies and in a…

  2. Ban the Book Report: Promoting Frequent and Enthusiastic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Teachers recognize that frequent independent reading increases student knowledge on a wide range of topics, enhances vocabulary, and improves comprehension. "Ban the Book Report" inspires teachers to go beyond narrow and analytical book reports by exploring the potential of book talks, alternate book covers, identifying features of informational…

  3. Banning Corporal Punishment: A Crucial Step toward Preventing Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moelis, Cindy S.

    1988-01-01

    Banning school corporal punishment is supported as a step towards gradually eliminating all violent actions toward children. The 39 states that allow corporal punishment are encouraged to outlaw it, to teach children that it is not socially acceptable behavior and to set an example for families' child-rearing attitudes and practices. (JDD)

  4. Consumer groups call for ban on internet pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmaise, David

    2004-08-01

    A number of consumer groups have called on the Canadian government to ban internet pharmacies, claiming that the industry is putting the health of Canadians at risk. The groups say that the impact will escalate if the problem is not addressed.

  5. Recreating big Ban to learn more about universe

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    A multi-nation effort at Gemeva-based CERN laboratory to recreate conditions existing just after the Big Ban could give vital clues to the creation of the universe and help overcome prejudices against this widely held scientific theory, an eminent science writer said in Kolkata on Tuesday

  6. Overturn of the proposed alcohol advertising ban in Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukštė, Ernesta; Liutkutė, Vaida; Stelemėkas, Mindaugas; Goštautaitė Midttun, Nijolė; Veryga, Aurelijus

    2014-05-01

    In response to the dramatic increase in alcohol-related problems in Lithuania, policy measures, including alcohol advertising and availability restrictions combined with taxation increase, were implemented in 2007-08. Simultaneously, a full alcohol advertising ban was adopted to take effect from 1 January 2012. Therefore, the alcohol industry responded with extensive lobbying aiming to revoke this ban, and ultimately they succeeded at the end of December 2011. To document and analyse actions of stakeholders and events during the alcohol advertising ban cancellation process in Lithuania. Policy analysis includes a development of event time-line, description of key stakeholders' actions and a review of policy context. The alcohol industry in Lithuania used similar tactics as the tobacco industry globally, such as creating strong and diverse opposing groups. The industry successfully exerted pressure to change alcohol control legislation, while non-governmental organizations had the important role of a watchdog, blunting industry's efforts. Unequal power distribution made it difficult to withstand combined local and international lobbying to cancel the ban. Given the global nature of the alcohol industry, there is a need for international regulation to limit the influence of vested interests on national lawmaking. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Tobacco point-of-sale advertising in Guatemala City, Guatemala and Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Mejia, Raul; Szeinman, Debora; Kummerfeldt, Carlos E

    2010-08-01

    To determine tobacco point of sale advertising prevalence in Guatemala City, Guatemala and Buenos Aires, Argentina. Convenience stores (120 per city) were chosen from randomly selected blocks in low, middle and high socioeconomic neighbourhoods. To assess tobacco point of sale advertising we used a checklist developed in Canada that was translated into Spanish and validated in both countries studied. Analysis was conducted by neighbourhood and store type. All stores sold cigarettes and most had tobacco products in close proximity to confectionery. In Guatemala, 60% of stores had cigarette ads. High and middle socioeconomic status neighbourhood stores had more indoor cigarette ads, but these differences were determined by store type: gas stations and supermarkets were more prevalent in high socioeconomic status neighbourhoods and had more indoor cigarette ads. In poorer areas, however, more ads could be seen from outside the stores, more stores were located within 100 metres of schools and fewer stores had 'No smoking' or 'No sales to minors' signs. In Argentina, 80% of stores had cigarette ads and few differences were observed by neighbourhood socioeconomic status. Compared to Guatemala, 'No sales to minors' signs were more prevalent in Argentina. Tobacco point of sale advertising is highly prevalent in these two cities of Guatemala and Argentina. An advertising ban should also include this type of advertising.

  8. Tobacco sales and promotion in bars, cafes and nightclubs from large cities around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrir, Shahida; Wipfli, Heather; Avila-Tang, Erika; Breysse, Patrick N; Samet, Jonathan M; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about tobacco promotion activities in low and middle-income countries. Information on tobacco sales, advertisement and promotion in bars, cafes and nightclubs is needed to develop interventions to reduce smoking initiation and relapse, particularly among youths and young adults. To evaluate cigarette sales and tobacco advertisement and promotion in bars, cafes and nightclubs using a volunteer survey approach in large cities throughout the world. Between 2007 and 2009, we administered an interview-based survey to 231 bar/cafe/nightclub owners/managers in 24 large cities in Africa, the Americas, Asia and eastern Europe. Cigarette sales and tobacco advertisement and promotions were found in bars/cafes/nightclubs in most cities. Examples of promotions included cigarette giveaways and event sponsorship. Establishments that allowed smoking were more likely to sell cigarettes compared to smoke-free establishments (OR 8.67, 95% CI 3.25 to 23.1). Larger establishments (maximum occupancy ≥ 100 vs promotional items from tobacco companies (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.41 to 7.17). Cigarette sales and tobacco promotions were common in bars, cafes and nightclubs in the majority of cities. Socialising and hospitality venues must be covered by legislation banning tobacco sales and promotions to limit exposure among populations at high risk of tobacco initiation and relapse from quitting.

  9. Electric sales and revenue, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. Previous publications presented data on typical electric bills at specified consumption levels as well as sales, revenues, and average revenue. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1990. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the revenue billed for the amount of kilowatthours sold, revenue from income, unemployment and other State and local taxes, energy or demand charges, consumer services charges, environmental surcharges, franchise fees, fuel adjustments, and other miscellaneous charges. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels

  10. Electric sales and revenue 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-11-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Coal and Electric Data and Renewables Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the United States. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1994.

  11. Electric sales and revenue 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. Information is provided on electricity sales, associated revenue, average revenue per kilowatthour sold, and number of consumers throughout the US. The data provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels. The information is based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1997. 16 figs., 17 tabs.

  12. Banning Corporal Punishment in Taiwan: A Narrative Exploration of Teacher Change and Critical Examination of the Legal Ban

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wen-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Employing narrative ways of inquiry, this study interrogated how a reform action--legal banning corporal punishment in schools, which was intentionally introduced into Taiwanese society by advocates as a social movement strategy at a time when the incidence rate of school corporal punishment was high--could contribute to ending educators' use of…

  13. 16 CFR 1500.86 - Exemptions from classification as a banned toy or other banned article for use by children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... toy or other banned article for use by children. 1500.86 Section 1500.86 Commercial Practices CONSUMER... employee of the Consumer Product Safety Commission and shall permit such officer or employee to inspect and... horizontal plane of the ball when it is suspended by the cord. Clacker balls where the mass of each ball is...

  14. Label it or ban it? Public perceptions of nano-food labels and propositions for banning nano-food applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuah, Agnes S. F.; Leong, Alisius D.; Cummings, Christopher L.; Ho, Shirley S.

    2018-02-01

    The future of nano-food largely hinges on public perceptions and willingness to accept this novel technology. The present study utilizes the scientific literacy model and psychometric paradigm as the key theoretical frameworks to examine the factors influencing public support for labeling and banning of nano-food in Singapore. Using data collected from a nationally representative survey of 1001 respondents, the findings demonstrated that attitudes toward technology, preference for natural product, science knowledge, and risk perception were found to substantially affect public support for both labeling and banning of nano-food. Conversely, attention to food safety news on traditional media and attention to nano-news on new media were only associated with public support for labeling of nano-food. Similarly, benefit perception was only significantly associated with public support for banning of nano-food. Theoretically, these findings support the growing body of literature that argues for the significant role played by predispositions, media use, science knowledge, and risk and benefit perceptions on attitude formation toward nano-food. It serves as the pioneering piece to address the aspect of banning in the field of nano-food. Practically, insights drawn from this study could aid relevant stakeholders in enlisting effecting strategies to convey the benefits of nano-food while mitigating the risk perceptions among the public.

  15. Breaking Habits: The Effect of The French Vending Machine Ban on School Snacking and Sugar Intakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capacci, Sara; Mazzocchi, Mario; Shankar, Bhavani

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effect of the 2005 vending machine ban in French secondary schools on nutrient intakes and on the frequency of morning snacking at school. Using data before and after the ban, and exploiting the discontinuity associated with the age-dependent exposure to the ban, we specify a difference-in-differences regression…

  16. 76 FR 79678 - City of Banning, CA; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... through the ETC Pass-through Clause contained in Banning's TO Tariff; (3) accept revisions to Appendix I to Banning's TO Tariff to reflect Banning's revised TRBAA, forcasted calendar year 2012 ETC costs... lieu of paper using the ``eFiling'' link at http://www.ferc.gov . Persons unable to file electronically...

  17. Teachers' Perceptions and Concerns on the Banning of Corporal Punishment and Its Alternative Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwo, Lwun-syin Laurence; Yuan, You-Shi

    2011-01-01

    Corporal punishment (CP) has been officially banned since December 2006 in Taiwan. It would be useful to explore the perceptions and concerns of elementary school teachers on the issue of banning CP and on alternative methods of discipline in 2008, two years since the ban took effect. In this study, 323 teachers were stratified randomly and drawn…

  18. Tobacco promotions at point-of-sale: the last hurrah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joanna E; Planinac, Lynn C; Griffin, Kara; Robinson, Daniel J; O'Connor, Shawn C; Lavack, Anne; Thompson, Francis E; Di Nardo, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    The retail environment provides important opportunities for tobacco industry communication with current, former, and potential smokers. This study documented the extent of tobacco promotions at the retail point-of-sale and examined associations between the extent of tobacco promotions and relevant city and store characteristics. In each of 20 Ontario cities, 24 establishments were randomly selected from lists of convenience stores, gas stations, and grocery stores. Trained observers captured the range, type and intensity of tobacco promotions from April to July 2005. The extent of tobacco promotions was described using weighted descriptive statistics. Weighted t-tests and ANOVAs, and hierarchical linear modeling, were used to examine the relationships between tobacco promotions and city and store characteristics. Extensive tobacco promotions were found in Ontario stores one year prior to the implementation of a partial ban on retail displays, particularly in chain convenience stores, gas station convenience stores and independent convenience stores. The multivariate hierarchical linear model confirmed differences in the extent of tobacco promotions by store type (p point-of-sale. Public health messages about the harms of tobacco use may be compromised by the pervasiveness of these promotions.

  19. For sale: Sulfur emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiderscheit, J.

    1992-01-01

    The allowance trading market has started a slow march to maturity. Competitive developers should understand the risks and opportunities now presented. The marketplace for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions allowances - the centerpiece of Title 4's acid rain reduction program - remains enigmatic 19 months after the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 were passed. Yet it is increasingly clear that the emission allowance market will likely confound the gloom and doom of its doubters. The recently-announced $10 million dollar Wisconsin Power and Light allowance sales to Duquesne Light and the Tennessee Valley Authority are among the latest indications of momentum toward a stabilizing market. This trend puts additional pressure on independent developers to finalize their allowance strategies. Developers who understand what the allowance trading program is and what it is not, know the key players, and grasp the unresolved regulatory issues will have a new competitive advantage. The topics addressed in this article include the allowance marketplace, marketplace characteristics, the regulatory front, forward-looking strategies, and increasing marketplace activity

  20. Neutrons for sale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daviss, B.

    1997-01-01

    A fusion machine, in the form of a sphere small enough to fit on a desktop, is described. It can be switched on and off at will and produces virtually no radioactive waste. The fusion sphere creates an electric potential which forms deuterium ions into beams and accelerates them towards the centre. Nuclei of deuterium inside a central spherical wire grid fuse to create neutrons, helium -3 and traces of hydrogen and tritium. The rudimentary device is expected to go on sale in a commercial form in 1998. The immediate applications are those which require a yield of neutrons falling in the range 10 7 to 10 10 neutrons per second. This is expected to be well within the capability of the sphere and would allow neutron activation analysis to be carried out for the detection of hidden high explosives in airport baggage checks, or impurities in ores as they are mined for example. With higher neutron yields other applications such as the treatment of tumours could become viable but the technical problems are likely to multiply with the increasing yields. (UK)

  1. Allegheny County Property Sale Transactions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains data on all Real Property parcels that have sold since 2013 in Allegheny County, PA. Before doing any market analysis on property sales, check...

  2. 31 CFR 56.2 - Sales price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales price. 56.2 Section 56.2 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance DOMESTIC GOLD AND SILVER OPERATIONS SALE OF SILVER § 56.2 Sales price. Sales of silver will be at prices offered through the competitive...

  3. 24 CFR 291.90 - Sales methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales methods. 291.90 Section 291....90 Sales methods. HUD will prescribe the terms and conditions for all methods of sale. HUD may, in... following methods of sale: (a) Future REO acquisition method. The Future Real Estate-Owned (REO) acquisition...

  4. 24 CFR 290.13 - Negotiated sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Negotiated sales. 290.13 Section... DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF MULTIFAMILY PROJECTS AND SALE OF HUD-HELD MULTIFAMILY MORTGAGES Disposition of Multifamily Projects § 290.13 Negotiated sales. When HUD conducts a negotiated sale...

  5. 40 CFR 73.72 - Direct sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Direct sales. 73.72 Section 73.72... ALLOWANCE SYSTEM Auctions, Direct Sales, and Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.72 Direct sales. Allowances that were formerly part of the direct sale program, which has been terminated under...

  6. 48 CFR 245.7306 - Sales services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sales services. 245.7306... OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7306 Sales services. When sale services are needed, the plant clearance officer will document the reasons in...

  7. 30 CFR 256.12 - Supplemental sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental sales. 256.12 Section 256.12..., General § 256.12 Supplemental sales. (a) The Secretary may conduct a supplemental sale in accordance with the provisions of this section. (b) Supplemental sales shall be governed by the regulations in this...

  8. Increasing sales by reducing procrastination

    OpenAIRE

    Gjedrem, William Gilje

    2012-01-01

    Master's thesis in Finance In this paper I analyze whether an intervention program increases productivity and sales, by reducing potential procrastination problems that employees face at work. The intervention was introduced to stores in a large retail chain in Norway, and contained different tools that could lead to lower perceived costs of higher effort. In a difference-in-differences analysis I find that the intervention increases sales after a 14 weeks long implementation period. Fu...

  9. 3. quarter 2006 sales revenue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    This document presents the sales revenue of the 3. quarter 2006 for the Group AREVA. The sales revenues for the first nine months of 2006 are up by 8,1% to 7,556 millions euros; the nuclear operations are up by 5,2% reflecting strong performance in the front end division; the transmission and distribution division is up by 14%. (A.L.B.)

  10. Social Networks and Sales Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Pimentel Claro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that an informal network can itself be a basis for the increase in a sales manager’s performance. Informal networks create a structure that surpasses the formal hierarchical structure defined by the firm. We concentrated on the advice network and considered two different views of network structure that claim to have impact on performance. To explore this claim, we examined whether sales managers develop either a highly cohesive network structure (i.e. Coleman’s view or one containing structural holes (i.e. Burt’s view in order to achieve higher sales. We also investigated the matter of tie strength put forward by Granovetter in his seminal 1973 work. Census data was collected from about 500 personnel from an agricultural input retailer having 23 divisions. Estimates from a sample of 101 sales managers showed the importance of a highly cohesive structure (degree centrality for the three measures of sales manager’s performance. The strong ties have a positive impact on performance, suggesting the importance of building up strong bonds with network contacts. Sales managers’ age, time within the retailer and education also influence performance. These results imply that firms should stimulate contacts among personnel to spread technical and commercial information.

  11. Varnostni vidiki spletnega bančništva : diplomsko delo univerzitetnega študija

    OpenAIRE

    Prodanović, Stanislav

    2013-01-01

    Banke imajo, kot osrednje finančne institucije, veliko zaslug za hiter razvoj informacijske tehnologije. Če je bila še pred približno 15 leti tehnologija bank skrita pred očmi javnosti, je danes preko elektronskega bančništva povezana s komitenti bank, saj se je v zadnjem desetletju elektronsko bančništvo izkazalo za eno najbolj dobičkonosnih spletnih storitev. Spletno bančništvo je del elektronskega bančništva in omogoča opravljanje bančnih poslov preko interneta ob vseh urah dneva, hkrat...

  12. The Library that Cried Wolf: Outcomes of a Banned Book Hoax on Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Kasperek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In fall 2012, the Mansfield University library created a Facebook hoax banning a book from the library. Attention was quickly drawn to the book and the library. Ending a few short days later, the hoax left many unanswered questions. Through interviews with individuals on different sides of the hoax, a review of Facebook statistics and comments, and other relevant data, this paper explores the impact on the people involved, the learning outcomes achieved, and the impact on the reputation and credibility of the library and university. The information collected reveals a complex picture of feeling, perceptions, and intentions. While successful at gaining attention, the hoax strategy as employed produced a negative response warranting concern. The paper concludes with suggestions for those contemplating a hoax strategy.

  13. Advertising of tobacco products at point of sale: who are more exposed in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira-Gomes, Adriana Bacelar; Moura, Lenildo de; Araújo-Andrade, Silvânia Suely de; Lacerda-Mendes, Felipe; Perez, Cristina A; Abaakouk, Zohra

    2017-01-01

    To describe the adult population perception of cigarette advertising at point of sale, according their tobacco-use status and socio-demographic characteristics such as sex, age, race/color, region, household location and schooling. A multivariable analysis was carried out using data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in 2008 and the National Health Survey in 2013. Both surveys showed that among nonsmokers: women, young adults and those who had over 10 years of schooling had more frequently noticed advertising of cigarettes at point of sale. It was also observed that among the population with fewer years of schooling these proportions increased significantly. A measure that completely bans tobacco advertising would be more effective to protect the vulnerable groups from tobacco consumption.

  14. Terms of payment in the sales contract

    OpenAIRE

    Harmáčková, Iva

    2009-01-01

    This thesis makes an analysis of price and terms of payment in the sales contract. Both elements are conceived in terms of legal framework and in terms of importance for the parties to an international sales contract. The theoretical part deals with the role of the sales contract in business relations, structure and legal norms of the international sales contract. The practical part includes an analysis of specific international sales contract.

  15. The neglected repercussions of a physician advertising ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, Sandra

    2014-03-01

    Although the adverse implications of physician advertising are the subject of a fierce and sustained debate, there is almost no scholarly discussion on the ethical repercussions of physician advertising bans. The present paper draws attention to these repercussions as they exist today in most of the world, with particular focus on three serious implications for the public: (a) uncertainty about the physician's interests, namely, that patients must trust the physician to put patient wellbeing ahead of possible gains when taking medical decisions; (b) uncertainty about alternative treatments, namely, that patients must trust in the physician's treatment decisions; and (c) uncertainty about the exclusive patient-physician relationship, namely, that patients must develop and maintain a good relationship with one physician. Physician advertising bans continue to tell the public in most of the modern world that these are irrelevant or inappropriate issues, meaning that they are effectively left to the public to resolve.

  16. The impact of tobacco advertising bans on consumption in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blecher, Evan

    2008-07-01

    Tobacco advertising bans have become commonplace in developed nations but are less prevalent in developing countries. The importance of advertising bans as part of comprehensive tobacco control strategies has been emphasised by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control which calls for comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising. The empirical literature suggests that comprehensive advertising bans have played a role in reducing consumption in developed countries but that limited policies have not. This paper extends this analysis to include 30 developing countries and finds that bans do play an important role in reducing tobacco consumption in these countries. It finds that both comprehensive as well as limited policies are effective in reducing consumption although comprehensive bans have a far greater impact than limited ones. Furthermore, it finds that advertising bans may be even more effective in the developing world than they are in the developed world.

  17. Attitudes towards smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhturidze, George D; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Aarø, Leif E; Peikrishvili, Nana T

    2013-11-25

    This study aims to provide data on a public level of support for restricting smoking in public places and banning tobacco advertisements. A nationally representative multistage sampling design, with sampling strata defined by region (sampling quotas proportional to size) and substrata defined by urban/rural and mountainous/lowland settlement, within which census enumeration districts were randomly sampled, within which households were randomly sampled, within which a randomly selected respondent was interviewed. The country of Georgia, population 4.7 million, located in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. One household member aged between 13 and 70 was selected as interviewee. In households with more than one age-eligible person, selection was carried out at random. Of 1588 persons selected, 14 refused to participate and interviews were conducted with 915 women and 659 men. Respondents were interviewed about their level of agreement with eight possible smoking restrictions/bans, used to calculate a single dichotomous (agree/do not agree) opinion indicator. The level of agreement with restrictions was analysed in bivariate and multivariate analyses by age, gender, education, income and tobacco use status. Overall, 84.9% of respondents indicated support for smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans. In all demographic segments, including tobacco users, the majority of respondents indicated agreement with restrictions, ranging from a low of 51% in the 13-25 age group to a high of 98% in the 56-70 age group. Logistic regression with all demographic variables entered showed that agreement with restrictions was higher with age, and was significantly higher among never smokers as compared to daily smokers. Georgian public opinion is normatively supportive of more stringent tobacco-control measures in the form of smoking restrictions and tobacco advertisement bans.

  18. Economic and environmental impacts of a hypothetical global GMO ban

    OpenAIRE

    Mahaffey, Harrison H

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research is to assess the global economic and greenhouse gas emission impacts of GMO crops. This is done by modeling two counterfactual scenarios and evaluating them apart and in combination. The first scenario models the impact of a global GMO ban. The second scenario models the impact of increased GMO penetration. The focus is on the price and welfare impacts, and land use change greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with GMO technologies. Much of the prior work on...

  19. Smoking ban and health at birth: Evidence from Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajdu, Tamás; Hajdu, Gábor

    2018-06-13

    In 2012, smoking restrictions were extended to hospitality venues in Hungary. Women working in bars and restaurants were primarily affected by the intervention. In this research, we analyze the effect of this smoking ban on the outcomes of their pregnancies. Using individual live birth, fetal loss, and infant mortality registry data, we examine the probability of live birth, indicators of health at birth, and the probability of death in the first year of life. We apply a difference-in-differences framework and show that the smoking ban has improved health at birth. We observed birth weight to increase by 56 g (95% CI: 4.2 to 106.8) and gestation length by 0.19 weeks (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.36). Due to the ban, the probability of being born with very low and low birth weight has decreased by 1.2 and 2.2 percentage points, respectively (95% CI: -0.2 to -2.2 and 0.06 to -4.4), and we see a 0.9 percentage points reduction in the chance of being born very preterm (95% CI: -0.03 to -1.9). We also observe a decrease in the probability of being born with a low Ponderal index (decrease of 4.1 percentage points, 95% CI: -0.7 to -7.5). Performing a series of robustness and placebo tests, we provide evidence that supports the causal interpretation of our results. We also show that the ban was more beneficial for newborns of parents with low educational attainment and at the bottom of the fetal health endowment distribution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. For or against the smoking ban in restaurants?

    OpenAIRE

    Marinakou, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    A considerable number of countries have applied laws for the ban of smoking in public places. Furthermore, the separate area for smokers and non-smokers customers in private places such as restaurants and bars, is a significant change that has caused positive or negative attitudes. The different views of customers and restaurant owners have created a legal and social debate. The findings suggest that on the one hand, the majority of the restaurant owners impose the law, but not actively. On t...

  1. Pengujian Alat Konversi Ban Bekas Menjadi Bahan Bakar

    OpenAIRE

    Saputra, Imron Aryadi; Arijanto, Arijanto

    2017-01-01

    Pirolisis dapat didefinisikan sebagai dekomposisi thermal material organik pada suasana inert (tanpa kehadiran oksigen) dan suhu tinggi sehingga terurai menjadi molekul yang lebih kecil. Pirolisis merupakan bentuk penghematan energi karena dapat menyuling bahan bakar atau bahan kimia yang berguna dari limbah padat. Produk pirolisis berupa gas, cair dan padat. Tujuan penelitian ini yaitu untuk menguji alat konversi ban bekas menjadi bahan bakar, mengetahui jumlah minyak yang dihasilkan pada pr...

  2. PRODUCING NEW SALES MATERIAL FOR INTERNATIONAL SALES OF HOLIDAY CLUB KATINKULTA

    OpenAIRE

    Sipilä, Marjo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this action based thesis was to create new sales material in English for international sales of Holiday Club Katinkulta. The material concentrates on the services offered in the spa hotel side. The spa hotel was sold to its former owner Holiday Club Resorts ltd during the thesis writing process and all sales material required updating after the ownership change. The new sales material is produced for the aid of daily sales work of sales representatives in the field of internati...

  3. Implementation of an indoor smoking ban and an advertising/ sponsorship ban in Lebanon: a baseline cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Monique Chaaya; Rima Nakkash; Rima Afifi; Guillermo Adame; Nadia Fanous; Nabil Tabbal; Dahlia Saab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although the majority of countries ratified the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, few have comprehensive smoke-free laws and compliance is not always satisfactory. In 2011, Lebanon, having among the highest smoking rates in the Eastern Mediterranean Region, passed a comprehensive tobacco control law (Law 174). This study aimed to assess compliance with Law 174 among smokers and non-smokers in Beirut (the capital), three months after the ban in ...

  4. Christmas Sale on 11 and 12 December

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Unit

    2008-01-01

    CERN Shop Are you short of ideas for Christmas presents? If so, come and have a look at the stall the CERN shop will be setting up outside Restaurant No. 1 in the Main Building on the Meyrin site on Thursday 11 and Friday 12 December from 10.30 a.m. to 4.30 p.m. Various new items will be on sale, including a new LHC booklet for the general public. In the style of a travel log, it recounts the fabulous voyage of a proton inside the accelerator. The text is complemented by eye-catching photos and illustrations and is available in English or French. The 2009 calendar, based on the same theme, will also be on sale at 10 CHF. Special reductions will be available on certain items. So come and stock up on your Christmas presents at the CERN shop. Bookshop If you are looking for an idea for your Christmas gifts, the Bookshop of the Central Library offers you a wide choice of titles in Physics, ...

  5. Determinants and antecedents of sales organization effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Razum

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental objective of this paper was to identify and analyze the main antecedents of sales organization effectiveness in order to offer the guidelines for improving the standard sales practice. In addition to the customary challenges of achieving anticipated sales results, rising pressures of the contemporary business environment underscore the importance of establishing a more effective sales organization. The aim of the empirical research was to identify the sources of effectiveness of sales organizations based on the comparison between two groups of organizations, namely, the relatively high and low performing ones. The concept of sales performance was observed through five distinct factors: sales management activities, sales force characteristics, sales organization design and sales force effectiveness with regard to the sales outcome of these organizations and their behavior. The analysis of the results led to the conclusion that the most important sources of sales effectiveness are the activities of sales managers targeted towards monitoring and rewarding. Moreover, sales managers in relatively more effective organizations reported much higher satisfaction with the design of sales territories. Sales people in effective companies are highly motivated and committed to the organization. In addition, they are also considerably better at achieving high levels of outcome performance. The research presents an addition to a number of similar studies conducted worldwide but, more importantly, it contributes to the exceptionally small number of sales management studies carried out in Croatia. For a more complete analysis it would be necessary to include the variables of the external environment and examine the potential moderating impact of product type and industry on the overall sales effectiveness.

  6. Before the ban--an exploratory study of a local khat market in East London, U.K.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassim, Saba; Dalsania, Asha; Nordgren, Johan; Klein, Axel; Hulbert, Josh

    2015-06-12

    Khat is a green leaf with amphetamine-like effects. It is primarily used among people in Africa, the Middle East and in the diaspora communities from these countries. Prior to the prohibition of khat in the UK on 24 June 2014, there was almost no information available on key aspects of the local khat market. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2012 using snowball sampling, Privileged Access Interviewing and area mapping in order to identify khat sale establishments. Data was collected via face-to-face interviews using mixed methods for data collection. This included information about the establishments selling khat, khat pricing and its use among different ethnic minority groups, in addition to the potential sale of khat to children and risk assessment (e.g., use of pesticides on khat). Five out of seven sellers identified agreed to participate. Sellers described their khat sale establishments as 'community centres' which included, for example, a restaurant basement. The sellers' history of selling khat ranged between 1-15 years and khat's sale took place between 2pm-10pm. Miraa (e.g., Lara) from Kenya was the most popularly used khat variety, sold in pre-wrapped bundles of approximately 250 g costing £3 each and delivered four days a week. Harari (e.g., Owdi) from Ethiopia was sold in 200 g, 400 g and 1 kg bundles, priced between £5 and £20 and delivered two days a week. The primary benefit of khat use was reported to be social interaction. The customers were predominantly adult males of Somali origin. Most sellers claimed a self-imposed ban on sales to children under 18 years old. Khat bundles had no labelling describing variety or weight and sellers had no knowledge of the use of pesticides on khat and did not advertise the risks associated with khat use. Khat selling establishments were businesses that did not adhere to trade standards regulations (e.g., labelling khat bundles). They claimed to provide a community service (facilitating social

  7. Driver Cellphone and Texting Bans in the United States: Evidence of Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T.; Kidd, David G.; Teoh, Eric R.

    2014-01-01

    Almost all U.S. states have laws limiting drivers’ cellphone use. The evidence suggests that all-driver bans on hand-held phone conversations have resulted in long-term reductions in hand-held phone use, and drivers in ban states reported higher rates of hands-free phone use and lower overall phone use compared with drivers in non-ban states. Bans on all phone use by teenage drivers have not been shown to reduce their phone use. The effects of texting bans on the rates of drivers’ texting are unknown. With regard to the effects of bans on crashes, 11 peer-reviewed papers or technical reports of all-driver hand-held phone bans and texting bans were reviewed. Some were single-state studies examining crash measures before and after a state ban; other national or multi-state studies compared crashes in states with and without bans over time. The results varied widely. The lack of appropriate controls and other challenges in conducting strong evaluations limited the findings of some studies. Thus, despite the proliferation of laws limiting drivers’ cellphone use, it is unclear whether they are having the desired effects on safety. Priorities for future research are suggested. PMID:24776230

  8. Distribution network strengthens sales systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janoska, J.

    2003-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity market pushes Slovak distribution companies to upgrade their sale technologies. The first one to invest into a complex electronic sales system will be Stredoslovenska energetika, a.s., Zilina. The system worth 200 million Sk (4,83 million Euro) will be supplied by Polish software company Winuel. The company should also supply a software that would allow forecasting and planning of sales. The system should be fully operational by 2006. TREND has not managed to obtain information regarding plans Zapadoslovenska energetika - the largest and most active distribution company - might have in this area. In eastern Slovakia distribution company Vychodoslovenska energetika, a.s., Kosice has also started addressing this issue. (Author)

  9. Point-of-Sale Tobacco Advertising Remains Prominent in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khariwala, Samir S; Garg, Apurva; Stepanov, Irina; Gupta, Prakash C; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Gota, Vikram; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2016-07-01

    In India, a 2003 law ("COPTA") banned tobacco advertising with the exception of "point of sale" and "on-pack" advertising. Given substantial evidence regarding the impact of point of sale advertising (PoS), we analyzed the prevalence of encountering such advertising in Mumbai, India. A survey was conducted of 199 current and recent former tobacco users recruited at the Tata Memorial Hospital (Mumbai). Enrollees were queried regarding their exposure to tobacco advertising in the last 30 days through multiple media sources. Descriptive epidemiologic techniques were used to characterize the data. Overall, 95% of participants were men and 5% were women (mean age=49 years). All were current tobacco users or quit using all forms of tobacco in the last 60 days. Participants' responses revealed that PoS tobacco advertising had been encountered in the last 30 days for cigarettes (61%), bidis (54%), and smokeless tobacco (59%). Other forms of tobacco advertising were virtually non-existent. PoS tobacco advertising remains prominent and highly visible to consumers in Mumbai, India, indicating corporate exploitation of a loophole in the COPTA legislation. Given the observed compliance with the currently imposed bans, revisions of COPTA to include all forms of tobacco promotion and advertising would be impactful.

  10. Internet little cigar and cigarillo vendors: Surveillance of sales and marketing practices via website content analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Rebecca S; Derrick, Jason C

    2018-04-01

    Cigar sales have nearly doubled as cigarette sales have dropped, and large cigars have been replaced by little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs). Many LCCs are flavored, are perceived as less harmful than cigarettes, and have become increasingly available from e-commerce sources. We conducted surveillance of the online retail environment in 2013 and 2014 for LCCs in order to describe characteristics of Internet tobacco vendors selling LCCs and their sales and marketing practices, youth access practices, and their practices in relation to cigarette and other tobacco product sales. In 2013, we identified and manually screened 32,446 websites, yielding 500 unique Internet LCC vendors. In 2014, we identified 511 vendors selling LCCs from a list of 31,239 manually screened websites. We then selected 249 in 2013 and 263 in 2014 for content analysis focusing on six domains including demographics, youth access, payment and delivery, products for sale, promotions and claims, and prices. Just over half of vendors in both years were located solely in the U.S. with 70.1% of those selling flavored LCCs in 2013 and 76.1% in 2014. Nearly half only used proven ineffective age verification strategies and another 10% made no attempts to verify age at all. Most vendors accepted credit cards and advertised using the United States Postal Service. Half of vendors featured a variety of health warnings and most featured promotions. Federal bans on flavored cigarettes and restrictions on age verification, payment, and shipping for Internet tobacco sales should be extended to include LCCs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. First quarter 2005 sales data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-04-01

    This press release brings information on the AREVA group sales data. First quarter 2005 sales for the group were 2,496 millions of euros, up 3,6% year-on-year from 2,41 millions. The change in foreign exchange rates between the two periods show a negative impact of 22 millions euros, which is much lower than in the first quarter of 2004. It analyzes also in more details the situation of the front end, the reactors and service division, the back end division, the transmission and distribution division and the connectors division. (A.L.B.)

  12. Privacy for Sale?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Sørensen, Jannick Kirk; Khajuria, Samant

    Data brokers have become central players in the collection online of private user data. Data brokers’ activities are however not very transparent or even known by users. Many users regard privacy a central element when they use online services. Based on 12 short interviews with users, this paper...... analyses how users perceive the concept of online privacy in respect to data brokers col- lection of private data, and particularly novel services that offer users the possi- bility to sell their private data. Two groups of users are identified: Those who are considering selling their data under specific...... conditions, and those who reject the idea completely. Based on the literature we identify two positions to privacy either as an instrumental good, or as an intrinsic good. The paper positions vari- ous user perceptions on privacy that are relevant for future service develop- ment....

  13. Evaluating the impact of the alcohol act on off-trade alcohol sales: a natural experiment in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Mark; Geue, Claudia; Lewsey, James; Mackay, Daniel; McCartney, Gerry; Curnock, Esther; Beeston, Clare

    2014-12-01

    A ban on multi-buy discounts of off-trade alcohol was introduced as part of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in October 2011. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of this legislation on alcohol sales, which provide the best indicator of population consumption. Interrupted time-series regression was used to assess the impact of the Alcohol Act on alcohol sales among off-trade retailers in Scotland. Models accounted for underlying seasonal and secular trends and were adjusted for disposable income, alcohol prices and substitution effects. Data for off-trade retailers in England and Wales combined (EW) provided a control group. Weekly data on the volume of pure alcohol sold by off-trade retailers in Scotland and EW between January 2009 and September 2012. The introduction of the legislation was associated with a 2.6% (95% CI = -5.3 to 0.2%, P = 0.07) decrease in off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, but not in EW (-0.5%, 95% CI = -4.6 to 3.9%, P = 0.83). A statistically significant reduction was observed in Scotland when EW sales were adjusted for in the analysis (-1.7%, 95% CI = -3.1 to -0.3%, P = 0.02). The decline in Scotland was driven by reduced off-trade sales of wine (-4.0%, 95% CI = -5.4 to -2.6%, P types in Scotland, or in sales of any drink type in EW. The introduction of the Alcohol Act in Scotland in 2011 was associated with a decrease in total off-trade alcohol sales in Scotland, largely driven by reduced off-trade wine sales. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  15. Schedule Sales Query Report Generation System

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — Schedule Sales Query presents sales volume figures as reported to GSA by contractors. The reports are generated as quarterly reports for the current year and the...

  16. U.S. Arms Sales to Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2008-01-01

    This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...

  17. U.S. Arms Sales to Pakistan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimmett, Richard F

    2007-01-01

    This report briefly reviews the issue of U.S. arms sales to Pakistan. It provides background details regarding recent major weapons transactions between the United States and Pakistan, as well as the rationale given for such sales...

  18. Precious Coral Sales Report Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated sales log which collects information on sales of raw coral, including weight and revenue. Also includes seller and buyer information....

  19. National security and the comprehensive test ban treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landauer, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    For nearly three years now, the US, UK, and USSR have been working on the draft of a treaty that would ban all nuclear explosions (both peaceful applications and weapon tests) and institute verification and monitoring provisions to ensure compliance with the treaty. The status of the draft treaty is summarized. The question, Is a CTBT really in the interest of US national security. is analyzed with arguments used by both proponents and opponents of the CTBT. It is concluded that there are arguments both for and against a CTBT, but, for those whose approach to national security can be expressed as peace through preparedness, the arguments against a CTBT appear persuasive

  20. Sweden goes back on its decision to ban nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of 2009 the centre-right Swedish government has announced that the law on the progressive banning of nuclear energy and the law on the interdiction of building new nuclear power plants are going to be abolished. Moreover licenses will be given for the replacement of current operating reactors when they reach their time limit. The center party has not changed its mind concerning nuclear energy but is now deeply convinced that nuclear energy will be indispensable in the energy mix of tomorrow. A recent opinion poll has showed that almost half of the population favor the construction of new nuclear power plants. (A.C.)

  1. Primerjalna analiza slovenskih bančnih portalov

    OpenAIRE

    Podpečan, Vanja

    2016-01-01

    Živimo v dobi, v kateri se pojmi kot so internet, elektronsko poslovanje in elektronsko bančništvo uporabljajo vsakodnevno. Podjetja morajo v poslovnem okolju nuditi informacije, ki so za poslovanje nujno potrebni element. Le-te pa so najlažje dostopne preko interneta, brez katerega večina podjetij danes več ne more uspešno poslovati. Če uporabnik zna iz ogromnega števila informacij izluščiti najboljše, so le-te lahko zelo uporabne. Zato pa »prave« informacije predstavljajo velik element konk...

  2. The organisation of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopecky, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The author presents the international control system implemented by the CTBT (Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty) organisation to permanently control the globe and to detect any indicator of a nuclear explosion from war or civil origin or seismic activities. He briefly indicates how many countries are members of this organisation, and positions of some others. He describes how a North-Korean explosion has been detected in January 2016. He evokes the existence of validation techniques, and comments the relationship between the European Union and this organisation. He outlines the role played by France, and outlines the need for a world-based control system

  3. Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty: options before nuclear Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattanaik, Smruti S.

    1998-01-01

    The post-nuclear period has rendered Pakistan's strategic calculations more vulnerable. The decision to go nuclear after seventeen days of debate have started proving costly to Pakistan. This is revealed by the economic crisis resulting out of the foreign currency shortage, leading the country to default on the payment of debts. The pressure imposed by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and World Bank and their patrons to sign the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) have exposed Pakistan's economic vulnerability. Under this growing pressure, many have started questioning the decision to go nuclear

  4. 147__Sale_Cassava1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A total of 36 samples of Cassava flour were randomly collected inside clean polythene bag at each point of sale in three (3) major markets in Zaria, these are: Samaru, Sabon Gari and Zaria City Markets and transported to the laboratory for the department of microbiology Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria for further analysis.

  5. New Rules on Consumer Sales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møgelvang-Hansen, Peter; Lando, Henrik; Kristensen, Bo

    2006-01-01

    The project described in this report was carried out with support from The Ministry of Justice's Research Pool. The aim of the project is to examine the effects of Amending Act no. 213/2002, amending the rules on consumer sales in the Danish Sale of Goods Act. The amendments were part of Denmark......'s implementation of Directive 1999/44/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on certain aspects of the sale of consumer goods and associated guarantees. The Amending Act came into force on 24 April 2002, having effect on consumer sales made on and after 1 January 2002. At the time of completion...... of this report, the Amending Act had been in force for more than two and a half years. In the planning of this project, we assumed that at this point in time sufficient experience with the new rules would be available, enabling us to get an impression of its practical consequences for businesses. Also, we...

  6. Forest owners' timber sales satisfaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pammo, R.; Ripatti, P.

    2003-01-01

    The TTS Institute has carried out a study concerning forest owners' timber sales. The material was collected in 2002 via a mail inquiry that targeted forest owners who sold timber during the years 1997-1999 and 1999-2002. Three quarters of the forest owners sold timber to the same timber buying company during both periods of 1997-1999 and 1999-2002. The most important reasons for selling to the same buyer were that they purchased all timber assortments, reliability and good timber price. Mainly the same reasons also applied when changing the timber buying company. The most sensitive groups to changing timber buyer were 60-69 year old, entrepreneurs, men, and owners of forest holdings between 20-29 hectares, owners of inherited forests and joint forest ownerships. The forest owners assessed the timber buying company's operations and its staff on the basis of the last timber sale. The forest owners gave best values for the timber buyer's reliability, the purchase of all timber assortments and the timber buyers' reputation. The worst values were given for cross-cutting and response to complaints. No less than 95 percent of forest owners were prepared to recommend their timber trade partner to acquaintances, friends or other forest owners. Yet only half of the forest owners recognized that their last timber sale experience would not affect which company will be selected for the nest timber sale process

  7. Sales law in the DCFR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loos, M.B.M.; Sagaert, V.; Storme, M.; Terryn, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks into several aspects of Book IV.A of the Draft Common Frame of Reference and, in particular with regard to remedies, of Book III DCFR. Where appropriate, these provisions are compared with the corresponding provisions in the Principles of European Law on Sales (PELS) and,

  8. Advertising and Sales Promotion Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This document contains teacher materials for a 4-unit, 1-year marketing education course in advertising and sales promotion offered in grades 11 and 12 in North Carolina. The preface contains a rationale for the development of the course, a course description, course objectives, a list of the instructional units of the course, and a list of the…

  9. Sales promotions and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Wierenga (Berend); H. Soethoudt (Han)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConsumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal

  10. Sales promotion and channel coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, B.; Soethoudt, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Consumer sales promotions are usually the result of the decisions of two marketing channel parties, the manufacturer and the retailer. In making these decisions, each party normally follows its own interest: i.e. maximizes its own profit. Unfortunately, this results in a suboptimal outcome for the

  11. Sales promotion strategies in Procter&Gamble

    OpenAIRE

    Šebesta, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    The thesis gives comprehensive overview on the topic of sales promotions. The special focus is devoted to activities of Procter & Gamble on the Czech market. With increasing importance of sales promotions on the Czech market, the thesis aims to introduce main academic findings concerning sales promotions and test them on brands of Procter & Gamble. The next goal is to find out whether sales promotion strategies of Procter & Gamble provide a competitive advantage for the company on the Czech m...

  12. Enhancing the Professional Mindset of Future Sales Professionals: Key Insights from a Master in Sales Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos-Cuevas, Javier; Critten, Peter; Squire, Phil; Speakman, James I. F.

    2014-01-01

    Sales education has grown in importance, particularly throughout the last decade, with an increasing number of university sales centers offering programs to prepare new generations of sales professionals. In this article, we describe how work-based learning, action research, and reflective practice used in a sales master program can be used in…

  13. Sales Role-Plays and Mock Interviews: An Investigation of Student Performance in Sales Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sudha; Kothandaraman, Prabakar; Kashyap, Rajiv; Ashnai, Bahar

    2016-01-01

    Sales competitions provide students with opportunities to apply their understanding of sales. Despite a long tradition of scholarship on sales role-plays, the answer to what drives student performance in sales competitions remains elusive. In this research, we examine how motivation (work engagement) and ability (cognitive aptitude and…

  14. 76 FR 174 - International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,575; TA-W-74,575D] International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and Distribution Business Manager Roles; One Teleworker Located in Charleston, WV; International Business Machines (IBM), Global Sales Operations Organization, Sales and...

  15. Sales Training for Army Recruiter Success: Modeling the Sales Strategies and Skills of Excellent Recruiters

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-01

    strategies used by excellent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the protocol for modeling performance and acquiring...Behavioral and Social Sciences 3001 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22333-5600 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK ARE* 4 WORK UNIT...Modeling ’Expert knowledge,, Neurolinguistics Knowledge engineering; Recruiting Sales, &’ Sales cycle Sales skills Sales strategies 20

  16. 16 CFR 1500.17 - Banned hazardous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...)(2); and part 1507). (4) Liquid drain cleaners containing 10 percent or more by weight of sodium and/or potassium hydroxide; except that this subparagraph shall not apply to such liquid drain cleaners... and U.S. importers from sales losses, production changes, and inventory retrofitting, and slightly...

  17. 7 CFR 929.13 - Sales history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales history. 929.13 Section 929.13 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 929.13 Sales history. Sales history means the number of barrels of cranberries established for a grower by the committee...

  18. 7 CFR 929.48 - Sales history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales history. 929.48 Section 929.48 Agriculture... LONG ISLAND IN THE STATE OF NEW YORK Order Regulating Handling Regulations § 929.48 Sales history. (a) A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the committee in the following manner: (1) For...

  19. 36 CFR 223.227 - Sale advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sale advertisement. 223.227... DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Advertisement and Bids § 223.227 Sale advertisement. (a) The Forest Service shall advertise any special forest products sales with an appraised value...

  20. The sale of alcohol in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    laCour, Lisbeth; Milhøj, Anders

    2009-01-01

    How do prices affect the choice of types of alcohol in Denmark? We study the Danish sale of alcoholic beverages in a time series framework. First, we look at annual data from 1980 investigating the hypothesis of a fairly stable level of sales. We conclude stationarity of sales and we also find...

  1. Towards context aware food sales prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zliobaite, I.; Bakker, J.; Pechenizkiy, M.

    2009-01-01

    Sales prediction is a complex task because of a large number of factors affecting the demand. We present a context aware sales prediction approach, which selects the base predictor depending on the structural properties of the historical sales. In the experimental part we show that there exist

  2. 7 CFR 1955.148 - Auction sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... complexity of the sale. When the services of a professional auctioneer are advisable, the services will be... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Auction sales. 1955.148 Section 1955.148 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) PROPERTY MANAGEMENT Disposal of Inventory Property General § 1955.148 Auction sales...

  3. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales restrictions. 203.20 Section 203.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22 or...

  4. 14 CFR 212.7 - Direct sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Direct sales. 212.7 Section 212.7... REGULATIONS CHARTER RULES FOR U.S. AND FOREIGN DIRECT AIR CARRIERS § 212.7 Direct sales. (a) Certificated and foreign air carriers may sell or offer for sale, and operate, as principal, Public Charter flights under...

  5. 77 FR 16768 - Export Sales Reporting Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Office of the Secretary 7 CFR Part 20 RIN 0551-AA70 Export Sales... Sales Reporting Requirements, is being withdrawn. The Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) is currently...: Contact Peter W. Burr, Branch Chief, Export Sales Reporting Branch, Import Policies and Export Reporting...

  6. 7 CFR 930.16 - Sales constituency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Definitions § 930.16 Sales constituency. Sales constituency means a common marketing organization or brokerage... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales constituency. 930.16 Section 930.16 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements...

  7. 14 CFR 381.9 - Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales. 381.9 Section 381.9 Aeronautics and... SPECIAL EVENT TOURS § 381.9 Sales. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section: (1) No... booking must be returned within 3 business days. (2) Upon acceptance of the money for a sale, the operator...

  8. 27 CFR 6.71 - Quota sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Quota sales. 6.71 Section 6.71 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Quota Sales § 6.71 Quota sales. The act by an...

  9. Improving sales management of agricultural enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balko S. V.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses the effective sales of agricultural products. The authors recommend the directions of improving sales management system. Moreover, the research proves that sales and production activity should be based on complex analysis and monitoring of the market conditions.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Austin sediments after a ban on pavement sealers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeMott, R.P.; Gauthier, T.D.; Wiersema, J.M.; Crenson, G. [ENVIRON International, Tampa, FL (USA)

    2010-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were measured in stream sediments collected before and after a municipal ban on the use of coal-tar-based pavement sealers in Austin, Texas. Samples were collected in October 2005, prior to the ban, and again in April, 2008, approximately 2 years after the ban. Differences in total PAH concentrations between samples collected before and after the ban show no net change in PAH levels in Austin stream sediments. Results of hydrocarbon fingerprinting reveal subtle differences in PAH profiles that appear to reflect the effects of weathering rather than a change in PAH sources.

  11. The opinion of catering sector about the smoking ban and the evaluation of establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doruk, Sibel; Çelik, Deniz; İnönü Köseoğlu, Handan; Etikan, Ilker; Çetin, İlhan

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the knowledge and perspective of employees/employers in the catering sector in our city regarding the smoking ban, as well as to determine the changes in the number of customers and income after the bans implementation. In this two phased cross-sectional study 337 and 310 adults were evaluated respectively. Before the smoking ban was implemented we visited 84 workplaces in city center, after 18 months later 97 workplaces were visited in the same region. In both phases, the participants' opinions about the necessity/applicability of the ban were evaluated. In the second phase, they were also asked whether they had any changes in their income. In both phases, participants' general characteristics were similar. When all participants were evaluated, we determined that their knowledge and belief in the necessity/applicability of the ban did not change over time. It was determined that non-smokers more strongly believed in the necessity/applicability of the ban. Thirty-eight participants were included in both phases; 44.7% of them reported a decrease in the number of customers, and 60% of employers reported an increase in their income. The smokers were less convinced about the applicability/necessity of this ban than non-smokers. According to our results it could be said that smoking can also adversely affect implementation of the related ban. Employers should be informed that the ban will not affect their income.

  12. Perceptions of the solarium ban in Australia: 'Fake it, don't bake it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Ivanka; Dobbinson, Suzanne; Wilson, Carlene; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Rayner, Joanne; Makin, Jen

    2015-08-01

    The causal link between ultraviolet radiation from solarium use and skin cancer is well established. In 2012 and 2013, state governments across Australia announced plans to ban commercial solarium use from 31 December 2014. The present study examined the responses of solarium and non-solarium users to the ban on commercial solariums in Australia. Participants (n = 488; 388 females, 100 males; mean age = 26.02, s.d. = 9.95) completed an online questionnaire during the summer prior to the ban relating to solarium usage and their opinions about the ban. Overall, 49% (n = 237) of participants were aware of the impending ban; 17% (n = 83) had used a solarium at some point in their life. The response to the solarium ban was positive; however, some current solarium users intended post-ban to use privately owned sunbeds and or spend a greater amount of time sun-tanning. These findings indicate a high level of public support for the solarium ban, which has removed a risky source of ultraviolet radiation in Australia. SO WHAT? Further steps are now needed to monitor the tanning behaviours of previous solarium users post-ban and their access to private sunbed use and other potentially dangerous methods of tanning (e.g. tanning injections).

  13. Patron Banning in the Nightlife Entertainment Districts: A Key Informant Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Peter; Curtis, Ashlee; Palmer, Darren; Warren, Ian; McFarlane, Emma

    2016-07-01

    Alcohol-related harm in and around licensed venues is associated with substantial costs. Many interventions have been introduced in an effort to combat these harms, and one such intervention is known as patron banning. Patron banning involves prohibiting patrons who have been violent or disorderly in a licensed venue in an attempt to reduce alcohol-related harm. It can be implemented by the venue, by members of police, or by liquor accords. This study aimed to obtain key informant perspectives on the benefits of patron banning as well as on the effectiveness of patron banning in reducing alcohol-related harm. Thirty-six key informants provided perspectives on patron banning through in-depth interviews that were part of a larger study. Key informants were supportive of patron banning for reducing alcohol-related harm, noting that it had many benefits including increased venue safety, general risk management, and deterrence of antisocial behavior. Although processes for banning were not always consistent, identification scanners were generally recognized as a way to ensure that patron banning was enforced. Key informants viewed patron banning as an effective measure for increasing patron safety and reducing alcohol-related harms.

  14. Support for Indoor Bans on Electronic Cigarettes among Current and Former Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K. Kolar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette use is increasing in the U.S. Although marketed as a safer alternative for cigarettes, initial evidence suggests that e-cigarettes may pose a secondhand exposure risk. The current study explored the prevalence and correlates of support for e-cigarette bans. Methods: A sample of 265 current/former smokers completed a cross-sectional telephone survey from June–September 2014; 45% Black, 31% White, 21% Hispanic. Items assessed support for home and workplace bans for cigarettes and e-cigarettes and associated risk perceptions. Results: Most participants were aware of e-cigarettes (99%. Results demonstrated less support for complete e-cigarette bans in homes and workplaces compared to cigarettes. Support for complete e-cigarette bans was strongest among older, higher income, married respondents, and former smokers. Complete e-cigarette bans were most strongly endorsed when perceptions of addictiveness and health risks were high. While both e-cigarette lifetime and never-users strongly supported cigarette smoking bans, endorsement for e-cigarette bans varied by lifetime use and intentions to use e-cigarettes. Conclusions: Support for indoor e-cigarette bans is relatively low among individuals with a smoking history. Support for e-cigarette bans may change as evidence regarding their use emerges. These findings have implications for public health policy.

  15. Investigating the effect of banning non-reduced ignition propensity cigarettes on fatal residential fires in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonander, Carl M; Jonsson, Anders P; Nilson, Finn T

    2016-04-01

    Annually, 100 people die as a result of residential fires in Sweden and almost a third of the fatal fires are known to be caused by smoking. In an attempt to reduce the occurrence of these events, reduced ignition propensity (RIP) cigarettes have been developed. They are designed to reduce the risk of fire by preventing the cigarette from burning through the full length when left unattended. In November 2011, a ban was introduced, forbidding the production and sale of all non-RIP cigarettes in all member states of the European Union, including Sweden. Monthly data on all recorded residential fires and associated fatalities in Sweden from January 2000 to December 2013 were analyzed using an interrupted time series design. The effect of the intervention [in relative risk (RR)] was quantified using generalised additive models for location, shape and scale. There were no statistically significant intervention effects on residential fires (RR 0.95 [95% CI: 0.89-1.01]), fatal residential fires (RR 0.99 [95% CI: 0.80-1.23]), residential fires where smoking was a known cause (RR 1.10 [95% CI: 0.95-1.28]) or fatal residential fires where smoking was a known cause (RR 0.92 [95% CI: 0.63-1.35]). No evidence of an effect of the ban on all non-RIP cigarettes on the risk of residential fires in Sweden was found. The results may not be generalisable to other countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Smoking in Correctional Settings Worldwide: Prevalence, Bans, and Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Anne C; Eldridge, Gloria D; Chico, Cynthia E; Morisseau, Nancy; Drobeniuc, Ana; Fils-Aime, Rebecca; Day, Carolyn; Hopkins, Robyn; Jin, Xingzhong; Chen, Junyu; Dolan, Kate A

    2018-06-01

    Smoking tobacco contributes to 11.5% of deaths worldwide and, in some countries, more hospitalizations than alcohol and drugs combined. Globally in 2015, 25% of men and 5% of women smoked. In the United States, a higher proportion of people in prison smoke than do community-dwelling individuals. To determine smoking prevalence in prisons worldwide, we systematically reviewed the literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines; we also examined whether prisons banned smoking or treated smokers. We searched databases for articles published between 2012 and 2016 and located 85 relevant articles with data representing 73.5% of all incarcerated persons from 50 countries. In 35 of 36 nations (97%) with published prevalence data, smoking for the incarcerated exceeded community rates 1.04- to 62.6-fold. Taking a conservative estimate of a 2-fold increase, we estimated that, globally, 14.5 million male and 26,000 female smokers pass through prisons annually. Prison authorities' responses include permitting, prohibiting, or treating tobacco use. Bans may temporarily improve health and reduce in-prison health care costs but have negligible effect after prison release. Evidence-based interventions for smoking cessation effective outside prisons are effective inside; effects persist after release. Because smoking prevalence is heightened in prisons, offering evidence-based interventions to nearly 15 million smokers passing through yearly would improve global health.

  17. Compliance with the workplace-smoking ban in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonk-Kleinjan, Wendy M I; Rijswijk, Pieter C P; de Vries, Hein; Knibbe, Ronald A

    2013-02-01

    In 2004 the Dutch government instituted a workplace-smoking ban. This study focuses on differences in compliance over time and between occupational sectors, and describes the background variables. Telephone interviews were conducted with company employees across industry, public and service sectors in 2004 (n=705), 2006 (n=2201) and 2008 (n=2034). The questions concerned smoking policy, aspects of awareness and motivation to implement this ban. Compliance rates increased between 2006 (83%) and 2008 (96%) after an initial stagnation in the rate of compliance between 2004 and 2006. The increase in compliance was accompanied by a less negative attitude and an increase in confidence in one's ability to comply (self-efficacy). Differences in compliance between sectors with the highest compliance (public sector) and the lowest compliance (industry) decreased from about 20% to nearly 4%. Simultaneously, in the industry there was a stronger increase for risk perception of enforcement, social influence and self-efficacy. The initial stagnation in increase of compliance might be due to the lack of a (new) coherent package of policy measures to discourage smoking. Over the entire period there was a stronger increase in compliance in the industry sector, probably due to the intensification of enforcement activities and additional policy like legislation, which might increase awareness and social support. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Sales Forecasting System for Newspaper Distribution Companies in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gencay İncesu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE st1\\:*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Newspapers are like goods with a shelf life of one day and they have to be distributed daily basis to the sales points. A problem that most newspaper companies encounter daily is how to predict the right number of newspapers to print and distribute among distinct sales points. The aim is to predict newspaper demand as accurately as possible to meet customer need with minimum number of returns, missed sales and oversupply. This makes it necessary to develop a short-term forecasting system. The data taken from one of the largest distribution companies in Turkey is time dependent. Therefore, time series analysis is used to forecast newspaper circulation. In this paper, the newspaper sales system is examined for Turkey. Various types of forecasting techniques which are applicable to newspaper circulation planning are compared and a nonlinear approach for returns is applied.

  19. Impact of sales promotion on purchase decision of consumers: An application in tourism sector

    Tüketicilerin satın alma kararı üzerinde satış tutundurmanın etkisi: Turizm sektöründe bir uygulama

    OpenAIRE

    Hülya Bakırtaş

    2013-01-01

    Sales promotion is generally used to increase sales in the short term by businesses and especially used widely to influence consumers by businesses and agents of the consumer good markets. To identify and select the appropriate sales promotion techniques for businesses is an important decision. In the context businesses should well know target customers and decide to appropriate sales promotion techniques. This research evaluates impact on purchase decision of consumers of sales promotional ...

  20. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs

  1. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  2. Gasoline sales post minimal gain in 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-22

    Despite the continuing emphasis on conservation and the growing trend to smaller sized automobiles, sales of motor gasoline across Canada posted a gain of 0.4% in 1986. Figures are included in this survey for Canadian motor gasoline sales categorized by province, type of gasoline, and months of 1985 and 1986. Sales of refiners' diesel fuel oil are also categorized by province and by months of 1985 and 1986. Motor gasoline disposition for 1983-1986 is categorized into retail pump sales, road and urban transport, agriculture, public administration, and commercial and other institutional markets. Also included are figures for refiners' propane sales for 1983-1986 by province.

  3. Impact of Maryland's 2011 alcohol sales tax increase on alcoholic beverage sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Marissa B; Waters, Hugh; Smart, Mieka; Jernigan, David H

    2016-07-01

    Increasing alcohol taxes has proven effective in reducing alcohol consumption, but the effects of alcohol sales taxes on sales of specific alcoholic beverages have received little research attention. Data on sales are generally less subject to reporting biases than self-reported patterns of alcohol consumption. We aimed to assess the effects of Maryland's July 1, 2011 three percentage point increase in the alcohol sales tax (6-9%) on beverage-specific and total alcohol sales. Using county-level data on Maryland's monthly alcohol sales in gallons for 2010-2012, by beverage type, multilevel mixed effects multiple linear regression models estimated the effects of the tax increase on alcohol sales. We controlled for seasonality, county characteristics, and national unemployment rates in the main analyses. In the 18 months after the tax increase, average per capita sales of spirits were 5.1% lower (p sales were 3.2% lower (p sales were 2.5% lower (p sales trends in the 18 months prior to the tax increase. Overall, the alcohol sales tax increase was associated with a 3.8% decline in total alcohol sold relative to what would have been expected based on sales in the prior 18 months (p increased alcohol sales taxes may be as effective as excise taxes in reducing alcohol consumption and related problems. Sales taxes also have the added advantages of rising with inflation and taxing the highest priced beverages most heavily.

  4. Sales Rebate Contracts in Fashion Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Hung Chiu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore in this paper the performance of sales rebate contracts in fashion supply chains. We conduct both analytical and numerical analyses via a mean-variance framework with reference to real empirical data. To be specific, we evaluate the expected profits and variance of profits (risk of the fashion supply chains, fashion retailers, and manufacturers under (1 the currently implemented sales rebate practices, (2 the case without sales rebate, and (3 the theoretical coordination situation (if target sales rebate is adopted. In addition, we analyze how sales effort affects the performances of the supply chain and its agents. Our analysis indicates that the rebate contracts may hurt the retailer and the manufacturer of a fashion supply chain when it is inappropriately set. Moreover, a properly designed sales rebate contract not only can coordinate the supply chain (with retail sales effort but can also improve expected profits and lower the levels of risk for both the manufacturer and the retailer.

  5. Decoupling Revenue from Energy Sales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, V.

    2011-01-01

    Energy sector based on the fossil fuels combustion has the largest greenhouse gases emissions, causing the actual climate change with numerous negative impacts. Therefore, different measures for the climate change mitigation are performed, mostly by increasing ENEF-energy efficiency (saving), and by substituting fossil fuels with renewable energy (RE), mainly with limited results. One of the most serious obstacles for implementation of these measures is an opposition of the energy utilities (power and natural gas), whose energy sales, revenue and profit are thus reduced. Consequently, new solutions are asked to decouple utilities revenues from energy sales. Decoupling has started in the US, where most states have at least one utility with some decoupling experience. California has pioneering role since 1982., with impressive results. (author)

  6. Sale of electricity to households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    The Company Slovenske elektrarne (SE) Predaj has after two years of presence in the market expanded their business activities to the households segment. The first customers can be particularly employees of Slovenske elektrarne. This chance will be provided to them starting from 1 October of this year. 'The electricity supplies for households will only be supplementary segment of sales at SE Predaj Company. We will still focus mainly at businesses with higher consumption,' says director of the Company Mr. Stanislav Reguli. (author)

  7. Sport promotion and sales management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Aminiroshan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of third millennium, the world of sport has been experiencing new marketing techniques to introduce products and services. The purpose of this study was to compare advertising and sales promotion strategies, the effects of different strategies in sport production companies to retain or to gain market share among selected firms, which were active in Iran. The method of survey was descriptive – analytical and some questionnaires were used for collecting data in Likert scale. The validity of the questionnaire were estimated by interview with professors and exports in marketing and sport marketing and the reliability was assessed by using Cronbach's alpha (α= 0.89. Statistical population of the study includes Sport Goods-Producing companies in Iran (N= 180 and 122 firms formed the study sample. For testing the hypothesis, we have used Paired Samples T-Test. The analysis of findings showed that there was a meaningful difference between using advertising and sales promotion strategies. In general, we can say, there are some limited applications of using techniques and methods of sales promotion strategies in Iranian sport industry and methods of advertising. Consequently, regarding the intense competition among companies as well as fast growth of markets and fast changes in consumer’s behavior, identifying the best methods for corresponding relationship to customer would be required.

  8. Acute pulmonary admissions following implementation of a national workplace smoking ban.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kent, Brian D

    2012-09-01

    The implementation of workplace smoking bans has contributed to a significant reduction in the incidence of acute coronary syndrome admissions, but their influence on adult acute pulmonary disease admissions is unclear. We sought to assess the impact of a national smoking ban on nationwide admissions of individuals of working age with acute pulmonary illness.

  9. Do Partial Home Smoking Bans Signal Progress toward a Smoke-Free Home?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Haardörfer, Regine; Bundy, Lucja T.; Escoffery, Cam; Berg, Carla J.; Fernandez, Maria; Williams, Rebecca; Hovell, Mel

    2016-01-01

    Understanding who establishes partial home smoking bans, what these bans cover, and whether they are an intermediate step in going smoke-free would help to inform smoke-free home interventions. Participants were recruited from United Way of Greater Atlanta's 2-1-1 contact center. Data were collected at baseline, 3 and 6 months via telephone…

  10. The impact of the Danish smoking ban on hospital admissions for acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tabita Maria; Møller, Lisbeth; Jørgensen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The positive impact of a smoking ban on AMI hospitalization rates has been demonstrated both inside and outside Europe. A national smoking ban (SB) was implemented in Denmark on 15...

  11. Perceptions of Teachers on the Ban of Corporal Punishment in Pre-Primary Institutions in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwai, Beth Kirigo; Kimengi, Isaac Njuguna; Kipsoi, Emmy Jerono

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate perceptions of teachers on the ban of corporal punishment in pre-primary institutions. The objectives of the study were to investigate teachers' attitudes towards corporal punishment ban in pre-schools and to establish whether the level of education of teachers had an influence on the use of corporal…

  12. Perceptions of a Gay-Straight Alliance Club Ban: School Counselors and Advocacy for LGBTQQ Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Pamela S.; Sifford, Amy McCarthy

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological inquiry explored the experiences and reactions of five school counselors who worked in a school that banned a Gay-Straight Alliance club. Specifically, the authors examined how counselors' perceptions of the ban influenced their advocacy for LGBTQQ students. The results of semi-structured interviews revealed one overarching…

  13. Coming This Fall to a School Library near You: The Challenged, the Banned, and the Filtered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Important happenings related to the concept of intellectual freedom (IF) coincide with the annual back-to-school ramp up. This article discusses how to use the summer hiatus to develop learning opportunities related to events such as Banned Books Week (BBW) and Banned Websites Awareness Day (BWAD). The author provides resource information to aid…

  14. Attitudes and Motivations of Competitive Cyclists Regarding Use of Banned and Legal Performance Enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkaku R. Kisaalita

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug ‘doping’ and the use of banned performance enhancing products (PEPs remains an issue in virtually all competitive sports despite penal consequences and known health risks. The lines distinguishing “fair” and “unfair” performance enhancement have become increasingly blurred. Few studies have explored how attitudes towards legal performance enhancers (drugs/substances, diet, and equipment modifications may influence motivations to use banned PEPs. In the present study, 68 competitive cyclists completed a survey examining the importance of choosing banned and non-banned PEPs using World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA and Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI criteria. Results showed that over 60 percent of cyclists used non-banned PEPs while 8 percent used banned PEPs. Health was overall the most important factor in choosing a PEP while apprehension by a doping agency was least important. Mixed- model ANOVA analyses revealed that motivations to use banned PEPs were complex, as the importance of health, violating the sprit of the sport, performance improvement, and getting caught were differentially influenced by PEP legality (p 0.05. Our findings illustrate the multifactorial nature of PEP use/doping attitudes and highlight the unique role that “legal” performance enhancement may plays in influencing banned and/or unethical sports behaviors.

  15. US service firms eye increased sales to Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on American service supply companies which hope the pending U.S.-Mexico free trade agreement will step up their sales of goods and service to Petroleos Mexicanos. They testified at a House foreign affairs subcommittee hearing on the oil aspects of the FTA and commented on a recent General Accounting Office report. Rep. Sam Gejdenson, (D-Conn.), subcommittee chairman, has been critical of FTA negotiations because it appears they will not open the Mexican oil sector to U.S. firms. Mexico's constitution bans foreign firms from owning Mexican reserves. It has been stated that the U.S. oil industry needs the business. The industry, particularly drillers, contractors, and manufacturers of oil equipment, has been hurting for more than 10 years now. They have lost more than 356,000 jobs in this sector in the last decade more than have been lost in the entire U.S. auto industry. Access to trade and investment in Mexico's oil sector could mean the difference between profit and bankruptcy for tens of thousands of small and medium size oil service contractors

  16. Evaluating Point of Sale Tobacco Marketing Using Behavioral Laboratory Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Jason D.; Drobes, David J.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Wetter, David W.; Cinciripini, Paul M.

    2018-01-01

    With passage of the 2009 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act, the FDA has authority to regulate tobacco advertising. As bans on traditional advertising venues and promotion of tobacco products have grown, a greater emphasis has been placed on brand exposure and price promotion in displays of products at the point-of-sale (POS). POS marketing seeks to influence attitudes and behavior towards tobacco products using a variety of explicit and implicit messaging approaches. Behavioral laboratory methods have the potential to provide the FDA with a strong scientific base for regulatory actions and a model for testing future manipulations of POS advertisements. We review aspects of POS marketing that potentially influence smoking behavior, including branding, price promotions, health claims, the marketing of emerging tobacco products, and tobacco counter-advertising. We conceptualize how POS marketing potentially influence individual attention, memory, implicit attitudes, and smoking behavior. Finally, we describe specific behavioral laboratory methods that can be adapted to measure the impact of POS marketing on these domains.

  17. Regulating the tobacco retail environment: beyond reducing sales to minors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, S; Freeman, B

    2009-12-01

    The World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) has little to say about the regulation of tobacco retailing, with most research and policy debate having been restricted to confining sales to adults and removing advertising displays, including packs. Tobacco retailing is largely unregulated, reflecting the historical regulatory trivialisation of tobacco products, now demonstrably anachronistic with the advent of near global support for the FCTC. This situation contrasts markedly with the regulation of pharmaceuticals, and many other goods and services subject to a wide variety of restrictions. This review proposes that the international tobacco control community should open up debate on retail regulation to examine the suitability of principles long accepted in pharmaceutical regulation. These include: restrictions on the number and location of tobacco retail outlets, the banning of tobacco retail displays, floor (minimum) price controls, restricting the amount of tobacco smokers could purchase over a given time and loss of retail licensure following breaches of any of the conditions of license. It proposes that retail licenses should be heavily restricted and tradable, becoming valuable commercial assets, where the threat of loss or revocation would act as an incentive for strict adherence to the measures proposed.

  18. Stagnant contraceptive sales after the Zika epidemic in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Ali, Moazzam; Monteiro, Ilza; Fernandes, Arlete

    2017-10-01

    Our aim was to assess national hormonal and non-hormonal contraceptive sales in Brazil after the Zika virus outbreak. Pharmaceutical companies based in Brazil provided data on monthly sales from September 2016 to June 2017. Data from both the public and private sectors were obtained about sales of registered, available modern contraceptive methods: combined oral contraceptive pill; progestin-only pill; vaginal and transdermal contraceptives; injectable contraceptives; long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC) methods, including the copper-releasing intrauterine device, the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system and the etonogestrel-releasing subdermal implant; and emergency contraceptive pills. Seventy-eight percent of sales comprised pills, patches and vaginal rings (11.1-13.8 million cycles/units per month), followed by emergency contraceptive pills (1.8-2.6 million pills), injectables (1.2-1.4 million ampoules) and LARC methods (6500-17,000 devices). The data showed much higher sales of short-acting methods compared with more effective LARC methods. The public sector needs to strengthen its focus on ensuring better access to LARC methods through a systematic approach ensuring regular supply, improved professional skills and better demand generation to couples wishing to avoid or delay pregnancy. In Zika virus-affected areas, many women of reproductive age may want to delay or postpone pregnancy by using an effective LARC method. The public sector should review its policies on LARC, as the need for these methods especially in Zika virus endemic areas may increase. A clear emphasis on quality in services, access and use is warranted.

  19. The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-ban Treaty : an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty ushers in the post-nuclear testing era. The Treaty is the result of many years of intensive international negotiation, and is an impressive document of some 48 pages plus 15 pages of annexes which, by April 1997, 143 nations including New Zealand had signed. New Zealand has consistently maintained a strong opposition to the testing of nuclear weapons and has had a long involvement in negotiations towards this Treaty. This is the first of a series of articles on the Treaty, its enforcement, and its implications for New Zealand, and provides an overview of the treaty by means of a quick tour through its main provisions. (author)

  20. Arms Control: US and International efforts to ban biological weapons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-01

    The Bacteriological (Biological) and Toxin Weapons Convention, the treaty that bans the development, production, and stockpiling and acquisition of biological weapons was opened for signature in 1972 and came into force in 1975 after being ratified by 22 governments, including the depository nations of the USA, the United Kingdom, and the former Soviet Union. In support of the Convention, the USA later established export controls on items used to make biological weapons. Further, in accordance with the 1990 President`s Enhanced Proliferation Control Initiative, actions were taken to redefine and expand US export controls, as well as to encourage multilateral controls through the Australia Group. Thus far, the Convention has not been effective in stopping the development of biological weapons. The principal findings as to the reasons of the failures of the Convention are found to be: the Convention lacks universality, compliance measures are effective, advantage of verification may outweigh disadvantages. Recommendations for mitigating these failures are outlined in this report.

  1. Epistemic Dependence and the EU Seal Ban Debate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Christian Blichner

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available On September 2009 the European Union (EU adopted a regulation banning the import of seal products into the EU or placing seal products on the EU market. The European Parliament was the main driving force behind the regulation and the EU has been criticised by affected countries outside the EU for not basing this decision on the available expert knowledge. The questions asked are how, given epistemic dependence, non-experts may challenge an expert based policy proposal. Can non-experts hold experts accountable, and if so in what way? Three main tests and ten subtests of expert knowledge are proposed and these tests are then used to assess whether the European Parliament did in fact argue in a way consistent with available expert knowledge in amending the Commission proposal for a regulation.

  2. Impact of Denmark's ban on antimicrobials for growth promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helen H; Hayes, Dermot J

    2014-06-01

    Denmark was among the first countries to ban the use of antimicrobials for growth promotion (AGPs) in animal production through an on-going series of actions and regulations since 1995. In 2010 the Yellow Card scheme was adopted to decrease total antimicrobial consumption in pig production through additional restrictions on pig farmers. The withdrawal of AGPs and other restrictions have reduced total antimicrobial use, but at the same time therapeutic drug use has increased and resistance in key zoonotic bacteria has not decreased. Improved use of vaccines and management practices can help reduce losses especially for weaner pigs, but come with additional costs to producers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fissile material ban: global and non-discriminatory?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datt, Savita

    1995-01-01

    With the indefinite and unconditional extension of the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) now out of the way, the next issue on the non-proliferation agenda is that of the existing stocks and further production of plutonium and weapons grade uranium. More than the existing stocks and the surplus fissile materials made available through arms control and disarmament measures, it is the further production of such materials which is sought to be tackled urgently. Of prime concern are the nuclear programmes of threshold countries like India, Pakistan and Israel (countries out of the NPT fold) which need to be capped at all costs. The best method of achieving this, it is believed can be through a global ban on the production of fissile materials. 15 refs

  4. Legislative smoking bans for reducing exposure to secondhand smoke and smoking prevalence: Opportunities for Georgians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Steven S; Anderson, Jennifer; Smith, Selina A

    2015-01-01

    Secondhand smoke, which is also referred to as environmental tobacco smoke and passive smoke, is a known human carcinogen. Secondhand smoke also causes disease and premature death in nonsmoking adults and children. We summarize studies of secondhand smoke in public places before and after smoking bans, as well as studies of cardiovascular and respiratory disease before and after such bans. To protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, smoke-free legislation is an effective public health measure. Smoking bans in public places, which have been implemented in many jurisdictions across the U.S. and in other countries, have the potential to influence social norms and reduce smoking behavior. Through legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure and smoking prevalence, opportunities exist to protect the health of Georgians and other Americans and to reduce health care costs. These opportunities include increasing the comprehensiveness of smoking bans in public places and ensuring adequate funding to quit line services.

  5. Implementation and enforcement of tobacco bans in two prisons in North Carolina: a qualitative inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Kristie L; Proescholdbell, Scott; Herndon Malek, Sally; Johnson, Jana

    2010-04-01

    Despite the national trend that 90% of prisons have smoke-free indoors policies, compliance and enforcement remain barriers to policy success. Key informant interviews about policy compliance and enforcement were conducted with 10 staff and inmates at two North Carolina prison facilities, one with a complete ban (indoors and outdoors) and one with a partial ban (indoors only). Communication of the tobacco bans was consistent and well understood in both facilities. Barriers to compliance and enforcement, especially in the complete ban facility, included policy ''buy in,'' the emerging black market for cigarettes, staff support, and access to nicotine replacement therapy. Despite these barriers, most informants reported that implementation and enforcement of complete bans is possible with adequate communication about the policy and access to cessation therapy.

  6. Insider trading under trading ban regulation in China’s A-share market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chafen Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effects of China’s 2008 trading ban regulation on the insider trading of large shareholders in China’s A-share market. It finds no evidence of insider trading during the ban period (one month before the announcement of a financial report, due to high regulation risk. However, the ban only constrains the profitability of insider trades during the ban period, while trades outside it remain highly profitable. Informed insider trading before the ban period is 2.83 times more profitable than uninformed trading. The regulation has changed insider trading patterns, but has been ineffective in preventing insider trading by large shareholders due to rigid administrative supervision and a lack of civil litigation and flexible market monitoring. This study enhances understanding of large shareholders’ trading behavior and has important implications for regulators.

  7. Effect of a smoking ban on respiratory health in nonsmoking hospitality workers: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, Sarah; Stolz, Daiana; Hammer, Jürg; Moeller, Alexander; Bauer, Georg F; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Röösli, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a smoking ban on lung function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, and respiratory symptoms in nonsmoking hospitality workers. Secondhand smoke exposure at the workplace, spirometry, and fractional exhaled nitric oxide were measured in 92 nonsmoking hospitality workers before as well as twice after a smoking ban. At baseline, secondhand smoke-exposed hospitality workers had lung function values significantly below the population average. After the smoking ban, the covariate-adjusted odds ratio for cough was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.93) and for chronic bronchitis 0.75 (95% confidence interval, 0.55 to 1.02) compared with the preban period. The below-average lung function before the smoking ban indicates chronic damages from long-term exposure. Respiratory symptoms such as cough decreased within 12 months after the ban.

  8. The Impact of Smoking Bans on Smoking and Consumer Behavior: Quasi-Experimental Evidence from Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, Stefan; Marti, Joachim; Maclean, Johanna Catherine

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we exploit the progressive implementation of smoking bans in public venues at the state level in Switzerland to evaluate both the direct effects on smoking and the potential unintended consequences of these legislations on consumer behaviors as measured by visiting restaurants/bars and discos ('going out'). Our results indicate that public venue smoking bans in Switzerland reduce smoking rates, but the findings do not emerge until 1 year following the ban. This pattern of results is consistent with delays in ban enforcement on the part of business owners, difficulties in changing addictive behaviors such as smoking, and/or learning on the part of smokers. We find evidence that smoking bans influence going-out behavior and there is substantial heterogeneity across venue and consumer characteristics. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. [Secondhand smoke in hospitality venues. Exposure, body burden, economic and health aspects in conjunction with smoking bans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, H; Kuhn, J; Bolte, G

    2009-04-01

    Secondhand smoke was classified by national and international organisations as a known cause of cancer in humans and has many adverse health effects, especially cardiovascular diseases and lung tumours. Global studies have clearly shown that hospitality venues have the highest levels of indoor air pollution containing different substances that are clearly carcinogenic--such as tobacco-related chemicals--compared with other, smoke-free indoor spaces. Data from the human biomonitoring of non-smoking employees in the food service industry confirm this high exposure level. Non-smokers exposed to secondhand smoke in these environments are at increased risk for adverse health effects. The consistent protection of non-smokers in public places such as restaurants and bars through a smoking ban results in a significant reduction of the pollutants in the air (mostly > 90%) and clearly reduces the internal body burden for users and employees. Furthermore, health complaints by non-smoking employees are reduced and the higher risk for lung tumours of employees in the food service industry compared with the general population can be effectively reduced as well. According to current standards of knowledge, other measures such as spatial separation of smoking areas or the use of mechanical venting systems do not achieve a comparably high and effective pollutant reduction under field conditions. Studies concerning the economic effects of prohibiting smoking in public places conducted in various countries have shown that beverage-focused gastronomic enterprises experience a short-term down trend but that food-focused gastronomic enterprises do not experience any negative or even positive effects. The positive effects of a ban on smoking in public places on the general population are a decline in cigarette consumption and the reduction of secondhand smoke exposure by non-smokers. Smoking bans in hospitality venues are not necessarily linked with a shift of the tobacco consumption to

  10. Banning traditional birth attendants from conducting deliveries: experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheelo, Chilala; Nzala, Selestine; Zulu, Joseph M

    2016-10-21

    In 2010 the government of the republic of Zambia stopped training traditional birth attendants and forbade them from conducting home deliveries as they were viewed as contributing to maternal mortality. This study explored positive and negative maternal health related experiences and effects of the ban in a rural district of Kazungula. This was a phenomenological study and data were collected through focus group discussions as well as in-depth interviews with trained traditional birth attendants (tTBAs) and key informant interviews with six female traditional leaders that were selected one from each of the six zones. All 22 trained tTBAs from three clinic catchment areas were included in the study. Content analysis was used to analyse the data after coding it using NVIVO 8 software. Home deliveries have continued despite the community and tTBAs being aware of the ban. The ban has had both negative and positive effects on the community. Positive effects include early detection and management of pregnancy complications, enhanced HIV/AIDS prevention and better management of post-natal conditions, reduced criticisms of tTBAs from the community in case of birth complications, and quick response at health facilities in case of an emergency. Negatives effects of the ban include increased work load on the part of health workers, high cost for lodging at health facilities and traveling to health facilities, as well as tTBAs feeling neglected, loss of respect and recognition by the community. Countries should design their approach to banning tTBAs differently depending on contextual factors. Further, it is important to consider adopting a step wise approach when implementing the ban as the process of banning tTBAs may trigger several negative effects.

  11. Healthy hospital food initiatives in the United States: time to ban sugar sweetened beverages to reduce childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcicki, Janet M

    2013-06-01

    While childhood obesity is a global problem, the extent and severity of the problem in United States, has resulted in a number of new initiatives, including recent hospital initiatives to limit the sale of sweetened beverages and other high calorie drinks in hospital vending machines and cafeterias. These proposed policy changes are not unique to United States, but are more comprehensive in the number of proposed hospitals that they will impact. Meanwhile, however, it is advised, that these initiatives should focus on banning sugar sweetened beverages, including sodas, 100% fruit juice and sports drinks, from hospital cafeterias and vending machines instead of limiting their presence, so as to ensure the success of these programs in reducing the prevalence of childhood obesity. If US hospitals comprehensively remove sugar sweetened beverages from their cafeterias and vending machines, these programs could subsequently become a model for efforts to address childhood obesity in other areas of the world. Hospitals should be a model for health care reform in their communities and removing sugar sweetened beverages is a necessary first step. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Export dynamics and sales at home

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Berman; Antoine Berthou; Jérôme Héricourt

    2012-01-01

    How do firms’ sales interact across markets? Are foreign and domestic sales complements or substitutes? Using a large French firm-level database that combines balance-sheet and product-destination specific export information over the period 1995-2001, we study the interconnections between exports and domestic sales. We identify exogenous shocks that affect the firms’ demand on foreign markets to instrument yearly variations in exports. We use alternatively as instruments product-destination s...

  13. Success Factors for Personal Sale - Transaction Oriented

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Mihai Vasiliu

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to demonstrate that a complex of factors, which I called “the success factors", which decisively influence the sale process. Currently, companies spend significant amounts of money each year to train sales representatives in the art sale. Banking institutions are designed to successfully meet the financial needs of the customers, to identify new needs, to reshape banking products and services, to create and launch new products and services on market.

  14. The persistence of marketing effects on sales

    OpenAIRE

    Dekimpe, Marnik; Hanssens, DM

    1993-01-01

    Are marketing efforts able to affect long-term trends in sales or other performance measures? Answering this question is essential for the creation of marketing strategies that deliver a sustainable competitive advantage. This paper introduces persistence modeling to derive long-term marketing effectiveness from time-series observations on sales and marketing expenditures. First, we use unit-root tests to determine whether sales are stable or evolving (trending) over time. If they are evolvin...

  15. Financing Asset Sales and Business Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Arnold, Marc; Hackbarth, Dirk; Puhan, Tatjana-Xenia

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the decision of firms to sell assets to fund investments (financing asset sales). For a sample of U.S. manufacturing firms during the 1971-2010 period, we document new stylized facts about financing asset sales that cannot be explained by traditional motives for selling assets, such as financial distress or financing constraints. Using a structural model of financing, investment, and macroeconomic risk, we show that financing asset sales attenuate the debt overhang problem...

  16. Success Factors for Personal Sale - Transaction Oriented

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mihai Vasiliu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to demonstrate that a complex of factors, which I called “the successfactors", which decisively influence the sale process. Currently, companies spend significant amountsof money each year to train sales representatives in the art sale. Banking institutions are designed tosuccessfully meet the financial needs of the customers, to identify new needs, to reshape bankingproducts and services, to create and launch new products and services on market.

  17. Inventories and sales uncertainty\\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Caglayan, M.; Maioli, S.; Mateut, S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the empirical linkages between sales uncertainty and firms´ inventory investment behavior while controlling for firms´ financial strength. Using large panels of manufacturing firms from several European countries we find that higher sales uncertainty leads to larger stocks of inventories. We also identify an indirect effect of sales uncertainty on inventory accumulation through the financial strength of firms. Our results provide evidence that financial strength mitigates the a...

  18. Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    USASAC leads the AMC Security Assistance Enterprise, develops and manages security assistance programs and foreign military sales cases to build...that leads to cost savings and cost avoidance. The Shadow’s FMS sales are currently 1.6% of the total units in operation and accounts for the same...SPONSORED REPORT SERIES Economic Value of Army Foreign Military Sales December 2015 MAJ James P. Allen, USA MAJ Scott A. Bailey, USA CPT

  19. Sales skills for health-care professionals: the emotional side of sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigon, D L

    2001-01-01

    Health-care sales continues to be an area of opportunity for many laboratory professionals. For those who possess the necessary skills and the desire to enthusiastically embrace the unique challenges of a sales career, a new CLMA publication by CLMR contributor Donna L. Nigon, MT(ASCP), titled Sales Skills for Health-Care Professionals, will provide the knowledge of sales structure and techniques needed to succeed. This Sales Skills excerpt, "The Emotional Side of Sales," describes many of the emotional aspects of sales and selling, including how to handle the transition from a technical or medical role to that of sales representative, relationship building, maintaining personal and professional support systems, dealing with rejection, avoiding burnout, time management, and customer concerns. For more information about this book, please see the order form that accompanies this excerpt, or visit www.clma.org.

  20. Analytic solution to variance optimization with no short positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondor, Imre; Papp, Gábor; Caccioli, Fabio

    2017-12-01

    We consider the variance portfolio optimization problem with a ban on short selling. We provide an analytical solution by means of the replica method for the case of a portfolio of independent, but not identically distributed, assets. We study the behavior of the solution as a function of the ratio r between the number N of assets and the length T of the time series of returns used to estimate risk. The no-short-selling constraint acts as an asymmetric \

  1. The Sale of Alcohol in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Lisbeth; Milhøj, Anders

    2005-01-01

    the reader that the total sale of alcohol has been fairly constant we will present graphs and various indicators and tests of the degree of temporal dependence in this series. The overall impression from this analysis is that our first hypothesis seems to be supported -at least not contradicted - by the data...... are: First we want to convince the reader that the total sale of alcohol in Denmark since 1980 has been fairly stable. By total sale we mean the total sale of 100% alcohol so the three categories - beer, wine and spirits are measured in litres of 100% alcohol equivalents. In order to convince...

  2. Estimating light-vehicle sales in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk Demiroğlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is motivated by the surprising rapid growth of new light-vehicle sales in Turkey in 2015. Domestic sales grew 25%, dramatically surpassing the industry estimates of around 8%. Our approach is to inform the sales trend estimate with the information obtained from the light-vehicle stock (the number of cars and light trucks officially registered in the country, and the scrappage data. More specifically, we improve the sales trend estimate by estimating the trend of its stock. Using household data, we show that an important reason for the rapid sales growth is that an increasing share of household budgets is spent on automobile purchases. The elasticity of light-vehicle sales to cyclical changes in aggregate demand is high and robust; its estimates are around 6 with a standard deviation of about 0.5. The price elasticity of light-vehicle sales is estimated to be about 0.8, but the estimates are imprecise and not robust. We estimate the trend level of light-vehicle sales to be roughly 7 percent of the existing stock. A remarkable out-of-sample forecast performance is obtained for horizons up to nearly a decade by a regression equation using only a cyclical gap measure, the time trend and obvious policy dummies. Various specifications suggest that the strong 2015 growth of light-vehicle sales was predictable in late 2014.

  3. Key personality traits of sales managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lounsbury, John W; Foster, Nancy A; Levy, Jacob J; Gibson, Lucy W

    2014-01-01

    Sales managers are crucial for producing positive sales outcomes for companies. However, there has been a relative dearth of scholarly investigations into the personal attributes of sales managers. Such information could prove important in the recruitment, selection, training needs identification, career planning, counseling, and development of sales managers. Drawing on Holland's vocational theory, we sought to identify key personality traits that distinguish sales managers from other occupations and are related to their career satisfaction. The main sample was comprised of a total of 978 sales managers employed in a large number of companies across the United States (along with a comparison sample drawn from 79,512 individuals from other professional occupations). Participants completed an online version of Resource Associates' Personal Style Inventory as well a measure of career satisfaction. Our sample of 978 sales managers had higher levels of Assertiveness, Customer Service Orientation, Extraversion, Image Management, Optimism, and Visionary Style; and lower levels of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Intrinsic Motivation, Openness, and Tough-Mindedness than a sample of 79,512 individuals in a variety of other occupations. Nine of these traits were significantly correlated with sales managers' career satisfaction. Based on the results, a psychological profile of sales managers was presented as were implications for their recruitment, selection, training, development, and mentoring.

  4. Short-Term Impact of a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law Following a Partial Smoke-Free Law on PM2.5 Concentration Levels at Hospitality Venues on the Peripheries of College Campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sol Yu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco-free policies on college campuses are spreading in Korea. However, the impact of the smoking ban legislation at venues on the boundary of a college campus is still limited. This study aimed to assess short-term changes in PM2.5 concentrations before and after the enactment of the smoking ban legislation to evaluate the impact. In this cross-sectional study, PM2.5 measurements (pre-ban: n = 99, post-ban: n = 64 were conducted in randomly selected billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms on the peripheries of college campuses in October 2013, prior to implementation of the smoking ban, and in May 2014, after the ban. The median (interquartile range, IQR of the PM2.5 concentration for all venues was 31 μg/m3 (0–80 μg/m3 in the pre-ban period and 11 μg/m3 (0–36 μg/m3 in the post-ban period implying indoor PM2.5 concentration levels of the peripheries of college campuses likely decreased one year after implementation of the ban. However, the differences were not significant yet. The results support the introduction of more rigorous monitoring of SHS exposure levels toward the ultimate goal of encouraging a complete smoking ban in hospitality venues, including billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms located on the peripheries of college campuses.

  5. Short-Term Impact of a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law Following a Partial Smoke-Free Law on PM2.5 Concentration Levels at Hospitality Venues on the Peripheries of College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sol; Yang, Wonho; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Sungcheon; Ha, Kwonchul; Kim, Sungroul

    2015-01-01

    Tobacco-free policies on college campuses are spreading in Korea. However, the impact of the smoking ban legislation at venues on the boundary of a college campus is still limited. This study aimed to assess short-term changes in PM2.5 concentrations before and after the enactment of the smoking ban legislation to evaluate the impact. In this cross-sectional study, PM2.5 measurements (pre-ban: n = 99, post-ban: n = 64) were conducted in randomly selected billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms on the peripheries of college campuses in October 2013, prior to implementation of the smoking ban, and in May 2014, after the ban. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of the PM2.5 concentration for all venues was 31 μg/m3 (0–80 μg/m3) in the pre-ban period and 11 μg/m3 (0–36 μg/m3) in the post-ban period implying indoor PM2.5 concentration levels of the peripheries of college campuses likely decreased one year after implementation of the ban. However, the differences were not significant yet. The results support the introduction of more rigorous monitoring of SHS exposure levels toward the ultimate goal of encouraging a complete smoking ban in hospitality venues, including billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms located on the peripheries of college campuses. PMID:26540063

  6. Short-Term Impact of a Comprehensive Smoke-Free Law Following a Partial Smoke-Free Law on PM₂.₅ Concentration Levels at Hospitality Venues on the Peripheries of College Campuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sol; Yang, Wonho; Lee, Kiyoung; Kim, Sungcheon; Ha, Kwonchul; Kim, Sungroul

    2015-11-02

    Tobacco-free policies on college campuses are spreading in Korea. However, the impact of the smoking ban legislation at venues on the boundary of a college campus is still limited. This study aimed to assess short-term changes in PM2.5 concentrations before and after the enactment of the smoking ban legislation to evaluate the impact. In this cross-sectional study, PM2.5 measurements (pre-ban: n = 99, post-ban: n = 64) were conducted in randomly selected billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms on the peripheries of college campuses in October 2013, prior to implementation of the smoking ban, and in May 2014, after the ban. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of the PM2.5 concentration for all venues was 31 μg/m³ (0-80 μg/m³) in the pre-ban period and 11 μg/m³ (0-36 μg/m³) in the post-ban period implying indoor PM2.5 concentration levels of the peripheries of college campuses likely decreased one year after implementation of the ban. However, the differences were not significant yet. The results support the introduction of more rigorous monitoring of SHS exposure levels toward the ultimate goal of encouraging a complete smoking ban in hospitality venues, including billiards, pubs, and computer game rooms located on the peripheries of college campuses.

  7. Response to ban on smoking in public places--a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abrar; Mohan, Anjana; Sathiyasekaran, B W C

    2009-07-01

    Smoking has become an important global problem that poses serious health hazards. Today even teenagers have got trapped by this addictive habit. To curb this menace, the Government of Tamilnadu has proposed a ban on smoking in public places by introducing the Bill "Tamilnadu Prohibition of Smoking and Spitting 2002". A study was conducted in the month of February, 2003 to find out the response to this proposed ban among health providers. One hundred and twenty-seven hospital employees were studied using a one page questionnaire. The prevalence of smoking was found to be 12.6% (95% CI 6.9 to 18.3). The response of the study group to the proposed ban was recorded by asking them about their awareness, acceptability and their personal opinion about the ban. It was found that 94% of the smokers and 83% of the non-smokers were aware of the proposed ban and 50% of the smokers and 69% of non-smokers wanted the ban to be implemented. It was also found that 43.8% of the smokers and 52.3% of the non-smokers were confident that the ban on smoking in public places will be effective. They were also of the opinion that awareness had to be increased and the penalties had to be implemented strictly. Further studies on other population groups may have to be taken upto know about the impact of this important Act after it comes into effect.

  8. Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in bars: The limits of local discretion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bero Lisa A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In January 1998, the California state legislature extended a workplace smoking ban to bars. The purpose of this study was to explore the conditions that facilitate or hinder compliance with a smoking ban in bars. Methods We studied the implementation of the smoking ban in bars by interviewing three sets of policy participants: bar employers responsible for complying with the law; local government officials responsible for enforcing the law; and tobacco control activists who facilitated implementation. We transcribed the interviews and did a qualitative analysis of the text. Results The conditions that facilitated bar owners' compliance with a smoking ban in bars included: if the cost to comply was minimal; if the bars with which they were in competition were in compliance with the smoking ban; and if there was authoritative, consistent, coordinated, and uniform enforcement. Conversely, the conditions that hindered compliance included: if the law had minimal sanctions; if competing bars in the area allowed smoking; and if enforcement was delayed or inadequate. Conclusion Many local enforcers wished to forfeit their local discretion and believed the workplace smoking ban in bars would be best implemented by a state agency. The potential implication of this study is that, given the complex nature of local politics, smoking bans in bars are best implemented at a broader provincial or national level.

  9. Implementation of a workplace smoking ban in bars: the limits of local discretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montini, Theresa; Bero, Lisa A

    2008-12-08

    In January 1998, the California state legislature extended a workplace smoking ban to bars. The purpose of this study was to explore the conditions that facilitate or hinder compliance with a smoking ban in bars. We studied the implementation of the smoking ban in bars by interviewing three sets of policy participants: bar employers responsible for complying with the law; local government officials responsible for enforcing the law; and tobacco control activists who facilitated implementation. We transcribed the interviews and did a qualitative analysis of the text. The conditions that facilitated bar owners' compliance with a smoking ban in bars included: if the cost to comply was minimal; if the bars with which they were in competition were in compliance with the smoking ban; and if there was authoritative, consistent, coordinated, and uniform enforcement. Conversely, the conditions that hindered compliance included: if the law had minimal sanctions; if competing bars in the area allowed smoking; and if enforcement was delayed or inadequate. Many local enforcers wished to forfeit their local discretion and believed the workplace smoking ban in bars would be best implemented by a state agency. The potential implication of this study is that, given the complex nature of local politics, smoking bans in bars are best implemented at a broader provincial or national level.

  10. SALES DOCUMENTS IN PURCHASE AND SALE TRANSACTIONS OF STEAM COAL IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Galik

    2015-01-01

    This article describes sales documents in purchase and sale transactions of steam coal in Poland. In relation to introducing the excise tax on steam coal at the beginning in 2012, additional requirements appeared in documents during the sale of goods. Now the seller is obliged to issue various documents depending on the type of the buyer and the destination of goods. The article presents the coal sales documents for households, companies with no tax payment and companies with tax payment. The...

  11. Role of the Sales Manager and it's Intersection with Sales Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kennelly, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    The area of sales management and technology is an expanding and dynamic field of research. Examining the impact and facets of technology in the arena of sales management has been steadily increasing over the past few decades as sales managers and industry seek to benefit from the multiple uses of technology. Large scale quantitative sales research itself in Ireland has been limited over the past 15 years and not since De Burca and Lambkin (1991) performed an analysis of the industry has there...

  12. 36 CFR 223.32 - Timber sale operating plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timber sale operating plan... SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions § 223.32 Timber sale operating plan. Sale contracts with a term of 2 years or more shall provide...

  13. 7 CFR 929.149 - Determination of sales history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of sales history. 929.149 Section 929... Determination of sales history. A sales history for each grower shall be computed by the Committee in the following manner. (a) For each grower with acreage with 7 or more years of sales history, a new sales...

  14. 10 CFR 625.3 - Standard sales provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Standard sales provisions. 625.3 Section 625.3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PRICE COMPETITIVE SALE OF STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE PETROLEUM § 625.3 Standard sales provisions. (a) Contents. The Standards Sales Provisions shall contain...

  15. 13 CFR 120.546 - Loan asset sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Loan asset sales. 120.546 Section....546 Loan asset sales. (a) General. Loan asset sales are governed by § 120.545(b)(4) and by this... consented to SBA's sale of the loan (guaranteed and unguaranteed portions) in an asset sale conducted or...

  16. 24 CFR 1715.25 - Misleading sales practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Misleading sales practices. 1715.25... URBAN DEVELOPMENT (INTERSTATE LAND SALES REGISTRATION PROGRAM) PURCHASERS' REVOCATION RIGHTS, SALES PRACTICES AND STANDARDS Sales Practices and Standards § 1715.25 Misleading sales practices. Generally...

  17. 18 CFR 292.305 - Rates for sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rates for sales. 292... § 292.305 Rates for sales. (a) General rules. (1) Rates for sales: (i) Shall be just and reasonable and... to rates for sales to other customers served by the electric utility. (2) Rates for sales which are...

  18. Compliance with indoor tanning bans for minors among businesses in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choy, Courtney C; Cartmel, Brenda; Clare, Rachel A; Ferrucci, Leah M

    2017-12-01

    Indoor tanning is a known risk factor for skin cancer and is especially dangerous for adolescents. Some states have passed indoor tanning bans for minors, but business compliance with the bans is not well understood. Thus far, studies have assessed ban compliance in one or two states at a time. This study aimed to assess compliance with indoor tanning bans for minors and knowledge of dangers and benefits of tanning among indoor tanning businesses. Female research assistants posing as minors telephoned a convenience sample of 412 businesses in 14 states with tanning bans for minors under age 17 or 18. We evaluated differences in compliance by census region and years since ban was implemented and differences in reported dangers and benefits by compliance. Most (80.1%) businesses told the "minor" caller she could not use the tanning facilities. Businesses in the south and in states with more recent bans were less compliant. Among those (n = 368) that completed the full interview, 52.2% identified burning and 20.1% mentioned skin cancer as potential dangers. However, 21.7% said dangers were no worse than the sun and 10.3% denied any dangers. Stated benefits included vitamin D (27.7%), social/cosmetic (27.2%), and treats skin diseases (26.4%), with only 4.9% reporting no benefits. While most businesses followed the indoor tanning ban when a minor called, one-fifth did not. Many stated inaccurate health claims. Additional enforcement or education might increase compliance with indoor tanning bans and action is needed to prevent businesses from stating false health information.

  19. Acute respiratory and cardiovascular admissions after a public smoking ban in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Humair

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many countries have introduced legislations for public smoking bans to reduce the harmful effects of exposure to tobacco smoke. Smoking bans cause significant reductions in admissions for acute coronary syndromes but their impact on respiratory diseases is unclear. In Geneva, Switzerland, two popular votes led to a stepwise implementation of a state smoking ban in public places, with a temporary suspension. This study evaluated the effect of this smoking ban on hospitalisations for acute respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. METHODS: This before and after intervention study was conducted at the University Hospitals of Geneva, Switzerland, across 4 periods with different smoking legislations. It included 5,345 patients with a first hospitalisation for acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia and acute asthma. The main outcomes were the incidence rate ratios (IRR of admissions for each diagnosis after the final ban compared to the pre-ban period and adjusted for age, gender, season, influenza epidemic and secular trend. RESULTS: Hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease significantly decreased over the 4 periods and were lowest after the final ban (IRR=0.54 [95%CI: 0.42-0.68]. We observed a trend in reduced admissions for acute coronary syndromes (IRR=0.90 [95%CI: 0.80-1.00]. Admissions for ischemic stroke, asthma and pneumonia did not significantly change. CONCLUSIONS: A legislative smoking ban was followed by a strong decrease in hospitalisations for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a trend for reduced admissions for acute coronary syndrome. Smoking bans are likely to be very beneficial for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  20. Large-sized soda ban as an alternative to soda tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Hery Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This Note examines New York City's Sugary Drinks Portion Cap Rule (Soda Ban), which was originally set to become effective March 12, 2013. The New York County Supreme Court's decision in New York Statewide Coalition of Hispanic Chambers of Commerce v. New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene suspended the Soda Ban on March 11, 2013. The First Department of the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court affirmed the suspension on July 30, 2013. However, the complex economic policy and constitutional issues arising from the proposed Soda Ban deserve as much attention as the ultimate result of the legal challenge to the ban. Both courts struck down the Soda Ban on the grounds that it violated the separation of powers doctrine. The lower court further held that the Soda Ban was arbitrary and capricious. This Note does not focus solely on the holdings of the two courts, but takes a broader approach in analyzing the issues involved in the Soda Ban. By comparing and contrasting tobacco products with sugary beverages, this Note explains why the public seems to find the Soda Ban less appealing than tobacco regulations. Specifically, this Note addresses how the failed attempts of numerous states and cities to implement soda taxes demonstrate the complexity of policies geared toward curbing obesity; how fundamental values, such as health, fairness, efficiency, and autonomy factor into obesity policies; and the fact that legislatures and courts are struggling to determine the scope of public health law intervention. The Note explores how the Soda Ban, despite its judicial suspension, could represent a stepping-stone in combating the obesity epidemic.

  1. Impact of 2 Successive Smoking Bans on Hospital Admissions for Cardiovascular Diseases in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, Iñaki; Simón, Lorena; Boldo, Elena; Ortiz, Cristina; Medrano, María José; Fernández-Cuenca, Rafael; Linares, Cristina; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2018-04-16

    To evaluate the impact of 2 smoking bans enacted in 2006 (partial ban) and 2011 (comprehensive ban) on hospitalizations for cardiovascular disease in the Spanish adult population. The study was performed in 14 provinces in Spain. Hospital admission records were collected for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in patients aged ≥ 18 years from 2003 through 2012. We estimated immediate and 1-year effects with segmented-linear models. The coefficients for each province were combined using random-effects multivariate meta-analysis models. Overall, changes in admission rates immediately following the implementation of the partial ban and 1 year later were -1.8% and +1.2% for AMI, +0.1 and +0.4% for IHD, and +1.0% and +2.8% for CVD (P>.05). After the comprehensive ban, immediate changes were -2.3% for AMI, -2.6% for IHD, and -0.8% for CVD (P>.05), only to return to precomprehensive ban values 1 year later. For patients aged ≥ 65 years of age, immediate changes associated with the comprehensive ban were -5.0%, -3.9%, and -2.3% for AMI, IHD, and CVD, respectively (P<.05). Again, the 1-year changes were not statistically significant. In Spain, smoking bans failed to significantly reduce hospitalizations for AMI, IHD, or CVD among patients ≥ 18 years of age. In the population aged ≥ 65 years, hospital admissions due to these diseases showed significant decreases immediately after the implementation of the comprehensive ban, but these reductions disappeared at the 1-year evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Influence of change in sales networks on a firm’s sales strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Sandau, A. (Alexander)

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This research revolves around two major theoretical topics: international network and international sales. The study aims to combine both distinct research areas in order to understand how changes in the sales network influence the sales strategy of the firm. The focus is hereby on born global companies respectively international new ventures. ...

  3. Selling Sales: Factors Influencing Undergraduate Business Students' Decision to Pursue Sales Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Concha; Kumar, Poonam; Tarasi, Crina; Wilson, Holt

    2014-01-01

    With a better understanding of the typical sales student, sales educators can design and deliver curriculum with a more customer-oriented approach. In order to better understand the decision to pursue sales education, more than 500 undergraduate business students at a large Midwestern university participated in a survey that examined the factors…

  4. 40 CFR 73.73 - Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of auctions and sales. 73.73 Section 73.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Independent Power Producers Written Guarantee § 73.73 Delegation of auctions and sales and termination of...

  5. A comprehensive review of state laws governing Internet and other delivery sales of cigarettes in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chriqui, Jamie F; Ribisl, Kurt M; Wallace, Raedell M; Williams, Rebecca S; O'Connor, Jean C; el Arculli, Regina

    2008-02-01

    All U.S. states regulate face-to-face tobacco sales at retail outlets. However, the recent growth of delivery sales of tobacco products by Internet and mail-order vendors has prompted new state regulations focused on preventing youth access and tax evasion. To date, there are no comprehensive and systematic analyses of these laws. The objectives of this study were to: (a) document the historical enactment of the laws; (b) assess the nature and extent of the laws; and (c) examine the relationship between the presence of laws and state tobacco control policy and other contextual variables. Between 1992 and 2006, 34 states (67%) enacted a relevant law, with 27 states' laws (45%) effective between 2003 and 2006. Five states banned direct-to-consumer shipment of cigarettes. The remaining 29 states' laws included a combination of requirements addressing minimum age/ID, payment issues, shipping, vendor licensure and related issues, tax collection/remittance, and penalties/enforcement. States with delivery sales laws have stronger youth tobacco access policies and state tobacco control environments, as well as higher state cigarette excise tax rates and revenue, past-month cigarette use rates, and perceptions of risk of use by adolescents. This paper provides the policy context for understanding Internet and other cigarette delivery sales laws in the U.S. It also provides a systematic framework for ongoing policy surveillance and will contribute to future analyses of the impact of these laws on successfully reducing youth access to cigarettes and preventing tax evasion.

  6. Smoking ban in all restaurants and cafeterias on the CERN site

    CERN Multimedia

    CSR

    2006-01-01

    In 2005 the SCC decided that there would be a total smoking ban in all restaurants and satellite cafeterias on the CERN site, except for the designated area in Restaurant No.1. Unfortunately, it seems that this ban is often over-looked, resulting in an unhealthy and unpleasant environment for the users and staff of these facilities. You are asked to respect this ban and are reminded that smoking is only permitted in the room in Restaurant 1 specially installed for this purpose. The CSR Restaurant Monitoring Committee

  7. Verifying the nuclear-test ban. CTBTO: For a safer and more secure world [videorecording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT) was opened for signature in September 1996. In March 1997, the Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization started work in Vienna, Austria. This film depicts the Commission's activities in establishing the Treaty's verification regime to monitor adherence to the global ban on nuclear explosions. It presents the challenging work at some of the global monitoring facilities, and at the International Data Centre in Vienna, where the data generated by the facilities are received, processed and analysed

  8. The new science of sales force productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledingham, Dianne; Kovac, Mark; Simon, Heidi Locke

    2006-09-01

    For years, sales managers at many companies have relied on top performers and sheer numbers of sales reps to stay competitive. But while they may have squeaked by on this wing-and-a-prayer technique, their sales teams haven't thrived the way they once did. Today's most successful sales leaders are taking a more scientific approach. Savvy managers are reshaping their tactics in response to changing markets. They are reaching out to new customers in innovative ways. And they are increasing productivity by helping the reps they already have make the most of their skills and resources. Leaders who take a scientific approach to sales force effectiveness have learned to use four levers to boost their reps' productivity in a predictable and manageable way. First, they systematically target their firms' offerings, matching the right products with the right customers. Second, they optimize the automation, tools, and procedures at their disposal, providing reps with the support they need to boost sales.Third, they analyze and manage their reps' performance, measuring both internal processes and results to determine where their teams' strengths and weaknesses are. Fourth, they pay close attention to sales force deployment--how well sales, support, marketing, and delivery resources are matched to customers. These four levers can help sales leaders increase productivity across the board, the authors say, though they have the greatest impact on lower-ranked performers. The overall effect of increasing the average sales per employee can be exponential; it means a company won't have to rely on just a few talented individuals to stay competitive. This is especially important because finding and keeping star salespeople is more difficult than ever. What's more, managers who optimize the sales forces they already have can see returns they never thought possible.

  9. A systematic review on the impact of point-of-sale tobacco promotion on smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Lindsay; McGee, Rob; Marsh, Louise; Hoek, Janet

    2015-01-01

    The tobacco retail environment is a crucial marketing medium for the industry. A 2009 review found evidence of a positive association between exposure to point-of-sale (POS) tobacco promotion and increased smoking and smoking susceptibility, though limitations in the evidence base were identified. We reviewed and critically appraised recent evidence documenting the influence of POS tobacco promotion, and POS tobacco display bans, on smoking-related behavior and cognitions. We reviewed original quantitative and qualitative research that examined the relationship between POS tobacco promotion and smoking prevalence, individual-level smoking and quitting and tobacco purchasing behavior, smoking susceptibility, and smoking-related cognitions. Twenty peer-reviewed studies (18 quantitative and 2 qualitative) met the inclusion criteria; each study reported findings consistent with a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking or smoking susceptibility. Several studies met key criteria for causality: 4 indicated a dose-response association, 2 prospective studies were identified, and evidence from intervention studies supported the reversibility of the association. Findings were consistent across different study designs, settings, and measures. The existing evidence supports a positive association between exposure to POS tobacco promotion and smoking. This review provides evidence to support the continuation of POS tobacco display bans in those jurisdictions where such legislation has been introduced and strengthens the evidence encouraging similar policies in jurisdictions without a POS display ban. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Sistem Panel Kinerja Untuk Program Studi Sarjana Berbasis BAN PT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Prasetyo Utomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Study program need to do monitoring and continuously measurements of performance to ensure achievement the goals set of its. The process of performance requires monitoring data and information was taken from all parts of the organization. The purpose of this research is to build a panel system performance (performance dashboard that can be used to help measure the performance of undergraduate degree courses based on BAN PT in order of quality assurance in higher education. The results of performance monitoring will be delivered to the parties concerned, efficiently and effectively. Panel System (Dashboard is a tool to present information at a glance. Dashboard inform using Key Performance Indicators (KPI an effective presentation media. KPIs are used in the construction panel system performance of these courses entirely using the instruments of the National Accreditation of Higher Education. The methodology can be applied either on a case study of the development of dashboards to support the efforts of quality assurance courses at the Stikubank University Semarang. This study emphasizes how the application is to provide easy information to Head of study program, Dean of faculty, Rector and Vice Rector of university to the achievement of the quality of undergraduate study program.   Keywords: Performance Dashboard; Key Performance Indicators; Accreditation.

  11. Convenience store sales forecasting - art before science?

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, SM; Browne, S

    2006-01-01

    The science of store location decision making and sales forecasting has received a huge degree of attention throughout retail management and retail geography research. This literature has focused on the conceptualisation of techniques for determining the optimal location and sales, primarily of the food supermarket.

  12. Optimal Sales Schemes for Network Goods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parakhonyak, Alexei; Vikander, Nick

    consumers simultaneously, serve them all sequentially, or employ any intermediate scheme. We show that the optimal sales scheme is purely sequential, where each consumer observes all previous sales before choosing whether to buy himself. A sequential scheme maximizes the amount of information available...

  13. 36 CFR 228.58 - Competitive sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... cubic yards must be advertised on the same day once a week for two consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in the area where the material is located, and in a trade or industrial newspaper when... other access to the sale area which is available to anyone qualified to bid. (b) Advertising—(1) Sales...

  14. Lange-termijneffecten van sales promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spijkerman, F.M.; Snelders, H.M.J.J.

    1990-01-01

    Sales promotion wordt binnen de marketing gehanteerd als instrument om op de korte termijn direct koopgedrag in de gewenste richting te beïnvloeden. Daarbij wordt vaak voorbijgegaan aan de mogelijke effecten op de langere termijn. F.M. Spijkerman en H.M.J.J. Snelders geven evenwel aan dat sales

  15. Sales Simulation Games: Student and Instructor Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuk, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    This study combines the perspective of students (n = 137) and sales instructors (n = 248). It compares how well selling and sales management simulation games, case discussions, and traditional lectures are perceived to conform to the seven principles for good practice in undergraduate education. The study further compares each method's performance…

  16. Sales-marketing encroachment effects on innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keszney, Tamara; Biemans, Wim

    The role of sales-has changed dramatically during the last two decades, with sales becoming increasingly strategic and encroaching on domains that traditionally belong to marketing. Many studies address the role of marketing in new product development (NPD) success, but research on the increasing

  17. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Wash Sale Constraints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup Jensen, Bjarne; Marekwica, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    We analytically solve the portfolio choice problem in the presence of wash sale constraints in a two-period model with one risky asset. Our results show that wash sale constraints can heavily affect portfolio choice of investors with unrealized losses. The trading behavior of such investors...

  18. Understanding the Sales Process by Selling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussière, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Experiential projects bring students closer to real-world situations. This is valuable in sales education because the complexities of the sales process are difficult to learn from a textbook. A student project was developed that involved the selling of advertising space in a one-time newspaper insert. The project included a substantial minimum…

  19. Advanced Selling: A Comprehensive Course Sales Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrington-Young, Susan; Castleberry, Stephen B.; Coleman, Joshua T.

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive project for the Advanced Selling course that has been tested at three universities is introduced. After selecting an industry and a company, students engage in a complete industry analysis, a company sales analysis, a sales-specific SWOT analysis, complete a ride day with a salesperson in that firm, then present their findings in a…

  20. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ''Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report'' (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ''Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report'' survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994

  1. 7 CFR 1962.45 - Reporting sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting sales. 1962.45 Section 1962.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE... sales. Form FmHA or its successor agency under Public Law 103-354 1955-3, “Advice of Property Acquired...

  2. 75 FR 51934 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission. ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY: The Federal Trade Commission (``Commission'') published a final rule on August 10, 2010, adopting amendments to the Telemarketing Sales Rule that address the...

  3. 76 FR 58716 - Telemarketing Sales Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 310 Telemarketing Sales Rule AGENCY: Federal Trade Commission... Telemarketing Sales Rule in the Federal Register on August 10, 2010 (75 FR 48458), with new provisions to..., Division of Marketing Practices, Bureau of Consumer Protection, Federal Trade Commission, Washington, DC...

  4. 32 CFR 644.507 - Sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Sales. 644.507 Section 644.507 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal Disposal of Standing Timber, Crops, and Embedded Gravel, Sand and Stone § 644.507 Sales. DEs will...

  5. 15 CFR 904.505 - Summary sale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Summary sale. 904.505 Section 904.505 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC... and Forfeiture Procedures § 904.505 Summary sale. (a) In view of the perishable nature of fish, any...

  6. Athletes' perceptions of anti-doping sanctions: the ban from sport versus social, financial and self-imposed sanctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overbye, Marie Birch; Elbe, Anne-Marie; Knudsen, Mette Lykke

    2015-01-01

    Today the main doping deterrence strategy is to ban athletes from sport if caught. This study examines whether Danish elite athletes perceive the ban as a deterrent and how they evaluate social, self-imposed and financial sanctions compared with the ban. Questionnaires were emailed to elite...... athletes from 40 sports (N = 645; response rate, 43%). Results showed that 78% of athletes regarded the ban as a deterrent. Older male athletes, however, did so to a lesser degree. Seventy-seven per cent, regardless of gender, age, sport type and previous experience of doping testing, viewed social...... sanctions as a greater deterrent than the ban. Many also considered self-imposed sanctions (54%) and financial consequences (47%) a greater deterrent. Four per cent considered neither the ban nor the presented alternatives a deterrent. The findings indicate that the ban from sport deters doping...

  7. Single Family Loan Sale Initiative - Neighborhood Stabilization Outcome Pool Offering

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The FHA Office of Housing is conducting a series of mortgage loan sales under the Single Family Loan Sale (SFLS) Initiative. The current sales structure consists of...

  8. 48 CFR 245.7307 - Non-competitive sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Non-competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7307 Non-competitive sales. ...

  9. Predicting sales performance: Strengthening the personality – job performance linkage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.B. Sitser (Thomas)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Many organizations worldwide use personality measures to select applicants for sales jobs or to assess incumbent sales employees. In the present dissertation, consisting of four independent studies, five approaches to strengthen the personality-sales performance

  10. Competitive Reactions and the Cross-Sales Effects of Advertising and Promotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J-B.E.M. Steenkamp (Jan-Benedict); V.R. Nijs; D.M. Hanssens (Dominique); M.G. Dekimpe (Marnik)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractHow do competitors react to each other's price-promotion and advertising actions? How do these reactions influence the net sales impact we observe? We answer these questions by performing a large-scale empirical study of the short-run and long-run reactions to promotion and advertising

  11. Marketing-sales interface and organizational competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Avlonitis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the effectiveness of marketing-sales interfaces in B2B firms. As the body of knowledge on this domain is scarce, there is a greater need to investigate the specific aspects of marketing-sales configurations in such firms. The objective of this paper is to expand existing knowledge regarding marketing-sales interfaces in B2B firms, in order to identify the effectiveness of each configuration. Based on quantitative data collected from marketing or sales managers of 98 B2B firms, the study identifies the most effective marketing-sales interface in terms of smooth relationships and enhanced performance. The implications of the study are discussed.

  12. USE OF THE INSTRUMENTS OF SALES IMPROVEMENT IN THE NEIGHBOURHOOD STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mrvica MAĐARAC

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The retail market in the Republic of Croatia has considerably changed during several last years by entering of large European hypermarkets and by opening a great number of shopping centres. This particularly affected the business of small independent retailers that are due to price uncompetitiveness difficult to cope with competition from hypermarkets. Sales success depends itself on the success of marketing program of a company. Improving sales brings a whole range of benefits to both producers and consumers and consists of a set of different incentives that are mainly short-term, designed to encourage faster and greater purchasing of certain products or services. Through well thought entrepreneurial approach and the use of methods for improving sales, neighbourhood stores could contribute through their business strategy to their competitiveness. Gaining customer loyalty, creating a personal relationship with customers, rewarding of loyal customers, promoting new products, helping the buyer in purchasing are some of the ways of improving neighbourhood store sales. The paper presents research results to which extent neighborhood stores in Osijek-Baranya County use instruments of sales improvement in order to enhance their sales and relationship with customers.

  13. Influence of Point-of-Sale Tobacco Displays and Graphic Health Warning Signs on Adults: Evidence From a Virtual Store Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Annice E.; Nonnemaker, James M.; Loomis, Brett R.; Shafer, Paul R.; Shaikh, Asma; Hill, Edward; Holloway, John W.; Farrelly, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the impact of banning tobacco displays and posting graphic health warning signs at the point of sale (POS). Methods. We designed 3 variations of the tobacco product display (open, enclosed [not visible], enclosed with pro-tobacco ads) and 2 variations of the warning sign (present vs absent) with virtual store software. In December 2011 and January 2012, we randomized a national convenience sample of 1216 adult smokers and recent quitters to 1 of 6 store conditions and gave them a shopping task. We tested for the main effects of the enclosed display, the sign, and their interaction on urge to smoke and tobacco purchase attempts. Results. The enclosed display significantly lowered current smokers’ (B = −7.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] = −13.20, −0.91; P influence purchase behavior. Banning them may reduce cues to smoke and unplanned tobacco purchases. PMID:24625149

  14. The Sales and Competitive Effects of Styling and Advertising Practices in the U.S. Auto Industry.

    OpenAIRE

    Kwoka, John E, Jr

    1993-01-01

    This paper utilizes a detailed data set on most U.S. car models over a twenty-two-year period to determine the impact of advertising and product styling. It finds that, while advertising and style change each increases a model's sales, advertising is short-lived but styling has a much longer impact. Rivals' styling reduces own-model sales to the point that the overall market effect is self-canceling. Rivals' advertising, by contrast, does not greatly affect own sales, so that marketwide adver...

  15. Landmines on the Table: A Negotiations Analysis of the Global Campaign to Ban Landmines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moody, Eric M

    2008-01-01

    ...?" I argue that the competitive, distributive negotiation strategies and tactics used by the United States and pro-ban advocates during the campaign ensured that a negotiated agreement was not reached...

  16. SISTEM INFORMASI KEUANGAN SESUAI STANDAR BAN-PT TERINTEGRASI SISFO KAMPUS 4.1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahiduzzaman Syahiduzzaman

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak-Standar keuangan adalah salah satu standar yang dinilai dalam instrumen BAN-PT, yaitu pada standar 6.1. Pengelolaan keuangan sebuah perguruan tinggi harus memenuhi standar tersebut. Untuk dapat mengetahui seberapa besar tingkat pemenuhan standar diperlukan penilaian. Sistem informasi keuangan yang dikembangkan dalam penelitian ini digunakan untuk memasukkan data transaksi keuangan, mencatatnya dalam sistem akuntansi, dan melaporkannya. Laporan-laporan yang disajikan berbentuk tabel dan grafik yang menyatakan kinerja keuangan dan diukur sesuai dengan standar 6.1. BAN-PT. Sistem informasi keuangan ini, juga terintegrasi dengan SISFOKAMPUS 4.1 yang merupakan sistem informasi akademik open source yang berbasis web. Hasil dari penelitian ini adalah sistem informasi keuangan dengan fungsi khusus yaitu menilai kinerja keuangan yang sesuai dengan standar 6.1. BAN-PT yang dapat digunakan untuk melakukan audit internal.   Kata kunci: Standar 6.1. BAN-PT, Sistem Informasi Keuangan, SISFOKAMPUS 4.1.

  17. The influence of a smoking ban on the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schoenmaker, Sofie; Van Cauwenberge, Philippe; Vander Bauwhede, Heidi

    2013-05-01

    To examine whether the nationwide smoking ban, imposed in 2007, had an impact on the profitability of Belgian restaurants. Objective financial reporting data on 1613 restaurants were analysed with return on assets as the outcome measure. The data were collected from the Belfirst database and cover the period 2004-2009. To assess the impact of the smoking ban, a differences-in-differences estimation method was used, with bars serving as the control group. The regression model was estimated, while controlling for firm-specific characteristics and unobserved firm-level heterogeneity. The variable of interest is the interaction between the smoking ban dummy and the dummy for the treatment group. The coefficient of this variable is insignificant. The adoption of the nationwide smoking ban did not affect the profitability of Belgian restaurants.

  18. Impact of a national smoking ban on hospital admission for acute coronary syndromes: a longitudinal study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-04-01

    A ban on smoking in the workplace was introduced in Ireland on March 29, 2004. As exposure to secondhand smoke has been implicated in the development of coronary disease, this might impact the incidence of acute coronary syndromes (ACS).

  19. Retailer opinions about and compliance with family smoking prevention and tobacco control act point of sale provisions: a survey of tobacco retailers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Shyanika W; Emery, Sherry L; Ennett, Susan; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Scott, John C; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-09-11

    The objectives of this study were to document retailer opinions about tobacco control policy at the point of sale (POS) and link these opinions with store level compliance with sales and marketing provisions of the Tobacco Control Act. This study conducted interviews of 252 tobacco retailers in three counties in North Carolina and linked their opinions with in-person observational audit data of their stores' compliance with POS policies. We conducted analyses examining retailer factors associated with noncompliance using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) controlling for individual, store, neighborhood, and county factors. Over 90 % of retailers support minors' access provisions and a large minority (over 40 %) support graphic warnings and promotion bans. Low levels of support were found for a potential ban on menthol cigarettes (17 %). Store noncompliance with tobacco control policies was associated with both more reported retailer barriers to compliance and less support for POS policies. Awareness of and source of information about tobacco control regulations were not associated with compliance when accounting for neighborhood and county characteristics. Retailers expressed some support for a wide range of POS policies. Advocates and government agencies tasked with enforcement can work with retailers as stakeholders to enhance support, mitigate barriers, and promote compliance with tobacco control efforts at the point of sale.

  20. Nondestructive assay of sale materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodenburg, W.W.; Fleissner, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper covers three primary areas: (1) reasons for performing nondestructive assay on SALE materials; (2) techniques used; and (3) discussion of investigators' revised results. The study shows that nondestructive calorimetric assay of plutonium offers a viable alternative to traditional wet chemical techniques. For these samples, the precision ranged from 0.4 to 0.6% with biases less than 0.2%. Thus, for those materials where sampling errors are the predominant source of uncertainty, this technique can provide improved accuracy and precision while saving time and money as well as reducing the amount of liquid wastes to be handled. In addition, high resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy measurements of solids can provide isotopic analysis data in a cost effective and timely manner. The timeliness of the method can be especially useful to the plant operator for production control and quality control measurements

  1. Impact of Rainfall, Sales Method, and Time on Land Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, Steve; Schurle, Bryan

    2013-01-01

    Land prices in Western Kansas are analyzed using regression to estimate the influence of rainfall, sales method, and time of sale. The estimates from regression indicate that land prices decreased about $27 for each range that was farther west which can be converted to about $75 per inch of average rainfall. In addition, the influence of method of sale (private sale or auction) is estimated along with the impact of time of sale. Auction sales prices are approximately $100 higher per acre than...

  2. Planning of sales on the example of the companyindustry works related to the construction of buildings and civil engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin , Wojnowski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the report is the proposal next year's sales for the analyzed company. In the report, in addition to the proposal is a brief description of the company and the chosen method of sales planning with the argument of choice. Another part of the report are presented with a description of the calculations and the whole is finished with a short summary of the work.

  3. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kaiyong; Chen, Hailian; Liao, Jing; Nong, Guangmin; Yang, Li; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Zhang, Zhiyong; Abdullah, Abu S

    2016-01-26

    (1) BACKGROUND: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2) METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3) RESULTS: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050). Of the respondents (n = 969), 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173), attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471), believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755), perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child's health (OR = 1.547), believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816), and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950). Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523). (4) CONCLUSIONS: A home smoking ban is

  4. Factors Associated with Complete Home Smoking Ban among Chinese Parents of Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: The home environment is a major source of Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS exposure among children especially in early childhood. ETS exposure is an important health risk among children and can cause severe and chronic diseases, such as asthma, bronchitis, and premature death. However, ETS exposure at home has often been neglected in the Chinese families. Identification of factors that facilitate or otherwise hamper the adoption of home smoking ban will help in the design and implementation of evidence-based intervention programs. This study identifies factors correlated with home smoking bans in Chinese families with children. (2 Methods: A cross-sectional survey of parents living in Nanning city, Guangxi Province, China with at least one smoker and a child in the household was conducted between September, 2013 and January, 2014. A Chi-square test was used to compare categorical variables differences between the parents who had home smoking bans and those with no home smoking ban. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors correlated with home smoking bans. (3 Results: 969 completed questionnaires were collected with a response rate of 92.29% (969/1050. Of the respondents (n = 969, 14.34% had complete home smoking bans. Factors that were associated with home smoking bans were: having no other smokers in the family (OR = 2.173, attaining education up to high school (OR = 2.471, believing that paternal smoking would increase the risk of lower respiratory tract illnesses (OR = 2.755, perceiving the fact that smoking cigarettes in the presence of the child will hurt the child’s health (OR = 1.547, believing that adopting a no smoking policy at home is very important (OR = 2.816, and being confident to prevent others to smoke at home (OR = 1.950. Additionally, parents who perceived difficulty in adopting a no smoking policy at home would not have a home smoking ban (OR = 0.523. (4 Conclusions: A home smoking

  5. Antimicrobial growth promoter ban and resistance to macrolides and vancomycin in enterococci from pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boerlin, P.; Wissing, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2001-01-01

    Ninety-six enterococcus isolates from fecal samples of pigs receiving tylosin as an antimicrobial growth promoter and 59 isolates obtained in the same farms 5 to 6 months after the ban of antimicrobial growth promoters in Switzerland were tested for susceptibility to nine antimicrobial agents....... A clear decrease in resistance to macrolides, lincosamides, and tetracycline was visible after the ban. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium belonged to the same clonal lineage as vancomycin-resistant isolates previously isolated from Danish pigs....

  6. Outdoor smoking behaviour and support for outdoor smoking restrictions before and after France's national smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ryan David; Behm, Ilan; Craig, Lorraine; Thompson, Mary E; Fong, Geoffrey T; Guignard, Romain; Beck, Francois

    2012-02-01

    On January 1, 2008, the French government implemented a national ban on indoor smoking in hospitality venues. Survey results indicate the indoor ban has been successful at dramatically reducing indoor smoking; however, there are reports of an increased number of outdoor hospitality spaces (patios) where smoking can take place. This study sought to understand if the indoor ban simply moved smoking to the outdoors, and to assess levels of support for smoking restrictions in outdoor hospitality settings after the smoke-free law. Telephone interviews were conducted among 1067 adult smokers before and after the 2008 indoor ban as part of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) France Survey. Among other topics, this survey measures how the smoking ban has influenced smoking behaviour relevant to outdoor sections of hospitality venues. In addition, 414 non-smoking adults and 164 respondents who had quit smoking between waves were also asked about support for outdoor smoking restrictions. Reported smoking outdoors at cafés/pubs/bars increased from 33.6% of smokers at Wave 1 to 75.9% at Wave 2. At restaurants, smoking outdoors increased from 28.9% to 59.0%. There was also an increase in reported non-smoking for both visits to cafés/pubs/bars, and restaurants from 13.4% to 24.7%, and 30.4% to 40.8% respectively. The majority of smokers (74.5%), non-smokers (89.4%) and quitters (74.0%) support a partial or complete ban on smoking in outdoor areas of restaurants. The indoor smoking ban moved smoking to outdoor spaces; however, the ban is also associated with increased non-smoking behaviour. The majority of respondents support outdoor smoking restrictions in patio environments.

  7. Improved health of hospitality workers after a Swiss cantonal smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, André-Dante; Bergier, Samuel; Morisod, Xavier; Locatelli, Isabella; Zellweger, Jean-Pierre; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Cornuz, Jacques

    2011-12-22

    Hospitality workers are a population particularly at risk from the noxious effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). The Canton of Vaud, Switzerland banned smoking in public places in September 2009. This prospective study addresses the impact of the ban on the health of hospitality workers. ETS exposure was evaluated using a passive sampling device that measures airborne nicotine; lung function was assessed by spirometry; health-related quality of life, ETS exposure symptoms and satisfaction were measured by questionnaire. 105 participants (smokers and non-smokers) were recruited initially and 66 were followed up after one year. ETS exposure was significantly lower after the ban. Hospitality workers had lower pre-ban forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) values than expected. FEV1 remained stable after the ban, with a near-significant increase in the subgroup of asthmatics only. FVC increased at one year follow-up from 90.42% to 93.05% (p = 0.02) in the entire cohort; women, non-smokers and older participants gained the greatest benefit. The health survey showed an increase in physical wellbeing after the ban, the greatest benefit being observed in non-smokers. ETS exposure symptoms were less frequent after the ban, especially red and irritated eyes and sneezing. The new law was judged useful and satisfactory by the vast majority of employees, including smokers. The recent cantonal ban on smoking in public places brought about an improvement in lung function, physical well-being and ETS symptoms of hospitality workers, including smokers.

  8. Compliance of agrochemical marketers with banned cocoa pesticides in southwest Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mokwunye Idongesit U.; Babalola Folaranmi D.; Asogwa Uche E.; Idris Ndagi; Aderolu Ismail A.; Mokwunye Francis C.; Idrisu Mohammed

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the compliance of marketers of agrochemicals with the approved and banned cocoa pesticides in selected cocoa producing states of southwest Nigeria. Primary data was collected through the use of structured questionnaire administered to randomly selected agrochemical marketers. All the marketers (100%) were aware of the recently banned cocoa pesticides, however, majority still have the pesticides in stock. About 70.6% of the marketers ...

  9. Prevalence of Cigarette Advertising and Other Promotional Strategies at the Point of Sale in St Louis, Missouri: Analysis by Store Type and Distance From a School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colditz, Graham; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Cyr, Julianne; Snider, Doneisha; Schootman, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Point-of-sale advertising provides an opportunity for the tobacco industry to communicate with current and potential smokers. The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act allows states to implement policies requiring that tobacco products be placed out of sight, and the Food and Drug Administration is considering banning point-of-sale advertising within 1,000 feet of schools. Our objective was to compare cigarette point-of-sale advertising near schools with grades prekindergarten through 12 and by store type. Methods All registered cigarette retailers (n = 1,229) and schools (n = 581) in the city of St Louis and St Louis County were geocoded and mapped by using ArcGIS. Retailers were divided into 2 groups, those within 1,000 feet and those within 1,001 to 2,000 feet of a school; 200 retailers from each group were randomly selected. We assessed tobacco interior and exterior advertising, brands advertised, discounts, gifts with purchase, “no sales to minors” signage, and cigarette functional items (eg, advertising on shopping baskets). Analyses were done by distance from a school and store type. Results We analyzed 340 retailers. Most retailers within 1,000 feet (91.2%) and from 1,001 to 2,000 feet (94.2%) of a school displayed cigarette advertising (P = .20). Convenience stores had the highest number of interior ads. In multivariable models, distance from school explained 0.2% of the variance in total advertising. Conclusion Cigarette point-of-sale advertising is highly prevalent in St Louis within 1,000 feet of schools. A ban based on distance from a school might decrease advertising exposure, but its effect on smoking prevalence is yet to be determined because advertising farther from schools would still prevail. PMID:24742394

  10. Prevalence of cigarette advertising and other promotional strategies at the point of sale in St Louis, Missouri: analysis by store type and distance from a school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoya, Joaquin; Colditz, Graham; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Cyr, Julianne; Snider, Doneisha; Schootman, Mario

    2014-04-17

    Point-of-sale advertising provides an opportunity for the tobacco industry to communicate with current and potential smokers. The US Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act allows states to implement policies requiring that tobacco products be placed out of sight, and the Food and Drug Administration is considering banning point-of-sale advertising within 1,000 feet of schools. Our objective was to compare cigarette point-of-sale advertising near schools with grades prekindergarten through 12 and by store type. All registered cigarette retailers (n = 1,229) and schools (n = 581) in the city of St Louis and St Louis County were geocoded and mapped by using ArcGIS. Retailers were divided into 2 groups, those within 1,000 feet and those within 1,001 to 2,000 feet of a school; 200 retailers from each group were randomly selected. We assessed tobacco interior and exterior advertising, brands advertised, discounts, gifts with purchase, "no sales to minors" signage, and cigarette functional items (eg, advertising on shopping baskets). Analyses were done by distance from a school and store type. We analyzed 340 retailers. Most retailers within 1,000 feet (91.2%) and from 1,001 to 2,000 feet (94.2%) of a school displayed cigarette advertising (P = .20). Convenience stores had the highest number of interior ads. In multivariable models, distance from school explained 0.2% of the variance in total advertising. Cigarette point-of-sale advertising is highly prevalent in St Louis within 1,000 feet of schools. A ban based on distance from a school might decrease advertising exposure, but its effect on smoking prevalence is yet to be determined because advertising farther from schools would still prevail.

  11. The challenge of a ban on animal testing for the development of a regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) ('legal highs') in New Zealand: Issues and options for resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychert, Marta; Wilkins, Chris

    2015-12-01

    In mid-July 2013, New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA), which allowed 'low risk' psychoactive products ('legal highs') to be approved for legal sale. In early May 2014, following public protest, the Psychoactive Substances Amendment Act (PSAA) was passed banning animal testing of psychoactive products, potentially making the new regime unworkable. To investigate strategies to overcome the impasse created by the animal testing ban. Solutions to the impasse were investigated using 'scenario' and 'stakeholder' analysis. Legislation, parliamentary debates, and regulatory statements related to the PSA and animal testing were reviewed. Strategies to resolve the impasse were discussed with stakeholders including the Psychoactive Substances Regulatory Authority (PSRA) officials, health officials, a legal high industry lawyer, and a leading legal highs manufacturer. This process generated six possible scenarios and five decision-making criteria of key importance to major stakeholders. Scenarios were then evaluated based on feedback from the industry and regulators. The six scenarios were: (1) pragmatic modification of the animal testing ban; (2) waiting until new non-animal test models are internationally accepted; (3) use of non-validated replacement test methods; (4) judicial challenge of the animal testing ban; (5) 'creative compliance' by only presenting human clinical trial results; and (6) philosophical re-conceptualisation of the 'benefits' from psychoactive products. Options 1 and 5 appear to be the most attractive overall solutions. However, both rely on a new political consensus and astute framing of the issues by political communicators. Political decision makers may be happy to accept Scenario 2 which would impose significant delays. A 'failed' pharmaceutical product with psychoactive effects may have the test data required to be approved under Scenarios 1 and 5. Ultimately, the pleasurable benefits from psychoactive products may need to be

  12. Adoption and compliance in second-hand smoking bans: a global econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Richard; Neumayer, Eric

    2014-10-01

    We examine the determinants governing both countries' enactment of smoking bans in public places and their ability to successfully put these bans into effect. Using a large sample (N = 99-184) of low-, middle- and high-income countries, econometric techniques are used to estimate the influence of several variables on cross-national variations in the adoption and compliance of second-hand smoke laws (2010). We find similarities in the determinants of adoption and compliance. Yet more notable are the differences, with several political economy factors which have a statistically significant influence on countries' level of compliance with existing smoke-free laws in public places found not to consistently influence their propensity to adopt bans in the first place. Possible explanations for this discrepancy are that governments are motivated to adopt smoking bans for reasons other than protecting the health of their citizens and that the real costs of smoking bans are predominantly borne at the compliance stage. More effort needs to be made to ensure that governments realize their existing policy commitments through effective enforcement of bans.

  13. Does a ban on informal health providers save lives? Evidence from Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlonton, Susan; Okeke, Edward N.

    2015-01-01

    Informal health providers ranging from drug vendors to traditional healers account for a large fraction of health care provision in developing countries. They are, however, largely unlicensed and unregulated leading to concern that they provide ineffective and, in some cases, even harmful care. A new and controversial policy tool that has been proposed to alter household health seeking behavior is an outright ban on these informal providers. The theoretical effects of such a ban are ambiguous. In this paper, we study the effect of a ban on informal (traditional) birth attendants imposed by the Malawi government in 2007. To measure the effect of the ban, we use a difference-in-difference strategy exploiting variation across time and space in the intensity of exposure to the ban. Our most conservative estimates suggest that the ban decreased use of traditional attendants by about 15 percentage points. Approximately three quarters of this decline can be attributed to an increase in use of the formal sector and the remainder is accounted for by an increase in relative/friend-attended births. Despite the rather large shift from the informal to the formal sector, we do not find any evidence of a statistically significant reduction in newborn mortality on average. The results are robust to a triple difference specification using young children as a control group. We examine several explanations for this result and find evidence consistent with quality of formal care acting as a constraint on improvements in newborn health. PMID:26681821

  14. Banning is not enough: The complexities of oceanic shark management by tuna regional fisheries management organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Travassos Tolotti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently, declining populations of several pelagic shark species have led to global conservation concerns surrounding this group. As a result, a series of species-specific banning measures have been implemented by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs in charge of tuna fisheries, which include retention bans, finning bans and trading bans. There are both positive and negative aspects to most management measures, but generally, the positive aspects outweigh the negatives, ensuring the measure is beneficial to the resource and its users in the long term. Banning measures are a good first step towards the conservation of pelagic shark species, especially since they improve conservation awareness among fishers, managers and the public. Measures that impose total bans, however, can lead to negative impacts that may jeopardize the populations they were intended to protect. The majority of pelagic shark catches are incidental and most sharks die before they reach the vessel or after they are released. The legislation set out by RFMOs only prevents retention but not the actual capture or the mortality that may occur as a result. Managers should be fully aware that the development and implementation of mitigation measures are critical for a more effective conservation strategy.

  15. A total ban on alcohol advertising: presenting the public health case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles; Burnhams, Nadine Harker; London, Leslie

    2012-05-28

    Evidence from burden of disease and economic costing studies amply indicate that the public health burden from hazardous and harmful use of alcohol in South Africa warrants drastic action. Evidence that banning alcohol advertising is likely to be an effective intervention is reflected in WHO strategy documents on non-communicable diseases and harmful use of alcohol. Studies on young people furthermore support arguments refuting the claim that advertising only influences brand choice. Given the weakness of relying on industry self-regulation, the government is considering legislation to ban alcohol advertising, resulting in heated debate. Tobacco control and studies investigating the effect of alcohol advertising bans on consumption and alcohol-related deaths point to the effectiveness of such action - ideally supplemented by other policy interventions. Arguments against an advertising ban include possible communication sector job losses, but these are likely to have been exaggerated. Banning alcohol advertising will necessitate greater scrutiny of digital media, satellite television and merchandising to reduce the likelihood of subverting the ban.

  16. Test ban treaty verification with regional data: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomeroy, P.W.; Best, W.J.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1982-01-01

    This paper summarizes the use of regional (Δ ≤ 30 0 ) seismic data in a test ban context for detecting, locating, identifying, and determining the yield of underground nuclear explosions. In many areas of the world (Eastern North America, Africa, Eastern USSR), Lg is the largest amplitude wave recorded on standard seismograph systems and thus is the most appropriate phase for monitoring small magnitude events. Excellent location capability for near-regional events has been demonstrated at the Norwegian small aperture array (NORESS) using Lg and P waves. Lg and other regional phases may contain information on source depth, but such information has not been exploited to date. Fifteen classes of regional discriminants are listed. Most have been tested only on limited data, usually from one geographic region and only one or two recording stations. No systematic analyses have been done to determine the best individual discriminant or combination of them. Preliminary evaluation of the use of Lg for yield determination suggests that regional waves hold promise in this application. Theoretical studies have contributed significantly to the understanding of propagation characteristics of regional waves but further studies are required emphasizing modeling for realistic anisotropic sources. The major conclusion of this study is that a systematic and comparative evaluation of all the proposed regional discriminants is now required, utilizing a common data base derived from all present-day test sites. This evaluation would suggest the optimal discrimination procedure using regional waves, and would also define areas of needed research. Without such an integrated evaluation, it is still possible to speculate, using existing results, on the most promising regional discriminants

  17. Electric sales and revenue 1992, April 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-20

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1992. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the applicable revenue from kilowatthours sold; revenue from income; unemployment and other State and local taxes; energy, demand, and consumer service charges; environmental surcharges; franchise fees; fuel adjustments; and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels.

  18. Electric sales and revenue 1992, April 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Electric Sales and Revenue is prepared by the Survey Management Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration (EIA); US Department of Energy. This publication provides information about sales of electricity, its associated revenue, and the average revenue per kilowatthour sold to residential, commercial, industrial, and other consumers throughout the United States. The sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in the Electric Sales and Revenue are based on annual data reported by electric utilities for the calendar year ending December 31, 1992. The electric revenue reported by each electric utility includes the applicable revenue from kilowatthours sold; revenue from income; unemployment and other State and local taxes; energy, demand, and consumer service charges; environmental surcharges; franchise fees; fuel adjustments; and other miscellaneous charges. The revenue does not include taxes, such as sales and excise taxes, that are assessed on the consumer and collected through the utility. Average revenue per kilowatthour is defined as the cost per unit of electricity sold and is calculated by dividing retail sales into the associated electric revenue. The sales of electricity, associated revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour provided in this report are presented at the national, Census division, State, and electric utility levels

  19. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  20. Business Potential of Halloween: Sales and Trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadim Strielkowski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses the business potential of Halloween by estimating the profits stemming from the sales of Halloween-related goods and activities. It also estimates two empirical models of Halloween spending with macroeconomic variables, using the sales data for the most traditional Halloween paraphernalia, the Halloween pumpkins, as well as for the three groups of products (candies, costumes and decorations, and finds that the share of more “consumer-oriented” products increases in relation to the share of “traditional” Halloween products. It comes to the conclusion that, as to its business potential, overall sales and economic significance, Halloween can now be only compared to Christmas.

  1. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This publication contains the 1995 survey results of the ''Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report'' (Form EIA-821). This is the seventh year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Except for the kerosene and on-highway diesel information, data presented in Tables 1 through 12 (Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) present results of the EIA-821 survey. Tables 13 through 24 (Adjusted Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) include volumes that are based on the EIA-821 survey but have been adjusted to equal the product supplied volumes published in the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). 24 tabs

  2. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This publication contains the 1995 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the seventh year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Except for the kerosene and on-highway diesel information, data presented in Tables 1 through 12 (Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) present results of the EIA-821 survey. Tables 13 through 24 (Adjusted Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) include volumes that are based on the EIA-821 survey but have been adjusted to equal the product supplied volumes published in the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA). 24 tabs.

  3. Sustainability of outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools: a mixed-method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, A D; Mathijssen, J J P; Jansen, M W J; van Oers, J A M

    2018-02-01

    Although increasing numbers of countries are implementing outdoor school ground smoking bans at secondary schools, less attention is paid to the post-implementation period even though sustainability of a policy is essential for long-term effectiveness. Therefore, this study assesses the level of sustainability and examines perceived barriers/facilitators related to the sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban at secondary schools. A mixed-method design was used with a sequential explanatory approach. In phase I, 438 online surveys were conducted and in phase II, 15 semi-structured interviews were obtained from directors of relevant schools. ANOVA (phase I) and a thematic approach (phase II) were used to analyze data. Level of sustainability of an outdoor school ground smoking ban was high at the 48% Dutch schools with an outdoor smoking ban. Furthermore, school size was significantly associated with sustainability. The perceived barriers/facilitators fell into three categories: (i) smoking ban implementation factors (side-effects, enforcement, communication, guidelines and collaboration), (ii) school factors (physical environment, school culture, education type and school policy) and (iii) community environment factors (legislation and social environment). Internationally, the spread of outdoor school ground smoking bans could be further promoted. Once implemented, the ban has become 'normal' practice and investments tend to endure. Moreover, involvement of all staff is important for sustainability as they function as role models, have an interrelationship with students, and share responsibility for enforcement. These findings are promising for the sustainability of future tobacco control initiatives to further protect against the morbidity/mortality associated with smoking. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  4. Study of secondhand smoke levels pre and post implementation of the comprehensive smoking ban in Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshpande Aditi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This research was undertaken with the aim of assessing the indoor air quality in popular hospitality venues, as also to evaluate the effectiveness of the nationwide comprehensive public smoking ban. The analysis was split into two halves - baseline study taken up prior to implementation of the said ban on 2 nd October 2008, and the follow-up study after it came into effect. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five venues including five restaurants, fourteen resto-bars, two hookah (smoking water-pipe cafes and four pubs were selected using a mix of random, convenience and purposeful sampling. Particulate matter (PM 2.5 measurements at these venues were made using TSI SidePak AM510 Personal Aerosol Monitor. Results: The average PM 2.5 level in venues where smoking was permitted prior to implementation of ban was found to be 669.95 ΅g/m 3 in the baseline study. Post ban, the average PM 2.5 level in same test venues reduced to 240.8 ΅g/m 3 . The hookah cafes were an exception as the average PM 2.5 levels exceeded the permissible limits before as well as post ban. Conclusion: The baseline study showed that the hospitality venues had hazardous levels of PM 2.5 particles arising from second-hand smoke prior to smoking ban. These decreased by a maximum of 64% after the law took effect. A substantial improvement in air quality at these venues post implementation of the smoking ban indicated the effectiveness of the law.

  5. Effectiveness of policies maintaining or restricting days of alcohol sales on excessive alcohol consumption and related harms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A; Kuzara, Jennifer L; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2010-12-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effectiveness of Policies Maintaining or Restricting Days of Alcohol Sales on Excessive Alcohol Consumption and Related Harms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Jennifer Cook; Hahn, Robert A.; Kuzara, Jennifer L.; Elder, Randy; Brewer, Robert; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Fielding, Jonathan; Naimi, Timothy S.; Toomey, Traci; Lawrence, Briana

    2013-01-01

    Local, state, and national laws and policies that limit the days of the week on which alcoholic beverages may be sold may be a means of reducing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. The methods of the Guide to Community Preventive Services were used to synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms of laws and policies maintaining or reducing the days when alcoholic beverages may be sold. Outcomes assessed in 14 studies that met qualifying criteria were excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms, including motor vehicle injuries and deaths, violence-related and other injuries, and health conditions. Qualifying studies assessed the effects of changes in days of sale in both on-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages are consumed where purchased) and off-premises settings (at which alcoholic beverages may not be consumed where purchased). Eleven studies assessed the effects of adding days of sale, and three studies assessed the effects of imposing a ban on sales on a given weekend day. The evidence from these studies indicated that increasing days of sale leads to increases in excessive alcohol consumption and alcohol-related harms and that reducing the number of days that alcoholic beverages are sold generally decreases alcohol-related harms. Based on these findings, when the expansion of days of sale is being considered, laws and policies maintaining the number of days of the week that alcoholic beverages are sold at on- and off-premises outlets in local, state, and national jurisdictions are effective public health strategies for preventing excessive alcohol consumption and related harms. PMID:21084079

  7. Sales-as-Practice: An Introduction and Methodological Outline to Study Sales Work

    OpenAIRE

    Geiger, Susi; Kelly, Séamas

    2014-01-01

    There are strong indications that sales practices are currently being redefined from the ground up and that many of the inherited conceptual models of selling will not hold into a future that is defined by new selling techniques and technologies. This paper introduces a research perspective that can provide an important source of insight into how sales work and salespeople are currently being reconstituted: the sales-as-practice approach. In common with 'practice turns' evident in other busin...

  8. Sales Tax Compliance and Audit Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Matthew N.

    1995-01-01

    Uses sample selection estimation techniques to identify systematic audit selection rules and determinants of sales tax underreporting. Though based on data from only one state (Tennessee), outcomes are useful in developing and evaluating audit selection results.

  9. Lobster Report for Transshipment and Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a federally mandated log which is required to be mailed in to NMFS after a fishing trip. This data set includes transshipment and sales information for a...

  10. What have we learned from asset sales?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, J.

    1999-01-01

    The author has created a database of 33 sales of generating assets and has the characteristics of those sales to estimate the value of generating assets. The authors conclusion so far is negative: the sales observed to date have varied so widely in characteristics and price that observed sales data cannot be usefully employed to forecast with any reliability the price at which some other asset is likely to sell in a subsequent auction. The author concludes this does not mean that the auction method is in any way inferior to an administrative method for determining stranded costs. It simply means that there are at present no reliable inferences which can be drawn from this process to inform the administrative process. While this situation might change as more and more assets are auctioned, there are reasons to think that this may not be the case

  11. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This publication contains the 1992 survey results of the ''Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report'' (Form EIA-821). This is the fourth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA) for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1992 edition marks the ninth annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ''Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report'' survey. Except for the kerosene and on-highway diesel information, data presented in Tables 1 through 12 (Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) present results of the EIA-821 survey. Tables 13 through 24 (Adjusted Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene) include volumes that are based on the EIA-821 survey but have been adjusted to equal the products supplied volumes published in the Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA)

  12. How to Change Your Sales Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournies, Ferdinand F.

    1995-01-01

    Advises how to improve sales success by defining selling as the management of buying. Suggests changing one's approach from selling to helping people buy, by understanding customers' point of view. (SK)

  13. 25 CFR 152.35 - Deferred payment sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... desire, a sale may be made or approved on the deferred payment plan. The terms of the sale will be... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deferred payment sales. 152.35 Section 152.35 Indians..., CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Mortgages and Deeds of...

  14. 17 CFR 250.44 - Sales of securities and assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... not require prior Commission approval. (c) Sales pursuant to order or plan under section 11. No... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales of securities and assets... Various Financial Transactions 2 § 250.44 Sales of securities and assets. (a) Sales of utility securities...

  15. 27 CFR 53.95 - Constructive sale price; basic rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... to influence the sale price, or (2) The sale is made pursuant to special arrangements between a... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Constructive sale price... AMMUNITION Special Provisions Applicable to Manufacturers Taxes § 53.95 Constructive sale price; basic rules...

  16. SALES PROMOTION, A SUGGESTED ADULT DISTRIBUTIVE EDUCATION COURSE OUTLINE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RUBIN, ALAN J.; AND OTHERS

    THIS SUGGESTED OUTLINE FOR A BASIC COURSE IN SALES PROMOTION IS DESIGNED FOR NOT LESS THAN FIVE 2-HOUR SESSIONS ON (1) ASPECTS OF SALES PROMOTION, (2) SALES PROMOTION TECHNIQUES, (3) NEWSPAPER ADVERTISING, (4) WINDOW AND INTERIOR DISPLAY PRINCIPLES, AND (5) SELECTED PROMOTIONAL MEDIA AND DEVICES. POSSIBLE TEACHERS INCLUDE A SALES PROMOTION…

  17. The Role of Self-Efficacy in Sales Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Peter; Mich, Claudia C.; Manion, Michael T.

    2014-01-01

    Sales education programs are undergoing rapid growth and dynamic change as more business and other undergraduate students pursue sales jobs as desirable career entry points. The number of collegiate sales programs has grown dramatically over the past decade, and sales educators today are increasingly focused on teaching experientially. That is,…

  18. 25 CFR 163.14 - Sale of forest products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recognized tribal government, open market sales of Indian forest products may be authorized. Such sales... the owners of a majority Indian interest on individually owned lands. Open market sales of forest... Management and Operations § 163.14 Sale of forest products. (a) Consistent with the economic objectives of...

  19. 18 CFR 284.142 - Sales by intrastate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sales by intrastate... AUTHORITIES CERTAIN SALES AND TRANSPORTATION OF NATURAL GAS UNDER THE NATURAL GAS POLICY ACT OF 1978 AND RELATED AUTHORITIES Certain Sales by Intrastate Pipelines § 284.142 Sales by intrastate pipelines. Any...

  20. 26 CFR 52.4682-2 - Qualifying sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 17 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Qualifying sales. 52.4682-2 Section 52.4682-2... TAXES (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL TAXES § 52.4682-2 Qualifying sales. (a) In general—(1) Special rules applicable to certain sales. Special rules apply to sales of ODCs in the following cases: (i) Under section...

  1. 21 CFR 1314.35 - Training of sales personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Training of sales personnel. 1314.35 Section 1314.35 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.35 Training of sales personnel. Each regulated...

  2. 21 CFR 1314.20 - Restrictions on sales quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on sales quantity. 1314.20 Section 1314.20 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED LISTED CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.20 Restrictions on sales quantity. (a) Without...

  3. 24 CFR 291.210 - Direct sales procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Direct sales procedures. 291.210... URBAN DEVELOPMENT HUD-OWNED PROPERTIES DISPOSITION OF HUD-ACQUIRED SINGLE FAMILY PROPERTY Sales Procedures § 291.210 Direct sales procedures. When HUD conducts the sales listed in § 291.90(c), it will sell...

  4. 12 CFR 16.6 - Sales of nonconvertible debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sales of nonconvertible debt. 16.6 Section 16.6... RULES § 16.6 Sales of nonconvertible debt. (a) The OCC will deem offers or sales of bank issued... grade; (5) Prior to or simultaneously with the sale of the debt, each purchaser receives an offering...

  5. 26 CFR 48.4041-16 - Sales for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 16 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Sales for export. 48.4041-16 Section 48.4041-16... TAXES MANUFACTURERS AND RETAILERS EXCISE TAXES Special Fuels § 48.4041-16 Sales for export. (a) General rule. In order for a sale to be exempt from tax under section 4041 as a sale for export, it is...

  6. Gillnet and trammel net ban and buyback in St. Croix, USVI: This dataset contains data fishermen and other stakeholders views about the performance of the gillnet and trammel net buyback and ban in St. Croix, USVI (CRCP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data contains information on demographics and fishermens perceptions about the efficacy of St. Croix gillnet ban and buyback

  7. Variations in the sales and sales patterns of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 25 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, Kari; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Muller, Arno; Greko, Christina; Moulin, Gerard; Mackay, David

    2014-08-01

    To describe sales and sales patterns of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 25 European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries for 2011. Data on the sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents from 25 EU member states and EEA countries for 2011 were collected at package level (name, formulation, strength, pack size, number of packages sold) according to a standardized protocol and template and presented in a harmonized manner. These data were calculated to express amounts sold, in metric tonnes, of active ingredient of each package. A population correction unit (PCU) was applied as a proxy for the animal biomass potentially treated with antimicrobial agents. The indicator used to express sales was milligrams of active substance per PCU. Substantial variations in the sales patterns and in the magnitude of sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents, expressed as mg/PCU, between the countries were observed. The proportion of sales, in mg/PCU, of products applicable for treatment of groups or herds of animals (premixes, oral powders and oral solution) varied considerably between the countries. Some countries reported much lower sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents than others, when expressed as mg/PCU. Sales patterns varied between countries, particularly with respect to pharmaceutical forms. Further studies are needed to understand the factors that explain the observed differences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Enriched uranium sales: effect on supply industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, R.K.

    1985-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections: introduction (combined effect of low-enriched uranium (LEU) inventory sales and utility services enrichment contract terms); enrichment market overview; enrichment market dynamics; the reaction of the US Department of Energy; elimination of artificial demand; draw down of inventories; purchase and sale of LEU inventories; tails assay option; unfulfilled requirements for U 3 O 8 ; conclusions. (U.K.)

  9. CERN Running Club – Sale of Items

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Running club

    2018-01-01

    The CERN Running Club is organising a sale of items  on 26 June from 11:30 – 13:00 in the entry area of Restaurant 2 (504 R-202). The items for sale are souvenir prizes of past Relay Races and comprise: Backpacks, thermos, towels, gloves & caps, lamps, long sleeve winter shirts and windproof vest. All items will be sold at 5 CHF.

  10. Repos, fire sales, and bankruptcy policy

    OpenAIRE

    Antinolfi, Gaetano; Carapella, Francesca; Kahn, Charles; Martin, Antoine; Mills, David; Nosal, Ed

    2012-01-01

    The events from the 2007-2009 financial crisis have raised concerns that the failure of large financial institutions can lead to destabilizing fire sales of assets. The risk of fire sales is related to exemptions from bankruptcy's automatic stay provision enjoyed by a number of financial contracts, such as repo. An automatic stay prohibits collection actions by creditors against a bankrupt debtor or his property. It prevents a creditor from liquidating collateral of a defaulting debtor since ...

  11. Evaluation of Results from Sales Promotion Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olimpia Ban

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available An essential element of the sales promotion strategy and not only is the evaluation of the results obtained from the activities performed. Due to their nature and applicability, the evaluation of the sales promotion is much easier to be achieved, but it raises some problems. Using a hypothetical example, we have tried to develop a "classic" evaluation model of the specialty literature.

  12. Design innovativeness and product sales' evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Rubera, Gaia

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, design innovation has gained increasing prominence in the marketplace, with a growing number of firms innovating not only through technology but also through novel product forms (i.e., design). However, while the effect of technological innovation on product sales is a heavily studied topic, a defining theory of how design innovation influences product sales is still missing. This paper provides demand- and supply-side theories to formulate a set of coherent hypothes...

  13. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, K

    2007-01-01

    The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India's comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seems to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.

  14. Do provincial policies banning smoking in cars when children are present impact youth exposure to secondhand smoke in cars?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton-Marshall, Tara; Leatherdale, Scott T; Driezen, Pete; Azagba, Sunday; Burkhalter, Robin

    2015-09-01

    To examine youth exposure to smoking in cars following 7 provincial bans on smoking in cars with children in Canada. Repeated cross-sectional data from the 2004-2012 Youth Smoking Survey (n=91,800) were examined. Using a quasi-experimental design, contrasts of the interaction of survey year and province included in the logistic regression analyses were used to test whether exposure significantly declined pre-post implementation of a ban on smoking in cars relative to control provinces not implementing a ban. Exposure across all provinces declined from 26.5% in 2004 to 18.2% of youth in 2012. Exposure declined significantly from pre to post implementation of a ban on smoking in cars with children in Ontario at time 1 post ban (Pre-Ban=20.4% T1post=10.3%, OR=0.45), time 2 post ban (12.1%, OR=0.61) and time 3 post ban (11.6%, OR=0.58) relative to control provinces that did not implement a ban. In British Columbia exposure to smoking in cars declined significantly at pre-post ban time 3 compared to the control group (Pre-Ban=21.2%, T3post=9.6%, OR=0.51). No other provinces had a significant change in exposure pre-post ban relative to the control provinces. Although rates declined, significant differences were only found in Ontario relative to control provinces in the immediate and long term. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The marketing-sales organizations as the way of internationalizing of the small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piorunowska-Kokoszko Joanna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The internationalization is becoming a part of company’s strategy, requiring some effort for getting its success. The present article is aimed at showing that joining the sale group is one of many ways of internationalizing activity for small and medium enterprises. The article presents the roles of sales group activity, its typical structure and opportunities and threats for its functioning. Based on collected data it was pointed, that companies, especially SME should analyze perspective for joining the sale group in their supply chain or seek for other forms of cooperation supporting their foreign market entry. Cooperation allows in relatively short time to achieve first results. Resignation of cooperation should be a conscious decision of management. Such decision, as every one, can bring expected benefits or be difficult to reconstruct it in the future.

  16. Legislative smoking bans for reducing secondhand smoke exposure, smoking prevalence and tobacco consumption.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Callinan, Joanne E

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking bans have been implemented in a variety of settings, as well as being part of policy in many jurisdictions to protect the public and employees from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke (SHS). They also offer the potential to influence social norms and smoking behaviour of those populations they affect. OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent to which legislation-based smoking bans or restrictions reduce exposure to SHS, help people who smoke to reduce tobacco consumption or lower smoking prevalence and affect the health of those in areas which have a ban or restriction in place. SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Conference Paper Index, and reference lists and bibliographies of included studies. We also checked websites of various organisations. Date of most recent search; July 1st 2009. SELECTION CRITERIA: We considered studies that reported legislative smoking bans and restrictions affecting populations. The minimum standard was having a ban explicitly in the study and a minimum of six months follow-up for measures of smoking behaviour. We included randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental studies (i.e. non-randomized controlled studies), controlled before and after studies, interrupted-time series as defined by the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group, and uncontrolled pre- and post-ban data. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Characteristics and content of the interventions, participants, outcomes and methods of the included studies were extracted by one author and checked by a second. Because of heterogeneity in the design and content of the studies, we did not attempt a meta-analysis. We evaluated the studies using qualitative narrative synthesis. MAIN RESULTS: There were 50 studies included in this review. Thirty-one studies reported exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) with 19 studies measuring it using biomarkers. There was

  17. What can public endorsement for a smoking ban policy mean? Preliminary findings from a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowiec, Agnieszka; Lignowska, Izabella; Makowska, Marta

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study is to describe attitudes which underlie Pole's declarations of support for a smoking ban in public places. The qualitative study using semi-structured individual in-depth interviews was conducted. The 30 IDI-s (in depth interviews) being a part of a larger research project entitled 'Lay meanings of health and life orientation of Polish society versus prevention and health promotion attitudes' were realized between 2007-2009. People belonging to all key socio-demographic categories identified by variables such as sex, age, education, and place of domicile were interviewed. The resulting material was subjected to content analysis. In the study the structural concept of 'attitude' was adopted. In order to identify the attitudes towards smoking bans in public places statements related to all three components of attitudes were analysed, but the typology of attitudes was constructed mainly on the basis of the emotional-evaluative component. The study identified as many as four attitudes behind the declared support for a smoking ban in public places. Those attitudes were labelled 'supportive', 'accepting', 'conditionally accepting', and 'ambivalent'. They differ as regards degree of acceptance for the ban, conviction about harmfulness of passive smoking, setting great store by other regulators of smoking like cultural norms or healthy consciousness, and propensity to observe and execute the smoking ban. The 'supportive' attitude can be characterized not only by total support for the smoking ban in public places but also by insistence on the need for its extension. The 'accepting' attitude means approval for the smoking ban, and the 'conditionally accepting' attitude is distinguished from the others by the stress put on the right of smokers to have an access to places where smoking is permitted. The 'ambivalent' attitude can be typified by underlining other than legal ways of influencing smoking in public places. The study suggests that the attitudes

  18. Air pollution in Boston bars before and after a smoking ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyde James N

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We quantified the air quality benefits of a smoke-free workplace law in Boston Massachusetts, U.S.A., by measuring air pollution from secondhand smoke (SHS in 7 pubs before and after the law, comparing actual ventilation practices to engineering society (ASHRAE recommendations, and assessing SHS levels using health and comfort indices. Methods We performed real-time measurements of respirable particle (RSP air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH, in 7 pubs and outdoors in a model-based design yielding air exchange rates for RSP removal. We also assessed ventilation rates from carbon dioxide concentrations. We compared RSP air pollution to the federal Air Quality Index (AQI and the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS to assess health risks, and assessed odor and irritation levels using published SHS-RSP thresholds. Results Pre-smoking-ban RSP levels in 6 pubs (one pub with a non-SHS air quality problem was excluded averaged 179 μg/m3, 23 times higher than post-ban levels, which averaged 7.7 μg/m3, exceeding the NAAQS for fine particle pollution (PM2.5 by nearly 4-fold. Pre-smoking ban levels of fine particle air pollution in all 7 of the pubs were in the Unhealthy to Hazardous range of the AQI. In the same 6 pubs, pre-ban indoor carcinogenic PPAH averaged 61.7 ng/m3, nearly 10 times higher than post-ban levels of 6.32 ng/m3. Post-ban particulate air pollution levels were in the Good AQI range, except for 1 venue with a defective gas-fired deep-fat fryer, while post-ban carcinogen levels in all 7 pubs were lower than outdoors. Conclusion During smoking, although pub ventilation rates per occupant were within ASHRAE design parameters for the control of carbon dioxide levels for the number of occupants present, they failed to control SHS carcinogens or RSP. Nonsmokers' SHS odor and irritation sensory thresholds were massively exceeded. Post-ban air pollution measurements showed 90% to 95

  19. Air pollution in Boston bars before and after a smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repace, James L; Hyde, James N; Brugge, Doug

    2006-10-27

    We quantified the air quality benefits of a smoke-free workplace law in Boston Massachusetts, U.S.A., by measuring air pollution from secondhand smoke (SHS) in 7 pubs before and after the law, comparing actual ventilation practices to engineering society (ASHRAE) recommendations, and assessing SHS levels using health and comfort indices. We performed real-time measurements of respirable particle (RSP) air pollution and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PPAH), in 7 pubs and outdoors in a model-based design yielding air exchange rates for RSP removal. We also assessed ventilation rates from carbon dioxide concentrations. We compared RSP air pollution to the federal Air Quality Index (AQI) and the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) to assess health risks, and assessed odor and irritation levels using published SHS-RSP thresholds. Pre-smoking-ban RSP levels in 6 pubs (one pub with a non-SHS air quality problem was excluded) averaged 179 microg/m3, 23 times higher than post-ban levels, which averaged 7.7 microg/m3, exceeding the NAAQS for fine particle pollution (PM2.5) by nearly 4-fold. Pre-smoking ban levels of fine particle air pollution in all 7 of the pubs were in the Unhealthy to Hazardous range of the AQI. In the same 6 pubs, pre-ban indoor carcinogenic PPAH averaged 61.7 ng/m3, nearly 10 times higher than post-ban levels of 6.32 ng/m3. Post-ban particulate air pollution levels were in the Good AQI range, except for 1 venue with a defective gas-fired deep-fat fryer, while post-ban carcinogen levels in all 7 pubs were lower than outdoors. During smoking, although pub ventilation rates per occupant were within ASHRAE design parameters for the control of carbon dioxide levels for the number of occupants present, they failed to control SHS carcinogens or RSP. Nonsmokers' SHS odor and irritation sensory thresholds were massively exceeded. Post-ban air pollution measurements showed 90% to 95% reductions in PPAH and RSP respectively, differing

  20. Attitudes and experiences of restaurateurs regarding smoking bans in Adelaide, South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, K; Wakefield, M; Turnbull, D A

    1999-01-01

    To determine compliance with a voluntary code of practice (VCP) for restricting smoking in restaurants and to canvass the attitudes of restaurateurs towards tougher smoking restrictions. Cross-sectional survey conducted in 1996 using a telephone questionnaire. Metropolitan restaurants and cafes in Adelaide, South Australia. 276 (86.8%) of a sample of randomly selected owners and managers. Restaurant non-smoking policies, reported and anticipated change in business, and restaurateurs' attitudes towards smoking restrictions. 26.8% of restaurants had a total smoking ban; 40.6% restricted smoking some other way; and 32.6% permitted unrestricted smoking. Only 15.1% of restaurants with a ban or restrictions had used the VCP to guide the development of their policy, and only half of these were complying with it. Although 78.4% of those with bans and 84.4% of those with restrictions reported that their non-smoking policy had been associated with either no change or a gain in business, only 33.3% of those allowing unrestricted smoking expected that this would be the case, if they were to limit smoking. A total of 50.4% of restaurateurs, including 45.3% of those with no restrictions, agreed that the government should ban smoking in all restaurants. The VCP made an insignificant contribution to adoption of non-smoking policies, and compliance with the code was poor. Despite concerns about loss of business, there was considerable support for legislation which would ban smoking in all dining establishments.