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Sample records for short review evolution

  1. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  2. Review of short wavelength lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references

  3. Review of short wavelength lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-03-18

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.

  4. Chameleonic Theories: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Zanzi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the chameleon mechanism, a field (typically scalar has a mass that depends on the matter density of the environment: the larger is the matter density, the larger is the mass of the chameleon. We briefly review some aspects of chameleonic theories. In particular, in a typical class of these theories, we discuss the lagrangian, the role of conformal transformations, the equation of motion and the thin-shell effect. We also discuss f ( R theories and chameleonic quantum gravity.

  5. Models of sarcopenia: Short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, S; Springer, J I; Doehner, W; von Haehling, S; Anker, M; Anker, S D; Springer, J

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 40-50% of the population over 80years of age suffers from sarcopenia making this condition a major geriatric clinical disorder and a key challenge to healthy aging. The hallmark symptom of sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and strength without the loss of overall body weight. Sarcopenic patients are likely to have worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality compared to healthy individuals. This review will focus on animal models designed to study sarcopenia including hind-limb unloading, de-nervation, and immobilization by using casts or wire strategies, as well as using aged rodents. Currently there are no registered treatments for sarcopenia. Most sarcopenic individuals show signs of physical frailty, which leads to increases the prevalence of balance disorders, falls, fractures and pain. Therefore, is it essential to develop and use relevant animal models to further the research on sarcopenia therapy? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fluctuations in Nonlinear Systems: A Short Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubia, F.J. de la; Buceta, J.; Cabrera, J.L.; Olarrea, J.; Parrondo, J.M.R.

    2003-01-01

    We review some results that illustrate the constructive role of noise in nonlinear systems. Several phenomena are briefly discussed: optimal localization of orbits in a system with limit cycle behavior and perturbed by colored noise; stochastic branch selection at secondary bifurcations; noise- induced order/disorder transitions and pattern formation in spatially extended systems. In all cases the presence of noise is crucial, and the results reinforce the modern view of the importance of noise in the evolution of nonlinear systems. (author)

  7. Social evolution and genetic interactions in the short and long term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cleve, Jeremy

    2015-08-01

    The evolution of social traits remains one of the most fascinating and feisty topics in evolutionary biology even after half a century of theoretical research. W.D. Hamilton shaped much of the field initially with his 1964 papers that laid out the foundation for understanding the effect of genetic relatedness on the evolution of social behavior. Early theoretical investigations revealed two critical assumptions required for Hamilton's rule to hold in dynamical models: weak selection and additive genetic interactions. However, only recently have analytical approaches from population genetics and evolutionary game theory developed sufficiently so that social evolution can be studied under the joint action of selection, mutation, and genetic drift. We review how these approaches suggest two timescales for evolution under weak mutation: (i) a short-term timescale where evolution occurs between a finite set of alleles, and (ii) a long-term timescale where a continuum of alleles are possible and populations evolve continuously from one monomorphic trait to another. We show how Hamilton's rule emerges from the short-term analysis under additivity and how non-additive genetic interactions can be accounted for more generally. This short-term approach reproduces, synthesizes, and generalizes many previous results including the one-third law from evolutionary game theory and risk dominance from economic game theory. Using the long-term approach, we illustrate how trait evolution can be described with a diffusion equation that is a stochastic analogue of the canonical equation of adaptive dynamics. Peaks in the stationary distribution of the diffusion capture classic notions of convergence stability from evolutionary game theory and generally depend on the additive genetic interactions inherent in Hamilton's rule. Surprisingly, the peaks of the long-term stationary distribution can predict the effects of simple kinds of non-additive interactions. Additionally, the peaks

  8. Short course review and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corden, Pierce S. [Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC 20005 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The presentations at the short course that were the basis of the present Proceedings covered many critical issues related to the objective of eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of ensuring global security and stability. This paper is based on the concluding talk, which briefly reviewed the course, offered a net assessment of where the project of elimination - a policy objective for nearly all the world's states - stands, and discussed some of the factors that need to be dealt with in achieving a nuclear weapon free world. These include understanding what 'proliferation' means and how it has changed over time, how the spread of nuclear weapons has proceeded over time, both 'vertical' in numbers and 'horizontal' to additional countries, what way the 'vector' of reversing proliferation is pointing, and the roles of nuclear energy and international governance.

  9. Book Review: Leslie Holmes, Corruption: A Very Short Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keremis, Anestis

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Corruption. A Very Short Introduction / by Leslie Holmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 143pp., £7.99 (p/b), ISBN 9780199689699.......Book review of: Corruption. A Very Short Introduction / by Leslie Holmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 143pp., £7.99 (p/b), ISBN 9780199689699....

  10. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  11. Kinetic instabilities in the solar wind: A short review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteini, Lorenzo, E-mail: l.matteini@imperial.ac.uk [Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-25

    We know from in situ measurements that solar wind plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. Distribution functions of its main constituents -electrons, protons, and alpha particles-show several departures from Maxwellian, including temperature anisotropy, relative drifts and secondary populations streaming along the local magnetic field. We present a short review of recent solar wind observations of these non-thermal features and associated signatures of wave-particle interactions. Several kinetic instabilities are expected to be at work in the solar wind during its expansion, playing a role in the continuous shaping of particle distributions with distance, and regulating the macroscopic behavior of the plasma. Over the past years, modeling of these processes by means of numerical simulations has been successful in reproducing and explaining the observations; these include the evolution of the plasma due to radial expansion and the response of individual species to different kinetic instabilities. Finally, the impact of local inhomogeneities, like current sheets and turbulence, on the development of kinetic instabilities is also discussed.

  12. On trailing vortices: A short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquin, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    This paper reviews some mechanisms involved in the dynamics of vortices in fluid flows. The topic is first introduced by pointing out its importance in aerodynamics. Several basic notions useful to appraise experimental observations are then surveyed, namely: centrifugal instabilities, inertial waves, cooperative instabilities, vortex merger, vortex breakdown and turbulence in vortices. Each topic is illustrated with experimental or numerical results

  13. Short notes and reviews Insect history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, Frederick R.

    2003-01-01

    Review of: History of Insects, edited by A. P. Rasnitsyn and D. L. J. Quicke. Kluwer Academic Publ., Dordrecht, Netherlands, 2002, 517 pp., ISBN 14 0200 026 X In the winter of 1977, I visited the Paleontological Institute of the Academy of Sciences in Moscow. I wanted to study the type specimens of

  14. Short Review on Quantum Key Distribution Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampouris, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    Cryptographic protocols and mechanisms are widely investigated under the notion of quantum computing. Quantum cryptography offers particular advantages over classical ones, whereas in some cases established protocols have to be revisited in order to maintain their functionality. The purpose of this paper is to provide the basic definitions and review the most important theoretical advancements concerning the BB84 and E91 protocols. It also aims to offer a summary on some key developments on the field of quantum key distribution, closely related with the two aforementioned protocols. The main goal of this study is to provide the necessary background information along with a thorough review on the theoretical aspects of QKD, concentrating on specific protocols. The BB84 and E91 protocols have been chosen because most other protocols are similar to these, a fact that makes them important for the general understanding of how the QKD mechanism functions.

  15. Bunching phase evolution of short-pulse FEL oscillator system

    CERN Document Server

    Song, S B; Choi, D I

    2000-01-01

    We studied numerically the short-pulse FEL oscillator system using properly defined bunching phase theta sub B and PSI sub B. In stable operation, we have found that the optical field 'locks' the phase to pi/2 at the trailing edge, which gives the maximum gain. Moreover, electrons can be detrapped from ponderomotive bucket due to the spatial variation of the optical field, and this detrapping effect is a major cause of the limit cycle oscillation of the system. The 'bump' of the output power during the amplification usually exists at the near-perfect cavity synchronism regime, which can be explained as the change of the matching condition between electron micropulse and optical pulse.

  16. BOOK REVIEW: Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, R.

    2007-07-01

    is also getting a bit too intricate for the complete layman, and experts may not agree on all details of the more conceptual discussions. Altogether I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book. It was a happy companion while travelling and a nice bedtime literature. It is furthermore an excellent reminder of the `big picture' underlying nonlinear science as it applies to the real world. I will gladly recommend this book as background literature for students in my introductory course on dynamical systems. However, the book will be of interest to anyone who is looking for a very short account on fundamental problems and principles in modern nonlinear science.

  17. Noise in ecosystems: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnolo, B; Valenti, D; Fiasconaro, A

    2004-06-01

    Noise, through its interaction with the nonlinearity of the living systems, can give rise to counter-intuitive phenomena such as stochastic resonance, noise-delayed extinction, temporal oscillations, and spatial patterns. In this paper we briefly review the noise-induced effects in three different ecosystems: (i) two competing species; (ii) three interacting species, one predator and two preys, and (iii) N-interacting species. The transient dynamics of these ecosystems are analyzed through generalized Lotka-Volterra equations in the presence of multiplicative noise, which models the interaction between the species and the environment. The interaction parameter between the species is random in cases (i) and (iii), and a periodical function, which accounts for the environmental temperature, in case (ii). We find noise-induced phenomena such as quasi-deterministic oscillations, stochastic resonance, noise-delayed extinction, and noise-induced pattern formation with nonmonotonic behaviors of patterns areas and of the density correlation as a function of the multiplicative noise intensity. The asymptotic behavior of the time average of the i(th) population when the ecosystem is composed of a great number of interacting species is obtained and the effect of the noise on the asymptotic probability distributions of the populations is discussed.

  18. Dynamical evolution of short-wave instability in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, H.; Nakajima, N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Dynamical growth of ballooning modes with high poloidal(m) /toroidal(n) Fourier coefficients (higher m/n modes) in the Large Helical Device (LHD) is studied by means of full 3D nonlinear simulations. Influences of higher modes on low modes are studied numerically. In the LHD experiments, some MHD activities are observed but the activities do not bring about serious deteriorations of plasma profiles and high beta-values have been achieved. For the sake of understanding the mild saturation of the instability, some numerical simulations have been carried out. However, the earlier works focus on low modes and dynamical behaviors of high modes are not understood well. In order to understand the dynamical evolution of the pressure-driven high-modes and clarify their influences on growth of low-modes, full-3D simulations of high Reynolds number LHD plasma are carried out for the magnetic field with the vacuum magnetic axis position 3.6m, the peak beta value 3.7%, and the reference Reynolds number Re=10 6 . In the simulations, the growth of ballooning modes up to n=15 toroidal wave-number is identified. The simultaneous growth of multiple ballooning modes brings about total modification of the pressure profile, showing that the pressure-flattening mechanism can not suppress the growth of the modes. On the other hand, a mild saturation of the unstable mode is obtained in another simulation with the relatively large parallel heat conduction, suggesting that the mild saturations might be rather contributed by the dissipative effects (typically by the parallel heat conduction) than the nonlinear mechanism such as the modifications of the pressure profiles. We also find that the wave-length of the n=15 ballooning mode is comparable to the ion skin-depth, suggesting the necessity of studying the high modes in the framework of the Hall-MHD dynamics. Studying the dynamics of the LHD plasmas by the use of the Hall-MHD or some sort of the two-fluid system is considered

  19. Corneal surface reconstruction - a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavan H N

    2009-01-01

    patients with persistent epithelial defects, pterygium, symblepharon, and for ocular surface reconstruction. The role of AMT in ocular disorders has been recently re-evaluated by Schwab and coworkers.11 They carefully examined the protocols used in the manufacture of the bio-engineered construct to assess the risks and reviewed 20 published reports of human trials conducted between 1996 and 2005 in a report suggesting that the currently used transplant procedures carry potential health risks not only to individuals but also to "the wider community" because they "rely on the use of materials from animal and human donors". Their review revealed that most protocols used animal-derived products including fetal calf serum (FCS with a potential for transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE infection (of the brain or allergic reactions and further state that the use of commercially available fibrin tissue "adds to the risk of microbial or prion contamination". Since no investigations have been done, the use of AMT can potentially induce "disease transmission through contamination with bacteria, viruses, or other infectious agents", they also stated that with 3T3 cells being commonly used (that come from mice possibilities of "xenozoonosis", or animal-to-human disease transmission are a concern.Several studies have been undertaken using oral mucosal epithelial cells cultivated on amniotic membrane for useful tissue engineering of damaged corneal surface. Higa and Shimazaki have carried out a study of transplantation in cultivated oral mucosal epithelial which has been useful in achieving a stable ocular surface. However, in addition to using epithelial sheets with AM, they developed a technique for generating carrier-free sheets using fibrin sealants. These sheets seem to contain more differentiated epithelium than those obtained with AM while retaining similar levels of colony-forming progenitor cells. In terms of isolation and cultivation of corneal epithelial stem

  20. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: LITERATURE REVIEW AND TIME EVOLUTION.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pintea Mirela-Oana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Performance evaluation of an economic entity requires approaching several criteria, such as industry and economic entity type, managerial and entrepreneurial strategy, competitive environment, human and material resources available, using a system of appropriate performance indicators for this purpose.The exigencies of communication occurred on the growing number of phenomena that marked the global economy in recent decades (internationalization and relocation of business crises and turmoil in financial markets, demand performance measurement to be made in a comprehensive way by financial and non-financial criteria. Indicators are measures of performance used by management to measure, report and improve performance of the economic entity. The relationship between indicators and management is ensured by the existence of performance measurement systems. Studies to date indicate that economic entities using balanced performance measurement systems as a key management tool registered superior performance compared to entities not using such systems. This study attempts to address the issue of performance evaluation by presenting opinions of different authors concerning the process of performance measurement and to present, after revising the literature, the evolution of the performance evaluation systems. We tried to do this literature review because sustainable development and, therefore, globalization require new standards of performance that exceeds the economic field, both for domestic companies as well as international ones. So, these standards should be integrated into corporate strategy development to ensure sustainability of activities undertaken by harmonizing the economic, social and environmental objectives. To assess the performance of economic entities it is required that performance evaluation to be done with a balanced multidimensional system, including both financial ratios and non-financial indicators in order to reduce the limits of

  1. Embodied Evolution in Collective Robotics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Bredeche

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an overview of evolutionary robotics techniques applied to online distributed evolution for robot collectives, namely, embodied evolution. It provides a definition of embodied evolution as well as a thorough description of the underlying concepts and mechanisms. This article also presents a comprehensive summary of research published in the field since its inception around the year 2000, providing various perspectives to identify the major trends. In particular, we identify a shift from considering embodied evolution as a parallel search method within small robot collectives (fewer than 10 robots to embodied evolution as an online distributed learning method for designing collective behaviors in swarm-like collectives. This article concludes with a discussion of applications and open questions, providing a milestone for past and an inspiration for future research.

  2. A Short Review on Cardiotonic Steroids and Their Aminoguanidine Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo San Feliciano

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A short review on cardiotonic steroids and their analogues is presented. The natural, semisynthetic and synthetic derivatives, as well as their mechanism of action and structure-activity relationships are shown, with a special reference to aminoguanidine derivatives.

  3. Creation of point defects in superconductors. A short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quere, Yves; Rullier-Albenque, Florence.

    1981-11-01

    Many experiments have been published concerning the radiation damage in superconductors, but relatively few about the mechanisms of defect creation. A short review is presented of what is known on point defect creation in superconductors either by cold-work or by irradiation

  4. On The Evolution of Human Jaws and Teeth: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Yalcin

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The jaws and teeth of Homo sapiens have evolved, from the last common ancestor of chimpanzee and men to their current form. Many factors such as the foods eaten and the processing of foods by fire and tools have effected this evolution course. The evolution of the masticatory complex is related to other anatomical features such as brain size and bipedal posture, and leads to important proceedings like the formation of speech and language. In this review, the evolution of human jaws and teeth and its impact on the general course of human evolution is discussed.

  5. Evolution of PHP Applications: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinaswe Siame

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews, some of the research work done in the evolution of PHP applications that have been around and are vastly used. PHP is currently one of the most popular programming languages, widely used in both the open source community and in industry to build large web-focused applications and application frameworks. This review looks at how PHP applications have evolved in terms of the use of libraries, the software maturity, adoption of object-orientation paradigm, the evolution of complexity and security. The results suggest that these systems undergo systematic maintenance and evolution is helping the underlying programming language to grow.

  6. The Evolution of Inquiry Activities in the Akamai Observatory Short Course, 2004-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, E. L.; McElwain, M.; Sonnett, S.; Rafelski, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Akamai Observatory Short Course (AOSC) is a five-day course of activities designed to prepare college students majoring in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields for internships at observatories on the Big Island of Hawai'i. The design and implementation of inquiry-based activities in the AOSC have evolved considerably over the six years of the course. The content goals have always focused on the basic understanding of light and optics necessary to understand telescopes, but the scientific process goals gradually evolved to reflect the increasingly recognized importance of engineering design skills for successful observatory internships. In 2004 the inquiry-based activities were limited to one well-established Color, Light, and Spectra activity. In subsequent years more activities were customized and expanded upon to reflect the learners' diverse academic backgrounds, the developing goals of the short course, and feedback from internship hosts. The most recent inquiry, the Design and Build a Telescope activity, engaged students in designing and building a simple telescope, emphasizing science and engineering process skills in addition to science content. This activity was influenced by the Mission Design activity, added in 2006, that incorporated the application of inquiry-based learning to the engineering design process and allowed students to draw upon their diverse prior knowledge and experience. In this paper we describe the inquiry-based activities in the AOSC in the context of its year-to-year evolution, including the conceptual and pragmatic changes to the short course that influenced the evolution.

  7. Short versus long term benefits and the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Brede

    Full Text Available In this paper I investigate the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma when individuals change their strategies subject to performance evaluation of their neighbours over variable time horizons. In the monochrome setting, in which all agents per default share the same performance evaluation rule, weighing past events strongly dramatically enhances the prevalence of cooperators. For co-evolutionary models, in which evaluation time horizons and strategies can co-evolve, I demonstrate that cooperation naturally associates with long-term evaluation of others while defection is typically paired with very short time horizons. Moreover, considering the continuous spectrum in between enhanced and discounted weights of past performance, cooperation is optimally supported when cooperators neither give enhanced weight to past nor more recent events, but simply average payoffs. Payoff averaging is also found to emerge as the dominant strategy for cooperators in co-evolutionary models, thus proposing a natural route to the evolution of cooperation in viscous populations.

  8. Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions: Path-integral evolution of short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Lester

    1994-05-01

    Previous papers in this series of statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI) have detailed a development from the relatively microscopic scales of neurons up to the macroscopic scales as recorded by electroencephalography (EEG), requiring an intermediate mesocolumnar scale to be developed at the scale of minicolumns (~=102 neurons) and macrocolumns (~=105 neurons). Opportunity was taken to view SMNI as sets of statistical constraints, not necessarily describing specific synaptic or neuronal mechanisms, on neuronal interactions, on some aspects of short-term memory (STM), e.g., its capacity, stability, and duration. A recently developed c-language code, pathint, provides a non-Monte Carlo technique for calculating the dynamic evolution of arbitrary-dimension (subject to computer resources) nonlinear Lagrangians, such as derived for the two-variable SMNI problem. Here, pathint is used to explicitly detail the evolution of the SMNI constraints on STM.

  9. Short-sighted evolution of virulence in parasitic honeybee workers ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Robin F. A.; Pirk, Christian W. W.; Hepburn, H. Randall; Neumann, Peter

    2008-06-01

    The short-sighted selection hypothesis for parasite virulence predicts that winners of within-host competition are poorer at transmission to new hosts. Social parasitism by self-replicating, female-producing workers occurs in the Cape honeybee Apis mellifera capensis, and colonies of other honeybee subspecies are susceptible hosts. We found high within-host virulence but low transmission rates in a clone of social parasitic A. m. capensis workers invading the neighbouring subspecies A. m. scutellata. In contrast, parasitic workers from the endemic range of A. m. capensis showed low within-host virulence but high transmission rates. This suggests a short-sighted selection scenario for the host-parasite co-evolution in the invasive range of the Cape honeybee, probably facilitated by beekeeping-assisted parasite transmission in apiaries.

  10. The Evolution from Traditional to Online Professional Development: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Joshua C.

    2017-01-01

    Online professional development offers opportunities for growth to teachers who may not be able to participate otherwise due to constraints. These constraints include, but are not limited to, time and travel distance. This document is a narrative review of relevant literature as it relates to the evolution of teacher professional development. This…

  11. Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, D.H. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Batzer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Deininger, P.L. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology]|[Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation, New Orleans, LA (United States). Lab. of Molecular Genetics

    1995-01-01

    The Alu repetitive family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in primates can be subdivided into distinct subfamilies by specific diagnostic nucleotide changes. The older subfamilies are generally very abundant, while the younger subfamilies have fewer copies. Some of the youngest Alu elements are absent in the orthologous loci of nonhuman primates, indicative of recent retroposition events, the primary mode of SINE evolutions. PCR analysis of one young Alu subfamily (Sb2) member found in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene apparently revealed the presence of this element in the green monkey, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee genomes, as well as the human genome. However, sequence analysis of these genomes revealed a highly mutated, older, primate-specific Alu element was present at this position in the nonhuman primates. Comparison of the flanking DNA sequences upstream of this Alu insertion corresponded to evolution expected for standard primate phylogeny, but comparison of the Alu repeat sequences revealed that the human element departed from this phylogeny. The change in the human sequence apparently occurred by a gene conversion event only within the Alu element itself, converting it from one of the oldest to one of the youngest Alu subfamilies. Although gene conversions of Alu elements are clearly very rare, this finding shows that such events can occur and contribute to specific cases of SINE subfamily evolution.

  12. Applications of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT): A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanti Bera, Tushar

    2018-03-01

    Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a tomographic imaging method which solves an ill posed inverse problem using the boundary voltage-current data collected from the surface of the object under test. Though the spatial resolution is comparatively low compared to conventional tomographic imaging modalities, due to several advantages EIT has been studied for a number of applications such as medical imaging, material engineering, civil engineering, biotechnology, chemical engineering, MEMS and other fields of engineering and applied sciences. In this paper, the applications of EIT have been reviewed and presented as a short summary. The working principal, instrumentation and advantages are briefly discussed followed by a detail discussion on the applications of EIT technology in different areas of engineering, technology and applied sciences.

  13. Plasticity and Convergence in the Evolution of Short-Necked Plesiosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Valentin; Benson, Roger B J; Zverkov, Nikolay G; Soul, Laura C; Arkhangelsky, Maxim S; Lambert, Olivier; Stenshin, Ilya M; Uspensky, Gleb N; Druckenmiller, Patrick S

    2017-06-05

    Plesiosaurs were the longest-surviving group of secondarily marine tetrapods, comparable in diversity to today's cetaceans. During their long evolutionary history, which spanned the Jurassic and the Cretaceous (201 to 66 Ma), plesiosaurs repeatedly evolved long- and short-necked body plans [1, 2]. Despite this postcranial plasticity, short-necked plesiosaur clades have traditionally been regarded as being highly constrained to persistent and clearly distinct ecological niches: advanced members of Pliosauridae (ranging from the Middle Jurassic to the early Late Cretaceous) have been characterized as apex predators [2-5], whereas members of the distantly related clade Polycotylidae (middle to Late Cretaceous) were thought to have been fast-swimming piscivores [1, 5-7]. We report a new, highly unusual pliosaurid from the Early Cretaceous of Russia that shows close convergence with the cranial structure of polycotylids: Luskhan itilensis gen. et sp. nov. Using novel cladistic and ecomorphological data, we show that pliosaurids iteratively evolved polycotylid-like cranial morphologies from the Early Jurassic until the Early Cretaceous. This underscores the ecological diversity of derived pliosaurids and reveals a more complex evolutionary history than their iconic representation as gigantic apex predators of Mesozoic marine ecosystems suggests. Collectively, these data demonstrate an even higher degree of morphological plasticity and convergence in the evolution of plesiosaurs than previously thought and suggest the existence of an optimal ecomorphology for short-necked piscivorous plesiosaurs through time and across phylogeny. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Interventions to treat premature ejaculation: a systematic review short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Katy; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Kaltenthaler, Eva; Dickinson, Kath; Cantrell, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is commonly defined as ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation before, on or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it. PE can be either lifelong and present since first sexual experiences (primary), or acquired (secondary), beginning later (Godpodinoff ML. Premature ejaculation: clinical subgroups and etiology. J Sex Marital Ther 1989;15:130-4). Treatments include behavioural and pharmacological interventions. To systematically review evidence for clinical effectiveness of behavioural, topical and systemic treatments for PE. The following databases were searched from inception to 6 August 2013 for published and unpublished research evidence: MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature; The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects and the Health Technology Assessment database; ISI Web of Science, including Science Citation Index, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science. The US Food and Drug Administration website and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) website were also searched. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adult men with PE were eligible (or non-RCTs in the absence of RCTs). RCT data were extrapolated from review articles when available. The primary outcome was intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). Data were meta-analysed when possible. Other outcomes included sexual satisfaction, control over ejaculation, relationship satisfaction, self-esteem, quality of life, treatment acceptability and adverse events (AEs). A total of 103 studies (102 RCTs, 65 from reviews) were included. RCTs were available for all interventions except yoga. The following interventions demonstrated significant improvements (p < 0.05) in arithmetic mean difference in IELT compared with placebo: topical anaesthetics - eutectic mixture of local anaesthetics (EMLA(®), Astra

  15. Priority effects are weakened by a short, but not long, history of sympatric evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zee, Peter C; Fukami, Tadashi

    2018-01-31

    Priority effects, or the effects of species arrival history on local species abundances, have been documented in a range of taxa. However, factors determining the extent to which priority effects affect community assembly remain unclear. Using laboratory populations of the bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens , we examined whether shared evolutionary history affected the strength of priority effects. We hypothesized that sympatric evolution of populations belonging to the same guild would lead to niche differentiation, resulting in phenotypic complementarity that weakens priority effects. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that priority effects tended to be weaker in sympatrically evolved pairs of immigrating populations than in allopatrically evolved pairs. Furthermore, priority effects were weaker under higher phenotypic complementarity. However, these patterns were observed only in populations with a relatively short history of sympatric evolution, and disappeared when populations had evolved together for a long time. Together, our results suggest that the evolutionary history of organismal traits may dictate the strength of priority effects and, consequently, the extent of historical contingency in the assembly of ecological communities. © 2018 The Author(s).

  16. Short Review on Predicting Fouling in RO Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ruiz-García

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Reverse Osmosis (RO membrane fouling is one of the main challenges that membrane manufactures, the scientific community and industry professionals have to deal with. The consequences of this inevitable phenomenon have a negative effect on the performance of the desalination system. Predicting fouling in RO systems is key to evaluating the long-term operating conditions and costs. Much research has been done on fouling indices, methods, techniques and prediction models to estimate the influence of fouling on the performance of RO systems. This paper offers a short review evaluating the state of industry knowledge in the development of fouling indices and models in membrane systems for desalination in terms of use and applicability. Despite major efforts in this field, there are gaps in terms of effective methods and models for the estimation of fouling in full-scale RO desalination plants. In existing models applied to full-scale RO desalination plants, neither the spacer geometry of membranes, nor the efficiency and frequency of chemical cleanings are considered.

  17. Differential diagnosis of CNS angiostrongyliasis: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthong, Vichai; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2013-06-01

    The diagnostic criterion for eosinophilic meningitis (EOM) is the identification of an absolute count of 10 eosinophils per ml or more than 10% of the total white blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the proper clinical context. The most common cause of EOM is Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection, termed meningitic angiostrongyliasis (MA). Neurognathostomiasis (NG) is the main parasitic disease in the differential diagnosis of meningitic angiostrongyliasis. This short review is based on articles published on Medline between 2000 and 2012 related to EOM. There are three main approaches that can be used to differentiate between MA and NG, involving clinical factors, history of larval exposure, and serological tests. MA patients presented with acute severe headache but without neurological deficit, combined with a history of eating uncooked snails or slugs. NG patients always presented with motor weakness, migratory swelling, radicular pain and had history of eating uncooked poultry or fish. Specific antigenic bands in immunoblot tests are helpful tools to differentiate the two diseases. Other causes of eosinophilic meningitis are neurocysticercosis, cerebral paragonimiasis, Toxoplasma canis, Baylisascaris, tuberculous meningitis, and cryptococcal meningitis.

  18. Short-term genome evolution of Listeria monocytogenes in a non-controlled environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Reid A

    2008-11-01

    outbreak was caused by a L. monocytogenes strain that persisted in a food processing facility over 12 years and show that genome sequencing is a valuable and feasible tool for retrospective epidemiological analyses. Short-term evolution of L. monocytogenes in non-controlled environments appears to involve limited diversification beyond plasmid gain or loss and prophage diversification, highlighting the importance of phages in bacterial evolution.

  19. Short Review: Mitigation of Current Environmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Young

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Methanol has become a widely used and globally distributed product. Methanol is very important due to the current depletion of fossil fuels. Industrially, methanol produced from the catalytic reaction of synthetic gas composed of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. Methanol production has brought great attention due to carbon dioxide as the main source of greenhouse gas emissions. Combined of reducing CO2 emissions and supplying an alternative fuel source has created the idea of a carbon neutral cycle called “the methanol economy”. The best catalyst for the methanol economy would show a high CO2 conversion and high selectivity for methanol production. This paper investigates research focused on catalyst development for efficient methanol synthesis from hydrogenation of carbon dioxide through added various supports and additives such as silica, zirconium, and palladium. Catalysts that displayed the highest activity included a zirconia and silicon-titanium oxide promoted Cu/Zn/Al2O3 catalyst. Alternative method of catalyst preparation, include the oxalate-gel, solid-state reaction, co-precipitation and combustion method also investigated.  © 2013 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 10th October 2012; Revised: 7th February 2012; Accepted: 10th February 2013[How to Cite: Young, A., Lesmana, D., Dai, D.J., Wu, H.S. (2013. Short Review: Mitigation of Current En-vironmental Concerns from Methanol Synthesis. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 8 (1: 1-13. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13][Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.8.1.4055.1-13] | View in  |

  20. Correlated evolution of short wavelength sensitive photoreceptor sensitivity and color pattern in Lake Malawi cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Pauers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For evolutionary ecologists, the holy grail of visual ecology is to establish an unambiguous link between photoreceptor sensitivity, the spectral environment, and the perception of specific visual stimuli (e.g., mates, food, predators, etc.. Due to the bright nuptial colors of the males, and the role female mate choice plays in their evolution, the haplochromine cichlid fishes of the African great lakes are favorite research subjects for such investigations. Despite this attention, current evidence is equivocal; while distinct correlations among photoreceptor sensitivity, photic environment, and male coloration exist in Lake Victorian haplochromines, attempts to find such correlations in Lake Malawian cichlids have failed. Lake Malawi haplochromines have a wide variability in their short-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors, especially compared to their mid- and long-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors; these cichlids also vary in the degree to which they express one of three basic color patterns (vertical bars, horizontal stripes, and solid patches of colors, each of which is likely used in a different form of communication. Thus, we hypothesize that, in these fishes, spectral sensitivity and color pattern have evolved in a correlated fashion to maximize visual communication; specifically, ultraviolet sensitivity should be found in vertically-barred species to promote ‘private’ communication, while striped species should be less likely to have ultraviolet sensitivity, since their color pattern carries ‘public’ information. Using phylogenetic independent contrasts, we found that barred species had strong sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths, but that striped species typically lacked sensitivity to ultraviolet light. Further, the only variable, even when environmental variables were simultaneously considered, that could predict ultraviolet sensitivity was color pattern. We also found that, using models of correlated evolution, color

  1. Short notes and reviews Carrying metazoan phylogenetics forward in the 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenner, Ronald A.

    2001-01-01

    Review of and commentary on: Animal Evolution. Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, by Claus Nielsen. Oxford University Press, 2001, x + 563 pp., ISBN 0-19-850682-1 (Pbk). My initial browsing of the new edition of Claus Nielsen’s Animal Evolution could scarcely have produced a bigger surprise.

  2. Short-term evolution and coexistence of spots, plages and flare activity on LQ Hydrae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Soriano, M.; Strassmeier, K. G.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: We aim to study the short-term evolution of the chromospheric and photospheric activity of the young, single K2 dwarf LQ Hya. Methods: Four months of quasi-simultaneous spectroscopic and photometric observations were used to study the variations of the photometric light curve, the evolution of the chromospheric activity from the Hα and Hβ lines, and the distribution of cool spots from Doppler maps. Results: During our observations one side of the star was more active than the other. The equivalent width of the Hα line from the least active hemisphere increased from ≈0.7 Å at the beginning of the observation to 1.0 Å at the end. The basal emission of the most active hemisphere remained roughly constant at EWHαt1.0 Å. Intense flare activity was observed during the first twenty days, where at least four different events were detected. The line asymmetries of the Hα line suggest that one of the flares could have produced a mass ejection with a maximum projected speed of 70kms-1. The rotational modulation of the V-band photometry showed clear anti-correlation with the chromospheric activity. The difference in brightness between the opposite hemispheres decreased from 0.m16 to 0.m09 in two months. Three spots gradually moving apart from each other are dominating the photospheric Doppler maps. The comparison between the maps and the Hα line as the star rotates reveals the spatial coexistence of chromospheric Hα emission and photospheric spots. Conclusions: Our results indicate that the active regions of LQ Hya can live for at least four months. The detected changes in the photometric light curve and the spectroscopic Doppler images seem to be more a consequence of the spatial redistribution of the active regions rather than due to changes in their strength. Only one of the active regions shows significant changes in its chromospheric emission. Based on data obtained with the STELLA robotic telescope in Tenerife, an AIP facility jointly operated by AIP

  3. Hyperphagic short stature: A case report and review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagtap, Varsha S.; Sarathi, Vijaya; Lila, Anurag R.; Bukan, Amol P.; Bandgar, Tushar; Menon, Padmavathy; Shah, Nalini S.

    2012-01-01

    A 5½-year-old adopted girl was referred to us in view of short stature. After ruling out systemic illness, she was evaluated for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) by stimulation tests. The peak value was 3.47 ng/ml. She was then started on growth hormone (GH). At the end of 6 months of GH therapy, her height velocity was only 3 cm/year. There was a lack of attachment between the mother and the child. She had history of hyperphagia, stealing, and hoarding food. Psychiatry consultation confirmed that the child had appetite disorder, and hence was diagnosed as hyperphagic short stature (HSS). The girl and her parents are undergoing psychiatric therapy for the same. Psychosocial dwarfism seems to originate from serious disturbances in the mother–child relationship. These children mimic patients with GHD, but have poor response to GH therapy. This case underscores the importance of social environment in the growth of the individual. PMID:22837929

  4. Evolution of extreme temperature events in short term climate projection for Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Alfredo; Tarquis, Ana M.; Sanchez, Enrique; Dosio, Alessandro; Ruiz-Ramos, Margarita

    2014-05-01

    Extreme events of maximum and minimum temperatures are a main hazard for agricultural production in Iberian Peninsula. For this purpose, in this study we analyze projections of their evolution that could be valid for the next decade, represented in this study by the 30-year period 2004-2034 (target period). For this purpose two kinds of data were used in this study: 1) observations from the station network of AEMET (Spanish National Meteorological Agency) for five Spanish locations, and 2) simulated data at a resolution of 50 ×50 km horizontal grid derived from the outputs of twelve Regional Climate Models (RCMs) taken from project ENSEMBLES (van der Linden and Mitchell, 2009), with a bias correction (Dosio and Paruolo, 2011; Dosio et al., 2012) regarding the observational dataset Spain02 (Herrera et al., 2012). To validate the simulated climate, the available period of observations was compared to a baseline period (1964-1994) of simulated climate for all locations. Then, to analyze the changes for the present/very next future, probability of extreme temperature events for 2004-2034 were compared to that of the baseline period. Although only minor changes are expected, small variations in variability may have a significant impact in crop performance. The objective of the work is to evaluate the utility of these short term projections for potential users, as for instance insurance companies. References Dosio A. and Paruolo P., 2011. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high-resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Evaluation on the present climate. Journal of Geophysical Research, VOL. 116,D16106, doi:10.1029/2011JD015934 Dosio A., Paruolo P. and Rojas R., 2012. Bias correction of the ENSEMBLES high resolution climate change projections for use by impact models: Analysis of the climate change signal. Journal of Geophysical Research,Volume 117, D17, doi: 0.1029/2012JD017968 Herrera et. al. (2012) Development and Analysis of a 50 year high

  5. DA Masolo A Short History of African Philosophy, a Review pp165-171

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DA Masolo

    Review of Barry Hallen's A Short History of African Philosophy, Second ... 2006, by African Philosophy: The Analytic Approach (Africa World Press). .... handling of culpability in witchcraft accusations as overlooking the obvious logical inference.

  6. A Short Review on Journal Impact Factor; Significance and Defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Eisa Khajelou

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Impact Factor (IF is considered as one of the most common subjects in academic environments. Individuals who would like to publish their productions and/or research results confront with various indicators, brands and labels that indicate relative importance, academic discipline and quality of journals. Diversity of the indicators induces confusion to select applicable journals and often, the authors would not be able to distinguish IF, ISI and their relations with the acceptance of the journal. Meanwhile, they have difficulties to find IF. Hence, this short paper aimed to provide useful information for authors to familiarize them with the concept of IF.​

  7. Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kieren J; Bray, Sarah C; Bover, Pere; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Schubert, Blaine W; Prevosti, Francisco; Prieto, Alfredo; Martin, Fabiana; Austin, Jeremy J; Cooper, Alan

    2016-04-01

    The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus), a largely herbivorous bear that is today only found in South America. The relationships among the spectacled bears (Tremarctos), South American short-faced bears (Arctotherium) and North American short-faced bears (Arctodus) remain uncertain. In this study, we sequenced a mitochondrial genome from an Arctotherium femur preserved in a Chilean cave. Our molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the South American short-faced bears were more closely related to the extant South American spectacled bear than to the North American short-faced bears. This result suggests striking convergent evolution of giant forms in the two groups of short-faced bears (Arctodus and Arctotherium), potentially as an adaptation to dominate competition for megafaunal carcasses. © 2016 The Author(s).

  8. Evolution of man in the light of molecular genetics: a review. Part I. Our evolutionary history and genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portin, Petter

    2007-07-01

    The discovery in the mid 1970s of efficient methods of DNA sequencing and their subsequent development into more and more rapid procedures followed by sequencing the genomes of many species, including man in 2001, revolutionised the whole of biology. Remarkably, new light could be cast on the evolutionary relations of different species, and the tempo and mode of evolution within a given species, notably man, could quantitatively be illuminated including ongoing evolution possibly involving also the size of the brains. This review is a short summary of the results of the molecular genetic investigations of human evolution including the time and place of the formation of our species, our evolutionary relation to the closest living species relatives as well as extinct forms of the genus Homo. The nature and amount of genetic polymorphism in man is also considered with special emphasis on the causes of this variation, and the role of natural selection in human evolution. A consensus about the mosaic nature of our genome and the rather dynamic structure of our ancestral population is gradually emerging. The modern gene pool has most likely been contributed to several different ancestral demes either before or after the emergence of the anatomically modern human phenotype in the extent that even the nature of the evolutionary lineage leading to the anatomically modern man as a distinct biological species is disputable. Regulation of the function of genes, as well as the evolution of brains will be dealt with in the second part of this review.

  9. Hyperphagic short stature: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha S Jagtap

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 5½-year-old adopted girl was referred to us in view of short stature. After ruling out systemic illness, she was evaluated for growth hormone deficiency (GHD by stimulation tests. The peak value was 3.47 ng/ml. She was then started on growth hormone (GH. At the end of 6 months of GH therapy, her height velocity was only 3 cm/year. There was a lack of attachment between the mother and the child. She had history of hyperphagia, stealing, and hoarding food. Psychiatry consultation confirmed that the child had appetite disorder, and hence was diagnosed as hyperphagic short stature (HSS. The girl and her parents are undergoing psychiatric therapy for the same. Psychosocial dwarfism seems to originate from serious disturbances in the mother-child relationship. These children mimic patients with GHD, but have poor response to GH therapy. This case underscores the importance of social environment in the growth of the individual.

  10. Short times and short distances in nuclear and particle physics: A pedagogical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    The formalism relevant to deep inelastic processes in both non- relativistic and relativistic systems is reviewed with an emphasis on scaling and its violations. In the former case we show how a systematic expansion in 1/q 2 (q being the momentum transfer) can be derived which delineates the incoherent scattering from bound state and potential corrections. We demonstrate how this exact many-body non-relativistic formalism corresponds to the light-cone operator product expansion in quantum field theory. As examples, scaling in liquids, nuclei and nucleons is discussed with emphasis on the EMC effect, shadowing and the relationship to the photo absorption limit. 8 refs., 10 figs

  11. Short notes and reviews The fossil fauna of Mazon Creek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultze, Hans-Peter

    1998-01-01

    Review of: Richardson’s Guide to the Fossil Fauna of Mazon Creek, edited by Charles W. Shabica & Andrew A. Hay. Northeastern Illinois University, Chicago, Illinois, 1997: XVIII + 308 pp., 385 figs., 4 tables, 1 faunal list; $75.00 (hard cover) ISBN 0-925065-21-8. Since the last century, the area

  12. Occupational cancers in leather tanning industries: A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, S. K.; Kesavachandran, C.; Mahdi, Farzana; Pandey, Amit

    2007-01-01

    Work in leather tanning involves exposure to a wide range of chemicals. Some of these are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens. Increased risks for a number of cancers have been reported among the tannery workers. In the present review, a detailed account of lung cancer, testicular cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer among tannery workers is mentioned. PMID:21957364

  13. Occupational cancers in leather tanning industries: A short review

    OpenAIRE

    Rastogi S; Kesavachandran C; Mahdi Farzana; Pandey Amit

    2007-01-01

    Work in leather tanning involves exposure to a wide range of chemicals. Some of these are carcinogens or suspected carcinogens. Increased risks for a number of cancers have been reported among the tannery workers. In the present review, a detailed account of lung cancer, testicular cancer, soft tissue sarcoma, pancreatic cancer, bladder cancer among tannery workers is mentioned.

  14. Short notes and reviews Amphibians of France, Belgium and Luxemburg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vences, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    As a general trend, accounts on regional and local herpetofaunas tend to become more and more colourful and extensive, and the classical borders between fieldguide, distribution atlas and handbook are fading. The book reviewed here is a good example for this trend. Edited by Rémi Duguet und Frédéric

  15. Polish scientists in fish immunology: a short history : review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muiswinkel, van W.B.; Pilarczyk, A.

    2015-01-01

    This review describes the role played by Polish scientists in the field of fish immunology and vaccination starting around 1900. In the early days, most publications were dealing with a description of relevant cells and organs in fish. Functional studies (phagocytosis, antibody response) came later

  16. A short review on photocatalytic degradation of formaldehyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tasbihi, M.; Bendyna, J.K.; Notten, P.H.L.; Hintzen, H.T.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, it is a great challenge to eliminate toxic and harmful organic pollutants from air and water. This paper reviews the role of TiO2 as a photocatalyst, light source and photoreactor in the particular case of removal of formaldehyde using the photocatalytic reaction by titanium dioxide (TiO2

  17. Asthma: epidemiology of disease control in Latin America ? short review

    OpenAIRE

    Sol?, Dirceu; Aranda, Carolina Sanchez; Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is reported as one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, impairing the quality of life of patients and their families and incurring high costs to the healthcare system and society. Despite the development of new drugs and the availability of international treatment guidelines, asthma is still poorly controlled, especially in Latin America. Original and review articles on asthma control or epidemiology with high levels of evidence have been selected for analysis among those ...

  18. THE HEALTH STATE OUR MOST PRECIOUS ASSET? A SHORT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina D. CRUCEANU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When we have health problems, we become ”consumers” of resources (financial, material, affective and so on, and personal autonomy is losing ground to dependence on others (family, friends, doctors, health system, society in general, so that, our problem can become a problem of the society which, despite its good intentions may not be able to provide the necessary support”here and now”. In order to prevent, eliminate or at least improve the causes that gave rise to the various health problems, we first need to know them. Heredity, environment and education are factors often invoked in explaining the processes and phenomena underlying at our wellbeing, indisputable thing in fact, but which of them have a higher share in the evolution of our health state, and how do they do it ? Thus, the paper aims to highlight the possible determinants of the population’s health state in general, and of the individual’s especially from the medical/health geaography point of view.

  19. The Evolution of American Hospital Ethics Committees: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtwright, Andrew; Jurchak, Martha

    2016-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, legal precedent, governmental recommendations, and professional society guidelines drove the formation of hospital ethics committees (HECs). The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Health Care Organization's requirements in the early 1990s solidified the role of HECs as the primary mechanism to address ethical issues in patient care. Because external factors drove the rapid growth of HECs on an institution-by-institution basis, however, no initial consensus formed around the structure and function of these committees. There are now almost 40 years of empirical studies on the composition, administration, and activities of HECs in the United States. We conducted a systematic review of the available empirical literature on HECs to describe their evolution. As HECs changed over time, they increased their total number of members and percentage of members from nursing and the community. Although physicians increasingly chaired these committees, their presence as a percentage of overall members declined. The percentage of administrative members remained steady, although committees became increasingly likely to have at least one administrative member. HECs were also increasingly likely to report to an administrative body or to the board of trustees or directors rather than to the medical staff. Finally, consultation volume increased steadily over time. There has not, however, been a national survey of the composition of ethics committees, their administration, or volume of consultation in more than 10 years, despite increasing calls for professional standards and quality improvement assessments among HECs. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  20. Total Quality Management in Libraries: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Yılmaz

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Total Quality Management (TQM, is a management style that aimed at customer satisfaction. In the organisations in which TQM is applied customer is in the centre of the organization. In other words, in this kind of organisations the customer comes before everything else. Reaching the highest level of the customer satisfaction is among the targets of the mentioned organizations. In this study, primarily, definition of the TQM is going to be made together with its definition, short history, purpose, benefits and factors; besides descriptive information is going to be given about internal customer, external customer, customer centered process and customer satisfaction. In the second part of the study, TQM subject is going to be discussed within the scope of the libraries widely. In this context, after explanation of customer centeredness (placing the customer at the centre, customer satisfaction and benefits of the TQM to the libraries, the subject is going to be discussed in the context of our country.

  1. A Short Review on the Trend of Mobile Marketing Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ismail

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the major classification of the research in mobile marketing. It provides the trend and common approach in mobile marketing research. The paper aims to highlight the significant area in mobile marketing research and the needs for further understanding of the mobile marketing definition and its phenomenon. This paper has significant implications in terms of understanding the classification and the mobile marketing focusing area. This is a general review based on selected approximately forty-six journal publications which are published between year 2005 until 2010 from selected journals. Based on the selected reviewed literatures, the consumers’ adoption research only focuses on a few common areas. There is no agreement among the researchers on definition of mobile marketing and the conceptualization and phenomenon of mobile marketing remain unexplained. The value of this paper is that, it provides the fundamental guidelines for researchers on significant area to focus in the mobile marketing field and it also assists practitioners in identifying the research trend and major classifications which will assist them in designing the product and services to the right target market.

  2. Three-dimensional in vitro cancer models: a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chengyang; Sun, Wei; Tang, Zhenyu; Li, Lingsong; Zhao, Yu; Yao, Rui

    2014-01-01

    The re-creation of the tumor microenvironment including tumor–stromal interactions, cell–cell adhesion and cellular signaling is essential in cancer-related studies. Traditional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture and animal models have been proven to be valid in some areas of explaining cancerous cell behavior and interpreting hypotheses of possible mechanisms. However, a well-defined three-dimensional (3D) in vitro cancer model, which mimics tumor structures found in vivo and allows cell–cell and cell–matrix interactions, has gained strong interest for a wide variety of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. This communication attempts to provide a representative overview of applying 3D in vitro biological model systems for cancer related studies. The review compares and comments on the differences in using 2D models, animal models and 3D in vitro models for cancer research. Recent technologies to construct and develop 3D in vitro cancer models are summarized in aspects of modeling design, fabrication technique and potential application to biology, pathogenesis study and drug testing. With the help of advanced engineering techniques, the development of a novel complex 3D in vitro cancer model system will provide a better opportunity to understand crucial cancer mechanisms and to develop new clinical therapies. (topical review)

  3. Why the short face? Developmental disintegration of the neurocranium drives convergent evolution in neotropical electric fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kory M; Waltz, Brandon; Tagliacollo, Victor; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Albert, James S

    2017-03-01

    Convergent evolution is widely viewed as strong evidence for the influence of natural selection on the origin of phenotypic design. However, the emerging evo-devo synthesis has highlighted other processes that may bias and direct phenotypic evolution in the presence of environmental and genetic variation. Developmental biases on the production of phenotypic variation may channel the evolution of convergent forms by limiting the range of phenotypes produced during ontogeny. Here, we study the evolution and convergence of brachycephalic and dolichocephalic skull shapes among 133 species of Neotropical electric fishes (Gymnotiformes: Teleostei) and identify potential developmental biases on phenotypic evolution. We plot the ontogenetic trajectories of neurocranial phenotypes in 17 species and document developmental modularity between the face and braincase regions of the skull. We recover a significant relationship between developmental covariation and relative skull length and a significant relationship between developmental covariation and ontogenetic disparity. We demonstrate that modularity and integration bias the production of phenotypes along the brachycephalic and dolichocephalic skull axis and contribute to multiple, independent evolutionary transformations to highly brachycephalic and dolichocephalic skull morphologies.

  4. A short review of game theory for neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, H-J; Steiger, U R

    2011-02-01

    Neurosurgery and medicine in general are increasingly dominated by economic factors and considerations. Physicians themselves have partially adopted economic terminology, although they rarely have a profound knowledge of economics. Today game theory is one of the most important factors driving microeconomics, which is the competition for limited resources within a small group of individuals. The purpose of this article is to give a short introduction to game theory and its application to the healthcare system. The Prisoner's Dilemma considers strategies between two persons. In the classic version two burglars are caught. Each could confess and be released from jail if the other does not confess--who will then get a long term in prison. If both confess, both get an intermediate time in jail, and if no one confesses, both get a mild sentence. Wanting to be released from jail, they both confess and get the intermediate term in prison. This remarkable result, initially described by John von Neumann in 1928 and showing that individually rational actions can result in both persons becoming worse off, had a great impact on modern social science. Other scenarios are more complex. The Nash Equilibrium is a wider concept. If there is a set of strategies with the property that no player can benefit by changing his strategy while the other players keep their strategies unchanged, then that set of strategies and the corresponding payoffs constitute the Nash Equilibrium. Another concept particularly important in sociology is the Pareto criterion. If no one can be made better off without making somebody else worse off, then that outcome is Pareto optimal. Respecting these basic principles is a necessary precondition for successful deals and cooperative projects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Adrenergic crisis due to pheochromocytoma - practical aspects. A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, Kajetan; Drewa, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The definitive therapy in case of pheochromocytoma is complete surgical resection. Improper preoperative assessment and medical management generally places the patient at risk for complications, resulting from an adrenergic crisis. Therefore, it is crucial to adequately optimize these patients before surgery. Optimal preoperative medical management significantly decreases morbidity and mortality during the tumor resection. This review addresses current knowledge in pre- and intraoperative assessment of a patient with pheochromocytoma. Before surgery the patient is conventionally prepared with α-adrenergic blockade (over 10-14 days) and subsequently, additional β-adrenergic blockade is required to treat any associated tachyarrhythmias. In preoperative assessment, it is obligatory to monitor arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and arrhythmias and to restore the blood volume to normal. In conclusion, due to the pathophysiological complexity of a pheochromocytoma, the strict cooperation between the cardiologist, endocrinologist, surgeon and the anaesthesiologist for an uneventful outcome should be achieved in patients qualified for the surgical removal of such a tumor.

  6. Ecotoxicological effects of selected cyanobacterial secondary metabolites a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, C.; Pflugmacher, S.

    2005-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are one of the most diverse groups of gram-negative photosynthetic prokaryotes. Many of them are able to produce a wide range of toxic secondary metabolites. These cyanobacterial toxins can be classified in five different groups: hepatotoxins, neurotoxins, cytotoxins, dermatotoxins, and irritant toxins (lipopolysaccharides). Cyanobacterial blooms are hazardous due to this production of secondary metabolites and endotoxins, which could be toxic to animals and plants. Many of the freshwater cyanobacterial blooms include species of the toxigenic genera Microcystis, Anabaena, or Plankthotrix. These compounds differ in mechanisms of uptake, affected organs, and molecular mode of action. In this review, the main focus is the aquatic environment and the effects of these toxins to the organisms living there. Some basic toxic mechanisms will be discussed in comparison to the mammalian system

  7. A Short Review of Membrane Fouling in Forward Osmosis Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Youngpil; Mulcahy, Dennis; Zou, Linda; Kim, In S.

    2017-01-01

    Interest in forward osmosis (FO) research has rapidly increased in the last decade due to problems of water and energy scarcity. FO processes have been used in many applications, including wastewater reclamation, desalination, energy production, fertigation, and food and pharmaceutical processing. However, the inherent disadvantages of FO, such as lower permeate water flux compared to pressure driven membrane processes, concentration polarisation (CP), reverse salt diffusion, the energy consumption of draw solution recovery and issues of membrane fouling have restricted its industrial applications. This paper focuses on the fouling phenomena of FO processes in different areas, including organic, inorganic and biological categories, for better understanding of this long-standing issue in membrane processes. Furthermore, membrane fouling monitoring and mitigation strategies are reviewed. PMID:28604649

  8. Alive and well: A short review about standard solar models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serenelli, Aldo [Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans S/N, Instituto de Ciencias del Espacio (ICE/CSIC-IEEC), Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain)

    2016-04-15

    Standard solar models (SSMs) provide a reference framework across a number of research fields: solar and stellar models, solar neutrinos, particle physics the most conspicuous among them. The accuracy of the physical description of the global properties of the Sun that SSMs provide has been challenged in the last decade by a number of developments in stellar spectroscopic techniques. Over the same period of time, solar neutrino experiments, and Borexino in particular, have measured the four solar neutrino fluxes from the pp-chains that are associated with 99% of the nuclear energy generated in the Sun. Borexino has also set the most stringent limit on CNO energy generation, only ∝ 40% larger than predicted by SSMs. More recently, and for the first time, radiative opacity experiments have been performed at conditions that closely resemble those at the base of the solar convective envelope. In this article, we review these developments and discuss the current status of SSMs, including its intrinsic limitations. (orig.)

  9. Biological Aspects of Emerging Benzothiazoles: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhi Ali

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years heterocyclic compounds analogues and derivatives have attracted wide attention due to their useful biological and pharmacological properties. Benzothiazole is among the usually occurring heterocyclic nuclei in many marine as well as natural plant products. Benzothiazole is a privileged bicyclic ring system with multiple applications. It is known to exhibit a wide range of biological properties including anticancer, antimicrobial, and antidiabetic, anticonvulsant, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antitubercular activities. A large number of therapeutic agents are synthesized with the help of benzothiazole nucleus. During recent years there have been some interesting developments in the biological activities of benzothiazole derivatives. These compounds have special significance in the field of medicinal chemistry due to their remarkable pharmacological potentialities. This review is mainly an attempt to present the research work reported in the recent scientific literature on different biological activities of benzothiazole compounds.

  10. Human contribution in the geomorphologic changes and short-term evolution of the Colombian Caribbean coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rangel B, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    The recent coastline evolution in the Colombian Caribbean coast is associated, among other causes, with an obvious anthropogenic influence over the littoral morphology. Along the 30 coastal cities of this region, there are areas intervened by the man, that the same time are affected by significant setbacks in their coastline. The predominant erosive trend was influenced and affected, in a lot of cases, by a chaotic human expansion and their troubles associated. General analyses in some areas allowed identify the anthropic actions, their influence and negative impacts over the morphology and recent evolution of the littoral.

  11. The role of short messaging service in supporting the delivery of healthcare: An umbrella systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Househ, Mowafa

    2016-06-01

    Short messaging service (SMS) messages may present a convenient and cost-effective method to support healthcare interventions. This work assesses the effects of short messaging service on various healthcare interventions found in systematic reviews. The search strategy was based on two key concepts: short messaging service and healthcare delivery. The initial search was conducted in December 2012 and was updated in June 2013. Of the 550 identified references, 13 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria, of which 8 were published in peer-reviewed journals and 5 were retrieved from the Cochrane library. Data analysis shows that low to moderate research evidence exists on the benefits of short messaging service interventions for appointment reminders, promoting health in developing countries and preventive healthcare. In many interventions, however, there were a few studies that were of high quality, and most of the studies were rated from low to moderate quality or had no rating at all. Healthcare organizations, policy makers, or clinicians using short messaging service messages to support healthcare interventions should (1) implement interventions that have been found to work in healthcare settings, (2) continue evaluating short messaging service interventions that have not been adequately assessed, and (3) improve collaboration between various healthcare entities to develop studies targeted at specific populations to evaluate the long-term impact of short messaging service on healthcare outcomes. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Coffee and Depression: A Short Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenore, Gian Carlo; Daglia, Maria; Orlando, Valentina; D'Urso, Emanuela; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Novellino, Ettore; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Coffee is among the most widespread and healthiest beverages in the world. It is known to be a highly rich source of biologically active natural metabolites which possess therapeutic effects (i.e. caffeine) and functional properties (i.e. chlorogenic acids). Therefore, coffee can be considered a drink which has different positive effects on human health such as cardioprotective, neuroprotective, hepatoprotective, nephroprotective, etc. However, heavy coffee consumption may be related to some unpleasant symptoms, mainly anxiety, headache, increased blood pressure, nausea, and restlessness. During the past two decades, several studies have indicated that there is a close correlation between consumption of coffee and incidence of depression. In addition, phytochemical studies showed that caffeine is the main responsible constituent for antidepressant effects of coffee through multiple molecular mechanisms. The aim of the present paper was to collect the latest literature data (from 1984 to 2014) on the positive and negative impacts of coffee consumption on the major depressive disorders and to clarify the role of bioactive constituents of coffee in the related different clinical trials. To the best of our knowledge, this the first review on this topic.

  13. Homoeopathy in the management of Dyslipidemia: A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupali D Bhalerao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of high serum total cholesterol and high level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, as a risk factor for coronary artery diseases is well established. Statin is the first-line of treatment for dyslipidemia and there are known side effects of statin therapy. This study reviews the existing information available in Homoeopathy (research and traditional knowledge for managing dyslipidemia. No rigid inclusion has been kept due to scarcity of evidence-based literature. Preclinical and clinical studies (case records to controlled trials are included. A comprehensive search from major biomedical databases including National Medical Library (PubMed, AYUSH PORTAL, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was conducted using the search term “dyslipidemia,” “atherosclerosis,” “arteriosclerosis,” “atheroma” along with “Homoeopathy.” In addition, efforts were made to search authoritative texts of authors, such homoeopathic Materia Medica, repertory, etc. Relevant research was categorized by study type and appraised according to study type and design. Four preclinical, three observational studies, and two case records were identified. From literary search, medicines commonly used in Materia Medica and drugs of Indian origin were noted. There are positive leads in managing patients suffering from dyslipidemia. However, more well-designed studies are warranted to generate effectiveness/efficacy of Homoeopathy.

  14. Sustainable materials used as stone column filler: A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukri, Azhani; Nazir, Ramli

    2018-04-01

    Stone columns (also known as granular piles) are one of the methods for soft soil stabilization and typically used to increase bearing capacity and stability of slope.; Apart from decreasing the compressibility of loose and fine graded soils, it also accelerates the consolidation effect by improving the drainage path for pore water pressure dissipation and reduces the liquefaction potential of soils during earthquake event. Stone columns are probably the most “natural” ground treatment method or foundation system in existence to date. The benefit of stone columns is owing to the partial replacement of compressible soil by more competent materials such as stone aggregate, sand and other granular materials. These substitutes also act as reinforcement material, hence increasing overall strength and stiffness of the soft soil. Nowadays, a number of research has been conducted on the behaviour and performance of stone columns with various materials utilized as column filler replacing the normal aggregate. This paper will review extensively on previously conducted research on some of the materials used as stone column backfill materials, its suitability and the effectiveness as a substitute for regular aggregates in soft soil improvement works.

  15. A short review of nanographenes: structures, properties and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yafei; Liu, Yi; Ding, Kai; Yang, Jinlong

    2018-04-01

    Graphene has attracted great interest in the science and technology since it was exfoliated mechanically from the graphite in 2004. Although graphene has various potential applications, its practical applications are constrained enormously by its serious drawbacks, such as zero band gap, tendency of aggregation between layers and hydrophobicity, which mainly caused by the infinite planar hexagonal structure of graphene. Considering that the structural defects in the honeycomb lattice and the edges of graphene break the infinite structure and thus change the properties, which may improve the application efficiency, nanographene (NG) is proposed and attracts extensive attention. In this work, we review the structures of multifarious well-defined NGs synthesised in recent experiments. The effects of the shape, size, edges and substituents of NGs to the properties are discussed in detail and the regulation for various properties of NG is analysed. For the well-defined NGs, including planar and non-planar ones, the challenges and perspectives of their potential applications in nonlinear optical material, gas molecular detector and gas separation material, hydrogen storage material, and hole-transporting material in perovskite solar cells are envisioned.

  16. How may short-duration GRBs form? A review of progenitor theories.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szécsi, Dorottya

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 108-115 ISSN 1335-1842. [INTEGRAL/BART Workshop /14./. Karlovy Vary, 03.04.2017-07.04.2017] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-10589S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : short GRB progenitor * TWUIN stars * chemically homogeneous evolution Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  17. Androgenic alopecia and dutasteride in hair mesotherapy: A short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela B Busanello

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Androgenic alopecia (AGA is the most common cause of patterned hair loss in predisposed men and women. AGA is a multifactorial and polygenetic condition, affecting up to 80% of men and 40-50% of women during life. AGA is characterized by a gradual reduction of the anagen and increase in telagen phase, leading to a progressive follicle miniaturization. As a consequence, terminal hairs are converted into vellus hairs decreasing hair density. The pathophysiology of AGA is heterogeneous and highly complex. A diverse combination of genetical factors, endocrine abnormalities, circulating androgens, drugs, diet and microinflammation in hair follicles of each individual are related to this condition. However, it is well known that androgens are the major modulators of male AGA but their specific action on female AGA is still under debate. Circulating testosterone is converted by 5a-reductase in 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT in the periphery, a decrease of anagen phase occur, anticipating catagen phase in a complex process involving apoptosis as probably microinflammation. In AGA treatment, mesotherapy is being used with 5a-reductase inhibitors, especially dutasteride, injected directly on scalp. Thus, this updated review summarized the injectable use of dutasteride based on data available on PubMed until March 2017. Dutasteride, a second-generation inhibitor of 5a-reductase is more potent than finasteride due to the capability of inhibit types 1 and 2 of the enzyme. The efficacy and safety of hair mesotherapy with dutasteride were reported by distinct groups and the best results were achieved when this compound was used in combination with other substances, increasing hair growth. This result could be explained by the multifactorial pathophysiology of AGA, involving hair follicle sensitivity to DHT and microinflammation. Therefore, a multi-therapeutic approach seems to be more effective in AGA management. In conclusion, more studies are needed to

  18. Asthma: epidemiology of disease control in Latin America - short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solé, Dirceu; Aranda, Carolina Sanchez; Wandalsen, Gustavo Falbo

    2017-01-01

    Asthma is reported as one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, impairing the quality of life of patients and their families and incurring high costs to the healthcare system and society. Despite the development of new drugs and the availability of international treatment guidelines, asthma is still poorly controlled, especially in Latin America. Original and review articles on asthma control or epidemiology with high levels of evidence have been selected for analysis among those published in PubMed referenced journals during the last 20 years, using the following keywords: "asthma control" combined with "Latin America", " epidemiology", "prevalence", "burden", "mortality", "treatment and unmet needs", "children", "adolescents", and "infants". There was a high prevalence and severity of asthma during the period analyzed, especially in children and adolescents. Wheezing in infants was a significant reason for seeking medical care in Latin American health centers. Moreover, the frequent use of quick-relief bronchodilators and oral corticosteroids by these patients indicates the lack of a policy for providing better care for asthmatic patients, as well as poor asthma control. Among adults, studies document poor treatment and control of the disease, as revealed by low adherence to routine anti-inflammatory medications and high rates of emergency care visits and hospitalization. In conclusion, although rare, studies on asthma control in Latin America repeatedly show that patients are inadequately controlled and frequently overestimate their degree of asthma control according to the criteria used by international asthma treatment guidelines. Additional education for doctors and patients is essential for adequate control of this illness, and therefore also for reduction of the individual and social burden of asthma.

  19. Nuclear Activities in Argentina. A short Review. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, Jorge A.; Radicella, Renato

    2002-01-01

    The second part of this historical review covers the 'industrial' period of nuclear energy in Argentina. The National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA), after a feasibility study carried out by argentine experts, in 1968 signed a contract to build a nuclear power plant. This PHWR plant, Atucha 1, of 310 MWe was inaugurated in 1973 and it is still operating. The same year the CNEA signed a new contract to build a CANDU type plant of 600 MWe, Embalse, that was finally inaugurated in 1983. The construction of a third plant, Atucha 2 of 745 MWe also a PHWR, was started in 1980 but was arrested in 1994, when more than 80% was completed, and it is still waiting a political decision to reach completion. Within the development of the nuclear power program, a fuel element production plant for the Argentine power reactors was built by the CNEA and a heavy water production plant of 250 tons/year was inaugurated in 1993 in the southern province of Neuquen. A pilot spent fuel reprocessing plant was designed but its construction was not completed. At the same time, a pilot gaseous diffusion plant was constructed in order to produce enriched uranium for research reactors. The activities in the field of radioisotope and radiation applications were also intensive, mainly in nuclear medicine and food preservation. A facility to fabricate sealed sources was built to process the Co 60 produced by the Embalse power plant. Argentina was active in the export of nuclear facilities: CNEA built a complete nuclear research center in Peru, and the Argentine company INVAP built research reactors in Algeria and Egypt. The same company is now building a research reactor in Australia. (author)

  20. Short Rotations in Forest Plantations Accelerate Virulence Evolution in Root-Rot Pathogenic Fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Soularue

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available As disease outbreaks in forest plantations are causing concern worldwide, a clear understanding of the influence of silvicultural practices on the development of epidemics is still lacking. Importantly, silvicultural practices are likely to simultaneously affect epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics of pathogen populations. We propose a genetically explicit and individual-based model of virulence evolution in a root-rot pathogenic fungus spreading across forest landscapes, taking the Armillaria ostoyae–Pinus pinaster pathosystem as reference. We used the model to study the effects of rotation length on the evolution of virulence and the propagation of the fungus within a forest landscape composed of even-aged stands regularly altered by clear-cutting and thinning operations. The life cycle of the fungus modeled combines asexual and sexual reproduction modes, and also includes parasitic and saprotrophic phases. Moreover, the tree susceptibility to the pathogen is primarily determined by the age of the stand. Our simulations indicated that the shortest rotation length accelerated both the evolution of virulence and the development of the epidemics, whatever the genetic variability in the initial fungal population and the asexuality rate of the fungal species

  1. The Semantic Drift of Quotations in Blogspace: A Case Study in Short-Term Cultural Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerique, Sébastien; Roth, Camille

    2018-01-01

    We present an empirical case study that connects psycholinguistics with the field of cultural evolution, in order to test for the existence of cultural attractors in the evolution of quotations. Such attractors have been proposed as a useful concept for understanding cultural evolution in relation with individual cognition, but their existence has been hard to test. We focus on the transformation of quotations when they are copied from blog to blog or media website: by coding words with a number of well-studied lexical features, we show that the way words are substituted in quotations is consistent (a) with the hypothesis of cultural attractors and (b) with known effects of the word features. In particular, words known to be harder to recall in lists have a higher tendency to be substituted, and words easier to recall are produced instead. Our results support the hypothesis that cultural attractors can result from the combination of individual cognitive biases in the interpretation and reproduction of representations. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  2. How adaptive learning affects evolution: reviewing theory on the Baldwin effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sznajder, B.; Sabelis, M.W.; Egas, M.

    2012-01-01

    We review models of the Baldwin effect, i.e., the hypothesis that adaptive learning (i.e., learning to improve fitness) accelerates genetic evolution of the phenotype. Numerous theoretical studies scrutinized the hypothesis that a non-evolving ability of adaptive learning accelerates evolution of

  3. Short Communication: Evolution of HIV-1 Coreceptor Usage and Coreceptor Switching During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Ransy, Doris G.; Motorina, Alena; Merindol, Natacha; Akouamba, Bertine S.; Samson, Johanne; Lie, Yolanda; Napolitano, Laura A.; Lapointe, Normand; Boucher, Marc; Soudeyns, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Coreceptor switch from CCR5 to CXCR4 is associated with HIV disease progression. To document the evolution of coreceptor tropism during pregnancy, a longitudinal study of envelope gene sequences was performed in a group of pregnant women infected with HIV-1 of clade B (n=10) or non-B (n=9). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the V1-V3 region was performed on plasma viral RNA, followed by cloning and sequencing. Using geno2pheno and PSSMX4R5, the presence of X4 variants was predi...

  4. Deviation Among Technology Reviews: An Informative Enrichment of Technology Evolution Theory for Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sood, Ashish; Stremersch, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding technological change is of critical importance to marketers, as it bears new markets, new brands, new customers, and new market leaders. This paper examines the deviation among reviews of a technology’s performance and its consequences for inferences on technology evolution patterns. The basic premise of the current paper is that technology evolution literature, while highly relevant, is misguided in that it ignores potential deviation among technology reviews. Using...

  5. The effects of short-lived radionuclides and porosity on the early thermo-mechanical evolution of planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Tim; Golabek, Gregor J.; Gerya, Taras V.; Meyer, Michael R.

    2016-08-01

    The thermal history and internal structure of chondritic planetesimals, assembled before the giant impact phase of chaotic growth, potentially yield important implications for the final composition and evolution of terrestrial planets. These parameters critically depend on the internal balance of heating versus cooling, which is mostly determined by the presence of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs), such as 26Al and 60Fe, as well as the heat conductivity of the material. The heating by SLRs depends on their initial abundances, the formation time of the planetesimal and its size. It has been argued that the cooling history is determined by the porosity of the granular material, which undergoes dramatic changes via compaction processes and tends to decrease with time. In this study we assess the influence of these parameters on the thermo-mechanical evolution of young planetesimals with both 2D and 3D simulations. Using the code family I2ELVIS/I3ELVIS we have run numerous 2D and 3D numerical finite-difference fluid dynamic models with varying planetesimal radius, formation time and initial porosity. Our results indicate that powdery materials lowered the threshold for melting and convection in planetesimals, depending on the amount of SLRs present. A subset of planetesimals retained a powdery surface layer which lowered the thermal conductivity and hindered cooling. The effect of initial porosity was small, however, compared to those of planetesimal size and formation time, which dominated the thermo-mechanical evolution and were the primary factors for the onset of melting and differentiation. We comment on the implications of this work concerning the structure and evolution of these planetesimals, as well as their behavior as possible building blocks of terrestrial planets.

  6. Experimental Study of Thermal Field Evolution in the Short-Impending Stage Before Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yaqiong; Ma, Jin; Liu, Peixun; Chen, Shunyun

    2017-08-01

    Phenomena at critical points are vital for identifying the short-impending stage prior to earthquakes. The peak stress is a critical point when stress is converted from predominantly accumulation to predominantly release. We call the duration between the peak stress and instability "the meta-instability stage", which refers to the short-impending stage of earthquakes. The meta-instability stage consists of a steady releasing quasi-static stage and an accelerated releasing quasi-dynamic stage. The turning point of the above two stages is the remaining critical point. To identify the two critical points in the field, it is necessary to study the characteristic phenomena of various physical fields in the meta-instability stage in the laboratory, and the strain and displacement variations were studied. Considering that stress and relative displacement can be detected by thermal variations and peculiarities in the full-field observations, we employed a cooled thermal infrared imaging system to record thermal variations in the meta-instability stage of stick slip events generated along a simulated, precut planer strike slip fault in a granodiorite block on a horizontally bilateral servo-controlled press machine. The experimental results demonstrate the following: (1) a large area of decreasing temperatures in wall rocks and increasing temperatures in sporadic sections of the fault indicate entrance into the meta-instability stage. (2) The rapid expansion of regions of increasing temperatures on the fault and the enhancement of temperature increase amplitude correspond to the turning point from the quasi-static stage to the quasi-dynamic stage. Our results reveal thermal indicators for the critical points prior to earthquakes that provide clues for identifying the short-impending stage of earthquakes.

  7. Short Message Service (SMS) as an Educational Tool during Pregnancy: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Kim; Sliwa, Karen; Stewart, Simon; Carrington, Melinda; Pretorius, Sandra; Libhaber, Elena; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Adebayo, Esther F.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Background: In many low- and middle-income countries, access to health information during pregnancy is poor. The rapid adoption of mobile phones in these countries has created new opportunities for disseminating such information. Objective: This paper reviews existing information on the use of short message services (SMSs) as a feasible tool to…

  8. Fostering Psychiatry in Ghana: The Impact of a Short Review Course through an International Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugharne, Jonathan; Appiah-Poku, John; Laugharne, Richard; Stanley, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the current study was to evaluate a short review course in psychiatry conducted at the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology medical school and any change in student interest in a career in psychiatry. Method: Students were asked to complete a general psychiatric knowledge questionnaire before and immediately…

  9. Short message service (SMS) as an educational tool during pregnancy : A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Kim; Sliwa, Karen; Stewart, Simon; Carrington, Melinda; Pretorius, Sandra; Libhaber, Elena; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Adebayo, Esther F.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Background: In many low- and middle-income countries, access to health information during pregnancy is poor. The rapid adoption of mobile phones in these countries has created new opportunities for disseminating such information. Objective: This paper reviews existing information on the use of short

  10. Barley yellow dwarf disease as a target of breeding for resistance (short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Golnik

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to give a brief review of some points of wide knowledge of barley yellow dwarf (BYD disease and its breeding for resistance program.Yd2 gene has been shortly characterised. Current situation in Poland has been underlined.

  11. Book Review: Evolution's Chimera: Bats and the Marvel of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Book Title: Evolution's Chimera: Bats and the Marvel of Evolutionary Adaptation. Book Author: David Jacobs. 2016, University of Cape Town Press, Juta and Company (Pty) Ltd, PO Box 14373, Lansdowne 7779, Cape Town, South Africa Softcover, 204 pages. ISBN 978-1-77582-212-7. Price R299 ...

  12. Water location, piospheres and a review of evolution in African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main radiation of large mammalian herbivores in Africa took place in the Pliocene–Pleistocene, when a long-term trend towards aridification promoted grasslands and the diversification of ruminant grazers. Traditional models of this evolution identify habitat fragmentation in response to climate change as the primary ...

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE The evolution of religious belief in humans: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Navya

    2017-04-04

    Apr 4, 2017 ... evolution, were co-opted for use in flight, which then became a ... activates the same regions as when actual faces are seen and recognized in everyday life, and ... our evolutionary needs kicked in and gave rise to morality.

  14. Evolution of short range order in Ar: Liquid to glass and solid transitions-A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Stanislav; Yahel, Eyal; Makov, Guy

    2018-04-01

    The evolution of the short range order (SRO) as a function of temperature in a Lennard-Jones model liquid with Ar parameters was determined and juxtaposed with thermodynamic and kinetic properties obtained as the liquid was cooled (heated) and transformed between crystalline solid or glassy states and an undercooled liquid. The Lennard-Jones system was studied by non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of large supercells (approximately 20000 atoms) rapidly cooled or heated at selected quenching rates and at constant pressure. The liquid to solid transition was identified by discontinuities in the atomic volume and molar enthalpy; the glass transition temperature range was identified from the temperature dependence of the self-diffusion. The SRO was studied within the quasi-crystalline model (QCM) framework and compared with the Steinhardt bond order parameters. Within the QCM it was found that the SRO evolves from a bcc-like order in the liquid through a bct-like short range order (c/a=1.2) in the supercooled liquid which persists into the glass and finally to a fcc-like ordering in the crystalline solid. The variation of the SRO that results from the QCM compares well with that obtained with Steinhardt's bond order parameters. The hypothesis of icosahedral order in liquids and glasses is not supported by our results.

  15. A review on the young history of the wind power short-term prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, A.; Crespo, A.; Navarro, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper makes a brief review on 30 years of history of the wind power short-term prediction, since the first ideas and sketches on the theme to the actual state of the art oil models and tools, giving emphasis to the most significant proposals and developments. The two principal lines of thought...... on short-term prediction (mathematical and physical) are indistinctly treated here and comparisons between models and tools are avoided, mainly because, on the one hand, a standard for a measure of performance is still not adopted and, on the other hand, it is very important that the data are exactly...

  16. Short dental implants: A scoping review of the literature for patients with head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edher, Faraj; Nguyen, Caroline T

    2017-09-16

    Dental implants can be essential in the rehabilitation of various cancer defects, but their ideal placement can be complicated by the limited dimensions of the available host bone. Surgical interventions developed to increase the amount of bone are not all predictable or successful and can sometimes be contraindicated. Short dental implants have been suggested as an alternative option in sites where longer implants are not possible. Whether they provide a successful treatment option is unclear. The purpose of this study was to review the literature on short dental implants and assess whether they are a viable definitive treatment option for rehabilitating cancer patients with deficient bone. A scoping review of the literature was performed, including a search of established periodontal textbooks for articles on short dental implants combined with a search of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. A search for all literature published before June 2016 was based on the following keywords: ['dental implants' OR 'dental implantation, endosseous' OR 'dental prosthesis, implant supported'] AND [short]. The minimum acceptable implant length has been considered to be 6 mm. The survival rates of short implants varied between 74% and 96% at 5 years, depending on factors such as the quality of the patient's bone, primary stability of the implant, clinician's learning curve, and implant surface. Short implants can achieve results similar to those of longer implants in augmented bone and offer a treatment alternative that could reduce the need for invasive surgery and associated morbidity and be safer and more economical. Short dental implants (6 mm to 8 mm) can be used successfully to support single or multiple fixed reconstructions or overdentures in atrophic maxillae and mandibles. The use of short dental implants lessens the need for advanced and complicated surgical bone augmentation procedures, which reduces complications

  17. Late-Cenozoic relief evolution under evolving climate: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Champagnac Jean Daniel; Valla Pierre G.; Herman Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present review paper is an attempt to summarize quantitative evidence of Late Cenozoic changes in topographic relief. Different meanings of the word "relief" as it is commonly used and detail the metrics used to quantify it. We then specify methodological tools used to quantify relief change (primarily low temperature thermochronometry and terrestrial cosmogenic nuclides) and analyze published evidence for different regions.Our review first shows that relief changes and rates of changes a...

  18. SHORT LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS OF THE INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS

    OpenAIRE

    RATIU Mariana

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the result of a short literature review on the kinematics and dynamics of the industrial robots, a first study conducted in a wider research that will be further developed in the field of the trajectory generating mechanisms of the industrial robots. After an introduction about the importance of the robots in the industrial processes and about the necessity to streamline and optimize the robot`s motion, are presented some recent approaches related to the kinematic and dynamic an...

  19. A Short review on wrought austenitic stainless steels at high temperatures: processing, microstructure, properties and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Lesley Plaut

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Wrought austenitic stainless steels are widely used in high temperature applications. This short review discusses initially the processing of this class of steels, with emphasis on solidification and hot working behavior. Following, a brief summary is made on the precipitation behavior and the numerous phases that may appear in their microstructures. Creep and oxidation resistance are, then, briefly discussed, and finalizing their performance is compared with other high temperature metallic materials.

  20. Review of short-lived radionuclide activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodd, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of the accelerator-produced short-lived radionuclides which are used in radiopharmaceuticals available commercially in the US and of the accelerator facilities devoted primarily to their production. Reactions for the efficient production of 67 Ga, 81 Rb → /sup 81m/Kr, 111 In, 201 Tl, and 123 I are given. Methods for the production of higher purity 123 I are suggested

  1. Comparing Short Dental Implants to Standard Dental Implants: Protocol for a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokn, Amir Reza; Keshtkar, Abbasali; Monzavi, Abbas; Hashemi, Kazem; Bitaraf, Tahereh

    2018-01-18

    Short dental implants have been proposed as a simpler, cheaper, and faster alternative for the rehabilitation of atrophic edentulous areas to avoid the disadvantages of surgical techniques for increasing bone volume. This review will compare short implants (4 to 8 mm) to standard implants (larger than 8 mm) in edentulous jaws, evaluating on the basis of marginal bone loss (MBL), survival rate, complications, and prosthesis failure. We will electronically search for randomized controlled trials comparing short dental implants to standard dental implants in the following databases: PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov with English language restrictions. We will manually search the reference lists of relevant reviews and the included articles in this review. The following journals will also be searched: European Journal of Oral Implantology, Clinical Oral Implants Research, and Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research. Two reviewers will independently perform the study selection, data extraction and quality assessment (using the Cochrane Collaboration tool) of included studies. All meta-analysis procedures including appropriate effect size combination, sub-group analysis, meta-regression, assessing publication or reporting bias will be performed using Stata (Statacorp, TEXAS) version 12.1. Short implant effectiveness will be assessed using the mean difference of MBL in terms of weighted mean difference (WMD) and standardized mean difference (SMD) using Cohen's method. The combined effect size measures in addition to the related 95% confidence intervals will be estimated by a fixed effect model. The heterogeneity of the related effect size will be assessed using a Q Cochrane test and I2 measure. The MBL will be presented by a standardized mean difference with a 95% confidence interval. The survival rate of implants, prostheses failures, and complications will be reported using a risk

  2. The Evolution of the Wechsler Memory Scale: A Selective Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Phillip

    2013-02-27

    In clinical use since 1940, the Wechsler Memory Scale was formally introduced to the psychological community in 1945. By 1946, it ranked 90th out of the 100 most frequently used psychological tests. By 1969, it was the 19th most used psychological test and the 2nd most used test of memory. By 1982, it was the 12th most used test and the most used memory test-a popularity it continues to enjoy. The present article will briefly trace the origin of the Wechsler Memory Scale and examine its evolution across the revisions that appeared in 1987, 1997, and 2009. Issues with norming and standardization, as well as reliability and validity, will be summarized. It is argued that the test continues to have several serious shortcomings, including a lack of anchoring in an explicit neuroanatomical theory of memory and an underlying factor structure that appears to have changed little despite changes in the manifest structure and content of the test.

  3. Reviewing colchicaceae alkaloids – perspectives of evolution on medicinal chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Sonny; Rønsted, Nina

    2014-01-01

    . In this review an approach of taking phylogenetic classification into account in evaluating colchicine and related phenethylisoquinoline alkaloids from the family Colchicaceae will be applied. Following on the trends of utilizing evolutionary reasoning in inferring mechanisms in eg. drug resistance in cancer...

  4. Review of Nursing Literature: Evolution of Gerontological Education in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipose, Vimala; And Others

    1991-01-01

    A literature review found that (1) many students and nurses held negative views of the elderly, affecting career choices; (2) gerontological content in baccalaureate nursing programs ranged from little or none to adequate; and (3) a severe shortage of faculty prepared to teach gerontological nursing and negative attitudes toward this…

  5. Evolution of space drones for planetary exploration: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanalian, M.; Rice, D.; Abdelkefi, A.

    2018-02-01

    In the past decade, there has been a tendency to design and fabricate drones which can perform planetary exploration. Generally, there are various ways to study space objects, such as the application of telescopes and satellites, launching robots and rovers, and sending astronauts to the targeted solar bodies. However, due to the advantages of drones compared to other approaches in planetary exploration, ample research has been carried out by different space agencies in the world, including NASA to apply drones in other solar bodies. In this review paper, several studies which have been performed on space drones for planetary exploration are consolidated and discussed. Design and fabrication challenges of space drones, existing methods for their flight tests, different methods for deployment and planet entry, and various navigation and control approaches are reviewed and discussed elaborately. Limitations of applying space drones, proposed solutions for future space drones, and recommendations are also presented and discussed.

  6. Diversification, evolution and methylation of short interspersed nuclear element families in sugar beet and related Amaranthaceae species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwichtenberg, Katrin; Wenke, Torsten; Zakrzewski, Falk; Seibt, Kathrin M; Minoche, André; Dohm, Juliane C; Weisshaar, Bernd; Himmelbauer, Heinz; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons which are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. While SINEs have been intensively studied in animals, only limited information is available about plant SINEs. We analysed 22 SINE families from seven genomes of the Amaranthaceae family and identified 34 806 SINEs, including 19 549 full-length copies. With the focus on sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), we performed a comparative analysis of the diversity, genomic and chromosomal organization and the methylation of SINEs to provide a detailed insight into the evolution and age of Amaranthaceae SINEs. The lengths of consensus sequences of SINEs range from 113 nucleotides (nt) up to 224 nt. The SINEs show dispersed distribution on all chromosomes but were found with higher incidence in subterminal euchromatic chromosome regions. The methylation of SINEs is increased compared with their flanking regions, and the strongest effect is visible for cytosines in the CHH context, indicating an involvement of asymmetric methylation in the silencing of SINEs. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. In Review (Geology): Alpine Landscape Evolution Dominated by Cirque Retreat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskin, Michael; Burbank, Doug

    2005-01-01

    Despite the abundance in alpine terrain of glacially dissected landscapes, the magnitude and geometry of glacial erosion can rarely be defined. In the eastern Kyrgyz Range, a widespread unconformity exhumed as a geomorphic surface provides a regional datum with which to calibrate erosion. As tectonically driven surface uplift has progressively pushed this surface into the zone of ice accumulation, glacial erosion has overprinted the landscape. With as little as 500 m of incision into rocks underlying the unconformity, distinctive glacial valleys display their deepest incision adjacent to cirque headwalls. The expansion of north-facing glacial cirques at the expense of south-facing valleys has driven the drainage divide southwards at rates up to 2 to 3 times the rate of valley incision. Existing ice-flux-based glacial erosion rules incompletely model expansion of glacial valleys via cirque retreat into the low-gradient unconformity remnants. Local processes that either directly sap cirque headwalls or inhibit erosion down-glacier appear to control, at least initially, alpine landscape evolution.

  8. The evolution of genome mining in microbes – a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziemert, Nadine; Alanjary, Mohammad; Weber, Tilmann

    2016-01-01

    Covering: 2006 to 2016. The computational mining of genomes has become an important part in the discovery of novel natural products as drug leads. Thousands of bacterial genome sequences are publically available these days containing an even larger number and diversity of secondary metabolite gene...... clusters that await linkage to their encoded natural products. With the development of high-throughput sequencing methods and the wealth of DNA data available, a variety of genome mining methods and tools have been developed to guide discovery and characterisation of these compounds. This article reviews...

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Evolution and Belief. Confessions of a Religious Paleontologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, R. J.; Sterken, C.

    2014-01-01

    The author says in the prologue of this book: "I want to chart a course through the false notion that evolution rules out religious belief". That is exactly what he does, in twelve well-documented and well-written chapters. The author's viewpoint is that science (evolutionary science in particular) and religion occupy non-overlapping domains, and are basically compatible with one another in the sense that they deal with fundamentally different questions. He also describes in detail what he means by the phrase "materialist orientation of modern science". This book recounts discoveries in molecular biology and paleontology, nevertheless it contains several useful lessons for anyone active in the earth and space sciences. For example, that long periods of equilibrium can be disrupted by what appear sudden episodes of change: this issue is a fact that is well known to variable-star observers, even more so in any research that relates to period changes. Another useful field to learn from by analogy is classification of whatever kind of phenomenon, or the non-randomness of some mechanisms (like evolution by natural selection). Not to forget that cosmology - just like evolutionary biology - took centuries to emancipate from its misappropriated religious implications. The author describes that there are two factors that contributed to the modern revolution in the utility of molecular data for genetics: improvements in laboratory techniques, and the Open-Access DNA databases that are fed by compulsory submission of every DNA sequence that has been used for a paper in a scientific journal. Improvement of observational techniques, and free access to (virtual-)observatory databases are exactly what drives progress in astronomy, though compulsory publication of data is still wanting. Not to speak of an important lesson: since we do not know in advance which data the future will need in particular investigations, "the process of adding more data is iterative, not circular". This

  10. Short-Range Noncontact Sensors for Healthcare and Other Emerging Applications: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzhan Gu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-range noncontact sensors are capable of remotely detecting the precise movements of the subjects or wirelessly estimating the distance from the sensor to the subject. They find wide applications in our day lives such as noncontact vital sign detection of heart beat and respiration, sleep monitoring, occupancy sensing, and gesture sensing. In recent years, short-range noncontact sensors are attracting more and more efforts from both academia and industry due to their vast applications. Compared to other radar architectures such as pulse radar and frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW radar, Doppler radar is gaining more popularity in terms of system integration and low-power operation. This paper reviews the recent technical advances in Doppler radars for healthcare applications, including system hardware improvement, digital signal processing, and chip integration. This paper also discusses the hybrid FMCW-interferometry radars and the emerging applications and the future trends.

  11. Evolution of the Automotive Body Coating Process—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson K. Akafuah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automotive coatings and the processes used to coat automobile surfaces exemplify the avant-garde of technologies that are capable of producing durable surfaces, exceeding customers’ expectations of appearance, maximizing efficiency, and meeting environmental regulations. These accomplishments are rooted in 100 years of experience, trial-and-error approaches, technique and technology advancements, and theoretical assessments. Because of advancements directed at understanding the how, why, when, and where of automobile coatings, the progress in controlling droplets and their deposition attributes, and the development of new technologies and paint chemistries, a comprehensive and up-to-date review of automobile coatings and coating technologies was considered to be of value to industrial practitioners and researchers. Overall, the critical performance factors driving the development and use of advanced automotive coatings and coating technologies are (a aesthetic characteristics; (b corrosion protection; (c mass production; (d cost and environmental requirements; and (e appearance and durability. Although the relative importance of each of these factors is debatable, the perfection of any one at the expense of another would be unacceptable. Hence, new developments in automotive coatings are described and discussed in the following review, and then related to improvements in production technologies and paints. Modern automotive coating procedures are also discussed in detail. Finally, an extrapolation into the future of automotive coating is offered with a view of the developments and technologies needed for an increasingly efficient and more sustainable coatings industry.

  12. Deviation Among Technology Reviews: An Informative Enrichment of Technology Evolution Theory for Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sood (Ashish); S. Stremersch (Stefan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUnderstanding technological change is of critical importance to marketers, as it bears new markets, new brands, new customers, and new market leaders. This paper examines the deviation among reviews of a technology’s performance and its consequences for inferences on technology evolution

  13. Short- and long-term impact of critical illness on relatives: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Fiona; Rattray, Janice

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a literature review undertaken to identify the short- and long-term impact of critical illness on relatives. Patients in intensive care can experience physical and psychological consequences, and their relatives may also experience such effects. Although it is recognized that relatives have specific needs, it is not clear whether these needs are always met and whether further support is required, particularly after intensive care. The following databases were searched for the period 1950-2007: Medline, British Nursing Index and Archive, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and EMB Reviews--Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials. Search terms focused on adult relatives of critically ill adult patients during and after intensive care. Recurrent topics were categorized to structure the review, i.e. 'relatives needs', 'meeting relatives' needs', 'interventions', 'satisfaction', 'psychological outcomes' and 'coping'. Studies have mainly identified relatives' immediate needs using the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. There are few studies of interventions to meet relatives' needs and the short- and long-term effects of critical illness on relatives. Despite widespread use of the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory, factors such as local or cultural differences may influence relatives' needs. Relatives may also have unidentified needs, and these needs should be explored. Limited research has been carried out into interventions to meet relatives' needs and the effects of critical illness on their well-being, yet some relatives may experience negative psychological consequences far beyond the acute phase of the illness.

  14. Short fiber-reinforced composite restorations: A review of the current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoushi, Sufyan; Gargoum, Ausama; Vallittu, Pekka K; Lassila, Lippo

    2018-02-25

    A newly-recommended method for restoring large cavities is the biomimetic approach of using short fiber-reinforced composite (SFRC) as dentine-replacing material. The aim of the current review was to present an overview of SFRC and to give the clinician a detailed understanding of this new material and treatment strategy based on available-literature review. A thorough literature search was done up to December 2017. The range of relevant publications was surveyed using PubMed and Google Scholar. From the search results, articles related to our search terms were only considered. The search terms used were "short fiber-reinforced composite", "everX posterior", and "fiber-reinforced composite restorations". Of the assessed articles selected (N = 70), most were laboratory-based research with various test specimen designs prepared according to the ISO standard or with extracted teeth; only four articles were clinical reports. A common finding was that by combining the SFRC as a bulk base with conventional composite, the load-bearing capacity and failure mode of the material combination were improved, as compared to plain conventional composite restoration. In the reviewed studies, the biomimetic restoration technique of using SFRC showed promising characteristics, and therefore, might be recommended as an alternative treatment option for large cavities. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  15. A review on the young history of the wind power short-term prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Alexandre; Navarro, Jorge [Wind Energy, Division of Renewable Energies, Department of Energy, CIEMAT, Av. Complutense, 22, Ed. 42, 28044 Madrid (Spain); Crespo, Antonio [Laboratorio de Mecanica de Fluidos, Departmento de Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, ETSII, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2-28006 Madrid (Spain); Lizcano, Gil [Oxford University Centre for the Environment, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QY (United Kingdom); Madsen, Henrik [Informatics and Mathematical Modelling - IMM, Technical University of Denmark, Richard Petersens Plads, Building 321, Office 019, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Feitosa, Everaldo [Brazilian Wind Energy Centre - CBEE, Centro de Tecnologia e Geociencias, UFPE-50.740-530 Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2008-08-15

    This paper makes a brief review on 30 years of history of the wind power short-term prediction, since the first ideas and sketches on the theme to the actual state of the art on models and tools, giving emphasis to the most significant proposals and developments. The two principal lines of thought on short-term prediction (mathematical and physical) are indistinctly treated here and comparisons between models and tools are avoided, mainly because, on the one hand, a standard for a measure of performance is still not adopted and, on the other hand, it is very important that the data are exactly the same in order to compare two models (this fact makes it almost impossible to carry out a quantitative comparison between a huge number of models and methods). In place of a quantitative description, a qualitative approach is preferred for this review, remarking the contribution (and innovative aspect) of each model. On the basis of the review, some topics for future research are pointed out. (author)

  16. Evolution of optic nerve photography for glaucoma screening: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jonathan S; Fudemberg, Scott J; Lee, Daniel

    2018-03-01

    Visual evaluation of the optic nerve has been one of the earliest and most widely used methods to evaluate patients for glaucoma. Photography has proven very useful for documentation of the nerve's appearance at a given time, allowing more detailed scrutiny then, and later comparison for change. Photography serves as the basis for real-time or non-simultaneous review in telemedicine and screening events allowing fundus and optic nerve evaluation by experts elsewhere. Expert evaluation of disc photographs has shown diagnostic performance similar to other methods of optic nerve evaluation for glaucoma. Newer technology has made optic nerve photography simpler, cheaper and more portable creating opportunities for broader utilization in screening in underserved populations by non-physicians. Recent investigations suggest that non-physicians or software algorithms for disc photograph evaluation have promise to allow more screening to be done with fewer experts. © 2017 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  17. Evolution of RFID Applications in Construction: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Enrique; Adán, Antonio; Cerrada, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) technology has been widely used in the field of construction during the last two decades. Basically, RFID facilitates the control on a wide variety of processes in different stages of the lifecycle of a building, from its conception to its inhabitance. The main objective of this paper is to present a review of RFID applications in the construction industry, pointing out the existing developments, limitations and gaps. The paper presents the establishment of the RFID technology in four main stages of the lifecycle of a facility: planning and design, construction and commission and operation and maintenance. Concerning this last stage, an RFID application aiming to facilitate the identification of pieces of furniture in scanned inhabited environments is presented. Conclusions and future advances are presented at the end of the paper. PMID:26151210

  18. Review of simulation in paediatrics: The evolution of a revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul eOjha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent changes in medical education have highlighted the importance of experiential learning. Simulation is one model that has gained significant attention in the last decade and has been widely adopted as a training and assessment tool in medical education. Paediatric simulation has been utilized to teach various skills including resuscitation and trauma management, procedural skills and team training. It is also a valuable tool for health care educators, as it allows learners to achieve competence without putting patients at risk. Recent literature demonstrates increased retention of knowledge and skills after simulation based training. Further research is required to improve current simulation curriculums, develop validated assessment tools and to demonstrate improved clinical outcomes after simulation based training. We conducted an online search of original and review articles related to simulation and paediatric medical education and provide an overview of the role and utility of simulation in paediatrics.

  19. Diversity and adaptive evolution of Saccharomyces wine yeast: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsit, Souhir; Dequin, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and related species, the main workhorses of wine fermentation, have been exposed to stressful conditions for millennia, potentially resulting in adaptive differentiation. As a result, wine yeasts have recently attracted considerable interest for studying the evolutionary effects of domestication. The widespread use of whole-genome sequencing during the last decade has provided new insights into the biodiversity, population structure, phylogeography and evolutionary history of wine yeasts. Comparisons between S. cerevisiae isolates from various origins have indicated that a variety of mechanisms, including heterozygosity, nucleotide and structural variations, introgressions, horizontal gene transfer and hybridization, contribute to the genetic and phenotypic diversity of S. cerevisiae. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the diversity and evolutionary history of wine yeasts, focusing on the domestication fingerprints identified in these strains. PMID:26205244

  20. Addison's Disease in Evolution: An Illustrative Case and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Laura E; Kline, Gregory A; Dias, Valerian C

    2014-09-01

    To present a case of symptomatic autoimmune adrenal insufficiency with initially normal serum cortisol and to caution about limitations of the current diagnostic algorithm for adrenal insufficiency, which does not reflect the pathophysiology of early disease. We describe the clinical presentation and relevant investigations of a patient ultimately found to have Addison's disease, which is followed by a focused review of the literature. A 41-year-old Caucasian woman with autoimmune hypothyroidism, premature ovarian failure, and microscopic colitis presented with nausea, salt craving, increased skin pigmentation, and postural hypotension. Initial bloodwork revealed a normal morning cortisol of level of 19.2 μg/dL (normal, 7.2 to 25 μg/dL) but an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) level 10 times normal, at 513.6 pg/mL (normal, <52.5 pg/mL). Her potassium was normal, but her aldosterone level was 4.12 ng/dL (normal, 12.3 to 62.5 ng/dL) and her renin activity was increased (23.0 mg/dL/hour; normal, <6.0 mg/dL/hour). Six weeks after initial presentation, she was found to have anti-adrenal antibodies. It was not until 10 weeks after her initial symptomatic presentation that her morning cortisol level was found to be subnormal and a formal diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency was made. The present case and literature review reveal that common diagnostic approaches will miss patients with (possibly symptomatic) early adrenal insufficiency. We suggest that serum ACTH level testing or tests of mineralocorticoid function be included in the initial step of investigation for suspected primary adrenal insufficiency.

  1. Effects of external focus of attention on balance: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Hee; Yi, Chae Woo; Shin, Ju Yong; Ryu, Young Uk

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] The present study reviewed studies that examined the effects of attentional focus on balance. [Methods] Keywords such as "attentional", "focus", and "balance" were used to find relevant research papers in PubMed (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed). Forty-five papers were found, and 18 of them were used for this study, excluding review papers and papers irrelevant to the topic of this study. [Results] Among the papers used for the review, the number of papers in which external focus produced effective outcomes was 15 (83.3%). The number of papers in which both external and internal focus produced effective outcomes was 2 (11.1%). The number of paper in which no instruction about attentional focus was effective was 1 (5.5%), and the number of papers in which internal focus was effective was zero. [Conclusion] This short review suggests clinical implications about how physical therapists can use attentional focus for balance rehabilitation of patients. Instructions about external focus of attention can generally be useful as a method to improve posture and balance control. Furthermore, the present reviews indicates that external focus of attention would be more useful in a rehabilitation stage in which the difficulty level of balance performance is gradually increased.

  2. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of kidney, presenting with leucocytosis as paraneoplastic syndrome: A case report and short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Ghosh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is the ninth most common malignancy. The commonest histopathological type is clear cell carcinoma. The occurrence of sarcomatoid carcinoma is very rare and confers a very poor prognosis. Only 10-20% patients present with paraneoplastic syndromes. Out of the common paraneoplastic syndromes, leucocytosis is one of the least reported. Here, we present a case of sarcomatoid carcinoma of kidney who presented with low-grade fever and leucocytosis, followed by a short review of literature. This is one of the rare situations where a rare histologic variant presents with a rare finding.

  3. SHORT LITERATURE REVIEW ON THE KINEMATICS AND DYNAMICS OF THE INDUSTRIAL ROBOTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATIU Mariana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper is the result of a short literature review on the kinematics and dynamics of the industrial robots, a first study conducted in a wider research that will be further developed in the field of the trajectory generating mechanisms of the industrial robots. After an introduction about the importance of the robots in the industrial processes and about the necessity to streamline and optimize the robot`s motion, are presented some recent approaches related to the kinematic and dynamic analysis, the optimization of the robot`s motion, and modeling of the trajectory generating mechanism of the industrial robots.

  4. The structure and formation of functional hard coatings: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diciuc Vlad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Turning tools come in different shapes and sizes, geometry, base material and coating, according to their destination. They are widely used both for obtaining parts and for machinability tests. In this paper a short review about high-speed steel (HSS turning tools and their coatings is presented. Hard coatings formed on the tool material should be functional depending on the tool final application. Requirements for hard coatings and technological problems for layer formation on the real cutting tool are discussed.

  5. Butterfly vertebra. A case report and a short review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, S; Giovannopoulou, E; Nastoulis, E; Demetriou, T

    2016-01-01

    A butterfly vertebra is a rare congenital anomaly, encountered as isolated finding or as part of syndromic diseases. We report a case of a 40-year- old female presenting with low back pain and sciatica due to 'butterfly' dysplasia of the first sacral vertebra. This novel case includes posterolateral displacement of the completely separated hemivertebrae, causing left lateral recess stenosis and compression of S1 nerve root. Additionally, we conducted a short review of the literature. Few cases are reported in literature. Only one refers to a sacral vertebra. There is no previous case of a butterfly vertebra that accounts for narrowing of the lateral recess and associated radiculopathy.

  6. Short-wavelength free-electron laser sources and science: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, E. A.; Clarke, J. A.; Dunning, D. J.; Masciovecchio, C.; Milne, C. J.; Parmigiani, F.; Rugg, D.; Spence, J. C. H.; Thompson, N. R.; Ueda, K.; Vinko, S. M.; Wark, J. S.; Wurth, W.

    2017-11-01

    This review is focused on free-electron lasers (FELs) in the hard to soft x-ray regime. The aim is to provide newcomers to the area with insights into: the basic physics of FELs, the qualities of the radiation they produce, the challenges of transmitting that radiation to end users and the diversity of current scientific applications. Initial consideration is given to FEL theory in order to provide the foundation for discussion of FEL output properties and the technical challenges of short-wavelength FELs. This is followed by an overview of existing x-ray FEL facilities, future facilities and FEL frontiers. To provide a context for information in the above sections, a detailed comparison of the photon pulse characteristics of FEL sources with those of other sources of high brightness x-rays is made. A brief summary of FEL beamline design and photon diagnostics then precedes an overview of FEL scientific applications. Recent highlights are covered in sections on structural biology, atomic and molecular physics, photochemistry, non-linear spectroscopy, shock physics, solid density plasmas. A short industrial perspective is also included to emphasise potential in this area. Dedicated to John M J Madey (1943-2016) and Rodolfo Bonifacio (1940-2016) whose perception, drive and perseverance paved the way for the realisation and development of short-wavelength free-electron lasers.

  7. Common envelope evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taam, Ronald E.; Ricker, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The common envelope phase of binary star evolution plays a central role in many evolutionary pathways leading to the formation of compact objects in short period systems. Using three dimensional hydrodynamical computations, we review the major features of this evolutionary phase, focusing on the

  8. Using Recent BCI Literature to Deepen our Understanding of Clinical Neurofeedback: A Short Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeunet, Camille; Lotte, Fabien; Batail, Jean-Marie; Philip, Pierre; Micoulaud Franchi, Jean-Arthur

    2018-05-15

    In their recent paper, Alkoby et al. (2017) provide the readership with an extensive and very insightful review of the factors influencing NeuroFeedback (NF) performance. These factors are drawn from both the NF literature and the Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) literature. Our short review aims to complement Alkoby et al.'s review by reporting recent additions to the BCI literature. The object of this paper is to highlight this literature and discuss its potential relevance and usefulness to better understand the processes underlying NF and further improve the design of clinical trials assessing NF efficacy. Indeed, we are convinced that while NF and BCI are fundamentally different in many ways, both the BCI and NF communities could reach compelling achievements by building upon one another. By reviewing the recent BCI literature, we identified three types of factors that influence BCI performance: task-specific, cognitive/motivational and technology-acceptance-related factors. Since BCIs and NF share a common goal (i.e., learning to modulate specific neurophysiological patterns), similar cognitive and neurophysiological processes are likely to be involved during the training process. Thus, the literature on BCI training may help (1) to deepen our understanding of neurofeedback training processes and (2) to understand the variables that influence the clinical efficacy of NF. This may help to properly assess and/or control the influence of these variables during randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The role of second phases for controlling microstructural evolution in polymineralic rocks: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herwegh, Marco; Linckens, Jolien; Ebert, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    We present a state-of-the-art review of the microstructural evolution in rocks under static and deformational conditions. First, the general concepts and processes are introduced using monomineralic aggregates. Then, they are expanded into the more complex context of polymineralic rocks...... with a dominant matrix phase. The first part of this contribution delivers information on sample strategies to quantify polymineralic microfabrics. Based on comparisons between microfabrics of monomineralic and polymineralic rocks, we use the common knowledge collected over the past decades for monomineralic......, and deformation mechanisms. We speculate on the effect of mineral reactions during the evolution of microstructures and rheology in polymineralic aggregates at different metamorphic conditions. At the end of the article, we demonstrate the great potential of grain-size evolution maps as microstructural tool...

  10. [Human origin and evolution. A review of advances in paleoanthropology, comparative genetics, and evolutionary psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, A V

    2009-01-01

    In his main work, "On the origin of species", Darwin has refrained from discusion of the origin of man; be only mentioned that his theory would "throw light" on this problem. This famous Darwin's phrase turned out to be one of the most succesful scientific predictions. In the present paper some of the most important recent adavnces in paleoanthroplogy, comparative genetics and evolutionary psychology are reviewed. These three disciplines currently contribute most to our knowledge of anthropogenesis. The review demonstrates that Darwin's ideas not only "threw light" on human origin and evolution; they provided a comprehensive framework for a great variety of studies concerning different aspects of anthropogenesis.

  11. Impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deodati, Annalisa; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2011-03-11

    To systematically determine the impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height of children with idiopathic short stature. Systematic review. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Medline, and the bibliographic references from retrieved articles of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials from 1985 to April 2010. Height in adulthood (standard deviation score) and overall gain in height (SD score) from baseline measurement in childhood. Randomised and non-randomised controlled trials with height measurements for adults. Inclusion criteria were initial short stature (defined as height >2 SD score below the mean), peak growth hormone responses >10 μg/L, prepubertal stage, no previous growth hormone therapy, and no comorbid conditions that would impair growth. Adult height was considered achieved when growth rate was growth hormone treated children exceeded that of the controls by 0.65 SD score (about 4 cm). The mean height gain in treated children was 1.2 SD score compared with 0.34 SD score in untreated children. A slight difference of about 1.2 cm in adult height was observed between the two growth hormone dose regimens. In the seven non-randomised controlled trials the adult height of the growth hormone treated group exceeded that of the controls by 0.45 SD score (about 3 cm). Growth hormone therapy in children with idiopathic short stature seems to be effective in partially reducing the deficit in height as adults, although the magnitude of effectiveness is on average less than that achieved in other conditions for which growth hormone is licensed. The individual response to therapy is highly variable, and additional studies are needed to identify the responders.

  12. Nuclear medicine methods in the assessment of acupuncture effects: a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Deise Elisabete; Rebello, Bernardo Machado; Agostinho, Raquel Terra; Silva Filho, Reginaldo de Carvalho; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms of acupuncture are poorly understood. In consequence, numerous investigators have conducted clinical trials to test the efficacy of acupuncture in various conditions. We have used PubMed database system to evaluate the number of publications in acupuncture and nuclear medicine procedures in the period from 1964 to 2007, using the keywords: 'nuclear medicine and acupuncture', 'SPECT and acupuncture, 'PET and acupuncture', 'scintigraphy and acupuncture, 'radionuclide and acupuncture', 'radiopharmaceutical and acupuncture', 'radioisotope and acupuncture' and 99m Tc and acupuncture'. Some papers published in English language were selected and a short review is presented The analysis of the number of publications shows that when a method is well accepted by the scientific community, as the methods used in nuclear medicine, the interest in the development of research increases. Moreover, important findings are presented when the nuclear medicine image is used to evaluate the effect of the acupuncture. (author)

  13. Intrinsic and extrinsic carbohydrates in the vagina: A short review on vaginal glycogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tester, Richard; Al-Ghazzewi, Farage H

    2018-06-01

    The reasons for (i) the presence and (ii) mechanisms of utilisation of glycogen by the lactic acid bacteria in the human vaginal tract are not well understood. It is probable that the vaginal epithelia produce both glycogen and α-amylase where the enzyme depolymerises the polysaccharide within the vagina itself. Only these depolymerised residues are then utilised for growth by the lactic acid bacteria. The lactic acid bacteria cannot metabolise the glycogen directly due to their incapacity to produce the α-amylase enzyme. These bacteria may, however, metabolise exogenous carbohydrates (such as prebiotics) selectively for growth effectively. These carbohydrate utilisation issues within the vagina are considered in this short review. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Materials/Biomaterials in Clinical Practice - a Short Review and Current Trends].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolle, T; Meyer, F; Walcher, F; Lohmann, C; Jockenhövel, S; Gries, T; Hoffmann, W

    2017-04-01

    Biomaterials play a major role in interventional medicine and surgery. However, the development of biomaterials is still in its early phases in spite of the huge progress made within the last decades. On the one hand, this is because our knowledge of the molecular and cellular processes associated with biomaterials is still increasing exponentially. On the other hand, a wide variety of advanced materials with highly interesting properties is being developed currently. This review provides a short introduction into the variety of materials in use as well as their application in interventional medicine and surgery. Also the importance of biomaterials for tissue engineering in the field of regenerative medicine and the functionalisation of biomaterials, including sterilisation methods are discussed. For the future, an even broader interdisciplinary scientific collaboration is necessary in order to develop novel biomaterials and facilitate their translation into clinical practice. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Hydrodynamics experiments with soap films and soap bubbles: A short review of recent experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellay, H.

    2017-11-01

    In this short review, I focus on recent experiments that benefit from the advantages offered by the two-dimensionality of the flow in suspended thin liquid films to reconsider hydrodynamics problems which have resisted a full understanding. The first problem discussed here concerns friction drag in channel flows. The use of turbulent channel flows, using thin liquid films, allows measurements of friction drag as well as mean velocity profiles for flows with different spectral exponents. Is there a link between the spectral properties of the turbulence and the mean velocity profiles or the frictional drag? This is the first question considered. The second issue examined considers the long time dynamics of large scale vortices. These are obtained in half bubbles rendered "turbulent" through thermal convection. These vortices, which live in a quasi two-dimensional environment, have a long time dynamics where their vorticity goes through what seems to be a well-defined cycle with generic features.

  16. Serous papillary cystadenofibroma of the fallopian tube: A case report and short review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmeen Khatib

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Serous papillary cystadenofibromas (SPCAFs of the fallopian tube are very rare benign tumors of the female genital tract. They are usually asymptomatic and are found incidentally. Until now, only 18 cases of this tumor have been reported in the world literature. We report a case of SPCAF of the left fallopian tube in a 30-year-old female who presented with a large abdominal mass and pain. On computed tomography, a diagnosis of ovarian neoplasm was given. However, during surgery the tumor was found to arise from the fallopian tube and was treated with tubal cystectomy with sparing of the ovary. We present this unique case on account of its rarity, unusual presentation, and huge size along with a short review of literature.

  17. A systematic review of social, economic and diplomatic aspects of short-term medical missions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldron, Paul H; Impens, Ann; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim

    2015-09-15

    Short-term medical missions (STMMs) represent a grass-roots form of aid, transferring medical services rather than funds or equipment. The objective of this paper is to review empirical studies on social, economic and diplomatic aspects of STMMs. A systematic literature review was conducted by searching PubMed and EBSCOhost for articles published from 1947-2014 about medical missions to lower and middle income countries (LMICs). Publications focused on military, disaster and dental service trips were excluded. A data extraction process was used to identify publications relevant to our objective stated above. PubMed and EBSCOhost searches provided 4138 and 3262 articles respectively for review. Most articles that provide useful information have appeared in the current millennium and are found in focused surgical journals. Little attention is paid to aspects of volunteerism, altruism and philanthropy related to STMM activity in the literature reviewed (1 article). Evidence of professionalization remains scarce, although elements including guidelines and tactical instructions have been emerging (27 articles). Information on costs (10 articles) and commentary on the relevance of market forces (1 article) are limited. Analyses of spill-over effects, i.e., changing attitudes of physicians or their communities towards aid, and characterizations of STMMs as meaningful foreign aid or strategic diplomacy are few (4 articles). The literature on key social, economic and diplomatic aspects of STMMs and their consequences is sparse. Guidelines, tactical instructions and attempts at outcome measures are emerging that may better professionalize the otherwise unregulated activity. A broader discussion of these key aspects may lead to improved accountability and intercultural professionalism to accompany medical professionalism in STMM activity.

  18. Short dental implants versus standard dental implants placed in the posterior jaws: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo; Ferro-Alves, Marcio Luiz; Okamoto, Roberta; Mendonça, Marcos Rogério; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare short implants (equal or less than 8mm) versus standard implants (larger than 8mm) placed in posterior regions of maxilla and mandible, evaluating survival rates of implants, marginal bone loss, complications and prosthesis failures. This review has been registered at PROSPERO under the number CRD42015016588. Main search terms were used in combination: dental implant, short implant, short dental implants, short dental implants posterior, short dental implants maxilla, and short dental implants mandible. An electronic search for data published up until September/2015 was undertaken using the PubMed/Medline, Embase and The Cochrane Library databases. Eligibility criteria included clinical human studies, randomized controlled trials and/or prospective studies, which evaluated short implants in comparison to standard implants in the same study. The search identified 1460 references, after inclusion criteria 13 studies were assessed for eligibility. A total of 1269 patients, who had received a total of 2631 dental implants. The results showed that there was no significant difference of implants survival (P=.24; RR:1.35; CI: 0.82-2.22), marginal bone loss (P=.06; MD: -0.20; CI: -0.41 to 0.00), complications (P=.08; RR:0.54; CI: 0.27-1.09) and prosthesis failures (P=.92; RR:0.96; CI: 0.44-2.09). Short implants are considered a predictable treatment for posterior jaws. However, short implants with length less than 8 mm (4-7 mm) should be used with caution because they present greater risks to failures compared to standard implants. Short implants are frequently placed in the posterior area in order to avoid complementary surgical procedures. However, clinicians need to be aware that short implants with length less than 8mm present greater risk of failures. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Delayed treatment of decompression sickness with short, no-air-break tables: review of 140 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianci, Paul; Slade, John B

    2006-10-01

    Most cases of decompression sickness (DCS) in the U.S. are treated with hyperbaric oxygen using U.S. Navy Treatment Tables 5 and 6, although detailed analysis shows that those tables were based on limited data. We reviewed the development of these protocols and offer an alternative treatment table more suitable for monoplace chambers that has proven effective in the treatment of DCS in patients presenting to our facility. We reviewed the outcomes for 140 cases of DCS in civilian divers treated with the shorter tables at our facility from January 1983 through December 2002. Onset of symptoms averaged 9.3 h after surfacing. At presentation, 44% of the patients demonstrated mental aberration. The average delay from onset of symptoms to treatment was 93.5 h; median delay was 48 h. Complete recovery in the total group of 140 patients was 87%. When 30 patients with low probability of DCS were excluded, the recovery rate was 98%. All patients with cerebral symptoms recovered. Patients with the highest severity scores showed a high rate of complete recovery (97.5%). Short oxygen treatment tables as originally described by Hart are effective in the treatment of DCS, even with long delays to definitive recompression that often occur among civilian divers presenting to a major Divers Alert Network referral center.

  20. Review of short-term screening tests for mutagens, toxigens, and carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carney, H.J.; Hass, B.S.

    1979-07-01

    In order to test the thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment for carcinogenic and genetic hazards, a multitude of short-term screening tests has been developed to complement long-term mammalian bioassays and epidemiological studies. These tests cover a broad spectrum of organisms, and include the use of naked and viral nucleic acids, bacteria, fungi, higher plants, insects in vitro mammalian cell cultures (cell transformation, cell-mediated mutagenesis, DNA repair, and chromosome aberration tests) and live mammals. Assay end points include effects on nucleic acids, DNA repair synthesis, point or gene mutation, structural and numerical chromosome aberrations, cytological alterations, and in vitro cell transformation. The present review describes and compares these assays. In addition, it discusses their historical development, the problems and limitations associated with their use, and their implementation in comprehensive testing programs. It is intended to provide overview and specific information to the laboratory that is in the process of establishing genetic toxicological systems. (The literature is reviewed to January 1978.)

  1. Short Review: Cu Catalyst for Autothermal Reforming Methanol for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Shing Wu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen is a promising alternative energy sources, hydrogen can be used in fuel cell applications to pro-ducing electrical energy and water as byproduct. Therefore, fuel cell is a simple application and environ-mentally friendly oriented technology. Recent years various methods have been conducted to produce hy-drogen. Those methods are derived from various sources such as methanol, ethanol, gasoline, hydrocarbons. This article presents a brief review a parameter process of that affects in autothermal reforming methanol use Cu-based catalysts for production of hydrogen. Copyright © 2012 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.Received: 3rd January 2012; Revised: 23rd February 2012; Accepted: 28th February 2012[How to Cite: H.S. Wu, and D. Lesmana. (2012. Short Review: Cu Catalyst for Autothermal Reforming Methanol for Hydrogen Production. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (1: 27-42. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1284.27-42][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.1.1284.27-42 ] | View in 

  2. International short-term medical missions: a systematic review of recommended practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Stephanie D; Ketheeswaran, Pavinarmatha; Wirtz, Veronika J

    2017-01-01

    To identify practices for conducting international short-term medical missions (STMMs) recommended in the literature and examine how these link STMMs to recipient countries' existing health systems. Systematic review of PubMed-indexed articles on STMMs and their bibliographies using preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses guidelines. Recommendations were organized using the World Health Organization Health Systems Framework. In 92 publications, 67 % offered at least one recommendation that would link STMMs to the recipient country's health system. Among these recommendations, most focused on service delivery and few on health financing and governance. There is a lack of consensus around a proper standard of care, patient selection, and trip duration. Comprehensive global standards are needed for STMM work to ensure that services are beneficial both to patients and to the broader healthcare systems of recipient countries. By providing an overview of the current recommendations and important gaps where practice recommendations are needed, this study can provide relevant input into the development of global standards for STMMs.

  3. Evolution of microstructure in face centered cubic metals during irradiation: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.

    1993-06-01

    When fcc metals and alloys are irradiated at elevated temperatures, they tend to evolve toward saturation microstructures that are independent of the starting state of the metal and the early details of irradiation history. This leads to property changes and rates of dimensional change that also eventually become independent of the starting state. The evolution of microstructure in complex alloys, especially during the transient regime, is usually determined by the complex interaction of many microstructural and microchemical processes. The more complex the alloy, the more difficult it is to-identify and define the separate influence of each participating mechanism. The use of irradiation studies conducted on simple metals or model alloys assists in understanding the behavior of alloys of engineering relevance. A review of such studies shows that a number of prevailing perceptions of radiation-induced microstructural evolution are not universally correct

  4. Integration of short bouts of physical activity into organizational routine a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr-Anderson, Daheia J; AuYoung, Mona; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C; Glenn, Beth A; Yancey, Antronette K

    2011-01-01

    Recommended daily physical activity accumulated in short intervals (e.g., organizational routine as part of the regular "conduct of business." PubMed, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar databases were searched in August 2009 (updated search in February and July 2010) to identify relevant, peer-reviewed journal articles and abstracts on school-, worksite-, and faith-based interventions of short, structurally integrated physical activity breaks. The majority of interventions implemented daily physical activity bouts of 10-15 minutes in length. Schools were the most common settings among the 40 published articles included in this review. The rigor of the studies varied by setting, with more than 75% of worksite versus 25% of school studies utilizing RCT designs. Studies focused on a broad range of outcomes, including academic/work performance indicators, mental health outcomes, and clinical disease risk indicators, in addition to physical activity level. Physical activity was the most commonly assessed outcome in school-based studies, with more than half of studies assessing and observing improvements in physical activity outcomes following the intervention. About a quarter of worksite-based studies assessed physical activity, and the majority found a positive effect of the intervention on physical activity levels. About half of studies also observed improvements in other relevant outcomes such as academic and work performance indicators (e.g., academic achievement, cognitive performance, work productivity); psychosocial factors (e.g., stress, mood); and clinical disease risk indicators (e.g., blood pressure, BMI). The average study duration was more than 1 year, and several reported outcomes at 3-6 years. Interventions integrating physical activity into organizational routine during everyday life have demonstrated modest but consistent benefits, particularly for physical activity, and these are promising avenues of investigation. The proportionately longer-term outcomes

  5. Morphological approach of the sternal foramen: an anatomic study and a short review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkantsinikoudis, N; Chaniotakis, C; Gkasdaris, G; Georgiou, N; Kapetanakis, S

    2017-01-01

    The sternal foramen (SF) constitutes a specific anatomic defect in sternum, indicating an impaired fusion of ossificated segments, which occurs either in an anatomical part of the sternum or in sternal joints. The aim of this article is to provide baseline statistical data about the variations of the SF, to present a short review of the relevant literature and to compare results with other studies and populations. We review relevant literature, and we present data obtai-ned from skeletal samples of known population and sex. A total of 35 well-preserved dried sterna from the prefecture of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, Greece, were selected: 20 men and 15 women with a mean age of 55 ± 6 years old. Measurements were made with a sliding calliper and photographic documentation. The incidence of the SF in the 35 dried specimens was 14.2%, 4 men (20% of male sample) and 1 woman (6.6% of female sample) and 80% of sternal foramina were observed in male individuals. The SF was found in the sternum body (2 cases, 40% of foramina), in xiphoid process (2 cases, 40% of foramina) and in sternoxiphoidal junction (1 case, 20% of foramina). All of the sterna presented 1 single visible SF. Two anatomically unique cases were identified throughout these 5 sterna, both belonging in male subjects. The SF constitutes a relatively common variation with great radiological, clinical, and forensic significance. Presence of a SF with irregular bony margins complicates considerably radiological differential diagnosis. Awareness of this important anatomic variation is fundamental for clinicians and autopsy pathologists, in order to avoid severe fatal complications and elucidate the exact cause of death, respectively.

  6. A short guide to peer-reviewed, MEDLINE-indexed complementary and alternative medicine journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Sherry; Littman, Lynn; Palmer, Christina; Singh, Gurneet; LaRiccia, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) comprises a multitude of disciplines, for example, acupuncture, ayurvedic medicine, biofeedback, herbal medicine, and homeopathic medicine. While research on CAM interventions has increased and the CAM literature has proliferated since the mid-1990s, a number of our colleagues have expressed difficulties in deciding where to publish CAM articles. In response, we created a short guide to peer-reviewed MEDLINE-indexed journals that publish CAM articles. We examined numerous English-language sources to identify titles that met our criteria, whether specific to or overlapping CAM. A few of the resources in which we found the journal titles that we included are Alternative Medicine Foundation, American Holistic Nurses Association, CINAHL/Nursing Database, Journal Citation Reports database, MEDLINE, PubMed, and Research Council for Complementary Medicine. We organized the 69 selected titles for easy use by creating 2 user-friendly tables, one listing titles in alphabetical order and one listing them in topical categories. A few examples of the topical categories are Acupuncture, CAM (general), Chinese Medicine, Herbal/Plant/Phytotherapy, Neuroscience/Psychology, Nursing/Clinical Care. Our study is the first to list general CAM journals, specialty CAM journals, and overlapping mainstream journals that are peer reviewed, in English, and indexed in MEDLINE. Our goal was to assist both authors seeking publication and mainstream journal editors who receive an overabundance of publishable articles but must recommend that authors seek publication elsewhere due to space and priority issues. Publishing in journals indexed by and included in MEDLINE (or PubMed) ensures that citations to articles will be found easily. Copyright © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

  7. Role of Probiotics in Short Bowel Syndrome in Infants and Children—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shripada Rao

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Short bowel syndrome (SBS is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in children. Probiotics, due to their beneficial effects on the gastrointestinal tract (e.g., improving gut barrier function, motility, facilitation of intestinal adaptation and decreasing pathogen load and inflammation may have a therapeutic role in the management of SBS. To conduct a systematic review of the current evidence for the effects of probiotic supplementation in children with SBS, the standard Cochrane methodology for systematic reviews was used. The databases, Pubmed, Embase, ACTR, CENTRAL, and the international trial registry, and reference lists of articles were searched for randomised (RCT or quasi-randomised controlled trials reporting on the use of probiotics in SBS. Our search revealed no RCTs on the use of probiotics in children with SBS. We found one small cross-over RCT (placebo controlled crossover clinical trial, one case control study and nine case reports on the use of probiotics in children with SBS. In the crossover RCT, there was no consistent effect on intestinal permeability (primary outcome after supplementation with Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG in nine children with SBS. The case control study (four cases: four controls reported a trend for increase in height and weight velocity and improvement in non-clinical outcomes, such as gut flora, lymphocyte count and serum prealbumin. Five of the nine case reports showed that children (n = 12 with SBS were benefited (e.g., cessation of diarrhoea, improved faecal flora, weight gain and weaning from parenteral nutrition by probiotic supplementation. The remaining four reported on the adverse effects, such as Lactobacillus sepsis (n = 3 and d-lactic acidosis (n = 2. There is insufficient evidence on the effects of probiotics in children with SBS. The safety and efficacy of probiotic supplementation in this high-risk cohort needs to be evaluated in large definitive trials.

  8. The evolutive aspect of the short jat substituents following the sonant r - a comparison between the Serbian literary language and the dialect of Vuk’s ancestors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostojić Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the evolutive aspects of short “jat” following the sonant r usage during the formation of the modern Serbian literary language and its treatment in the Serbo-Croatistic and the Serbistic descriptive and normative literature. In addition to the basic issue of the distribution of the short “jat’s” substituent following the sonant r in dialects of Montenegro, particularly in the native dialect of Vuk Karadžić’s ancestors, the author also addresses the question related to the mechanisms that cause short “jat” following the sonant r in ijekavian dialects to be reduced sometimes to e, and sometimes to je. Substitution of short “jat” following the sonant r in Jezera-Šarani dialect had important evolution from the times of “classical Vukovian ijekavism”. In this dialect, forms with rje do not occur, except in the word starješina. Here, r and j remained in the same syllable, which set the stage for iotization and depalatalization. The analysis of the paper describes the situation in Jezera-Šarani dialect as well as the situation in other Montenegrian dialects of the older and newer Eastern-Herzegovian type. The author as well takes into consideration that our Pravopis has already disregarded the Vukovian tradition with omitting j that follows sonant r in the examples pogreška and greška. In order to eliminate the disunity, the author concludes that the status of the group re should not be questioned from the aspect of literary language standards.

  9. Nuclear medicine methods in the assessment of acupuncture effects: a short review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Deise Elisabete; Rebello, Bernardo Machado; Agostinho, Raquel Terra [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Academia Brasileira de Arte e Ciencia Oriental, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); E-mail: deise_desouza@yahoo.com.br; Silva Filho, Reginaldo de Carvalho [Escola Brasileira de Medicina Chinesa, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro Avancado de Pesquisas em Ciencias Orientais; Bastos, Sohaku R.C. [Academia Brasileira de Arte e Ciencia Oriental, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica

    2007-09-15

    The mechanisms of acupuncture are poorly understood. In consequence, numerous investigators have conducted clinical trials to test the efficacy of acupuncture in various conditions. We have used PubMed database system to evaluate the number of publications in acupuncture and nuclear medicine procedures in the period from 1964 to 2007, using the keywords: 'nuclear medicine and acupuncture', 'SPECT and acupuncture, 'PET and acupuncture', 'scintigraphy and acupuncture, 'radionuclide and acupuncture', 'radiopharmaceutical and acupuncture', 'radioisotope and acupuncture' and {sup 99m}Tc and acupuncture'. Some papers published in English language were selected and a short review is presented The analysis of the number of publications shows that when a method is well accepted by the scientific community, as the methods used in nuclear medicine, the interest in the development of research increases. Moreover, important findings are presented when the nuclear medicine image is used to evaluate the effect of the acupuncture. (author)

  10. Review of design codes of concrete encased steel short columns under axial compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Z. Soliman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of encased steel concrete columns has been increased significantly in medium-rise or high-rise buildings. The aim of the present investigation is to assess experimentally the current methods and codes for evaluating the ultimate load behavior of concrete encased steel short columns. The current state of design provisions for composite columns from the Egyptian codes ECP203-2007 and ECP-SC-LRFD-2012, as well as, American Institute of Steel Construction, AISC-LRFD-2010, American Concrete Institute, ACI-318-2008, and British Standard BS-5400-5 was reviewed. The axial capacity portion of both the encased steel section and the concrete section was also studied according to the previously mentioned codes. Ten encased steel concrete columns have been investigated experimentally to study the effect of concrete confinement and different types of encased steel sections. The measured axial capacity of the tested ten composite columns was compared with the values calculated by the above mentioned codes. It is concluded that non-negligible discrepancies exist between codes and the experimental results as the confinement effect was not considered in predicting both the strength and ductility of concrete. The confining effect was obviously influenced by the shape of the encased steel section. The tube-shaped steel section leads to better confinement than the SIB section. Among the used codes, the ECP-SC-LRFD-2012 led to the most conservative results.

  11. SHORT REVIEW ON EUROPEAN TURISM IN 2010 THROUGH THE INFLUENCE OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARINOIU ANA - MARIA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present research paper is to present a short review on the European turism in 2010 through the influence of the financial crisis. The importance of the paper resides in the presentation of the impact that the economic downturn had on the European tourism, taking a closer look also in the investment in hotel industry in 2010. The paper’s objectives took into consideration the current situation and by proposing the rural tourism as an alternative we offer a solution in order to minimise its effects on this specific activity sector. The subject has not been extensively debated in the specialized literature even though it represents a current issue both regarding the private business environment as well as the main national and international bodies that regulate the tourism industry. The research metodology consists in a SWOT analysis through which we prove the rural and ecotourism to be a viable solution in order to minimise the downturn of the industry for countries in CEE. The added value of the paper consists in the analysis of o subject that is too little taken into consideration and of big importance for the companies acting in this specific domain.

  12. Lymphoscintigraphy in breast cancer: a short review about the impact on upper limb after surgical treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergmann, Anke; Resende, Juliana Miranda Dutra de; Bello, Marcelo Adeodato; Oliveira, Juliana Flavia de; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Palestro, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    Breast cancer is still associated with high mortality rates and one of the most important factors governing long survival is accurate and early diagnosis. In underdeveloped countries, this disease frequently is only detected in advanced stages; however, through mammography, many women have been diagnosed at early stages. In this context, the sentinel lymph node (SLN) technique is associated with less postoperative morbidity compared to axillary lymphadenectomy. Lymphoscintigraphy has emerged as a method for the evaluation of lymphatic drainage chains in various tumours, being both accurate and non invasive. The aim of this work is to present the main aspects which cause controversy about SLN and lymphoscintigraphy and the impact that these procedures have had on lymphedema after surgical treatment for breast cancer. A short review including papers in English, Spanish and Portuguese, available on Lilacs and Medline database, published between January, 2000 and July, 2008 was performed. The key words breast cancer, lymphoscintigraphy, SLN biopsy, lymphedema were used. Various studies have aimed to compare the incidence and prevalence of lymphedema according to the technique used; however, the population subjected to SLN is different from the one with indication for axillary lymphadenectomy regarding staging. Moreover, little is known about long term morbidity since it is a relatively new technique. In conclusion, the development of surgical techniques has permitted to minimize deformities and the current trend is that these techniques be as conservative as possible. Thus, lymphoscintigraphy plays an important role in the identification of SLN, contributing to the prevention and minimization of postoperative complications. (author)

  13. Lymphoscintigraphy in breast cancer: a short review about the impact on upper limb after surgical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergmann, Anke; Resende, Juliana Miranda Dutra de; Bello, Marcelo Adeodato; Oliveira, Juliana Flavia de; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer (INCa), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Lab. de Radiofarmacia Experimental; Palestro, Christopher J. [Yeshiva University, NY (United States). Albert Einstein College of Medicine

    2008-12-15

    Breast cancer is still associated with high mortality rates and one of the most important factors governing long survival is accurate and early diagnosis. In underdeveloped countries, this disease frequently is only detected in advanced stages; however, through mammography, many women have been diagnosed at early stages. In this context, the sentinel lymph node (SLN) technique is associated with less postoperative morbidity compared to axillary lymphadenectomy. Lymphoscintigraphy has emerged as a method for the evaluation of lymphatic drainage chains in various tumours, being both accurate and non invasive. The aim of this work is to present the main aspects which cause controversy about SLN and lymphoscintigraphy and the impact that these procedures have had on lymphedema after surgical treatment for breast cancer. A short review including papers in English, Spanish and Portuguese, available on Lilacs and Medline database, published between January, 2000 and July, 2008 was performed. The key words breast cancer, lymphoscintigraphy, SLN biopsy, lymphedema were used. Various studies have aimed to compare the incidence and prevalence of lymphedema according to the technique used; however, the population subjected to SLN is different from the one with indication for axillary lymphadenectomy regarding staging. Moreover, little is known about long term morbidity since it is a relatively new technique. In conclusion, the development of surgical techniques has permitted to minimize deformities and the current trend is that these techniques be as conservative as possible. Thus, lymphoscintigraphy plays an important role in the identification of SLN, contributing to the prevention and minimization of postoperative complications. (author)

  14. Organotins in Neuronal Damage, Brain Function, and Behavior: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ferraz da Silva

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The consequences of exposure to environmental contaminants have shown significant effects on brain function and behavior in different experimental models. The endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC present various classes of pollutants with potential neurotoxic actions, such as organotins (OTs. OTs have received special attention due to their toxic effects on the central nervous system, leading to abnormal mammalian neuroendocrine axis function. OTs are organometallic pollutants with a tin atom bound to one or more carbon atoms. OT exposure may occur through the food chain and/or contaminated water, since they have multiple applications in industry and agriculture. In addition, OTs have been used with few legal restrictions in the last decades, despite being highly toxic. In addition to their action as EDC, OTs can also cross the blood–brain barrier and show relevant neurotoxic effects, as observed in several animal model studies specifically involving the development of neurodegenerative processes, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of this short review is to summarize the toxic effects of the most common OT compounds, such as trimethyltin, tributyltin, triethyltin, and triphenyltin, on the brain with a focus on neuronal damage as a result of oxidative stress and neuroinflammation. We also aim to present evidence for the disruption of behavioral functions, neurotransmitters, and neuroendocrine pathways caused by OTs.

  15. A short review of headspace extraction and ultrasonic solvent extraction for honey volatiles fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Marijanović

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Honey volatiles exhibit a potential role in distinguishing honeys as a function of botanical origin, but heating of honey generates artefacts such as compounds of Strecker degradation and Maillard reaction products. This short review is focused on the most recently applied methods for honey volatiles fingerprinting (without generation of thermal artefacts: headspace extraction (dynamic headspace extraction (DHE, headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE. These methods display a varying degree of selectivity and effectiveness depending upon the compounds involved and the extraction conditions. Recent developments of these methods are discussed, with application examples drawn from the literature as well from our own research. Flavour qualities of the honey are very much dependent on the volatile and semivolatile organic compounds present in both the sample matrix and the headspace aroma. Therefore the use of one single technique is not adequate for reliable honey volatiles profiling, but combined use of headspace extraction and ultrasonic solvent extraction could be a useful tool for the characterization of the honey and identification of its botanical source through typical volatile marker compounds.

  16. Casticin from Vitex species: a short review on its anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Eric Wei Chiang; Wong, Siu Kuin; Chan, Hung Tuck

    2018-05-01

    This short review provides an update of the anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties of casticin from Vitex species. Casticin is a polymethylflavone with three rings, an orthocatechol moiety, a double bond, two hydroxyl groups and four methoxyl groups. Casticin has been isolated from various tissues of plants in the Vitex genus: fruits and leaves of V. trifolia, aerial parts and seeds of V. agnus-castus and leaves of V. negundo. Studies have reported the antiproliferative and apoptotic activities of casticin from Vitex species. The compound is effective against many cancer cell lines via different molecular mechanisms. Studies have also affirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of casticin, with several molecular mechanisms identified. Other pharmacological properties include anti-asthmatic, tracheospasmolytic, analgesic, antihyperprolactinemia, immunomodulatory, opioidergic, oestrogenic, anti-angiogenic, antiglioma, lung injury protection, rheumatoid arthritis amelioration and liver fibrosis attenuation activities. Clinical trials and commercial use of the casticin-rich fruit extract of V. agnus-castus among women with premenstrual syndrome were briefly discussed. Copyright © 2018 Shanghai Changhai Hospital. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. DMPD: Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. Schumann RR. Res Immunol. 1992 Jan;143(1):11-5. (.png) (.svg) (...ride (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS/LBP complexes: a short review. Authors Schuma.../LBP complexes: a short review. PubmedID 1373512 Title Function of lipopolysaccha....html) (.csml) Show Function of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein (LBP) and CD14, thereceptor for LPS

  18. Language and Verbal Short-Term Memory Skills in Children with Down Syndrome: A Meta-Analytic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naess, Kari-Anne B.; Lyster, Solveig-Alma Halaas; Hulme, Charles; Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a meta-analytic review of language and verbal short-term memory skills in children with Down syndrome. The study examines the profile of strengths and weaknesses in children with Down syndrome compared to typically developing children matched for nonverbal mental age. The findings show that children with Down syndrome have…

  19. The evolution of headache from childhood to adulthood: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonaci, Fabio; Voiticovschi-Iosob, Cristina; Di Stefano, Anna Luisia; Galli, Federica; Ozge, Aynur; Balottin, Umberto

    2014-03-18

    Headache is one of the most common disorders in childhood, with an estimated 75% of children reporting significant headache by the age of 15 years. Pediatric migraine is the most frequent recurrent headache disorder, occurring in up to 28% of older teenagers. Headaches rank third among the illness-related causes of school absenteeism and result in substantial psychosocial impairment among pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to clarify the evolution of the clinical features of primary headache in the transition from childhood to adulthood through a review of relevant data available in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for the period 1988 to July 2013.The search strategy identified 15 published articles which were considered eligible for inclusion in the analysis (i.e., relevant to the investigation of pediatric headache outcome). All were carried out after the publication of the first version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-I). The availability of data on the evolution of primary headaches over a period of time is important from both a clinical and a public health perspective. The identification of prognostic factors of the evolution of headache (remission or evolution into another headache form) over time should be an objective of future headache research for the development of prevention strategies. Given that headache is a major factor contributing to school absenteeism and poorer quality of life not only in childhood but also in adolescence, understanding the natural history and the management of the different headache forms is vital for our future.

  20. The evolution of headache from childhood to adulthood: a review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Headache is one of the most common disorders in childhood, with an estimated 75% of children reporting significant headache by the age of 15 years. Pediatric migraine is the most frequent recurrent headache disorder, occurring in up to 28% of older teenagers. Headaches rank third among the illness-related causes of school absenteeism and result in substantial psychosocial impairment among pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to clarify the evolution of the clinical features of primary headache in the transition from childhood to adulthood through a review of relevant data available in the PubMed and Google Scholar databases for the period 1988 to July 2013. The search strategy identified 15 published articles which were considered eligible for inclusion in the analysis (i.e. relevant to the investigation of pediatric headache outcome). All were carried out after the publication of the first version of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-I). The availability of data on the evolution of primary headaches over a period of time is important from both a clinical and a public health perspective. The identification of prognostic factors of the evolution of headache (remission or evolution into another headache form) over time should be an objective of future headache research for the development of prevention strategies. Given that headache is a major factor contributing to school absenteeism and poorer quality of life not only in childhood but also in adolescence, understanding the natural history and the management of the different headache forms is vital for our future. PMID:24641507

  1. Evolution of learning strategies in temporally and spatially variable environments: a review of theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kenichi; Feldman, Marcus W

    2014-02-01

    The theoretical literature from 1985 to the present on the evolution of learning strategies in variable environments is reviewed, with the focus on deterministic dynamical models that are amenable to local stability analysis, and on deterministic models yielding evolutionarily stable strategies. Individual learning, unbiased and biased social learning, mixed learning, and learning schedules are considered. A rapidly changing environment or frequent migration in a spatially heterogeneous environment favors individual learning over unbiased social learning. However, results are not so straightforward in the context of learning schedules or when biases in social learning are introduced. The three major methods of modeling temporal environmental change--coevolutionary, two-timescale, and information decay--are compared and shown to sometimes yield contradictory results. The so-called Rogers' paradox is inherent in the two-timescale method as originally applied to the evolution of pure strategies, but is often eliminated when the other methods are used. Moreover, Rogers' paradox is not observed for the mixed learning strategies and learning schedules that we review. We believe that further theoretical work is necessary on learning schedules and biased social learning, based on models that are logically consistent and empirically pertinent. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolution of learning strategies in temporally and spatially variable environments: A review of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Kenichi; Feldman, Marcus W.

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical literature from 1985 to the present on the evolution of learning strategies in variable environments is reviewed, with the focus on deterministic dynamical models that are amenable to local stability analysis, and on deterministic models yielding evolutionarily stable strategies. Individual learning, unbiased and biased social learning, mixed learning, and learning schedules are considered. A rapidly changing environment or frequent migration in a spatially heterogeneous environment favors individual learning over unbiased social learning. However, results are not so straightforward in the context of learning schedules or when biases in social learning are introduced. The three major methods of modeling temporal environmental change – coevolutionary, two-timescale, and information decay – are compared and shown to sometimes yield contradictory results. The so-called Rogers’ paradox is inherent in the two-timescale method as originally applied to the evolution of pure strategies, but is often eliminated when the other methods are used. Moreover, Rogers’ paradox is not observed for the mixed learning strategies and learning schedules that we review. We believe that further theoretical work is necessary on learning schedules and biased social learning, based on models that are logically consistent and empirically pertinent. PMID:24211681

  3. A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle-Newall, Emma; Nguyen, Thi Mai Huong; Le, Thi Phuong Quynh; Sengtaheuanghoung, Oloth; Ribolzi, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms, e.g., fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here, we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics.

  4. A short review of fecal indicator bacteria in tropical aquatic ecosystems: knowledge gaps and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Jane Rochelle-Newall

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Given the high numbers of deaths and the debilitating nature of diseases caused by the use of unclean water it is imperative that we have an understanding of the factors that control the dispersion of water borne pathogens and their respective indicators. This is all the more important in developing countries where significant proportions of the population often have little or no access to clean drinking water supplies. Moreover, and notwithstanding the importance of these bacteria in terms of public health, at present little work exists on the persistence, transfer and proliferation of these pathogens and their respective indicator organisms e.g. fecal indicator bacteria (FIB such as Escherichia coli and fecal coliforms in humid tropical systems, such as are found in South East Asia or in the tropical regions of Africa. Both FIB and the waterborne pathogens they are supposed to indicate are particularly susceptible to shifts in water flow and quality and the predicted increases in rainfall and floods due to climate change will only exacerbate the problems of contamination. This will be furthermore compounded by the increasing urbanization and agricultural intensification that developing regions are experiencing. Therefore, recognizing and understanding the link between human activities, natural process and microbial functioning and their ultimate impacts on human health are prerequisites for reducing the risks to the exposed populations. Most of the existing work in tropical systems has been based on the application of temperate indicator organisms, models and mechanisms regardless of their applicability or appropriateness for tropical environments. Here we present a short review on the factors that control FIB dynamics in temperate systems and discuss their applicability to tropical environments. We then highlight some of the knowledge gaps in order to stimulate future research in this field in the tropics.

  5. Periprosthetic bone remodelling of short-stem total hip arthroplasty: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shuang G; Weber, Patrick; Steinbrück, Arnd; Hua, Xingyi; Jansson, Volkmar; Schmidutz, Florian

    2017-11-27

    Short-stem hip arthroplasty (SHA) was designed to preserve bone stock and provide an improved load transfer. To gain more evidence regarding the load transfer, this review analysed the periprosthetic bone remodelling of SHA in comparison to standard hip arthroplasty (THA). PubMed and ScienceDirect were screened to extract dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) studies evaluating the periprosthetic bone remodelling of SHA and two proven THA designs. From the studies included, the postoperative change in periprosthetic bone mineral density (BMD) after one year and the trend over two years was determined. Fifteen studies with four SHAs (CFP, Metha, Nanos, Fitmore) and two THAs (CLS and Bicontact) designs were included. All SHA and THA stems revealed an initial decrease at the calcar and major trochanter (Gruen 1 and 7) with the Metha, Nanos and Fitmore showing a smaller and more balanced remodelling compared to THA. The pattern after one year and the trend over two years argue for a methaphyseal anchorage of the Metha and Nanos, whereas the Fitmore and CFP seem to anchor metha-diaphyseal. Clearly different pattern of bone remodelling were observed between all four SHAs. Periprosthetic bone remodelling is also present in SHA, with the main bone reduction observed proximally. However, certain SHA stems show a more balanced remodelling compared to THA, arguing for a favourable load transfer. Also, the femoral length where bone remodelling occurs is clearly shorter in SHA. As distinctively different pattern between the SHA designs were observed, they should not be judged as a single implant group.

  6. A review of the evolution of human reliability analysis methods at nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Lécio N. de; Santos, Isaac José A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the status of researches on the application of human reliability analysis methods at nuclear industry and its evolution along the years. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is one of the elements used in Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) and is performed as part of PSAs to quantify the likelihood that people will fail to take action, such as errors of omission and errors of commission. Although HRA may be used at lots of areas, the focus of this paper is to review the applicability of HRA methods along the years at nuclear industry, especially in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). An electronic search on CAPES Portal of Journals (A bibliographic database) was performed. This literature review covers original papers published since the first generation of HRA methods until the ones published on March 2017. A total of 94 papers were retrieved by the initial search and 13 were selected to be fully reviewed and for data extraction after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, quality and suitability evaluation according to applicability at nuclear industry. Results point out that the methods from first generation are more used in practice than methods from second generation. This occurs because it is more concentrated towards quantification, in terms of success or failure of human action what make them useful for quantitative risk assessment to PSA. Although the second generation considers context and error of commission in human error prediction, they are not wider used in practice at nuclear industry to PSA. (author)

  7. A review of the evolution of human reliability analysis methods at nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Lécio N. de; Santos, Isaac José A. Luquetti dos; Carvalho, Paulo V.R., E-mail: lecionoliveira@gmail.com, E-mail: luquetti@ien.gov.br, E-mail: paulov@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    This paper reviews the status of researches on the application of human reliability analysis methods at nuclear industry and its evolution along the years. Human reliability analysis (HRA) is one of the elements used in Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) and is performed as part of PSAs to quantify the likelihood that people will fail to take action, such as errors of omission and errors of commission. Although HRA may be used at lots of areas, the focus of this paper is to review the applicability of HRA methods along the years at nuclear industry, especially in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). An electronic search on CAPES Portal of Journals (A bibliographic database) was performed. This literature review covers original papers published since the first generation of HRA methods until the ones published on March 2017. A total of 94 papers were retrieved by the initial search and 13 were selected to be fully reviewed and for data extraction after the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, quality and suitability evaluation according to applicability at nuclear industry. Results point out that the methods from first generation are more used in practice than methods from second generation. This occurs because it is more concentrated towards quantification, in terms of success or failure of human action what make them useful for quantitative risk assessment to PSA. Although the second generation considers context and error of commission in human error prediction, they are not wider used in practice at nuclear industry to PSA. (author)

  8. Ancient mitochondrial DNA reveals convergent evolution of giant short-faced bears (Tremarctinae) in North and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Kieren J.; Bray, Sarah C.; Bover, Pere; Soibelzon, Leopoldo; Schubert, Blaine W.; Prevosti, Francisco; Prieto, Alfredo; Martin, Fabiana; Austin, Jeremy J.; Cooper, Alan

    2016-01-01

    The Tremarctinae are a subfamily of bears endemic to the New World, including two of the largest terrestrial mammalian carnivores that have ever lived: the giant, short-faced bears Arctodus simus from North America and Arctotherium angustidens from South America (greater than or equal to 1000 kg). Arctotherium angustidens became extinct during the Early Pleistocene, whereas Arctodus simus went extinct at the very end of the Pleistocene. The only living tremarctine is the spectacled bear (Trem...

  9. International conference on the performance of engineered barriers. Physical and chemical properties, behaviour and evolution. Short abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefers, Annika; Fahland, Sandra (eds.)

    2014-08-01

    The volume includes the abstracts of the papers presented at the international conference on the performance of engineered barrier systems, their physical and chemical properties, behavior and evolution. The papers cover the topics bentonite buffers, radioactive waste repository safety, geophysical and geochemical property monitoring, repository sealing materials, thermo-hydro-mechanical characterization, gas injection tests, hydration and heating tests, clay-iron interaction experiments, water retention behavior, thermal stability of materials, numerical modeling studies, long-term simulations, thermo-hydrologic phenomena, uncertainty and sensitivity studies, probabilistic assessments, preliminary safety analyses of Gorleben.

  10. Nuclear medicine methods in the assessment of acupuncture effects: a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Elisabete Souza

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms of acupuncture are poorly understood. In consequence, numerous investigators have conducted clinical trials to test the efficacy of acupuncture in various conditions. We have used PubMed database system to evaluate the number of publications in acupuncture and nuclear medicine procedures in the period from 1964 to 2007, using the keywords: "nuclear medicine and acupuncture", "SPECT and acupuncture", "PET and acupuncture", "scintigraphy and acupuncture", "radionuclide and acupuncture", "radiopharmaceutical and acupuncture", "radioisotope and acupuncture" and "99mTc and acupuncture". Some papers published in English language were selected and a short review is presented The analysis of the number of publications shows that when a method is well accepted by the scientific community, as the methods used in nuclear medicine, the interest in the development of research increases. Moreover, important findings are presented when the nuclear medicine image is used to evaluate the effect of the acupuncture.Os mecanismos de ação da acupuntura ainda não são completamente esclarecidos. Em conseqüência, diversos pesquisadores têm conduzido testes clínicos para verificar a eficiência da acupuntura em condições diversas. Nós utilizamos o sistema de base de dados PubMed para avaliar o número de publicações em acupuntura e procedimentos em medicina nuclear no período de 1964 até 2007, usando as palavras-chaves: "medicina nuclear e acupuntura", "SPECT e acupuntura", "PET e acupuntura", "cintilografia e acupuntura", "radionuclídeo e acupuntura", "radiofármaco e acupuntura", "radioisótopo e acupuntura" e "99mTc e acupuntura". Alguns artigos publicados em inglês foram selecionados e uma pequena revisão é apresentada. A análise do número de publicações mostra que quando um método é bem aceito pela comunidade científica, como os métodos utilizados em medicina nuclear, o interesse em desenvolver novos estudos aumenta. Al

  11. Galvanic and stress corrosion of copper canisters in repository environment. A short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansson, H.P.; Koenig, M.

    2001-02-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, has studied different aspects of canister and copper corrosion as part of the general improvement of the knowledge base within the area. General and local corrosion has earlier been treated by experiments as well as by thermodynamic calculations. For completeness also galvanic and stress corrosion should be treated. The present work is a short review, intended to indicate areas needing further focus. The work consists of two parts, the first of which contains a judgement of statements concerning risk of galvanic corrosion of copper in the repository. The second part concerns threshold values for the stress intensity factor of stress corrosion in copper. A suggestion is given on how such values possibly could be measured for copper at repository conditions. In early investigations by SKB, galvanic corrosion is not mentioned or at least not treated. In later works it is treated but often in a theoretical way without indications of any further treatment or investigation. Several pieces of work indicate that further investigations are required to ensure that different types of corrosion, like galvanic, cannot occur in the repository environment. There are for example effects of grain size, grain boundary conditions, impurities and other factors that could influence the appearance of galvanic corrosion that are not treated. Those factors have to be considered to be completely sure that galvanic corrosion and related effects does not occur for the actual canister in the specific environment of the repository. The circumstances are so specific, that a rather general discussion indicating that galvanic corrosion is not probable just is not enough. Experiments should also be performed for verification. It is concluded that the following specific areas, amongst others, could benefit from further consideration. Galvanic corrosion of unbreached copper by inhomogeneities in the environment and in the copper metal should be addressed

  12. Galvanic and stress corrosion of copper canisters in repository environment. A short review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermansson, H.P.; Koenig, M. [Studsvik Nuclear AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, SKI, has studied different aspects of canister and copper corrosion as part of the general improvement of the knowledge base within the area. General and local corrosion has earlier been treated by experiments as well as by thermodynamic calculations. For completeness also galvanic and stress corrosion should be treated. The present work is a short review, intended to indicate areas needing further focus. The work consists of two parts, the first of which contains a judgement of statements concerning risk of galvanic corrosion of copper in the repository. The second part concerns threshold values for the stress intensity factor of stress corrosion in copper. A suggestion is given on how such values possibly could be measured for copper at repository conditions. In early investigations by SKB, galvanic corrosion is not mentioned or at least not treated. In later works it is treated but often in a theoretical way without indications of any further treatment or investigation. Several pieces of work indicate that further investigations are required to ensure that different types of corrosion, like galvanic, cannot occur in the repository environment. There are for example effects of grain size, grain boundary conditions, impurities and other factors that could influence the appearance of galvanic corrosion that are not treated. Those factors have to be considered to be completely sure that galvanic corrosion and related effects does not occur for the actual canister in the specific environment of the repository. The circumstances are so specific, that a rather general discussion indicating that galvanic corrosion is not probable just is not enough. Experiments should also be performed for verification. It is concluded that the following specific areas, amongst others, could benefit from further consideration. Galvanic corrosion of unbreached copper by inhomogeneities in the environment and in the copper metal should be addressed

  13. Mini-review: Strategies for Variation and Evolution of Bacterial Antigens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Across the eubacteria, antigenic variation has emerged as a strategy to evade host immunity. However, phenotypic variation in some of these antigens also allows the bacteria to exploit variable host niches as well. The specific mechanisms are not shared-derived characters although there is considerable convergent evolution and numerous commonalities reflecting considerations of natural selection and biochemical restraints. Unlike in viruses, mechanisms of antigenic variation in most bacteria involve larger DNA movement such as gene conversion or DNA rearrangement, although some antigens vary due to point mutations or modified transcriptional regulation. The convergent evolution that promotes antigenic variation integrates various evolutionary forces: these include mutations underlying variant production; drift which could remove alleles especially early in infection or during life history phases in arthropod vectors (when the bacterial population size goes through a bottleneck); selection not only for any particular variant but also for the mechanism for the production of variants (i.e., selection for mutability); and overcoming negative selection against variant production. This review highlights the complexities of drivers of antigenic variation, in particular extending evaluation beyond the commonly cited theory of immune evasion. A deeper understanding of the diversity of purpose and mechanisms of antigenic variation in bacteria will contribute to greater insight into bacterial pathogenesis, ecology and coevolution with hosts. PMID:26288700

  14. Short hookwire placement under imaging guidance before thoracic surgery: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, T; Hiraki, T; Matsui, Y; Fujiwara, H; Masaoka, Y; Uka, M; Gobara, H; Toyooka, S; Kanazawa, S

    2018-05-07

    During video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), localization is sometimes needed to detect a target lesion that is too small and/or too far from the pleura. In 1995, Kanazawa et al. developed short hookwire and suture system. Since then, this system has been placed often for selected targets before VATS in Japan. This short hookwire and suture system is a representative preoperative localization method and the placement procedure is well-established. Its placement success rates are very high (range: 97.6%-99.6%), and dislodgement of this short hookwire rarely occurs with an incidence of 0.4%-2.5%. The most common complication of short hookwire placement is pneumothorax (incidence: 32.1%-68.1%), followed by pulmonary hemorrhage (incidence: 8.9%-41.6%). Complications are frequent; however, most complications are minor and asymptomatic. Copyright © 2018 Société française de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Historical review of short-lived isotope applications in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Production of short-lived isotopes, nitrogen 13, fluorine 18 and carbon 11 with a small Van de Graaff accelerator. Applications of these isotopes in uptake and photosynthetic translocation studies in plants, and fluorine tracing in dental studies

  16. Influence of traditional dance training programs on dynamic balance of people with intellectual disability: a short review

    OpenAIRE

    Vasileios, K.

    2015-01-01

    Traditional dance is gaining popularity as an intervention choice for improving poor balance ability of people with intellectual disability (ID). Balance improvement for individuals with ID through dance provides opportunities for participation in sport activities and promotes independent living. This short review provides in brief research evidence of dynamic balance improvement as measured by means of a balance deck in duration of 30, 45, and 60 sec intervals, highlighting the need to incor...

  17. Gradient decent based multi-objective cultural differential evolution for short-term hydrothermal optimal scheduling of economic emission with integrating wind power and photovoltaic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Huifeng; Yue, Dong; Xie, Xiangpeng; Dou, Chunxia; Sun, Feng

    2017-01-01

    With the integration of wind power and photovoltaic power, optimal operation of hydrothermal power system becomes great challenge due to its non-convex, stochastic and complex-coupled constrained characteristics. This paper extends short-term hydrothermal system optimal model into short-term hydrothermal optimal scheduling of economic emission while considering integrated intermittent energy resources (SHOSEE-IIER). For properly solving SHOSEE-IIER problem, a gradient decent based multi-objective cultural differential evolution (GD-MOCDE) is proposed to improve the optimal efficiency of SHOSEE-IIER combined with three designed knowledge structures, which mainly enhances search ability of differential evolution in the shortest way. With considering those complex-coupled and stochastic constraints, a heuristic constraint-handling measurement is utilized to tackle with them both in coarse and fine tuning way, and probability constraint-handling procedures are taken to properly handle those stochastic constraints combined with their probability density functions. Ultimately, those approaches are implemented on five test systems, which testify the optimization efficiency of proposed GD-MOCDE and constraint-handling efficiency for system load balance, water balance and stochastic constraint-handling measurements, those obtained results reveal that the proposed GD-MOCDE can properly solve the SHOSEE-IIER problem combined with those constraint-handling approaches. - Highlights: • Gradient decent method is proposed to improve mutation operator. • Hydrothermal system is extended to hybrid energy system. • The uncertainty constraint is converted into deterministic constraint. • The results show the viability and efficiency of proposed algorithm.

  18. Short term evolution of a highly transmissible methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clone (ST228 in a tertiary care hospital.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Vogel

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is recognized as one of the major human pathogens and is by far one of the most common nosocomial organisms. The genetic basis for the emergence of highly epidemic strains remains mysterious. Studying the microevolution of the different clones of S. aureus is essential for identifying the forces driving pathogen emergence and spread. The aim of the present study was to determine the genetic changes characterizing a lineage belonging to the South German clone (ST228 that spread over ten years in a tertiary care hospital in Switzerland. For this reason, we compared the whole genome of eight isolates recovered between 2001 and 2008 at the Lausanne hospital. The genetic comparison of these isolates revealed that their genomes are extremely closely related. Yet, a few more important genetic changes, such as the replacement of a plasmid, the loss of large fragments of DNA, or the insertion of transposases, were observed. These transfers of mobile genetic elements shaped the evolution of the ST228 lineage that spread within the Lausanne hospital. Nevertheless, although the strains analyzed differed in their dynamics, we have not been able to link a particular genetic element with spreading success. Finally, the present study showed that new sequencing technologies improve considerably the quality and quantity of information obtained for a single strain; but this information is still difficult to interpret and important investments are required for the technology to become accessible for routine investigations.

  19. Nonlinear evolutions of an ultra-intense ultra-short laser pulse in a rarefied plasma through a new quasi-static theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, J.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we present a new description of self-consistent wake excitation by an intense short laser pulse, based on applying the quasi-static approximation (slow variations of the pulse-envelope) in the instantaneous Lorentz-boosted pulse co-moving frame (PCMF), and best verify our results through comparison with particle-in-cell simulations. According to this theory, the plasma motion can be treated perturbatively in the PCMF due to its high initial-velocity and produces a quasi-static wakefield in this frame. The pulse envelope, on the other hand, is governed by a form of the Schrödinger equation in the PCMF, in which the wakefield acts as an effective potential. In this context, pulse evolutions are characterized by local conservation laws resulted from this equation and subjected to Lorentz transformation into the laboratory frame. Using these conservation laws, precise formulas are obtained for spatiotemporal pulse evolutions and related wakefield variations at initial stages, and new equations are derived for instantaneous group velocity and carrier frequency. In addition, based on properties of the Schrödinger equation, spectral-evolutions of the pulse are described and the emergence of an anomalous dispersion branch with linear relation ω ≈ ck (c is the light speed) is predicted. Our results are carefully discussed versus previous publications and the significance of our approach is described by showing almost all suggestive definitions of group-velocity based on energy arguments fail to reproduce our formula and correctly describe the instantaneous pulse-velocity.

  20. Using mobile phones and short message service to deliver self-management interventions for chronic conditions: a meta-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine R; Lekhak, Nirmala; Kaewluang, Napatsawan

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide burden of chronic disease is widespread and growing. This shift from acute to chronic care requires rethinking how resources are invested in managing these conditions. One response has been to create programs and interventions that have the goal of helping patients better manage their own conditions. Over time, these self-management interventions and strategies have increasingly relied on various technologies for their implementation, with the newest technology being mobile phones and short message service (SMS). The objective of this meta-review was to evaluate the current evidence on the use of mobile phones and SMS to deliver self-management interventions for chronic conditions. A meta-review was conducted of the 11 systematic reviews (SRs) that were identified and retrieved after an extensive search of electronic databases covering the years 2000-2012. Relevant information was abstracted from each systematic review and a quality assessment carried out using the AMSTAR ("A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews") criteria. The number and types of included studies and total number of subjects varied significantly across the systematic reviews. Mobile phone text messaging was reported to significantly improve adherence to appointments and antiretroviral therapy, short-term smoking quit rates, and selected clinical and behavioral outcomes. AMSTAR scores ranged from 11 to 3, reflecting substantial variation in SR quality. Mobile phones and SMS show promise as a technology to deliver self-management interventions to improve outcomes of chronic care management. However, the quality of future studies and systematic reviews needs to be improved. There also are unresolved issues about the technology itself. © 2014 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  1. Short-term results of the reverse Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS) in cuff tear arthropathy and revision arthroplasty cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Engelhardt, Lars Victor; Manzke, Michael; Filler, Timm J; Jerosch, Joerg

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiological outcome of the Total Evolutive Shoulder System (TESS) in patients with cuff tear arthropathy and patients in need of a revision arthroplasty. In this sequential study, 67 patients (56 non-stemmed, 11 stemmed) were evaluated after a mean follow-up of 17.5 months. The relative Constant and DASH scores, radiological joint geometry changes, complications and postoperative problems, which are not likely to affect the outcome, were evaluated. A significant increase was noticed for the relative Constant (11.3 vs. 78.8 %) and DASH scores (73.7 vs. 31.8) without significant differences between both etiology groups. Complication rates were similar to previous studies. An aseptic loosening of the non-stemmed humeral component was not noticed in the cuff tear arthropathy group, whereas one case with a loosening was noticed in the revision arthroplasty group. With nine cases (13.4 %), scapular notching rates were very low. On average, the acromiohumeral distance increased by 17 mm and the humeral offset by 13.9 mm; the height of the center of rotation decreased by 4.6 mm and the lateral glenohumeral offset by 6.1 mm, p TESS system provided adequate distalization and medialization of the humerus and the center of rotation. This corresponds to a good clinical outcome. The use of the surgical opportunity to implant the prosthesis with a relatively low neck-shaft angle might explain the low rates of scapular notching in our series. Regarding the case with a loosening of the humeral component, the surgeon should carefully indicate a stemless version for metaphyseal press-fit fixation in patients with revision arthroplasty.

  2. Multi-objective differential evolution with adaptive Cauchy mutation for short-term multi-objective optimal hydro-thermal scheduling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin Hui [College of Hydropower and Information Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhou Jianzhong, E-mail: jz.zhou@hust.edu.c [College of Hydropower and Information Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lu Youlin; Wang Ying; Zhang Yongchuan [College of Hydropower and Information Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2010-04-15

    A new multi-objective optimization method based on differential evolution with adaptive Cauchy mutation (MODE-ACM) is presented to solve short-term multi-objective optimal hydro-thermal scheduling (MOOHS) problem. Besides fuel cost, the pollutant gas emission is also optimized as an objective. The water transport delay between connected reservoirs and the effect of valve-point loading of thermal units are also taken into account in the presented problem formulation. The proposed algorithm adopts an elitist archive to retain non-dominated solutions obtained during the evolutionary process. It modifies the DE's operators to make it suit for multi-objective optimization (MOO) problems and improve its performance. Furthermore, to avoid premature convergence, an adaptive Cauchy mutation is proposed to preserve the diversity of population. An effective constraints handling method is utilized to handle the complex equality and inequality constraints. The effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is tested on a hydro-thermal system consisting of four cascaded hydro plants and three thermal units. The results obtained by MODE-ACM are compared with several previous studies. It is found that the results obtained by MODE-ACM are superior in terms of fuel cost as well as emission output, consuming a shorter time. Thus it can be a viable alternative to generate optimal trade-offs for short-term MOOHS problem.

  3. Diversity, evolution, and functionality of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) regions in the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezzonico, Fabio; Smits, Theo H M; Duffy, Brion

    2011-06-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas system confers acquired heritable immunity against mobile nucleic acid elements in prokaryotes, limiting phage infection and horizontal gene transfer of plasmids. In CRISPR arrays, characteristic repeats are interspersed with similarly sized nonrepetitive spacers derived from transmissible genetic elements and acquired when the cell is challenged with foreign DNA. New spacers are added sequentially and the number and type of CRISPR units can differ among strains, providing a record of phage/plasmid exposure within a species and giving a valuable typing tool. The aim of this work was to investigate CRISPR diversity in the highly homogeneous species Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight. A total of 18 CRISPR genotypes were defined within a collection of 37 cosmopolitan strains. Strains from Spiraeoideae plants clustered in three major groups: groups II and III were composed exclusively of bacteria originating from the United States, whereas group I generally contained strains of more recent dissemination obtained in Europe, New Zealand, and the Middle East. Strains from Rosoideae and Indian hawthorn (Rhaphiolepis indica) clustered separately and displayed a higher intrinsic diversity than that of isolates from Spiraeoideae plants. Reciprocal exclusion was generally observed between plasmid content and cognate spacer sequences, supporting the role of the CRISPR/Cas system in protecting against foreign DNA elements. However, in several group III strains, retention of plasmid pEU30 is inconsistent with a functional CRISPR/Cas system.

  4. PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002 - Two new short period binary stars resulting from common-envelope evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffer, Rex A.; Wade, Richard A.; Liebert, James; Green, Richard F.; Sion, Edward M.; Bechtold, J.; Foss, Diana; Kidder, K.

    1993-01-01

    Ultraviolet spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, and spectrophotometry have been used to study the excess UV stars PG 0308 + 096 and PG 1026 + 002. Both objects are short-period binary systems, each containing a DA white dwarf star and a dM star. Orbital periods of approximately 0.284 day for PG 0308 + 096, and aproximately 0.597 day for PG 1026, have been found by spectroscopic analysis of the H-alpha emission line. Ly-alpha and Balmer line profile fitting were used to estimate the mass of white dwarf stars; mass estimates for the dM stars are based on their spectral types. The orbital inclinations are derived from these masses, the periods, and amplitudes of the H-alpha radial velocity curves. The equivalent width of the H-alpha emission line, in each binary system, varies with the orbital phase in such a manner as to imply that it arises, in large part at least, from the hemisphere of the M star that faces the white dwarf star.

  5. Expression and Evolution of Short Wavelength Sensitive Opsins in Colugos: A Nocturnal Lineage That Informs Debate on Primate Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gillian L; Lim, Norman T-L; Neitz, Maureen; Peichl, Leo; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2013-01-01

    A nocturnal activity pattern is central to almost all hypotheses on the adaptive origins of primates. This enduring view has been challenged in recent years on the basis of variation in the opsin genes of nocturnal primates. A correspondence between the opsin genes and activity patterns of species in Euarchonta-the superordinal group that includes the orders Primates, Dermoptera (colugos), and Scandentia (treeshrews)-could prove instructive, yet the basic biology of the dermopteran visual system is practically unknown. Here we show that the eye of the Sunda colugo ( Galeopterus variegatus ) lacks a tapetum lucidum and has an avascular retina, and we report on the expression and spectral sensitivity of cone photopigments. We found that Sunda colugos have intact short wavelength sensitive (S-) and long wavelength sensitive (L-) opsin genes, and that both opsins are expressed in cone photoreceptors of the retina. The inferred peak spectral sensitivities are 451 and 562 nm, respectively. In line with adaptation to nocturnal vision, cone densities are low. Surprisingly, a majority of S-cones coexpress some L-opsin. We also show that the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions of exon 1 of the S-opsin gene is indicative of purifying selection. Taken together, our results suggest that natural selection has favored a functional S-opsin in a nocturnal lineage for at least 45 million years. Accordingly, a nocturnal activity pattern remains the most likely ancestral character state of euprimates.

  6. Mechanical property degradation and microstructural evolution of cast austenitic stainless steels under short-term thermal aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lach, Timothy G.; Byun, Thak Sang; Leonard, Keith J.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical testing and microstructural characterization were performed on short-term thermally aged cast austenitic stainless steels (CASS) to understand the severity and mechanisms of thermal-aging degradation experienced during extended operation of light water reactor (LWR) coolant systems. Four CASS materials-CF3, CF3M, CF8, and CF8M-were thermally aged for 1500 h at 290 °C, 330 °C, 360 °C, and 400 °C. All four alloys experienced insignificant change in strength and ductility properties but a significant reduction in absorbed impact energy. The primary microstructural and compositional changes during thermal aging were spinodal decomposition of the δ-ferrite into α/α‧, precipitation of G-phase in the δ-ferrite, segregation of solute to the austenite/ferrite interphase boundary, and growth of M23C6 carbides on the austenite/ferrite interphase boundary. These changes were shown to be highly dependent on chemical composition, particularly the concentration of C and Mo, and aging temperature. The low C, high Mo CF3M alloys experienced the most spinodal decomposition and G-phase precipitation coinciding the largest reduction in impact properties.

  7. Evolution and developmental genetics of floral display-A review of progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Ma; Wenheng Zhang; Qiu-Yun (Jenny) Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Angiosperms evolved a great diversity of ways to display their flowers for reproductive success by variation in floral color,size,shape,scent,arrangements,and flowering time.The various innovations in floral forms and the aggregation of flowers into different kinds of inflorescences can drive new ecological adaptations,speciation,and angiosperm diversification.Evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo) seeks to uncover the developmental and genetic basis underlying morphological diversification.Advances in the developmental genetics of floral display have provided a foundation for insights into the genetic basis of floral and inflorescence evolution.A number of regulatory genes controlling floral and inflorescence development have been identified in model plants (e.g.,Arabidopsis thaliana,Antirrhinum majus) using forward genetics and conserved functions of many of these genes across diverse non-model species have been revealed by reverse genetics.Gene-regulatory networks that mediated the developmental progresses of floral and inflorescence development have also been established in some plant species.Meanwhile,phylogeny-based comparative analysis of morphological and genetic character has enabled the identification of key evolutionary events that lead to morphological complexity and diversification.Here we review the recent progress on evo-devo studies of floral display including floral symmetry,petal fusion,floral color,floral scent,and inflorescences.We also review the molecular genetic approaches applied to plant evo-devo studies and highlight the future directions of evo-devo.

  8. A brief description about the evolution of the masticatory complex, its causes and future effects: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imon Pal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of mammalian teeth remains a major attraction both scientifically and aesthetically. Bizarre-shaped teeth are a good reminder of both evolutionary flexibility and the precision of the developmental control mechanism. With time and adaptation to changing environments, several changes have occurred over a span of million years. These adaptations resulted in both positive and negative changes. The review article was written after an initial thorough search of both online and offline databases regarding articles related to evolution and craniofacial evolution. All available information related to the field of dentistry was compiled together. Ethical clearance was not necessary due to the nature of the study. This article provides a brief review on the changes in the teeth and jaw over the course of evolution and the factors that triggered it. A question arises whether, keeping the past in mind and seeing the present, we can predict the future changes that might occur in the human dentition.

  9. The temporal evolution of electromagnetic markers sensitive to the capacity limits of visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Daniel J; Cusack, Rhodri

    2011-01-01

    An electroencephalographic (EEG) marker of the limited contents of human visual short-term memory (VSTM) has previously been described. Termed contralateral delay activity, this consists of a sustained, posterior, negative potential that correlates with memory load and is greatest contralateral to the remembered hemifield. The current investigation replicates this finding and uses magnetoencephalography (MEG) to characterize its magnetic counterparts and their neural generators as they evolve throughout the memory delay. A parametric manipulation of memory load, within and beyond capacity limits, allows separation of signals that asymptote with behavioral VSTM performance from additional responses that contribute to a linear increase with set-size. Both EEG and MEG yielded bilateral signals that track the number of objects held in memory, and contralateral signals that are independent of memory load. In MEG, unlike EEG, the contralateral interaction between hemisphere and item load is much weaker, suggesting that bilateral and contralateral markers of memory load reflect distinct sources to which EEG and MEG are differentially sensitive. Nonetheless, source estimation allowed both the bilateral and the weaker contralateral capacity-limited responses to be localized, along with a load-independent contralateral signal. Sources of global and hemisphere-specific signals all localized to the posterior intraparietal sulcus during the early delay. However the bilateral load response peaked earlier and its generators shifted later in the delay. Therefore the hemifield-specific response may be more closely tied to memory maintenance while the global load response may be involved in initial processing of a limited number of attended objects, such as their individuation or consolidation into memory.

  10. The temporal evolution of electromagnetic markers sensitive to the capacity limits of visual short-term memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel James Mitchell

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An electroencephalographic (EEG marker of the limited contents of human visual short-term memory (VSTM has previously been described. Termed contralateral delay activity (CDA, this consists of a sustained, posterior, negative potential that correlates with memory load and is greatest contralateral to the remembered hemifield. The current investigation replicates this finding and uses magnetoencephalography (MEG to characterise its magnetic counterparts and their neural generators as they evolve throughout the memory delay. A parametric manipulation of memory load, within and beyond capacity limits, allows separation of signals that asymptote with behavioural VSTM performance from additional responses that contribute to a linear increase with set-size. Both EEG and MEG yielded bilateral signals that track the number of objects held in memory, and contralateral signals that are independent of memory load. In MEG, unlike EEG, the contralateral interaction between hemisphere and item load is much weaker, suggesting that bilateral and contralateral markers of memory load reflect distinct sources to which EEG and MEG are differentially sensitive. Nonetheless, source estimation allowed both the bilateral and the weaker contralateral capacity-limited responses to be localised, along with a load-independent contralateral signal. Sources of global and hemisphere-specific signals all localised to the posterior intraparietal sulcus during the early delay. However the bilateral load response peaked earlier and its generators shifted later in the delay. Therefore the hemifield-specific response may be more closely tied to memory maintenance while the global load response may be involved in initial processing of a limited number of attended objects, such as their individuation or consolidation into memory.

  11. The Life Review in Five Short Stories about Characters Facing Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Grier

    1985-01-01

    Uses five modern short stories about people facing death to illustrate and connect various observations of and theories about the dying process developed by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and Robert N. Butler. In response to the imminence of their deaths, the characters survey their past, attempting to reintegrate their life's experiences. (JAC)

  12. Ultra-short laser pulses: review of the 3. physics talks, September 17-18, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, P.

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the operation of lasers with ultra-short pulses and with the laser beam-matter interaction. The applications in concern are: the acceleration of particles, the production of X-ray or photon sources, the micro-machining, the fast ignition in thermonuclear fusion, the production of thin films and the surgery of cornea. (J.S.)

  13. [Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats: structure, function and application--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yujun; Li, Yanjun; Yan, Yanfeng; Yang, Ruifu

    2008-11-01

    CRISPRs (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats), the basis of spoligotyping technology, can provide prokaryotes with heritable adaptive immunity against phages' invasion. Studies on CRISPR loci and their associated elements, including various CAS (CRISPR-associated) proteins and leader sequences, are still in its infant period. We introduce the brief history', structure, function, bioinformatics research and application of this amazing immunity system in prokaryotic organism for inspiring more scientists to find their interest in this developing topic.

  14. The 2014-15 eruption and the short-term geochemical evolution of the Fogo volcano (Cape Verde): Evidence for small-scale mantle heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, J.; Martins, S.; Mattielli, N.; Madeira, J.; Faria, B.; Ramalho, R. S.; Silva, P.; Moreira, M.; Caldeira, R.; Moreira, M.; Rodrigues, J.; Martins, L.

    2017-09-01

    Recurrent eruptions at very active ocean island volcanoes provide the ideal means to gain insight on the scale of spatial variations at the mantle source and on temporal changes of magma genesis and evolution processes. In 2014, after 19 years of quiescence, Fogo volcano (Cape Verde Archipelago) experienced a new eruption, with the vents located 200 m from those of the 1995 eruption, and less than 2000 m from those of the 1951 event. This offered a unique opportunity to investigate the existence of small-scale mantle heterogeneities and the short-term compositional evolution of magmas erupted by a very active oceanic volcano like Fogo. Here we present petrological and geochemical data from the early stages of the Fogo's most recent eruption - started on November 23, 2014 - and compare them with the signature of previous eruptions (particularly those of 1995 and 1951). The magmas erupted in 2014 are alkaline (up to 23.4% and 0.94% of normative ne and lc, respectively) with somewhat evolved compositions (Mg # < 56), ranging from tephrites to phonotephrites. The eruption of phonotephritic lavas preceded the effusion of tephritic ones. Lavas carried to the surface clinopyroxene and kaersutite phenocrysts and cognate megacrysts, which indicate that the main stages of magma evolution occurred in magma chambers most probably located at mantle depths (25.6 ± 5.5 km below sea level). This was followed by a shallower (< 1.5 km below sea level) and shorter (≈ 50 days) magma stagnation before the eruption. 2014 magmas have more unradiogenic Sr and more radiogenic Nd compositions than those of the previous 1951 and 1995 eruptions, which generally have less radiogenic Pb ratios. These isotopic differences - coming from quasi-coeval materials erupted almost in the same place - are remarkable and reflect the small-scale heterogeneity of the underlying mantle source. Moreover, they reflect the limited isotopic averaging of the source composition during partial melting events as

  15. Short review on chemical bath deposition of thin film and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugle, Dhananjay, E-mail: dhananjayforu@gmail.com; Jadhav, Ghanshyam, E-mail: ghjadhav@rediffmail.com [Depertment of Physics, Shri Chhatrapati Shivaji College, Omerga-413606 (India)

    2016-05-06

    This reviews the theory of early growth of the thin film using chemical deposition methods. In particular, it critically reviews the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method for preparation of thin films. The different techniques used for characterizations of the chemically films such as X-ray diffractometer (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Electrical conductivity and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) are discussed. Survey shows the physical and chemical properties solely depend upon the time of deposition, temperature of deposition.

  16. Spectral shifts of mammalian ultraviolet-sensitive pigments (short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1) are associated with eye length and photic niche evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerling, Christopher A; Huynh, Hieu T; Nguyen, Minh A; Meredith, Robert W; Springer, Mark S

    2015-11-22

    Retinal opsin photopigments initiate mammalian vision when stimulated by light. Most mammals possess a short wavelength-sensitive opsin 1 (SWS1) pigment that is primarily sensitive to either ultraviolet or violet light, leading to variation in colour perception across species. Despite knowledge of both ultraviolet- and violet-sensitive SWS1 classes in mammals for 25 years, the adaptive significance of this variation has not been subjected to hypothesis testing, resulting in minimal understanding of the basis for mammalian SWS1 spectral tuning evolution. Here, we gathered data on SWS1 for 403 mammal species, including novel SWS1 sequences for 97 species. Ancestral sequence reconstructions suggest that the most recent common ancestor of Theria possessed an ultraviolet SWS1 pigment, and that violet-sensitive pigments evolved at least 12 times in mammalian history. We also observed that ultraviolet pigments, previously considered to be a rarity, are common in mammals. We then used phylogenetic comparative methods to test the hypotheses that the evolution of violet-sensitive SWS1 is associated with increased light exposure, extended longevity and longer eye length. We discovered that diurnal mammals and species with longer eyes are more likely to have violet-sensitive pigments and less likely to possess UV-sensitive pigments. We hypothesize that (i) as mammals evolved larger body sizes, they evolved longer eyes, which limited transmittance of ultraviolet light to the retina due to an increase in Rayleigh scattering, and (ii) as mammals began to invade diurnal temporal niches, they evolved lenses with low UV transmittance to reduce chromatic aberration and/or photo-oxidative damage. © 2015 The Author(s).

  17. Mandibular dental arch short and long-term spontaneous dentoalveolar changes after slow or rapid maxillary expansion: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur César de Medeiros Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this systematic review was to analyze the short and long-term spontaneous dentoalveolar changes of the mandibular dental arch after slow (SME or rapid (RME maxillary expansion in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. Methods: An electronic search was performed in the following databases: PubMed/Medline, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Embase and Web of Science. Eligibility criteria for article selection included randomized controlled trials and prospective studies written in English, with no restriction of year of publication, involving patients who underwent SME or RME during the mixed or early permanent dentitions. A double-blind search of articles was performed by two reviewers. Initially, the title and the abstract of the studies were read, and their references were also hand-searched for possible missing studies. A methodological quality scoring scale was used to analyze the selected articles. Results: The search retrieved 373 articles, but only 6 were selected for review after application of the eligibility and exclusion criteria. Non-clinically significant spontaneous dentoalveolar changes of approximately 1mm were found in the mandibular dental arch in the short and long-term, after slow or rapid maxillary expansions. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between treated and control groups. Conclusions: There is enough evidence to conclude that negligible short and long-term spontaneous dentoalveolar changes tend to occur in the mandibular dental arch after SME or RME in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. More randomized studies with appropriate control group are required to better evaluate this issue.

  18. Optical Coherence Tomography Technology and Quality Improvement Methods for Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Skin: A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adabi, Saba; Turani, Zahra; Fatemizadeh, Emad; Clayton, Anne; Nasiriavanaki, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) delivers 3-dimensional images of tissue microstructures. Although OCT imaging offers a promising high-resolution method, OCT images experience some artifacts that lead to misapprehension of tissue structures. Speckle, intensity decay, and blurring are 3 major artifacts in OCT images. Speckle is due to the low coherent light source used in the configuration of OCT. Intensity decay is a deterioration of light with respect to depth, and blurring is the consequence of deficiencies of optical components. In this short review, we summarize some of the image enhancement algorithms for OCT images which address the abovementioned artifacts. PMID:28638245

  19. Optical Coherence Tomography Technology and Quality Improvement Methods for Optical Coherence Tomography Images of Skin: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Adabi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical coherence tomography (OCT delivers 3-dimensional images of tissue microstructures. Although OCT imaging offers a promising high-resolution method, OCT images experience some artifacts that lead to misapprehension of tissue structures. Speckle, intensity decay, and blurring are 3 major artifacts in OCT images. Speckle is due to the low coherent light source used in the configuration of OCT. Intensity decay is a deterioration of light with respect to depth, and blurring is the consequence of deficiencies of optical components. In this short review, we summarize some of the image enhancement algorithms for OCT images which address the abovementioned artifacts.

  20. Review of evolution of tunnel position in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Faizal; Nanjayan, Shashi Kumar; Quah, Conal; Ramoutar, Darryl; Konan, Sujith; Haddad, Fares S

    2015-03-18

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture is one of the commonest knee sport injuries. The annual incidence of the ACL injury is between 100000-200000 in the United States. Worldwide around 400000 ACL reconstructions are performed in a year. The goal of ACL reconstruction is to restore the normal knee anatomy and kinesiology. The tibial and femoral tunnel placements are of primordial importance in achieving this outcome. Other factors that influence successful reconstruction are types of grafts, surgical techniques and rehabilitation programmes. A comprehensive understanding of ACL anatomy has led to the development of newer techniques supplemented by more robust biological and mechanical concepts. In this review we are mainly focussing on the evolution of tunnel placement in ACL reconstruction, focusing on three main categories, i.e., anatomical, biological and clinical outcomes. The importance of tunnel placement in the success of ACL reconstruction is well researched. Definite clinical and functional data is lacking to establish the superiority of the single or double bundle reconstruction technique. While there is a trend towards the use of anteromedial portals for femoral tunnel placement, their clinical superiority over trans-tibial tunnels is yet to be established.

  1. Evolution of Chagas' disease in Brazil. Epidemiological perspective and challenges for the future: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello Corassa, Rafael; Aceijas, Carmen; Alves, Paula Aryane Brito; Garelick, Hemda

    2017-09-01

    This article aimed to provide a critical review of the evolution of Chagas' disease (ChD) in Brazil, its magnitude, historical development and management, and challenges for the future. A literature search was performed using PubMed, SciELO and Google Scholar and throughout collected articles' references. Narrative analysis was structured around five main themes identified: vector transmission, control programme, transfusion, oral and congenital transmission. In Brazil, the Chagas' Disease Control Programme was fully implemented in the 1980s, when it reached practically all the endemic areas, and in 1991, the Southern Cone Initiative was created, aiming to control the disease transmission through eliminating the Triatoma infestans and controlling blood banks. As a result, the prevalence of chagasic donors in blood banks reduced from 4.4% in the 1980s to 0.2% in 2005. In 2006, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) certified the interruption of transmission of ChD through this vector in Brazil. However, there are still challenges, such as the domiciliation of new vector species, the need for medical care of the infected individuals, the prevention of alternative mechanisms of transmission, the loss of political concern regarding the disease and the weakening of the control programme. Despite the progress towards control, there are still many challenges ahead to maintain and expand such control and minimise the risk of re-emergence.

  2. The history and evolution of the clinical effectiveness of haemophilia type a treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Hector E; Briceño, María Fernanda; Casas, Claudia P; Rueda, Juan David

    2014-03-01

    First evidence of cases of haemophilia dates from ancient Egypt, but it was when Queen Victoria from England in the 19th century transmitted this illness to her descendants, when it became known as the "royal disease". Last decades of the 20th century account for major discoveries that improved the life expectancy and quality of life of these patients. The history and evolution of haemophilia healthcare counts ups and downs. The introduction of prophylactic schemes during the 1970s have proved to be more effective that the classic on-demand replacement of clotting factors, nevertheless many patients managed with frequent plasma transfusions or derived products became infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus during the 1980s and 1990s. Recombinant factor VIII inception has decreased the risk of blood borne infections and restored back longer life expectancies. Main concerns for haemophilia healthcare are shifting from the pure clinical aspects to the economic considerations of long-term replacement therapy. Nowadays researchers' attention has been placed on the future costs and cost-effectiveness of costly long-term treatment. Equity considerations are relevant as well, and alternative options for less affluent countries are under the scope of further research. The aim of this review was to assess the evidence of different treatment options for haemophilia type A over the past four decades, focusing on the most important technological advances that have influenced the natural course of this "royal disease".

  3. The Effects of Oxidation Layer, Temperature, and Stress on Tin Whisker Growth: A Short Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahim, Z.; Salleh, M. A. A.; Khor, C. Y.

    2018-03-01

    In order to reduce the Tin (Sn) whisker growth phenomenon in solder alloys, the researcher all the world has studied the factor of this behaviour. However, this phenomenon still hunted the electronic devices and industries. The whiskers growth were able to cause the electrical short, which would lead to the catastrophic such as plane crush, the failure of heart pacemaker, and the lost satellite connection. This article focuses on the three factors that influence the whiskers growth in solder alloys which is stress, oxidation layer and temperature. This findings were allowed the researchers to develop various method on how to reduce the growth of the Sn whiskers.

  4. Short Tools to Assess Young Children's Dietary Intake: A Systematic Review Focusing on Application to Dietary Index Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucinda K. Bell

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary indices evaluate diet quality, usually based on current dietary guidelines. Indices can therefore contribute to our understanding of early-life obesity-risk dietary behaviours. Yet indices are commonly applied to dietary data collected by onerous methods (e.g., recalls or records. Short dietary assessment instruments are an attractive alternative to collect data from which to derive an index score. A systematic review of studies published before April 2013 was conducted to identify short (≤50 items tools that measure whole-of-diet intake of young children (birth-five years and are applicable to dietary indices, in particular screening obesogenic dietary behaviours. The search identified 3686 papers of which 16, reporting on 15 tools (n=7, infants and toddlers birth-24 months; n=8, preschoolers 2–5 years, met the inclusion criteria. Most tools were food frequency questionnaires (n=14, with one innovative dietary questionnaire identified. Seven were tested for validity or reliability, and one was tested for both. Six tools (n=2, infants and toddlers; n=4, preschoolers are applicable for use with current dietary indices, five of which screen obesogenic dietary behaviours. Given the limited number of brief, valid and reliable dietary assessment tools for young children to which an index can be applied, future short tool development is warranted, particularly for screening obesogenic dietary behaviours.

  5. Relevance of whole body vibration exercise in sport: a short review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) has been used as a safe and accessible exercise and important reviews have been published about the use of this exercise to manage diseases and to improve physical conditions of athletes The aim of this paper is to highlight the relevance of WBVE to soccer players, ...

  6. Continuous powder feeding for pharmaceutical solid dosage form manufacture: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackshields, Caroline A; Crean, Abina M

    2018-07-01

    There has been a noticeable shift from pharmaceutical batch processing towards a more continuous mode of manufacture for solid oral dosage forms. Continuous solid oral dose processes would not be possible in the absence of a highly accurate feeding system. The performance of feeders defines the content of formulations and is therefore a critical operation in continuous manufacturing of solid dosage forms. It was the purpose of this review to review the role of the initial powder feeding step in a continuous manufacturing process. Different feeding mechanisms are discussed with a particular emphasis on screw controlled loss in weight (LIW) feeding. The importance of understanding the physical properties of the raw materials and its impact on the feeding process is reviewed. Prior knowledge of materials provides an initial indication of how the powders will behave through processing and facilitates in the selection of the most suitable (i) feeder (capacity), (ii) feeding mechanism, and (iii) in the case of screw feeder - screw type. The studies identified in this review focus on the impact of material on powder feeding performance.

  7. Evolution of short cognitive test performance in stroke patients with vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia: Baseline evaluation and follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custodio, Nilton; Montesinos, Rosa; Lira, David; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Bardales, Yadira; Valeriano-Lorenzo, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT. There is limited evidence about the progression of cognitive performance during the post-stroke stage. Objective: To assess the evolution of cognitive performance in stroke patients without vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and patients with vascular dementia (VD). Methods: A prospective cohort of stroke outpatients from two secondary medical centers in Lima, Peru was studied. We performed standardized evaluations at definitive diagnosis (baseline evaluation), and control follow-ups at 6 and 12 months, including a battery of short cognitive tests: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE), and INECO Frontal Screening (IFS). Results: 152 outpatients completed the follow-up, showing progressive increase in mean score on the CDR(0.34 to 0.46), contrary to the pattern observed on the ACE and IFS (78.18 to 76.48 and 23.63 to 22.24). The box plot for the CDR test showed that VCI patients had progressive worsening (0.79 to 0.16). Conversely, this trend was not observed in subjects without VCI. The box plot for the ACE and IFS showed that, for the majority of the differentiated stroke types, both non-VCI and VCI patients had progressive worsening. Conclusion: According to both ACE and IFS results during a 1-year follow-up, the cognitive performance of stroke patients worsened, a trend which was particularly consistent in infarction-type stroke patients. PMID:29354218

  8. Evolution of short cognitive test performance in stroke patients with vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia: Baseline evaluation and follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Custodio

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. There is limited evidence about the progression of cognitive performance during the post-stroke stage. Objective: To assess the evolution of cognitive performance in stroke patients without vascular cognitive impairment (VCI, patients with vascular mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and patients with vascular dementia (VD. Methods: A prospective cohort of stroke outpatients from two secondary medical centers in Lima, Peru was studied. We performed standardized evaluations at definitive diagnosis (baseline evaluation, and control follow-ups at 6 and 12 months, including a battery of short cognitive tests: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE, and INECO Frontal Screening (IFS. Results: 152 outpatients completed the follow-up, showing progressive increase in mean score on the CDR(0.34 to 0.46, contrary to the pattern observed on the ACE and IFS (78.18 to 76.48 and 23.63 to 22.24. The box plot for the CDR test showed that VCI patients had progressive worsening (0.79 to 0.16. Conversely, this trend was not observed in subjects without VCI. The box plot for the ACE and IFS showed that, for the majority of the differentiated stroke types, both non-VCI and VCI patients had progressive worsening. Conclusion: According to both ACE and IFS results during a 1-year follow-up, the cognitive performance of stroke patients worsened, a trend which was particularly consistent in infarction-type stroke patients.

  9. Validation of a short-term shoreline evolution model and coastal risk management implications. The case of the NW Portuguese coast (Ovar-Marinha Grande)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cenci, Luca; Giuseppina Persichillo, Maria; Disperati, Leonardo; Oliveira, Eduardo R.; de Fátima Lopes Alves, Maria; Boni, Giorgio; Pulvirenti, Luca; Phillips, Mike

    2015-04-01

    Coastal zones are fragile and dynamic environments where environmental, economic and social aspects are interconnected. While these areas are often highly urbanised, they are especially vulnerable to natural hazards (e.g. storms, floods, erosion, storm surges). Hence, high risk affects people and goods in several coastal zones throughout the world. The recent storms that hit the European coasts (Hercules, Christian and Stephanie, among others) showed the high vulnerability of these territories. Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) deals with the sustainable development of coastal zones by taking into account the different aspects that affect them, including risks adaptation and mitigation. Accurate mapping of shoreline position through time and models to predict shoreline evolution play a fundamental role for coastal zone risk management. In this context, spaceborne remote sensing is fundamental because it provides synoptic and multitemporal information that allow the extraction of shorelines' proxies. These are stable coastal features (e.g. the vegetation lines, the foredune toe, etc.) that can be mapped instead of the proper shoreline, which is an extremely dynamic boundary. The use of different proxies may provide different evolutionary patterns for the same study area; therefore it is important to assess which is the most suitable, given the environmental characteristics of a specific area. In Portugal, the coastal stretch between Ovar and Marinha Grande is one of the greatest national challenges in terms of integrated management of resources and risks. This area is characterised by intense erosive processes that largely exceed the shoreline's retreat predictions made in the first Coastal Zone Management Plan, developed in 2000. The aim of this work was to assess the accuracy of a new model of shoreline evolution implemented in 2013 in order to check its robustness for short-term predictions. The method exploited the potentialities of the Landsat archive

  10. Massage therapy has short-term benefits for people with common musculoskeletal disorders compared to no treatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diederik C Bervoets

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Question: Is massage therapy effective for people with musculoskeletal disorders compared to any other treatment or no treatment? Design: Systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Participants: People with musculoskeletal disorders. Interventions: Massage therapy (manual manipulation of the soft tissues as a stand-alone intervention. Outcome: The primary outcomes were pain and function. Results: The 26 eligible randomised trials involved 2565 participants. The mean sample size was 95 participants (range 16 to 579 per study; 10 studies were considered to be at low risk of bias. Overall, low-to-moderate-level evidence indicated that massage reduces pain in the short term compared to no treatment in people with shoulder pain and osteoarthritis of the knee, but not in those with low back pain or neck pain. Furthermore, low-to-moderate-level evidence indicated that massage improves function in the short term compared to no treatment in people with low back pain, knee arthritis or shoulder pain. Low-to-very-low-level evidence from single studies indicated no clear benefits of massage over acupuncture, joint mobilisation, manipulation or relaxation therapy in people with fibromyalgia, low back pain and general musculoskeletal pain. Conclusions: Massage therapy, as a stand-alone treatment, reduces pain and improves function compared to no treatment in some musculoskeletal conditions. When massage is compared to another active treatment, no clear benefit was evident. [Bervoets DC, Luijsterburg PAJ, Alessie JJN, Buijs MJ, Verhagen AP (2015 Massage therapy has short-term benefits for people with common musculoskeletal disorders compared to no treatment: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 61: 106–116

  11. [Progress of genome engineering technology via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Qiu, Shaofu; Song, Hongbin

    2013-10-04

    In survival competition with phage, bacteria and archaea gradually evolved the acquired immune system--Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), presenting the trait of transcribing the crRNA and the CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) to silence or cleaving the foreign double-stranded DNA specifically. In recent years, strong interest arises in prokaryotes primitive immune system and many in-depth researches are going on. Recently, researchers successfully repurposed CRISPR as an RNA-guided platform for sequence-specific gene expression, which provides a simple approach for selectively perturbing gene expression on a genome-wide scale. It will undoubtedly bring genome engineering into a more convenient and accurate new era.

  12. Short scales to assess cannabis-related problems: a review of psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempova Danica

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS, Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM. Methods A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO and Addiction Abstracts. A total of 12 publications reporting measures of reliability or validity were identified: 8 concerning SDS, 2 concerning CUDIT and one concerning CAST and PUM. Studies spanned adult and adolescent samples from general and specific user populations in a number of countries worldwide. Results All screening scales tended to have moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranging from .72 to .92. Test-retest reliability and item total correlation have been reported for SDS with acceptable results. Results of validation studies varied depending on study population and standards used for validity assessment, but generally sensitivity, specificity and predictive power are satisfactory. Standard diagnostic cut-off points that can be generalized to different populations do not exist for any scale. Conclusion Short screening scales to assess dependence and other problems related to the use of cannabis seem to be a time and cost saving opportunity to estimate overall prevalences of cannabis-related negative consequences and to identify at-risk persons prior to using more extensive diagnostic instruments. Nevertheless, further research is needed to assess the performance of the tests in different populations and in comparison to broader criteria of cannabis-related problems other than dependence.

  13. Validation of beverage intake methods vs. hydration biomarker: a short review

    OpenAIRE

    Nissensohn, Mariela; Ruano, Cristina; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Fluid intake is difficult to monitor. Biomarkers of beverage intake are able to assess dietary intake / hydration status without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors and also the intra-individual variability. Various markers have been proposed to assess hydration, however, to date; there is a lack of universally accepted biomarker that reflects changes of hydration status in response to changes in beverage intake. Aim: We conduct a review to find out the questionnaire...

  14. Selling Albertans short : Alberta's royalty review panel fails the public interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, D.

    2007-10-01

    This document commented on the release of Alberta's 2007 Royalty Review Panel regarding the province's royalty system for petroleum and oil sands development. It argued that the report does not fulfill the spirit of Alberta's royalty system, which is to expect nothing less than 100 per cent of the rent collection. This document provided an analysis of the set of recommendations made by the panel. It began with a general discussion of the problems in which the royalties review was structured and flaws in the base assumptions made by the panel. It also provided an analysis of the specific recommendations within the panel's report. Last, the report proposed a set of recommendations on how a royalties reform should proceed. The authors found specific recommendations Alberta's 2007 Royalty Review Panel report to be problematic. These included the 1 per cent royalty holiday on tar sands oil; higher net royalty rate; windfall profits tax; coal bed methane and cuts in royalties for low producing wells; and value added incentives. It was concluded that the panel's report was a compromise between the public interest and those of the oil and gas sector and that the panel's goal of ensuring that Alberta remained one of the lowest tax and royalty jurisdictions in the world was fundamentally flawed. 32 refs., 4 figs

  15. Evolution of consciousness of exposure to siloxanes-review of publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojsiewicz-Pieńkowska, Krystyna; Krenczkowska, Dominika

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this description is to review scientific literature from 1944 to 2017 as a source of information on the reasons for the increased interest in siloxanes (silicones). Not only the research area, but first, the changes in the tendency of research aims are important issues in the evaluation. On the one hand, the authors emphasize the unique properties of linear and cyclic siloxanes, providing many examples of beneficial applications, and on the other hand, there are some warnings of overcoming of the safety barrier of their presence in human environment. Analyzing the results from the SCOPUS database, it can be argued that the increased interest of scientists and government agencies particularly relates to the analysis of siloxanes in biological and environmental samples. This is caused not only by the widespread use of various siloxanes in the pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic and food industries, but also by the direct contact of these compounds with tissues, as well as an increased access to knowledge and modern research tools that have developed the awareness of hazards. The development of research methods enables not only constant monitoring of progressively lower siloxanes concentrations in various samples, but because of the specificity of these methods, it also enables an identification of specific siloxane compounds and evaluation of their effects on humans and environment. This paper discusses the issues of the evolution of consciousness of exposure to siloxanes due to their increased synthesis and widespread use in many areas of human life, which contributes to environmental pollution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of the Delta Po evolution (Italy) related to climatic changes and human impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeoni, Umberto; Corbau, Corinne

    2009-06-01

    Climate changes and sea-level rise are important issues, especially for deltas such as the Po Delta, Italy. The evolution of the Po Delta shows a succession in space and a superposition in time of complex environmental natural processes. During the last few centuries, anthropogenic action has played a major role. The formation of the Po Delta began about 2000 years ago and has undergone many phases of development. Between 1500 AD and 1600 AD, the Venetian technicians diverted the Po river course. With these interventions, the "Renaissance delta" was cut off from the hydraulic network and the "modern delta" began to form. Until the middle of the 20th century, progradation of the delta was noticeable due to the abundant sediment supply. In the following decades coastal erosion occurred, this was caused by the reduction of the solid supply of the Po, due to dam and barrier construction and to river bed excavation. These and other interventions (e.g. reclamation, methane extractions from superficial ground water table) have deeply modified the physical and ecological characteristics of the Po Delta. The morphological characteristics of the Po Delta make the largest Italian wetland particularly unstable and very fragile when subjected to human pressure. Furthermore, the delta evidences multiple threats that will probably be exacerbated in the following decades by the effects of expected climatic changes. Only the application of careful policies concerning coastal defence, flood mitigation, anthropogenic subsidence reduction and salt wedge intrusion control will allow reduction of the present or predicted negative effects. This paper reviews how natural and human factors have controlled the Po Delta through time and discusses management strategies taking into account the importance of the human factor and the potential effects of climatic changes.

  17. Evolution of health technology assessment: best practices of the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocchi A

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Angela Rocchi,1 Isabelle Chabot,2 Judith Glennie3 1Athena Research Inc., Burlington, ON, 2EvAccess Inc., Vaudreuil-Dorion, QC, 3JL Glennie Consulting Inc., Aurora, ON, Canada Background: In 2007, Canada chose to develop a separate and distinct path for oncology drug health technology assessment (HTA. In 2013, the decision was made to transfer the pan-Canadian Oncology Drug Review (pCODR to the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH, to align the pCODR and CADTH Common Drug Review processes while building on the best practices of both. The objective of this research was to conduct an examination of the best practices established by the pCODR. Methods: A qualitative research approach was taken to assess the policies, processes, and practices of the pCODR, based on internationally accepted best practice “principles” in HTA, with a particular focus on stakeholder engagement. Publicly available information regarding the approach of the pCODR was used to gauge the agency's performance against these principles. In addition, stakeholder observations and real-world experiences were gathered through key informant interviews to be inclusive of perspectives from patient advocacy groups, provincial and/or cancer agency decision-makers, community and academic oncologists, industry, expert committee members, and health economists. Results: This analysis indicated that, through the pCODR, oncology stakeholders have had a voice in and have come to trust the quality and relevance of oncology HTA as a vital tool to ensure the best decisions for Canadians with cancer and their health care system. It could be expected that adoption of the principles and processes of the pCODR would bring a similar level of engagement and trust to other HTA organizations in Canada and elsewhere. Conclusion: The results of this research led to recommendations for improvement and potential extrapolation of these best practices to other HTA organizations

  18. Evolution of Principle and Practice of Electrodeposited Thin Film: A Review on Effect of Temperature and Sonication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mallik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This review discusses briefly the important aspects of thin films. The introduction of the article is a summary of evolution of thin films from surface engineering, their deposition methods, and important issues. The fundamental aspects of electrochemical deposition with special emphasis on the effect of temperature on the phase formation have been reviewed briefly. The field of sonoelectrochemistry has been discussed in the paper. The literature regarding the effects of temperature and sonication on the structure and morphology of the deposits and nucleation mechanisms, residual stress, and mechanical properties has also been covered briefly.

  19. A Short Review on the Synthetic Strategies of Duocarmycin Analogs that are Powerful DNA Alkylating Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Pravin C; Satam, Vijay; Lee, Moses

    2015-01-01

    The duocarmycins and CC-1065 are members of a class of DNA minor groove, AT-sequence selective, and adenine-N3 alkylating agents, isolated from Streptomyces sp. that exhibit extremely potent cytotoxicity against the growth of cancer cells grown in culture. Initial synthesis and structural modification of the cyclopropa[c] pyrrolo[3,2-e]indole (CPI) DNA-alkylating motif as well as the indole non-covalent binding region in the 1980s have led to several compounds that entered clinical trials as potential anticancer drugs. However, due to significant systemic toxicity none of the analogs have passed clinical evaluation. As a result, the intensity in the design, synthesis, and development of novel analogs of the duocarmycins has continued. Accordingly, in this review, which covers a period from the 1990s through the present time, the design and synthesis of duocarmycin SA are described along with the synthesis of novel and highly cytotoxic analogs that lack the chiral center. Examples of achiral analogs of duocarmycin SA described in this review include seco-DUMSA (39 and 40), seco-amino-CBI-TMI (13, Centanamycin), and seco-hydroxy-CBI-TMI (14). In addition, another novel class of biologically active duocarmycin SA analogs that contained the seco-iso-cyclopropylfurano[2,3-e]indoline (seco-iso-CFI) and seco-cyclopropyltetrahydrofurano[2,3-f]quinoline (seco-CFQ) DNA alkylating submit was also designed and synthesized. The synthesis of seco-iso-CFI-TMI (10, Tafuramycin A) and seco-CFQ-TMI (11, Tafuramycin B) is included in this review.

  20. A Short Review of FDTD-Based Methods for Uncertainty Quantification in Computational Electromagnetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros T. Zygiridis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a review of selected computational methodologies that are based on the deterministic finite-difference time-domain algorithm and are suitable for the investigation of electromagnetic problems involving uncertainties. As it will become apparent, several alternatives capable of performing uncertainty quantification in a variety of cases exist, each one exhibiting different qualities and ranges of applicability, which we intend to point out here. Given the numerous available approaches, the purpose of this paper is to clarify the main strengths and weaknesses of the described methodologies and help the potential readers to safely select the most suitable approach for their problem under consideration.

  1. A review of the effects of lunch on adults' short-term cognitive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Katrin; Libuda, Lars; Terschlüsen, Anna Maria; Kersting, Mathilde

    2013-01-01

    Because of widespread irregular lunch consumption by both children and adults, information on the effects of lunch on short-term cognitive functioning is relevant to public health. In September 2012, a MEDLINE search was conducted for studies in which the effects of lunch on cognitive performance were examined. Eleven experimental studies published from 1981 to 1996 were found and evaluated; all involved adults. In three studies, the effects of lunch and lunch skipping were compared; the remaining studies involved a determination of the effects of lunch size and lunch composition. Results of studies in which lunch was compared with no lunch indicate that lunch leads to potential impairment of some aspects of cognitive functioning in the early afternoon. Lunch size may influence cognitive functioning, with impairment more likely to occur after a large lunch than a small lunch. Furthermore, in comparison with low-fat lunches, high-fat lunches seem to result in slower but more accurate responses to some cognitive tasks. However, these suggestions must be viewed with caution, as they are based on only a few studies and are not thoroughly supported by high-quality evidence. In addition, results obtained with adults are not applicable to children. Thus, the potential effects of lunch need further examination in children and adults.

  2. Should nutritional supplements and sports drinks companies sponsor sport? A short review of the ethical concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outram, Simon M; Stewart, Bob

    2015-06-01

    This paper proposes that the sponsorship of sport by nutritional supplements and sport drinks companies should be re-examined in the light of ethical concerns about the closeness of this relationship. A short overview is provided of the sponsorship of sport, arguing that ethical concerns about its appropriateness remain despite the imposition of severe restrictions on tobacco sponsorship. Further, the paper examines the main concerns about supplement use and sports drinks with respect to efficacy, health and the risks of doping. Particular consideration is given to the health implications of these concerns. It is suggested that they, of themselves, do not warrant the restriction of sponsorship by companies producing supplements and sports drinks. Nevertheless, it is argued that sports sponsorship does warrant further ethical examination--above and beyond that afforded to other sponsors of sport--as sport sponsorship is integral to the perceived need for such products. In conclusion, it is argued that sport may have found itself lending unwarranted credibility to products which would otherwise not necessarily be seen as beneficial for participation in sports and exercise or as inherently healthy products. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. The importance of individual frequencies of endogenous brain oscillations for auditory cognition - A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltus, Alina; Herrmann, Christoph Siegfried

    2016-06-01

    Oscillatory EEG activity in the human brain with frequencies in the gamma range (approx. 30-80Hz) is known to be relevant for a large number of cognitive processes. Interestingly, each subject reveals an individual frequency of the auditory gamma-band response (GBR) that coincides with the peak in the auditory steady state response (ASSR). A common resonance frequency of auditory cortex seems to underlie both the individual frequency of the GBR and the peak of the ASSR. This review sheds light on the functional role of oscillatory gamma activity for auditory processing. For successful processing, the auditory system has to track changes in auditory input over time and store information about past events in memory which allows the construction of auditory objects. Recent findings support the idea of gamma oscillations being involved in the partitioning of auditory input into discrete samples to facilitate higher order processing. We review experiments that seem to suggest that inter-individual differences in the resonance frequency are behaviorally relevant for gap detection and speech processing. A possible application of these resonance frequencies for brain computer interfaces is illustrated with regard to optimized individual presentation rates for auditory input to correspond with endogenous oscillatory activity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Yoga on Mental and Physical Health: A Short Summary of Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Büssing

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This report summarizes the current evidence on the effects of yoga interventions on various components of mental and physical health, by focussing on the evidence described in review articles. Collectively, these reviews suggest a number of areas where yoga may well be beneficial, but more research is required for virtually all of them to firmly establish such benefits. The heterogeneity among interventions and conditions studied has hampered the use of meta-analysis as an appropriate tool for summarizing the current literature. Nevertheless, there are some meta-analyses which indicate beneficial effects of yoga interventions, and there are several randomized clinical trials (RCT’s of relatively high quality indicating beneficial effects of yoga for pain-associated disability and mental health. Yoga may well be effective as a supportive adjunct to mitigate some medical conditions, but not yet a proven stand-alone, curative treatment. Larger-scale and more rigorous research with higher methodological quality and adequate control interventions is highly encouraged because yoga may have potential to be implemented as a beneficial supportive/adjunct treatment that is relatively cost-effective, may be practiced at least in part as a self-care behavioral treatment, provides a life-long behavioural skill, enhances self-efficacy and self-confidence and is often associated with additional positive side effects.

  5. Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy in Parkinson Disease: Preliminary Results and Short Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Giovannopoulou, Eirini; Thomaidis, Triphonas; Charitoudis, George; Pavlidis, Pavlos; Kazakos, Konstantinos

    2016-09-01

    To study the effectiveness of Transforaminal Percutaneous Endoscopic Discectomy (TPED) for lumbar disc herniation in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Fifteen patients diagnosed with PD and lumbar disc hernia were recruited to the study. All patients underwent TPED. Mean age was 61.27±6 years, with 8 male (53.3%) and 7 female patients (46.7%). Level of operation was L3-4 (33.3%), L4-5 (33.3%) and L5-S1 (33.3%). Visual analogue scale (VAS) for leg pain and Oswestry Disabillity Index (ODI) for back pain, as well as the Medical Outcomes Study Questionnaire Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were assessed right before surgery and at 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. VAS and ODI showed significant (p<0.005) reduction one year after TPED, with a percentage improvement of 83.9% and 79.4%, respectively. Similarly, all aspects of quality of life (SF-36) were significantly (p<0.005) improved 1 year after the procedure. Bodily pain and role physical demonstrated the highest increase followed by role emotional, physical function, social function, vitality, mental health, and general health. Beneficial impact of TPED on clinical outcome and HRQoL was independent of gender and operated level. TPED is effective in reducing lower limb symptoms and low back pain in patients with lumbar disc hernia, suffering from PD. Positive effect of endoscopy is, also, evident in HRQoL of those patients one year after the procedure.

  6. Electro-Conductive Membranes for Permeation Enhancement and Fouling Mitigation: A Short Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formoso, Patrizia; Pantuso, Elvira; De Filpo, Giovanni; Nicoletta, Fiore Pasquale

    2017-07-28

    The research on electro-conductive membranes has expanded in recent years. These membranes have strong prospective as key components in next generation water treatment plants because they are engineered in order to enhance their performance in terms of separation, flux, fouling potential, and permselectivity. The present review summarizes recent developments in the preparation of electro-conductive membranes and the mechanisms of their response to external electric voltages in order to obtain an improvement in permeation and mitigation in the fouling growth. In particular, this paper deals with the properties of electro-conductive polymers and the preparation of electro-conductive polymer membranes with a focus on responsive membranes based on polyaniline, polypyrrole and carbon nanotubes. Then, some examples of electro-conductive membranes for permeation enhancement and fouling mitigation by electrostatic repulsion, hydrogen peroxide generation and electrochemical oxidation will be presented.

  7. Ecological genetics of freshwater fish: a short review of the genotype–phenotype connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal, O.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecular ecology or ecological genetics is an expanding application of population genetics which has flourished in the last two decades but it is dominated by systematic and phylogeographic studies, with relatively little emphasis on the study of the genetic basis of the process of adaptation to different ecological conditions. The relationship between genotype and adaptive phenotypes is weak because populations are often difficult to quantify and experiments are logistically challenging or unfeasible. Interestingly, in freshwater fish, studies to characterize the genetic architecture of adaptive traits are not as rare as in other vertebrate groups. In this review, we summarize the few cases where the relationship between the ecology and genetics of freshwater fish is more developed, namely the relationship between genetic markers and ecological phenotypes.

  8. A short review on the effects of aerosols on visibility impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emetere Moses, E.; Akinyemi, ML

    2017-05-01

    Ozone in the lower planetary boundary layer of the earth atmosphere is dangerous to people and vegetation, since it oxidizes natural tissue. The diminished in visibility is because of dispersing of sun based radiation by high convergences of anthropogenic aerosols. Visibility impairment is most prominent at high relative mugginess when the aerosols swell by the take-up of water to expand the cross sectional area for dispersing; this is the wonder known as haze. Haze has become a major air pollution challenge the aviation industry has to cope with in recent time. In this review, two major problems were spotted to be responsible for air disaster in any region of the world. While some developed countries had almost resolved the challenge of visibility impairment by seeking relevant solutions, most developing countries do not have a recovery plan. Therefore, the resolution of this major challenge may be the leverage for most developing nations to draw out a recovery plan.

  9. Clinical impact of renography in antenatally discovered pelviureteric stenosis: a short review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froekiaer, J.; Eskild-Jensen, A.

    2003-01-01

    Congenital unilateral hydronephrosis is a relatively frequent and often asymptomatic condition diagnosed in utero. The natural history and significance of congenital hydronephrosis on the development and long-term consequences on renal function is not sufficiently known. The present diagnostic methods do not provide prediction of the functional consequences of a potential presence of an obstruction. However, renography is an important method affecting the clinical treatment of children with prenatal unilateral hydronephrosis, and is the only method that satisfactory can provide serial accurate measurements of differential renal function. The present review briefly summarizes the clinical impact of renography in neonatally discovered hydronephrosis in relation to the pathophysiological characteristics of congenital unilateral hydronephrosis. (orig.) [de

  10. [The German Program for Disease Management Guidelines: CHD Guideline 2006. Short review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollenschläger, Günter; Lelgemann, Monika; Kopp, Ina

    2006-12-15

    In Germany, the first national consensus on evidence-based recommendations for disease management in patients with chronic coronary heart disease was reached in summer 2006. After a development period of 4 years, the National Disease Management Guideline Chronic Coronary Heart Disease was finalized by nominal group process under the authorship of the scientific associations for cardiac rehabilitation (DGPR), cardiac surgery (DGTHG), cardiology (DGK), general internal medicine (DGIM), family medicine (DEGAM), and the Drug Commission of the German Medical Association (AKDAE). The recommendations' main sources are the ACC/AHA guidelines 2002 updates as well as existing German guidelines and reviews of recent scientific evidence. The article gives an overview on authors, sources, and key recommendations of the German National Disease Management Guideline Chronic Coronary Heart Disease 2006 (www.khk.versorgungsleitlinie.de).

  11. [The German Program for Disease Management Guidelines: COPD Guideline 2006. Short review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollenschläger, Günter; Kopp, Ina; Lelgemann, Monika

    2007-01-15

    In Germany, the first national consensus on evidence-based recommendations for COPD prevention and disease management was reached in spring 2006. After a development period of 9 months, the National Disease Management Guideline COPD was finalized by nominal group process under the authorship of the scientific societies for pneumology (DGP and Atemwegsliga), general internal medicine (DGIM), family medicine (DEGAM), and the Drug Commission of the German Medical Association (AKDAE). The recommendations' main sources are the NICE COPD Guideline 2004, the GOLD Recommendations as well as existing German guidelines and reviews of recent scientific evidence. The article gives an overview on authors, sources, and key recommendations of the German National Disease Management Guideline COPD 2006 (www.copd.versorgungsleitlinien.de).

  12. Electro-Conductive Membranes for Permeation Enhancement and Fouling Mitigation: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Formoso

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The research on electro-conductive membranes has expanded in recent years. These membranes have strong prospective as key components in next generation water treatment plants because they are engineered in order to enhance their performance in terms of separation, flux, fouling potential, and permselectivity. The present review summarizes recent developments in the preparation of electro-conductive membranes and the mechanisms of their response to external electric voltages in order to obtain an improvement in permeation and mitigation in the fouling growth. In particular, this paper deals with the properties of electro-conductive polymers and the preparation of electro-conductive polymer membranes with a focus on responsive membranes based on polyaniline, polypyrrole and carbon nanotubes. Then, some examples of electro-conductive membranes for permeation enhancement and fouling mitigation by electrostatic repulsion, hydrogen peroxide generation and electrochemical oxidation will be presented.

  13. Comparative Genomics of Recent Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli O104:H4: Short-Term Evolution of an Emerging Pathogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grad, Yonatan H.; Godfrey, Paul; Cerquiera, Gustavo C.; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Gouali, Malika; Bingen, Edouard; Shea, Terrence P.; Haas, Brian J.; Griggs, Allison; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Lipsitch, Marc; Waldor, Matthew K.; Weill, François-Xavier; Wortman, Jennifer R.; Hanage, William P.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The large outbreak of diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) caused by Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Europe from May to July 2011 highlighted the potential of a rarely identified E. coli serogroup to cause severe disease. Prior to the outbreak, there were very few reports of disease caused by this pathogen and thus little known of its diversity and evolution. The identification of cases of HUS caused by E. coli O104:H4 in France and Turkey after the outbreak and with no clear epidemiological links raises questions about whether these sporadic cases are derived from the outbreak. Here, we report genome sequences of five independent isolates from these cases and results of a comparative analysis with historical and 2011 outbreak isolates. These analyses revealed that the five isolates are not derived from the outbreak strain; however, they are more closely related to the outbreak strain and each other than to isolates identified prior to the 2011 outbreak. Over the short time scale represented by these closely related organisms, the majority of genome variation is found within their mobile genetic elements: none of the nine O104:H4 isolates compared here contain the same set of plasmids, and their prophages and genomic islands also differ. Moreover, the presence of closely related HUS-associated E. coli O104:H4 isolates supports the contention that fully virulent O104:H4 isolates are widespread and emphasizes the possibility of future food-borne E. coli O104:H4 outbreaks. PMID:23341549

  14. Classification and Comparison of Architecture Evolution Reuse Knowledge - A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Aakash; Jamshidi, Pooyan; Pahl, Claus

    2014-01-01

    patterns (34% of selected studies) represent a predominant solution, followed by evolution styles (25%) and adaptation strategies and policies (22%) to enable application of reuse knowledge. Empirical methods for acquisition of reuse knowledge represent 19% including pattern discovery, configuration...

  15. Ten Years Evidence-Based High-Tech Acupuncture—A Short Review of Peripherally Measured Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Litscher

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1997, the Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine of Graz Medical University has been dealing with the demystification of acupuncture and examining, using non-invasive methods, how different stimulation modalities (manual needle acupuncture, laserneedle acupuncture and electro acupuncture affect peripheral and central functions. Laser is also an important instrument for acupuncture. One only needs to mention the treatment of children or of patients with needle phobia. The laserneedle acupuncture, which was examined scientifically for the first time in Graz, represents a new painless acupuncture method for which up to ten laserneedles are glued to the skin, but not stuck into it. This first part of the short review article summarizes some of the peripherally measured effects of acupuncture obtained at the Medical University of Graz within the last 10 years.

  16. Uptake and metabolism of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, a critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astbury, Stuart M; Corfe, Bernard M

    2012-07-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) formed by bacterial fermentation of fibre in the colon, and serves as an energy source for colonocytes. The action of butyrate as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has led to a number of clinical trials testing its effectiveness as a potential treatment for cancer. The biology of butyrate transport is therefore relevant to both its physiological and pharmacological benefits. This review of the literature was carried out to assess the evidence for both the uptake and metabolism of butyrate, in an attempt to determine possible mechanism (s) by which butyrate can act as an HDACi. It is noted that although uptake and metabolism are well characterised, there are still significant gaps in the knowledgebase around the intracellular handing of butyrate, where assumptions or dated evidence are relied upon.

  17. INFLUENCE OF TRADITIONAL DANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS ON DYNAMIC BALANCE OF PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY: A SHORT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tsimaras Vasileios

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional dance is gaining popularity as an intervention choice for improving poor balance ability of people with intellectual disability (ID. Balance improvement for individuals with ID through dance provides opportunities for participation in sport activities and promotes independent living. This short review provides in brief research evidence of dynamic balance improvement as measured by means of a balance deck in duration of 30, 45, and 60 sec intervals, highlighting the need to incorporate traditional dance programs in Physical Education (PE lessons applied on participants with ID. Overall, traditional dances provide emotional and cognitive interaction that has a direct positive effect on quality of life and successful motor performance of individuals with ID.

  18. Anti-tumor promoting potential of selected spice ingredients with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surh, Young-Joon

    2002-08-01

    A wide variety of phenolic substances derived from spice possess potent antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic activities. Examples are curcumin, a yellow colouring agent, contained in turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae), [6]-gingerol, a pungent ingredient present in ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) and capsaicin, a principal pungent principle of hot chili pepper (Capsicum annuum L, Solanaceae). The chemopreventive effects exerted by these phytochemicals are often associated with their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been recognized as a molecular target of many chemopreventive as well as anti-inflammatory agents. Recent studies have shown that COX-2 is regulated by the eukaryotic transcription factor NF-kappaB. This short review summarizes the molecular mechanisms underlying chemopreventive effects of the aforementioned spice ingredients in terms of their effects on intracellular signaling cascades, particularly those involving NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinases.

  19. Rating of Perceived Exertion for Quantification of Training and Combat Loads During Combat Sport-Specific Activities: A Short Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimani, Maamer; Davis, Philip; Franchini, Emerson; Moalla, Wassim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this short review was to summarize data pertaining to the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) methods (RPE value and session-RPE) during combat sport-specific activities (i.e., competition and training) based on many factors, including contest type (i.e., official vs. simulated vs. training), combat rounds, age of participants and muscle groups, and their correlation with physiological variables (i.e., blood lactate concentration [La] and heart rate [HR]). The current review shows higher RPE in a match of mixed martial arts (MMAs) than Brazilian jiu-jitsu and kickboxing matches and during the competitive period compared with the precompetitive period. This could be explained by the longer duration of bouts, the higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism in MMA than other combat sports and contest type differences (simulated vs. official matches). Thus, this review found significant correlations between RPE or session-RPE, [La] and HR. Particularly, there was a stronger correlation between RPE and [La] during official striking (r = 0.81) than grappling combat sports matches (r = 0.53). In addition, a variation of correlation (moderate to large) between session-RPE and HR-based methods has been reported (i.e., Edwards' training load [r ranged between 0.58 and 0.95] and Banister training impulse [r ranged between 0.52 and 0.86]). Specifically, stronger correlation was apparent in combat sport competition that required a much higher percentage contribution of aerobic metabolism (e.g., karate) and in adult athletes than anaerobic-based combat sports (e.g., taekwondo) and young athletes, respectively. Indeed, the current review highlights that the correlations between session-RPE and HR-based methods were higher during official competition than training sessions. Session-RPE was affected by participants' competitive level, the intensity of session (high vs. low), the training modalities (tactical-technical vs. technical-development vs. simulated

  20. INFLUENCE OF TRADITIONAL DANCE TRAINING PROGRAMS ON DYNAMIC BALANCE OF PEOPLE WITH INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY: A SHORT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasileios K. Tsimaras

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional dance is gaining popularity as an intervention choice for improving poor balance ability of people with intellectual disability (ID. Balance improvement for individuals with ID through dance provides opportunities for participation in sport activities and promotes independent living. This short review provides in brief research evidence of dynamic balance improvement as measured by means of a balance deck in duration of 30, 45, and 60 sec intervals, highlighting the need to incorporate traditional dance programs in Physical Education (PE lessons applied on participants with ID. Overall, traditional dances provide emotional and cognitive interaction that has a direct positive effect on quality of life and successful motor performance of individuals with ID.

  1. Ultrasound-guided continuous suprascapular nerve block for adhesive capsulitis: one case and a short topical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neimann, Jens Dupont Børglum; Bartholdy, Anne; Hautopp, H

    2011-01-01

    We present a case with an ultrasound-guided (USG) placement of a perineural catheter beneath the transverse scapular ligament in the scapular notch to provide a continuous block of the suprascapular nerve (SSN). The patient suffered from a severe and very painful adhesive capsulitis of the left...... shoulder secondary to an operation in the same shoulder conducted 20 weeks previously for impingement syndrome and a superior labral anterior-posterior tear. Following a new operation with capsular release, the placement of a continuous nerve block catheter subsequently allowed for nearly pain-free low...... impact passive and guided active mobilization by the performing physiotherapist for three consecutive weeks. This case and a short topical review on the use of SSN block in painful shoulder conditions highlight the possibility of a USG continuous nerve block of the SSN as sufficient pain management...

  2. A systematic review and economic evaluation of exercise referral schemes in primary care: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Fiona; Holmes, Mike; Everson-Hock, Emma; Davis, Sarah; Buckley Woods, Helen; Anokye, Nana; Tappenden, Paul; Kaltenthaler, Eva

    2015-07-01

    It is estimated that only 39% of men and 29% of women in England achieve the levels of physical activity that are recommended to protect health and prevent disease. One approach to addressing this problem has been the development of exercise referral schemes (ERSs), in which health professionals refer patients to external exercise providers. These schemes have been widely rolled out across the UK despite concerns that they may not produce sustained changes in levels of physical activity and, therefore, may not be cost-effective interventions. The evidence to determine clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness was evaluated in 2009. This review seeks to update this earlier work by incorporating new evidence and re-examining the cost-effectiveness. To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ERSs compared with usual care. Exhaustive searches of relevant electronic databases and journals were undertaken to identify new studies evaluating ERSs using a randomised controlled trial (RCT) design. RCTs that incorporated a qualitative evaluation of the intervention were identified in order to explore the barriers and facilitators to the uptake of and adherence to ERSs. Data were extracted using a previously designed tool and study quality assessed for potential bias. Where data could be pooled, meta-analyses were carried out. Qualitative analysis was also undertaken using a thematic approach. The cost-effectiveness was evaluated using a Markov structure which estimated the likelihood of becoming physically active and the subsequent risk reduction on coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The model adopts a lifetime horizon, and a NHS and Personal Social Services perspective was taken with discounting at 1.5% for both costs and benefits. The search identified one new RCT and one new qualitative study. The new data were pooled with existing data from the 2011 review by Pavey et al. [Pavey TG, Anokye N, Taylor AH, Trueman P

  3. Massage therapy has short-term benefits for people with common musculoskeletal disorders compared to no treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bervoets, Diederik C; Luijsterburg, Pim A J; Alessie, Jeroen J N; Buijs, Martijn J; Verhagen, Arianne P

    2015-07-01

    Is massage therapy effective for people with musculoskeletal disorders compared to any other treatment or no treatment? Systematic review of randomised clinical trials. People with musculoskeletal disorders. Massage therapy (manual manipulation of the soft tissues) as a stand-alone intervention. The primary outcomes were pain and function. The 26 eligible randomised trials involved 2565 participants. The mean sample size was 95 participants (range 16 to 579) per study; 10 studies were considered to be at low risk of bias. Overall, low-to-moderate-level evidence indicated that massage reduces pain in the short term compared to no treatment in people with shoulder pain and osteoarthritis of the knee, but not in those with low back pain or neck pain. Furthermore, low-to-moderate-level evidence indicated that massage improves function in the short term compared to no treatment in people with low back pain, knee arthritis or shoulder pain. Low-to-very-low-level evidence from single studies indicated no clear benefits of massage over acupuncture, joint mobilisation, manipulation or relaxation therapy in people with fibromyalgia, low back pain and general musculoskeletal pain. Massage therapy, as a stand-alone treatment, reduces pain and improves function compared to no treatment in some musculoskeletal conditions. When massage is compared to another active treatment, no clear benefit was evident. Copyright © 2015 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Natural products, micronutrients, and nutraceuticals for the treatment of depression: A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Daglia, Maria; Braidy, Nady; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel

    2017-04-01

    Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders, and the fourth leading cause of long-term disability throughout the world. Despite the availability of different classes of antidepressant drugs, most of them are not completely effective and above all are associated with many serious adverse effects. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that dietary supplements rich in important phytochemicals possess beneficial therapeutic roles in depression. In this review, we will first consider what is known about the pathogenesis of depression and discuss the need for more safe and efficacious treatment. We will then review the potential clinical relevance of natural plant-derived products based on data derived from pre-clinical animal studies, randomized controlled studies and placebo-controlled trials published on this topic within the last decade. Among the natural compounds that show antidepressive-like activity, green tea catechins have been shown to decrease depressive symptoms in experimental animals, possibly in part through the inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO). Anthocyanins and their aglycons, responsible for the typical color of berries, inhibit MAO isoforms A or B with IC50 values corresponding to the micromolar range. Other studies suggest that cocoa extracts, whose main components are procyanidins, attenuate depressive symptoms in rats. Resveratrol, one of the most important natural stilbenoid, inhibits noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake in rats, and significantly decreases anxiety/depressive behaviours while increasing hippocampal serotonin and noradrenaline levels. Trans-resveratrol possesses MAO-A inhibitory effects in different brain areas, particularly in the frontal cortex and hippocampus, as already reported for tea catechins. Although these effects have been documented in rodent models, further randomized controlled trials in this area are warranted. However, so far, there is only correlative evidence between certain nutrients, such

  5. Bioanalytical and chemical sensors using living taste, olfactory, and neural cells and tissues: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chunsheng; Lillehoj, Peter B; Wang, Ping

    2015-11-07

    Biosensors utilizing living tissues and cells have recently gained significant attention as functional devices for chemical sensing and biochemical analysis. These devices integrate biological components (i.e. single cells, cell networks, tissues) with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)-based sensors and transducers. Various types of cells and tissues derived from natural and bioengineered sources have been used as recognition and sensing elements, which are generally characterized by high sensitivity and specificity. This review summarizes the state of the art in tissue- and cell-based biosensing platforms with an emphasis on those using taste, olfactory, and neural cells and tissues. Many of these devices employ unique integration strategies and sensing schemes based on sensitive transducers including microelectrode arrays (MEAs), field effect transistors (FETs), and light-addressable potentiometric sensors (LAPSs). Several groups have coupled these hybrid biosensors with microfluidics which offers added benefits of small sample volumes and enhanced automation. While this technology is currently limited to lab settings due to the limited stability of living biological components, further research to enhance their robustness will enable these devices to be employed in field and clinical settings.

  6. Emerging contaminants in surface waters in China—a short review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guang; Zhang, Guangming; Fan, Maohong

    2014-01-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) have drawn attention to many countries due to their persistent input and potential threat to human health and the environment. This article reviews the current contamination sources and their status for surface waters in China. The contamination levels of ECs in surface waters are in the range ng L −1 to μg L −1 in China, apparently about the same as the situation in other countries. ECs enter surface water via runoff, drainage, rainfall, and wastewater treatment effluent. The frequency of occurrence of ECs increased rapidly from 2006 to 2011; a significant reason is the production and consumption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products. As for the distribution of EC pollution in China, the frequency of occurrence of ECs in eastern regions is higher than in western regions. A majority of EC studies have focused on surface waters of the Haihe River and Pearl River watersheds due to their highly developed industries and intense human activity. Legislative and administrative regulation of ECs is lacking in China. To remove ECs, a number of technologies, such as absorption by activated carbon, membrane filtration technology, and advanced oxidation processes, have been researched. (letter)

  7. Controlling measures of micro-plastic and nano pollutants: A short review of disposing waste toners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Jujun; Qin, Baojia; Huang, Jiaxin

    2018-05-31

    Micro-plastic and nano-particle have been the focal pollutants in environmental science. The printer toner is omitted micro-plastic and nano pollutant. It is comprised of micro polyacrylate styrene and nano-Fe 3 O 4 particles. Polyacrylate styrene and nano-metal were proved to be irreversibly toxic to biological cells. Therefore, toners have the potential environmental risk and healthy harm due to include micro plastics and nano-metal. To our knowledge, few studies provided the specific collection and treatment of micro-plastic pollutant. This paper has chosen a kind of micro-plastic and nano pollutant toxic toner and provided technical guidance and inspiration for controlling the micro-plastic and nano pollutants. The method of vacuum-gasification-condensation was adopted for controlling the micro-plastic and nano pollutant toner. We believe this review will open up a potential avenue for controlling micro-plastic and nano pollutants for environmental protection. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sugammadex - A short review and clinical recommendations for the cardiac anesthesiologist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemmerling Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review outlines the basic pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of sugammadex for the cardiac anesthesiologist. It describes the different clinical scenarios when sugammadex can be used during cardiac surgery and gives clinical recommendations. Sugammadex is a unique reversal drug that binds a chemical complex with rocuronium and vecuronium, by which the neuromuscular blockade is quickly reversed. It is free of any clinical side-effects and doses of 2 mg/kg or more reliably reverse neuromuscular blockade within 5-15 min, depending on the depth of the neuromuscular blockade. Doses below 2 mg/kg should be avoided at any time because of the inherent risk of recurarization. Sugammadex should not replace good clinical practice - titration of neuromuscular blocking drugs to clinical needs and objective monitoring of neuromuscular blockade in the operating room or intensive care unit. Neuromuscular transmission should be determined in all patients before sugammadex is considered and 5 min after its administration to ensure that extubation is performed with normal neuromuscular transmission.

  9. A short review on SSF – an interesting process option for ethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertilsson Magnus

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF is one process option for production of ethanol from lignocellulose. The principal benefits of performing the enzymatic hydrolysis together with the fermentation, instead of in a separate step after the hydrolysis, are the reduced end-product inhibition of the enzymatic hydrolysis, and the reduced investment costs. The principal drawbacks, on the other hand, are the need to find favorable conditions (e.g. temperature and pH for both the enzymatic hydrolysis and the fermentation and the difficulty to recycle the fermenting organism and the enzymes. To satisfy the first requirement, the temperature is normally kept below 37°C, whereas the difficulty to recycle the yeast makes it beneficial to operate with a low yeast concentration and at a high solid loading. In this review, we make a brief overview of recent experimental work and development of SSF using lignocellulosic feedstocks. Significant progress has been made with respect to increasing the substrate loading, decreasing the yeast concentration and co-fermentation of both hexoses and pentoses during SSF. Presently, an SSF process for e.g. wheat straw hydrolyzate can be expected to give final ethanol concentrations close to 40 g L-1 with a yield based on total hexoses and pentoses higher than 70%.

  10. Small Scale Problems of the ΛCDM Model: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Del Popolo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The ΛCDM model, or concordance cosmology, as it is often called, is a paradigm at its maturity. It is clearly able to describe the universe at large scale, even if some issues remain open, such as the cosmological constant problem, the small-scale problems in galaxy formation, or the unexplained anomalies in the CMB. ΛCDM clearly shows difficulty at small scales, which could be related to our scant understanding, from the nature of dark matter to that of gravity; or to the role of baryon physics, which is not well understood and implemented in simulation codes or in semi-analytic models. At this stage, it is of fundamental importance to understand whether the problems encountered by the ΛDCM model are a sign of its limits or a sign of our failures in getting the finer details right. In the present paper, we will review the small-scale problems of the ΛCDM model, and we will discuss the proposed solutions and to what extent they are able to give us a theory accurately describing the phenomena in the complete range of scale of the observed universe.

  11. Emerging contaminants in surface waters in China—a short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Fan, Maohong; Zhang, Guangming

    2014-07-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) have drawn attention to many countries due to their persistent input and potential threat to human health and the environment. This article reviews the current contamination sources and their status for surface waters in China. The contamination levels of ECs in surface waters are in the range ng L-1 to μg L-1 in China, apparently about the same as the situation in other countries. ECs enter surface water via runoff, drainage, rainfall, and wastewater treatment effluent. The frequency of occurrence of ECs increased rapidly from 2006 to 2011; a significant reason is the production and consumption of pharmaceuticals and personal care products. As for the distribution of EC pollution in China, the frequency of occurrence of ECs in eastern regions is higher than in western regions. A majority of EC studies have focused on surface waters of the Haihe River and Pearl River watersheds due to their highly developed industries and intense human activity. Legislative and administrative regulation of ECs is lacking in China. To remove ECs, a number of technologies, such as absorption by activated carbon, membrane filtration technology, and advanced oxidation processes, have been researched.

  12. PCMs for Residential Building Applications: A Short Review Focused on Disadvantages and Proposals for Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs offer great potential as a latent heat energy storage technique to provide energy efficient systems in new and existing residential buildings. Due to their unique characteristic of high storage densities and latent heat properties, PCMs provide opportunities for greater energy storage in many applications for residential buildings. These applications include, but are not limited to, solar water heating, space heating/cooling, and waste heat recovery. This study reviews PCM systems in residential building applications, with a focus on their major disadvantages and concludes with proposals for future development. Several disadvantages of PCM use in the given application have been identified and include; super cooling, low thermal conductivity, phase segregation, fire safety, and cost. The issues caused by super cooling and phase segregation lead to thermal cycling degradation, limiting the useful lifecycle of the material. These issues could limit their potential in building applications, which require systems of a long lifespan. Low thermal conductivities can slow down the rate at which heat is distributed or absorbed from the building, which affect the occupants comfort and as well as the efficiency of the system. Ideas based on the current research on ways to limit these disadvantages are included in the study. This study also identifies that further research is required on novel maintenance ways for the PCM systems after they have been installed.

  13. A short review on a complication of lumbar spine surgery: CSF leak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Sajesh K; Onyia, Chiazor U

    2015-12-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a common complication of surgery involving the lumbar spine. Over the past decades, there has been significant advancement in understanding the basis, management and techniques of treatment for post-operative CSF leak following lumbar spine surgery. In this article, we review previous work in the literature on the various factors and technical errors during or after lumbar spine surgery that may lead to this feared complication, the available options of management with focus on the various techniques employed, the outcomes and also to highlight on the current trends. We also discuss the presentation, factors contributing to its development, basic concepts and practical aspects of the management with emphasis on the different techniques of treatment. Different outcomes following various techniques of managing post-operative CSF leak after lumbar spine surgery have been well described in the literature. However, there is currently no most ideal technique among the available options. The choice of which technique to be applied in each case is dependent on each surgeon's cumulative experience as well as a clear understanding of the contributory underlying factors in each patient, the nature and site of the leak, the available facilities and equipment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A short review on human exposure to and tissue distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Jun-Meng; Chen, Da; Han, Fu-Juan; Guo, Ying; Zeng, Lixi; Lu, Xingwen; Wang, Fei

    2018-09-15

    PFASs are widely distributed in natural and living environment and can enter human bodies via different routes. Many studies have reported that PFASs may be associated with human diseases, such as urine acid and thyroid diseases. In this study, we reviewed PFAS levels in human bodies reported in past seven years, including blood, urine, milk, and tissues (hair and nails). Most studies focused on human blood. Blood type, spatiality, human age, and gender were found to have a strong relationship with PFAS levels in blood samples. The PFAS distribution in urine samples was reported to be associated with the chain length of PFASs and human gender. Urinary excretion was found to be an important pathway of PFAS elimination. PFAS levels in human milk might be affected by various factors, such as mothers' age, dietary habit, parity of mothers and the interval of interpregnancy. Data in hair and nails remain very limited, but these matrices offer a non-invasive approach to evaluate human exposure to PFASs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Recent developments and key barriers to advanced biofuels: A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, You-Kwan; Hwang, Kyung-Ran; Kim, Changman; Kim, Jung Rae; Lee, Jin-Suk

    2018-06-01

    Biofuels are regarded as one of the most viable options for reduction of CO 2 emissions in the transport sector. However, conventional plant-based biofuels (e.g., biodiesel, bioethanol)'s share of total transportation-fuel consumption in 2016 was very low, about 4%, due to several major limitations including shortage of raw materials, low CO 2 mitigation effect, blending wall, and poor cost competitiveness. Advanced biofuels such as drop-in, microalgal, and electro biofuels, especially from inedible biomass, are considered to be a promising solution to the problem of how to cope with the growing biofuel demand. In this paper, recent developments in oxy-free hydrocarbon conversion via catalytic deoxygenation reactions, the selection of and lipid-content enhancement of oleaginous microalgae, electrochemical biofuel conversion, and the diversification of valuable products from biomass and intermediates are reviewed. The challenges and prospects for future development of eco-friendly and economically advanced biofuel production processes also are outlined herein. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Attention and awareness influence amygdala activity for dynamic bodily expressions - A short review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice eDe Gelder

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The amygdala (AMG has long been viewed as the gateway to sensory processing of emotions and is also known to play an importanta role at the interface between cognition and emotion. However, the debate continues on whether AMG activation is independent of attentional demands. Recently, researchers started exploring AMG functions using dynamic stimuli rather than the traditional pictures of facial expressions. Our present goal is to review some recent studies using dynamic stimuli to investigate AMG activation and discuss the impact of different viewing conditions, including oddball detection, explicit or implicit recognition, variable cognitive task load, and non-conscious perception. In the second part we relate these different effects to a dynamic dual route model of affective processing and discuss its implications for AMG activity. We sketch a dynamic dual route perspective of affective perception and we argue that this allows for multiple AMG involvement in separate networks and at different times in the processing streams. Attention has a different impact on these separate but interacting networks. Route I is engaged in early emotion processing, is partly supported by AMG activity and is possibly independent of attention, whereas activity in the later emotion processing is influenced by attention. Route II is a cortical-based network that underlies body recognition and action representation. The end result of route I and II is reflexive and voluntary behavior respectively. We conclude that using dynamic emotion stimuli and a dynamic dual route model of affective perception can provide new insights into the varieties of AMG activation.

  17. Short report: Improving record-review surveillance of young children with an autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Lisa D; Robins, Diana L; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn

    2013-09-01

    Records-based autism spectrum disorder surveillance developed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has been extended to younger cohorts, although the utility of additional record sources has not been examined. We therefore conducted a pilot project to describe whether Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance could identify younger children with an autism spectrum disorder evaluated as part of an ongoing screening study at Georgia State University. In all, 31 families of children who screened positive for autism spectrum disorder and received a clinical evaluation at Georgia State University agreed to participate in the project. Of these, 10 children lived inside the surveillance area and had records abstracted and reviewed for this project. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance results (i.e. autism spectrum disorder or non-autism spectrum disorder) were compared with Georgia State University evaluation results (i.e. autism spectrum disorder or non-autism spectrum disorder). In all, 4 of the 10 children were diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder after the Georgia State University evaluation. None of the 4 children with an autism spectrum disorder were identified by current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance methods but all 4 children were identified by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance methods when additional record sources were included (i.e. records from the statewide early intervention program and Georgia State University evaluation). These findings suggest that partnering with early intervention programs and encouraging early autism spectrum disorder screening might improve autism spectrum disorder surveillance among young children.

  18. Evolution of atherectomy devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khoury, G; Chaer, R

    2011-08-01

    Percutaneous atherectomy provides an alternative approach to the endovascular treatment of peripheral atherosclerotic occlusive disease beyond angioplasty and stenting, and has the theoretical advantage of lesion debulking and minimizing barotrauma to the vessel wall. Atherectomy has evolved greatly during the last decade, with currently four FDA approved devices for the treatment of peripheral arterial disease. Several reports have focused on the initial technical success rates, and demonstrated the safety and short as well as mid-term efficacy of atherectomy devices. This article will review the evolution of current atherectomy devices and the associated literature.

  19. Genetically influenced resistance to stress and disease in salmonids in relation to present-day breeding practice - a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Mendel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available While intensive fish production has many advantages, it also has a number of drawbacks as regards disease and stress. To date, there has been no conclusive review of disease resistance at Czech fish farms. The aim of the study was to describe briefly the existing salmonid breeding practice in the Czech Republic and to point out the trends and new possibilities gaining ground around Europe. However, the present situation in the Czech stocks is not rare at all and therefore it is used here as a model example representing numerous breeding practices in Europe. Stress and disease resistance in fish is polygenic and quantitative, making selection for such traits difficult. In recent years, however, fish breeding methods have developed rapidly, with the use of genetic analysis tools, for example, now allowing much greater selection accuracy. Gradual progress in understanding the importance of individual genetic markers offers many new options that can be utilised in breeding practice. New selection methods, such as quantitative trait loci (QTLs and genomic selection, are increasingly employed in European aquaculture. Next generation sequencing techniques now help in the finding of new and promising QTLs that can be used in assisted selection. This review maps the current progress in improving salmonid resistance to stress and disease in aquaculture and at the same time provides the breeders with a short overview of the latest tools of genetically controlled breeding and of the newest products available at the European market.

  20. Lower limb lengthening in patients with disproportionate short stature with achondroplasia: a systematic review of the last 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiedel, Frank; Rödl, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Parents of children suffering from disproportionate short stature due to achondroplasia may wish to have surgical leg lengthening carried out for the child. The aim is not to increase height, but rather to achieve physiological proportions in the body. In a systematic review of the literature on the topic dating from the last 20 years, the surgical approaches used for this purpose were analyzed in accordance with the Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) criteria. Twelve studies show that to date, involvement of the child in decision-making at the start of treatment has been expected and that it is recommended from the age of 12. In highly heterogeneous patient groups, with varying factors involved and different techniques being used, lengthening (often by more than 10 cm) is described. High complication rates are reported, with many setbacks often requiring repeat surgery. Using PALEY'S multiplier method, the expected standing height, sitting height, and leg length can be predicted and an individualized treatment approach can be planned and operative procedures could be started in early childhood as PERETTI suggests. As the patients are unable to be involved in decision-making as young children, these data may provide a basis for offering differentiated advice to parents, who usually consult a pediatric orthopedist at a very early stage in the child's life.

  1. The use of standardised short-term and working memory tests in aphasia research: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Laura; Salis, Christos; Martin, Nadine; Dralle, Jenny

    2018-04-01

    Impairments of short-term and working memory (STM, WM), both verbal and non-verbal, are ubiquitous in aphasia. Increasing interest in assessing STM and WM in aphasia research and clinical practice as well as a growing evidence base of STM/WM treatments for aphasia warrant an understanding of the range of standardised STM/WM measures that have been utilised in aphasia. To date, however, no previous systematic review has focused on aphasia. Accordingly, the goals of this systematic review were: (1) to identify standardised tests of STM and WM utilised in the aphasia literature, (2) to evaluate critically the psychometric strength of these tests, and (3) to appraise critically the quality of the investigations utilising these tests. Results revealed that a very limited number of standardised tests, in the verbal and non-verbal domains, had robust psychometric properties. Standardisation samples to elicit normative data were often small, and most measures exhibited poor validity and reliability properties. Studies using these tests inconsistently documented demographic and aphasia variables essential to interpreting STM/WM test outcomes. In light of these findings, recommendations are provided to foster, in the future, consistency across aphasia studies and confidence in STM/WM tests as assessment and treatment outcome measures.

  2. Short wavelength striations on expanding plasma clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Gary, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The growth and evolution of short wavelength (< ion gyroradius) flute modes on a plasma expanding across an ambient magnetic field have been actively studied in recent years, both by means of experiments in the laboratory as well as in space and through numerical simulations. We review the relevant observations and simulations results, discuss the instability mechanism and related linear theory, and describe recent work to bring experiments and theory into better agreement. 30 refs., 6 figs

  3. Microwave Ablation of Lung Tumors Near the Heart: A Retrospective Review of Short-Term Procedural Safety in Ten Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Aaron W P; Healey, Terrance T; Dupuy, Damian E

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the rate of short-term complications associated with microwave ablation of lung tumors located near the heart. This HIPAA-compliant study was performed with a waiver for informed consent. Patients who underwent microwave ablation of lung tumors located 10 mm or less from the heart were identified by retrospective chart review. Both primary and metastatic tumors were included. Only tumors directly adjacent to one of the four cardiac chambers were included. All patients were treated in a single session using CT guidance with continuous electrocardiographic monitoring. Rates of new-onset arrhythmia and myocardial infarction (MI) within 90 days of the procedure were quantified, and evidence of cardiac or pericardiac injury was assessed for using post-ablation contrast-enhanced chest CT, electrocardiography (EKG), and-when available-echocardiography. Complications were graded using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) system. Ten patients (four males, six females; mean age 73.1 ± 9.5 years) met all inclusion criteria. Mean tumor distance from the heart was 3 mm (range, 0-6 mm). New-onset arrhythmia was not observed during or following any of the microwave ablation treatments, and there were no documented 90-day MI events. CTCAE Grade 1 complications were observed by CT in eight patients, most commonly mild focal pericardial thickening. EKG and echocardiography were normal in all patients. No major complications (CTCAE Grade 3 or greater) were observed. Microwave ablation of lung tumors located 10 mm or less from the heart appears to have low associated short-term morbidity and may be appropriate in selected patients.

  4. Short-Term Effect of Ambient Temperature and the Risk of Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Lian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: The relationship between stroke and short-term temperature changes remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate the association between stroke and both high and low temperatures, and health assessment. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI and Wanfang Data up to 14 September 2014. Study selection, quality assessment, and author-contractions were steps before data extraction. We converted all estimates effects into relative risk (RR per 1 °C increase/decrease in temperature from 75th to 99th or 25th to 1st percentiles, then conducted meta-analyses to combine the ultimate RRs, and assessed health impact among the population. Results: 20 articles were included in the final analysis. The overall analysis showed a positive relationship between 1 °C change and the occurrence of major adverse cerebrovascular events (MACBE, 1.1% (95% confidence intervals (CI, 0.6 to 1.7 and 1.2% (95% CI, 0.8 to 1.6 increase for hot and cold effects separately. The same trends can be found in both effects of mortality and the cold effect for morbidity. Hot temperature acted as a protective factor of hemorrhage stroke (HS, −1.9% (95% CI, −2.8 to −0.9, however, it acted as a risk factor for ischemic stroke (IS, 1.2% (95% CI, 0.7 to 1.8. Conclusion: Short-term changes of both low and high temperature had statistically significant impacts on MACBE.

  5. The evolution of religious belief in humans: a brief review with a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DHAIRYYA SINGH

    2017-07-07

    Jul 7, 2017 ... Keywords. religion; evolution; costly signalling; belief. Introduction. Religion is ... form) in evolutionary time scales, evolutionary scholars have tended to .... suggested that while altruism might hurt the genetic fitness of the actor at the .... According to their account, as we developed self-awareness and the.

  6. Review. Flower morphology, a source of evidence for evolution as a physiological process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lam, H.J.

    1955-01-01

    Evolution has for a century and a half been the subject of both speculation and research. It has been approached from almost every imaginable side. However, while on the one hand the fossil evidence has provided us with the main lines of development both of characters and of taxa, and on the other

  7. Short-term intensive insulin therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Caroline Kaercher; Zinman, Bernard; Retnakaran, Ravi

    2013-09-01

    Studies have shown that, when implemented early in the course of type 2 diabetes mellitus, treatment with intensive insulin therapy for 2-3 weeks can induce a glycaemic remission, wherein patients are able to maintain normoglycaemia without any anti-diabetic medication. We thus did a systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies to assess the effect of short-term intensive insulin therapy on the pathophysiological defects underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus (pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance) and identify clinical predictors of remission. We identified studies published between 1950 and Nov 19, 2012, which assessed the effect of intensive insulin therapy on β-cell function or insulin resistance, or both, or assessed long-term drug-free glycaemic remission in adults aged 18 years or older with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. We calculated pooled estimates by random-effects model. This study is registered with International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, number CRD42012002829. We identified 1645 studies of which seven fulfilled inclusion criteria (n=839 participants). Five studies were non-randomised. A pooled analysis of the seven studies showed a post-intensive insulin therapy increase in Homeostasis Model Assessment of β-cell function as compared with baseline (1·13, 95% CI 1·02 to 1·25) and a decrease in Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (-0·57, -0·84 to -0·29). In the four studies that assessed glycaemic remission (n=559 participants), the proportion of participants in drug-free remission was about 66·2% (292 of 441 patients) after 3 months of follow-up, about 58·9% (222 of 377 patients) after 6 months, about 46·3% (229 of 495 patients) after 12 months, and about 42·1% (53 of 126 patients) after 24 months. Patients who achieved remission had higher body-mass index than those who did not achieve remission (1·06 kg/m(2), 95% CI 0·55 to 1·58) and lower fasting plasma glucose

  8. Short review of high-pressure crystal growth and magnetic and electrical properties of solid-state osmium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaura, Kazunari, E-mail: YAMAURA.Kazunari@nims.go.jp [Superconducting Properties Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Graduate School of Chemical Sciences and Engineering, Hokkaido University, North 10 West 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan)

    2016-04-15

    High-pressure crystal growth and synthesis of selected solid-state osmium oxides, many of which are perovskite-related types, are briefly reviewed, and their magnetic and electrical properties are introduced. Crystals of the osmium oxides, including NaOsO{sub 3}, LiOsO{sub 3}, and Na{sub 2}OsO{sub 4}, were successfully grown under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions at 6 GPa in the presence of an appropriate amount of flux in a belt-type apparatus. The unexpected discovery of a magnetic metal–insulator transition in NaOsO{sub 3}, a ferroelectric-like transition in LiOsO{sub 3}, and high-temperature ferrimagnetism driven by a local structural distortion in Ca{sub 2}FeOsO{sub 6} may represent unique features of the osmium oxides. The high-pressure and high-temperature synthesis and crystal growth has played a central role in the development of solid-state osmium oxides and the elucidation of their magnetic and electronic properties toward possible use in multifunctional devices. - Graphical Abstract: Flux-grown crystals of NaOsO{sub 3} under high-pressure and high-temperature conditions in a belt-type apparatus. The crystal shows a magnetically driven metal–insulator transition at a temperature of 410 K. - Highlights: • Short review of high-pressure crystal growth of solid-state osmium oxides. • Wide variety of magnetic properties of solid-state osmium oxides. • Perovskite and related dense structures stabilized at 3–17 GPa.

  9. Intensive medical student involvement in short-term surgical trips provides safe and effective patient care: a case review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macleod Jana B

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The hierarchical nature of medical education has been thought necessary for the safe care of patients. In this setting, medical students in particular have limited opportunities for experiential learning. We report on a student-faculty collaboration that has successfully operated an annual, short-term surgical intervention in Haiti for the last three years. Medical students were responsible for logistics and were overseen by faculty members for patient care. Substantial planning with local partners ensured that trip activities supplemented existing surgical services. A case review was performed hypothesizing that such trips could provide effective surgical care while also providing a suitable educational experience. Findings Over three week-long trips, 64 cases were performed without any reported complications, and no immediate perioperative morbidity or mortality. A plurality of cases were complex urological procedures that required surgical skills that were locally unavailable (43%. Surgical productivity was twice that of comparable peer institutions in the region. Student roles in patient care were greatly expanded in comparison to those at U.S. academic medical centers and appropriate supervision was maintained. Discussion This demonstration project suggests that a properly designed surgical trip model can effectively balance the surgical needs of the community with an opportunity to expose young trainees to a clinical and cross-cultural experience rarely provided at this early stage of medical education. Few formalized programs currently exist although the experience above suggests the rewarding potential for broad-based adoption.

  10. School-Based Sleep Education Programs for Short Sleep Duration in Adolescents: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ka-Fai; Chan, Man-Sum; Lam, Ying-Yin; Lai, Cindy Sin-Yee; Yeung, Wing-Fai

    2017-06-01

    Insufficient sleep among students is a major school health problem. School-based sleep education programs tailored to reach large number of students may be one of the solutions. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to summarize the programs' effectiveness and current status. Electronic databases were searched up until May 2015. Randomized controlled trials of school-based sleep intervention among 10- to 19-year-old students with outcome on total sleep duration were included. Methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane's risk of bias assessment. Seven studies were included, involving 1876 students receiving sleep education programs and 2483 attending classes-as-usual. Four weekly 50-minute sleep education classes were most commonly provided. Methodological quality was only moderate, with a high or an uncertain risk of bias in several domains. Compared to classes-as-usual, sleep education programs produced significantly longer weekday and weekend total sleep time and better mood among students at immediate post-treatment, but the improvements were not maintained at follow-up. Limited by the small number of studies and methodological limitations, the preliminary data showed that school-based sleep education programs produced short-term benefits. Future studies should explore integrating sleep education with delayed school start time or other more effective approaches. © 2017, American School Health Association.

  11. Action observation versus motor imagery in learning a complex motor task: a short review of literature and a kinematics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, R; Tettamanti, A; Gough, P M; Riboldi, E; Marinoni, L; Buccino, G

    2013-04-12

    Both motor imagery and action observation have been shown to play a role in learning or re-learning complex motor tasks. According to a well accepted view they share a common neurophysiological basis in the mirror neuron system. Neurons within this system discharge when individuals perform a specific action and when they look at another individual performing the same or a motorically related action. In the present paper, after a short review of literature on the role of action observation and motor imagery in motor learning, we report the results of a kinematics study where we directly compared motor imagery and action observation in learning a novel complex motor task. This involved movement of the right hand and foot in the same angular direction (in-phase movement), while at the same time moving the left hand and foot in an opposite angular direction (anti-phase movement), all at a frequency of 1Hz. Motor learning was assessed through kinematics recording of wrists and ankles. The results showed that action observation is better than motor imagery as a strategy for learning a novel complex motor task, at least in the fast early phase of motor learning. We forward that these results may have important implications in educational activities, sport training and neurorehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Why sex hormones matter for neuroscience: A very short review on sex, sex hormones, and functional brain asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Markus

    2017-01-02

    Biological sex and sex hormones are known to affect functional cerebral asymmetries (FCAs). Men are generally more lateralized than women. The effect size of this sex difference is small but robust. Some of the inconsistencies in the literature may be explained by sex-related hormonal differences. Most studies focusing on neuromodulatory properties of sex hormones on FCAs have investigated women during the menstrual cycle. Although contradictions exist, these studies have typically shown that levels of estradiol and/or progesterone correlate with the degree of FCAs, suggesting that sex differences in FCAs partially depend on hormonal state and day of testing. The results indicate that FCAs are not fixed but are hormone dependent, and as such they can dynamically change within relatively short periods throughout life. Many issues raised in this Mini-Review refer not only to FCAs but also to other aspects of functional brain organization, such as functional connectivity within and between the cerebral hemispheres. Our understanding of sex differences in brain and behavior as well as their clinical relevance will improve significantly if more studies routinely take sex and sex hormones into account. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The role of epidemiology in determining if a simple short fall can cause fatal head injury in an infant: a subject review and reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, Johnathon P; Ibrahim, Joseph E; Bugeja, Lyndal; Cordner, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    This article is a subject review summarizing and interpreting the existing knowledge on the question "Can a simple short fall cause fatal head injury in an infant?" It also reflects on the challenges of undertaking a review in the contentious area of pediatric forensic pathology. The authors identified and considered 1055 publications for inclusion. Using explicit selection criteria 27 publications were included in the subject review. The literature suggests that it is rare, but possible, for fatal head injury to occur from a simple short fall. Large population studies of childhood injuries indicate that severe head injury from a short fall is extremely rare. This is counter pointed by a single documented case report that demonstrates it can happen. The question of whether it is a credible claim in a particular case is inextricable from the circumstances of that case.To strengthen the evidence based on fatal potential of simple short falls in infants, future studies addressing this question would ideally be prospective in design and include the key elements of: (1) a large sample size, (2) clearly defined comparison groups, (3) clear and verifiable criteria for causation, (4) specified fall height, (5) specified fall type: vertical free fall or the presence of additional forces, (6) composition of contact surface, and (7) nature of contact point: concentrated to one point or onto a flat surface.We believe subject reviews for forensic pathology require a specific approach because the application of information differs between clinical and courtroom settings.

  14. Catapults fall short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.

  15. The evolution of the upright posture and gait—a review and a new synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemitz, Carsten

    2010-03-01

    During the last century, approximately 30 hypotheses have been constructed to explain the evolution of the human upright posture and locomotion. The most important and recent ones are discussed here. Meanwhile, it has been established that all main hypotheses published until the last decade of the past century are outdated, at least with respect to some of their main ideas: Firstly, they were focused on only one cause for the evolution of bipedality, whereas the evolutionary process was much more complex. Secondly, they were all placed into a savannah scenario. During the 1990s, the fossil record allowed the reconstruction of emerging bipedalism more precisely in a forested habitat (e.g., as reported by Clarke and Tobias (Science 269:521-524, 1995) and WoldeGabriel et al. (Nature 412:175-178, 2001)). Moreover, the fossil remains revealed increasing evidence that this part of human evolution took place in a more humid environment than previously assumed. The Amphibian Generalist Theory, presented first in the year 2000, suggests that bipedalism began in a wooded habitat. The forests were not far from a shore, where our early ancestor, along with its arboreal habits, walked and waded in shallow water finding rich food with little investment. In contrast to all other theories, wading behaviour not only triggers an upright posture, but also forces the individual to maintain this position and to walk bipedally. So far, this is the only scenario suitable to overcome the considerable anatomical and functional threshold from quadrupedalism to bipedalism. This is consistent with paleoanthropological findings and with functional anatomy as well as with energetic calculations, and not least, with evolutionary psychology. The new synthesis presented here is able to harmonise many of the hitherto competing theories.

  16. Review of the evolution of insecticide resistance in main malaria vectors in Cameroon from 1990 to 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonio-Nkondjio, Christophe; Sonhafouo-Chiana, N; Ngadjeu, C S; Doumbe-Belisse, P; Talipouo, A; Djamouko-Djonkam, L; Kopya, E; Bamou, R; Awono-Ambene, P; Wondji, Charles S

    2017-10-10

    Malaria remains a major public health threat in Cameroon and disease prevention is facing strong challenges due to the rapid expansion of insecticide resistance in vector populations. The present review presents an overview of published data on insecticide resistance in the main malaria vectors in Cameroon to assist in the elaboration of future and sustainable resistance management strategies. A systematic search on mosquito susceptibility to insecticides and insecticide resistance in malaria vectors in Cameroon was conducted using online bibliographic databases including PubMed, Google and Google Scholar. From each peer-reviewed paper, information on the year of the study, mosquito species, susceptibility levels, location, insecticides, data source and resistance mechanisms were extracted and inserted in a Microsoft Excel datasheet. The data collected were then analysed for assessing insecticide resistance evolution. Thirty-three scientific publications were selected for the analysis. The rapid evolution of insecticide resistance across the country was reported from 2000 onward. Insecticide resistance was highly prevalent in both An. gambiae (s.l.) and An. funestus. DDT, permethrin, deltamethrin and bendiocarb appeared as the most affected compounds by resistance. From 2000 to 2017 a steady increase in the prevalence of kdr allele frequency was noted in almost all sites in An. gambiae (s.l.), with the L1014F kdr allele being the most prevalent. Several detoxification genes (particularly P450 monooxygenase) were associated with DDT, pyrethroids and bendiocarb resistance. In An. funestus, resistance to DDT and pyrethroids was mainly attributed to the 119F-GSTe2 metabolic resistance marker and over-expression of P450 genes whereas the 296S-RDL mutation was detected in dieldrin-resistant An. funestus. The review provides an update of insecticide resistance status in malaria vector populations in Cameroon and stresses the need for further actions to reinforce malaria

  17. Peering into peer review: Galileo, ESP, Dr Scott Reuben, and advancing our professional evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Chuck

    2011-10-01

    The fundamental purpose of peer review is quality control that facilitates the introduction of information into our discipline; information that is essential to the care of patients who require anesthesia services. While the AANA Journal relies heavily on this process to maintain the overall quality of our scholarly literature, it may fail that objective under certain conditions. This editorial serves to inform readers of the nature and goals of the peer review process.

  18. Recent evolutions in costing systems: A literature review of Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing

    OpenAIRE

    Siguenza Guzman, Lorena; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra; Vandewalle, Joos; Verhaaren, Henry; Cattrysse, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive literature review of Time-Driven Activity Based Costing (TDABC), a relatively new tool to improve the cost allocation to products and services. After a brief overview of traditional costing and activity based costing systems (ABC), a detailed description of the TDABC model is given and a comparison made between this methodology and its predecessor ABC. Thirty-six empirical contributions using TDABC over the period 2004-2012 were reviewed. The results and ...

  19. Insights into early extracellular matrix evolution: spongin short chain collagen-related proteins are homologous to basement membrane type IV collagens and form a novel family widely distributed in invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aouacheria, Abdel; Geourjon, Christophe; Aghajari, Nushin; Navratil, Vincent; Deléage, Gilbert; Lethias, Claire; Exposito, Jean-Yves

    2006-12-01

    Collagens are thought to represent one of the most important molecular innovations in the metazoan line. Basement membrane type IV collagen is present in all Eumetazoa and was found in Homoscleromorpha, a sponge group with a well-organized epithelium, which may represent the first stage of tissue differentiation during animal evolution. In contrast, spongin seems to be a demosponge-specific collagenous protein, which can totally substitute an inorganic skeleton, such as in the well-known bath sponge. In the freshwater sponge Ephydatia mülleri, we previously characterized a family of short-chain collagens that are likely to be main components of spongins. Using a combination of sequence- and structure-based methods, we present evidence of remote homology between the carboxyl-terminal noncollagenous NC1 domain of spongin short-chain collagens and type IV collagen. Unexpectedly, spongin short-chain collagen-related proteins were retrieved in nonsponge animals, suggesting that a family related to spongin constitutes an evolutionary sister to the type IV collagen family. Formation of the ancestral NC1 domain and divergence of the spongin short-chain collagen-related and type IV collagen families may have occurred before the parazoan-eumetazoan split, the earliest divergence among extant animal phyla. Molecular phylogenetics based on NC1 domain sequences suggest distinct evolutionary histories for spongin short-chain collagen-related and type IV collagen families that include spongin short-chain collagen-related gene loss in the ancestors of Ecdyzosoa and of vertebrates. The fact that a majority of invertebrates encodes spongin short-chain collagen-related proteins raises the important question to the possible function of its members. Considering the importance of collagens for animal structure and substratum attachment, both families may have played crucial roles in animal diversification.

  20. Radiotherapy of early breast cancer in scleroderma patients: our experience with four cases and a short review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyrgias G

    2012-01-01

    been acceptable and are in full accordance with what have been reported in international literature.Conclusion: This study matches global experience, which shows that patients with scleroderma and breast cancer must be discussed by the multidisciplinary tumor board in order for a personalized treatment strategy to be formulated. Radiation therapy can be proposed as a postsurgical therapeutic option in selected cases.Keywords: breast radiotherapy, early toxicity, late complications, short review, scleroderma

  1. Sphincter Preservation After Short-term Preoperative Radiotherapy for Low Rectal Cancer - Presentation of Own Data and a Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujko, Krzysztof; Nowacki, Marek P.; Oldzki, Janusz; Sopyo, Rafa; Skoczylas, Jerzy; Chwaliski, Maciej [The Maria Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Centre and Inst. of Oncology, Warsaw (Poland)

    2001-07-01

    This report is based on a series of 108 patients with clinically staged T2 (9), T3 (94) and T4 (5) rectal cancer treated with preoperative irradiation with 25 Gy, 5 Gy per fraction given for one week. In 77% of patients, the tumour was located within 7 cm of the anal verge and in 15% the anal canal was involved. Surgery was usually undertaken during the week after irradiation. For low tumours, total mesorectal excision was performed, and for middle and upper cancers, the whole circumference of the mesorectum was excised at least 2 cm below the lower pole of a tumour. Tumour was resected in 103 patients, and sphincter-preserving surgery was performed in 73% of them. In the subgroup where the tumour was located higher than 4 cm from the anal verge, sphincter-preserving surgery was performed in 95%. The follow-up period ranged from 10 to 49 months, with a median of 25 months. Local recurrences were observed in 4% of patients. Anorectal dysfunction caused impairment of social life in 40% of patients and 18% admitted that their quality of life was seriously affected - however, none of them stated that they would have preferred a colostomy. These preliminary data suggest that following high dose per fraction short-term preoperative radiotherapy a high rate of sphincter-preserving surgery can be reached, with acceptable anorectal function and an acceptable rate of local failure and late complications. The results of our own data and literature review indicate the need for a randomized clinical trial comparing high dose per fraction preoperative radiotherapy with immediate surgery with conventional preoperative radiochemotherapy with delayed surgery.

  2. [Swine influenza virus: evolution mechanism and epidemic characterization--a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Xian; Lu, Chengping

    2009-09-01

    Pigs may play an important role in the evolution and ecology of influenza A virus. The tracheal epithelium of pigs contain both SA alpha 2,6 Gal and SA alpha 2,3 Gal receptors and can be infected with swine, human and avian viruses, therefore, pigs have been considered as an intermediate host for the adaptation of avian influenza viruses to humans or as mixing vessels for the generation of genetically reassortant viruses. Evolution patterns among swine influenza viruses including evolution of host adaptation, antigenic drift and genetic reassortment, and the latter is the main one. Unlike human influenza viruses, swine viruses have different epizootiological patterns in different areas of world, which is enzootic and geographic dependence. Currently, three predominant subtypes of influenza virus are prevalent in pig populations worldwide: H1N1, H3N2, and H1N2, and these include classical swine H1N1, avian-like H1N1, human-like H3N2, reassortant H3N2 and various genotype H1N2 viruses. In Europe, North America and China, influenza A viruses circulating in pigs are distinct in the genetic characteristics and genetic sources. Since 1979, three subtypes, avian-like H1N1, reassortant H1N2 and H3N2 viruses, have been co-circulating in European swine. Before 1998, classical H1N1 viruses were the exclusive cause of swine influenza in North America. However, after that, three triple-reassortant H1N2, H3N2 and H1N1 viruses with genes of human, swine and avian virus began to emerge in pigs. Genetically, the pandemic viruses emerging in human, so called influenza A (H1N1) viruses, contain genes from both Europe and North American SIV lineages. SIV is not the same as Europe and the United States in the prevalence and genetic background in China, mainly classical swine H1N1 and human-like H3N2 type virus. However, in recent years, SIV from Europe and North America have been introduced into Chinese pig herds, so more attention should be given on the evolutionary of SIV in China

  3. Animal evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus

    This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes it possi......This book provides a comprehensive analysis of evolution in the animal kingdom. It reviews the classical, morphological information from structure and embryology, as well as the new data gained from studies using immune stainings of nerves and muscles and blastomere markings, which makes...

  4. The evolution of the environmental Kuznets curve concept: The review of the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ginevičius Romualdas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to describe the evolution of the environmental Kuznets curve, from its origin up to its present status, and to systemise the results of the empirical studies of the relationship between the emissions of greenhouse gases and economic growth. The environmental Kuznets curve indicates that at the early stages of economic growth, pollution increases with the growing use of resources, but when a certain level of income per capita is reached, the trend reverses so that, at a higher development stage, further economic growth leads to the improvement of the environment. The paper starts with a description of the most influential theories of the environmental economics that helps to highlight an effective environmental approach. The article may be useful for scientists and policy makers, analysing the trends of the economic development of various countries and the problems of the relationship between the environmental indicators and economic growth.

  5. Technical note. SR-Site Independent Modelling of Engineered Barrier Evolution and Coupled THMC. Contribution to the Initial Review Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benbow, Steven; Metcalfe, Richard; Watson, Claire; Bond, Alex [Quintessa Ltd, Henley on Thames (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    This review has focussed mainly on the modelling of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evolution, which includes coupled thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes. Additionally, the role of the EBS in the wider safety case was reviewed, including its treatment in scenarios and its representation in conceptual models since this provided the motivation for the modelling work that was undertaken by SKB. The scope of the work described here was to: 1. Review relevant documents concerning SKB's modelling; and 2. Check one particular modelling area that was judged to be important, based on this review, with a limited set of independent modelling/calculations. The review covers the early resaturation and swelling / homogenisation of the buffer; the longer-term chemical evolution of the buffer and backfill, corrosion of the copper canister and the chemical and hydrogeological boundary conditions provided by the surrounding host rock. The reviewers consider that SKB's modelling of engineered barrier performance generally supports their conclusion that the barriers will perform as required. However, there remain issues that are not addressed and uncertainties that are not explored adequately by SKB's modelling. The thermo-hydro-mechanical modelling of buffer resaturation that is performed by SKB is based on demonstrating a fit to measurements from the in-situ Canister Retrieval Test (CRT) experiment. The modelling reproduces some of the experimental observations very well, but some key experimental measurements are not considered. In particular, investigation of the fit to the measured rates of water inflow, which are a critical factor controlling the rate at which the buffer will resaturate, is not given, Furthermore, the water supply boundary conditions imposed on the CRT are not considered to be representative of those that might be expected in repository conditions. From the information that it is presented it is therefore not possible

  6. The Co-evolution of Language and the Brain: A Review of Two Contrastive Views (Pinker & Deacon)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2001-01-01

    in a larger symbolic computational chain controlled by regions in the frontal parts of the brain. To Deacon, a symbolic learning algorithm drives language acquisition. The increase in size of the human brain in relation to the body may be due to a “cognitive arms race”. Both Pinker and Deacon agree......This article is a review of two contrastive views on the co-evolution of language and the brain – The Language Instinct by Steven Pinker (1994) and The Symbolic Species by Terrence Deacon (1997). As language is a trait unique to mankind it can not be equated with nonlinguistic communication – human...... or nonhuman. This points to a special human brain architecture. Pinker’s claim is that certain areas on the left side of the brain constitute a language organ and that language acquisition is instinctual. To Deacon, however, those areas are non-language-specific computational centers. Moreover, they are parts...

  7. Web 1.0 to Web 3.0 Evolution: Reviewing the Impacts on Tourism Development and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, M. Hossein; Barzegar, Zeynab; Isaai, M. T.

    The most important event following the establishmenet of the Internet network was the Web introduced by Tim Berners-Lee. Websites give their owners features that allow sharing with which they can publish their content with users and visitors. In the last 5 years, we have seen some changes in the use of web. Users want to participate in content sharing and they like to interact with each other. This is known as Web 2.0. In the last year, Web 2.0 has reached maturity and now we need a smart web which will be accordingly be called Web 3.0. Web 3.0 is based on semantic web definition. Changing the way of using the web has had a clear impact on E-Tourism and its development and also on business models. In this paper, we review the definitions and describe the impacts of web evolution on E-Tourism.

  8. Assessment of liver tumor response by high-field (3 T) MRI after radiofrequency ablation: Short- and mid-term evolution of diffusion parameters within the ablation zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Tri-Linh, E-mail: tluonmac@gmail.com [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 46, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Becce, Fabio; Bize, Pierre; Denys, Alban; Meuli, Reto; Schmidt, Sabine [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, University of Lausanne, Rue du Bugnon 46, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-09-15

    Purpose: To compare the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of malignant liver lesions on diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) before and after successful radiofrequency ablation (RF ablation). Materials and methods: Thirty-two patients with 43 malignant liver lesions (23/20: metastases/hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC)) underwent liver MRI (3.0 T) before (<1 month) and after RF ablation (at 1, 3 and 6 months) using T2-, gadolinium-enhanced T1- and DWI-weighted MR sequences. Jointly, two radiologists prospectively measured ADCs for each lesion by means of two different regions of interest (ROIs), first including the whole lesion and secondly the area with the visibly most restricted diffusion (MRDA) on ADC map. Changes of ADCs were evaluated with ANOVA and Dunnett tests. Results: Thirty-one patients were successfully treated, while one patient was excluded due to focal recurrence. In metastases (n = 22), the ADC in the whole lesion and in MRDA showed an up-and-down evolution. In HCC (n = 20), the evolution of ADC was more complex, but with significantly higher values (p = 0.013) at 1 and 6 months after RF ablation. Conclusion: The ADC values of malignant liver lesions successfully treated by RF ablation show a predictable evolution and may help radiologists to monitor tumor response after treatment.

  9. The Concept of Biosimilars: From Characterization to Evolution-A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, Fadi; Torres, Alfredo; Park, Wungki; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto; Mudad, Raja; Ikpeazu, Chukwuemeka; Abi Aad, Simon

    2018-03-01

    Biologic agents are currently the fastest emerging segment of drug expenditure. Unlike chemically synthesized small-molecule drugs, biologics are more complex, medicinal products produced by a living organism. They have become part of the standard of care in the treatment of a large variety of diseases, such as growth disorders, autoimmune diseases, cancer, cardiovascular illnesses, hemophilia, and rare genetic conditions, to name a few. Biosimilars, which are copies of biologics that are highly similar, were introduced in the market with an aim to offer efficacy that is not clinically different from the originator or reference product, at lower prices. We aim to clarify the concept of biosimilar, from definitions, history, market entry, challenges faced, and future evolution. For that purpose, we performed a literature search on the sites of the medicines regulatory agencies and PubMed from 1990 to 2014 with the keywords "biosimilars," "market," and "regulatory." In 2006, the first biosimilar, somatropin [rDNA origin], was marketed and led the way for biosimilar drug manufacturing. As a result, manufacturers have entered a diversified competition, facing challenges in manufacturing these complex agents, such as immunogenicity and efficiency. Biosimilars are set to evolve differently in various markets, namely the U.S., Japan, the European Union, and the "pharmerging" economies. This article highlights the importance of biosimilars, as a cost-cutting strategy, in the delivery of state-of-the-art health care in developing countries, at a fraction of what a reference biological agent would cost. © AlphaMed Press 2017.

  10. Short-term Effect of Fine Particulate Matter on Children?s Hospital Admissions and Emergency Department Visits for Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Hyungryul; Kwon, Ho-Jang; Lim, Ji-Ae; Choi, Jong Hyuk; Ha, Mina; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Choi, Won-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: No children-specified review and meta-analysis paper about the short-term effect of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on hospital admissions and emergency department visits for asthma has been published. We calculated more precise pooled effect estimates on this topic and evaluated the variation in effect size according to the differences in study characteristics not considered in previous studies. Methods: Two authors each independently searched PubMed and EMBASE for relevant studi...

  11. Gap between short- and long-term effects of patient education in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedermann, K.; Fransen, J.; Knols, R.H.; Uebelhart, D.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To systematically review educational or psychoeducational interventions for patients with rheumatoid arthritis focusing on long-term effects, especially health status. METHODS: Two independent reviewers appraised the methodologic quality of the included randomized controlled trials,

  12. An updated systematic review of the evolution of ALPPS and evaluation of its advantages and disadvantages in accordance with current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yu-Long; Song, Pei-Pei; Tang, Wei; Cheng, Nan-Sheng

    2016-06-01

    The main obstacle to achieving an R0 resection after a major hepatectomy is inability to preserve an adequate future liver remnant (FLR) to avoid postoperative liver failure (PLF). Associating liver partition and portal vein ligation for staged hepatectomy (ALPPS) is a novel technique for resecting tumors that were previously considered unresectable, and this technique results in a vast increase in the volume of the FLR in a short period of time. However, this technique continues to provoke heated debate because of its high mortality and morbidity.The evolution of ALPPS and its advantages and disadvantages have been systematically reviewed and evaluated in accordance with current evidence. Electronic databases (PubMed and Medline) were searched for potentially relevant articles from January 2007 to January 2016.ALPPS has evolved into various modified forms. Some of these modified techniques have reduced the difficulty of the procedure and enhanced its safety. Current evidence indicates that the advantages of ALPPS are rapid hypertrophy of the FLR, the feasibility of the procedure, and a higher rate of R0 resection in comparison to other techniques. However, ALPPS is associated with worse major complications, more deaths, and early tumor recurrence.Hepatobiliary surgeons should carefully consider whether to perform ALPPS. Some modified forms of ALPPS have reduced the mortality and morbidity of the procedure, but they cannot be recommended over the original procedure currently. Portal vein embolization (PVE) is still the procedure of choice for patients with a tumor-free FLR, and ALPPS could be used as a salvage procedure when PVE fails. More persuasive evidence needs to be assembled to determine whether ALPPS or two-stage hepatectomy (TSH) is better for patients with a tumor involving the FLR. Evidence with regard to long-term oncological outcomes is still limited. More meticulous comparative studies and studies of the 5-year survival rate of ALPPS could ultimately

  13. The evolution of destination branding: A review of branding literature in tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Almeyda-Ibáñez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism is a promise and destinations communicate the credibility of that promise by means of destination brands. Branding has become a key tool for tourism destinations to make explicit the complexity of experiences to be expected by tourists visiting a destination. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review of various issues associated with tourism destination branding. It brings together a wide range of debates in the generic marketing literature, places them alongside the nuances of tourism, and thereby identifies unique challenges of branding in tourism destination contexts. Finally, a case study of USP based national tourism branding campaigns in the Caribbean is presented.

  14. A Review of Industrial Policy, Transportation Policy, and the Evolution of Autocracy in America

    OpenAIRE

    Ford, Ford Mazda

    1991-01-01

    Due to an apparent technological foul-up, the fol­ lowing article arivedr via the BPI's fax machine on September 1 1, 1991. Dated 11 September, 2042, it was clearly intended for con­ sideration by another generation of editors. We were unable to send it back to its proper time, nor did we succeed in contacting the author (who may not yet be born). Though we are unable to confirm the absolute veracity ofthe facts and conclusions presented in this brief review, we have elected to print it as su...

  15. Effect of BRCA1/2 mutation on short-term and long-term breast cancer survival: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Ha; Park, Sue K; Park, Boyoung; Kim, Sung-Won; Lee, Min Hyuk; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Son, Byung Ho; Yoo, Keun-Young; Kang, Daehee

    2010-07-01

    Reports of BRCA genetic mutations and risk of death or recurrence are inconsistent. This study aimed to compare overall and disease-free breast cancer survival rates between BRCA1/2 mutation carriers and non-carriers for short-term and long-term outcomes separately. We searched the PUBMED and EMBASE databases and retrieved 452 articles using keywords that included breast cancer, BRCA mutation, and survival. Seventeen articles were selected for systematic review and among them 11 were included in our meta-analysis. We used the random-effects model to calculate the summary hazard ratio and corresponding 95% confidence interval. BRCA1 mutation carriers had significantly lower short-term and long-term overall survival rates (OSR) relative to non-carriers (HR = 1.92 [95% CI = 1.45-2.53]; 1.33 [1.12-1.58], respectively), while both short-term and long-term OSR of BRCA2 carriers did not differ from non-carriers (HR = 1.30 [95% CI = 0.95-1.76]; 1.12 [95% CI = 0.86-1.45], respectively). For short-term progression-free survival rate (PFSR), BRCA1 mutation carriers had a significantly lower rate than non-carriers (HR = 1.54 [95% CI = 1.12-2.12]), while BRCA2 mutation carriers had a similar PFSR (HR = 1.23 [95% CI = 0.96-1.58]). For long-term PFSRs, we found no significant results. Our results suggest that BRCA1 mutation decreases short-term and long-term OSRs and short-term PFSR, however, BRCA2 mutation does not affect either short-term or long-term survival rate, which is attributed to the different carcinogenic pathways for BRCA1 and BRCA2.

  16. Bone metastases only pure seminoma, evolution and treatment. Literature review and report of a clinical case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez, A.; Cuello, M.; Terzieff, V.; Viola, A.

    2004-01-01

    The only bone metastases in pure seminoma is a biological entity extremely rare. We report a case studied since 2000, treatment and outcome. Case report: 35. Orquiectomizado in September 2000 AP: pure seminoma in the presence of a neoplastic nodule in the spermatic cord.Adjuvant lumboaorticas, left iliac and inguinal chains Rt., 3060 cGy in 3.2 sem. until December 2000 Normal tumor markers throughout the period. In Oct. 2001 TAC control morfoestructural altered posterior the sixth left costal arch. AP: puncture under TAC. Malignant germ cell tumor compatible with pure seminoma. C.O. single lesion. MDT is performed based on PEB for 4 cycles and additional RT obtaining a complete response with reduction bone lesion, asymptomatic until November 2002, again at the level falls costal, VIP x 3 New relapse dorsal paravertebral June 2003, Gemcitabine and Rt paclitaxel, dose intensification transplant. Keeps score high. Poor prognosis. Discussion: In the literature we found no reports of bone lesions only secondary to a pure seminoma. They are described in the context of a frame overall spread in advanced patients and in more than three or four including accompanying synchronous nodal, liver and lung damage. Subsequent developments mark the disease resistance to treatments performed. The three lines are Qt prior to transplantation have shown that best results for the treatment of disease. We discuss the time introduction thereof to obtain a durable complete response. If the marker not normalized but not displayed clinical or paraclinical disease prognosis is bad in the short term

  17. Evolution in performance assessment modeling as a result of regulatory review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowat, J.H.; Dolinar, G.M.; Stephens, M.E. [AECL Chalk River Labs., Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    AECL is planning to build the IRUS (Intrusion Resistant Underground Structure) facility for near-surface disposal of LLRW. The PSAR (preliminary safety assessment report) was subject to an initial regulatory review during mid-1992. The regulatory authority provided comments on many aspects of the safety assessment documentation including a number of questions on specific PA (Performance Assessment) modelling assumptions. As a result of these comments as well as a separate detailed review of the IRUS disposal concept, changes were made to the conceptual and mathematical models. The original disposal concept included a non-sorbing vault backfill, with a strong reliance on the wasteform as a barrier. This concept was altered to decrease reliance on the wasteform by replacing the original backfill with a sand/clinoptilolite mix, which is a better sorber of metal cations. This change lead to changes in the PA models which in turn altered the safety case for the facility. This, and other changes that impacted performance assessment modelling are the subject of this paper.

  18. A review of evolution of electrospun tissue engineering scaffold: From two dimensions to three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, Nor Hasrul Akhmal; Noordin, M Y; Idris, Ani; Kurniawan, Denni

    2017-07-01

    The potential of electrospinning process to fabricate ultrafine fibers as building blocks for tissue engineering scaffolds is well recognized. The scaffold construct produced by electrospinning process depends on the quality of the fibers. In electrospinning, material selection and parameter setting are among many factors that contribute to the quality of the ultrafine fibers, which eventually determine the performance of the tissue engineering scaffolds. The major challenge of conventional electrospun scaffolds is the nature of electrospinning process which can only produce two-dimensional electrospun mats, hence limiting their applications. Researchers have started to focus on overcoming this limitation by combining electrospinning with other techniques to fabricate three-dimensional scaffold constructs. This article reviews various polymeric materials and their composites/blends that have been successfully electrospun for tissue engineering scaffolds, their mechanical properties, and the various parameters settings that influence the fiber morphology. This review also highlights the secondary processes to electrospinning that have been used to develop three-dimensional tissue engineering scaffolds as well as the steps undertaken to overcome electrospinning limitations.

  19. The Evolution of the Concept of Bureaucracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ţierean O.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The first half of the paper defines the concept of bureaucracy, its evolution over the time and the current academic debates. A short review of the most debatable theories written by Lowi, Niskanen, Dunleavy and Choudhury is included. The second half focuses on the three concepts of power put forward by Russel and the non-paid goals bureaucratic offices pursue on a daily basis. The paper also analyses the issue of monitoring the output of bureaucratic offices.

  20. A review of short naps and sleep inertia: do naps of 30 min or less really avoid sleep inertia and slow-wave sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilditch, Cassie J; Dorrian, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan

    2017-04-01

    Napping is a widely used countermeasure to sleepiness and impaired performance caused by sleep loss and circadian pressure. Sleep inertia, the period of grogginess and impaired performance experienced after waking, is a potential side effect of napping. Many industry publications recommend naps of 30 min or less to avoid this side effect. However, the evidence to support this advice is yet to be thoroughly reviewed. Electronic databases were searched, and defined criteria were applied to select articles for review. The review covers literature on naps of 30 min or less regarding (a) sleep inertia, (b) slow-wave sleep (SWS) and (c) the relationship between sleep inertia and SWS. The review found that although the literature on short afternoon naps is relatively comprehensive, there are very few studies on naps of 30 min or less at night. Studies have mixed results regarding the onset of SWS and the duration and severity of sleep inertia following short naps, making guidelines regarding their use unclear. The varying results are likely due to differing sleep/wake profiles before the nap of interest and the time of the day at waking. The review highlights the need to have more detailed guidelines about the implementation of short naps according to the time of the day and prior sleep/wake history. Without this context, such a recommendation is potentially misleading. Further research is required to better understand the interactions between these factors, especially at night, and to provide more specific recommendations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphological evolution of the southwestern Black Sea coast of Turkey since the early 2000s: medium- vs. short-term changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    LiBassi, Nick; Özener, Haluk; Otay, Emre; Doğru, Aslı

    2018-06-01

    Coastal zones are in a state of continual flux worldwide, due in part to seasonal factors and in part to influences operating over longer periods of time. Discerning changes on different timescales remains a challenge. This study compares shoreline position and nearshore bathymetry over a time interval of 16 years in order to determine the extent of medium-term changes in comparison with short-term changes along the southwestern Black Sea coast of Turkey near Kilyos. For this purpose the results of surveys completed in 2001 and 2002 are compared with data collected in December 2015, September 2016, and March 2017 at the same location using a differential global positioning system (DGPS) in real-time kinematic (RTK) configuration combined with echo-sounder profiling. Average shoreline recession over the 16-year period (medium term) has been estimated at 3-4 cm/year as opposed to an average of 9.5 m in the 12-month period from June 2001 to June 2002 (short term). The medium-term nearshore sediment loss has been approx. 100-125 m3/m shoreline since the early 2000s. Over the same period a prominent offshore bar has moved seaward at a maximum rate of 1 m/year since 2002. Considering the large discrepancy in the shoreline recession rates recorded in the short and medium term, this aspect must be taken into account in any integrated coastal zone management strategy.

  2. Evolution of social media: review of the role of podcasts in gynaecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoran; Melon, Jerome

    2018-04-01

    Podcasts are an emerging social media phenomenon in medicine, originating from critical care specialities and now expanding to other domains. Aided by the rapid increase in popularity of social media platforms and the advantage of accessibility, universality and portability, there has been a slow but significant expansion of podcast use in gynaecology. Current literature suggests that there is potential for digital communication to enhance dissemination of information, however there is conflicting evidence on its ability to increase users' knowledge. Emerging interest in urogynaecology presents an opportunity for the subspeciality to tailor podcasts to the needs of its users. In this review, the origins, current evidence and future trends in the use of podcasts in urogynaecology are explored.

  3. A Review and Survey of Neurosurgeon-Hospital Relationships: Evolution and Options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong H; Duco, Bernard; Wolterman, Daniel; Stokes, Charles; Brace, Rod; Solomon, Robert A; Barbaro, Nicholas; Westmark, Richard; MacDougall, David; Bean, James; O'Leary, Joanna; Moayeri, Nicole; Dacey, Ralph G; Berger, Mitchel S; Harbaugh, Robert

    2017-04-01

    As healthcare delivery shifts from fee-for-service, episodic care to pay for performance and population health, both hospitals and physicians are looking for new forms of integration. A number of regulations and restrictions govern physician relationships with hospitals. In this paper, we review the legal basis for such relationships and the options available. We also survey neurosurgeons and hospital executives to gain their perspective on the current situation and likely future. Two series of structured interviews were conducted with 10 neurosurgeons who work in a range of situations in diverse markets, and with Memorial Hermann Healthcare System senior executive leadership. Their responses form the basis for the subsequent discussion. Neurosurgeons can be independent, join a confederation such as an Independent Physician Association or another type of "clinically integrated" network, or be employed by a hospital, medical school, or physician group. With varying levels of integration comes the strength of size, management expertise, negotiating leverage, economies of scale, and possibly financial advantages, but with impact on autonomy and independence. Constructive alignment can lead to a win-win situation for both the individual physician and the organization, but options vary widely due to heterogeneous local conditions. This paper reviews possible relationships, moving along a spectrum from no financial integration to full integration. Concepts such as physician leasing, professional service agreements, "clinical integration," and employment are presented. This paper offers a practical reference that might be useful to a new graduate, independent neurosurgeon considering integration, or employed physicians considering alternatives. Copyright © 2016 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons.

  4. Literature Review of the Effects of Tetraphenylborate on Saltstone Grout: Benzene Evolution and TCLP Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HAY, MICHAEL

    2004-01-01

    As part of the program to disposition the tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H and return the tank to service, Salt Processing Development requested a review of the literature to assess the state of knowledge pertaining to incorporation of tetraphenylborate slurries in saltstone grout with respect to benzene generation rates and leaching performance. Examination of past studies conducted at Savannah River Site (SRS) on the incorporation of TPB slurries in saltstone provides a basis for developing a more focused scope of experimental studies. Tank 48H currently contains potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate salts as a result of a demonstration of the In Tank Precipitation (ITP) process in 1983 and subsequent ITPradioactive start-up operations in 1995. The tank currently contains approximately 240,000 gallons of salt solution with approximately 19,000 kg of potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate salts. The presence of the TPB salts makes the waste incompatible with existing High Level Waste treatment facilities. The TPB salts in Tank 48H must be treated or removed to meet the scheduled return to service date of 2007. The two preferred options for disposition of the TBP slurries in Tank 48H include: (1) Aggregation of the material with the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) recycle stream and disposal in the Saltstone Processing Facility (SPF), and (2) In-Situ Thermal Decomposition using heat in combination with pH reduction and catalyst addition. The current literature review along with the current experimental studies provide a basis for determining the feasibility of the option to incorporate the TPB slurries into saltstone grout

  5. Role of Short-Range Chemical Ordering in (GaN) 1–x (ZnO) x for Photodriven Oxygen Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dennis P. [Department; Neuefeind, Joerg C. [Chemical; Koczkur, Kallum M. [Department; Bish, David L. [Department; Skrabalak, Sara E. [Department

    2017-07-21

    (GaN)1–x(ZnO)x (GZNO) is capable of visible-light driven water splitting, but its bandgap at x ≤ 0.15 (>2.7 eV) results in poor visible-light absorption. Unfortunately, methods to narrow its bandgap by incorporating higher ZnO concentrations are accompanied by extensive Urbach tailing near the absorption-edge, which is indicative of structural disorder or chemical inhomogeneities. We evaluated whether this disorder is intrinsic to the bond-length distribution in GZNO or is a result of defects introduced from the loss of Zn during nitridation. Here, the synthesis of GZNO derived from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors is described which minimizes Zn loss and chemical inhomogeneities and enhances visible-light absorption. The average and local atomic structures of LDH-derived GZNO were investigated using X-ray and neutron scattering and are correlated with their oxygen evolution rates. An isotope-contrasted neutron-scattering experiment was conducted in conjunction with reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations. We showed that a bond-valence bias in the RMC refinements reproduces the short-range ordering (SRO) observed in structure refinements using isotope-contrasted neutron data. The findings suggest that positional disorder of cation–anion pairs in GZNO partially arises from SRO and influences local bond relaxations. Furthermore, particle-based oxygen evolution reactions (OERs) in AgNO3 solution reveal that the crystallite size of GZNO correlates more than positional disorder with oxygen evolution rate. These findings illustrate the importance of examining the local structure of multinary photocatalysts to identify dominant factors in particulate-based photodriven oxygen evolution.

  6. Short and long term evolution of deep giant submarine dunes in continental shelf environment: the example of the 'Banc du Four' (Western Brittany, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzetti, M.; Le Roy, P.; Garlan, T.; Delacourt, C.; Thibaud, R.; Cancouet, R.; Graindorge, D.; Prunier, C.; Sukhovich, A.; Deschamps, A.

    2013-12-01

    The deep sandwave dynamics is still in debate. Understanding the migration processes and the resulting evolution of their 3D internal architecture are scientifically challenging. To address these questions we realized two swath bathymetry surveys complemented with seismic reflection across the large sandwaves field named 'Banc du Four'. It is located offshore the Western Brittany and is composed of more 500 dunes. Some of the dunes' wavelengths and heights exceed 1000m and 30m respectively placing them among the largest dunes ever described. Equilibrium laws obtained from our morphological analysis are not completely in agreement with those described in previous studies of similar structures in shallow waters. Relatively high migration velocities on deep continental shelves (from 3 to 20m.yr-1) attest of their still present dynamical equilibrium. Internal-external morphological and kinematical analyses show the existence of two different dynamic regimes. Interpretation of the seismic reflection data allowed reconstructing long-term evolution of the sandbank and the establishment of progressive connections between stepped submarine channels and tidal dynamics during the last sea-level rise.

  7. Losses of functional opsin genes, short-wavelength cone photopigments, and color vision--a significant trend in the evolution of mammalian vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gerald H

    2013-03-01

    All mammalian cone photopigments are derived from the operation of representatives from two opsin gene families (SWS1 and LWS in marsupial and eutherian mammals; SWS2 and LWS in monotremes), a process that produces cone pigments with respective peak sensitivities in the short and middle-to-long wavelengths. With the exception of a number of primate taxa, the modal pattern for mammals is to have two types of cone photopigment, one drawn from each of the gene families. In recent years, it has been discovered that the SWS1 opsin genes of a widely divergent collection of eutherian mammals have accumulated mutational changes that render them nonfunctional. This alteration reduces the retinal complements of these species to a single cone type, thus rendering ordinary color vision impossible. At present, several dozen species from five mammalian orders have been identified as falling into this category, but the total number of mammalian species that have lost short-wavelength cones in this way is certain to be much larger, perhaps reaching as high as 10% of all species. A number of circumstances that might be used to explain this widespread cone loss can be identified. Among these, the single consistent fact is that the species so affected are nocturnal or, if they are not technically nocturnal, they at least feature retinal organizations that are typically associated with that lifestyle. At the same time, however, there are many nocturnal mammals that retain functional short-wavelength cones. Nocturnality thus appears to set the stage for loss of functional SWS1 opsin genes in mammals, but it cannot be the sole circumstance.

  8. The open abdomen and temporary abdominal closure systems--historical evolution and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quyn, A J; Johnston, C; Hall, D; Chambers, A; Arapova, N; Ogston, S; Amin, A I

    2012-08-01

    Several techniques for temporary abdominal closure have been developed. We systematically review the literature on temporary abdominal closure to ascertain whether the method can be tailored to the indication. Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and relevant meeting abstracts until December 2009 were searched using the following headings: open abdomen, laparostomy, VAC (vacuum assisted closure), TNP (topical negative pressure), fascial closure, temporary abdominal closure, fascial dehiscence and deep wound dehiscence. The data were analysed by closure technique and aetiology. The primary end-points included delayed fascial closure and in-hospital mortality. The secondary end-points were intra-abdominal complications. The search identified 106 papers for inclusion. The techniques described were VAC (38 series), mesh/sheet (30 series), packing (15 series), Wittmann patch (eight series), Bogotá bag (six series), dynamic retention sutures (three series), zipper (15 series), skin only and locking device (one series each). The highest facial closure rates were seen with the Wittmann patch (78%), dynamic retention sutures (71%) and VAC (61%). Temporary abdominal closure has evolved from simple packing to VAC based systems. In the absence of sepsis Wittmann patch and VAC offered the best outcome. In its presence VAC had the highest delayed primary closure and the lowest mortality rates. However, due to data heterogeneity only limited conclusions can be drawn from this analysis. © 2012 The Authors. Colorectal Disease © 2012 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Setting the stage for the review of the international estimate of short-term intake (IESTI) equation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, Anke; Sieke, Christian; Reich, Hermine; Ossendorp, Bernadette C; Breysse, Nicolas; Lutze, Jason; Mahieu, Karin; Margerison, Sam; Rietveld, Anton; Sarda, Xavier; Vial, Gaelle; van der Velde-Koerts, Trijntje

    2018-01-01

    In the framework of setting Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) for pesticides, both chronic and acute health risks to consumers arising from the long-term and short-term dietary exposure to pesticide residues have to be assessed. The current internationally harmonized approach for assessing the acute

  10. Adaptive Laboratory Evolution Of Escherichia Coli Reveals Arduous Resistance Development To A Combination Of Three Novel Antimicrobial Compounds And To The Short Amp P9-4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citterio, Linda; Franzyk, Henrik; Gram, Lone

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were for long considered as promising new antimicrobials since resistance was not expected. However, adaptive evolution experiments have demonstrated that bacteria may indeed develop resistance also to AMPs. However, we and others hypothesize that the risk...... of resistance development decreases when two or more compounds are combined as compared to single-drug treatments. The purpose of this study was to determine if resistance could develop in Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 to the peptidomimetic HF-1002 2 and the AMPs novicidin and P9-4. The mentioned compounds were...... adaptation to 32 x MIC. This shows that resistance to novicidin and HF-1002 2, administered alone, developed more easily than it occurred in lineages exposed to the combination of three drugs. This result further supports combinatorial treatment as a way to circumvent resistance development. Surprisingly...

  11. Evolution of International Space Station Program Safety Review Processes and Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratterman, Christian D.; Green, Collin; Guibert, Matt R.; McCracken, Kristle I.; Sang, Anthony C.; Sharpe, Matthew D.; Tollinger, Irene V.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station Program at NASA is constantly seeking to improve the processes and systems that support safe space operations. To that end, the ISS Program decided to upgrade their Safety and Hazard data systems with 3 goals: make safety and hazard data more accessible; better support the interconnection of different types of safety data; and increase the efficiency (and compliance) of safety-related processes. These goals are accomplished by moving data into a web-based structured data system that includes strong process support and supports integration with other information systems. Along with the data systems, ISS is evolving its submission requirements and safety process requirements to support the improved model. In contrast to existing operations (where paper processes and electronic file repositories are used for safety data management) the web-based solution provides the program with dramatically faster access to records, the ability to search for and reference specific data within records, reduced workload for hazard updates and approval, and process support including digital signatures and controlled record workflow. In addition, integration with other key data systems provides assistance with assessments of flight readiness, more efficient review and approval of operational controls and better tracking of international safety certifications. This approach will also provide new opportunities to streamline the sharing of data with ISS international partners while maintaining compliance with applicable laws and respecting restrictions on proprietary data. One goal of this paper is to outline the approach taken by the ISS Progrm to determine requirements for the new system and to devise a practical and efficient implementation strategy. From conception through implementation, ISS and NASA partners utilized a user-centered software development approach focused on user research and iterative design methods. The user-centered approach used on

  12. Evolution of short circuit levels in the National Electric System, years 2007 to 2011; Evolucion de los niveles de cortocircuito del Sistema Electrico Nacional, anos 2007 al 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana Castaneda, J; Reyes Escobedo, G [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico)]. E-mails: jqc@iie.org.mx; gustavo.reyes@iie.org.mx; Ibarra Romo, F.G. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)]. E-mail: federico.ibarra@cfe.gob.mx

    2013-03-15

    The present document shows an analysis of 2011 short-circuit levels on the different nodes (substations) that integrate the National Electric System. This analysis presents the figures of short-circuit levels on past years, stating on 2007, with the purpose of detecting the variation on each one of these nodes and identify the cases that because it's high levels are considered as critical nodes of the transmission system. At the end of the analysis some recommendations to minimize the potential risks are given on those substations classified as critical nodes. [Spanish] En este documento se expone un analisis de los niveles de cortocircuito que se presentaron en el 2011 en los distintos nodos (subestaciones) que conforman la red del Sistema Electrico Nacional (SEN). Este analisis muestra las cifras de los niveles de cortocircuito que se han presentado desde el ano 2007, a fin de estudiar el comportamiento y evolucion que han tenido los nodos de la red electrica, identificando aquellos puntos que por sus altos niveles de cortocircuito se consideran como nodos criticos. En la parte final del analisis se dan algunas recomendaciones para disminuir los riesgos que se pudieran presentar en aquellas subestaciones clasificadas como nodos criticos.

  13. Nanocarbon/oxide composite catalysts for bifunctional oxygen reduction and evolution in reversible alkaline fuel cells: A mini review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengjie; Wang, Lei; Yang, Haipeng; Zhao, Shuai; Xu, Hui; Wu, Gang

    2018-01-01

    A reversible fuel cell (RFC), which integrates a fuel cell with an electrolyzer, is similar to a rechargeable battery. This technology lies on high-performance bifunctional catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in the fuel cell mode and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in the electrolyzer mode. Current catalysts are platinum group metals (PGM) such as Pt and Ir, which are expensive and scarce. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop PGM-free catalysts for large-scale application of RFCs. In this mini review, we discussed the most promising nanocarbon/oxide composite catalysts for ORR/OER bifunctional catalysis in alkaline media, which is mainly based on our recent progress. Starting with the effectiveness of selected oxides and nanocarbons in terms of their activity and stability, we outlined synthetic methods and the resulting structures and morphologies of catalysts to provide a correlation between synthesis, structure, and property. A special emphasis is put on understanding of the possible synergistic effect between oxide and nanocarbon for enhanced performance. Finally, a few nanocomposite catalysts are discussed as typical examples to elucidate the rules of designing highly active and durable bifunctional catalysts for RFC applications.

  14. Nuclear physics with use of KUR. Reviews of 30 years studies on short-lived nuclei and perspectives for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawase, Yoichi

    1995-01-01

    The research works which were carried out over the past 30 years on nuclear structure study have been reviewed with emphasis on the technical developments of experimental apparatus for the studies of very short-lived isotopes produced by the Kyoto University reactor(KUR). In the first chapter, nuclear structure studies of neutron-rich nuclei with use of the on-line irradiation apparatus and the on-line isotope separator(ISOL) for fission products have been described. In the second chapter, applications of nuclear methods to solid state physics by the perturbed angular correlation(PAC) technique have been examined to investigate the local electromagnetic fields in metals and compounds through the hyperfine interactions. Perspectives for the future of related research fields are given aiming at the advanced uses of short-lived radioisotopes. (author)

  15. High resolution morphobathymetric analysis and short-term evolution of the upper part of the Capbreton submarine canyon (south-east Bay of Biscay - French Atlantic coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, Hervé; Mazières, Alaïs; Mulder, Thierry; Cremer, Michel

    2013-04-01

    The Capbreton Canyon stands out by its deep incision through continental shelf and slope and its present turbidite activity. The head of the canyon is anthropically disconnected from the Adour River since 1310 AD, but is located close enough to the coast to allow a direct supply by longshore drift. Sedimentary processes in upper part of the Capbreton Canyon are poorly documented. Several evidences, including sandy slide scars in the head, suggest that this area plays a major role in triggering downstream gravity currents). However, no modern sedimentary activity in the upper canyon had so far been evidenced. Our study is based on the analysis and comparison of several sets of multibeam bathymetric data acquired in 1998, 2010 and 2012 (up to 1.5 m resolution). The morphobathymetric analysis brought the following key observations: - The upper part of the canyon is characterised by a meandering talweg underlined by two kinds of terraces: (1) small elongated terraces standing only 10 to 15 m above the talweg axis and (2) large terraces standing 45 to 100 m above the talweg axis. - The regular 1° longitudinal slope of the talweg is interrupted by several 10 m high knickpoints. - The floor of the talweg shows some rough areas scattered with transversal bedforms similar to the sediment waves described in the Monterey Canyon upper part (Smith et al, 2005). The morphological evolutions in the upper part of the canyon over the last 14 years especially affect the floor of the talweg: - Between 1998 and 2010, we observe a downstream succession of accretion areas (up to 11m thick) and erosion areas (reaching -25 m). The largest and highest terraces remain stable over this period, whereas the smallest and lowest elongated terraces show active sedimentation (+5 to +8 m). - Difference between 2010 and 2012 DEMs reveals three localized erosion spots corresponding to 200 m backward stepping of the knickpoints. Such observation confirms the active headward erosion in this part of

  16. The Limitations of Short-Term Orthodontics and Why We Still Need Specialists – A Review of the Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luqmani, Sana

    2017-01-01

    Short-term orthodontics (STO) serves to align anterior teeth. It has become popular in cosmetic dentistry as an alternative to destructive veneers and lengthy conventional orthodontics. The aim of this article is to raise awareness of the clinical limitations of STO and highlight some of the difficulties encountered with orthodontic retention. It also gives an overview of accredited training available to dentists who wish to develop their orthodontic skills. Clinical relevance: Greater awareness of the clinical limitations of short-term orthodontics will aid GDPs in appropriately selecting their cases and obtaining informed consent from patients. In addition, the article serves as encouragement for those GDPs wishing to develop their orthodontic skills and pursue further accredited training.

  17. Leveraging social and digital media for participant recruitment: A review of methods from the Bayley Short Form Formative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Mathew, Sunitha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Social media is increasingly being used in research, including recruitment. Methods For the Bayley Short Form Formative Study, which was conducted under the the National Children’s Study, traditional methods of recruitment proved to be ineffective. Therefore, digital media were identified as potential channels for recruitment. Results Results included successful recruitment of over 1800 infant and toddler participants to the Study. Conclusions This paper outlines the methods, res...

  18. Leveraging social and digital media for participant recruitment: A review of methods from the Bayley Short Form Formative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke-Garcia, Amelia; Mathew, Sunitha

    2017-06-01

    Social media is increasingly being used in research, including recruitment. For the Bayley Short Form Formative Study, which was conducted under the the National Children's Study, traditional methods of recruitment proved to be ineffective. Therefore, digital media were identified as potential channels for recruitment. Results included successful recruitment of over 1800 infant and toddler participants to the Study. This paper outlines the methods, results, and future research opportunities.

  19. Short-term mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to durable left ventricular assist device implantation in refractory cardiogenic shock: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Uil, Corstiaan A; Akin, Sakir; Jewbali, Lucia S; Dos Reis Miranda, Dinis; Brugts, Jasper J; Constantinescu, Alina A; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Caliskan, Kadir

    2017-07-01

    Short-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is increasingly used as a bridge to decision in patients with refractory cardiogenic shock. Subsequently, these patients might be bridged to durable MCS either as a bridge to candidacy/transplantation, or as destination therapy. The aim of this study was to review support duration and clinical outcome of short-term MCS in cardiogenic shock, and to analyse application of this technology as a bridge to long-term cardiac support (left ventricular assist device, LVAD) from 2006 till June 2016. Using Cochrane Register of Trials, Embase and Medline, a systematic review was performed on patients with cardiogenic shock from acute myocardial infarction, end-stage cardiomyopathy, or acute myocarditis, receiving short-term MCS. Studies on periprocedural, post-cardiotomy and cardiopulmonary resuscitation support were excluded. Thirty-nine studies, mainly registries of heterogeneous patient populations (n = 4151 patients), were identified. Depending on the device used (intra-aortic balloon pump, TandemHeart, Impella 2.5, Impella 5.0, CentriMag and peripheral veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation), mean support duration was (range) 1.6-25 days and the mean proportion of short-term MCS patients discharged was (range) 45-66%. The mean proportion of bridge to durable LVAD was (range) 3-30%. Bridge to durable LVAD was most frequently performed in patients with end-stage cardiomyopathy (22 [12-35]%). We conclude that temporary MCS can be used to bridge patients with cardiogenic shock towards durable LVAD. Clinicians are encouraged to share their results in a large multicentre registry in order to investigate optimal device selection and best duration of support. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Massage therapy has short-term benefits for people with common musculoskeletal disorders compared to no treatment: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Bervoets (Diederik C.); P.A.J. Luijsterburg (Pim); J.J.N. Alessie (Jeroen J.N.); M.J. Buijs (Martijn J.); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractQuestion: Is massage therapy effective for people with musculoskeletal disorders compared to any other treatment or no treatment? Design: Systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Participants: People with musculoskeletal disorders. Interventions: Massage therapy (manual

  1. A review of the irradiation evolution of dispersed oxide nanoparticles in the b.c.c. Fe-Cr system: Current understanding and future directions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharry, Janelle P., E-mail: jwharry@purdue.edu [Purdue University, 400 Central Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Swenson, Matthew J.; Yano, Kayla H. [Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Thus far, a number of studies have investigated the irradiation evolution of oxide nanoparticles in b.c.c. Fe-Cr based oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys. But given the inconsistent experimental conditions, results have been widely variable and inconclusive. Crystal structure and chemistry changes differ from experiment to experiment, and the total nanoparticle volume fraction has been observed to both increase and decrease. Furthermore, there has not yet been a comprehensive review of the archival literature. In this paper, we summarize the existing studies on nanoparticle irradiation evolution. We note significant observations with respect to oxide nanoparticle crystallinity, composition, size, and number density. We discuss four possible contributing mechanisms for nanoparticle evolution: ballistic dissolution, Ostwald ripening, irradiation-enhanced diffusion, and homogeneous nucleation. Finally, we propose future directions to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of irradiation effects on oxide nanoparticles in ODS alloys.

  2. Petrologic perspectives on tectonic evolution of a nascent basin (Okinawa Trough) behind Ryukyu Arc:A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Quanshu; SHI Xuefa

    2014-01-01

    Okinawa Trough is a back-arc, initial marginal sea basin, located behind the Ryukyu Arc-Trench System. The formation and evolution of the Okinawa Trough is intimately related to the subduction process of the Philippine Sea Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate since the late Miocene. The tectonic evolution of the trough is similar to other active back-arcs, such as the Mariana Trough and southern Lau Basin, all of which are experiencing the initial rifting and subsequent spreading process. This study reviews all petrologic and geochemical data of mafic volcanic lavas from the Okinawa Trough, Ryukyu Arc, and Philippine Sea Plate, combined with geophysical data to indicate the relationship between the subduction sources (input) and arc or back-arc magmas (output) in the Philippine Sea Plate-Ryukyu Arc-Okinawa Trough system (PROS). The results obtained showed that several components were variably involved in the petrogenesis of the Oki-nawa Trough lavas:sub-continental lithospheric mantle underlying the Eurasian Plate, Indian mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB)-type mantle, and Pacific MORB-type mantle. The addition of shallow aqueous fluids and deep hydrous melts from subducted components with the characteristics of Indian MORB-type mantle into the mantle source of lavas variably modifies the primitive mantle wedge beneath the Ryukyu and sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the Okinawa Trough. In the northeastern end of the trough and arc, instead of Indian MORB-type mantle, Pacific MORB-type mantle dominates the magma source. Along the strike of the Ryukyu Arc and Okinawa Trough, the systematic variations in trace element ratios and isotopic compositions reflect the first-order effect of variable subduction input on the magma source. In general, petrologic data, combined with geophysical data, imply that the Okinawa Trough is experiencing the“seafloor spreading”process in the southwest segment,“rift propagation”process in the middle seg-ment, and

  3. Short-term evolution of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 between two food-borne outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Lauren A; Dallman, Timothy J; Fitzgerald, Stephen; Irvine, Neil; Rooney, Paul J; McAteer, Sean P; Day, Martin; Perry, Neil T; Bono, James L; Jenkins, Claire; Gally, David L

    2016-09-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157:H7 is a public health threat and outbreaks occur worldwide. Here, we investigate genomic differences between related STEC O157:H7 that caused two outbreaks, eight weeks apart, at the same restaurant. Short-read genome sequencing divided the outbreak strains into two sub-clusters separated by only three single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the core genome while traditional typing identified them as separate phage types, PT8 and PT54. Isolates did not cluster with local strains but with those associated with foreign travel to the Middle East/North Africa. Combined long-read sequencing approaches and optical mapping revealed that the two outbreak strains had undergone significant microevolution in the accessory genome with prophage gain, loss and recombination. In addition, the PT54 sub-type had acquired a 240 kbp multi-drug resistance (MDR) IncHI2 plasmid responsible for the phage type switch. A PT54 isolate had a general fitness advantage over a PT8 isolate in rich medium, including an increased capacity to use specific amino acids and dipeptides as a nitrogen source. The second outbreak was considerably larger and there were multiple secondary cases indicative of effective human-to-human transmission. We speculate that MDR plasmid acquisition and prophage changes have adapted the PT54 strain for human infection and transmission. Our study shows the added insights provided by combining whole-genome sequencing approaches for outbreak investigations.

  4. How to Find Optimal National Model of Pension System: the Projection on Russia (Book Review: Barr, N. Pension reform: A short guide [Text] / N. Barr, P. Diamond. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2010. – 261 p.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Avakovich Tumanyants

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Find Optimal National Model of Pension System: the Projection on Russia (Book Review: Barr, N. Pension reform: A short guide [Text] / N. Barr, P. Diamond. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2010. – 261 p.

  5. Short-term curative effect of endovascular stent-graft treatment for aortic diseases in China: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwen Wang

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: We analyzed the short-term efficacy of endovascular treatment for aortic diseases by summarizing all available published data on endovascular stent-graft treatment for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA, thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA, type A aortic dissection (type A AD and type B aortic dissection (type B AD in China. METHODS: We performed a systematic analysis of 935 published series on retrograde endovascular treatment for aortic diseases in China from January 1996 to November 2010. Based on the inclusion criteria, 159 studies, involving a total of 5531 patients, were included. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in procedural success among the studies (P>0.05. The rates of overall neurologic complications and stroke were significantly different in all two-group comparisons (P0.05. A significant difference was noted between the 30-day mortality rate of the type A AD patients and the AAA or type B AD patients (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Endovascular stent-graft is a feasible and safe treatment for aortic diseases, with high procedural success and low incidences of post-procedural complications and short-term mortality. Endovascular treatment for AAA and type B AD is more efficient than for type A AD and TAA.

  6. Acute Short-Term Sleep Deprivation Does Not Affect Metacognitive Monitoring Captured by Confidence Ratings: A Systematic Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Simon A.; Martin, Gregory D.; Aidman, Eugene; Kleitman, Sabina

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of the literature surrounding the effects that acute sleep deprivation has on metacognitive monitoring. Metacognitive monitoring refers to the ability to accurately assess one's own performance and state of knowledge. The mechanism behind this assessment is captured by subjective feelings of…

  7. Specialist medication review does not benefit short-term outcomes and net costs in continuing-care patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pope, George

    2012-01-31

    OBJECTIVES: to evaluate specialist geriatric input and medication review in patients in high-dependency continuing care. DESIGN: prospective, randomised, controlled trial. SETTING: two residential continuing care hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: two hundred and twenty-five permanent patients. INTERVENTION: patients were randomised to either specialist geriatric input or regular input. The specialist group had a medical assessment by a geriatrician and medication review by a multidisciplinary expert panel. Regular input consisted of review as required by a medical officer attached to each ward. Reassessment occurred after 6 months. RESULTS: one hundred and ten patients were randomised to specialist input and 115 to regular input. These were comparable for age, gender, dependency levels and cognition. After 6 months, the total number of medications per patient per day fell from 11.64 to 11.09 in the specialist group (P = 0.0364) and increased from 11.07 to 11.5 in the regular group (P = 0.094). There was no significant difference in mortality or frequency of acute hospital transfers (11 versus 6 in the specialist versus regular group, P = 0.213). CONCLUSION: specialist geriatric assessment and medication review in hospital continuing care resulted in a reduction in medication use, but at a significant cost. No benefits in hard clinical outcomes were demonstrated. However, qualitative benefits and lower costs may become evident over longer periods.

  8. Dynamical evolution and disintegration of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kresak, L.

    Current concepts of the origin and evolution of comets are reviewed. The place of their formation from which they have been delivered into the Oort reservoir is still an open problem, but the region of the outermost planets appears most probable. The interplay of stellar and planetary perturbations can be traced by model computations which reveal both the general trends and the variety of individual evolutionary paths. The present structure of the system of comets is controlled by the dynamical evolution of its individual members, limited by their physical aging by disintegration. Where the lifetimes are short, as in the Jupiter family of short-period comets, an equilibrium between elimination and replenishment is established. The role of different destructive processes and the resulting survival times are discussed.

  9. Dynamical evolution and disintegration of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresak, L.

    1982-01-01

    Current concepts of the origin and evolution of comets are reviewed. The place of their formation from which they have been delivered into the Oort reservoir is still an open problem, but the region of the outermost planets appears most probable. The interplay of stellar and planetary perturbations can be traced by model computations which reveal both the general trends and the variety of individual evolutionary paths. The present structure of the system of comets is controlled by the dynamical evolution of its individual members limited by their physical aging by disintegration. Where the lifetimes are short, as in the Jupiter family of short-period comets, an equilibrium between elimination and replenishment is established. The role of different destructive processes and the resulting survival times are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  11. Comparison Review of Short-Acting and Long-Acting Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uccellatore, Annachiara; Genovese, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria; Mannucci, Edoardo; Ceriello, Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) are useful tools for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus. In their recent position statement, the American Diabetes Association and European Association for the Study of Diabetes recommend GLP1-RAs as add-on to metformin when therapeutic goals are not achieved with monotherapy, particularly for patients who wish to avoid weight gain or hypoglycemia. GLP1-RAs differ substantially in their duration of action, frequency of administration and clinical profile. Members of this class approved for clinical use include exenatide twice-daily, exenatide once-weekly, liraglutide and lixisenatide once-daily. Recently, two new once-weekly GLP1-RAs have been approved: dulaglutide and albiglutide. This article summarizes properties of short- and long-acting GLP-1 analogs, and provides useful information to help choose the most appropriate compound for individual patients.

  12. A short review on the pulsed laser deposition of Er3+ ion doped oxide glass thin films for integrated optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irannejad, M.; Zhao, Z.; Jose, G.; Steenson, D.P.; Jha, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short pulsed (ns) excimer laser was employed as a technique for the deposition of more than 2 μm thick glassy films from phosphorous pentoxide and tungsten lanthanum modified tellurite bulk glasses. High quality glass thin films with measured propagation loss less than 0.15, 0.71 and 2.3 dB.cm -1 were obtained after optimization of deposition parameters for silica, siloxane and semiconductor substrates. The optical, spectroscopic and microstructural properties of deposited thin films were compared with bulk glass materials for demonstrating the differences in the properties, which must be optimized for device engineering. Channel waveguides were fabricated after using reactive ion etching technique, up to 2 μm thickness by using CHF 3 and Ar gas mixture

  13. A Short Review on the Catalytic Activity of Hydrotalcite-Derived Materials for Dry Reforming of Methane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Dębek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-containing hydrotalcite-derived materials have been recently proposed as promising materials for methane dry reforming (DRM. Based on a literature review and on the experience of the authors, this review focuses on presenting past and recent achievements on increasing activity and stability of hydrotalcite-based materials for DRM. The use of different NiMgAl and NiAl hydrotalcite (HT precursors, various methods for nickel introduction into HT structure, calcination conditions and promoters are discussed. HT-derived materials containing nickel generally exhibit high activity in DRM; however, the problem of preventing catalyst deactivation by coking, especially below 700 °C, is still an open question. The proposed solutions in the literature include: catalyst regeneration either in oxygen atmosphere or via hydrogasification; or application of various promoters, such as Zr, Ce or La, which was proven to enhance catalytic stability.

  14. [The German program for disease management guidelines: type 2 diabetes--diabetic retinopathy/maculopathy guideline 2006. Short review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollenschläger, Günter; Kopp, Ina; Thole, Henning; Lelgemann, Monika

    2007-02-15

    In Germany, the first national consensus between six medical scientific associations on evidence-based recommendations for prevention and therapy of retinopathy/maculopathy in type 2 diabetes was reached in fall 2006. The recommendations' main sources are the NICE Retinopathy Guideline 2002, and existing German guidelines and reviews of recent scientific evidence. The article gives an overview on authors, sources, and key recommendations of the German National Disease Management Guideline Type 2 Diabetes-Retinopathy/Maculopathy 2006 (www.diabetes.versorgungsleitlinien.de).

  15. Visual memory, the long and the short of it: A review of visual working memory and long-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurgin, Mark W

    2018-04-23

    The majority of research on visual memory has taken a compartmentalized approach, focusing exclusively on memory over shorter or longer durations, that is, visual working memory (VWM) or visual episodic long-term memory (VLTM), respectively. This tutorial provides a review spanning the two areas, with readers in mind who may only be familiar with one or the other. The review is divided into six sections. It starts by distinguishing VWM and VLTM from one another, in terms of how they are generally defined and their relative functions. This is followed by a review of the major theories and methods guiding VLTM and VWM research. The final section is devoted toward identifying points of overlap and distinction across the two literatures to provide a synthesis that will inform future research in both fields. By more intimately relating methods and theories from VWM and VLTM to one another, new advances can be made that may shed light on the kinds of representational content and structure supporting human visual memory.

  16. Short- and long-term outcomes of metformin compared with insulin alone in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butalia, S; Gutierrez, L; Lodha, A; Aitken, E; Zakariasen, A; Donovan, L

    2017-01-01

    To assess the short- and long-term maternal and fetal impact of metformin in pregnancy compared with insulin. We performed a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, BIOSIS, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and ClinicalTrials.gov. Eligible studies were randomized control trials (RCTs) or follow-up of an RCT that: (1) compared metformin with insulin in pregnancy in women with gestational diabetes mellitus or Type 2 diabetes; and (2) reported maternal or fetal outcomes of interest. Two reviewers extracted the data, evaluated study quality and calculated pooled estimates. Sixteen studies (n = 2165 in quantitative analysis) were included. Metformin lowered the risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia [risk ratio (RR) = 0.63; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.45 to 0.87], large for gestational age babies (RR = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.99), pregnancy-induced hypertension (RR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.85) and total maternal pregnancy weight gain [mean difference (MD) -2.07; 95% CI -2.88 to -1.27]. Metformin did not increase preterm delivery (RR = 1.18; 95% CI 0.67 to 2.07), small for gestational age babies (RR = 1.20; 95% CI, 0.67 to 2.14), perinatal mortality (RR = 0.82; 95% CI, 0.17 to 3.92) or Caesarean section (RR = 0.97; 95% CI, 0.80 to 1.19). Long-term outcome information is limited. Our review found that metformin had no short-term adverse effects on pregnancy, potential benefits in the neonatal period, but limited long-term follow-up information. Prior to routine use, we recommend further follow-up studies of offspring exposed to metformin in utero. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  17. Etiology of lumbar lordosis and its pathophysiology: a review of the evolution of lumbar lordosis, and the mechanics and biology of lumbar degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrey, Carolyn J; Bailey, Jeannie F; Safaee, Michael; Clark, Aaron J; Lafage, Virginie; Schwab, Frank; Smith, Justin S; Ames, Christopher P

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the mechanisms of postural degeneration, particularly the loss of lumbar lordosis commonly observed in the elderly in the context of evolution, mechanical, and biological studies of the human spine and to synthesize recent research findings to clinical management of postural malalignment. Lumbar lordosis is unique to the human spine and is necessary to facilitate our upright posture. However, decreased lumbar lordosis and increased thoracic kyphosis are hallmarks of an aging human spinal column. The unique upright posture and lordotic lumbar curvature of the human spine suggest that an understanding of the evolution of the human spinal column, and the unique anatomical features that support lumbar lordosis may provide insight into spine health and degeneration. Considering evolution of the skeleton in isolation from other scientific studies provides a limited picture for clinicians. The evolution and development of human lumbar lordosis highlight the interdependence of pelvic structure and lumbar lordosis. Studies of fossils of human lineage demonstrate a convergence on the degree of lumbar lordosis and the number of lumbar vertebrae in modern Homo sapiens. Evolution and spine mechanics research show that lumbar lordosis is dictated by pelvic incidence, spinal musculature, vertebral wedging, and disc health. The evolution, mechanics, and biology research all point to the importance of spinal posture and flexibility in supporting optimal health. However, surgical management of postural deformity has focused on restoring posture at the expense of flexibility. It is possible that the need for complex and costly spinal fixation can be eliminated by developing tools for early identification of patients at risk for postural deformities through patient history (genetics, mechanics, and environmental exposure) and tracking postural changes over time.

  18. Cepheid evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, S.A.

    1984-05-01

    A review of the phases of stellar evolution relevant to Cepheid variables of both Types I and II is presented. Type I Cepheids arise as a result of normal post-main sequence evolutionary behavior of many stars in the intermediate to massive range of stellar masses. In contrast, Type II Cepheids generally originate from low-mass stars of low metalicity which are undergoing post core helium-burning evolution. Despite great progress in the past two decades, uncertainties still remain in such areas as how to best model convective overshoot, semiconvection, stellar atmospheres, rotation, and binary evolution as well as uncertainties in important physical parameters such as the nuclear reaction rates, opacity, and mass loss rates. The potential effect of these uncertainties on stellar evolution models is discussed. Finally, comparisons between theoretical predictions and observations of Cepheid variables are presented for a number of cases. The results of these comparisons show both areas of agreement and disagreement with the latter result providing incentive for further research

  19. The short-term effect of interdisciplinary medication review on function and cost in ambulatory elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Mark E; Pulliam, Charles C; Hunter, Rebecca; Johnson, Ted M; Owens, Justine E; Kincaid, Jean; Porter, Carol; Koch, Gary

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether a medication review by a specialized team would promote regimen changes in elders taking multiple medications and to measure the effect of regimen changes on monthly cost and functioning. A randomized-controlled trial. Health center ambulatory clinic. Community-dwelling older adults taking five or more medications were assessed at baseline and 6 weeks. A medication-change intervention group of 57 elders was compared with a control group of 76 elder adults. The primary intervention was a comprehensive review and recommended modification of a patient's medication regimen. Changes were endorsed by each patient's primary physician and discussed with each patient. Measures were the Timed Manual Performance Test, Physical Performance Test, Functional Reach Assessment, subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, a modified Randt Memory Test, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and the Rand 36-item Health Survey 1.0. Comorbidity was determined using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification. Medication usage was determined using brown bag review. Intervention subjects decreased their medications by an average of 1.5 drugs. No differences in functioning were observed between groups. Intervention subjects saved an average $26.92 per month in wholesale medication costs; control subjects saved $6.75 per month (P<.006). Although the intervention significantly reduced the medications taken and monthly cost, most patients were resistant to reducing medications to the recommended level. Further study is needed to understand patient resistance to reducing adverse polypharmacy and to devise better strategies for addressing this important problem in geriatric health. Greater focus on prescriber behavior is recommended.

  20. Historical review of academic concepts of dementia in the world and Japan: with a short history of representative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    Expanding our knowledge of the history of dementia may be beneficial for its holistic understanding. This article aims to review the trajectory of the concepts of dementia in the world and Japan. Historical backgrounds of major dementia diseases are also addressed. The first reference to "imbecility" appeared in Greece in 6th century BC. A Japanese term "Mow-roku" (aged and devitalized) first appeared in 11th century, was replaced by "Chee-hou" (absent-minded imbecile) in 1960s, and then by "Ninchee-show" (cognitive impairment) in 2014 for humanistic reasons. In 1970s, dementia was delineated from normal aging, and the present concept of dementia was established.

  1. Short-term efficacy of physical interventions in osteoarthritic knee pain. A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised placebo-controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogen Bård

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment efficacy of physical agents in osteoarthritis of the knee (OAK pain has been largely unknown, and this systematic review was aimed at assessing their short-term efficacies for pain relief. Methods Systematic review with meta-analysis of efficacy within 1–4 weeks and at follow up at 1–12 weeks after the end of treament. Results 36 randomised placebo-controlled trials (RCTs were identified with 2434 patients where 1391 patients received active treatment. 33 trials satisfied three or more out of five methodological criteria (Jadad scale. The patient sample had a mean age of 65.1 years and mean baseline pain of 62.9 mm on a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS. Within 4 weeks of the commencement of treatment manual acupuncture, static magnets and ultrasound therapies did not offer statistically significant short-term pain relief over placebo. Pulsed electromagnetic fields offered a small reduction in pain of 6.9 mm [95% CI: 2.2 to 11.6] (n = 487. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, including interferential currents, electro-acupuncture (EA and low level laser therapy (LLLT offered clinically relevant pain relieving effects of 18.8 mm [95% CI: 9.6 to 28.1] (n = 414, 21.9 mm [95% CI: 17.3 to 26.5] (n = 73 and 17.7 mm [95% CI: 8.1 to 27.3] (n = 343 on VAS respectively versus placebo control. In a subgroup analysis of trials with assumed optimal doses, short-term efficacy increased to 22.2 mm [95% CI: 18.1 to 26.3] for TENS, and 24.2 mm [95% CI: 17.3 to 31.3] for LLLT on VAS. Follow-up data up to 12 weeks were sparse, but positive effects seemed to persist for at least 4 weeks after the course of LLLT, EA and TENS treatment was stopped. Conclusion TENS, EA and LLLT administered with optimal doses in an intensive 2–4 week treatment regimen, seem to offer clinically relevant short-term pain relief for OAK.

  2. Nurses' contribution to short-term humanitarian care in low- to middle-income countries: An integrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Sonja; Elliott, Doug; Jackson, Debra

    2017-12-01

    To appraise the literature related to voluntary humanitarian work provided by international nurses in low- to middle-income countries. Nurses and other health professionals are engaged with both governmental and nongovernmental organisations to provide care within international humanitarian relief and development contexts. Current literature describes accounts of charitable health professional activity within short-term health-focused humanitarian trips; however, there is minimal research describing the care that nurses provide and the professional roles and tasks they fulfil whilst participating in international volunteer healthcare service. Integrative review. A search of articles published between 1995-2015 was conducted using seven bibliographic databases. Inclusion criteria incorporated nurses and allied health professionals' involvement in a volunteer short-term medical team capacity. Papers describing military and/or disaster response with a service-learning focus were excluded. Nineteen papers were selected for review, description and discussion of findings. Findings revealed limited data describing the care nurses provide and the professional roles and tasks they fulfil within the context of international humanitarian short-term medical trips. Issues raised included a description of demographic data regarding participants and sending agencies, motivation for volunteer participation, perceptions of effectiveness of particular programmes and sustainability issues related to cultural, ethical or moral obligations of foreign health professionals working in a low- to middle-income countries. Study findings highlighted that although nurses are recruited and participate in health-focused humanitarian activities in low- to middle-income countries, there is extremely limited documented research about the amount and type of care that nurses specifically provide in this context. Furthermore, when identified, it is most often hidden within studies outlining services

  3. Psicoterapia breve pais-bebê: revisando a literatura Short-term parent-infant psychotherapy: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Prado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta uma revisão da literatura a respeito da psicoterapia breve pais-bebê. Inicialmente são apresentados aspectos históricos, desde o surgimento da psicoterapia breve, passando pelas formulações teóricas que enfatizaram a importância das relações iniciais pais-bebê até a constituição do campo da psicoterapia breve pais-bebê propriamente dita. Constata-se que várias abordagens compõem o panorama atual das psicoterapias pais-bebê, as quais apresentam uma ampla diversidade de referenciais teóricos e técnicos. Foram também revisados, em particular, estudos empíricos sobre a utilização dessa abordagem no contexto da depressão materna. Por fim, apresentam-se os procedimentos utilizados pelos autores deste artigo em uma pesquisa em andamento envolvendo o atendimento psicoterápico breve pais-bebê em famílias com mães deprimidas. Essa abordagem tem se mostrado efetiva na promoção de um melhor relacionamento mãe-pai-bebê na presença sintomas depressivos da mãe.This article presents a review of the literature on short-term parent-infant psychotherapy. Initially, some historical aspects are presented since the emergence of short-term psychotherapy, including the theoretical formulations that highlighted the importance of early parent-infant relationships and helped to implement the field of short-term parent-infant psychotherapy. There are several approaches to parent-infant psychotherapy, representing a broad diversity of theoretical and technical frameworks. Empirical studies were also reviewed, especially those using parent-infant psychotherapy in the context of maternal depression. Finally, the authors' experience with short-term parent-infant psychotherapy involving families with depressive mothers was presented. This approach has shown to be effective in the promotion of better mother-father-infant relationship in the presence of maternal depressive symptoms.

  4. Allometric equations commonly used for estimating shoot biomass in short-rotation wood energy species: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Ríos-Saucedo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los cultivos dendroenergéticos de corta rotación en monte bajo (Short Rotation Coppice -SRC comúnmente están formados por individuos unifustales en el primer ciclo de corta, pero a partir del segundo ciclo, de cada cepa surgen numerosos vástagos o brotes, los cuales presentan desafíos interesantes al momento de estimar su biomasa. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar especies, longitud de rotación y tipos de modelos alométricos usados para estimar biomasa en SRC, en revistas científicas de las bases de datos Scopus y Web of Science. Entre los modelos para estimar la biomasa (y de uso más frecuente destaca el exponencial, que tiene como variable predictora el diámetro normal ( D ( y = b 0 D b 1 , diámetro basal de tallo ( Db ( y = b 0 Db b 1 y la combinación de diámetro normal al cuadrado por la altura total ( D 2 H ( y = b 0 + b 1 D 2 H . Los géneros con mayor número de modelos diferentes fueron Populus, Salix y Eucalyptus . Los dos primeros son los más estudiados. La longitud de rotación empleada en los cultivos estudiados varió de uno a 15 años.

  5. A short review of our current understanding of the development of ring faults during collapse caldera formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelina eGeyer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The term collapse caldera refers to those volcanic depressions resulting from the sinking of the chamber roof due to the rapid withdrawal of magma during the course of an eruption. During the last three decades, collapse caldera dynamics has been the focus of attention of numerous, theoretical, numerical and experimental studies. Nonetheless, even if there is a tendency to go for a general and comprehensive caldera dynamics model, some key aspects remain unclear, controversial or completely unsolved. This is the case of ring fault nucleation points and propagation and dip direction. Since direct information on calderas’ deeper structure comes mainly from partially eroded calderas or few witnessed collapses, ring faults layout at depth remains still uncertain. This has generated a strong debate over the detailed internal fault and fracture configuration of a caldera collapse and, in more detail, how ring faults initiate and propagate. We offer here a very short description of the main results obtained by those analogue and theoretical/mathematical models applied to the study of collapse caldera formation. We place special attention on those observations related to the nucleation and propagation of the collapse-controlling ring faults. This summary is relevant to understand the current state-of-the-art of this topic and it should be taken under consideration in future works dealing with collapse caldera dynamics.

  6. A review of corruption based on the social and economic evolution of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome

    OpenAIRE

    Ciprian ROTARU; Dumitru-Alexandru BOD; Raluca GEORGESCU

    2016-01-01

    This paper is part of a broader research done on the evolution of corruption and represents the highlights of the phenomenon from the social, economic and religious perspective. During our research we tried to analyse the evolution from pre-corruption times, the Indian view dating 2300 B.C., continuing with the Chinese dynasty Quin (221- 207 BC), the Sumerians and Semites, and also to the Persian Kingdom, and emphasising the corruption in Ancient Greece and rounding up with Anc...

  7. RELEVANCE OF WHOLE BODY VIBRATION EXERCISE IN SPORT: A SHORT REVIEW WITH SOCCER, DIVER AND COMBAT SPORT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Danielle Soares; Dionello, Carla da Fontoura; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Brandão-Sobrinho-Neto, Samuel; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa Liane; Souza, Patrícia Lopes; Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Dias, Glenda; Figueiredo, Claudia; Carmo, Roberto Carlos Resende; Paiva, Patrícia de Castro; Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Kütter, Cristiane Ribeiro; Guedes-Aguiar, Eliane de Oliveira; Cloak, Ross; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Whole body vibration exercise (WBVE) has been used as a safe and accessible exercise and important reviews have been published about the use of this exercise to manage diseases and to improve physical conditions of athletes The aim of this paper is to highlight the relevance of WBVE to soccer players, divers and combat athletes. This study was made through a systematic review of publications involving WBVE and the selected sports in two databases (Pubmed and PEDRo). It were identified 10 studies involving WBVE and sports (6 of soccer, 2 of diving and 2 of sport combat) with 156 subjects (80 soccer players, 32 divers and 44 combat athletes), with age from 17 to 44 years old. The use of WBVE has proven to be a safe and useful strategy to improve the physical conditions of players of different sports. These findings may have clinical relevance and should be considered as a strategy to be used to try improve the physical conditions of players.

  8. Importance of an intact dura in management of compound elevated fractures; a short series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, Sandeep; Singh, Harnarayan; Savardekar, Amey

    2012-01-01

    To describe compound elevated fractures (CEFs) of the skull vault, with radiological pictures, management problems and prognosticative factors. The authors describe three cases of CEFs of the cranium, their mode of injury, clinical findings, radiological images and management problems. The authors have reviewed the existing literature regarding epidemiological data, neurological status, dural breech, methods of management and final outcome, in respect of CEFs. The first case had no dural breech, the second case had completely shattered dura, with extruding brain matter from the wound, while the third case had an elevated bone flap in consequence to large extradural haematoma. The patients with intact dura had relatively favourable outcome, when compared to patients with shattered dura. Three cases are added to the existing 10 such cases described in English literature. The major cause of unfavourable outcome remains sepsis and the presence of intact dura places these cases in the relatively safe category, regarding infective complications. The authors attempt at highlighting the importance of intact dura with such an injury. The review of literature supports favourable outcomes in patients having no dural breech.

  9. Replica symmetry breaking in short range spin glasses: A review of the theoretical foundations and of the numerical evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinari, E.; Zuliani, F.; Parisi, G.; Ricci-Tersenghi, F.; Ruiz-Lorenzo, J.J.

    2000-04-01

    We discuss Replica Symmetry Breaking (RSB) in Spin Glasses. We present an update about the state of the matter, both from the analytical and from the numerical point of view. We put a particular attention in discussing the difficulties stressed by Newman and Stein concerning the problem of constructing pure states in spin glass systems. We mainly discuss about what happens in finite dimensional, realistic spin glasses. Together with a detailed review of some of most important features, facts, data, phenomena, we present some new theoretical ideas and numerical results. We discuss among others the basic idea of the RSB theory, correlation functions, interfaces, overlaps, pure states, random field and the dynamical approach. We present new numerical results for the behavior of coupled replicas and about the numerical verification of sum rules, and we review some of the available numerical results that we consider of larger importance (for example the determination of the phase transition point, the correlation functions, the window overlaps, the dynamical behavior of the system). (author)

  10. Review of evolution of clinical, training and educational services and research program for autism spectrum disorders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Virginia Chun-Nei; Fung, Cheuk-Wing; Lee, So-Lun; Wong, Polly Tsz Yan

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of a local fragmented model of services for children with autism in Hong Kong emerged gradually over the past three decades with lack of government funding or support. This had been due to increasing number of children with autism being detected and referred for earlier assessment. With increasing pressure from parents due to long waiting time for assessment and training services and the increasing polarization by mass media there had been a gradual increasing public awareness over the past five years. Though still highly fragmented in the availability of services, there is a growing "business model" available in the community due to increasing need and lack of public funding for support. There is a lack of strategic planning for medical diagnostic and management issues in Hong Kong. Our University of Hong Kong based Autism Research Program was pioneered in 1985 based on the increasing load of autism cases referred for assessment for other developmental problems and diagnosed as Autism in the Duchess of Kent Children's Hospital. As the first author has been the staff of the University of Hong Kong, this program flourished as a research based program. The benefits of early identification and intervention of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had been increasingly recognized, and with the increased public awareness and increasing trend of earlier diagnosis, there has been a continuously high demand from parents for earlier assessment and training for children suspected to have ASD. This model had not received extra funding for this integrated program for research, teaching and training in autism. We had to apply for various donations and grants to support the development of this pioneer program. The research output and organization of forums for public education and awareness are reviewed. The latter part of the paper reports the summary of clinical profile of autism cases (N=1441) assessed from 1985 to 2010 June under the University of Hong Kong. As the

  11. [Observational studies in the era of evidence based medicine: short review on their relevance, taxonomy and designs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Ines

    2013-01-01

    In this review of the literature, we distinguish between experimental and observational studies, highlighting the importance that the later have gained in the era of evidence-based medicine. We further analyze the value of observational studies in light of experimental studies. We present a taxonomy for observational studies based on units of observation and measurement (cross-sectional or longitudinal). We distinguish between descriptive studies and analytical studies. Then, and given its specificity, we define and present a classification for ecological studies. We define and consider the advantages and disadvantages of cross-sectional, case control and cohort studies. We analyze the strength of the evidence given by each study design. We finished by examining what should guide the choice of a study design.

  12. Receptor research on xenohormone effects of human serum extracts containing the actual mixture of perfluorinated alkyl acids: a short review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Olesen, Christian; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    differs between individuals. Hence, the toxicological studies of single PFAAs and simple mixtures might be insufficient to predict how the actual mixtures of PFAAs may affect humans. To get a better evaluation of the actual mixture effects, we developed a method to extract the actual mixture of PFAAs from...... (http://fetotox.au.dk/), we are currently extracting the actual PFAA serum mixture from 700 pregnant women to further elucidate the potential of the serum PFAA mixture to transactivate the ER at the levels found in human serum. We suggest that our method can in the future be used to study the effects...... of the actual serum PFAA mixture on both steroid hormone actions as well as other hormonal systems e.g. thyroid hormone function. In the current review we will discuss how our recently developed PFAA extraction method might be used in future research to assess the endocrine impact of PFAAs on human health....

  13. Revisiting Postoperative Vision Loss following Non-Ocular Surgery: A Short Review of Etiology and Legal Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Mendel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Postoperative vision loss (POVL following non-ocular surgery is a serious complication where the causes are not fully understood. Studies have identified several causes of POVL as well as risk factors and prevention strategies. POVL research is made difficult by the fact that cases are often subject to malpractice claims, resulting in a lack of public access to case reports. This literature review was conducted in order to identify legal issues as a major barrier to studying POVL and address how this affects current knowledge. Informed consent provides an opportunity to overcome legal challenges by reducing malpractice litigation through educating the patient on this outcome. Providing pertinent information regarding POVL during the informed consent process has potential to reduce malpractice claims and increase available clinical information.

  14. Sustaining supply of senior academic leadership skills in a shortage environment: a short review of a decade of dental experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Estie; Heitz-Mayfield, Lisa; Tennant, Marc

    2014-06-01

    For the past decade, and expected for the next decade, Australia faces a significant health workforce shortage and an acute maldistribution of health workforce. Against this background the governments at both national and state level have been increasing the training places for all health practitioners and trying to redress the imbalance through a strong regional focus on these developments. Dentistry has been an active participant in these workforce initiatives. This study examines the increasing demand for academics and discusses the existing pathways for increase, and also examines in detail the advantages of a sustainable, shared-model approach, using dentistry as a model for other disciplines. Three non-exclusive pathways for reform are considered: importation of academics, delayed retirement and the shared resource approach. Of the various solutions outlined in this review a detailed explanation of a cost-effective shared model of senior academic leadership is highlighted as a viable, sustainable model for ameliorating the shortage.

  15. The antiprogesterone steroid RU 486: a short pharmacological and clinical review, with emphasis on the interruption of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, R E; Baulieu, E E

    1987-02-01

    In this review we have briefly outlined the clinical applications and mechanism of action of the progesterone antagonist RU 486. RU 486 has been successfully used in a variety of conditions to regulate the reproductive cycle and to control fertility in women. We suggest that the mechanism by which RU 486 acts during the cycle and early pregnancy is probably by affecting mainly the endometrium. During late pregnancy, the compound has significant effects on the myometrium including the induction of gap junctions between myometrium cells, which is required for muscle contractility during labour. The use of RU 486 has helped to demonstrate that progesterone is required for maintenance of the late stages of pregnancy in women.

  16. All-optical spin switching: A new frontier in femtomagnetism — A short review and a simple theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G. P.; Latta, T.; Babyak, Z.; Bai, Y. H.; George, Thomas F.

    2016-08-01

    Using an ultrafast laser pulse to manipulate the spin degree of freedom has broad technological appeal. It allows one to control the spin dynamics on a femtosecond time scale. The discipline, commonly called femtomagnetism, started with the pioneering experiment by Beaurepaire and coworkers in 1996, who showed subpicosecond demagnetization occurs in magnetic Ni thin films. This finding has motivated extensive research worldwide. All-optical helicity-dependent spin switching (AO-HDS) represents a new frontier in femtomagnetism, where a single ultrafast laser pulse can permanently switch spin without any assistance from a magnetic field. This review summarizes some of the crucial aspects of this new discipline: key experimental findings, leading mechanisms, controversial issues, and possible future directions. The emphasis is on our latest investigation. We first develop the all-optical spin switching (AOS) rule that determines how the switchability depends on the light helicity. This rule allows one to understand microscopically how the spin is reversed and why the circularly polarized light appears more powerful than the linearly polarized light. Then we invoke our latest spin-orbit coupled harmonic oscillator model to simulate single spin reversal. We consider both continuous wave (cw) excitation and pulsed laser excitation. The results are in a good agreement with the experimental result (a MatLab code is available upon request from the author). We then extend the code to include the exchange interaction among different spin sites. We show where the “inverse-Faraday field” comes from and how the laser affects the spin reversal nonlinearly. Our hope is that this review will motivate new experimental and theoretical investigations and discussions.

  17. The effects of short versus long inter-set rest intervals in resistance training on measures of muscle hypertrophy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgic, Jozo; Lazinica, Bruno; Mikulic, Pavle; Krieger, James W; Schoenfeld, Brad Jon

    2017-09-01

    Although the effects of short versus long inter-set rest intervals in resistance training on measures of muscle hypertrophy have been investigated in several studies, the findings are equivocal and the practical implications remain unclear. In an attempt to provide clarity on the topic, we performed a systematic literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) electronic databases. Six studies were found to have met the inclusion criteria: (a) an experimental trial published in an English-language peer-reviewed journal; (b) the study compared the use of short (≤60 s) to long (>60 s) inter-set rest intervals in a traditional dynamic resistance exercise using both concentric and eccentric muscle actions, with the only difference in resistance training among groups being the inter-set rest interval duration; (c) at least one method of measuring changes in muscle mass was used in the study; (d) the study lasted for a minimum of four weeks, employed a training frequency of ≥2 resistance training days per week, and (e) used human participants without known chronic disease or injury. Current evidence indicates that both short and long inter-set rest intervals may be useful when training for achieving gains in muscle hypertrophy. Novel findings involving trained participants using measures sensitive to detect changes in muscle hypertrophy suggest a possible advantage for the use of long rest intervals to elicit hypertrophic effects. However, due to the paucity of studies with similar designs, further research is needed to provide a clear differentiation between these two approaches.

  18. Transversus abdominis plane block using a short-acting local anesthetic for postoperative pain after laparoscopic colorectal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tak Kyu; Lee, Se-Jun; Do, Sang-Hwan; Song, In-Ae

    2018-02-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block using a short-acting local anesthetic as part of multimodal analgesia is efficient in various abdominal surgeries, including laparoscopic surgery. However, information regarding its use in laparoscopic colorectal surgery is still limited and sometimes controversial. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether TAP block using a short-acting anesthetic has a positive postoperative analgesic outcome in patients who have undergone laparoscopic colorectal surgery. We searched for studies comparing the postoperative pain outcome after laparoscopic colorectal surgery between patients who received TAP block and a control group (placebo or no treatment). Outcome measures were early pain at rest (numeric rating scale [NRS] score at 0-2 h postoperatively), late pain at movement (NRS score at 24 h postoperatively), late pain at rest (NRS score at 24 h postoperatively), and postoperative opioid consumption (up to 24 h postoperatively). We used a random-effects model for the meta-analysis and Egger's regression test to detect publication bias. We included six studies involving 452 patients (224 in the TAP block group, 228 in the control group). Early and late pain scores at movement were significantly different between the TAP block and control groups (standardized mean difference: - 0.695, P consumption (P = 0.257). The TAP block using a short-acting anesthetic had a significant effect on the postoperative pain outcome in the early (0-2 h) and late (24 h) period at movement. However, it did not have a significant effect on the postoperative pain outcome in the early (0-2 h) and late (24 h) periods at rest after laparoscopic surgery.

  19. A short review on the potential of coffee husk gasification for sustainable energy in Uganda [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert John Miito

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural biomass is widely recognized as a clean and renewable energy source, with increasing potential to replace conventional fossil fuels in the energy market. Uganda, like other developing countries, has a high dependency (91% on wood fuel, leading to environmental degradation. With a coffee production of 233 Metric Tonnes per annum, relating to 46.6 Mega Tonnes of coffee husks from processing, transforming these husks into syngas through gasification can contribute to resolving the existing energy challenges. The objective of this article is to briefly review the energy potential of coffee husks through gasification, and how the gasification process could increase energy recoveries for coffee farmers. Previous  findings indicate that the 46.6 Mega Tonnes per year of coffee husks generated in Uganda, with a heating value of 18.34 MJ/kg, is capable of generating 24 GWh of energy. This will address a 0.7% portion of the energy situation in Uganda, while protecting the environment.

  20. Different methods for assessment of nutritional status in newborn infants based on physical and anthropometric indexes: a short review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Rashidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several complications during childhood is associated with nutritional status of infants at birth. Therefore, nutritional status of newborns must be evaluated properly after birth. Assessment of the nutritional status of neonates based on anthropometric and physical indices is simple and inexpensive without the need for advanced medical equipment. However, no previous studies have focused on the assessment methods of the nutritional status of infants via anthropometric and physical indices. This study aimed to review some of the key methods used to determine the nutritional status of neonates using anthropometric and physical indices. To date, most studies have focused on the diagnosis of fetal malnutrition (FM and growth monitoring. In order to diagnose FM, researchers have used growth charts and Ponderal index (PI based on anthropometric indices, as well as Clinical Assessment of Nutritional (CAN Score based on physical features. Moreover, in order to assess the growth status of infants, growth charts were used. According to the findings of this study, standard intrauterine growth curves and the PI are common measurement tools in the diagnosis of FM. Furthermore, CAN score is widely used in the evaluation of the nutritional status of neonates. Given the differences in the physical features of term and preterm infants, this index should be adjusted for preterm neonates. Longitudinal growth charts are one of the most prominent methods used for monitoring of the growth patterns of infants.

  1. Tail docking in pigs: a review on its short- and long-term consequences and effectiveness in preventing tail biting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Nannoni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In spite of European legislation attempting to limit this practice, tail docking is nowadays the only preventive measure against tail biting which is widely adopted by farmers. Docking consists in amputating, usually without anaesthesia or analgesia, the distal part of the tail, in order to reduce its attractiveness and to sensitize it, increasing avoidance behaviour in the bitten pig. Tail docking results in both acute and chronic effects on pig welfare, and its effectiveness in preventing tail biting is limited, since it reduces the symptoms of a behavioural disorder, but does not address the underlying causes. The aim of the present paper is to review the available literature on the effects of tail docking on swine welfare. Although from a practical standpoint the welfare risks arising from tail docking may appear to be negligible compared to those arising during and after tail biting outbreaks, it should be considered that, apart from acute physiological and behavioural responses, tail docking may also elicit long-term effects on weight gain, tail stump sensitivity and animal freedom to express their normal behaviour. Such chronic effects have been poorly investigated so far. Besides, studies evaluating the effectiveness of anaesthetics or analgesic treatments are often conflicting. Within this framework, further research is recommended in order to reduce the acute and chronic pain and discomfort experienced by the animals, until preventive measures (e.g., environmental enrichment, stocking densities are broadly adopted to prevent tail biting.

  2. A short review on stable metal nanoparticles using ionic liquids, supported ionic liquids, and poly(ionic liquids)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manojkumar, Kasina; Sivaramakrishna, Akella; Vijayakrishna, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) are a subject of global interest in research community due to their diverse applications in various fields of science. The stabilization of these metal NPs is of great concern in order to avoid their agglomerization during their applications. There is a huge pool of cations and anions available for the selection of ionic liquids (ILs) as stabilizers for the synthesis of metal NPs. ILs are known for their tunable nature allowing the fine tuning of NPs size and solubility by varying the substitutions on the heteroatom as well as the counter anions. However, there has been a debate over the stability of metal NPs stabilized by ILs over a long period of time and also upon their recycling and reuse in organocatalytic reactions. ILs covalently attached to solid supports (SILLPs) have given a new dimension for the stabilization of metal NPs as well as their separation, recovery, and reuse in organocatalytic reactions. Poly(ILs) (PILs) or polyelectrolytes have created a significant revolution in the polymer science owing to their characteristic properties of polymers as well as ILs. This dual behavior of PILs has facilitated the stabilization of PIL-stabilized metal NPs over a long period of time with negligible or no change in particle size, stability, and size distribution upon recycling in catalysis. This review provides an insight into the different types of imidazolium-based ILs, supported ILs, and PILs used so far for the stabilization of metal NPs and their applications as a function of their cations and counter anions.

  3. Imaging in short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-09-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  4. Imaging in short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  5. Evolution of dosimetric phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, A.R.

    2010-01-01

    In this oration evolution of the dosimetric phantoms for radiation protection and for medical use is briefly reviewed. Some details of the development of Indian Reference Phantom for internal dose estimation are also presented

  6. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  8. A review on the Holocene evolution of an inner-shelf mud deposit in the southeastern Yellow Sea: the Huksan Mud Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hee Jun

    2015-12-01

    The Huksan Mud Belt (HMB) has been extensively investigated with respect to its source and evolution since the 1980s. Studies on sediment budget or accumulation rates suggested two different origins, Korean and combined Korean and Chinese. However, neither of the suggested origins appears reliable because they were based on insufficient or inaccurate datasets on the basic sedimentological characteristics of the HMB. Although a major mud transport was inferred to be closely associated with either the Korean Coastal Current or the Yellow Sea Warm Current, their physical characters during the Holocene transgression have been rarely hind-casted thus far. The majority of studies on high-resolution seismic stratigraphy along with core log have suggested that the HMB stratigraphy consists of two units divided by an erosional boundary. The lower unit is further divided into two subunits by a subtle discontinuity that is laterally correlated with the erosional boundary. In line with the stratigraphy, the studies theorized that the erosion of the HMB had produced a re-deposited distal lobe, the younger lower subunit. In addition, this lobe was inferred to have prograded rapidly during the relatively short period of 6,500-5,500 yr B.P. Although the time interval of the erosion coincides with the decelerating rise in sea level, the hydrodynamic cause and effect of the erosion remain inexplicable. Therefore, the source and evolution of the HMB continue to be controversial, due largely to poor understanding of the paleo-physical oceanography of the Yellow Sea during the Holocene.

  9. Adaptability and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Patrick

    2017-10-06

    The capacity of organisms to respond in their own lifetimes to new challenges in their environments probably appeared early in biological evolution. At present few studies have shown how such adaptability could influence the inherited characteristics of an organism's descendants. In part, this has been because organisms have been treated as passive in evolution. Nevertheless, their effects on biological evolution are likely to have been important and, when they occurred, accelerated the pace of evolution. Ways in which this might have happened have been suggested many times since the 1870s. I review these proposals and discuss their relevance to modern thought.

  10. The evolution of peer review as a basis for scientific publication: directional selection towards a robust discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Catarina; Bastille-Rousseau, Guillaume; Bennett, Amanda M; Ellington, E Hance; Terwissen, Christine; Austin, Cayla; Borlestean, Adrian; Boudreau, Melanie R; Chan, Kevin; Forsythe, Adrian; Hossie, Thomas J; Landolt, Kristen; Longhi, Jessica; Otis, Josée-Anne; Peers, Michael J L; Rae, Jason; Seguin, Jacob; Watt, Cristen; Wehtje, Morgan; Murray, Dennis L

    2016-08-01

    Peer review is pivotal to science and academia, as it represents a widely accepted strategy for ensuring quality control in scientific research. Yet, the peer-review system is poorly adapted to recent changes in the discipline and current societal needs. We provide historical context for the cultural lag that governs peer review that has eventually led to the system's current structural weaknesses (voluntary review, unstandardized review criteria, decentralized process). We argue that some current attempts to upgrade or otherwise modify the peer-review system are merely sticking-plaster solutions to these fundamental flaws, and therefore are unlikely to resolve them in the long term. We claim that for peer review to be relevant, effective, and contemporary with today's publishing demands across scientific disciplines, its main components need to be redesigned. We propose directional changes that are likely to improve the quality, rigour, and timeliness of peer review, and thereby ensure that this critical process serves the community it was created for. © 2015 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  11. A short review of supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherk, J.

    1980-01-01

    The perennial question: 'Why fermions' finally answered. A dictionnary of Superwords. The Superalgebras used by Supersymmetrists. The representations of the Super Poincare algebra. What is Super about Supergravity. Extra spatial dimensions and Supergravity. Physical content of the N=8 model. General features of a Supersymmetric World. Antigravity and Supergravity: a crazy idea. Conclusion left to a well-known physicist

  12. The effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on short-interval intracortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biabani, Mana; Aminitehrani, Maryam; Zoghi, Maryam; Farrell, Michael; Egan, Gary; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2018-01-26

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is increasingly being used to affect the neurological conditions with deficient intracortical synaptic activities (i.e. Parkinson's disease and epilepsy). In addition, it is suggested that the lasting effects of tDCS on corticospinal excitability (CSE) have intracortical origin. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to examine whether tDCS has any effect on intracortical circuits. Eleven electronic databases were searched for the studies investigating intracortical changes induced by anodal (a) and cathodal (c) tDCS, in healthy individuals, using two paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms: short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF). Additionally, motor-evoked potential (MEP) size alterations, assessed by single-pulse TMS, were extracted from these studies to investigate the probable intracortical origin of tDCS effects on CSE. The methodological quality of included studies was examined using Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Downs and Black's (D&B) assessment tools. Thirteen research papers, including 24 experiments, were included in this study scoring good and medium quality in PEDro and D&B scales, respectively. Immediately following anodal tDCS (a-tDCS) applications, we found significant decreases in SICI, but increases in ICF and MEP size. However, ICF and MEP size significantly decreased, and SICI increased immediately following cathodal tDCS (c-tDCS). The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis reveal that a-tDCS changes intracortical activities (SICI and ICF) toward facilitation, whereas c-tDCS alters them toward inhibition. It can also be concluded that increases and decreases in CSE after tDCS application are associated with corresponding changes in intracortical activities. The results suggest that tDCS can be clinically useful to modulate intracortical circuits.

  13. Recent Advances in Solid Catalysts Obtained by Metalloporphyrins Immobilization on Layered Anionic Exchangers: A Short Review and Some New Catalytic Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Nakagaki

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Layered materials are a very interesting class of compounds obtained by stacking of two-dimensional layers along the basal axis. A remarkable property of these materials is their capacity to interact with a variety of chemical species, irrespective of their charge (neutral, cationic or anionic. These species can be grafted onto the surface of the layered materials or intercalated between the layers, to expand or contract the interlayer distance. Metalloporphyrins, which are typically soluble oxidation catalysts, are examples of molecules that can interact with layered materials. This work presents a short review of the studies involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on two different anionic exchangers, Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs and Layered Hydroxide Salts (LHSs, published over the past year. After immobilization of anionic porphyrins, the resulting solids behave as reusable catalysts for heterogeneous oxidation processes. Although a large number of publications involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on LDHs exist, only a few papers have dealt with LHSs as supports, so metalloporphyrins immobilized on LHSs represent a new and promising research field. This work also describes new results on an anionic manganese porphyrin (MnP immobilized on Mg/Al-LDH solids with different nominal Mg/Al molar ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1 and intercalated with different anions (CO32− or NO3−. The influence of the support composition on the MnP immobilization rates and the catalytic performance of the resulting solid in cyclooctene oxidation reactions will be reported.

  14. Sampling and analytical methods for assessing the levels of organic pollutants in the atmosphere: PAH, phthalates and psychotropic substances: a short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecinato, Angelo; Balducci, Catia; Mastroianni, Daniele; Perilli, Mattia

    2012-07-01

    This short review presents the procedures used to monitor PAHs, phthalates and psychotropic substances in the air, and the results of some measurements made in Italy and abroad. Organic contaminants are characterized by a variety of physical and chemical properties, including aggregation phase, concentration level, and life time. This variety widens the spectrum of procedures developed to assess their occurrence in the environment and biota, but prevents the complete speciation of the "organic fraction" of air, waters and particulates, and attention is paid to a few substances. The progress in health sciences stimulates the concern on contaminants and the development of new instrumental apparatuses and methods; new chemicals are continuously identified or recognized as capable of injuring the environment and organisms. Persistent organic pollutants and persistent biologically active toxicants are subject to regulation and extensively measured by means of standard procedures. For instance, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorobiphenyls and polychlorodibenzodioxins are recovered from air through phase partition, thermal desorption or solvent extraction, then separated and detected through GC-MS or HPLC-MS procedures. By contrast, dedicated methods must be still optimized to monitor candidates or possible candidates as emerging organic pollutants, e.g. phthalates, flame retardants and perfluoroalkanes. Also, psychotropic substances appear of potential concern. Legal and illicit substances are commonly detected in the urban air besides waste and surface waters. If nicotine, caffeine and cocaine will result to enough persistence in the air, their monitoring will become an important issue of global chemical watching in the next future.

  15. Recent Advances in Solid Catalysts Obtained by Metalloporphyrins Immobilization on Layered Anionic Exchangers: A Short Review and Some New Catalytic Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Shirley; Mantovani, Karen Mary; Machado, Guilherme Sippel; Castro, Kelly Aparecida Dias de Freitas; Wypych, Fernando

    2016-02-29

    Layered materials are a very interesting class of compounds obtained by stacking of two-dimensional layers along the basal axis. A remarkable property of these materials is their capacity to interact with a variety of chemical species, irrespective of their charge (neutral, cationic or anionic). These species can be grafted onto the surface of the layered materials or intercalated between the layers, to expand or contract the interlayer distance. Metalloporphyrins, which are typically soluble oxidation catalysts, are examples of molecules that can interact with layered materials. This work presents a short review of the studies involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on two different anionic exchangers, Layered Double Hydroxides (LDHs) and Layered Hydroxide Salts (LHSs), published over the past year. After immobilization of anionic porphyrins, the resulting solids behave as reusable catalysts for heterogeneous oxidation processes. Although a large number of publications involving metalloporphyrin immobilization on LDHs exist, only a few papers have dealt with LHSs as supports, so metalloporphyrins immobilized on LHSs represent a new and promising research field. This work also describes new results on an anionic manganese porphyrin (MnP) immobilized on Mg/Al-LDH solids with different nominal Mg/Al molar ratios (2:1, 3:1 and 4:1) and intercalated with different anions (CO₃(2-) or NO₃(-)). The influence of the support composition on the MnP immobilization rates and the catalytic performance of the resulting solid in cyclooctene oxidation reactions will be reported.

  16. Study on plant Gums and their new development in application: with focus on tragacanth, guar and arabic Gum; a short review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hassanpour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gums refer to a type of polysaccharides which are used to increase viscosity and create some other functional properties such as thickening agent, emulsifying agent, stabilizer, crystal inhibitor and so forth. They are classifying based on their nature and originality including, microbial, plant, exudate and animal Gums. This article shortly reviews a group of plant Gums and recent findings in their application. Gums or Hydrocolloids are main compounds which create stability of emulsion via entering into water phase. The importance of these compounds is on viscosity and electrostatic reactions to stabilize nonalcoholic emulsion with below properties; 1 easily soluble in cold water, 2 the lowest amount of viscosity in water, 3 having maximum level of emulsifier amount, 4 no creation of gelling. Diversity and functionality of Gums and regarding their still novelty in food industries have made Gums one of the main additives in food formulations. Since sourced of Gums are different we must focus on using them together to improve their synergistic effect but interactions among them and combined matrixes produced by them also need to be studied in details.

  17. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  18. The evolution of robotic general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, E B

    2009-01-01

    Surgical robotics in general surgery has a relatively short but very interesting evolution. Just as minimally invasive and laparoscopic techniques have radically changed general surgery and fractionated it into subspecialization, robotic technology is likely to repeat the process of fractionation even further. Though it appears that robotics is growing more quickly in other specialties, the changes digital platforms are causing in the general surgical arena are likely to permanently alter general surgery. This review examines the evolution of robotics in minimally invasive general surgery looking forward to a time where robotics platforms will be fundamental to elective general surgery. Learning curves and adoption techniques are explored. Foregut, hepatobiliary, endocrine, colorectal, and bariatric surgery will be examined as growth areas for robotics, as well as revealing the current uses of this technology.

  19. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  20. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  2. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  3. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  4. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  5. Three dimensional sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions-short time of the inversion recovery sequence for the post-ganglionic segments of the brachial plexus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Naiqi; Zhou Hongyu; Zheng Zhuozhao; Zhao Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the contrast-enhanced 3D sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions-short TI inversion recovery sequence (SPACE-STIR) for the imaging of the post-ganglionic segments of the brachial plexus. Methods: Forty-three patients with suspected brachial plexus lesions were examined with 3D SPACE-STIR and contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR prospectively. Signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR), and the conspicuousness of roots, trunks,divisions and cords of the brachial plexus of the two 3D sequences were retrospectively compared. Statistical analysis was performed by using student t-test and Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: Compared with 3D SPACE-STIR, contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR provided the similar SNRs (left, 37.41 ± 7.34 vs 36.27 ± 7.66, t = 1.574, P = 0.123, right, 43.85 ± 9.56 vs 42.34 ± 9.74, t = 1.937, P = 0.073), but significantly higher nerve-to-muscle CNRs (left, 24.01 ± 6.31 vs 26.39 ± 6.95, right, 29.31 ± 7.84 vs 31.77 ± 8.85, t = -3.278, -3.278, both P < 0.01) and nerve-to-lymph gland CNRs(left, -0.84 ± 10.51 vs 15.35 ± 8.02, right, -8.47 ± 10.85 vs 19.30 ± 10.35, t = -15.984, -15.651, both P < 0.01). The conspicuousness of roots and trunks on contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR was significantly better than that on 3D SPACE-STIR (Z = -3.606, -4.472, P < 0.01), while the conspicuousness of divisions and cords was similar(Z = -1.732, -1.414, P = 0.083, 0.157). The signal intensity of neoplastic lesions on contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR tended to decrease rapidly, thus the lesion conspicuousness was worse than that on 3D SPACE-STIR. Conclusions: Contrast-enhanced 3D SPACE-STIR has obvious advantages in displaying normal brachial plexus and revealing non-neoplastic lesions of the brachial plexus, but may be insufficient for the diagnosis of neoplastic lesions of the brachial plexus. (authors)

  6. Medicinal chemistry of small molecule CCR5 antagonists for blocking HIV-1 entry: a review of structural evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Zhang, Dujuan; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2014-01-01

    CCR5, a member of G protein-coupled receptors superfamily, plays an important role in the HIV-1 entry process. Antagonism of this receptor finally leads to the inhibition of R5 strains of HIV entry into the human cells. The identification of CCR5 antagonists as antiviral agents will provide more option for HAART. Now, more than a decade after the first small molecule CCR5 inhibitor was discovered, great achievements have been made. In this article, we will give a brief introduction of several series of small molecule CCR5 antagonists, focused on their appealing structure evolution, essential SAR information and thereof the enlightenment of strategies on CCR5 inhibitors design.

  7. Technical note 5. SR-Site Independent Modelling of Engineered Barrier Evolution and Coupled THMC. Contribution to the Initial Review Phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benbow, Steven; Metcalfe, Richard; Watson, Claire; Bond, Alex

    2012-06-01

    This review has focussed mainly on the modelling of the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) evolution, which includes coupled thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) processes. Additionally, the role of the EBS in the wider safety case was reviewed, including its treatment in scenarios and its representation in conceptual models since this provided the motivation for the modelling work that was undertaken by SKB. The scope of the work described here was to: 1. Review relevant documents concerning SKB's modelling; and 2. Check one particular modelling area that was judged to be important, based on this review, with a limited set of independent modelling/calculations. The review covers the early resaturation and swelling / homogenisation of the buffer; the longer-term chemical evolution of the buffer and backfill, corrosion of the copper canister and the chemical and hydrogeological boundary conditions provided by the surrounding host rock. The reviewers consider that SKB's modelling of engineered barrier performance generally supports their conclusion that the barriers will perform as required. However, there remain issues that are not addressed and uncertainties that are not explored adequately by SKB's modelling. The thermo-hydro-mechanical modelling of buffer resaturation that is performed by SKB is based on demonstrating a fit to measurements from the in-situ Canister Retrieval Test (CRT) experiment. The modelling reproduces some of the experimental observations very well, but some key experimental measurements are not considered. In particular, investigation of the fit to the measured rates of water inflow, which are a critical factor controlling the rate at which the buffer will resaturate, is not given, Furthermore, the water supply boundary conditions imposed on the CRT are not considered to be representative of those that might be expected in repository conditions. From the information that it is presented it is therefore not possible to be confident

  8. Local anaesthetic infiltration for peri-operative pain control in total hip and knee replacement: systematic review and meta-analyses of short- and long-term effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Elsa M R; Jones, Hayley E; Elvers, Karen T; Pyke, Mark; Blom, Ashley W; Beswick, Andrew D

    2014-07-05

    Surgical pain is managed with multi-modal anaesthesia in total hip replacement (THR) and total knee replacement (TKR). It is unclear whether including local anaesthetic infiltration before wound closure provides additional pain control. We performed a systematic review of randomised controlled trials of local anaesthetic infiltration in patients receiving THR or TKR. We searched MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane CENTRAL to December 2012. Two reviewers screened abstracts, extracted data, and contacted authors for unpublished outcomes and data. Outcomes collected were post-operative pain at rest and during activity after 24 and 48 hours, opioid requirement, mobilisation, hospital stay and complications. When feasible, we estimated pooled treatment effects using random effects meta-analyses. In 13 studies including 909 patients undergoing THR, patients receiving local anaesthetic infiltration experienced a greater reduction in pain at 24 hours at rest by standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.61 (95% CI -1.05, -0.16; p = 0.008) and by SMD -0.43 (95% CI -0.78 -0.09; p = 0.014) at 48 hours during activity.In TKR, diverse multi-modal regimens were reported. In 23 studies including 1439 patients undergoing TKR, local anaesthetic infiltration reduced pain on average by SMD -0.40 (95% CI -0.58, -0.22; p SMD -0.27 (95% CI -0.50, -0.05; p = 0.018) at 48 hours during activity, compared with patients receiving no infiltration or placebo. There was evidence of a larger reduction in studies delivering additional local anaesthetic after wound closure. There was no evidence of pain control additional to that provided by femoral nerve block.Patients receiving local anaesthetic infiltration spent on average an estimated 0.83 (95% CI 1.54, 0.12; p = 0.022) and 0.87 (95% CI 1.62, 0.11; p = 0.025) fewer days in hospital after THR and TKR respectively, had reduced opioid consumption, earlier mobilisation, and lower incidence of vomiting.Few studies reported long-term outcomes. Local

  9. Prognostic value of 24-h ABPM in acute ischemic stroke for short-, medium-, and long-term outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakaletsis, Nikolaos; Ntaios, George; Milionis, Haralampos; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Makaritsis, Konstantinos; Savopoulos, Christos; Berge, Eivind; Hatzitolios, Apostolos I

    2015-10-01

    The association of blood pressure levels during the acute phase of ischemic stroke with outcome remains controversial. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the predictive value for stroke outcome assessed by the modified Rankin scale score of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, measured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring methods during the acute phase of ischemic stroke, compared with the values of casually derived blood pressure measurement on admission. We searched for studies with patients admitted within 24 h of stroke onset, and who had ambulatory blood pressure monitoring during the first 24 h of admission. We identified studies that reported blood pressure in those with good outcome and in those with poor outcome at end of follow-up, and performed a meta-analysis of the effect of mean blood pressure on outcome. High systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels derived with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were associated with poor short-, medium-, and long-term outcome, but the same was not found for casual blood pressure measurements. An increase in systolic blood pressure of 9·1 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 6·6-11·6, P < 0·001; I(2)  = 9%) and an increase in diastolic blood pressure of 2·3 mmHg (95% confidence interval: 0·8-3·7, P = 0·002; I(2)  = 0%) were associated with poor outcome. Higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels derived with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were associated with poor outcome. The same was not found for higher casual blood pressure measurements on admission, and it is possible that ambulatory blood pressure monitoring conveys better prognostic information. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  10. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  11. BOOK REVIEW: Structures in the Universe by Exact Methods: Formation, Evolutions, Interactions (Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical Physics) Structures in the Universe by Exact Methods: Formation, Evolutions, Interactions (Cambridge Monographs on Mathematical Physics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Alan

    2010-05-01

    In this book the use of inhomogeneous models in cosmology, both in modelling structure formation and interpreting cosmological observations, is discussed. The authors concentrate on exact solutions, and particularly the Lemaitre-Tolman (LT) and Szekeres models (the important topic of averaging is not discussed). The book serves to demonstrate that inhomogeneous metrics can generate realistic models of cosmic structure formation and nonlinear evolution and shows that general relativity has a lot more to offer to cosmology than just the standard spatially homogeneous FLRW model. I would recommend this book to people working in theoretical cosmology. In the introduction (and in the concluding chapter and throughout the book) a reasonable discussion of the potential problems with the standard FLRW cosmology is presented, and a list of examples illustrating the limitations of standard FLRW cosmology are discussed (including potential problems with perturbation methods). In particular, the authors argue that the assumptions of isotropy and spatial homogeneity (and consequently the Copernican principle) must be properly challenged and revisited. Indeed, it is possible for `good old general relativity' to be used to explain cosmological observations without introducing speculative elements. In part I of the book the necessary background is presented (readers need a background in general relativity theory at an advanced undergraduate or graduate level). There is a good (and easy to read) review of the exact spherically symmetric dust Lemaitre-Tolman model (LT) (often denoted the LTB model) and the Lemaitre and Szekeres models. Light propogation (i.e. null geodesics, for both central and off-center observers) in exact inhomogeneous (LT) models is reviewed. In part II a number of applications of exact inhomogeneous models are presented (taken mainly from the authors' own work). In chapter 4, the evolution of exact inhomogeneous models (primarily the LT model, but also the

  12. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lincoln User

    Peer-reviewed paper: 10th World Conference on Animal Production. 219. Improving the quality of wool through the use of gene markers. T.O. Itenge. 1# .... International Wool Textile Organisation (IWTO) standards. Measurements included ...

  13. Short Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-04

    reflective surgical activity may lead to immediate positive adjustment of an action and promote quality life-long learning skills. Simultaneous additional objectives to this process include literature review, mentor feedback and ...

  14. Short Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-04

    May 4, 2016 ... Portfolios may include a logbook, attendance at symposia, institutional activities, peer-reviewed .... It may include positive, negative (compli- cations) and novel ... suggestion on improvements and correlation with evidence.

  15. Crustal evolution of granitoids and gneisses from the Cambaizinho belt, southern Brazil: Review zircon Pb-Pb evaporation ages and Pb-Nd-Sr isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remus, M.V.D; Macambira, M.B; Hartmann, L.A.; Beilfuss, M

    2001-01-01

    Deformed granitoids and gneisses from the Cambai Complex (900-700 Ma) along Cambaizinho Creek and in the Vila Nova do Sul region, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, were formed in a remarkably short time, about 10 m.y., between 704±13 and 697±3 Ma. The data base of this work includes eighteen zircon Pb/Pb evaporation analyses, five Pb isotope in feldspar and whole rock. The oldest known rocks in the region are polydeformed dioritic gneisses dated by conventional U-Pb zircon at 704±13 Ma. New Pb-Pb zircon evaporation data on the late transcurrent, less deformed and more evolved granitoids (Sanga do Jobim Granitoids) yield a 697± Ma age and indicates that the evolution of the plutonic magmatism in the area was nearly contemporaneous. These data contrast with previous interpretations based on Rb-Sr data which considered that these rock associations were formed during a longer time period (700-640 Ma). All these granitoids intruded the supracrustal sequence. These granitoids yield a minimum age of about 700 Ma for the formation of the supracrustal sequence and its regional dynamothermal metamorphism. Lead isotope composition of K-feldspar from Sanga do Jobim Granitoids plot close to, but slightly below the lead isotope evolution curve of orogeny in the Zartmann and Doe model (1981). This indicates that the setting for these granitoids was that of a juvenile magmatic arc. These new data plus previous data in the region also corroborate that the crustal evolution involved juvenile crust accreted between 760-700 Ma. In contrast, the Cacapava and Sao Sepe Granites intruded the supracrustal sequences along the eastern side of the Sao Gabriel Block at 562 Ma and 550 Ma, respectively, and show Pb and Nd isotope signatures from an old basement. This evidence suggests that the juvenile terrane was thrusted over the older basement situated along the eastern part of the shield during the Dom Feliciano collisional orogeny at about 620-590 Ma (au)

  16. Primordial and Stellar Nucleosynthesis Chemical Evolution of Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosi, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Following a brief introduction to early Universe cosmology, we present in some detail the results of primordial nucleosynthesis. Then we summarize the basic theory of nuclear reactions in stars and sketch the general rules of stellar evolution. We shortly review the subject of supernova explosions both by core collapse in massive stars (Type II) and carbon-deflagration in binary systems when one of the components is a White Dwarf accreting mass from the companion (Type Ia). We conclude the part dedicated to nucleosynthesis with elementary notions on the s- and r-process. Finally, we shortly address the topic of galactic chemical evolution and highlight some simple solutions aimed at understanding the main observational data on abundances and abundance ratios.

  17. Invited review: Microbial evolution in raw-milk, long-ripened cheeses produced using undefined natural whey starters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, Monica; Bottari, Benedetta; Lazzi, Camilla; Neviani, Erasmo; Mucchetti, Germano

    2014-02-01

    The robustness of the starter culture during cheese fermentation is enhanced by the presence of a rich consortium of microbes. Natural starters are consortia of microbes undoubtedly richer than selected starters. Among natural starters, natural whey starters (NWS) are the most common cultures currently used to produce different varieties of cheeses. Undefined NWS are typically used for Italian cooked, long-ripened, extra-hard, raw milk cheeses, such as Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano. Together with raw milk microbiota, NWS are responsible for most cheese characteristics. The microbial ecology of these 2 cheese varieties is based on a complex interaction among starter lactic acid bacteria (SLAB) and nonstarter lactic acid bacteria (NSLAB), which are characterized by their different abilities to grow in a changing substrate. This review aims to summarize the latest findings on Parmigiano Reggiano and Grana Padano to better understand the dynamics of SLAB, which mainly arise from NWS, and NSLAB, which mainly arise from raw milk, and their possible role in determining the characteristics of these cheeses. The review is presented in 4 main sections. The first summarizes the main microbiological and chemical properties of the ripened cheese as determined by cheese-making process variables, as these variables may affect microbial growth. The second describes the microbiota of raw milk as affected by specific milk treatments, from milking to the filling of the cheese milk vat. The third describes the microbiota of NWS, and the fourth reviews the knowledge available on microbial dynamics from curd to ripened cheese. As the dynamics and functionality of complex undefined NWS is one of the most important areas of focus in current food microbiology research, this review may serve as a good starting point for implementing future studies on microbial diversity and functionality of undefined cheese starter cultures. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association

  18. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteucci, F.; Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati

    1989-01-01

    In principle, a good model of galactic chemical evolution should fulfil the majority of well established observational constraints. The goal of this paper is to review the observational data together with the existing chemical evolution models for the Milky Way (the disk), Blue Compact and Elliptical galaxies and to show how well the models can account for the observations. Some open problems and future prospects are also discussed. (author)

  19. Evolution of massive stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loore, C. de

    1984-01-01

    The evolution of stars with masses larger than 15 sun masses is reviewed. These stars have large convective cores and lose a substantial fraction of their matter by stellar wind. The treatment of convection and the parameterisation of the stellar wind mass loss are analysed within the context of existing disagreements between theory and observation. The evolution of massive close binaries and the origin of Wolf-Rayet Stars and X-ray binaries is also sketched. (author)

  20. Reviews and syntheses: guiding the evolution of the observing system for the carbon cycle through quantitative network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Thomas; Rayner, Peter Julian

    2017-10-01

    Various observational data streams have been shown to provide valuable constraints on the state and evolution of the global carbon cycle. These observations have the potential to reduce uncertainties in past, current, and predicted natural and anthropogenic surface fluxes. In particular such observations provide independent information for verification of actions as requested by the Paris Agreement. It is, however, difficult to decide which variables to sample, and how, where, and when to sample them, in order to achieve an optimal use of the observational capabilities. Quantitative network design (QND) assesses the impact of a given set of existing or hypothetical observations in a modelling framework. QND has been used to optimise in situ networks and assess the benefit to be expected from planned space missions. This paper describes recent progress and highlights aspects that are not yet sufficiently addressed. It demonstrates the advantage of an integrated QND system that can simultaneously evaluate a multitude of observational data streams and assess their complementarity and redundancy.

  1. Transient ischemic attack: reviewing the evolution of the definition, diagnosis, risk stratification, and management for the emergency physician.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siket, Matthew S; Edlow, Jonathan A

    2012-08-01

    A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is an episode of reversible neurologic deficit caused by temporary focal central nervous system hypoperfusion. TIA is a medical emergency. Because patients with TIA in the emergency department (ED) have a high risk for stroke within the next 48 hours, it is imperative for the clinician to recognize this golden opportunity to prevent a disabling stroke. This article reviews our conceptual understanding of TIA, its definition, diagnosis, ways to stratify stroke risk, the acute management and disposition in the ED, and the potential future role of diagnostic biomarkers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Long versus short cephalomedullary nail for trochanteric femur fractures (OTA 31-A1, A2 and A3): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, John; Kusnezov, Nicholas; Bader, Julia; Waterman, Brian R; Orr, Justin; Belmont, Philip J

    2016-12-01

    Both long and short cephalomedullary nails (CMN) may be used to treat trochanteric femur fractures. The objective of this paper was to compare the clinical outcomes between long and short CMN in the treatment of trochanteric hip fractures. A literature search was performed, identifying 135 papers; 4 of which met inclusion and exclusion criteria. Papers included were those that compared cohorts of long and short nails for stable trochanteric femur fractures of level III evidence or superior. Data was pooled and analyzed, focusing on reoperation rate, secondary femoral shaft fracture rate, estimated blood loss, transfusion rate, operative time and length of stay. Included in the analysis were 1276 patients, with 438 short and 838 long CMN. The average age was 82.0 years for short CMN and 79.0 years for long CMN (P = 0.0002). The average follow up was 18 months, 46 % were male, and 71 % had an ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists score) classification ≥3. The rate of reoperation was 5.0 % and 3.8 % for short and long CMN, respectively (P = 0.31). The rate of refracture was 1.6 % and 0.95 % for short and long CMN, respectively (P = 0.41). As compared to long nails, short nails had an average blood loss of 39 mL less (P = 0.0003), an 8.8 % decrease in transfusion rate (P = 0.07), and incurred 19 min less operative time (P trochanteric femur fractures, short CMN have a low reoperation rate while significantly decreasing operative time and estimated blood loss with the additional benefit of being cost effective. Level 3.

  3. Alveolar pulmonary proteinosis: case report and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vergara, Erika; Saenz, Alberto; Ojeda, Paulina

    2009-01-01

    We describe the case of a young women with primary alveolar proteinosis, with a short period of symptoms that are uncommon for this disease, without risk factors for this entity, the clinical evolution of the patient and some complications with the treatment. We review the literature for this entity.

  4. Improving diet sustainability through evolution of food choices: review of epidemiological studies on the environmental impact of diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perignon, Marlène; Vieux, Florent; Soler, Louis-Georges; Masset, Gabriel; Darmon, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The Food and Agriculture Organization defines sustainable diets as nutritionally adequate, safe, healthy, culturally acceptable, economically affordable diets that have little environmental impact. This review summarizes the studies assessing, at the individual level, both the environmental impact and the nutritional quality or healthiness of self-selected diets. Reductions in meat consumption and energy intake were identified as primary factors for reducing diet-related greenhouse gas emissions. The choice of foods to replace meat, however, was crucial, with some isocaloric substitutions possibly increasing total diet greenhouse gas emissions. Moreover, nutritional adequacy was rarely or only partially assessed, thereby compromising the assessment of diet sustainability. Furthermore, high nutritional quality was not necessarily associated with affordability or lower environmental impact. Hence, when identifying sustainable diets, each dimension needs to be assessed by relevant indicators. Finally, some nonvegetarian self-selected diets consumed by a substantial fraction of the population showed good compatibility with the nutritional, environmental, affordability, and acceptability dimensions. Altogether, the reviewed studies revealed the scarcity of standardized nationally representative data for food prices and environmental indicators and suggest that diet sustainability might be increased without drastic dietary changes. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  5. Intestino Corto Short bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matilde Socarrás Suárez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El intestino corto está asociado a pérdida o disfunción del intestino delgado por resección del mismo, que causa diarreas, tránsito intestinal acelerado, malabsorción intestinal, y eventualmente la pérdida de peso y el desgaste muscular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar el conocimiento acerca de este síndrome. Se realiza una revisión del tema de intestino corto donde se refiere a su definición, causas fundamentales frecuentes e infrecuentes en el niño y en el adulto, cómo se adapta el intestino a la resección de diferentes extensiones, las funciones del íleon terminal. Se hacen una valoración clínica inicial, con el interrogatorio médico, revisión minuciosa de la historia clínica para cuantificar la capacidad de absorción. Se habla de los síntomas y signos de deficiencia nutricional. Se explican las estrategias del tratamiento, que tienen 3 etapas de evolución clínica. Se concluye que se indica la dietoterapia adecuada según el estado nutricional del paciente y la resección intestinal realizada, evitando las complicaciones para lograr una calidad máxima de vidaShort bowel is associated with loss or dysfunction of the small bowel due to its resection, which causes diarrheas, accelerated intestinal transit, intestinal malabsorption and, eventually, weight loss ansd muscular waste. The objective of this paper was to update knowledge about this syndrome. A review of the short intestine topic is made, making reference to its definition, common and uncommon main cuases in the child and adult, how the bowel adapts itslef to resection of different extensions, and the functions of the terminal ileum. An initial clinical assessment is made with the medical questionnaire and a detailed review of the medical history to quantify the absorption capacity. The symptoms and signs of nutritional deficiency are dealt with. The strategies of the treatment consisting of 3 stages of clinical evolution are explained. It is concluded

  6. Methylome evolution in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidalis, Amaryllis; Živković, Daniel; Wardenaar, René; Roquis, David; Tellier, Aurélien; Johannes, Frank

    2016-12-20

    Despite major progress in dissecting the molecular pathways that control DNA methylation patterns in plants, little is known about the mechanisms that shape plant methylomes over evolutionary time. Drawing on recent intra- and interspecific epigenomic studies, we show that methylome evolution over long timescales is largely a byproduct of genomic changes. By contrast, methylome evolution over short timescales appears to be driven mainly by spontaneous epimutational events. We argue that novel methods based on analyses of the methylation site frequency spectrum (mSFS) of natural populations can provide deeper insights into the evolutionary forces that act at each timescale.

  7. Short Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-10

    May 10, 2016 ... information about the technical process and in-depth review of each method, several publications may be consulted.[1-3] There are ~50 standard-setting methods reported in the literature.[7] Some of the well-known methods include the Angoff method;[2,4,8,10] Ebel method;[1,2,10] Bookmark method;[12 ...

  8. Short-term association between ambient air pollution and pneumonia in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of time-series and case-crossover studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi Trang; Amini, Heresh; Schindler, Christian; Kutlar Joss, Meltem; Dien, Tran Minh; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Perez, Laura; Künzli, Nino

    2017-11-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with respiratory diseases in children. However, its effects on pediatric pneumonia have not been meta-analyzed. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the short-term association between ambient air pollution and hospitalization of children due to pneumonia. We searched the Web of Science and PubMed for indexed publications up to January 2017. Pollutant-specific excess risk percentage (ER%) and confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using random effect models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter ≤ 10 (PM 10 ) and ≤2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and carbon monoxide (CO). Results were further stratified by subgroups (children under five, emergency visits versus hospital admissions, income level of study location, and exposure period). Seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis. The ER% per 10 μg/m 3 increase of pollutants was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.6%-2.4%) for PM 10 and 1.8% (95% CI: 0.5%-3.1%) for PM 2.5 . The corresponding values per 10 ppb increment of gaseous pollutants were 2.9% (95% CI: 0.4%-5.3%) for SO 2 , 1.7% (95% CI: 0.5%-2.8%) for O 3 , and 1.4% (95% CI: 0.4%-2.4%) for NO 2 . ER% per 1000 ppb increment of CO was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.0%-1.9%). Associations were not substantially different between subgroups. This meta-analysis shows a positive association between daily levels of ambient air pollution markers and hospitalization of children due to pneumonia. However, lack of studies from low-and middle-income countries limits the quantitative generalizability given that susceptibilities to the adverse effects of air pollution may be different in those populations. The meta-regression in our analysis further demonstrated a strong effect of country income level on heterogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the pattern of oxylipins: a short review about the modulation of hydroxy-, dihydroxy-, and epoxy-fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostermann, Annika I; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2017-07-19

    A growing body of evidence suggests that the intake of the long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n3, DHA) is linked to beneficial health effects, particularly in the prevention of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. Although the molecular mode of action of n3-PUFA is still not fully understood, it is not controversial that a significant portion of the (patho)-physiological effects of PUFA are mediated by their oxidative metabolites, i.e. eicosanoids and other oxylipins. Quantitative targeted oxylipin methods allow the comprehensive monitoring of n3-PUFA supplementation induced changes in the pattern of oxylipins in order to understand their biology. In this short review, results from intervention studies are summarized analyzing >30 oxylipins from different PUFAs in response to n3-PUFA supplementation. The results are not only qualitatively compared with respect to the study design, n3-PUFA dose and trends in the lipid mediators, but also quantitatively based on the relative change in the oxylipin level induced by n3-PUFA. The evaluation of the data from the studies shows that the change in oxylipins generally corresponded to the observed changes in their precursor PUFA, i.e. the lower the individual n3-status at the baseline, the higher the increase in EPA and DHA derived oxylipins. The strongest relative increases were found for EPA derived oxylipins, while changes in arachidonic acid (C20:4 n6, ARA) derived eicosanoids were heterogeneous. After 3-12 weeks of supplementation, similar relative changes were observed in free and total (free + esterified) oxylipins in plasma and serum. Regarding EPA derived oxylipins, the results indicate a trend for a linear increase with dose. However, the interpretation of the quantitative oxylipin patterns between studies is hampered by strong inter-individual variances in oxylipin levels between and also within the studies. In the

  10. Crustal structure and evolution of the Pyrenean-Cantabrian belt: A review and new interpretations from recent concepts and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixell, A.; Labaume, P.; Ayarza, P.; Espurt, N.; de Saint Blanquat, M.; Lagabrielle, Y.

    2018-01-01

    . To the west, oceanic subduction of the Bay of Biscay under the North Iberian margin is supported by an upper plate thrust wedge, gravity and magnetic anomalies, and 3D inclined sub-crustal reflections. However, discrepancies remain for the location of continent-ocean transitions in the Bay of Biscay and for the extent of oceanic subduction. The plate-kinematic evolution during the Mesozoic, which involves issues as the timing and total amount of opening, as well as the role of strike-slip drift, is also under debate, discrepancies arising from first-order interpretations of the adjacent oceanic magnetic anomaly record.

  11. A review of the evolution and trajectory of the African union as an instrument of regional integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirisa, Innocent Ew; Mumba, Artwell; Dirwai, Simbarashe O

    2014-01-01

    This review paper seeks to analyse African integration in terms of its magnitude of solidarity, the state and typology of integration and functioning. It assesses the strengths, weaknesses, objectives, successes and failures of the African integration project as well as threats to its survival. The primary goal is to sift between issues with the view of better informing the future of the integration. The paper acknowledges how, in 2002, the OAU (formed in 1963) convened to reconstitute and become the African Union (AU) composed of eight Regional Economic Communities. The reformed union has spelt out gender equality, strategic planning, intra-trade, non-indifference to suffering in member states and sustainability, as additional objectives to those of the former OAU. This idea has been to foster integration to promote peace, security and cooperation hence solidarity. It can now be assessed succinctly that African integration has arisen in the need for amalgamation of efforts to solve African problems with African solutions.

  12. Various mechanisms and clinical phenotypes in electrical short circuits of high-voltage devices: report of four cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurugi, Takuo; Matsui, Shogo; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Nishii, Nobuhiro; Honda, Toshihiro; Kaneko, Yoshiaki

    2015-06-01

    An electrical short circuit is a rare complication in a high-voltage implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). However, the inability of an ICD to deliver appropriate shock therapy can be life-threatening. During the last 2 years, four cases of serious complications related to an electrical short circuit have been reported in Japan. A spark due to an electrical short circuit resulted in the failure of an ICD shock to terminate ventricular tachycardia and total damage to the ICD generator in three of four cases. Two of the four patients died from an electrical short circuit between the right ventricle and superior vena cava (SVC) leads. The others had audible sounds from the ICD generator site and were diagnosed with a lead-to-can abrasion, which was manifested by the arc mark on the surface of the can. It is still difficult to predict the occurrence of an electrical short circuit in current ICD systems. To reduce the probability of an electrical short circuit, we suggest the following: (i) avoid lead stress at ICD implantation, (ii) select a single-coil lead instead of a dual-coil lead, or (iii) use a unique algorithm which automatically disconnect can or SVC lead from shock deliver circuit when excessive current was detected. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Diversity in theory and practice: A review with application to the evolution of renewable energy generation in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, Henrietta; Keppo, Ilkka; Wolf, Steven

    2013-01-01

    There is clear consensus on the value of diversity as applied to energy systems, with the concept being a central reference for governments, industry and civil society organizations. Given its importance in policy debates, we have sought to explore the specification and measurement of diversity. We show that although conceptualisation of diversity has developed over recent years, along with increasingly elegant mathematical representations, the concept is, at core, subjective and irreducibly context specific. Subjectivity derives from determination of boundaries and the placement of objects into categories, the acts that make assessment of diversity possible. We illustrate this point with an empirical analysis of the diversity of renewable energy generation in the UK over the past century. By applying a range of different indices and classifications to this dataset, we demonstrate that the ‘diversity story’ told is different in each case. As such we argue that the analysis of diversity must be produced and consumed critically. Attempts to expand, manage, measure or comment upon the diversity of a system, be it an ecosystem, an organization, an economy, or an energy portfolio, demand rigor, reflexivity and, most importantly, transparency. - Highlights: • We review concepts of diversity and approaches to diversity measurement. • We examine the inherent subjectivity associated with any such measurement. • We illustrate this by applying different diversity indices to the same dataset. • The dataset used is the UK renewable energy portfolio over the past 100 years. • Different measures yield different results telling different ‘diversity stories’

  14. Evolution of microbial pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Morschhäuser, J; Köhler, G; Ziebuhr, W; Blum-Oehler, G; Dobrindt, U; Hacker, J

    2000-01-01

    Various genetic mechanisms including point mutations, genetic rearrangements and lateral gene transfer processes contribute to the evolution of microbes. Long-term processes leading to the development of new species or subspecies are termed macroevolution, and short-term developments, which occur during days or weeks, are considered as microevolution. Both processes, macro- and microevolution need horizontal gene transfer, which is particularly important for the development of pathogenic micr...

  15. Chemical evolution and life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malaterre Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In research on the origins of life, the concept of “chemical evolution” aims at explaining the transition from non-living matter to living matter. There is however strong disagreement when it comes to defining this concept more precisely, and in particular with reference to a chemical form of Darwinian evolution: for some, chemical evolution is nothing but Darwinian evolution applied to chemical systems before life appeared; yet, for others, it is the type of evolution that happened before natural selection took place, the latter being the birthmark of living systems. In this contribution, I review the arguments defended by each side and show how both views presuppose a dichotomous definition of “life”.

  16. The evolution of Lean organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Serafinas, Dalius; Ruželė, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Remiantis evoliucijos tyrimų modeliais bei autorių sudarytu evoliucionuojančios organizacijos modeliu,straipsnyje analizuojama Lean vadybos metodologija ir tiriama, kaip evoliucionuoja ją įgyvendinančios Lietuvosgamybinės organizacijos. The purpose of this paper is to examine the evolution of Lean organizations.Design/methodology/approach: a conceptual literature on the evolution of species, organisms and organizations was reviewed and an original model (framework) of the evolution of orga...

  17. The role of Pleistocene glaciations in shaping the evolution of polar and brown bears. Evidence from a critical review of mitochondrial and nuclear genome analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanin, Alexandre

    2015-07-01

    In this report, I review recent molecular studies dealing with the origin and evolution of polar bears (Ursus maritimus), with special emphasis on their relationships with brown bears (U. arctos). On the basis of mitochondrial and nuclear data, different hypotheses have been proposed, including rapid morphological differentiation of U. maritimus, genetic introgression from U. arctos into U. maritimus, or inversely from U. maritimus into U. arctos, involving either male- or female-mediated gene flow. In the light of available molecular and eco-ethological data, I suggest, firstly, that all divergences among major clades of large bears can be linked to glacial periods, secondly, that polar bears diverged from brown bears before 530 thousand years ago (ka), during one of the three glacial marine isotope stages (MIS) 14, 15.2 or 16, and, thirdly, that genetic introgression had occurred from female polar bears into brown bear populations during at least two glacial periods, at 340 ± 10 ka (MIS 10) in western Europe, and at 155 ± 5 ka (MIS 6) on the ABC islands of southeastern Alaska, and probably also in Beringia and Ireland based on ancient DNA sequences. Copyright © 2015 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. A short review of the distribution of short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis in the central and eastern North Atlantic with an abundance estimate for part of this area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cañadas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses data from 3 programmes: (1 the North Atlantic Sightings Surveys (NASS surveys undertaken throughout much of the central and eastern North Atlantic north of about 40° N in 1987, 1989, 1995 and 2001; (2 the MICA-93 programme; and (3 the north eastern Atlantic segment of the Small Cetacean Abundance in the North Sea (SCANS survey in 1994. The data from all surveys were used to examine the distribution of common dolphins in the NE Atlantic. No sightings were made north of 57° N. An initial attempt to examine distribution against 4 potential non biological explanatory variables was made. A simple interpretation of the preliminary analyses presented here is that the primary areas for groups of common dolphins were in waters over 15° C and depths of 400-1,000 m (there does appear a link with shelf features, between around 49°-55° N especially between 20°-30°W. An illustrative example of spatial modelling is presented. Only for 1 year (and part of the total survey area were there sufficient data to attempt to estimate abundance: 1995. The estimated abundance in the W Block of the NASS-95 Faroese survey was 273,159 (cv=0.26; 95% CI=153,392-435,104 short-beaked common dolphins. This estimate is corrected for animals missed on the trackline (g(0 and for responsive movement.

  19. The Relative Predictive Contribution and Causal Role of Phoneme Awareness, Rhyme Awareness, and Verbal Short-Term Memory in Reading Skills: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melby-Lervag, Monica

    2012-01-01

    The acknowledgement that educational achievement is highly dependent on successful reading development has led to extensive research on its underlying factors. A strong argument has been made for a causal relationship between reading and phoneme awareness; similarly, causal relations have been suggested for reading with short-term memory and rhyme…

  20. Quality of life assessed with the medical outcomes study short form 36-item health survey of patients on renal replacement therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); J.L. Bosch (Johanna); L.R. Arends (Lidia); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) is the most widely used generic instrument to estimate quality of life of patients on renal replacement therapy. Purpose of this study was to summarize and compare the published literature on quality of

  1. Lethal neonatal case and review of primary short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH) deficiency associated with secondary lymphocyte pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bedoyan, Jirair K.; Yang, Samuel P.; Ferdinandusse, Sacha; Jack, Rhona M.; Miron, Alexander; Grahame, George; DeBrosse, Suzanne D.; Hoppel, Charles L.; Kerr, Douglas S.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in ECHS1 result in short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH) deficiency which mainly affects the catabolism of various amino acids, particularly valine. We describe a case compound heterozygous for ECHS1 mutations c.836T>C (novel) and c.8C>A identified by whole exome sequencing of proband and

  2. Absent pulmonary valve syndrome with intact ventricular septum and patent ductus arteriosus: report of two cases and a short review of the literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grotenhuis, H.B.; Nijveld, A.; Backx, A.P.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe two patients who both presented shortly after birth with congestive heart failure due to an absent pulmonary valve and patent ductus arteriosus. Diagnostic evaluation revealed in both cases an aneurysmatic dilation of the pulmonary vascular tree and an abundant left-to-right shunt over a

  3. Schumpeter's Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    reworking of his basic theory of economic evolution in Development from 1934, and this reworking was continued in Cycles from 1939. Here Schumpeter also tried to handle the statistical and historical evidence on the waveform evolution of the capitalist economy. Capitalism from 1942 modified the model...

  4. Galactic evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pagel, B.

    1979-01-01

    Ideas are considered concerning the evolution of galaxies which are closely related to those of stellar evolution and the origin of elements. Using information obtained from stellar spectra, astronomers are now able to consider an underlying process to explain the distribution of various elements in the stars, gas and dust clouds of the galaxies. (U.K.)

  5. Darwinian evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagers op Akkerhuis, Gerard A.J.M.; Spijkerboer, Hendrik Pieter; Koelewijn, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Darwinian evolution is a central tenet in biology. Conventionally, the defi nition of Darwinian evolution is linked to a population-based process that can be measured by focusing on changes in DNA/allele frequencies. However, in some publications it has been suggested that selection represents a

  6. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    This dictionary covers systematics, morphology, and anatomy of the Plant Kingdom, including also Fungi and Fossils. Not included are cytology, genetics, and evolution, which have been or will be treated in other volumes of the same series. As to systematics, families and higher taxa as well as many

  7. [Systematic review on the short-term efficacy and safety of nicorandil for stable angina pectoris in comparison with those of β-blockers, nitrates and calcium antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanai, Yuki; Mita, Mitsuo; Hishinuma, Shigeru; Shoji, Masaru

    2010-11-01

    Nicorandil significantly reducted the incidence of major coronary events in patients with stable angina in a long-term trial, although there are few reports on its short-term efficacy in the treatment and prevention of angina symptoms. We performed a meta-analysis of the short-term efficacy of nicorandil compared with antianginal drugs for stable angina. We selected 20 reports (vs. β-blockers, n=6; vs. nitrates, n=6; vs. calcium antagonists, n=8) of prospective controlled trials from MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and Japana Centra Revuo Medicina. The trials were short in duration (median 5 weeks). We combined the results using odds ratios (OR) for discrete data and weighted mean differences (WMD) for continuous data. Compared with antianginal drugs, nicorandil did not show significant reduction of angina episodes per week (vs. β-blockers, -1.50 [95% confidence interval (CI): -4.09, 1.09]; vs. nitrates, 0.22 [95% CI: -1.22, 1.65]; vs. calcium antagonists, -0.23 [95% CI: -1.37, 0.90]). Furthermore, there were no significant differences in time to ischemia (total exercise duration, time to 1-mm ST depression, time to onset of pain). Although the total numbers of adverse events with each antianginal drug were similar, heart rate and blood pressure were significantly decreased by calcium antagonists but not changed by nicorandil (8.09 [95% CI: 3.20, 12.98] and 8.64 [95% CI: 3.28, 13.99], respectively). Thus this study suggests that short-term therapy with nicorandil is as effective as standard therapy and that nicorandil can also be used as a first-line agent in patients with stable angina.

  8. The evolution of automation and robotics in manned spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, T. L.; Erickson, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    The evolution of automation on all manned spacecraft including the Space Shuttle is reviewed, and a concept for increasing automation and robotics from the current Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS) to an autonomous system is presented. The requirements for robotic elements are identified for various functions on the Space Station, including extravehicular functions and functions within laboratory and habitation modules which expand man's capacity in space and allow selected teleoperation from the ground. The initial Space Station will employ a telerobot and necessary knowledge based systems as an advisory to the crew on monitoring, fault diagnosis, and short term planning and scheduling.

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials for the management of limited vertical height in the posterior region: short implants (5 to 8 mm) vs longer implants (> 8 mm) in vertically augmented sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ah; Lee, Chun-Teh; Fu, Martin M; Elmisalati, Waiel; Chuang, Sung-Kiang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to undertake a systematic review with meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the rates of survival, success, and complications of short implants to those of longer implants in the posterior regions. Electronic literature searches were conducted through the MEDLINE (PubMed) and EMBASE databases to locate all relevant articles published between January 1, 1990, and April 30, 2013. Eligible studies were selected based on inclusion criteria, and quality assessments were conducted. After data extraction, meta-analyses were performed. In total, 539 dental implants (265 short implants [length 5 to 8 mm] and 274 control implants [length > 8 mm]) from four RCTs were included. The fixed prostheses of multiple short and control implants were all splinted. The mean follow-up period was 2.1 years. The 1-year and 5-year cumulative survival rates (CSR) were 98.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 97.8% to 99.5%) and 93.6% (95% CI, 89.8% to 97.5%), respectively, for the short implant group and 98.0% (95% CI, 96.9% to 99.1%) and 90.3% (95% CI, 85.2% to 95.4%), respectively, for the control implant group. The CSRs of the two groups did not demonstrate a statistically significant difference. There were also no statistically significant differences in success rates, failure rates, or complications between the two groups. Placement of short dental implants could be a predictable alternative to longer implants to reduce surgical complications and patient morbidity in situations where vertical augmentation procedures are needed. However, only four studies with potential risk of bias were selected in this meta-analysis. Within the limitations of this meta-analysis, these results should be confirmed with robust methodology and RCTs with longer follow-up duration.

  10. Evolution of a short-term study of lodgepole pine dwarf mistletoe vectors that turned into a long-term study of the remarkable gray jay on the Fraser Experimental Forest,Colorado, 1982-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas H. Nicholls

    2014-01-01

    This is a summary of a 5-year short-term study that evolved into 28 years of long-term research on the US Department of Agriculture, Forest Service's Fraser Experimental Forest in Colorado. The study was begun in 1982 by Forest Service Research Scientists Thomas H. Nicholls and Frank G. Hawksworth to determine the importance of mammal and bird vectors in the long-...

  11. Stellar evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, A J

    2013-01-01

    Stellar Evolution, Second Edition covers the significant advances in the understanding of birth, life, and death of stars.This book is divided into nine chapters and begins with a description of the characteristics of stars according to their brightness, distance, size, mass, age, and chemical composition. The next chapters deal with the families, structure, and birth of stars. These topics are followed by discussions of the chemical composition and the evolution of main-sequence stars. A chapter focuses on the unique features of the sun as a star, including its evolution, magnetic fields, act

  12. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alita R. Burmeister

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives.

  13. Evolution across the Curriculum: Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burmeister, Alita R.; Smith, James J.

    2016-01-01

    An integrated understanding of microbiology and evolutionary biology is essential for students pursuing careers in microbiology and healthcare fields. In this Perspective, we discuss the usefulness of evolutionary concepts and an overall evolutionary framework for students enrolled in microbiology courses. Further, we propose a set of learning goals for students studying microbial evolution concepts. We then describe some barriers to microbial evolution teaching and learning and encourage the continued incorporation of evidence-based teaching practices into microbiology courses at all levels. Next, we review the current status of microbial evolution assessment tools and describe some education resources available for teaching microbial evolution. Successful microbial evolution education will require that evolution be taught across the undergraduate biology curriculum, with a continued focus on applications and applied careers, while aligning with national biology education reform initiatives. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:27158306

  14. Evidence for short duration of antibiotic treatment for non-severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP in children - are we there yet? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalom Ben-Shimol

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Context: The ideal duration of antibiotic treatment for childhood community acquired pneumonia (CAP has not yet been established. Objective: A literature search was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of shorter than 7 days duration of oral antibiotic treatment for childhood non-severe CAP. Data sources: A systematic literature search was performed using the PubMed database. The search was limited to randomised controlled trials (RCTs conducted between January 1996 and May 2013 in children up to 18 years old. Search terms included pneumonia, treatment, duration, child, children, days, short, respiratory infection and non-severe (nonsevere. Study selection: Only RCTs of oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe CAP in children were included. Data extraction: Independent extraction of articles was done by 3 authors using a preformed questionnaire. Data synthesis: Eight articles meeting the selection criteria were identified: 7 from 2 developing countries (India and Pakistan, and 1 from a developed country (The Netherlands. Studies from developing countries used the World Health Organization clinical criteria for diagnosing CAP, which includes mainly tachypnoea. None of those studies included fever, chest radiography or any laboratory test in their case definition. The Dutch study case definition used laboratory tests and chest radiographies (x-rays in addition to clinical criteria. Five articles concluded that 3 days of treatment are sufficient for non-severe childhood CAP, 2 articles found 5 days treatment to be sufficient, and one article found no difference between 3 days of amoxicillin treatment and placebo. Conclusions: The efficacy of short duration oral antibiotic treatment for non-severe CAP in children has not been established in developed countries. Current RCTs from developing countries used clinical criteria that may have failed to appropriately identify children with true bacterial pneumonia necessitating antibiotic treatment. More RCTs

  15. Medial pelvic migration of the lag screw in a short gamma nail after hip fracture fixation: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinning

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hip fractures are a common injury among the elderly. Internal fixation with an intramedullary (IM system has gained popularity for the treatment of intertrochanteric femur fractures. Multiple complications associated with IM fracture fixation have been described, however, we report a rare complication of medial pelvic migration of the lag screw of a short IM nail in a stable construct ten weeks post surgery. The patient was subsequently treated with Lag Screw removal and revision surgery with a shorter Lag Screw and an accessory cannulated screw acting as a de-rotational device. The patient did well with the revision surgery and was able to return to full activities.

  16. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, H.P.

    1990-01-01

    The first three chapters deal with the conservation status of Malaysian Palms in respectively Peninsular Malaysia (by R. Kiew), Sabah (by J. Dransfield & D. Johnson), and Sarawak (by K. Pearce). R. KIEW gives a geographic description of the region, a very short account of the palm flora, a paragraph

  17. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    The kernel of this book consists of an enumeration of some 1600 publications of importance to the flora of the Mascarenes (East of Madagascar; main islands Réunion, Mauritius, Rodrigues), arranged alphabetically by author. Fairly often a short note is given on contents and importance. Counterpart to

  18. Modeling evolution and immune system by cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezzi, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this review the behavior of two different biological systems is investigated using cellular automata. Starting from this spatially extended approach it is also tried, in some cases, to reduce the complexity of the system introducing mean-field approximation, and solving (or trying to solve) these simplified systems. It is discussed the biological meaning of the results, the comparison with experimental data (if available) and the different features between spatially extended and mean-field versions. The biological systems considered in this review are the following: Darwinian evolution in simple ecosystems and immune system response. In the first section the main features of molecular evolution are introduced, giving a short survey of genetics for physicists and discussing some models for prebiotic systems and simple ecosystems. It is also introduced a cellular automaton model for studying a set of evolving individuals in a general fitness landscape, considering also the effects of co-evolution. In particular the process of species formation (speciation) is described in sect. 5. The second part deals with immune system modeling. The biological features of immune response are discussed, as well as it is introduced the concept of shape space and of idiotypic network. More detailed reviews which deal with immune system models (mainly focused on idiotypic network models) can be found. Other themes here discussed: the applications of CA to immune system modeling, two complex cellular automata for humoral and cellular immune response. Finally, it is discussed the biological data and the general conclusions are drawn in the last section

  19. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    CD-ROM REVIEW (551) Essential Physics BOOK REVIEWS (551) Collins Advanced Science: Physics, 2nd edition Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang, 2nd edition Do Brilliantly: A2 Physics IGCSE Physics Geophysics in the UK Synoptic Skills in Advanced Physics Flash! The hunt for the biggest explosions in the universe Materials Maths for Advanced Physics

  20. IKAROS Gene Deleted B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Mexican Mestizos: Observations in Seven Patients and a Short Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Delgado, Guillermo José; Cantero-Fortiz, Yahveth; León-Peña, Andrés Aurelio; León-González, Mónica; Nuñez-Cortés, Ana Karen; Ruiz-Argüelles, Guillermo José

    2016-01-01

    In B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, one of the most frequent cytogenetic alterations is the presence of the Philadelphia chromosome. Recently, newly identified genetic alterations have been studied, among them the IKZF1 deletion. IKZF1 encodes IKAROS, a zinc finger protein that plays an important role in hematopoiesis involving the regulation process of adhesion, cellular migration, and as a tumor suppressor. We aimed to study the impact of IKAROS deletion in the evolution and prognosis of B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. At a single center we prospectively studied patients diagnosed with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and screened for IKZF1 deletion using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification method. We did a descriptive analysis of patients positive for the IKZF1 deletion to determine its impact on the evolution of the disease and survival rate. Between 2010 and 2015, 16 Mexican mestizo patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia were prospectively screened for IKZF1 deletion; seven (43%) were positive and were included for further analysis. The age range of patients was 13-60 years; six were males and one female. All cases had type B acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Of the seven patients, two died, three were lost to follow-up, and two continue in complete remission with treatment. Results are worse than those in a group of patients with non-mutated IKAROS B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia previously studied in our center. Although this is a small sample, the presence of IKAROS deletion in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients could represent a poor-prognosis marker and was probably related to therapy failure. It is also possible that this variant of leukemia may be more prevalent in Mexico. More studies are needed to define the role of IKZF1 deletion in acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the real prevalence of the disease in different populations.

  1. Bioinformatics tools and database resources for systems genetics analysis in mice-a short review and an evaluation of future needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durrant, Caroline; Swertz, Morris A.; Alberts, Rudi; Arends, Danny; Moeller, Steffen; Mott, Richard; Prins, Pjotr; van der Velde, K. Joeri; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Schughart, Klaus

    During a meeting of the SYSGENET working group 'Bioinformatics', currently available software tools and databases for systems genetics in mice were reviewed and the needs for future developments discussed. The group evaluated interoperability and performed initial feasibility studies. To aid future

  2. Bioinformatics tools and database resources for systems genetics analysis in miceça short review and an evaluation of future needs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durrant, M.C.; Swertz, M.A.; Alberts, R.; Arends, D.; Möller, S.; Mott, R.; Prins, J.C.P.; Velde, van der K.J.; Jansen, R.C.; Schughart, K.

    2012-01-01

    During a meeting of the SYSGENET working group ‘Bioinformatics’, currently available software tools and databases for systems genetics in mice were reviewed and the needs for future developments discussed. The group evaluated interoperability and performed initial feasibility studies. To aid future

  3. Parental perception of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with short stature: literature review and introduction of the parent-reported QoLISSY instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Bullinger, Monika; Chaplin, John E; Herdman, Michael; Sanz, Dolores; Mimoun, Emmanuelle; Feigerlova, Eva; DeBusk, Kendra; Power, Michael; Wollmann, Hartmut; Pleil, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Health-related quality of life (HrQoL) of the child diagnosed with short stature is an important outcome to be assessed both from the patient as well as from the parental perspective. The objective of this study was to review the literature on parent-reported HrQoL and to subsequently develop and psychometrically test the parent-reported version of the Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) instrument for use in clinical and epidemiologic research. A review of the literature on parental assessment of child HrQoL via PUBMED was followed by a psychometric analysis of data collected within the European QoLISSY study, in which 686 eligible parents of short statured children/adolescents (aged 4-18 years) meeting inclusion criteria participated. Patient inclusion criteria were a height below -2 SD, a diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS), and treatment status in terms of receiving or not receiving recombinant human growth hormone therapy. Focus groups eliciting parental HrQoL statements, pilot testing with cognitive debriefing, and a field test in 317 parents with a retest in 148 parents were conducted simultaneously in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK. The psychometric performance of the parent-reported instrument, developed in parallel to the child/ adolescent self-report version, was assessed using standard tests of reliability and validity. Literature search failed to identify a cross-culturally developed height specific instrument available for both patient self-report and parental observer report. Analysis of the QoLISSY focus group phase conducted separately in children, adolescents and parents yielded 169 items generated from parent focus groups. A cognitive debriefing exercise followed by a pilot test of preliminary psychometric characteristics resulted in deleting poorly performing items. Field testing of the parent-reported version suggested a three-domain core HrQoL structure with 22 items

  4. Evolution of clustered storage

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Van de Vyvre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The session actually featured two presentations: * Evolution of clustered storage by Lance Hukill, Quantum Corporation * ALICE DAQ - Usage of a Cluster-File System: Quantum StorNext by Pierre Vande Vyvre, CERN-PH the second one prepared at short notice by Pierre (thanks!) to present how the Quantum technologies are being used in the ALICE experiment. The abstract to Mr Hukill's follows. Clustered Storage is a technology that is driven by business and mission applications. The evolution of Clustered Storage solutions starts first at the alignment between End-users needs and Industry trends: * Push-and-Pull between managing for today versus planning for tomorrow * Breaking down the real business problems to the core applications * Commoditization of clients, servers, and target devices * Interchangeability, Interoperability, Remote Access, Centralized control * Oh, and yes, there is a budget and the "real world" to deal with This presentation will talk through these needs and trends, and then ask the question, ...

  5. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The user guide consists of a 28-page A5 format brochure. It gives an overview (4 pages of the contents of the CD-Rom and how it can assist in the writing process in three main sections: core skills, writing for science and writing for advocacy. Within each of these subsections more detail is provided, with the authors giving a short introductory aim for each task and the expected outcomes

  6. Laparoscopic vs open approach for transverse colon cancer. A systematic review and meta-analysis of short and long term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athanasiou, Christos D; Robinson, Jonathan; Yiasemidou, Marina; Lockwood, Sonia; Markides, Georgios A

    2017-05-01

    Transverse colon malignancies have been excluded from all randomized controlled trials comparing laparoscopic against open colectomies, potentially due to the advanced laparoscopic skills required for dissecting around the middle colic vessels and the associated morbidity. Concerns have been expressed that the laparoscopic approach may compromise the oncological clearance in transverse colon cancer. This study aimed to comprehensively compare the laparoscopic (LPA) to the open (OPA) approach by performing a meta-analysis of long and short term outcomes. Medline, Embase, Cochrane library, Scopus and Web of Knowledge databases were interrogated. Selected studies were critically appraised and the short-term morbidity and long term oncological outcomes were meta-analyzed. Sensitivity analysis according to the quality of the study, type of procedure (laparoscopic vs laparoscopically assisted) and level of lymphadenectomy was performed. Statistical heterogeneity and publication bias were also investigated. Eleven case control trials (1415 patients) were included in the study. There was no difference between the LPA and the OPA in overall survival [Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.83 (0.56, 1.22); P = 0.34], disease free survival (p = 0.20), local recurrence (p = 0.81) or distant metastases (p = 0.24). LPA was found to have longer operative time [Weighted mean difference (WMD) = 45.00 (29.48, 60.52); P transverse colon cancer. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of both the Apple and IBM versions of ENZPACK, a software package which is designed to assist in the teaching of enzyme kinetics in courses where this topic is treated in some depth. (TW)

  8. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... The present review documents an overview of speciation mediated through behavioural ...... The Drosophila model (New York: Oxford University Press) .... second part of his big species book written from 1856–1858. (New ...

  9. Bi-component semiconductor oxide photoanodes for the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of organic solutes and vapours: a short review with emphasis to TiO2-WO3 photoanodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, J; Valova, E; Armyanov, S; Philippidis, N; Poulios, I; Sotiropoulos, S

    2012-04-15

    The use of binary semiconductor oxide anodes for the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of organic species (both in solution and gas phase) is reviewed. In the first part of the review, the principle of electrically assisted photocatalysis is presented, the preparation methods for the most common semiconductor oxide catalysts are briefly mentioned, while the advantages of appropriately chosen semiconductor combinations for efficient UV and visible (vis) light utilization are highlighted. The second part of the review focuses on the discussion of TiO(2)-WO(3) photoanodes (among the most studied bi-component semiconductor oxide systems) and in particular on coatings prepared by electrodeposition/electrosynthesis or powder mixtures (the focus of the authors' research during recent years). Studies concerning the microscopic, spectroscopic and photoelectrochemical characterization of the catalysts are presented and examples of photoanode activity towards typical dissolved organic contaminants as well as organic vapours are given. Particular emphasis is paid to: (a) The dependence of photoactivity on catalyst morphology and composition and (b) the possibility of carrying out photoelectrochemistry in all-solid cells, thus opening up the opportunity for photoelectrocatalytic air treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The Relationship between the (In-)Stability of NORs and Their Chromosomal Location: The Example of Cercopithecidae and a Short Review of Other Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbault-Seureau, Michèle; Cacheux, Lauriane; Dutrillaux, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Amongst Cercopithecidae, the species of the Cercopithecini tribe underwent a very active chromosome evolution, principally by fissions, which increased their chromosome number up to 72. In contrast, all the species of Papionini have fairly similar karyotypes with 42 chromosomes. In animals, nucleolus organizer regions (NORs) are generally considered as instable structures, which frequently vary in size, number, and location at both infra- and interspecific levels. Although in Cercopithecinae the NORs, involved in breaks, exchanges, and translocations, behave like fragile sites in somatic cells, their number and location appear to be very stable between species. Fluorescence in situ hybridization of a 28S rDNA probe on metaphase chromosomes displayed a unique interstitial location in either an acrocentric pair (in 12 species of Cercopithecini) or a metacentric pair (in 6 species of Papionini). A non-exhaustive survey of literature data on NOR location in other primates shows that numerical variations of the NORs principally depend on their location: most multiple NORs are in terminal positions, while almost all unique NORs are in interstitial positions. We propose that this correlation is the consequence of the selection against gametic imbalances involving the chromosomal material distal to the NORs, which is effective when they are interstitially, but not terminally, located. Thus, the consequences of the interstitial NOR instability for reproduction are essentially limited to their size variations, as observed in Cercopithecidae. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  12. Planets a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rothery, David A

    2010-01-01

    Planets: A Very Short Introduction demonstrates the excitement, uncertainties, and challenges faced by planetary scientists, and provides an overview of our Solar System and its origins, nature, and evolution. Terrestrial planets, giant planets, dwarf planets and various other objects such as satellites (moons), asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, and exoplanets are discussed. Our knowledge about planets has advanced over the centuries, and has expanded at a rapidly growing rate in recent years. Controversial issues are outlined, such as What qualifies as a planet? What conditions are required for a planetary body to be potentially inhabited by life? Why does Pluto no longer have planet status? And Is there life on other planets?

  13. A short review of theoretical and empirical models for characterization of optical materials doped with the transition metal and rare earth ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, P.; Ma, C.-G.; Brik, M. G.; Srivastava, A. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a brief retrospective review of the main developments in crystal field theory is provided. We have examined how different crystal field models are applied to solve the problems that arise in the spectroscopy of optically active ions. Attention is focused on the joint application of crystal field and density functional theory (DFT) based models, which takes advantages of strong features of both individual approaches and allows for obtaining a complementary picture of the electronic properties of a doped crystal with impurity energy levels superimposed onto the host band structure.

  14. Major destructive asymptomatic lumbar Charcot lesion treated with three column resection and short segment reconstruction. Case report, treatment strategy and review of literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valancius, Kestutis; Garg, Gaurav; Duicu, Madalina

    2017-01-01

    reviews the clinical features, diagnosis, and surgical management of post-traumatic spinal neuroarthropathy in the current literature. We present a rare case of adjacent level Charcot's lesion of the lumbar spine in a paraplegic patient, primarily treated for traumatic spinal cord lesion 39 years before...... current surgery. We have performed end-to-end apposition of bone after 3 column resection of the lesion, 3D correction of the deformity, and posterior instrumentation using a four-rod construct. Although the natural course of the disease remains unclear, surgery is always favorable and remains the primary...

  15. Analysis of the overdispersed clock in the short-term evolution of hepatitis C virus: Using the E1/E2 gene sequences to infer infection dates in a single source outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Borys; Torres-Puente, Manuela; Jiménez, Nuria; Bracho, María Alma; García-Robles, Inmaculada; Moya, Andrés; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2006-06-01

    The assumption of a molecular clock for dating events from sequence information is often frustrated by the presence of heterogeneity among evolutionary rates due, among other factors, to positively selected sites. In this work, our goal is to explore methods to estimate infection dates from sequence analysis. One such method, based on site stripping for clock detection, was proposed to unravel the clocklike molecular evolution in sequences showing high variability of evolutionary rates and in the presence of positive selection. Other alternatives imply accommodating heterogeneity in evolutionary rates at various levels, without eliminating any information from the data. Here we present the analysis of a data set of hepatitis C virus (HCV) sequences from 24 patients infected by a single individual with known dates of infection. We first used a simple criterion of relative substitution rate for site removal prior to a regression analysis. Time was regressed on maximum likelihood pairwise evolutionary distances between the sequences sampled from the source individual and infected patients. We show that it is indeed the fastest evolving sites that disturb the molecular clock and that these sites correspond to positively selected codons. The high computational efficiency of the regression analysis allowed us to compare the site-stripping scheme with random removal of sites. We demonstrate that removing the fast-evolving sites significantly increases the accuracy of estimation of infection times based on a single substitution rate. However, the time-of-infection estimations improved substantially when a more sophisticated and computationally demanding Bayesian method was used. This method was used with the same data set but keeping all the sequence positions in the analysis. Consequently, despite the distortion introduced by positive selection on evolutionary rates, it is possible to obtain quite accurate estimates of infection dates, a result of especial relevance for

  16. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  17. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38

  18. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a software planetarium package called "Sky Travel." Includes two audiovisuals: "Conquest of Space" and "Windows on Science: Earth Science"; and four books: "Small Energy Sources: Choices that Work,""Stonehenge Complete,""Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science…

  19. REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... narrowing the gap between recommended treatment protocols in ... for pregnant women is complicated by the need to take into account the health and safety of both the ... meta-analysis as at July 2011 (which reviews the APR and other ... 0.82 - 3.18) and relative risk of birth defects in EFV-containing ART.

  20. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Review. J. Astrophys. Astr., Vol. 36, No. 4, December 2015, pp. 623–634 ..... 4000 K ≤ T ≤ 10000 K. The processes (1b) are characterized in this paper via ..... Mihajlov, A. A., Sreckovic, V. A., Ignjatovic, L. M., Klyucharev, A. N. 2012, J. Cluster.

  1. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.; Adema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This book intends (according to the preface) to afford at once a review, a general outline of what has been accomplished, and a set of signposts for the future. It attempts to do so in three sections on Origin and Diversification of Primitive Land Plants (4 papers), Origin and Diversification of

  2. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    This review marks the appearance of Volume II, after the publication of Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, in 1990; several more volumes are expected in the future before completion of the Vascular plants as a whole. The present volume contains 73 families out of some 250-500 families which

  3. Evolution of Isolated Neutron Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, S. B.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we briefly review our recent results on evolution and properties of isolated neutron stars (INSs) in the Galaxy. As the first step we discuss stochastic period evolution of INSs. We briefly discuss how an INS's spin period evolves under influence of interaction with turbulized interstellar medium. To investigate statistical properties of the INS population we calculate a {\\it census} of INSs in our Galaxy. Then we show that for exponential field decay the range of minimum value ...

  4. High-frequency, long-duration water sampling in acid mine drainage studies: a short review of current methods and recent advances in automated water samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Hand-collected grab samples are the most common water sampling method but using grab sampling to monitor temporally variable aquatic processes such as diel metal cycling or episodic events is rarely feasible or cost-effective. Currently available automated samplers are a proven, widely used technology and typically collect up to 24 samples during a deployment. However, these automated samplers are not well suited for long-term sampling in remote areas or in freezing conditions. There is a critical need for low-cost, long-duration, high-frequency water sampling technology to improve our understanding of the geochemical response to temporally variable processes. This review article will examine recent developments in automated water sampler technology and utilize selected field data from acid mine drainage studies to illustrate the utility of high-frequency, long-duration water sampling.

  5. Synthesising methods of layered double hydroxides and its use in the fabrication of dye Sensitised solar cell (DSSC): A short review

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Giphin; Saravanakumar, M. P.

    2017-11-01

    The layered double hydroxides (LDH) which are anionic clay substances comprising of stacked cationic layers and interlayer anions. The cationic sheets contain octahedral structure consisting the divalent and trivalent ions in the center and hydroxyl bunches in the corners, gathered by three bonding with the neighbouring octahedra on every side of the layer. The ratio between the quantity of cations and OH- ions is 2:1, so a positive charge shows up on the layer because of the presence of trivalent cations. The interlayer space gives the compensation anions and water molecules, assuring a balanced out layered structure. The LDH materials were successfully synthesised from magnesium, aluminium, zinc and chromium chloride salts utilizing the co-precipitation technique. A Zn-Al LDH was researched as a potential sorbent material. This article reviews the recent advances in the preparation and intercalation of layered double hydroxides and its application in the fabrication of Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC).

  6. Reverse transcriptase and protease inhibitor resistant mutations in art treatment naïve and treated HIV-1 infected children in India A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Bure,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of first line and second line antiretroviral therapy has dramatically improved the quality of life and survival of the HIV-1 infected individuals. Extension of this therapy in children has similar effect. However the emergence of drug selected resistance has hampered the response to the therapy. A database of prevalence of drug resistance mutations in the Indian children both ART naïve and treated will help in deciding the appropriate regimen for the individual patient as well as formulating the policies regarding the composition of drugs included in the fixed dose combinations and its periodic review by analysis of the information that is made available from time to time. This will enable us to utilize our limited resources in most prudent way.

  7. The efficacy and short-term effects of electronic cigarettes as a method for smoking cessation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoudigian, S; Devji, T; Lytvyn, L; Campbell, K; Hopkins, R; O'Reilly, D

    2016-03-01

    E-cigarettes are increasingly popular as smoking cessation aids. This review assessed the efficacy of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation as well as desire to smoke, withdrawal symptoms, and adverse events in adult smokers. A systematic review was conducted. Studies comparing e-cigarettes to other nicotine replacement therapies or placebo were included. Data were pooled using meta-analysis. Of 569 articles, 5 were eligible. Study participants were more likely to stop smoking when using nicotine e-cigarettes (43/489, 9 %) versus placebo e-cigarettes (8/173, 5 %); however, this difference was not statistically significant (RR 2.02; 95 % CI 0.97, 4.22). The pooled effect estimates for the desire to smoke (RR -0.22; 95 % CI -0.80, 0.36), irritability (RR -0.03; 95% CI -0.38, 0.31), restlessness (RR -0.03; 95 % CI -0.42, 0.35), poor concentration (RR -0.01; 95 % CI -0.35, 0.32), depression (RR -0.01; 95 % CI -0.22, 0.20), hunger (RR -0.01; 95 % CI -0.32, 0.30), and average number of non-serious adverse events (RR -0.09; 95 % CI -0.28, 0.46) were not statistically significantly different. Only one study reported serious adverse events with no apparent association with e-cigarette use. Limited low-quality evidence of a non-statistically significant trend toward smoking cessation in adults using nicotine e-cigarettes exists compared with other therapies or placebo. Larger, high-quality studies are needed to inform policy decisions.

  8. Pelvic floor muscle training versus no treatment, or inactive control treatments, for urinary incontinence in women: a short version Cochrane systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Chantale; Hay-Smith, Jean; Habée-Séguin, Gabrielle Mac; Mercier, Joanie

    2015-04-01

    Pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) is a commonly used physical therapy for women with urinary incontinence (UI). To determine the effects of PFMT for women with UI in comparison to no treatment, placebo or other inactive control treatments. Cochrane Incontinence Group Specialized Register, (searched 15 April 2013). Randomized or quasi-randomized trials in women with stress, urgency or mixed UI (based on symptoms, signs, or urodynamics). At least two independent review authors carried out trial screening, selection, risk of bias assessment and data abstraction. Trials were subgrouped by UI diagnosis. The quality of evidence was assessed by adopting the (GRADE) approach. Twenty-one trials (1281 women) were included; 18 trials (1051 women) contributed data to the meta-analysis. In women with stress UI, there was high quality evidence that PFMT is associated with cure (RR 8.38; 95% CI 3.68 to 19.07) and moderate quality evidence of cure or improvement (RR 17.33; 95% CI 4.31 to 69.64). In women with any type of UI, there was also moderate quality evidence that PFMT is associated with cure (RR 5.5; 95% CI 2.87-10.52), or cure and improvement (RR 2.39; 95% CI 1.64-3.47). The addition of seven new trials did not change the essential findings of the earlier version of this review. In this iteration, using the GRADE quality criteria strengthened the recommendations for PFMT and a wider range of secondary outcomes (also generally in favor of PFMT) were reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Representing Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedin, Gry

    2012-01-01

    . This article discusses Willumsen's etching in the context of evolutionary theory, arguing that Willumsen is a rare example of an artist who not only let the theory of evolution fuel his artistic imagination, but also concerned himself with a core issue of the theory, namely to what extent it could be applied...

  10. Security Evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Patta, Joe

    2003-01-01

    Examines how to evaluate school security, begin making schools safe, secure schools without turning them into fortresses, and secure schools easily and affordably; the evolution of security systems into information technology systems; using schools' high-speed network lines; how one specific security system was developed; pros and cons of the…

  11. Venom Evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Therefore, the platypus sequence was studied to quantify the role of gene duplication in the evolution of venom. ... Platypus venom is present only in males and is used for asserting dominance over com- petitors during the ... Certain toxin gene families are known to re- peatedly evolve through gene duplications. The rapidly ...

  12. Three short distance structures from quantum algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, A.

    1997-01-01

    Known results are reviewed and new results are given on three types of short distance structures of observables which typically appear in studies of quantum group related algebras. In particular, one of the short distance structures is shown to suggest a new mechanism for the introduction of internal symmetries

  13. The Short Circuit Model of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueers, Nancy M.

    The name "short circuit" has been given to this model because, in many ways, it adequately describes what happens bioelectrically in the brain. The "short-circuiting" factors include linguistic, sociocultural, attitudinal and motivational, neurological, perceptual, and cognitive factors. Research is reviewed on ways in which each one affects any…

  14. The chemical evolution of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiosi, Cesare

    1986-01-01

    The chemical evolution of galaxies is reviewed with particular attention to the theoretical interpretation of the distribution and abundances of elements in stars and the interstellar medium. The paper was presented to the conference on ''The early universe and its evolution'', Erice, Italy, 1986. The metallicity distribution of the solar vicinity, age metallicity relationship, abundance gradients in the galaxy, external galaxies, star formation and evolution, major sites of nucleosynthesis, yields of chemical elements, chemical models, and the galactic disk, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  15. Fuel consumption: short term and long term price impacts per population type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents assessments of the price sensitivity of household fuel consumption. After a literature review on price-elasticity assessments and the use of pseudo-panels, the investigation analyses the deciding factors of the household fuel expense and its evolution between 1985 and 2006. It proposes a short term price-elasticity assessment based on the most recent survey, and also proposes price-elasticity assessments for sub-populations, notably in terms of income level or location (rural or urban areas)

  16. Global change and the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matesanz, Silvia; Gianoli, Ernesto; Valladares, Fernando

    2010-09-01

    Global change drivers create new environmental scenarios and selective pressures, affecting plant species in various interacting ways. Plants respond with changes in phenology, physiology, and reproduction, with consequences for biotic interactions and community composition. We review information on phenotypic plasticity, a primary means by which plants cope with global change scenarios, recommending promising approaches for investigating the evolution of plasticity and describing constraints to its evolution. We discuss the important but largely ignored role of phenotypic plasticity in range shifts and review the extensive literature on invasive species as models of evolutionary change in novel environments. Plasticity can play a role both in the short-term response of plant populations to global change as well as in their long-term fate through the maintenance of genetic variation. In new environmental conditions, plasticity of certain functional traits may be beneficial (i.e., the plastic response is accompanied by a fitness advantage) and thus selected for. Plasticity can also be relevant in the establishment and persistence of plants in novel environments that are crucial for populations at the colonizing edge in range shifts induced by climate change. Experimental studies show taxonomically widespread plastic responses to global change drivers in many functional traits, though there is a lack of empirical support for many theoretical models on the evolution of phenotypic plasticity. Future studies should assess the adaptive value and evolutionary potential of plasticity under complex, realistic global change scenarios. Promising tools include resurrection protocols and artificial selection experiments. © 2010 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2010-03-01

    Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in

  18. Mosaic evolution of the mammalian auditory periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manley, Geoffrey A

    2013-01-01

    The classical mammalian auditory periphery, i.e., the type of middle ear and coiled cochlea seen in modern therian mammals, did not arise as one unit and did not arise in all mammals. It is also not the only kind of auditory periphery seen in modern mammals. This short review discusses the fact that the constituents of modern mammalian auditory peripheries arose at different times over an extremely long period of evolution (230 million years; Ma). It also attempts to answer questions as to the selective pressures that led to three-ossicle middle ears and the coiled cochlea. Mammalian middle ears arose de novo, without an intermediate, single-ossicle stage. This event was the result of changes in eating habits of ancestral animals, habits that were unrelated to hearing. The coiled cochlea arose only after 60 Ma of mammalian evolution, driven at least partly by a change in cochlear bone structure that improved impedance matching with the middle ear of that time. This change only occurred in the ancestors of therian mammals and not in other mammalian lineages. There is no single constellation of structural features of the auditory periphery that characterizes all mammals and not even all modern mammals.

  19. Modern treatment of short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle B

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, teduglutide, for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS), and this review describes the physiological basis for its clinical use.......Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, teduglutide, for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS), and this review describes the physiological basis for its clinical use....

  20. Fluvial evolution of the Rhine during the last interglacial-glacial cycle in the southern North Sea basin : A review and look forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, Jan; Busschers, Freek S.; Stouthamer, Esther

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of knowledge on the evolution and depositional history of the River Rhine in the southern part of the North Sea basin during the upper Middle and Late Pleistocene, and its response to climate change, sea-level oscillation and glacio-isostasy. The study focuses

  1. Fluvial evolution of the Rhine during the last interglacial-glacial cycle in the southern North Sea basin: A review and look forward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, J.; Busschers, F.S.; Stouthamer, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the current state of knowledge on the evolution and depositional history of the River Rhine in the southern part of the North Sea basin during the upper Middle and Late Pleistocene, and its response to climate change, sea-level oscillation and glacio-isostasy. The study focuses

  2. Review of "Animal Models in the Light of Evolution" by Niall Shanks, Ph.D., and C. Ray Greek, M.D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolpert Lewis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Animal Models in the Light of Evolution provides persuasive evidence that animal models should be used with great caution when applying the results to human diseases. Mice and other model animals are both similar and different, in their biology, to humans.

  3. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  4. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma D'Ambrosio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the great interest raised by Maurizio Gabrieli’s review of the book Musical Networks. Parallel Distributed Perception and Performance (various authors; edited by Niall Griffith and Peter M. Todd, MA: MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999 which appeared in our last issue of Analitica, the present review section no longer follows the format used up to now but offers a survey of texts dedicated to the relationship between music analysis and technology. This decision was also made as a result of the request for more information on the subject by many of our readers. In coming issues we plan to extend this bibliography and comment on at least some of the most interesting texts published in recent years, among which we would immediately like to draw attention to the important work by Baroni, Dalmonte and Jacoboni published in 1999 (Le regole della musica. Indagine sui meccanismi della comunicazione, Torino, I Manuali EDT/SIdM, 1999.

  5. Major destructive asymptomatic lumbar Charcot lesion treated with three column resection and short segment reconstruction. Case report, treatment strategy and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valancius, Kestutis; Garg, Gaurav; Duicu, Madalina; Hansen, Ebbe Stender; Bunger, Cody

    2017-01-01

    Charcot's spine is a long-term complication of spinal cord injury. The lesion is often localized at the caudal end of long fusion constructs and distal to the level of paraplegia. However, cases are rare and the literature relevant to the management of Charcot's arthropathy is limited. This paper reviews the clinical features, diagnosis, and surgical management of post-traumatic spinal neuroarthropathy in the current literature. We present a rare case of adjacent level Charcot's lesion of the lumbar spine in a paraplegic patient, primarily treated for traumatic spinal cord lesion 39 years before current surgery. We have performed end-to-end apposition of bone after 3 column resection of the lesion, 3D correction of the deformity, and posterior instrumentation using a four-rod construct. Although the natural course of the disease remains unclear, surgery is always favorable and remains the primary treatment modality. Posterior long-segment spinal fusion with a four-rod construct is the mainstay of treatment to prevent further morbidity. Our technique eliminated the need for more extensive anterior surgery while preserving distal motion. © The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017.

  6. Major destructive asymptomatic lumbar Charcot lesion treated with three column resection and short segment reconstruction. Case report, treatment strategy and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valancius Kestutis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Charcot's spine is a long-term complication of spinal cord injury. The lesion is often localized at the caudal end of long fusion constructs and distal to the level of paraplegia. However, cases are rare and the literature relevant to the management of Charcot's arthropathy is limited. This paper reviews the clinical features, diagnosis, and surgical management of post-traumatic spinal neuroarthropathy in the current literature. We present a rare case of adjacent level Charcot's lesion of the lumbar spine in a paraplegic patient, primarily treated for traumatic spinal cord lesion 39 years before current surgery. We have performed end-to-end apposition of bone after 3 column resection of the lesion, 3D correction of the deformity, and posterior instrumentation using a four-rod construct. Although the natural course of the disease remains unclear, surgery is always favorable and remains the primary treatment modality. Posterior long-segment spinal fusion with a four-rod construct is the mainstay of treatment to prevent further morbidity. Our technique eliminated the need for more extensive anterior surgery while preserving distal motion

  7. Etanercept provides an effective, safe and flexible short- and long-term treatment regimen for moderate-to-severe psoriasis: a systematic review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohal, Robert; Chimenti, Sergio; Vena, Gino Antonio; Girolomoni, Giampiero

    2013-06-01

    The treatment of psoriasis requires long-lasting intervention. Conventional treatments for psoriasis comprise topical, phototherapeutic and systemic modalities, such as methotrexate or cyclosporine. Biological therapies are advocated by treatment guidelines for the use in moderate-to-severe psoriasis, when conventional treatments have failed, are contraindicated or are associated with severe adverse events. Etanercept is an anti-TNF recombinant fusion protein that has emerged as a standard biologic treatment option for moderate-to-severe psoriasis. The present review summarizes data from pivotal and post-marketing randomized controlled etanercept trials to treat moderate-to-severe psoriasis for 24 weeks and longer. During the first 12 weeks, etanercept can be administered in different dosing regimens: 50 mg twice weekly (BIW) and 50 mg once weekly. Although both regimens are effective, it has been shown that the 50 mg BIW dosage leads to higher response rates at week 24. In addition, after 24 weeks' treatment etanercept provides the unique possibility of continuous or intermittent long-term treatment programmes. The medium- to long-term efficacy of etanercept was consistent, regardless of whether etanercept therapy was interrupted or continuous. Taking the chronic nature of psoriasis into account, this flexibility in dosing regimen bestows a key advantage in facilitating individualisation of long-term treatment according to patient needs.

  8. Clinical impact of renography in antenatally discovered pelviureteric stenosis: a short review of the literature; Zur klinischen Wertigkeit der Nierenfunktionsszintigraphie bei praenatal diagnostizierten renalen Abflussstoerungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froekiaer, J.; Eskild-Jensen, A. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Skejby, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2003-09-01

    Congenital unilateral hydronephrosis is a relatively frequent and often asymptomatic condition diagnosed in utero. The natural history and significance of congenital hydronephrosis on the development and long-term consequences on renal function is not sufficiently known. The present diagnostic methods do not provide prediction of the functional consequences of a potential presence of an obstruction. However, renography is an important method affecting the clinical treatment of children with prenatal unilateral hydronephrosis, and is the only method that satisfactory can provide serial accurate measurements of differential renal function. The present review briefly summarizes the clinical impact of renography in neonatally discovered hydronephrosis in relation to the pathophysiological characteristics of congenital unilateral hydronephrosis. (orig.) [German] Bei der einseitigen angeborenen Hydronephrose handelt es sich um ein relativ haeufiges Krankheitsbild, das in der Regel durch Sonographie bereits im Uterus diagnostiziert wird. Die Ursache dieser Erkrankung und ihre Bedeutung fuer die Entwicklung der Nierenfunktion im weiteren Verlauf sind nicht ausreichend bekannt. Die heute zur Verfuegung stehenden Untersuchungsmethoden koennen keine Aussage ueber die funktionellen Konsequenzen einer moeglichen Obstruktion erbringen. Die Nierenfunktionsszintigraphie ist jedoch eine sehr wichtige Methode fuer die klinische Behandlung der Kinder mit einer einseitigen praenatal diagnostizierten Hydronephrose und sie ist die einzige Methode, die wiederholte Messungen der seitengetrennten Nierenfunktion mit einer hohen Genauigkeit ermoeglicht. Die vorliegende Arbeit fasst kurz die klinische Bedeutung der Nierensequenzszintigraphie bei praenatalen Hydronephrosen zusammen und stellt einen Zusammenhang zu den pathophysiologischen Charakteristiken dieser Erkrankung her. (orig.)

  9. Frost evolution in tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    A review was carried out on the physical and thermal mechanisms of permafrost evaluation in soils and uranium tailings. The primary mechanism controlling permafrost evolution is conductive heat transfer with the latent heat of fusion of water being liberated as phase change occurs. Depending on the soil properties and freezing rate, pore water can be expelled from the frost front or pore water can migrate towards the frost front. Solute redistribution may occur as the frost front penetrates into the soil. The rate of frost penetration is a function of the thermal properties of the tailings and the climatic conditions. Computer modelling programmes capable of modelling permafrost evolution were reviewed. The GEOTHERM programme was selected as being the most appropriate for this study. The GEOTHERM programme uses the finite element method of thermal analysis. The ground surface temperature is determined by solving the energy balance equations a the ground surface. The GEOTHERM programme was used to simulate the permafrost evolution in the Key Lake Mine tailings located in north central Saskatchewan. The analyses indicated that the existing frozen zones in the tailing pond will eventually thaw if an average snow depth covers the tailings. Hundreds of years are required to thaw the tailings. If minimal snow cover is present the extent of the frozen zone in the tailings will increase

  10. Effects of short term fasting on the evolution of fecal peritonitis in mice Efeitos de jejum de curta duração na evolução de peritonite fecal em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antônio Martins Bermudes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of 72 hours food suppression on the evolution of fecal peritonitis in mice evaluating the mortality and measuring the number and size of abscesses formed into the peritoneal cavity. METHODS: Mice receiving commercial diet and water ad libitum (control group, N=35 and mice fasted during 72 h (N=35, receiving only water ad libitum, were inoculated by i.p. route, with 4uL/g body weight of a fecal suspension diluted 1:6 or 1:9 in 0.15M NaCl solution (1:6 dilution, 22 controls and 18 fasted; 1:9 dilution, 13 controls and 17 fasted. Animals were followed up until two weeks after fecal inoculation, when the survivors were euthanized for evaluation of the number and size of intra-peritoneal abscesses. Mortality was evaluated by Kaplan Meyer curves. RESULTS: Mortality was significantly higher in fasted groups than in controls. However the number and size of abscesses were significantly less in fasted groups than in controls. CONCLUSION: Seventy two hours food suppression increased the susceptibility to endotoxic shock (high mortality after peritonitis induction and the resistance to infection with fecal microorganisms (less number and size of intra-peritoneal abscesses.OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito de jejum de 72 horas na evolução de peritonite fecal em camundongos, avaliando a mortalidade e o número e tamanho dos abscessos formados na cavidade peritoneal. MÉTODOS: Camundongos recebendo dieta ad libitum (grupo controle, N=35 e camundongos submetidos a jejum durante 72h (N=35 foram inoculados, por via intraperitoenal, com 4uL/g de peso corporal de uma suspensão de fezes diluída a 1:6 ou 1:9 em NaCl 15M (diluição 1:6, 22 controles e 18 jejum; diluição 1:9, 13 controles e 17 jejum. Os animais foram acompanhados até duas semanas após a inoculação das fezes quando eram eutanaziados para avaliação do número e tamanho dos abscessos intraperitoneais. A mortalidade foi avaliada através das curvas de Kaplan

  11. Nudging Evolution?

    OpenAIRE

    Katharine N. Farrell; Andreas Thiel

    2013-01-01

    This Special Feature, "Nudging Evolution? Critical Exploration of the Potential and Limitations of the Concept of Institutional Fit for the Study and Adaptive Management of Social-Ecological Systems," aims to contribute toward the development of social theory and social research methods for the study of social-ecological system dynamics. Our objective is to help strengthen the academic discourse concerning if, and if so, how, to what extent, and in what concrete ways the concept of institut...

  12. Community Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Saganowski, Stanisław; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    The continuous interest in the social network area contributes to the fast development of this field. The new possibilities of obtaining and storing data facilitate deeper analysis of the entire social network, extracted social groups and single individuals as well. One of the most interesting research topic is the network dynamics and dynamics of social groups in particular, it means analysis of group evolution over time. It is the natural step forward after social community extraction. Havi...

  13. Digital Clinical Communication for Families and Caregivers of Children or Young People With Short- or Long-Term Conditions: Rapid Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoiry, Xavier; Sturt, Jackie; Phelps, Emma Elizabeth; Walker, Clare-Louise; Court, Rachel; Taggart, Frances; Sutcliffe, Paul; Griffiths, Frances; Atherton, Helen

    2018-01-05

    The communication relationship between parents of children or young people with health conditions and health professionals is an important part of treatment, but it is unclear how far the use of digital clinical communication tools may affect this relationship. The objective of our study was to describe, assess the feasibility of, and explore the impact of digital clinical communication between families or caregivers and health professionals. We searched the literature using 5 electronic databases. We considered all types of study design published in the English language from January 2009 to August 2015. The population of interest included families and caregivers of children and young people aged less than 26 years with any type of health condition. The intervention was any technology permitting 2-way communication. We included 31 articles. The main designs were randomized controlled trials (RCTs; n=10), cross-sectional studies (n=9), pre- and postintervention uncontrolled (pre/post) studies (n=7), and qualitative interview studies (n=2); 6 had mixed-methods designs. In the majority of cases, we considered the quality rating to be fair. Many different types of health condition were represented. A breadth of digital communication tools were included: videoconferencing or videoconsultation (n=14), and Web messaging or emails (n=12). Health care professionals were mainly therapists or cognitive behavioral therapists (n=10), physicians (n=8), and nurses (n=6). Studies were very heterogeneous in terms of outcomes. Interventions were mainly evaluated using satisfaction or acceptance, or outcomes relating to feasibility. Clinical outcomes were rarely used. The RCTs showed that digital clinical communication had no impact in comparison with standard care. Uncontrolled pre/post studies showed good rates of satisfaction or acceptance. Some economic studies suggested that digital clinical communication may save costs. This rapid review showed an emerging body of literature on

  14. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    WE RECOMMEND Advancing Physics CD Quick Tour This software makes the Advancing Physics CD easier to use. From Silicon to Computer This CD on computer technology operates like an electronic textbook. Powers of Ten This documentary film gives pupils a feel for the scale of our universe. Multimedia Waves The material on this CD demonstrates various wave phenomena. Infrared thermometer This instant response, remote sensor has numerous lab applications. Magic Universe, The Oxford Guide to Modern Science Acollection of short essays, this book is aimed at A-level students. Fermi Remembered Ajoy to read, this piece of non-fiction leaves you eager for more. Big Bang (lecture and book) Both the book and the lecture are engaging and hugely entertaining. WORTH A LOOK The Way Things Go Lasting just 30 minutes, this film will liven up any mechanics lesson. The Video Encyclopaedia of Physics Demonstrations It may blow your budget, but this DVD is a superb physics resource. Go!Link and Go!Temp Go!Link is a useful, cheap datalogger. Go!Temp seems superfluous. Cracker snaps Cheap and cheerful, cracker snaps can be used to demonstrate force. VPython This 3D animation freeware can be adapted to fit your needs. HANDLE WITH CARE Physics A-Level Presentations It might be better to generate slides yourself rather than modify these. London Planetarium and Madame Tussaud's A day out here is definitely not a worthwhile science excursion.

  15. Factors affecting adherence to short-course ARV prophylaxis for preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: a review and lessons for future elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombini, Manuela; Stöckl, Heidi; Watts, Charlotte; Zimmerman, Cathy; Agamasu, Enyonam; Mayhew, Susannah H

    2014-01-01

    Despite the biomedical potential to eliminate vertical HIV transmission, drug adherence to short regimens is often sub-optimal. To inform future programmes, we reviewed evidence on the factors influencing maternal and infant drug adherence to preventing MTCT drug regimens at delivery in sub-Saharan Africa. A literature review yielding 14 studies on adherence to drug regimes among HIV-positive pregnant women and mothers in sub-Saharan Africa was conducted. Rates of maternal adherence to preventive drug regimens at time of delivery varied widely across sites between 35 and 93.5%. Factors most commonly associated with low adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ARV) prophylaxis for preventing MTCT at the health system level include giving birth at home, quality and timing of HIV testing and counselling, and late distribution of nevirapine (NVP). Socio-demographic and demand-side factors include fear of stigma, lack of male involvement, fear of partner's reaction to disclosure, few antenatal (ANC) visits, young age and lack of education. With the implementation of the newly published WHO guidelines recommending triple-drug ARV regimen during pregnancy and breastfeeding for all women with HIV, it is important that women are able to adhere to recommended drug regimens. Service improvements should include clear and timely communication with women about the benefits of combined regimens and greater emphasis on patient confidentiality. Efforts must be made to help women overcome barriers that reduce adherence, such as financial logistical challenges, social stigma and women's fear of violence.

  16. Spatial distribution, luminosity function and cosmological evolution of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathez, G.

    1981-01-01

    The different ways of studying quasars statistics and evolution are reviewed. Attempt is given to deduce, from the observed evolution, some constraints on physical models of energy sources in quasars [fr

  17. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  18. Cluster evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, R.

    1987-01-01

    The galaxy and cluster luminosity functions are constructed from a model of the mass distribution based on hierarchical clustering at an epoch where the matter distribution is non-linear. These luminosity functions are seen to reproduce the present distribution of objects as can be inferred from the observations. They can be used to deduce the redshift dependence of the cluster distribution and to extrapolate the observations towards the past. The predicted evolution of the cluster distribution is quite strong, although somewhat less rapid than predicted by the linear theory

  19. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  20. Extinction Events Can Accelerate Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehman, Joel; Miikkulainen, Risto

    2015-01-01

    Extinction events impact the trajectory of biological evolution significantly. They are often viewed as upheavals to the evolutionary process. In contrast, this paper supports the hypothesis that although they are unpredictably destructive, extinction events may in the long term accelerate...... evolution by increasing evolvability. In particular, if extinction events extinguish indiscriminately many ways of life, indirectly they may select for the ability to expand rapidly through vacated niches. Lineages with such an ability are more likely to persist through multiple extinctions. Lending...... computational support for this hypothesis, this paper shows how increased evolvability will result from simulated extinction events in two computational models of evolved behavior. The conclusion is that although they are destructive in the short term, extinction events may make evolution more prolific...