WorldWideScience

Sample records for short pulse generation

  1. Short pulse neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  2. Broadband and short (10-ps) pulse generation on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, M.D.; Browning, D.; Bibeau, C.; Patterson, F.G.; Wilcox, R.; Henesian, M.

    1990-01-01

    The ability to produce high power broadband pulses for purposes of focal spot beam smoothing has recently become an important issue in inertial confinement fusion (ICF). As the first step toward the generation and propagation of such pulses on Nova, the authors have performed a series of experiments with 10-ps pulses. Aside from the inherently broad bandwidth, these short pulses have important applications in ICF experiments and x-ray laser research. The author's experimental results are discussed. The short pulses were produced by diffraction grating pulse compression of chirped pulses formed from self-phase modulation in a single-mode 10-m fused silica fiber. Use of such a short fiber produces a nonlinearly chirped spectrum of 0.74 nm. The central nearly linearly chirped 0.26 nm is selected by polarization discrimination and compressed using 1800-line/mm diffraction gratings to a nearly Gaussian pulse of 10 ps FWHM with an energy contrast ratio of 20:1. This 1-nJ pulse is injected into a Nova amplifier chain with selected amplifiers unfired

  3. High-voltage short-fall pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolbilov, G.V.; Fateev, A.A.; Petrov, V.A.

    1986-01-01

    Powerful high-voltage pulses with short fall times and relatively low afterpulse amplitude are required for the deflection systems of accelerators. A generator is described that provides, into a 75-ohm load, a voltage pulse of up to 100 kV with a fall time of less than 1 nsec and a relative afterpulse amplitude of less than or equal to 15%. The generator employs a short-circuited ferrite-filled line in which shock waves are formed. A magnetic section is used to increase power. The switch is a TGI1-2500/50 thyratron. The main causes of afterpulses and methods for reducing their amplitude are examined

  4. Generation of short electrical pulses based on bipolar transistorsny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for the generation of short electrical pulses based on the minority carrier charge storage and the step recovery effect of bipolar transistors is presented. Electrical pulses of about 90 ps up to 800 ps duration are generated with a maximum amplitude of approximately 7V at 50Ω. The bipolar transistor is driven into saturation and the base-collector and base-emitter junctions become forward biased. The resulting fast switch-off edge of the transistor’s output signal is the basis for the pulse generation. The fast switching of the transistor occurs as a result of the minority carriers that have been injected and stored across the base-collector junction under forward bias conditions. If the saturated transistor is suddenly reverse biased the pn-junction will appear as a low impedance until the stored charge is depleted. Then the impedance will suddenly increase to its normal high value and the flow of current through the junction will turn to zero, abruptly. A differentiation of the output signal of the transistor results in two short pulses with opposite polarities. The differentiating circuit is implemented by a transmission line network, which mainly acts as a high pass filter. Both the transistor technology (pnp or npn and the phase of the transfer function of the differentating circuit influence the polarity of the output pulses. The pulse duration depends on the transistor parameters as well as on the transfer function of the pulse shaping network. This way of generating short electrical pulses is a new alternative for conventional comb generators based on steprecovery diodes (SRD. Due to the three-terminal structure of the transistor the isolation problem between the input and the output signal of the transistor network is drastically simplified. Furthermore the transistor is an active element in contrast to a SRD, so that its current gain can be used to minimize the power of the driving signal.

  5. Variable Power, Short Microwave Pulses Generation using a CW Magnetron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CIUPA, R.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine control of microwave power radiation in medical and scientific applications is a challenging task. Since a commercial Continuous Wave (CW magnetron is the most inexpensive microwave device available today on the market, it becomes the best candidate for a microwave power generator used in medical diathermy and hyperthermia treatments or high efficiency chemical reactions using microwave reactors as well. This article presents a new method for driving a CW magnetron with short pulses, using a modified commercial Zero Voltage Switching (ZVS inverter, software driven by a custom embedded system. The microwave power generator designed with this method can be programmed for output microwave pulses down to 1% of the magnetron's power and allows microwave low frequency pulse modulation in the range of human brain electrical activity, intended for medical applications. Microwave output power continuous control is also possible with the magnetron running in the oscillating area, using a dual frequency Pulse Width Modulation (PWM, where the low frequency PWM pulse is modulating a higher resonant frequency required by the ZVS inverter's transformer. The method presented allows a continuous control of both power and energy (duty-cycle at the inverter's output.

  6. Modelling hot electron generation in short pulse target heating experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sircombe N.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Target heating experiments planned for the Orion laser facility, and electron beam driven fast ignition schemes, rely on the interaction of a short pulse high intensity laser with dense material to generate a flux of energetic electrons. It is essential that the characteristics of this electron source are well known in order to inform transport models in radiation hydrodynamics codes and allow effective evaluation of experimental results and forward modelling of future campaigns. We present results obtained with the particle in cell (PIC code EPOCH for realistic target and laser parameters, including first and second harmonic light. The hot electron distributions are characterised and their implications for onward transport and target heating are considered with the aid of the Monte-Carlo transport code THOR.

  7. Generation of short optical pulses for laser fusion. M.L. report No. 2451

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuizenga, D.J.

    1975-06-01

    This report considers some of the problems involved in generating the required short pulses for the laser-fusion program. Short pulses are required to produce the laser fusion, and pulses produced synchronously with this primary pulse are required for plasma diagnostics. The requirements of these pulses are first described. Several methods are considered in order to generate pulses at 1.064 μ to drive the Nd:Glass amplifiers to produce laser fusion. Conditions for optimum energy extraction per short pulse for Nd:YAG and Nd:Glass lasers are given. Four methods are then considered to produce these pulses: (1) using a fast switch to chop the required pulse out of a much longer Q-switched pulse; (2) active mode locking; (3) passive mode locking; and (4) a combination of active and passive mode locking. The use of cavity dumping is also considered to increase the energy per short pulse

  8. Generation of ultra short pulses by auto injection in the Nd: YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, I.C. de.

    1986-01-01

    Yhe work presented here, was concerned to the construction of a coherent light source in the near infrared region with pulses of 10 -10 seconds. The auto-injection technique was employed for generating these short pulses with posterior extraction of the pulse applied to a Nd=YAG-pulsed laser. (author) [pt

  9. Coherent harmonics generated by a super-short electron pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Wu

    1996-01-01

    A novel mechanism generating superradiance harmonics is found. In this superradiance harmonics, the temporal width of harmonics is extremely short, the ratio of high harmonic fundamental wave is much higher than the known superradiance harmonics

  10. Short-pulse optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification for the generation of high-power few-cycle pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major, Zs.; Osterhoff, J.; Hoerlein, R.; Karsch, S.; Fuoloep, J.A.; Krausz, F.; Ludwig-Maximilians Universitaet, Muenchen

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. In the quest for a way to generate ultrashort, high-power, few-cycle laser pulses the discovery of optical parametric amplification (OPA) has opened up to the path towards a completely new regime, well beyond that of conventional laser amplification technology. The main advantage of this parametric amplification process is that it allows for an extremely broad amplification bandwidth compared to any known laser amplifier medium. When combined with the chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) principle (i.e. OPCPA), on one hand pulses of just 10 fs duration and 8 mJ pulse energy have been demonstrated. On the other hand, pulse energies of up to 30 J were also achieved on a different OPCPA system; the pulse duration in this case, however, was 100 fs. In order to combine ultrashort pulse durations (i.e. pulses in the few-cycle regime) with high pulse energies (i.e. in the Joule range) we propose tu pump on OPCPA chain with TW-scale short pulses (100 fs - 1 ps instead of > 100 ps of previous OPCPA systems) delivered by a conventional CPA system. This approach inherently improves the conditions for generating high-power ultrashort pulses using OPCPA in the following ways. Firstly, the short pump pulse duration reduces the necessary stretching factor for the seed pulse, thereby increasing stretching and compression fidelity. Secondly, also due to the shortened pump pulse duration, a much higher contrast is achieved. Finally, the significantly increased pump power makes the use of thinner OPCPA crystals possible, which implies an even broader amplification bandwidth, thereby allowing for even shorter pulses. We carried out theoretical investigations to show the feasibility of such a set-up. Alongside these studies we will also present preliminary experimental results of an OPCPA system pumped by the output of our Ti:Sapphire ATLAS laser, currently delivering 350 mJ in 43 fs. An insight into the planned scaling of this technique to petawatt

  11. High-order harmonic generation with short-pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, K.J.; Krause, J.L.; Kulander, K.C.

    1992-12-01

    Recent progress in the understanding of high-order harmonic conversion from atoms and ions exposed to high-intensity, short-pulse optical lasers is reviewed. We find that ions can produce harmonics comparable in strength to those obtained from neutral atoms, and that the emission extends to much higher order. Simple scaling laws for the strength of the harmonic emission and the maximium observable harmonic are suggested. These results imply that the photoemission observed in recent experiments in helium and neon contains contributions from ions as well as neutrals

  12. Generation of strong pulsed magnetic fields using a compact, short pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanuka, D.; Efimov, S.; Nitishinskiy, M.; Rososhek, A.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2016-04-01

    The generation of strong magnetic fields (˜50 T) using single- or multi-turn coils immersed in water was studied. A pulse generator with stored energy of ˜3.6 kJ, discharge current amplitude of ˜220 kA, and rise time of ˜1.5 μs was used in these experiments. Using the advantage of water that it has a large Verdet constant, the magnetic field was measured using the non-disturbing method of Faraday rotation of a polarized collimated laser beam. This approach does not require the use of magnetic probes, which are sensitive to electromagnetic noise and damaged in each shot. It also avoids the possible formation of plasma by either a flashover along the conductor or gas breakdown inside the coil caused by an induced electric field. In addition, it was shown that this approach can be used successfully to investigate the interesting phenomenon of magnetic field enhanced diffusion into a conductor.

  13. Pulse Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Lawrence (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An apparatus and a computer-implemented method for generating pulses synchronized to a rising edge of a tachometer signal from rotating machinery are disclosed. For example, in one embodiment, a pulse state machine may be configured to generate a plurality of pulses, and a period state machine may be configured to determine a period for each of the plurality of pulses.

  14. Short electron bunches generated by perpendicularly crossing laser pulses.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horný, Vojtěch; Petržílka, Václav; Klimo, Ondřej; Krůs, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 10 (2017), č. článku 103125. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03118S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015083; GA MŠk(CZ) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/16_013/0001552; GA MŠk LQ1606; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14089 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Laser pulses * Particle beam bunching * Plasma simulation * Particle acceleration * Lasers * Particle-in-cell metthod * Particle beams * Electrostatics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics); Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) (FZU-D) Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016 http://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/1.5007889

  15. MOSFET-based high voltage short pulse generator for ultrasonic transducer excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Darmawan; Setianto, Syafei, Nendi Suhendi; Wibawa, Bambang Mukti

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the generation of a high-voltage short pulse for the excitation of high frequency ultrasonic transducers. This is highly required in the purpose of various ultrasonic-based evaluations, particularly when high resolution measurement is necessary. A high voltage (+760 V) DC voltage source was pulsated by an ultrafast switching MOSFET which was driven by a pulse generator circuit consisting of an astable multivibrator, a one-shot multivibrator with Schmitt trigger input and a high current MOSFET driver. The generated pulses excited a 200-kHz and a 1-MHz ultrasonic transducers and tested in the transmission mode propagation to evaluate the performances of the generated pulse. The test results showed the generator were able to produce negative spike pulses up to -760 V voltage with the shortest time-width of 107.1 nanosecond. The transmission-received ultrasonic waves show frequency oscillation at 200 and 961 kHz and their amplitudes varied with the voltage of excitation pulse. These results conclude that the developed pulse generator is applicable to excite transducer for the generation of high frequency ultrasonic waves.

  16. Erosion resistant anti-ice surfaces generated by ultra short laser pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Del Cerro, D.A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in't Veld, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Wetting properties of a wide range of materials can be modified by accurate laser micromachining with ultra short laser pulses. Controlling the surface topography in a micro and sub-micrometer scale allows the generation of water-repellent surfaces, which remain dry and prevent ice accumulation

  17. Short optical pulse generation at 40 GHz with a bulk electro-absorption modulator packaged device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Patrick; Moore, Ronald; Prosyk, Kelvin; O'Keefe, Sean; Oosterom, Jill A.; Betty, Ian; Foster, Robert; Greenspan, Jonathan; Singh, Priti

    2003-12-01

    Short optical pulse generation at 40GHz and 1540nm wavelength is achieved using fully packaged bulk quaternary electro-absorption modulator modules. Experimental results obtained with broadband and narrowband optimized packaged modules are presented and compared against empirical model predictions. Pulse duty cycle, extinction ratio and chirp are studied as a function of sinusoidal drive voltage and detuning between operating wavelength and modulator absorption band edge. Design rules and performance trade-offs are discussed. Low-chirp pulses with a FWHM of ~12ps and sub-4ps at a rate of 40GHz are demonstrated. Optical time-domain demultiplexing of a 40GHz to a 10GHz pulse train is also demonstrated with better than 20dB extinction ratio.

  18. Short-pulse generation in a diode-end-pumped solid-state laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available , Development of High Average Power Picosecond Laser Systems, Opto- Electronic Devices, (2002). INTRODUCTION A Nd:YVO4 modelocked laser has been constructed using a resonator designed according to the theoretical parameters. The laser produced pulses... theoretical PQSML,th of 2.08W. Short-Pulse Generation in a Diode-End-Pumped Solid-State Laser S. Ngcobo1,2, C. Bollig1 and H. Von Bergmann2 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria, 0001, South Africa 2Laser Research Center, University...

  19. Generating high-power short terahertz electromagnetic pulses with a multifoil radiator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinokurov, Nikolay A; Jeong, Young Uk

    2013-02-08

    We describe a multifoil cone radiator capable of generating high-field short terahertz pulses using short electron bunches. Round flat conducting foil plates with successively decreasing radii are stacked, forming a truncated cone with the z axis. The gaps between the foil plates are equal and filled with some dielectric (or vacuum). A short relativistic electron bunch propagates along the z axis. At sufficiently high particle energy, the energy losses and multiple scattering do not change the bunch shape significantly. When passing by each gap between the foil plates, the electron bunch emits some energy into the gap. Then, the radiation pulses propagate radially outward. For transverse electromagnetic waves with a longitudinal (along the z axis) electric field and an azimuthal magnetic field, there is no dispersion in these radial lines; therefore, the radiation pulses conserve their shapes (time dependence). At the outer surface of the cone, we have synchronous circular radiators. Their radiation field forms a conical wave. Ultrashort terahertz pulses with gigawatt-level peak power can be generated with this device.

  20. Control of ion beam generation in intense short pulse laser target interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, T.; Izumiyama, T.; Barada, D.; Kawata, S.; Gu, Y.J.; Wang, W.M.; Ma, Y.Y.; Kong, Q.

    2013-01-01

    In intense laser plasma interaction, several issues still remain to be solved for future laser particle acceleration. In this paper we focus on a control of generation of high-energy ions. In this study, near-critical density plasmas are employed and are illuminated by high intensity short laser pulses; we have successfully generated high-energy ions, and also controlled ion energy and the ion energy spectrum by multiple-stages acceleration. We performed particle-in-cell simulations in this paper. The first near-critical plasma target is illuminated by a laser pulse, and the ions accelerated are transferred to the next target. The next identical target is also illuminated by another identical large pulse, and the ion beam introduced is further accelerated and controlled. In this study four stages are employed, and finally a few hundreds of MeV of protons are realized. A quasi-monoenergetic energy spectrum is also obtained. (author)

  1. Effect of pulse slippage on resonant second harmonic generation of a short pulse laser in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitikant; Sharma, A K

    2004-01-01

    The process of second harmonic generation of an intense short pulse laser in a plasma is resonantly enhanced by the application of a magnetic wiggler. The wiggler of suitable wave number k-vector 0 provides necessary momentum to second harmonic photons to make harmonic generation a resonant process. The laser imparts an oscillatory velocity to electrons and exerts a longitudinal ponderomotive force on them at (2ω 1 ,2k-vector 1 ), where ω 1 and k-vector 1 are the frequency and the wave number of the laser, respectively. As the electrons acquire oscillatory velocity at the second harmonic, the wiggler magnetic field beats with it to produce a transverse second harmonic current at (2ω 1 ,2k-vector 1 +k-vector 0 ), driving the second harmonic electromagnetic radiation. However, the group velocity of the second harmonic wave is greater than that of the fundamental wave, hence, the generated pulse slips out of the main laser pulse and its amplitude saturates

  2. Extremely short light pulses: generation; diagnostics, and application in attosecond spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iakovlev, V.

    2003-06-01

    The scope of the thesis includes the design of chirped mirrors, as well as theoretical investigations in the fields of high-harmonic generation and laser-dressed Auger decay, the unifying aspect being the presence of extremely short light pulses and physical processes taking place on a femtosecond scale. The main results of the research are the following: 1) It was shown that efficient global optimization of chirped mirrors is possible with an adapted version of the memetic algorithm (also known as hybrid genetic algorithm). 2) The analysis of high-harmonic spectra generated by a few-cycle laser pulse can reveal the electric field of the pulse in the vicinity of its envelope peak. The method developed for this purpose can also be regarded as a method to measure the carrier-envelope phase of laser pulses, which is more robust and has a larger range of applicability compared to the simple analysis of the cut-off region of high-harmonic spectra. 3) A quantum theory of time-resolved Auger spectroscopy was developed. Based on the essential states method, closed-form expressions for probability amplitudes were derived. The theory lays the foundation for the interpretation of experiments that probe electronic motion during atomic excitation, deexcitation, and ionization. (author)

  3. Broadband short pulse measurement by autocorrelation with a sum-frequency generation set-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glotin, F.; Jaroszynski, D.; Marcouille, O.

    1995-01-01

    Previous spectral and laser pulse length measurements carried out on the CLIO FEL at wavelength λ=8.5 μm suggested that very short light pulses could be generated, about 500 fs wide (FWHM). For these measurements a Michelson interferometer with a Te crystal, as a non-linear detector, was used as a second order autocorrelation device. More recent measurements in similar conditions have confirmed that the laser pulses observed are indeed single: they are not followed by other pulses distant by the slippage length Nλ. As the single micropulse length is likely to depend on the slippage, more measurements at different wavelengths would be useful. This is not directly possible with our actual interferometer set-up, based on a phase-matched non-linear crystal. However, we can use the broadband non-linear medium provided by one of our users' experiments: Sum-Frequency Generation over surfaces. With such autocorrelation set-up, interference fringes are no more visible, but this is largely compensated by the frequency range provided. First tests at 8 μm have already been performed to validate the technic, leading to results similar to those obtained with our previous Michelson set-up

  4. Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Niti [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144 402 (India); Nandan Gupta, Devki [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Suk, Hyyong [Advanced Photonics Research Institute (APRI) and Graduate Program of Photonics and Applied Physics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500 712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.

  5. Resonant third-harmonic generation of a short-pulse laser from electron-hole plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Niti; Nandan Gupta, Devki; Suk, Hyyong

    2012-01-01

    In semiconductors, free carriers are created in pairs in inter-band transitions and consist of an electron and its corresponding hole. At very high carrier densities, carrier-carrier collisions dominate over carrier-lattice collisions and carriers begin to behave collectively to form plasma. Here, we apply a short-pulse laser to generate third-harmonic radiation from a semiconductor plasma (electron-hole plasma) in the presence of a transverse wiggler magnetic-field. The process of third-harmonic generation of an intense short-pulse laser is resonantly enhanced by the magnetic wiggler, i.e., wiggler magnetic field provides the necessary momentum to third-harmonic photons. In addition, a high-power laser radiation, propagating through a semiconductor imparts an oscillatory velocity to the electrons and exerts a ponderomotive force on electrons at the third-harmonic frequency of the laser. This oscillatory velocity produces a third-harmonic longitudinal current. And due to the beating of the longitudinal electron velocity and the wiggler magnetic field, a transverse third-harmonic current is produced that drives third-harmonic electromagnetic radiation. It is finally observed that for a specific wiggler wave number value, the phase-matching conditions for the process are satisfied, leading to resonant enhancement in the energy conversion efficiency.

  6. Generation of attosecond electron beams in relativistic ionization by short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajiao Vélez, F.; Kamiński, J. Z.; Krajewska, K.

    2018-03-01

    Ionization by relativistically intense short laser pulses is studied in the framework of strong-field quantum electrodynamics. Distinctive patterns are found in the energy probability distributions of photoelectrons, which are sensitive to the properties of a driving laser field. It is demonstrated that these electrons are generated in the form of solitary attosecond wave packets. This is particularly important in light of various applications of attosecond electron beams such as in ultrafast electron diffraction and crystallography, or in time-resolved electron microscopy of physical, chemical, and biological processes. We also show that, for intense laser pulses, high-energy ionization takes place in narrow regions surrounding the momentum spiral, the exact form of which is determined by the shape of a driving pulse. The self-intersections of the spiral define the momenta for which the interference patterns in the energy distributions of photoelectrons are observed. Furthermore, these interference regions lead to the synthesis of single-electron wave packets characterized by coherent double-hump structures.

  7. Preliminary design of a 100 Hz, 350 kV short pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohwein, G.J.; Buttram, M.T.

    1977-06-01

    This report describes a 350 kV pulser designed to generate 100 ns square pulses with 300 joules total energy at a pulse repetition frequency of 100 per second. This design incorporates a transformer charged helical coaxial pulse forming line. The considerations leading to this design are presented together with results from prototype experiments. The pulser which is presently in the construction and testing phase is described in detail. The pulser will be used for electron beam acceleration

  8. Coherent, Short-Pulse X-ray Generation via Relativistic Flying Mirrors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Kando

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coherent, Short X-ray pulses are demanded in material science and biology for the study of micro-structures. Currently, large-sized free-electron lasers are used; however, the available beam lines are limited because of the large construction cost. Here we review a novel method to downsize the system as well as providing fully (spatially and temporally coherent pulses. The method is based on the reflection of coherent laser light by a relativistically moving mirror (flying mirror. Due to the double Doppler effect, the reflected pulses are upshifted in frequency and compressed in time. Such mirrors are formed when an intense short laser pulse excites a strongly nonlinear plasma wave in tenuous plasma. Theory, proof-of-principle, experiments, and possible applications are addressed.

  9. Ultra short pulse laser generated surface textures for anti-ice applications in aviation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Römer, G.W.; Del Cerro, D.A.; Sipkema, R.C.J.; Groenendijk, M.N.W.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    By laser ablation with ultra short laser pulses in the pico- and femto-second range, well controlled dual scaled micro- and nano-scaled surface textures can be obtained. The micro-scale of the texture is mainly determined by the dimensions of the laser spot, whereas the superimposed nano-structure

  10. Status and trends of short pulse generation using mode-locked lasers based on advanced quantum-dot active media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, L W; Chen, Y H; Xu, B; Wang, Z C; Jiao, Y H; Wang, Z G

    2007-01-01

    In this review, the potential of mode-locked lasers based on advanced quantum-dot (QD) active media to generate short optical pulses is analysed. A comprehensive review of experimental and theoretical work on related aspects is provided, including monolithic-cavity mode-locked QD lasers and external-cavity mode-locked QD lasers, as well as mode-locked solid-state and fibre lasers based on QD semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors. Performance comparisons are made for state-of-the-art experiments. Various methods for improving important characteristics of mode-locked pulses such as pulse duration, repetition rate, pulse power, and timing jitter through optimization of device design parameters or mode-locking methods are addressed. In addition, gain switching and self-pulsation of QD lasers are also briefly reviewed, concluding with the summary and prospects. (topical review)

  11. Random pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ya'nan; Jin Dapeng; Zhao Dixin; Liu Zhen'an; Qiao Qiao; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2007-01-01

    Due to the randomness of radioactive decay and nuclear reaction, the signals from detectors are random in time. But normal pulse generator generates periodical pulses. To measure the performances of nuclear electronic devices under random inputs, a random generator is necessary. Types of random pulse generator are reviewed, 2 digital random pulse generators are introduced. (authors)

  12. Enhancement of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound Heating by Short-Pulse Generated Cavitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Yoshizawa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A target tissue can be thermally coagulated in high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU treatment noninvasively. HIFU thermal treatments have been clinically applied to various solid tumors. One of the problems in HIFU treatments is a long treatment time. Acoustically driven microbubbles can accelerate the ultrasonic heating, resulting in the significant reduction of the treatment time. In this paper, a method named “trigger HIFU exposure” which employs cavitation microbubbles is introduced and its results are reviewed. A trigger HIFU sequence consists of high-intensity short pulses followed by moderate-intensity long bursts. Cavitation bubbles induced in a multiple focal regions by rapidly scanning the focus of high-intensity pulses enhanced the temperature increase significantly and produced a large coagulation region with high efficiency.

  13. Generation of ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses with high temporal contrast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julien, A.

    2006-03-01

    The topic of this thesis work concerns the design and the characterization of an efficient device devoted to the temporal contrast improvement for ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulses. The contrast is defined as the intensity ratio between the main femtosecond pulse and its nanosecond pedestal. This pedestal is the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), inherent with laser amplification mechanism. The ASE background has dramatic effects for laser-matter interactions on a solid target. The presented work consists in the theoretical and experimental study of a temporal filter based on a third order nonlinear effect acting on the pulse polarization. We have studied several kinds of nonlinear filters. The selected device is based on the process of cross-polarized wave generation (XPW) in crystals with an anisotropic third-order nonlinear susceptibility. This nonlinear filter has been experimented on various femtosecond systems. It allows a contrast improvement of several orders of magnitude, as demonstrated by temporal profiles measurements on a large intensity dynamic. A device to improve the nonlinear process conversion efficiency, it means the filter transmission, has also been achieved. This method is based on constructive interferences between XPW signals generated in different crystals. This setup has made it possible to reach experimentally the maximum theoretical efficiency ( >20%) and in the same time ensures the system stability. At least, we have demonstrated that the filter preserves, or even improves, spectral and spatial qualities of the laser pulse. These results are thus particularly promising and allow contemplating the implementation of the filter in current femtosecond systems. (author)

  14. NANOSCALE STRUCTURES GENERATION WITHIN THE SURFACE LAYER OF METALS WITH SHORT UV LASER PULSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry S. Ivanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We have completed modeling of a laser pulse influence on a gold target. We have applied a hybrid atomistic-continuum model to analyze the physical mechanisms responsible for the process of nanostructuring. The model combines the advantages of Molecular Dynamics and Two Temperature Model. We have carried out a direct comparison of the modeling results and experimental data on nano-modification due to a single ps laser pulse at the energy densities significantly exceeding the melting threshold. The experimental data is obtained due to a laser pulse irradiation at the wavelength of 248 nm and duration of 1.6 ps. The mask projection (diffraction grating creates the sinusoidal intensity distribution on a gold surface with periods of 270 nm, 350 nm, and 500 nm. The experimental data and modeling results have demonstrated a good match subject to complex interrelations between a fast material response to the laser excitation, generation of crystal defects, phase transitions and hydrodynamic motion of matter under condition of strong laser-induced non-equilibrium. The performed work confirms the proposed approach as a powerful tool for revealing the physical mechanisms underlying the process of nanostructuring of metal surfaces. Detailed understanding of the dynamics of these processes gives the possibility for designing the topology of functional surfaces on nano- and micro-scales.

  15. Thin film beam splitter multiple short pulse generation for enhanced Ni-like Ag x-ray laser emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cojocaru, Gabriel V; Ungureanu, Razvan G; Banici, Romeo A; Ursescu, Daniel; Delmas, Olivier; Pittman, Moana; Guilbaud, Olivier; Kazamias, Sophie; Cassou, Kevin; Demailly, Julien; Neveu, Olivier; Baynard, Elsa; Ros, David

    2014-04-15

    An alternative, novel multiple pulse generation scheme was implemented directly after the optical compressor output of an x-ray pump laser. The new method uses a polarization sensitive thin film beam splitter and a half-wavelength wave plate for tuning the energy ratio in the multiple short pulses. Based on this method, an extensive study was made of the running parameters for a grazing incidence pumped silver x-ray laser (XRL) pumped with a long pulse of 145 mJ in 6 ns at 532 nm and up to 1.45 J in few picoseconds at 810 nm. Fivefold enhancement in the emission of the silver XRL was demonstrated using the new pump method.

  16. Pulse pile-up. I: Short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1990-07-01

    The search for rare large pulses against an intense background of smaller ones involves consideration of pulse pile-up. Approximate methods are presented, based on ruin theory, by which the probability of such pile-up may be estimated for pulses of arbitrary form and of arbitrary pulse-height distribution. These methods are checked against cases for which exact solutions are available. The present paper is concerned chiefly with short pulses of finite total duration. (Author) (5 refs., 24 figs.)

  17. A 10-TW Pulsed Facility "PIRIT" for Investigation of Short-Wave Radiation Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popkov, N F; Ryaslov, E A; Kargin, V I; Pikar', A S; Kotel'nikov, D V; Melkozerov, A V

    1995-01-01

    The results of experiments with a plasma x-ray source in the PIRIT-2000 facility are presented in this paper. The facility is designed with module capacitive energy storage energizing vacuum inductive storage. The formation of a rapidly growing current pulse as well as its commutation on a load was carried out by a plasma opening switch. A vacuum diode as well as various types of plasma loads can be used for the generation of a high-power x-ray flux. The storage energy of a 54-module capacitive storage is up to 2 MJ, its inductance is 15 nH, and its output voltage is 500 kV. The peak current in the plasma load constituted 4 MA with a 150-ns rise time. The maximum integral energy output of x radiation measured by an open thermocouple calorimeter was as high as 100 kJ, while the primary storage energy was 1 MJ. The plasma load usage at a current of 4 MA ensured a 100-kJ generation in x-ray radiation and the density of the radiation flux at a distance of 1 m from the source was as much as 0.8 J/cm2, while near the source it was 10 J/cm2.

  18. Programmable pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue Zhihua; Lou Binqiao; Duan Xiaohui

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the design of programmable pulse generator that is based on a micro-controller and controlled by RS232 interface of personal computer. The whole system has good stability. The pulse generator can produce TTL pulse and analog pulse. The pulse frequency can be selected by EPLD. The voltage amplitude and pulse width of analog pulse can be adjusted by analog switches and digitally-controlled potentiometers. The software development tools of computer is National Instruments LabView5.1. The front panel of this virtual instrumentation is intuitive and easy-to-use. Parameters can be selected and changed conveniently by knob and slide

  19. Short pulse generation in a passively mode-locked photonic crystal semiconductor laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heuck, Mikkel; Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We present a new type of passively mode-locked laser with quantum wells embedded in photonic crystal waveguides operating in the slow light regime, which is capable of emitting sub picosecond pulses with widely controllable properties......We present a new type of passively mode-locked laser with quantum wells embedded in photonic crystal waveguides operating in the slow light regime, which is capable of emitting sub picosecond pulses with widely controllable properties...

  20. Pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bespalov, D.F.; Bykovskii, Yu.A.; Vergun, I.I.; Kozlovskii, K.I.; Kozyrev, Yu.P.; Leonov, R.K.; Simagin, B.I.; Tsybin, A.S.; Shikanov, A.Ie.

    1986-03-01

    The paper describes a new device for generating pulsed neutron fields, utilized in nuclear geophysics for carrying out pulsed neutron logging and activation analysis under field conditions. The invention employs a sealed-off neutron tube with a laser ion source which increases neutron yield to the level of 10 neutrons per second or higher. 2 refs., 1 fig

  1. Nanosecond bipolar pulse generators for bioelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shu; Zhou, Chunrong; Yang, Enbo; Rajulapati, Sambasiva R

    2018-04-26

    Biological effects caused by a nanosecond pulse, such as cell membrane permeabilization, peripheral nerve excitation and cell blebbing, can be reduced or cancelled by applying another pulse of reversed polarity. Depending on the degree of cancellation, the pulse interval of these two pulses can be as long as dozens of microseconds. The cancellation effect diminishes as the pulse duration increases. To study the cancellation effect and potentially utilize it in electrotherapy, nanosecond bipolar pulse generators must be made available. An overview of the generators is given in this paper. A pulse forming line (PFL) that is matched at one end and shorted at the other end allows a bipolar pulse to be produced, but no delay can be inserted between the phases. Another generator employs a combination of a resistor, an inductor and a capacitor to form an RLC resonant circuit so that a bipolar pulse with a decaying magnitude can be generated. A third generator is a converter, which converts an existing unipolar pulse to a bipolar pulse. This is done by inserting an inductor in a transmission line. The first phase of the bipolar pulse is provided by the unipolar pulse's rising phase. The second phase is formed during the fall time of the unipolar pulse, when the inductor, which was previously charged during the flat part of the unipolar pulse, discharges its current to the load. The fourth type of generator uses multiple MOSFET switches stacked to turn on a pre-charged, bipolar RC network. This approach is the most flexible in that it can generate multiphasic pulses that have different amplitudes, delays, and durations. However, it may not be suitable for producing short nanosecond pulses (<100 ns), whereas the PFL approach and the RLC approach with gas switches are used for this range. Thus, each generator has its own advantages and applicable range. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Short Pulse Laser Applications Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Town, R.J.; Clark, D.S.; Kemp, A.J.; Lasinski, B.F.; Tabak, M.

    2008-01-01

    We are applying our recently developed, LDRD-funded computational simulation tool to optimize and develop applications of Fast Ignition (FI) for stockpile stewardship. This report summarizes the work performed during a one-year exploratory research LDRD to develop FI point designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These results were sufficiently encouraging to propose successfully a strategic initiative LDRD to design and perform the definitive FI experiment on the NIF. Ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will begin in 2010 using the central hot spot (CHS) approach, which relies on the simultaneous compression and ignition of a spherical fuel capsule. Unlike this approach, the fast ignition (FI) method separates fuel compression from the ignition phase. In the compression phase, a laser such as NIF is used to implode a shell either directly, or by x rays generated from the hohlraum wall, to form a compact dense (∼300 g/cm 3 ) fuel mass with an areal density of ∼3.0 g/cm 2 . To ignite such a fuel assembly requires depositing ∼20kJ into a ∼35 (micro)m spot delivered in a short time compared to the fuel disassembly time (∼20ps). This energy is delivered during the ignition phase by relativistic electrons generated by the interaction of an ultra-short high-intensity laser. The main advantages of FI over the CHS approach are higher gain, a lower ignition threshold, and a relaxation of the stringent symmetry requirements required by the CHS approach. There is worldwide interest in FI and its associated science. Major experimental facilities are being constructed which will enable 'proof of principle' tests of FI in integrated subignition experiments, most notably the OMEGA-EP facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory of Laser Energetics and the FIREX facility at Osaka University in Japan. Also, scientists in the European Union have recently proposed the construction of a new FI facility, called HiPER, designed to

  3. PULSE SYNTHESIZING GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Q.A.

    1963-08-01

    >An electronlc circuit for synthesizing electrical current pulses having very fast rise times includes several sinewave generators tuned to progressively higher harmonic frequencies with signal amplitudes and phases selectable according to the Fourier series of the waveform that is to be synthesized. Phase control is provided by periodically triggering the generators at precisely controlled times. The outputs of the generators are combined in a coaxial transmission line. Any frequency-dependent delays that occur in the transmission line can be readily compensated for so that the desired signal wave shape is obtained at the output of the line. (AEC)

  4. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, V.E.; Ondarza R, R.

    2004-01-01

    The investigation of the laser interaction with plasma has been carried out mainly in laboratories of Europe, Japan and United States during the last decades. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in a non homogeneous plasma, the radiation absorption and the generation of suprathermal electrons, among others. Numerical simulations made by Denavit, for radiation pulses for up of 10 20 W/cm 2 on solid targets, have allowed to observe the generation of ionic crash fronts with high propagation speeds. In this work it is expanded the study of this effect through algorithms of particles simulation. (Author)

  5. Mechanism for the generation of 109 G magnetic fields in the interaction of ultraintense short laser pulse with an overdense plasma target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudan, R.N.

    1993-01-01

    The physical mechanism for the generation of very high ''dc'' magnetic fields in the interaction of ultraintense short laser pulse with an overdense plasma target originates in the spatial gradients and nonstationary character of the ponderomotive force. A set of model equations to determine the evolution of the ''dc'' fields is derived and it is shown that the ''dc'' magnetic field is of the same order of magnitude as the high frequency laser magnetic field

  6. Pulsed current generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenov, V.D.; Furman, Eh.G.

    1974-01-01

    The paper describes a current pulse generator with an auxiliary network consisting of a choke and diode in series designed to enlarge the range of pulse frequency control. One output of the network is connected to an adjustable valve cathode and via antoher auxiliary condenser to the point where the cathode of the main key unit is joined to the start of the magnetizing coil. A second output is connected to the anode of another adjustable valve and via another auxiliary condenser to the point where the anode of the other main key unit is joined to the end of the magnetizing coil. The generator can be used to excite the electromagnets of charged particle accelerators or in devices designed to produce magnetic fields. (author)

  7. Pulsed electron beam generation with fast repetitive double pulse system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Surender Kumar; Deb, Pankaj; Shyam, Anurag, E-mail: surender80@gmail.com [Energetics and Electromagnetics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Visakhapatnam (India); Sharma, Archana [Accelerator and Pulse Power Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2014-07-01

    Longer duration high voltage pulse (∼ 100 kV, 260 ns) is generated and reported using helical pulse forming line in compact geometry. The transmission line characteristics of the helical pulse forming line are also used to develop fast repetition double pulse system with very short inter pulse interval. It overcomes the limitations caused due to circuit parameters, power supplies and load characteristics for fast repetitive high voltage pulse generation. The high voltage double pulse of 100 kV, 100 ns with an inter pulse repetition interval of 30 ns is applied across the vacuum field emission diode for pulsed electron beam generation. The electron beam is generated from cathode material by application of negative high voltage (> 100 kV) across the diode by explosive electron emission process. The vacuum field emission diode is made of 40 mm diameter graphite cathode and SS mesh anode. The anode cathode gap was 6 mm and the drift tube diameter was 10 cm. The initial experimental results of pulsed electron beam generation with fast repetitive double pulse system are reported and discussed. (author)

  8. High-Power Short Pulsed Corona: Investigation of Electrical Parameters, Abatement of SO2 and Ozone Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokryvailo, A.; Yankelevich, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Electrical performance and chemical activity of a 50 MW, 100 kV, 22ns pulsed corona was studied in simulated air-SO 2 gas mixture in a coaxial reactor. Infrared and mass spectrometers and electrochemical sensors were used for gas diagnostics; solid byproducts were identified using X-ray fluorescent spectrometry. Electrochemical methods of gas diagnostics were not sufficiently reliable in view of the cross-influence of different gases, especially in ozone presence. The removal efficiency of SO 2 decreased at lower pollutant concentration and higher frequency, while the pulse energy was kept invariant. Removal efficiency in dry mixture was 25 g/kWh; in humid air, it was several times greater, which is attributed to the influence of OH radicals. In dry SO 2 -air mixture, the removal efficiency was much higher at positive polarity. Traces of many compounds were found and identified in treated gas. The precipitation of a yellowish powder identified as sulfur was observed. This effect was not previously noted in literature. It is ascribed to direct breaking of atomic bonds of the SO 2 molecule by energetic species. PSpice-based engineering model of corona-generator system is proposed. It was found that preliminary simulation results are in fair agreement with experimental data. The simulation revealed that surprisingly small part of the energy is coupled to plasma

  9. Pulsed Corona Discharge Generated By Marx Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sretenovic, G. B.; Obradovic, B. M.; Kovacevic, V. V.; Kuraica, M. M.; Puric J.

    2010-07-01

    The pulsed plasma has a significant role in new environmental protection technologies. As a part of a pulsed corona system for pollution control applications, Marx type repetitive pulse generator was constructed and tested in arrangement with wire-plate corona reactor. We performed electrical measurements, and obtained voltage and current signals, and also power and energy delivered per pulse. Ozone formation by streamer plasma in air was chosen to monitor chemical activity of the pulsed corona discharge.

  10. Wavelength dependence of momentum-space images of low-energy electrons generated by short intense laser pulses at high intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maharjan, C M; Alnaser, A S; Litvinyuk, I; Ranitovic, P; Cocke, C L

    2006-01-01

    We have measured momentum-space images of low-energy electrons generated by the interaction of short intense laser pulses with argon atoms at high intensities. We have done this over a wavelength range from 400 to 800 nm. The spectra show considerable structure in both the energy and angular distributions of the electrons. Some, but not all, energy features can be identified as multi-photon resonances. The angular structure shows a regularity which transcends the resonant structure and may be due instead to diffraction. The complexity of the results defies easy model-dependent interpretations and invites full solutions to Schroedinger's equation for these systems

  11. Kinetic study on non-thermal volumetric plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by a short pulse microwave or laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Wei, E-mail: yangwei861212@126.com; Zhou, Qianhong; Dong, Zhiwei [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2016-08-28

    This paper reports a kinetic study on non-thermal plasma decay in the early afterglow of air discharge generated by short pulse microwave or laser. A global self-consistent model is based on the particle balance of complex plasma chemistry, electron energy equation, and gas thermal balance equation. Electron-ion Coulomb collision is included in the steady state Boltzmann equation solver to accurately describe the electron mobility and other transport coefficients. The model is used to simulate the afterglow of microsecond to nanosecond pulse microwave discharge in N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and air, as well as femtosecond laser filament discharge in dry and humid air. The simulated results for electron density decay are in quantitative agreement with the available measured ones. The evolution of plasma decay under an external electric field is also investigated, and the effect of gas heating is considered. The underlying mechanism of plasma density decay is unveiled through the above kinetic modeling.

  12. Integrable discretizations of the short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose integrable semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the short pulse (SP) equation. The key construction is the bilinear form and determinant structure of solutions of the SP equation. We also give the determinant formulas of N-soliton solutions of the semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the SP equations, from which the multi-loop and multi-breather solutions can be generated. In the continuous limit, the full-discrete SP equation converges to the semi-discrete SP equation, and then to the continuous SP equation. Based on the semi-discrete SP equation, an integrable numerical scheme, i.e. a self-adaptive moving mesh scheme, is proposed and used for the numerical computation of the short pulse equation.

  13. Thermo mechanical design of normal-conducting deflecting cavities at the Advanced Photon Source for short x-ray pulse generation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brajuskovic, B.; Collins, J.; Den Hartog, P.; Morrison, L.; Waldschmidt, G.

    2008-01-01

    A normal-conducting deflecting cavity is being designed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) as a part of the short x-ray pulse project intended to provide users with approximately 2 picosecond x-rays. The system will use two pairs of 3-cell cavities in sectors 6ID and 7ID for the generation of the x-ray pulse in the 7ID beamline. The 3-cell cavities are designed to provide the desired beam deflection while absorbing in excess of 4 kW of power from a pulsed rf system and up to 2.6 kW in the damper system of high-order mode (HOM) and low-order mode (LOM) waveguides. Since the cavity frequency is very sensitive to thermal expansion, the cooling water system is designed so that it is able to control cavity temperature to within 0.1 C. This paper describes the optimization of the thermomechanical design of the cavity based on calculation of thermal stresses and displacement caused by the generated heat loads, and presents the design of a cooling water system required for the proper operation of the cavities.

  14. Short pulse generation from a passively mode-locked fiber optical parametric oscillator with optical time-stretch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yi; Wei, Xiaoming; Du, Shuxin; Wong, Kenneth K Y; Tsia, Kevin K; Xu, Yiqing

    2018-04-16

    We propose a passively mode-locked fiber optical parametric oscillator assisted with optical time-stretch. Thanks to the lately developed optical time-stretch technique, the onset oscillating spectral components can be temporally dispersed across the pump envelope and further compete for the parametric gain with the other parts of onset oscillating sidebands within the pump envelope. By matching the amount of dispersion in optical time-stretch with the pulse width of the quasi-CW pump and oscillating one of the parametric sidebands inside the fiber cavity, we numerically show that the fiber parametric oscillator can be operated in a single pulse regime. By varying the amount of the intracavity dispersion, we further verify that the origin of this single pulse mode-locking regime is due to the optical pulse stretching and compression.

  15. Powerful nanosecond pulse train generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isakov, I.F.; Logachev, E.I.; Opekunov, M.S.; Pechenkin, S.A.; Remnev, G.E.; Usov, Yu.P.

    1987-01-01

    A generator permitting to shape on the load pulsed with the repetition frequency of 10 3 -10 6 Hz and more is described. The amplitude of shaped voltage pulses is up to 150 kV at pulse duration equal to 50 ns. The generator comprises connected in-series with the load two shaping and two transmission lines realized on the base of the KVI-300 low-ohmic cable. The shaping lines are supplied from two independently connected pulse voltage generators for obtaining time interval between pulses > 10 -6 s; they may be also supplied from one generator for obtaining time interval -6 s. At the expense of reducing losses in the discharge circuit the amplitude of the second pulse grows with increase of time interval between pulses up to 300 ns, further on the curve flat-topping exists. The described generator is used in high-current accelerators, in which the primary negative pulse results in generation of explosive-emission plasma, and the second positive pulse provides ion beam shaping including ions of heavy metal used for production of a potential electrode. The generator multipulse mode is used for successive ion acceleration in the transport system

  16. High current transistor pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, V.; Cassel, R.

    1991-05-01

    A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current trapezoidally shaped pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in the capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of Darlington transistors. A combination of diodes and Darlington transistors is used to obtain trapezoidal or triangular shaped current pulses into an inductive load and to recover the remaining energy in the same capacitor bank without reversing capacitor voltage. The transistors work in the switch mode, and the power losses are low. The rack mounted pulse generators presently used at SLAC contain a 660 microfarad storage capacitor bank and can deliver 400 amps at 800 volts into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The pulse generators are used in several different power systems, including pulse to pulse bipolar power supplies and in application with current pulses distributed into different inductive loads. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled by the central computer system through a specially developed multichannel controller. Several years of operation with the pulse generators have proven their consistent performance and reliability. 8 figs

  17. Assembly delay line pulse generators

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1971-01-01

    Assembly of six of the ten delay line pulse generators that will power the ten kicker magnet modules. One modulator part contains two pulse generators. Capacitors, inductances, and voltage dividers are in the oil tank on the left. Triggered high-pressure spark gap switches are on the platforms on the right. High voltage pulse cables to the kicker magnet emerge under the spark gaps. In the centre background are the assembled master gaps.

  18. Generation of Femtosecond Electron and Photon Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Thongbai, Chitrlada; Kangrang, Nopadol; Kusoljariyakul, Keerati; Rhodes, Michael W; Rimjaem, Sakhorn; Saisut, Jatuporn; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wichaisirimongkol, Pathom; Wiedemann, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Femtosecond electron and photon pulses become a tool of interesting important to study dynamics at molecular or atomic levels. Such short pulses can be generated from a system consisting of an RF-gun with a thermionic cathode, an alpha magnet as a magnetic bunch compressor, and a linear accelerator. The femtosecond electron pulses can be used directly or used as sources to produce electromagnetic radiation of equally short pulses by choosing certain kind of radiation pruduction processes. At the Fast Neutron Research Facility (Thailand), we are especially interested in production of radiation in Far-infrared and X-ray regime. In the far-infrared wavelengths which are longer than the femtosecond pulse length, the radiation is emitted coherently producing intense radiation. In the X-ray regime, development of femtosecond X-ray source is crucial for application in ultrafast science.

  19. High-energy, short-pulse, carbon-dioxide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Lasers for fusion application represent a special class of short-pulse generators; not only must they generate extremely short temporal pulses of high quality, but they must do this at ultra-high powers and satisfy other stringent requirements by this application. This paper presents the status of the research and development of carbon-dioxide laser systems at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, vis-a-vis the fusion requirements

  20. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  1. Generation of a microelectron beam by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(1, 0) + TEM(0, 1) mode in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Shuji; Kawata, Shigeo; Kong, Qing; Miyauchi, Koichi; Sakai, Kei; Hasumi, Shotaro; Sonobe, Ryo; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2005-01-01

    The generation of a high energy microelectron bunch in vacuum by an intense short pulse laser in the TEM(1, 0) + TEM(0, 1) mode is investigated in this paper numerically and analytically. A focused short pulse laser in the TEM(1, 0) + TEM(0, 1) mode has a confinement effect on electrons in the transverse direction due to the transverse ponderomotive force, and at the same time the electrons are accelerated and compressed longitudinally by a longitudinal electric field. In our three-dimensional particle simulations, the maximum kinetic energy of electrons reaches 455 MeV, the maximum density is 3.87 x 10 10 cm -3 , and the normalized transverse and longitudinal rms emittances of accelerated electrons are of the order of 10 -6 m rad at the following parameter values: a 0 = eE 0 /(m e ω c) = 10 (where a 0 is the dimensionless parameter of the laser amplitude, e and m e are the electron charge and rest mass, respectively, E 0 is the laser amplitude, ω the angular frequency of the laser and c the speed of light in vacuum), a laser wavelength λ = 0.8 μm, laser spot size 20λ, laser pulse length 5λ and initial electron velocity 0.99c. Moreover, the transverse and longitudinal sizes of the compressed electron bunch are about 600λ and 10λ, respectively. In this paper, we also present a scaling law of the maximum electron energy. The estimated results of the maximum electron energy coincide well with the simulation results

  2. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of the short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez V, V.E.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma is the state of the matter but diffused in the nature. The sun and the stars big heaps of hot plasma can be considered. The external surface of the terrestrial atmosphere this recovered by a layer of plasma. All gassy discharge (lightning spark arch etc.) this related with the formation of plasma. This way, 99 percent of our environment this formed almost of plasma. It is denominated plasma to the ionized gas in the one which all or most of the atoms have lost one or several of the electrons that belonged him, becoming positive ions and free electrons. In the plasma certain physical characteristics exist as for their behavior like they are the collective movements the quasi neutrality, the Debye length, the uncertainty etc. All these behaviors make that the study of the plasma is complex. For this they exist technical of numeric simulation joined to the technological advance of big computers of more capacity and prosecution speed. The simulation techniques of particles are those where a numeric code is built based on a model or theory of a system that it is wanted to investigate. This way through the simulation the results are compared with those theoretical predictions based on an analytic model. The applications of the physics of the plasma are multiple however we focus ourselves in the interaction laser-plasma. Both finish decades of investigation in the interaction of lasers with plasma they have been carried out in laboratories of Europe, Japan, United States. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in dense plasma homogeneous, the radiation absorption in cold plasma and problems related with the generation of suprathermal electrons among others. Other areas of the physics of the plasma-laser interaction that it has been considerable attention is the broadly well-known field as parametric uncertainties induced instabilities by the light and that they include the dispersions for example stimulated Raman and Brillouin being able to

  3. The Vulcan pulse generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danson, C.N.; Edwards, C.B.; Wyatt, R.W.W.

    1985-01-01

    During the past two years several changes have been made to the front end system on the VULCAN pulse generating system. These changes give greater flexibility and a wider choice of operating conditions. This note gives an updated description of the system capabilities, and gives users of the facility an idea of the various pulse combinations that are available. (author)

  4. Inverse Bremsstrahlung Stabilization of Noise in the Generation of Ultra-short Intense Pulses by Backward Raman Amplification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, Richard L.; Clark, Daniel S.; Solodov, Andrei; Valeo, Ernest J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2003-01-01

    Inverse bremsstrahlung absorption of the pump laser beam in a backward Raman amplifier over the round-trip light transit time through the sub-critical density plasma can more than double the electron temperature of the plasma and produce time-varying axial temperature gradients. The resulting increased Landau damping of the plasma wave and detuning of the resonance can act to stabilize the pump against unwanted amplification of Langmuir noise without disrupting nonlinear amplification of the femtosecond seed pulse. Because the heating rate increases with the charge state Z, only low-Z plasmas (hydrogen, helium, or helium-hydrogen mixtures) will maintain a low enough temperature for efficient operation

  5. Generation of “gigantic” ultra-short microwave pulses based on passive mode-locking effect in electron oscillators with saturable absorber in the feedback loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, N. S.; Denisov, G. G.; Vilkov, M. N.; Zotova, I. V.; Sergeev, A. S.

    2016-01-01

    A periodic train of powerful ultrashort microwave pulses can be generated in electron oscillators with a non-linear saturable absorber installed in the feedback loop. This method of pulse formation resembles the passive mode-locking widely used in laser physics. Nevertheless, there is a specific feature in the mechanism of pulse amplification when consecutive energy extraction from different fractions of a stationary electron beam takes place due to pulse slippage over the beam caused by the difference between the wave group velocity and the electron axial velocity. As a result, the peak power of generated “gigantic” pulses can exceed not only the level of steady-state generation but also, in the optimal case, the power of the driving electron beam.

  6. Pulse-voltage fast generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeev, R.I.; Nikiforov, M.G.; Kharchenko, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The design is described and the test results of a four-channel pulse-voltage generator with maximum output voltage 200 kV are presented. The measurement results of generator triggering time depending on the value and polarity of the triggering voltage pulse for different triggering circuits are presented. The tests have shown stable triggering of all four channels of the generator in the range up to 40 % from selfbreakdown voltage. The generator triggering delay in the given range is <25 ns, asynchronism in channel triggering is <±1 ns

  7. Bipolar pulse generator for intense pulsed ion beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Igawa, K.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2007-01-01

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named ''bipolar pulse accelerator'' (BPA) has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator for the bipolar pulse experiment, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the first experimental result of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PFL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time

  8. Pulsed neutron generator for logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibideau, F.D.

    1977-01-01

    A pulsed neutron generator for uranium logging is described. This generator is one component of a prototype uranium logging probe which is being developed by SLA to detect, and assay, uranium by borehole logging. The logging method is based on the measurement of epithermal neutrons resulting from the prompt fissioning of uranium from a pulsed source of 17.6 MeV neutrons. An objective of the prototype probe was that its diameter not exceed 2.75 inches, which would allow its use in conventional rotary drill holes of 4.75-inch diameter. This restriction limited the generator to a maximum 2.375-inch diameter. The performance requirements for the neutron generator specified that it operate with a nominal output of 5 x 10 6 neutrons/pulse at up to 100 pulses/second for a one-hour period. The development of a neutron generator meeting the preliminary design goals was completed and two prototype models were delivered to SLA. These two generators have been used by SLA to log a number of boreholes in field evaluation of the probe. The results of the field evaluations have led to the recommendation of several changes to improve the probe's operation. Some of these changes will require additional development effort on the neutron generator. It is expected that this work will be performed during 1977. The design and operation of the first prototype neutron generators is described

  9. High-voltage pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, M.

    1991-01-01

    This generator is composed of elementary impulsion generators connected in series. Each of them have -storage capacities, and switchs. The closure of switch causes an accumulator discharge. -control means of these switches are electrically independent and forecast to switch on by pulses in the same time -loading means of storage means have a very low enough electric dependence not to induce a loss of power at the exit of the generator. Applications to particle accelerators [fr

  10. Design Study for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Sung Kim

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Fast neutrons with a broad energy spectrum, with which it is possible to evaluate nuclear data for various research fields such as medical applications and the development of fusion reactors, can be generated by irradiating proton beams on target materials such as beryllium. To generate short-pulse proton beam, we adopted a deflector and slit system. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by the slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. Therefore, the available beam current is very low, which results in low neutron flux. In this study, we proposed beam modulation using a buncher cavity to increase the available beam current. The ideal field pattern for the buncher cavity is sawtooth. To make the field pattern similar to a sawtooth waveform, a multiharmonic buncher was adopted. The design process for the multiharmonic buncher includes a beam dynamics calculation and three-dimensional electromagnetic simulation. In addition to the system design for pulsed proton generation, a test bench with a microwave ion source is under preparation to test the performance of the system. The design study results concerning the pulsed proton beam generation and the test bench preparation with some preliminary test results are presented in this paper.

  11. Voltage-pulse generator for electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Enchevich, I.B.; Mikhov, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    A voltage-pulse generator with combined capacitive and inductive storage devices of an electron gun is described. The current interrupter is a hydrogen thyratron (TGI1-100/8, TGI1-500/16, or TGI1-1000/25) installed in a short magnetic lens. The current interruption time of the thyratrons is 100-300 nsec. When the capacitive storage device is charged to 1 kV, a voltage pulse with an amplitude of 25 kV is obtained at the load

  12. Short pulse laser systems for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical information on the clinical applications of short pulse laser systems and the techniques for optimizing these applications in a manner that will be relevant to a broad audience, including engineering and medical students as well as researchers, clinicians, and technicians. Short pulse laser systems are useful for both subsurface tissue imaging and laser induced thermal therapy (LITT), which hold great promise in cancer diagnostics and treatment. Such laser systems may be used alone or in combination with optically active nanoparticles specifically administered to the tissues of interest for enhanced contrast in imaging and precise heating during LITT. Mathematical and computational models of short pulse laser-tissue interactions that consider the transient radiative transport equation coupled with a bio-heat equation considering the initial transients of laser heating were developed to analyze the laser-tissue interaction during imaging and therapy. Experiments were first performe...

  13. A compact nanosecond pulse generator for DBD tube characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, S. K.; Dhakar, A. K.; Pal, U. N.

    2018-03-01

    High voltage pulses of very short duration and fast rise time are required for generating uniform and diffuse plasma under various operating conditions. Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) has been generated by high voltage pulses of short duration and fast rise time to produce diffuse plasma in the discharge gap. The high voltage pulse power generators have been chosen according to the requirement for the DBD applications. In this paper, a compact solid-state unipolar pulse generator has been constructed for characterization of DBD plasma. This pulsar is designed to provide repetitive pulses of 315 ns pulse width, pulse amplitude up to 5 kV, and frequency variation up to 10 kHz. The amplitude of the output pulse depends on the dc input voltage. The output frequency has been varied by changing the trigger pulse frequency. The pulsar is capable of generating pulses of positive or negative polarity by changing the polarity of pulse transformer's secondary. Uniform and stable homogeneous dielectric barrier discharge plasma has been produced successfully in a xenon DBD tube at 400-mbar pressure using the developed high voltage pulse generator.

  14. Pulsed water jet generated by pulse multiplication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dvorský, R.; Sitek, Libor; Sochor, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2016), s. 959-967 ISSN 1330-3651 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1406; GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0082 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : high- pressure pulses * pulse intensifier * pulsed water jet * water hammer effect Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.723, year: 2016 http://hrcak.srce.hr/163752?lang=en

  15. Microwave pulse generation by photoconductive switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pocha, M.D.; Druce, R.L.

    1989-03-14

    Laser activated photoconductive semiconductor switching shows significant potential for application in high power microwave generation. Primary advantages of this concept are: small size, light weight, ruggedness, precise timing and phasing by optical control, and the potential for high peak power in short pulses. Several concepts have been suggested for microwave generation using this technology. They generally fall into two categories (1) the frozen wave generator or (2) tuned cavity modulation, both of which require only fast closing switches. We have been exploring a third possibility requiring fast closing and opening switches, that is the direct modulation of the switch at microwave frequencies. Switches have been fabricated at LLNL using neutron irradiated Gallium Arsenide which exhibit response times as short as 50 ps at low voltages. We are in the process of performing high voltage tests. So far, we have been able to generate 2.4 kV pulses with approximately 340 ps response time (FWHM) using approximately a 200..mu..J optical pulse. Experiments are continuing to increase the voltage and improve the switching efficiency. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Microwave pulse generation by photoconductive switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocha, M. D.; Druce, R. L.

    1989-03-01

    Laser activated photoconductive semiconductor switching shows significant potential for application in high power microwave generation. Primary advantages of this concept are: small size, light weight, ruggedness, precise timing and phasing by optical control, and the potential for high peak power in short pulses. Several concepts have been suggested for microwave generation using this technology. They generally fall into two categories: (1) the frozen wave generator, or (2) tuned cavity modulation, both of which require only fast closing switches. We have been exploring a third possibility requiring fast closing and opening switches, that is the direct modulation of the switch at microwave frequencies. Switches have been fabricated at LLNL using neutron irradiated Gallium Arsenide which exhibit response times as short as 50 ps at low voltages. We are in the process of performing high voltage tests. So far, we have been able to generate 2.4 kV pulses with approximately 340 ps response time (FWHM) using approximately a 200 microJ optical pulse. Experiments are continuing to increase the voltage and improve the switching efficiency.

  17. Ultra-Wideband, Short Pulse Electromagnetics 9

    CERN Document Server

    Rachidi, Farhad; Kaelin, Armin; Sabath, Frank; UWB SP 9

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Ultra-wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 9 presents selected papers of deep technical content and high scientific quality from the UWB-SP9 Conference, which was held from July 21-25, 2008, in Lausanne, Switzerland. The wide-ranging coverage includes contributions on electromagnetic theory, time-domain computational techniques, modeling, antennas, pulsed-power, UWB interactions, radar systems, UWB communications, and broadband systems and components. This book serves as a state-of-the-art r...

  18. PSPICE simulation of bipolar pulse converter based on short-circuited coaxial transmission line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Lei; Fan Yajun

    2010-01-01

    The operating principle of the bipolar pulse converter based on short-circuited coaxial transmission line type is given. The output bipolar pulses are simulated by using PSPICE program on condition of different electric length and different impedance of the short-circuited coaxial transmission line. The bipolar pulses are generated by using unipolar pulse with pulse width of 2 ns in experiment, the experimental result fit well with the simulation result. (authors)

  19. Fast pulse beam generation systems for electron accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    The fast pulse beam generation system to supply the SLAC storage ring, SPEAR, by the two one nanosecond bunch electron beam pulses is described. Generation of these pulses is accomplished with a combination of a fast pulsed grided gun and a synchronized transverse beam chopper. Fast gun based on spherical cathode-grid assembly has output current up to 2As. Fast pulse amplifier system can handle trains of short pulses with repetition rates up to 40 MHz during the 1.6 μs normal accelerating time. Chopping deflector system consists of a resonant coaxial line with the deflecting plates. The resonator frequency is 39.667 MHz. A schematic diagram of the resonant system is shown. The fast beam pickup system has a one hundred picosecond rise time overrall. Fast beam generation and chopper systems permit to generate almost any short or single bunch beam profile needed for experiments

  20. Forge: a short pulse x-ray diagnostic development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.; Hurry, T.R.; Denbow, E.R.; Selph, M.M.; Ameduri, F.P.

    1985-01-01

    A new short pulse x-ray calibration facility has been brought on line at Los Alamos. This facility is being used for the development, testing and calibration of fast x-ray diagnostic systems. The x-ray source consists of a moderate size, sub-nanosecond laser focused at high intensity on an appropriate target material to generate short pulses of x-ray emission from the resulting plasma. Dynamic performance parameters of fast x-ray diagnostic instruments, such as x-ray streak cameras, can be conveniently measured using this facility

  1. Pulse generation scheme for flying electromagnetic doughnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papasimakis, Nikitas; Raybould, Tim; Fedotov, Vassili A.; Tsai, Din Ping; Youngs, Ian; Zheludev, Nikolay I.

    2018-05-01

    Transverse electromagnetic plane waves are fundamental solutions of Maxwells equations. It is less known that a radically different type of solutions has been described theoretically, but has never been realized experimentally, that exist only in the form of short bursts of electromagnetic energy propagating in free space at the speed of light. They are distinguished from transverse waves by a doughnutlike configuration of electric and magnetic fields with a strong field component along the propagation direction. Here, we demonstrate numerically that such flying doughnuts can be generated from conventional pulses using a singular metamaterial converter designed to manipulate both the spatial and spectral structure of the input pulse. The ability to generate flying doughnuts is of fundamental interest, as they shall interact with matter in unique ways, including nontrivial field transformations upon reflection from interfaces and the excitation of toroidal response and anapole modes in matter, hence offering opportunities for telecommunications, sensing, and spectroscopy.

  2. Harmonic generation with a dual frequency pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keravnou, Christina P; Averkiou, Michalakis A

    2014-05-01

    Nonlinear imaging was implemented in commercial ultrasound systems over the last 15 years offering major advantages in many clinical applications. In this work, pulsing schemes coupled with a dual frequency pulse are presented. The pulsing schemes considered were pulse inversion, power modulation, and power modulated pulse inversion. The pulse contains a fundamental frequency f and a specified amount of its second harmonic 2f. The advantages and limitations of this method were evaluated with both acoustic measurements of harmonic generation and theoretical simulations based on the KZK equation. The use of two frequencies in a pulse results in the generation of the sum and difference frequency components in addition to the other harmonic components. While with single frequency pulses, only power modulation and power modulated pulse inversion contained odd harmonic components, with the dual frequency pulse, pulse inversion now also contains odd harmonic components.

  3. Complementarity of long pulse and short pulse spallation sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mezei, F [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin GmbH (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    The complementarity of short pulse spallation sources (SPSS) and steady state (CW) reactors is a widely accepted concept. SPSS and long pulse spallation sources (LPSS) are complementary in two ways: (a) in their performance in neutron scattering experiments LPSS closely emulate CW reactors. In this respect two facets of the time-of-flight (TOF) monochromator method adequate for LPSS will be discussed: the superiority of the TOF approach to the crystal monochromator method in high resolution powder diffraction, and the novel technique of repetition rate multiplication in TOF spectroscopy, (b) LPSS combined with adequate chopper systems can also emulate SPSS in a number of applications. It will be shown that the LPSS method of producing short neutron pulses is more efficient for cold and thermal neutrons (below an energy of about 100 MeV), while SPSS is the more favourable approach for hot, epithermal neutrons, i.e. in the slowing down regime in contrast to the moderated regime. These two aspects of complementarity of LPSS and SPSS lead to the conclusions that for about 75% of the spectrum of neutron scattering experiments as known of today the LPSS approach is the most advantageous one with a feasible neutron intensity exceeding that available at ILL by a factor of about 30, while for the remaining 25% of applications the SPSS technique is superior with a well-known potential of a similar gain over present day performances. (author) 7 figs., 6 refs.

  4. Complementarity of long pulse and short pulse spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1995-01-01

    The complementarity of short pulse spallation sources (SPSS) and steady state (CW) reactors is a widely accepted concept. SPSS and long pulse spallation sources (LPSS) are complementary in two ways: a) in their performance in neutron scattering experiments LPSS closely emulate CW reactors. In this respect two facets of the time-of-flight (TOF) monochromator method adequate for LPSS will be discussed: the superiority of the TOF approach to the crystal monochromator method in high resolution powder diffraction, and the novel technique of repetition rate multiplication in TOF spectroscopy, b) LPSS combined with adequate chopper systems can also emulate SPSS in a number of applications. It will be shown that the LPSS method of producing short neutron pulses is more efficient for cold and thermal neutrons (below an energy of about 100 MeV), while SPSS is the more favourable approach for hot, epithermal neutrons, i.e. in the slowing down regime in contrast to the moderated regime. These two aspects of complementarity of LPSS and SPSS lead to the conclusions that for about 75% of the spectrum of neutron scattering experiments as known of today the LPSS approach is the most advantageous one with a feasible neutron intensity exceeding that available at ILL by a factor of about 30, while for the remaining 25% of applications the SPSS technique is superior with a well-known potential of a similar gain over present day performances. (author) 7 figs., 6 refs

  5. Custom pulse generator for RPC testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, A.; Castro, E.; Diaz, J.; Fonte, P.; Garzon, J.A.; Montes, N.; Zapata, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a pulse generator able to generate pulses statistically similar to the ones produced by RPC cells. The device generates up to four arrays of fast and narrow random-like pulses. Polarity, maximum amplitudes, widths and pulse rate in each channel may be modified independently in order to simulate different RPC setups and environments. This portable and cost-effective pulse generator is a versatile instrument for testing FE-Electronics and different real detector features related with the signal propagation inside the detector. It has been developed in the framework of the ESTRELA project of the HADES experiment at GSI.

  6. Application of nonlinear pulse shaping of femtosecond pulse generation in a fiber amplifier at 500 MHz repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Luo, Daping; Wang, Chao; Zhu, Zhiwei; Li, Wenxue

    2018-03-01

    We numerically and experimentally demonstrate that a nonlinear pulse shaping technique based on pre-chirping management in a short gain fiber can be exploited to improve the quality of a compressed pulse. With prior tuning of the pulse chirp, the amplified pulse express different nonlinear propagating processes. A spectrum with s flat top and more smooth wings, showing a similariton feature, generates with the optimal initial pulse chirp, and the shortest pulses with minimal pulse pedestals are obtained. Experimental results show the ability of nonlinear pulse shaping to enhance the quality of compressed pulses, as theoretically expected.

  7. High-repetition-rate short-pulse gas discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulip, J; Seguin, H; Mace, P N

    1979-09-01

    A high-average-power short-pulse gas discharge is described. This consists of a volume-preionized transverse discharge of the type used in gas lasers driven by a Blumlein energy storage circuit. The Blumlein circuit is fabricated from coaxial cable, is pulse-charged from a high-repetition-rate Marx-bank generator, and is switched by a high-repetition-rate segmented rail gap. The operation of this discharge under conditions typical of rare-gas halide lasers is described. A maximum of 900 pps was obtained, giving a power flow into the discharge of 30 kW.

  8. A Novel Subnanosecond Monocycle Pulse Generator for UWB Radar Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfan Xia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel ultra-wideband (UWB monocycle pulse generator with good performance is designed and demonstrated in this paper. It contains a power supply circuit, a pulse drive circuit, a unique pulse forming circuit, and a novel monopolar-to-monocycle pulse transition circuit. The drive circuit employs wideband bipolar junction transistors (BJTs and linear power amplifier transistor to produce a high amplitude drive pulse, and the pulse forming circuit uses the transition characteristics of step recovery diode (SRD effectively to produce a negative narrow pulse. At last, the monocycle pulse forming circuit utilizes a novel inductance L short-circuited stub to generate the monocycle pulse directly. Measurement results show that the waveform of the generated monocycle pulses is over 76 V in peak-to-peak amplitude and 3.2 ns in pulse full-width. These characteristics of the monocycle pulse are advantageous for obtaining long detection range and high resolution, when it is applied to ultra-wideband radar applications.

  9. A kilohertz picosecond x-ray pulse generation scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, W.; Borland, M.; Harkay, K. C.; Wang, C.-X.; Yang, B.

    2007-01-01

    The duration of the x-ray pulse generated at a synchrotron light source is typically tens of picoseconds. Shorter pulses are highly desired by the users. In electron storage rings, the vertical beam size is usually orders of magnitude less than the bunch length due to radiation damping; therefore, a shorter pulse can be obtained by slitting the vertically tilted bunch. Zholents proposed tilting the bunch using rf deflection. We found that tilted bunches can also be generated by a dipole magnet kick. A vertical tilt is developed after the kick in the presence of nonzero chromaticity. The tilt was successfully observed and a 4.2-ps pulse was obtained from a 27-ps electron bunch at the Advanced Photon Source. Based on this principle we propose a short-pulse generation scheme that produces picosecond x-ray pulses at a repetition rate of 1 utilde2 kHz, which can be used for pump-probe experiments

  10. Pulsed neutron generator for use with pulsed neutron activation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.

    1980-01-01

    A high-output, transportable, pulsed neutron generator has been developed by Sandia National Laboratories for use with Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) techniques. The PNA neutron generator generates > 10 10 14 MeV D-T neutrons in a 1.2 millisecond pulse. Each operation of the unit will produce a nominal total neutron output of 1.2 x 10 10 neutrons. The generator has been designed to be easily repaired and modified. The unit requires no additional equipment for operation or measurement of output

  11. Apparatus for generating nonlinear pulse patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.M.I.

    Apparatus for generating a plurality of nonlinear pulse patterns from a single linear pulse pattern. A first counter counts the pulses of the linear pulse pattern and a second counter counts the pulses of the nonlinear pulse pattern. A comparator compares the counts of both counters, and in response to an equal count, a gate is enabled to gate a pulse of the linear pattern as a pulse of the nonlinear pattern, the latter also resetting the first counter. Presettable dividers divide the pulses of each pattern before they are counted by the respective counters. Apparatus for generating a logarithmic pulse pattern from a linear pulse pattern to any log base is described. In one embodiment, a shift register is used in place of the second counter to be clocked by each pulse of the logarithmic pattern to generate the pattern. In another embodiment, a memory stores the logarithmic pattern and is addressed by the second counter which is clocked by the pulses of the logarithmic pulse pattern.

  12. High current high accuracy IGBT pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, V.V.; Donaldson, A.R.

    1995-05-01

    A solid state pulse generator capable of delivering high current triangular or trapezoidal pulses into an inductive load has been developed at SLAC. Energy stored in a capacitor bank of the pulse generator is switched to the load through a pair of insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBT). The circuit can then recover the remaining energy and transfer it back to the capacitor bank without reversing the capacitor voltage. A third IGBT device is employed to control the initial charge to the capacitor bank, a command charging technique, and to compensate for pulse to pulse power losses. The rack mounted pulse generator contains a 525 μF capacitor bank. It can deliver 500 A at 900V into inductive loads up to 3 mH. The current amplitude and discharge time are controlled to 0.02% accuracy by a precision controller through the SLAC central computer system. This pulse generator drives a series pair of extraction dipoles

  13. High-voltage pulse generator for electron gun power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Enchevich, I.B.; Mikhov, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    High-voltage pulse generator with combined capacitive and inductive energy storages for electron gun power supply is described. Hydrogen thyratron set in a short magnetic lense is a current breaker. Times of current interruption in thyratrons are in the range from 100 to 300 ns. With 1 kV charging voltage of capacitive energy storage 25 kV voltage pulse is obtained in the load. The given high-voltage pulse generator was used for supply of an electron gun generating 10-30 keV low-energy electron beam

  14. A high-voltage pulse generator for corona plasma generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, K.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Huijbrechts, P.A.H.J.; Gompel, van F.M.; Leuken, van H.E.M.; Matyas, Z.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a high-voltage pulse generator for producing corona plasma. The generator consists of three resonant charging circuits, a transmission line transformer, and a triggered spark-gap switch. Voltage pulses in the order of 30-100 kV with a rise time of 10-20 ns, a pulse duration of

  15. Generation of nanosecond S band microwave pulses based on superradiance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, N.S.; Zotova, I.V.; Rozental, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Modeling carried out demonstrates possibility of generation of gigawatt power level S band microwave pulse with duration of several nanoseconds using superradiation of short electron beam moving along slow-wave periodical structure. A 10 ns / 500 keV / 5 kA accelerator of Kanazawa University can be used in such experiments. It is shown that significant increasing peak power can be obtained by optimization of voltage and current pulses waveforms. Required increasing of electron energy and current by the end of electron pulse can be achieved by using self-acceleration of a short beam passing through a system of passive cavities. (author)

  16. Generation of nanosecond S band microwave pulses based on superradiance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, N.S.; Zotova, I.V.; Rozental, R.M. [Russian Academy of Science, Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod (RU)] [and others

    2002-06-01

    Modeling carried out demonstrates possibility of generation of gigawatt power level S band microwave pulse with duration of several nanoseconds using superradiation of short electron beam moving along slow-wave periodical structure. A 10 ns / 500 keV / 5 kA accelerator of Kanazawa University can be used in such experiments. It is shown that significant increasing peak power can be obtained by optimization of voltage and current pulses waveforms. Required increasing of electron energy and current by the end of electron pulse can be achieved by using self-acceleration of a short beam passing through a system of passive cavities. (author)

  17. DURATION LIMIT OF LASER PULSES EMITTED FROM A Ce-DOPED CRYSTAL SHORT CAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Hoang Hai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Based on the rate equation set for broadband cavities, the dependence of pulse duration on cavity and pumping parameters is analyzed. The cavity uses a Ce-doped crystal as a gain medium. Computation results show the variation of the pulse width with the change of cavity length, mirror reflectivity, pumping energy and pumping pulse duration. A significant influence of multiple-pulse operation in limiting pulse duration is realized and a pulse-width of the order 200 ps is found to be the limit for the direct generation of ultraviolet single picosecond pulses from a Ce:LLF short cavity.

  18. Pulse power applications of flux compression generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, C.M.; Caird, R.S.; Erickson, D.J.; Freeman, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Characteristics are presented for two different types of explosive driven flux compression generators and a megavolt pulse transformer. Status reports are given for rail gun and plasma focus programs for which the generators serve as power sources

  19. High reliability low jitter pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Mark E.; Stoltzfus, Brian S.

    2013-01-01

    A method and concomitant apparatus for generating pulses comprising providing a laser light source, disposing a voltage electrode between ground electrodes, generating laser sparks using the laser light source via laser spark gaps between the voltage electrode and the ground electrodes, and outputting pulses via one or more insulated ground connectors connected to the voltage electrode.

  20. Next generation Chirped Pulse Amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nees, J; Biswal, S; Mourou, G [Univ. Michigan, Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Nishimura, Akihiko; Takuma, Hiroshi

    1998-03-01

    The limiting factors of Chirped Pulse Amplification (CPA) are discussed and experimental results of CPA in Yb:glass regenerative amplifier are given. Scaling of Yb:glass to the petawatt level is briefly discussed. (author)

  1. Ultra-wideband short-pulse radar with range accuracy for short range detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T; Pankonin, Jeffrey; Heintzleman, Richard E; Kinzie, Nicola Jean; Popovic, Zorana P

    2014-10-07

    An ultra-wideband (UWB) radar transmitter apparatus comprises a pulse generator configured to produce from a sinusoidal input signal a pulsed output signal having a series of baseband pulses with a first pulse repetition frequency (PRF). The pulse generator includes a plurality of components that each have a nonlinear electrical reactance. A signal converter is coupled to the pulse generator and configured to convert the pulsed output signal into a pulsed radar transmit signal having a series of radar transmit pulses with a second PRF that is less than the first PRF.

  2. Effect of Pulse Width on Ozone Generation in Pulsed Streamer Discharges

    OpenAIRE

    Tamaribuchi, Hiroyuki; Wang, Douyan; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; タマリブチ, ヒロユキ; オウ, トエン; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 溜渕, 浩之; 王, 斗艶; 浪平, 隆男; 勝木, 淳; 秋山, 秀典

    2007-01-01

    Ozone has been used in treatment of drinking water andwaste water (e.g., deodorization, decolorization, anddisinfection). Though general ozonizers based on silentdischarge or barrier discharge have been used to supplyozone at many industrial situations, there is still someproblem, such as improvements of ozone concentrationand ozone yield.In this work, ozone was generated by pulsed powerdischarge in order to improve the characteristics of ozonegeneration. High electric field with short pulse ...

  3. Generation of Quasi-Gaussian Pulses Based on Correlation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POHOATA, S.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Gaussian pulses have been mostly used within communications, where some applications can be emphasized: mobile telephony (GSM, where GMSK signals are used, as well as the UWB communications, where short-period pulses based on Gaussian waveform are generated. Since the Gaussian function signifies a theoretical concept, which cannot be accomplished from the physical point of view, this should be expressed by using various functions, able to determine physical implementations. New techniques of generating the Gaussian pulse responses of good precision are approached, proposed and researched in this paper. The second and third order derivatives with regard to the Gaussian pulse response are accurately generated. The third order derivates is composed of four individual rectangular pulses of fixed amplitudes, being easily to be generated by standard techniques. In order to generate pulses able to satisfy the spectral mask requirements, an adequate filter is necessary to be applied. This paper emphasizes a comparative analysis based on the relative error and the energy spectra of the proposed pulses.

  4. Review of pulsed rf power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavine, T.L.

    1992-04-01

    I am going to talk about pulsed high-power rf generation for normal-conducting electron and positron linacs suitable for applications to high-energy physics in the Next Linear Collider, or NLC. The talk will cover some basic rf system design issues, klystrons and other microwave power sources, rf pulse-compression devices, and test facilities for system-integration studies

  5. Lax representations for matrix short pulse equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowicz, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The Lax representation for different matrix generalizations of Short Pulse Equations (SPEs) is considered. The four-dimensional Lax representations of four-component Matsuno, Feng, and Dimakis-Müller-Hoissen-Matsuno equations are obtained. The four-component Feng system is defined by generalization of the two-dimensional Lax representation to the four-component case. This system reduces to the original Feng equation, to the two-component Matsuno equation, or to the Yao-Zang equation. The three-component version of the Feng equation is presented. The four-component version of the Matsuno equation with its Lax representation is given. This equation reduces the new two-component Feng system. The two-component Dimakis-Müller-Hoissen-Matsuno equations are generalized to the four-parameter family of the four-component SPE. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of this generalization, for special values of parameters, is defined. This four-component SPE in special cases reduces to the new two-component SPE.

  6. Extremely Short Optical Pulses and Ads/CFT Compliance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konobeeva N.N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of few cycle optical pulses in non-Fermi liquid was considered. Energy spectrum of non-Fermi liquid was taken from the AdS/CFT compliance. Conditions of quasiparticle excitation existence were defined. Non-Fermi liquid parameters impact on the shape of few cycle pulses were estimated. It was shown that extremely short optical pulse propagation in the non-Fermi liquid is a stable pattern. The value of chemical potential has a significant impact on extremely short pulse shape. An increase in initial pulse amplitude does not result in pulse-shape distortions under its propagation in considered medium that is why the non-Fermi liquid can be used in applications inherent in extremely short pulse processing.

  7. A versatile programmable CAMAC random pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    A new technique for generating linear pulses which can be random in both amplitude and time is described. With this technique, desired values for both pulse amplitude and spacing are set for the individual pulses by the software on a pulse-by-pulse basis. The versatility offered by this software programming allows a wide range of distributions to be obtained; with the user having close control on the distribution parameters. A number of such distributions may also be combined into a single output pulse stream. An implementation in a CAMAC module is presented. Both hardware and software aspects are described and typical performance results for amplitude and time distributions of the uniform and Gaussian type are given. Implications of using the pulser in a typical data acquisition environment on both the data acquisition and the pulser performance are considered. Typical applications are discussed together with some of the limitations. (orig.)

  8. Temporal characterization of short-pulse third-harmonic generation in an atomic gas by a transmission-grating Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadogiannis, N A; Nersisyan, G; Goulielmakis, E; Rakitzis, T P; Hertz, E; Charalambidis, D; Tsakiris, G D; Witte, K

    2002-09-01

    By use of a transmission-grating-based Michelson interferometer, second-order interferometric as well as intensity autocorrelation traces of the third harmonic of a Ti:sapphire 50-fs laser beam produced in Ar have been measured. The duration of the harmonic is found to be that expected from lowest-order perturbation theory. At this wavelength, the performance of the interferometer with respect to pulse-front distortion and dispersion is found to be satisfactory. This result is a first step toward the use of the interferometer for the temporal characterization of higher harmonics or harmonic superposition forming attosecond pulse trains.

  9. A system for long pulse REB generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuzuki, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Mitsuru; Narihara, Kazumichi; Tomita, Yukihiro; Kubo, Shin; Kobata, Tadasuke; Mohri, Akihiro.

    1987-02-01

    A high voltage pulse generator system producing intense relativistic electron beams (REB) (1.5 μs pulse width, 30 kA peak current, 1 MeV energy) was developed to the use of REB ring formation. The system consists of a Marx generator, a transmission line with plastics-water hybrid insulators and a magnetically insulated transmission line connected with a cathode. The system has been well operated more than twenty thousands shots without troubles. (author)

  10. Pulse-shaping strategies in short-pulse fiber amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schimpf, Damian Nikolaus

    2010-02-09

    Ultrashort pulse lasers are an important tool in scientific and industrial applications. However, many applications are demanding higher average powers from these ultrashort pulse sources. This can be achieved by combining direct diode pumping with novel gain media designs. In particular, ultrashort pulse fiber lasers are now delivering average powers in the kW range. However, the design of fiber lasers, producing pulses with high peak-powers, is challenging due to the impact of nonlinear effects. To significantly reduce these detrimental effects in ultrashort pulse fiber amplifers, the combination of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and large mode area fibers is employed. Using these methods, the pulse energy of fiber lasers has been steadily increasing for the past few years. Recently, a fiber-based CPA-system has been demonstrated which produces pulse energies of around 1 mJ. However, both the stretching and the enlargement of the mode area are limited, and therefore, the impact of nonlinearity is still noticed in systems employing such devices. The aim of this thesis is the analysis of CPA-systems operated beyond the conventional nonlinear limit, which corresponds to accumulated nonlinear phase-shifts around 1 rad. This includes a detailed discussion of the influence of the nonlinear effect self-phase modulation on the output pulse of CPA-systems. An analytical model is presented. Emphasis is placed on the design of novel concepts to control the impact of self-phase modulation. Pulse-shaping is regarded as a powerful tool to accomplish this goal. Novel methods to control the impact of SPM are experimentally demonstrated. The design of these concepts is based on the theoretical findings. Both amplitude- and phase-shaping are studied. Model-based phase-shaping is implemented in a state-of-the-art fiber CPA-system. The influence of the polarization state is also highlighted. Additionally, existing techniques and recent advances are put into context. (orig.)

  11. Pulse-shaping strategies in short-pulse fiber amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schimpf, Damian Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    Ultrashort pulse lasers are an important tool in scientific and industrial applications. However, many applications are demanding higher average powers from these ultrashort pulse sources. This can be achieved by combining direct diode pumping with novel gain media designs. In particular, ultrashort pulse fiber lasers are now delivering average powers in the kW range. However, the design of fiber lasers, producing pulses with high peak-powers, is challenging due to the impact of nonlinear effects. To significantly reduce these detrimental effects in ultrashort pulse fiber amplifers, the combination of chirped pulse amplification (CPA) and large mode area fibers is employed. Using these methods, the pulse energy of fiber lasers has been steadily increasing for the past few years. Recently, a fiber-based CPA-system has been demonstrated which produces pulse energies of around 1 mJ. However, both the stretching and the enlargement of the mode area are limited, and therefore, the impact of nonlinearity is still noticed in systems employing such devices. The aim of this thesis is the analysis of CPA-systems operated beyond the conventional nonlinear limit, which corresponds to accumulated nonlinear phase-shifts around 1 rad. This includes a detailed discussion of the influence of the nonlinear effect self-phase modulation on the output pulse of CPA-systems. An analytical model is presented. Emphasis is placed on the design of novel concepts to control the impact of self-phase modulation. Pulse-shaping is regarded as a powerful tool to accomplish this goal. Novel methods to control the impact of SPM are experimentally demonstrated. The design of these concepts is based on the theoretical findings. Both amplitude- and phase-shaping are studied. Model-based phase-shaping is implemented in a state-of-the-art fiber CPA-system. The influence of the polarization state is also highlighted. Additionally, existing techniques and recent advances are put into context. (orig.)

  12. Stimulated brillouin backscatter of a short-pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkel, D.E.; Williams, E.A.; Berger, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin backscattering (SBBS) from a short-pulse laser, where the pulse length is short compared to the plasma length, is found to be qualitatively different than in the long pulse regime, where the pulse length is long compared to the plasma length. We find that after an initial transient of order the laser pulse length transit time, the instability reaches a steady state in the variables x' = x - V g t, t' = t, where V g is the pulse group velocity. In contrast, SBBS in a long pulse can be absolutely unstable and grows indefinitely, or until nonlinearities intervene. We find that the motion of the laser pulse induces Doppler related effects that substantially modify the backscattered spectrum at higher intensities, where the instability is strongly coupled (i.e. , has a growth rate large compared to the ion acoustic frequency)

  13. Evaluation of cytogenetic effects of very short laser pulsed radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedeney, G.; Courant, D.; Malarbet, J.-L.; Dolloy, M.-T.; Court, L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capacity of a laser, delivering very short pulses in the near infrared spectrum with a high pulse ratio frequency, to induce genetic modification on biological tissues. Chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations studies are used to test potential effect on human lymphocytes. The laser irradiation induces a significant increase of acentric fragments but the absence of dicentric suggests that a repetitive very short pulses irradiation has a relatively low capacity to induce genetic abnormalities. (author)

  14. Short-pulse laser interactions with disordered materials and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinney, L.M.; Goldman, C.H.; Longtin, J.P.; Tien, C.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    High-power, short-pulse lasers in the picosecond and subpicosecond range are utilized in an increasing number of technologies, including materials processing and diagnostics, micro-electronics and devices, and medicine. In these applications, the short-pulse radiation interacts with a wide range of media encompassing disordered materials and liquids. Examples of disordered materials include porous media, polymers, organic tissues, and amorphous forms of silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon dioxide. In order to accurately model, efficiently control, and optimize short-pulse, laser-material interactions, a thorough understanding of the energy transport mechanisms is necessary. Thus, fractals and percolation theory are used to analyze the anomalous diffusion regime in random media. In liquids, the thermal aspects of saturable and multiphoton absorption are examined. Finally, a novel application of short-pulse laser radiation to reduce surface adhesion forces in microstructures through short-pulse laser-induced water desorption is presented.

  15. Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruchon, T; Varju, K; Mansten, E; Swoboda, M; L'Huillier, A; Hauri, C P; Lopez-Martens, R

    2008-01-01

    We examine how the generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a partly ionized gas medium affect their strength and synchronization. The temporal properties of the resulting attosecond pulses generated in long gas targets can be significantly influenced by macroscopic effects, in particular by the intensity in the medium and the degree of ionization which control the dispersion. Under some conditions, the use of gas targets longer than the absorption length can lead to the generation of compressed attosecond pulses. We show these macroscopic effects experimentally, using a 6 mm-long argon-filled gas cell as the generating medium

  16. Macroscopic effects in attosecond pulse generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruchon, T; Varju, K; Mansten, E; Swoboda, M; L' Huillier, A [Department of Physics, Lund University, PO Box 118, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Hauri, C P; Lopez-Martens, R [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquee, Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees (ENSTA)-Ecole Polytechnique CNRS UMR 7639, 91761 Palaiseau (France)], E-mail: anne.lhuillier@fysik.lth.se

    2008-02-15

    We examine how the generation and propagation of high-order harmonics in a partly ionized gas medium affect their strength and synchronization. The temporal properties of the resulting attosecond pulses generated in long gas targets can be significantly influenced by macroscopic effects, in particular by the intensity in the medium and the degree of ionization which control the dispersion. Under some conditions, the use of gas targets longer than the absorption length can lead to the generation of compressed attosecond pulses. We show these macroscopic effects experimentally, using a 6 mm-long argon-filled gas cell as the generating medium.

  17. Generation of ultra-intense and ultra-short laser pulses with high temporal contrast; Generation d'impulsions laser ultra-breves et ultra-intenses a contraste temporel eleve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julien, A

    2006-03-15

    The topic of this thesis work concerns the design and the characterization of an efficient device devoted to the temporal contrast improvement for ultra-intense femtosecond laser pulses. The contrast is defined as the intensity ratio between the main femtosecond pulse and its nanosecond pedestal. This pedestal is the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE), inherent with laser amplification mechanism. The ASE background has dramatic effects for laser-matter interactions on a solid target. The presented work consists in the theoretical and experimental study of a temporal filter based on a third order nonlinear effect acting on the pulse polarization. We have studied several kinds of nonlinear filters. The selected device is based on the process of cross-polarized wave generation (XPW) in crystals with an anisotropic third-order nonlinear susceptibility. This nonlinear filter has been experimented on various femtosecond systems. It allows a contrast improvement of several orders of magnitude, as demonstrated by temporal profiles measurements on a large intensity dynamic. A device to improve the nonlinear process conversion efficiency, it means the filter transmission, has also been achieved. This method is based on constructive interferences between XPW signals generated in different crystals. This setup has made it possible to reach experimentally the maximum theoretical efficiency ( >20%) and in the same time ensures the system stability. At least, we have demonstrated that the filter preserves, or even improves, spectral and spatial qualities of the laser pulse. These results are thus particularly promising and allow contemplating the implementation of the filter in current femtosecond systems. (author)

  18. Optical soliton communication using ultra-short pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Sadegh Amiri, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    This brief analyzes the characteristics of a microring resonator (MRR) to perform communication using ultra-short soliton pulses. The raising of nonlinear refractive indices, coupling coefficients and radius of the single microring resonator leads to decrease in input power and round trips wherein the bifurcation occurs. As a result, bifurcation or chaos behaviors are seen at lower input power of 44 W, where the nonlinear refractive index is n2=3.2×10−20 m2/W. Using a decimal convertor system, these ultra-short signals can be converted into quantum information. Results show that multi solitons with FWHM and FSR of 10 pm and 600 pm can be generated respectively. The multi optical soliton with FWHM and FSR of 325 pm and 880 nm can be incorporated with a time division multiple access (TDMA) system wherein the transportation of quantum information is performed.

  19. Generation of frequency-chirped optical pulses with felix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knippels, G.M.H.; Meer, A.F.G. van der; Mols, R.F.X.A.M. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Frequency-chirped optical pulses have been produced in the picosecond regime by varying the energy of the electron beam on a microsecond time scale. These pulses were then compressed close to their bandwidth limit by an external pulse compressor. The amount of chirp can be controlled by varying the sweep rate on the electron beam energy and by cavity desynchronisation. To examine the generated chirp we used the following diagnostics: a pulse compressor, a crossed beam autocorrelator, a multichannel electron spectrometer and multichannel optical spectrometer. The compressor is build entirely using reflective optics to permit broad band operation. The autocorrelator is currently operating from 6 {mu}m to 30 {mu}m with one single crystal. It has been used to measure pulses as short as 500 fs. All diagnostics are evacuated to prevent pulse shape distortion or pulse lengthening caused by absorption in ambient water vapour. Pulse length measurements and optical spectra will be presented for different electron beam sweep rates, showing the presence of a frequency chirp. Results on the compression of the optical pulses to their bandwidth limit are given for different electron sweep rates. More experimental results showing the dependence of the amount of chirp on cavity desynchronisation will be presented.

  20. Ultra-short laser pulses. Petawatt and femtosecond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, P.

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with a series of new results obtained thanks to the use of ultra-short laser pulses. This branch of physics has made incredible progresses during the last 25 years. Ultra-short laser pulses offer the opportunity to explore the domain of ultra-high energies and of ultra-short duration events. Applications are various, from controlled nuclear fusion to eye surgery and to more familiar industrial applications such as electronics. (J.S.)

  1. Precise generator of stability amplitude pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuk, N.A.; Zdesenko, Yu.G.; Kuts, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    A generator of stability amplitude pulses, designed for stabilization of a low-noise semiconducting spectrometer, used in investigations of 76 Ge2β-decay, is described. The generator contains a permanent-voltage source, a storage element and a switch based on a Hg relay. A thermostatic source provides a relative voltage instability less than ±5x10 -6 per 80h (standard deviation). The Hg relay is placed into a separate thermostat. The relative instability of output generator pulse amplitude does not exceed ±1.5x10 -5 per 24h

  2. Strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields generation

    CERN Document Server

    Shneerson, German A; Krivosheev, Sergey I

    2014-01-01

    Strong pulsed magnetic fields are important for several fields in physics and engineering, such as power generation and accelerator facilities. Basic aspects of the generation of strong and superstrong pulsed magnetic fields technique are given, including the physics and hydrodynamics of the conductors interacting with the field as well as an account of the significant progress in generation of strong magnetic fields using the magnetic accumulation technique. Results of computer simulations as well as a survey of available field technology are completing the volume.

  3. Heat wave propagation in a thin film irradiated by ultra-short laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Jae Gwon; Kim, Cheol Jung; Lim, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    A thermal wave solution of a hyperbolic heat conduction equation in a thin film is developed on the basis of the Green's function formalism. Numerical computations are carried out to investigate the temperature response and the propagation of the thermal wave inside a thin film due to a heat pulse generated by ultra-short laser pulses with various laser pulse durations and thickness of the film

  4. Programmable pulse series generator for NMR relaxometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stolbunov, R.N.; Chichikov, S.A.; Lundin, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Paper describes a pulse series generator for NMR relaxometer. The operation mode is set on the basis of the PC program by the PCI bus in the internal memory. The design is based on two Altera Company MAX7000S and Cyclone family microcircuits using the Qartus II 4.0 software. The basic parameters are as follows: pulse minimum length - 50 ns, time resolution - 10 ns, pulse maximum number - 1024, number of controlled output channels - 8. The designed device as a part of the NMR hardware-software system enables to record, to process and to store the experiment results in the form of electronic document [ru

  5. Few-layer antimonene decorated microfiber: ultra-short pulse generation and all-optical thresholding with enhanced long term stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yufeng; Liang, Zhiming; Jiang, Xiantao; Chen, Yunxiang; Li, Zhongjun; Lu, Lu; Ge, Yanqi; Wang, Ke; Zheng, Jilin; Lu, Shunbin; Ji, Jianhua; Zhang, Han

    2017-12-01

    Antimonene, a new type of mono/few-layer two-dimensional (2D) mono-elemental material purely consisting of antimony similar as graphene and phosphorene, has been theoretically predicted with excellent optical response and enhanced stability. Herein, we experimentally investigated the broadband nonlinear optical response of highly stable few-layer antimonene (FLA) by performing an open-aperture Z-scan laser measurement. Thanks to the direct bandgap and resonant absorption at the telecommunication band, we demonstrated the feasibility of FLA-decorated microfiber not only as an optical saturable absorber for ultrafast photonics operation, but also as a stable all-optical pulse thresholder that can effectively suppress the transmission noise, boost the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and reshape the deteriorated input signal. Our findings, as the first prototypic device of absorption of antimonene, might facilitate the development of antimonene-based optical communication technologies towards high stability and practical applications in the future.

  6. High intensive short laser pulse interaction with submicron clusters media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A. Ya

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of short intense laser pulses with structured targets, such as clusters, exhibits unique features, stemming from the enhanced absorption of the incident laser light compared to solid targets. Due to the increased absorption, these targets are heated significantly, leading to enhanced emission of x rays in the keV range and generation of electrons and multiple charged ions with kinetic energies from tens of keV to tens of MeV. Possible applications of these targets can be an electron/ion source for a table top accelerator, a neutron source for a material damage study, or an x ray source for microscopy or lithography. The overview of recent results, obtained by the high intensive short laser pulse interaction with different submicron clusters media will be presented. High resolution K and L shell spectra of plasma generated by superintense laser irradiation of micron sized Ar, Kr and Xe clusters have been measured with intensity 10"17"-10"19"W/cm"2"and a pulse duration of 30-1000fs. It is found that hot electrons produced by high contrast laser pulses allow the isochoric heating of clusters and shift the ion balance toward the higher charge states, which enhances both the X ray line yield and the ion kinetic energy. Irradiation of clusters, produced from such gas mixture, by a fs Ti:Sa laser pulses allows to enhance the soft X ray radiation of Heβ(665.7eV)and Lyα(653.7eV)of Oxygen in 2-8 times compare with the case of using as targets pure CO"2"or N"2"O clusters and reach values 2.8x10"10"(∼3μJ)and 2.7x10"10"(∼2.9μJ)ph/(sr·pulse), respectively. Nanostructure conventional soft X ray images of 100nm thick Mo and Zr foils in a wide field of view (cm"2"scale)with high spatial resolution (700nm)are obtained using the LiF crystals as soft X ray imaging detectors. When the target used for the ion acceleration studies consists of solid density clusters embedded into the background gas, its irradiation by high intensity laser light makes the target

  7. Short-pulse lasers for weather control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    Filamentation of ultra-short TW-class lasers recently opened new perspectives in atmospheric research. Laser filaments are self-sustained light structures of 0.1–1 mm in diameter, spanning over hundreds of meters in length, and producing a low density plasma (1015–1017 cm‑3) along their path. They stem from the dynamic balance between Kerr self-focusing and defocusing by the self-generated plasma and/or non-linear polarization saturation. While non-linearly propagating in air, these filamentary structures produce a coherent supercontinuum (from 230 nm to 4 µm, for a 800 nm laser wavelength) by self-phase modulation (SPM), which can be used for remote 3D-monitoring of atmospheric components by Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging). However, due to their high intensity (1013–1014 W cm‑2), they also modify the chemical composition of the air via photo-ionization and photo-dissociation of the molecules and aerosols present in the laser path. These unique properties were recently exploited for investigating the capability of modulating some key atmospheric processes, like lightning from thunderclouds, water vapor condensation, fog formation and dissipation, and light scattering (albedo) from high altitude clouds for radiative forcing management. Here we review recent spectacular advances in this context, achieved both in the laboratory and in the field, reveal their underlying mechanisms, and discuss the applicability of using these new non-linear photonic catalysts for real scale weather control.

  8. Pulse generator circuit triggerable by nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, P.B.

    1980-01-01

    A pulse generator circuit triggerable by a pulse of nuclear radiation is described. The pulse generator circuit includes a pair of transistors arranged, together with other electrical components, in the topology of a standard monostable multivibrator circuit. The circuit differs most significantly from a standard monostable multivibrator circuit in that the circuit is adapted to be triggered by a pulse of nuclear radiation rather than electrically and the transistors have substantially different sensitivities to radiation, due to different physical and electrical characteristics and parameters. One of the transistors is employed principally as a radiation detector and is in a normally non-conducting state and the other transistor is normally in a conducting state. When the circuit is exposed to a pulse of nuclear radiation, currents are induced in the collector-base junctions of both transistors but, due to the different radiation sensitivities of the transistors, the current induced in the collector-base junction of the radiation-detecting transistor is substantially greater than that induced in the collector-base junction of the other transistor. The pulse of radiation causes the radiation-detecting transistor to operate in its conducting state, causing the other transistor to operate in its non-conducting state. As the radiation-detecting transistor operates in its conducting state, an output signal is produced at an output terminal connected to the radiation-detecting transistor indicating the presence of a predetermined intensity of nuclear radiation

  9. Concepts for the Temporal Characterization of Short Optical Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmsley Ian A

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for the characterization of the time-dependent electric field of short optical pulses are reviewed. The representation of these pulses in terms of correlation functions and time-frequency distributions is discussed, and the strategies for their characterization are explained using these representations. Examples of the experimental implementations of the concepts of spectrography, interferometry, and tomography for the characterization of pulses in the optical telecommunications environment are presented.

  10. Phase Noise Comparision of Short Pulse Laser Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Zhang; S. V. Benson; J. Hansknecht; D. Hardy; G. Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the phase noise measurement on several different mode-locked laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on the state of the art short pulse lasers, especially the drive lasers for photocathode injectors. A comparison between the phase noise of the drive laser pulses, electron bunches and FEL pulses will also be presented.

  11. Characteristics of short pulse grid pulser for an electron LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guicheng; Fang Zhigao; Hong Jun

    1996-01-01

    An equivalent circuit is used to obtain the output waveform of a short pulse grid pulser for an electron LINAC, and the amplitude of the output pulse is studied as a function of number of switching transistors for some kinds of transistor. Two pulsers were fabricated to fulfill the requirements of the 200 MeV LINAC at NSRL

  12. Terahertz pulse generation from metal nanoparticle ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kosaku; Takano, Keisuke; Tadokoro, Yuzuru; Phan, Thanh Nhat Khoa; Nakajima, Makoto

    2016-11-01

    Terahertz pulse generation from metallic nanostructures irradiated by femtosecond laser pulses is of interest because the conversion efficiency from laser pulses to terahertz waves is increased by the local field enhancement resulting from the plasmon oscillation. In this talk we present our recent study on terahertz generation from metal nanoparticle ink. We baked a silver nanoparticle ink spin-coated onto a glass coverslip in various temperatures. On the surface of the baked ink, bumpy nanostructures are spontaneously formed, and the average size of bumps depends on the baking temperature. These structures are expected to lead to local field enhancement and then large nonlinear polarizations on the surface. The baked ink was irradiated by the output of regeneratively amplified Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser at an incidence angle of 45°. Waveforms of generated terahertz pulses are detected by electro-optical sampling. The generation efficiency was high when the average diameter of bumps was around 100 nm, which is realized when the ink is baked in 205 to 235°C in our setup. One of our next research targets is terahertz wave generation from micro-patterned metallic nanoparticle ink. It is an advantage of the metal nanoparticle ink that by using inkjet printers one can fabricate various patterns with micrometer scales, in which terahertz waves have a resonance. Combination of microstructures made by a printer and nanostructure spontaneously formed in the baking process will provide us terahertz emitters with unique frequency characteristics.

  13. Generation of picosecond pulsed coherent state superpositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Tipsmark, Anders; Laghaout, Amine

    2014-01-01

    We present the generation of approximated coherent state superpositions-referred to as Schrodinger cat states-by the process of subtracting single photons from picosecond pulsed squeezed states of light. The squeezed vacuum states are produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC...... which exhibit non-Gaussian behavior. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America...

  14. Simulation of intense short-pulse laser-plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Mitsuru

    2000-01-01

    We have completed the massive parallelization of a 2-dimensional giga-particle code and have achieved a 530-fold acceleration rate with 512 processing elements (PE's). Using this we have implemented a simulation of the interaction of a solid thin film and a high intensity laser and have discovered a phenomenon in which high quality short pulses from the far ultraviolet to soft X-rays are generated at the back surface of the thin layer. We have also introduced the atomic process database code (Hullac) and have the possibility for high precision simulations of X-ray laser radiation. With respect to laser acceleration we have the possibility to quantitatively evaluate relativistic self-focusing assumed to occur in higher intensity fields. Ion acceleration from a solid target and an underdense plasma irradiated by an intense and an ultra intense laser, respectively, has also been studied by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. (author)

  15. Radiation and propagation of short acoustical pulses from underground explosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banister, J.R.

    1982-06-01

    Radiation and propagation of short acoustical pulses from underground nuclear explosions were analyzed. The cone of more intense radiation is defined by the ratio of sound speeds in the ground and air. The pressure history of the radiated pulse is a function of the vertical ground-motion history, the range, the burial depth, and the velocity of longitudinal seismic waves. The analysis of short-pulse propagation employed an N-wave model with and without enegy conservation. Short pulses with initial wave lengths less than 100 m are severely attenuated by the energy loss in shocks and viscous losses in the wave interior. The methods developed in this study should be useful for system analysis

  16. A pulse generator for xenon lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Janata, E

    2002-01-01

    A pulse generator is described, which enhances the analyzing light emitted from a xenon lamp as used in kinetic photospectrometry experiments. The lamp current is increased to 600 A for a duration of 3 ms; the current is constant within +-0.2% during a time interval of 2 ms. Because of instabilities of the lamp arc during pulsing, the use of the enhanced light source is limited to measuring times up to 500 mu s. The enhancement in light intensity depends on the wavelength and amounts to more than 400-fold in the UV-region.

  17. 4-channel time delayed pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetzel, L.F.S.; Rossi, J.O.; Del Bosco, E.

    1987-02-01

    It is described the project of a 4-channel delayed pulse generator employed to trigger the plasma centrifuge experiment of the Laboratorio Associado de Plasmas. The circuit delivers pulses with amplitude of 15V, full width at half maximum of 50μs and rise time of 0.7μs. The maximum time delay is 100ms. There are two channels with a fine adjustment of 0-1ms. The system can be manually or automatically driven. (author) [pt

  18. Pulse tube coolers for Meteosat third generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterworth, James; Aigouy, Gérald; Chassaing, Clement; Debray, Benoît; Huguet, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    Air Liquide's Large Pulse Tube Coolers (LPTC) will be used to cool the focal planes of the Infrared Sounder (IRS) and Flexible Combined Imager (FCI) instruments aboard the ESA/Eumetsat satellites Meteosat Third Generation (MTG). This cooler consists of an opposed piston linear compressor driving a pulse tube cold head and the associated drive electronics including temperature regulation and vibration cancellation algorithms. Preparations for flight qualification of the cooler are now underway. In this paper we present results of the optimization and qualification activities as well as an update on endurance testing

  19. Generation and characterization of atto second pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mairesse, Y.

    2005-07-01

    Atto-second pulse trains in the extreme ultraviolet range can be produced by high-order harmonic generation, by focusing an intense femtosecond pulse in a rare gas jet. In this thesis, we present a temporal characterization of this radiation on the femtosecond and atto-second timescales. By transposing a spectral interferometry technique commonly used in the infrared range (SPIDER), we make a complete single-shot characterization of the temporal profile of individual harmonics, on the femtosecond timescale. In a second part, we study experimentally the atto-second structure of the harmonic radiation, and demonstrate a temporal drift in the emission: the lowest harmonics are emitted before the highest ones. This chirp, which is directly related to the electron dynamics in the generation process, imposes a lower limit to the duration that can be achieved by increasing the spectral range. We show how generating conditions can be optimized in order to enhance the synchronization in the emission, and how atto-second pulses can be re-compressed. Last, we propose a new technique for the complete characterization of arbitrary atto-second pulses: FROGCRAB. This method would allow simultaneous measurements of the femtosecond and atto-second structures of the radiation, and thus a complete knowledge of the atto-second light source in the perspective of applications. (author)

  20. 1 MV low-induction pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koba, G.I.; Koba, Yu.V.; Slivkov, I.N.; Sukhov, A.D.; Tarumov, Eh.Z.

    1980-01-01

    A high-voltage pulse generator is described. The generator Uses the Arkadiev-Marx circuit at 1 MV voltage and 12 kJ energy; the inductance of the discharge circuit is 1.3 μN. Low inductance of the generator has been obtained due to the use of low-inductance capacitors and employment of bifilar buses with oil barrier insulation. To provide reliable generator triggering, an ignition circuit has been developed with a resistive coupling between generator steps, based on controlled three-electrode sparkgaps with a distorted field. The generator switching time is slightly dependent on pressure and constitutes 200-300 ns. The generator efficiency is 83%

  1. PNG-300 a nanosecond pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztaricskai, T.; Vasvary, L.; Petoe, G.C.; Devkin, B.V.

    1985-01-01

    The design and operation of a nanosecond-pulse neutron generator is reported. It was constructed for the measurement of prompt neutron and gamma radiation in experimental studies of fast neutron reactions by time of flight techniques. The acceleration voltage is 300 kV and the total resolution of the generator-neutron spectrometer system is 2 ns. The ion-optical system, the vacuum system and the control of the neutron generator is described in detail. The equipment was used for prompt neutron and gamma radiation induced in construction materials. (R.P.)

  2. Ion acceleration with ultra intense and ultra short laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floquet, V.

    2012-01-01

    Accelerating ions/protons can be done using short laser pulse (few femto-seconds) focused on few micrometers area on solid target (carbon, aluminum, plastic...). The electromagnetic field intensity reached on target (≥10 18 W.cm -2 ) allows us to turn the solid into a hot dense plasma. The dynamic motion of the electrons is responsible for the creation of intense static electric field at the plasma boundaries. These electric fields accelerate organic pollutants (including protons) located at the boundaries. This acceleration mechanism known as the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA) has been the topic of the research presented in this thesis.The goal of this work has been to study the acceleration mechanism and to increase the maximal ion energy achievable. Indeed, societal application such as proton therapy requires proton energy up to few hundreds of MeV. To proceed, we have studied different target configurations allowing us to increase the laser plasma coupling and to transfer as much energy as possible to ions (target with microspheres deposit, foam target, grating). Different experiments have also dealt with generating a pre-plasma on the target surface thanks to a pre-pulse. On the application side, fluorescent material such as CdWO 4 has been studied under high flux rate of protons. These high flux rates have been, up to now, beyond the conventional accelerators capabilities. (author) [fr

  3. Attosecond pulse trains generated using two color laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauritsson, J.; Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA; Johnsson, P.; Gustafsson, E.; L'Hullier, A.; Schafer, K.J.; Gaarde, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Complete test of publication follows. We present the generation of attosecond pulse trains from a superposition of an infrared (IR) laser field and its second harmonic. Our attosecond pulses are synthesized by selecting a number of synchronized harmonics generated in argon. By adding the second harmonic to the driving field the inversion symmetry of generation process is broken and both odd and even harmonics are generated. Consecutive half cycles in the two color field differ beyond the simple sign change that occurs in a one color field and have very different shapes and amplitudes. This sub-cycle structure of the field, which governs the generation of the attosecond pulses, depends strongly on the relative phase and intensity of the two fields, thereby providing additional control over the generation process. The generation of attosecond pulses is frequently described using the semi-classical three step model where an electron is: (1) ionized through tunneling ionization during one half cycle; (2) reaccelerated back towards the ion core by the next half cycle; where it (3) recombines with the ground-state releasing the access energy in a short burst of light. In the two color field the symmetry between the ionizing and reaccelerating field is broken, which leads to two possible scenarios: the electron can either be ionized during a strong half cycle and reaccelerated by a weaker field or vice versa. The periodicity is a full IR cycle in both cases and hence two trains of attosecond pulses are generated which are offset from each other. The generation efficiency, however, is very different for the two cases since it is determined mainly by the electric field strength at the time of tunneling and one of the trains will therefore dominate the other. We investigate experimentally both the spectral and temporal structure of the generated attosecond pulse trains as a function of the relative phase between the two driving fields. We find that for a wide range of

  4. Assessment and mitigation of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) impacts at short-pulse laser facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C G Jr; Bond, E; Clancy, T; Dangi, S; Eder, D C; Ferguson, W; Kimbrough, J; Throop, A

    2010-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will be impacted by electromagnetic pulse (EMP) during normal long-pulse operation, but the largest impacts are expected during short-pulse operation utilizing the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC). Without mitigation these impacts could range from data corruption to hardware damage. We describe our EMP measurement systems on Titan and NIF and present some preliminary results and thoughts on mitigation.

  5. Generation of an intense pulsed positron beam and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryoichi; Mikado, Tomohisa; Ohgaki, Hideaki; Chiwaki, Mitsukuni; Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Kobayashi, Yoshinori.

    1994-01-01

    A positron pulsing system for an intense positron beam generated by an electron linac has been developed at the Electrotechnical Laboratory. The pulsing system generates an intense pulsed positron beam of variable energy and variable pulse period. The pulsed positron beam is used as a non destructive probe for various materials researches. In this paper, we report the present status of the pulsed positron beam and its applications. (author)

  6. Studying the mechanism of micromachining by short pulsed laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadag, Shiva

    The semiconductor materials like Si and the transparent dielectric materials like glass and quartz are extensively used in optoelectronics, microelectronics, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) industries. The combination of these materials often go hand in hand for applications in MEMS such as in chips for pressure sensors, charge coupled devices (CCD), and photovoltaic (PV) cells for solar energy generation. The transparent negative terminal of the solar cell is made of glass on one surface of the PV cell. The positive terminal (cathode) on the other surface of the solar cell is made of silicon with a glass negative terminal (anode). The digital watches and cell phones, LEDs, micro-lens, optical components, and laser optics are other examples for the application of silicon and or glass. The Si and quartz are materials extensively used in CCD and LED for digital cameras and CD players respectively. Hence, three materials: (1) a semiconductor silicon and transparent dielectrics,- (2) glass, and (3) quartz are chosen for laser micromachining as they have wide spread applications in microelectronics industry. The Q-switched, nanosecond pulsed lasers are most extensively used for micro-machining. The nanosecond type of short pulsed laser is less expensive for the end users than the second type, pico or femto, ultra-short pulsed lasers. The majority of the research work done on these materials (Si, SiO 2, and glass) is based on the ultra-short pulsed lasers. This is because of the cut quality, pin point precision of the drilled holes, formation of the nanometer size microstructures and fine features, and minimally invasive heat affected zone. However, there are many applications such as large surface area dicing, cutting, surface cleaning of Si wafers by ablation, and drilling of relatively large-sized holes where some associated heat affected zone due to melting can be tolerated. In such applications the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of materials is very

  7. High power, repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davanloo, F; Borovina, D L; Korioth, J L; Krause, R K; Collins, C B [Univ. of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX (United States). Center for Quantum Electronics; Agee, F J [US Air Force Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States); Kingsley, L E [US Army CECOM, Ft. Monmouth, NJ (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The repetitive stacked Blumlein pulse power generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas consist of several triaxial Blumleins stacked in series at one end. The lines are charged in parallel and synchronously commuted with a single switch at the other end. In this way, relatively low charging voltages are multiplied to give a high discharge voltage across an arbitrary load. Extensive characterization of these novel pulsers have been performed over the past few years. Results indicate that they are capable of producing high power waveforms with rise times and repetition rates in the range of 0.5-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap, or photoconductive switch. The progress in the development and use of stacked Blumlein pulse generators is reviewed. The technology and the characteristics of these novel pulsers driving flash x-ray diodes are discussed. (author). 4 figs., 5 refs.

  8. 8th conference on Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyo, J. Scott; Baum, Carl E; Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 8; UWBSP8

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics Conference series is to focus on advanced technologies for the generation, radiation and detection of ultra-wideband short pulse signals, taking into account their propagation and scattering from and coupling to targets of interest. This Conference series reports on developments in supporting mathematical and numerical methods and presents current and potential future applications of the technology. Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 8 is based on the American Electromagnetics 2006 conference held from June 3-7 in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Topical areas covered in this volume include pulse radiation and measurement, scattering theory, target detection and identification, antennas, signal processing, and communications.

  9. Ultrafast pulse generation in photoconductive switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Dykaar, D. R.

    1996-01-01

    Carrier and field dynamics in photoconductive switches are investigated by electrooptic sampling and voltage-dependent reflectivity measurements. We show that the nonuniform field distribution due to the two-dimensional nature of coplanar photoconductive switches, in combination with the large di...... difference in the mobilities of holes and electrons, determine the pronounced polarity dependence. Our measurements indicate that the pulse generation mechanism is a rapid voltage breakdown across the photoconductive switch and not a local field breakdown...

  10. Songbirds use pulse tone register in two voices to generate low-frequency sound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth Kragh; Cooper, Brenton G.; Larsen, Ole Næsbye

    2007-01-01

    , the syrinx, is unknown. We present the first high-speed video records of the intact syrinx during induced phonation. The syrinx of anaesthetized crows shows a vibration pattern of the labia similar to that of the human vocal fry register. Acoustic pulses result from short opening of the labia, and pulse...... generation alternates between the left and right sound sources. Spontaneously calling crows can also generate similar pulse characteristics with only one sound generator. Airflow recordings in zebra finches and starlings show that pulse tone sounds can be generated unilaterally, synchronously...

  11. Pulsed corona generation using a diode-based pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemen, A. J. M.; Grekhov, I. V.; van Heesch, E. J. M.; Yan, K.; Nair, S. A.; Korotkov, S. V.

    2003-10-01

    Pulsed plasma techniques serve a wide range of unconventional processes, such as gas and water processing, hydrogen production, and nanotechnology. Extending research on promising applications, such as pulsed corona processing, depends to a great extent on the availability of reliable, efficient and repetitive high-voltage pulsed power technology. Heavy-duty opening switches are the most critical components in high-voltage pulsed power systems with inductive energy storage. At the Ioffe Institute, an unconventional switching mechanism has been found, based on the fast recovery process in a diode. This article discusses the application of such a "drift-step-recovery-diode" for pulsed corona plasma generation. The principle of the diode-based nanosecond high-voltage generator will be discussed. The generator will be coupled to a corona reactor via a transmission-line transformer. The advantages of this concept, such as easy voltage transformation, load matching, switch protection and easy coupling with a dc bias voltage, will be discussed. The developed circuit is tested at both a resistive load and various corona reactors. Methods to optimize the energy transfer to a corona reactor have been evaluated. The impedance matching between the pulse generator and corona reactor can be significantly improved by using a dc bias voltage. At good matching, the corona energy increases and less energy reflects back to the generator. Matching can also be slightly improved by increasing the temperature in the corona reactor. More effective is to reduce the reactor pressure.

  12. Experimental investigation of electron beam wave interactions utilising short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggins, Samuel Mark

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have investigated the production of ultra-short electromagnetic pulses and their interaction with electrons in various resonant structures. Diagnostic systems used in the measurements included large bandwidth detection systems for capturing the short pulses. Deconvolution techniques have been applied to account for bandwidth limitation of the detection systems and to extract the actual pulse amplitudes and durations from the data. A Martin-Puplett interferometer has been constructed for use as a Fourier transform spectrometer. The growth of superradiant electromagnetic spikes from short duration (0.5-1.0 ns), high current (0.6-2.0 kA) electron pulses has been investigated in a Ka-band Cherenkov maser and Ka- and W-band backward wave oscillators (BWO). In the Cherenkov maser, radiation spikes were produced with a peak power ≤ 3 MW, a duration ≥ 70 ps and a bandwidth ≤ 19 %. It is shown that coherent spontaneous emission from the leading edge of the electron pulse drives these interactions, giving rise to self-amplified coherent spontaneous emission (SACSE). BWO spikes were produced with a peak power ≤ 63 MW and a pulse duration ∼ 250 ps in the Ka-band and ≤ 12 MW and ∼ 170 ps in the W-band. Evidence of superradiant evolution has been observed in the measurements of scaling laws such as power scaling with the current squared and duration scaling inversely with the fourth root of the power. An X-band free-electron maser amplifier, in which a short (1.0ns) injected radiation pulse interacts with a long (∼ 140 ns) electron beam, has been investigated. The interaction is shown to evolve in the linear regime. The peak output power was 320 kW, which corresponded to a gain, approximately constant across the band, of 42 dB. Changes to the spectrum, that occur when the input radiation pulse is injected into electrons with an energy gradient, have been analysed. (author)

  13. Design of a ns-pulse generator with microwave studio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, T.; Voeten, S.J.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a design approach of a nanosecond pulse generator by using CST MICROWAVE STUDIO R . Through detailed simulation we arrive at a design for a fast rise-time variable pulse duration pulse generator which is able to produce 1–10 nanosecond pulses with tens of kilovolt amplitude.

  14. Interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with under-dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodov, A.

    2000-12-01

    Different aspects of interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with underdense plasmas are studied analytically and numerically. These studies can be interesting for laser-driven electron acceleration in plasma, X-ray lasers, high-order harmonic generation, initial confinement fusion with fast ignition. For numerical simulations a fully-relativistic particle code WAKE was used, developed earlier at Ecole Polytechnique. It was modified during the work on the thesis in the part of simulation of ion motion, test electron motion, diagnostics for the field and plasma. The studies in the thesis cover the problems of photon acceleration in the plasma wake of a short intense laser pulse, phase velocity of the plasma wave in the Self-Modulated Laser Wake-Field Accelerator (SM LWFA), relativistic channeling of laser pulses with duration of the order of a plasma period, ion dynamics in the wake of a short intense laser pulse, plasma wave breaking. Simulation of three experiments on the laser pulse propagation in plasma and electron acceleration were performed. Among the main results of the thesis, it was found that reduction of the plasma wave phase velocity in the SM LWFA is crucial for electron acceleration, only if a plasma channel is used for the laser pulse guiding. Self-similar structures describing relativistic guiding of short laser pulses in plasmas were found and relativistic channeling of initially Gaussian laser pulses of a few plasma periods in duration was demonstrated. It was shown that ponderomotive force of a plasma wake excited by a short laser pulse forms a channel in plasma and plasma wave breaking in the channel was analyzed in detail. Effectiveness of electron acceleration by the laser field and plasma wave was compared and frequency shift of probe laser pulses by the plasma waves was found in conditions relevant to the current experiments. (author)

  15. S100 lathe bed pulse generator applied to pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cernicchiaro, G.R.C.; Rudge, M.G.; Albuquerque, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The project and construction of four channel pulse generator in the S100 standard plate and its control software for microcomputer are described. The microcomputer has total control on the pulse generator, which has seven programable parameters, defining the position of four pulses and the width for the three first ones. This pulse generator is controlled by a software developed in c language, and is used in pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance experiences. (M.C.K.) [pt

  16. Universal pulse generator with a nanosecond fast responce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Nguen Kuang Min'.

    1977-01-01

    A pulse generator with nanosecond action is described; it is mainly designed for testing and tuning fast electronic devices operating with pulses in the N/1/M standard. The generator is principally based on integral circuits and has wide functional potentialities: it includes a main-pulse channel, a delayed-pulse channel, and an overall output, which sums up these pulses; in addition to the logic pulse outputs it includes a linear pulse output with an amplitude smoothly regulated in the range from 0.3 to 6.0 V; it can operate in the self-oscillation mode, in the pulse series formation mode, in the starting mode, and in the single-start mode. Two generators are placed in a double-width CAMAC cell. The generation frequency is from 3 Hz to 75 MHz, pulse duration from 8 to 320 ns, and pulse front duration 2 ns

  17. 21 CFR 870.3600 - External pacemaker pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External pacemaker pulse generator. 870.3600... pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external pacemaker pulse generator is a device that has a... intrinsic pacing sytem until a permanent pacemaker can be implanted, or to control irregular heartbeats in...

  18. 21 CFR 870.3610 - Implantable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Implantable pacemaker pulse generator. 870.3610 Section 870.3610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An implantable pacemaker pulse generator is a device that has...

  19. Pulse generation and compression using an asymmetrical porous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-11-03

    Nov 3, 2016 ... DOI 10.1007/s12043-016-1301-z. Pulse generation ... Silicon nanophotonics; porous silicon waveguide; pulse generation and compression. PACS Nos 42.70. ..... a switching single- and double-pulse generation tech- nique is ...

  20. A pulse generator of arbitrary shaped waveform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jiayou; Chen Zhihao

    2011-01-01

    The three bump magnets in the booster extraction system of SSRF are driven by a signal generator with an external trigger. The signal generator must have three independent and controllable outputs, and both amplitude and make-and-break should be controllable, with current state information being readable. In this paper, we describe a signal generator based on FPGA and DAC boards. It makes use of characteristics of both FPGA flex programmable and rich reconfigurable IO resources. The system has a 16-bit DAC with four outputs, using Matlab to write a GUI based on RS232 protocol for control. It was simulated in Modelsim and tested on board. The results indicate that the system is well designed and all the requirements are met. The arbitrary waveform is writable, and the pulse width and period can be controlled. (authors)

  1. Pulse Compression Techniques for Laser Generated Ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasi, R. F.; Madaras, E. I.

    1999-01-01

    Laser generated ultrasound for nondestructive evaluation has an optical power density limit due to rapid high heating that causes material damage. This damage threshold limits the generated ultrasound amplitude, which impacts nondestructive evaluation inspection capability. To increase ultrasound signal levels and improve the ultrasound signal-to-noise ratio without exceeding laser power limitations, it is possible to use pulse compression techniques. The approach illustrated here uses a 150mW laser-diode modulated with a pseudo-random sequence and signal correlation. Results demonstrate the successful generation of ultrasonic bulk waves in aluminum and graphite-epoxy composite materials using a modulated low-power laser diode and illustrate ultrasound bandwidth control.

  2. Short-pulse propagation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina

    Fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) are attractive because they can provide large gain over a broad range of central wavelengths, depending only on the availability of a suitable pump laser. In addition, FOPAs are suitable for the realization of all-optical signal processing functionalities...... transfer can be reduced in saturated F OPAs. In order to characterize propagation impairments such as dispersion and Kerr effect, affecting signals reaching multi-terabit per second per channel, short pulses on the order of 500 fs need to be considered. Therefore, a short pulses fiber laser source...... is implemented to obtain an all-fiber system. The advantages of all fiber-systems are related to their reliability, long-term stability and compactness. Fiber optical parametric chirped pulse amplification is promising for the amplification of such signals thanks to the inherent compatibility of FOPAs with fiber...

  3. Theory and simulation of ultra-short pulse laser interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R; Walling, R; Price, D; Guethlein, G; Stewart, R; Libby, S; Graziani, F; Levatin, J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    This paper describes recent Livermore work aimed at building computational tools to describe ultra-short pulse laser plasmas. We discuss calculations of laser absorption, atomic data for high-charge ions, and a new idea for linear-response treatment of non-equilibrium phenomena near LTE. (author)

  4. Observation of superradiance in a short-pulse FEL oscillator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaroszynski, D. A.; Chaix, P.; Piovella, N.; Oepts, D.; Knippels, G.M.H.; van der Meer, A. F. G.; Weits, H. H.

    1997-01-01

    Superradiance has been experimentally studied, in a short-pulse free-electron laser (FEL) oscillator. Superradiance is the optimal way of extracting optical radiation from an FEL and can be characterised by the following scale laws: peak optical power P, scales as the square of electron charge, Q,

  5. Attosecond pulse generation in noble gases in the presence of extreme high intensity THz pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, E.; Varju, K.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The shortest - attosecond - light pulses available today are produced by high harmonic generation (HHG) of near-infrared (NIR) laser pulses in noble gas jets, providing a broad spectral plateau of XUV radiation ending in a cutoff. The minimum pulse duration is determined by the achievable bandwidth (i.e. the position of the cutoff), and the chirp of the produced pulses. The extension of the cutoff by increasing the laser intensity is limited by the depletion and phase matching problems of the medium. An alternative method demonstrated to produce higher harmonic orders is by using longer pump pulse wavelength, with the disadvantage of decreased efficiency. Recently it was shown that application of a quasi-DC high strength electric field results in an increase of more than a factor of two in the order of efficiently generated high harmonics. However, the possibility to implement the method proposed in [3] of using a CO 2 laser to create a quasi-DC field for assisting HHG of the NIR laser is questionable, because it's technically very challenging to synchronize pulses from different laser sources. Alternatively, synchronous production of THz pulses with the NIR laser pulse offers a more promising route. The first numerical test of this idea has been reported in [4]. In this contribution we further investigate the method for realistic THz field strengths and short driving pulses, exploring the effect of longer pump laser wavelength on the process. We assume the presence of high intensity THz pulses for supplying the high-strength quasi-DC electric field. The spectrum as well as the chirp of the produced radiation is calculated. We use the non-adiabatic saddle point method to determine the generated radiation described in [6]. We simulate harmonic generation in noble gas atoms, with few cycle NIR pulses of peak intensity at and above 2 x 10 14 W/cm 2 (388 MV/cm) and wavelengths 800 nm and 1560 nm. The THz field strength is varied

  6. Self-reflection of extremely short light pulses in nonlinear optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurasov, Alexander E.; Kozlov, Sergei A.

    2004-07-01

    An equation describing the generation of reflected radiation during the propagation of high-intensity extremely short pulses in a nonlinear optical waveguide is derived. The phenomena taking place during the strong self-inducted changes of the temporal structure of the forward wave are studied. It is shown that the duration of the backward pulse is much greater than the duration of the forward pulse and that the main part of the energy of the backward wave is carried by lower frequencies than the central frequency of the forward wave.

  7. High voltage pulse generator. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G.E.

    1975-06-12

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator is described which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of the first rectifier connected between the first and second capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. The output voltage can be readily increased by adding additional charging networks. The circuit allows the peak level of the output to be easily varied over a wide range by using a variable autotransformer in the charging circuit.

  8. Experimental investigation of plasma dynamics in dc and short-pulse magnetron discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Sang-Hun; In, Jung-Hwan; Chang, Hong-Young

    2006-01-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) and of plasma parameters such as the electron density, the electron temperature and the plasma and floating potentials has been investigated using spatially and temporally resolved single Langmuir probe measurements in dc and mid-frequency, short-pulse magnetron discharges with a repetition frequency of 10 kHz and a duty cycle of 10%. In the pulsed discharge of the short duty cycle, a peak electron temperature higher than 10 eV was observed near the cathode fall region during the early phase of the pulse-on, which is about three times higher than the steady-state value of the electron temperature in the dc discharge. The temporal evolution of the measured EEDFs showed the initial efficient electron heating during the early phase of the pulse-on and the subsequent relaxation of electron energy by the inelastic collisions and the diffusive loss. The high-energy electrons generated during the pulse-on phase diffused the downstream region toward the grounded substrate, resulting in a bi-Maxwellian EEDF consisting of the background low-energy electrons and the high-energy electrons. The results of the spatially and temporally resolved probe measurements will be presented and the enhanced efficiency of the electron heating in the short-pulse discharge will be explained on the basis of the global model of a pulsed discharge

  9. Research on imploded plasma heating by short pulse laser for fast ignition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.; Kitagawa, Y.; Mima, K.

    2001-01-01

    Since the peta watt module (PWM) laser was constructed in 1995, investigated are heating processes of imploded plasmas by intense short pulse lasers. In order to heat the dense plasma locally, a heating laser pulse should be guided into compressed plasmas as deeply as possible. Since the last IAEA Fusion Conference, the feasibility of fast ignition has been investigated by using the short pulse GEKKO MII glass laser and the PWM laser with GEKKO XII laser. We found that relativistic electrons are generated efficiently in a preformed plasma to heat dense plasmas. The coupling efficiency of short pulse laser energy to a solid density plasma is 40% when no plasmas are pre-formed, and 20% when a large scale plasma is formed by a long pulse laser pre-irradiation. The experimental results are confirmed by numerical simulations using the simulation code 'MONET' which stands for the Monte-Carlo Electron Transport code developed at Osaka. In the GEKKO XII and PWM laser experiments, intense heating pulses are injected into imploded plasmas. As a result of the injection of heating pulse, it is found that high energy electrons and ions could penetrate into imploded core plasmas to enhance neutron yield by factor 3∼5. (author)

  10. Controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse and a series of single Trichel pulses in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Berendt, Artur; Akishev, Yuri

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a simple method for the controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of single Trichel pulses of a regulated repetition frequency in air is proposed. The concept of triggering a single Trichel pulse or a series of such pulses is based on the precise controlling the voltage inception of the negative corona, which can be accomplished through the use of a ramp voltage pulse or a series of such pulses with properly chosen ramp voltage pulse parameters (rise and fall times, and ramp voltage pulse repetition frequency). The proposal has been tested in experiments using a needle-to-plate electrode arrangement in air, and reproducible Trichel pulses (single or in a series) were obtained by triggering them with an appropriately designed voltage waveform. The proposed method and results obtained have been qualitatively analysed. The analysis provides guidance for designing the voltage ramp pulse in respect of the generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of single Trichel pulses. The controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of such pulses would be a helpful research tool for the refined studies of the fundamental processes in a negative corona discharge in a single- (air is an example) and multi-phase gaseous fluids. The controlled generation of a single Trichel pulse or a series of Trichel pulses can also be attractive for those corona treatments which need manipulation of the electric charge and heat portions delivered by the Trichel pulses to the object.

  11. Experimental Testing of a Van De Graaff Generator as an Electromagnetic Pulse Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A VAN DE GRAAFF GENERATOR AS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE GENERATOR THESIS...protection in the United States AFIT-ENP-MS-16-S-075 EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A VAN DE GRAAFF GENERATOR AS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE GENERATOR...RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENP-MS-16-S-075 EXPERIMENTAL TESTING OF A VAN DE GRAAFF GENERATOR AS AN ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSE GENERATOR

  12. A high current, short pulse electron source for wakefield accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Ching-Hung.

    1992-01-01

    Design studies for the generation of a high current, short pulse electron source for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator are presented. An L-band laser photocathode rf gun cavity is designed using the computer code URMEL to maximize the electric field on the cathode surface for fixed frequency and rf input power. A new technique using a curved incoming laser wavefront to minimize the space charge effect near the photocathode is studied. A preaccelerator with large iris to minimize wakefield effects is used to boost the drive beam to a useful energy of around 20 MeV for wakefield acceleration experiments. Focusing in the photocathode gun and the preaccelerator is accomplished with solenoids. Beam dynamics simulations throughout the preaccelerator are performed using particle simulation codes TBCI-SF and PARMELA. An example providing a useful set of operation parameters for the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator is given. The effects of the sagitta of the curved beam and laser amplitude and timing jitter effects are discussed. Measurement results of low rf power level bench tests and a high power test for the gun cavity are presented and discussed

  13. Micro-pulses generation in ECR breakdown stimulated by gyrotron radiation at 37,5 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalyga, V.; Zorin, V.; Izotov, I.; Golubev, S.; Razin, S.; Sidorov, A.; Vodopyanov, A.

    2012-01-01

    The present work is devoted to experimental and theoretical investigation of the creation of short pulsed (< 100 μs) multicharged ion beams. The possibility of quasi-stationary generation of short pulsed beams under conditions of quasi-gasdynamic plasma confinement was shown in recent experiments. Later another way of such beams creation based on the Pre-glow effect was proposed. In present work it was demonstrated that in the case when duration of microwave (MW) pulse is less than formation time of Pre-glow peak, realization of a regime when ion current is negligible during MW pulse and intense multicharged ions flux appears only when MW ends could be possible. Such pulses after the end of MW were called micro-pulses. In the present work the generation of micro-pulses was observed in experiments with ECR discharge stimulated by gyrotron radiation at 37,5 GHz, 100 kW. In this case pulses with duration less than 30 μs were obtained. Probably the same effect was observed in GANIL where 14 GHz radiation was used and pulses with duration about 2 ms were registered. In present work it was shown that the intensity of such micro-pulse could be higher than intensity of Pre-glow peak at the same conditions but with longer MW pulse. The generation of micro-pulses of nitrogen and argon multicharged ions with current of a few mA and length about 30 μs after MW pulse with duration of 30-100 μs was demonstrated. The low level of impurities, high current density and rather high average charge make possible to consider such micro-pulse regime as a possibility for the creation of a short pulsed ion source. The paper is followed by the slides of the presentation. (authors)

  14. A 350 KV nanosecond pulse voltage generator with adjustable pulsed-width

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Wang, M.; Chen, Y.Q.; Zeng, L.G.; Han, M.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a 350 kV nanosecond pulse voltage generator (NPVG). The voltage pulsed-width can be adjusted from 30 to 160 ns. The generator consists of: Marx generator, pulsed forming line (PFL), main switch and matched impedance. The output voltage of Marx generator is over than nU c (n- the stage number of Marx generator, U c -the charging voltage of capacitor). When the pulse forming line is terminated with an impedance that is over than the characteristic impedance of PFL, the higher voltage pulse was provided for the load

  15. Evaluation of bipolar pulse generator for high-purity pulsed ion beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Kitamura, I.; Masugata, K.

    2008-01-01

    A new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA)' has been proposed in order to improve the purity of intense pulsed ion beams. To confirm the principle of the BPA, we developed a bipolar pulse generator, which consists of a Marx generator and a pulse forming line (PFL) with a rail gap switch on its end. In this article, we report the experimental results of the bipolar pulse and evaluate the electrical characteristics of the bipolar pulse generator. When the bipolar pulse generator was operated at 70% of the full charge condition of the PEL, the bipolar pulse with the first (-138 kV, 72 ns) and the second pulse (+130 kV, 70 ns) was successfully obtained. The evaluation of the electrical characteristics indicates that the developed generator can produce the bipolar pulse with fast rise time and sharp reversing time. At present the bipolar pulse generator is installed in the B y type magnetically insulated ion diode and we carry out the experiment on the production of an intense pulsed ion beam by the bipolar pulse accelerator. (author)

  16. Twenty-channel high-voltage pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anan'in, P.S.; Kashirin, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    A 20-channel high-voltage pulse generator operating with a mismatched load is described. The generator contains shaping lines 20 m long made of coaxial cable, a trigatron-type discharged, and isolating plates. The channel characteristic impedance is 50 Ohm. The maximum pulse amplitude is up to 15 kV on a high-resistance load and 7.5 kV on a matched one. The pulse duration is 100 ns at a pulse rise time of 12 ns, the delay introduced by the generator is 200 +-2.5 ns. Provision is made in the control circuit for compensation of the shaped pulse and separation of a pulse reflected from the load. The reflected pulse shape and amplitude characterize load parameters. Generator tests proved its high operational reliability (after 10 5 operations no significant changes in generator performances have been observed). The generator is intended for filmless data output from spark chambers

  17. Double nanosecond pulses generation in ytterbium fiber laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiko, V. P.; Samokhvalov, A. A., E-mail: samokhvalov.itmo@gmail.com; Yakovlev, E. B.; Zhitenev, I. Yu.; Kliushin, A. N. [Saint-Petersburg State University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Kronverksky Pr. 49, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Lednev, V. N. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str., 38, Moscow (Russian Federation); National University of Science and Technology MISiS, Leninskyave., 4, Moscow (Russian Federation); Pershin, S. M. [Prokhorov General Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vavilov Str., 38, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Double pulse generation mode for nanosecond ytterbium fiber laser was developed. Two sequential 60-200 ns laser pulses with variable delay between them were generated by acousto-optic modulator opening with continuous diode pumping. A custom radio frequency generator was developed to produce two sequential “opening” radio pulses with a delay of 0.2–1 μs. It was demonstrated that double pulse generation did not decrease the average laser power while providing the control over the laser pulse power profile. Surprisingly, a greater peak power in the double pulse mode was observed for the second laser pulse. Laser crater studies and plasma emission measurements revealed an improved efficiency of laser ablation in the double pulse mode.

  18. An Ultra Low Noise Self-Starting Pulse Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lasri, J.; Bilenca, A.; Dahan, D.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating 10 GHz, 15 ps pulses with an average jitter of 43 fs and a o.15% amplitude noise over a frequency range of 500 Hz - 1 MHz.......We describe a self-starting optical pulse source generating 10 GHz, 15 ps pulses with an average jitter of 43 fs and a o.15% amplitude noise over a frequency range of 500 Hz - 1 MHz....

  19. Spectrally modified chirped pulse generation of sustained shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrane, S.D.; Moore, D.S.; Funk, D.J.; Rabie, R.L.

    2002-01-01

    A method is described for generating shock waves with 10-20 ps risetime followed by >200 ps constant pressure, using spectrally modified (clipped) chirped laser pulses. The degree of spectral clipping alters the chirped pulse temporal intensity profile and thereby the time-dependent pressure (tunable via pulse energy) generated in bare and nitrocellulose-coated Al thin films. The method is implementable in common chirped amplified lasers, and allows synchronous probing with a <200 fs pulse

  20. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma; Generacion de frentes de choque en la interaccion de pulsos cortos de luz laser intensa en plasmas supercriticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez V, V.E. [ITESST, 52650 Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Ondarza R, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The investigation of the laser interaction with plasma has been carried out mainly in laboratories of Europe, Japan and United States during the last decades. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in a non homogeneous plasma, the radiation absorption and the generation of suprathermal electrons, among others. Numerical simulations made by Denavit, for radiation pulses for up of 10{sup 20} W/cm{sup 2} on solid targets, have allowed to observe the generation of ionic crash fronts with high propagation speeds. In this work it is expanded the study of this effect through algorithms of particles simulation. (Author)

  1. Coherent combs in ionization by intense and short laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewska, K., E-mail: Katarzyna.Krajewska@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0299 (United States); Kamiński, J.Z., E-mail: Jerzy.Kaminski@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-03-22

    Photoionization of positive ions by a train of intense, short laser pulses is investigated within the relativistic strong field approximation, using the velocity gauge. The formation of broad peak structures in the high-energy domain of photoelectrons is observed and interpreted. The emergence of coherent photoelectron energy combs within these structures is demonstrated, and it is interpreted as the consequence of the Fraunhofer-type interference/diffraction of probability amplitudes of ionization from individual pulses comprising the train. Extensions to the coherent angular combs are also studied, and effects related to the radiation pressure are presented. - Highlights: • We develop relativistic Strong-Field Approximation for ionization by intense and short laser pulses of arbitrary spectral compositions. • We show that the consistent interpretation of results is provided by the Keldysh-type saddle point analysis of probability amplitudes. • We derive a general Fraunhofer-type interference/diffraction formula for finite train of pulses. • We study the coherent combs in photoelectron probability distributions.

  2. PHASE NOISE COMPARISON OF SHORT PULSE LASER SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukui Zhang; Stephen Benson; John Hansknecht; David Hardy; George Neil; Michelle D. Shinn

    2006-08-27

    This paper describes phase noise measurements of several different laser systems that have completely different gain media and configurations including a multi-kW free-electron laser. We will focus on state-of-the-art short pulse lasers, especially drive lasers for photocathode injectors. Phase noise comparison of the FEL drive laser, electron beam and FEL laser output also will be presented.

  3. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  4. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Alexander A; Mazarakis, Michael G; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A; Volkov, Sergey N; Kondratiev, Sergey S; Alexeenko, Vitaly M; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A

    2015-04-07

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first power delivery module that includes a first charge storage devices and a first switch. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver also includes a second power delivery module including a second charge storage device and a second switch. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The second pulse has a frequency that is approximately three times the frequency of the first pulse. The at least one ferrite ring is positioned to force the first pulse and the second pulse to the load by temporarily isolating the first pulse and the second pulse from an electrical ground.

  5. Generation of ozone by Ns-width pulsed power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Naoyuki; Wakimoto, Masaya; Shinke, Yosuke; Nagata, Masayoshi; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori

    2002-01-01

    The demand of ozone will be increasing for wholesome and environment-conscious sterilizations. The generation of ozone using the pulsed power discharge will apply electron accelerations around the head of streamer discharge principally. The breakdown in reactor often limits the efficient generation. Therefore, the pulse shape should be controlled for dimension of the reactor. It is clear that a pulse shortening is one of effective approaches. Pulsed power voltage with ns-width applies for ozone generation. The effects, on concentration and efficiency of generation, of pulse shape, repetition rate of pulse, flow rate of oxygen gas, and dimension and configuration of reactor, are discussed. The dimension and configuration of the reactor are optimized for the pulse width

  6. 10th and 11th conference on Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Mokole, Eric; UWB SP 10; UWB SP 11

    2014-01-01

    This book presents contributions of deep technical content and high scientific quality in the areas of electromagnetic theory, scattering, UWB antennas, UWB systems, ground penetrating radar (GPR), UWB communications, pulsed-power generation, time-domain computational electromagnetics, UWB compatibility, target detection and discrimination, propagation through dispersive media, and wavelet and multi-resolution techniques. Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Like previous books in this series, Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electrom...

  7. 7th conference on ultra-wideband, short-pulse electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Schenk, Uwe; Nitsch, Daniel; Sabath, Frank; Ultra-Wideband, Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 7; UWBSP7

    2007-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Ultra-Wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 7 presents selected papers of deep technical content and high scientific quality from the UWB-SP7 Conference, including wide-ranging contributions on electromagnetic theory, scattering, UWB antennas, UWB systems, ground penetrating radar (GPR), UWB communications, pulsed-power generation, time-domain computational electromagnetics, UWB compatibility, target detection and discrimination, propagation through dispersive media, and wavelet and multi-res...

  8. Extending ultra-short pulse laser texturing over large area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mincuzzi, G., E-mail: girolamo.mincuzzi@alphanov.com; Gemini, L.; Faucon, M.; Kling, R.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • We carried out metal surface texturing (Ripples, micro grooves, Spikes) using a high power, high repetition rate, industrial, Ultra-short pulses laser. • Extremely Fast processing is shown (Laser Scan speed as high as 90 m/s) with a polygon scanner head. • Stainless steel surface blackening with Ultra-short pulses laser has been obtained with unprecedented scanspeed. • Full SEM surface characterization was carried out for all the different structures obtained. • Reflectance measurements were carried out to characterize surface reflectance. - Abstract: Surface texturing by Ultra-Short Pulses Laser (UPL) for industrial applications passes through the use of both fast beam scanning systems and high repetition rate, high average power P, UPL. Nevertheless unwanted thermal effects are expected when P exceeds some tens of W. An interesting strategy for a reliable heat management would consists in texturing with a low fluence values (slightly higher than the ablation threshold) and utilising a Polygon Scanner Heads delivering laser pulses with unrepeated speed. Here we show for the first time that with relatively low fluence it is possible over stainless steel, to obtain surface texturing by utilising a 2 MHz femtosecond laser jointly with a polygonal scanner head in a relatively low fluence regime (0.11 J cm{sup −2}). Different surface textures (Ripples, micro grooves and spikes) can be obtained varying the scan speed from 90 m s{sup −1} to 25 m s{sup −1}. In particular, spikes formation process has been shown and optimised at 25 m s{sup −1} and a full morphology characterization by SEM has been carried out. Reflectance measurements with integrating sphere are presented to compare reference surface with high scan rate textures. In the best case we show a black surface with reflectance value < 5%.

  9. Pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, H.; Sueda, T.; Katschinski, U.; Katsuki, S.; Maeda, S.

    1996-01-01

    The pulsed power generators using an inductive energy storage system are extremely compact and lightweight in comparison with those using a capacitive energy storage system. The reliable and repetitively operated opening switch is necessary to realize the inductive pulsed power generator. Here, the pulsed power generators using the inductive energy storage system, which have been developed in Kumamoto University, are summarized. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Characteristics of bipolar-pulse generator for intense pulsed heavy ion beam acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igawa, K.; Tomita, T.; Kitamura, I.; Ito, H.; Masugata, K.

    2006-01-01

    Intense pulsed heavy ion beams are expected to be applied to the implantation technology for semiconductor materials. In the application it is very important to purify the ion beam. In order to improve the purity of an intense pulsed ion beams we have proposed a new type of pulsed ion beam accelerator named 'bipolar pulse accelerator (BPA)'. A prototype of the experimental system has been developed to perform proof of principle experiments of the accelerator. A bipolar pulse generator has been designed for the generation of the pulsed ion beam with the high purity via the bipolar pulse acceleration and the electrical characteristics of the generator were evaluated. The production of the bipolar pulse has been confirmed experimentally. (author)

  11. A simple sub-nanosecond ultraviolet light pulse generator with high repetition rate and peak power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binh, P H; Trong, V D; Renucci, P; Marie, X

    2013-08-01

    We present a simple ultraviolet sub-nanosecond pulse generator using commercial ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with peak emission wavelengths of 290 nm, 318 nm, 338 nm, and 405 nm. The generator is based on step recovery diode, short-circuited transmission line, and current-shaping circuit. The narrowest pulses achieved have 630 ps full width at half maximum at repetition rate of 80 MHz. Optical pulse power in the range of several hundreds of microwatts depends on the applied bias voltage. The bias voltage dependences of the output optical pulse width and peak power are analysed and discussed. Compared to commercial UV sub-nanosecond generators, the proposed generator can produce much higher pulse repetition rate and peak power.

  12. Generation of high harmonics and attosecond pulses with ultrashort ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-11

    Jul 11, 2014 ... Two aspects of ultrashort pulse filaments are specifically discussed: (i) numerical simulation results on pulse self-compression by filamentation in a gas cell filled with noble gas. Measurements of high harmonics generated by the pulse extracted from the filament allows for the detection of intensity spikes ...

  13. Harp, a short pulse, high current electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prestwich, K.R.

    1974-01-01

    A 3 MV, 800 kA, 24 ns electron beam accelerator is described and the results of initial switching experiments are discussed. The generator will provide a source for studying the physics of processes leading to electron beam driven, inertially confined fusion. The major components of the accelerator are two diodes with a common anode, twelve oil-dielectric Blumleins with low jitter (less than 2 ns) multichannel switches, three intermediate storage capacitors, a trigger pulse generator and two Marx generators. (U.S.)

  14. A comparison between short pulse spallation source and long pulse spallation source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aizawa, Kazuya; Watanabe, Noboru; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Niimura, Nobuo; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Osakabe, Toyotaka; Teshigawara, Makoto [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Mezei, F.

    1997-11-01

    The performance for a 5 MW short pulse spallation source (SPSS) and a 4.5 MW long pulse spallation source (LPSS) in a JAERI program which is based on the availability of a 1.5 GeV superconducting linac with a 30 mA peak current for both proton and H{sup -} beams is discussed. We have examined the superiority of SPSS to LPSS. While a LPSS facility is a second option, we propose an SPSS facility as a first option. (author)

  15. A comparison between short pulse spallation source and long pulse spallation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, Kazuya; Watanabe, Noboru; Suzuki, Jun-ichi; Niimura, Nobuo; Morii, Yukio; Katano, Susumu; Osakabe, Toyotaka; Teshigawara, Makoto; Mezei, F.

    1997-01-01

    The performance for a 5 MW short pulse spallation source (SPSS) and a 4.5 MW long pulse spallation source (LPSS) in a JAERI program which is based on the availability of a 1.5 GeV superconducting linac with a 30 mA peak current for both proton and H - beams is discussed. We have examined the superiority of SPSS to LPSS. While a LPSS facility is a second option, we propose an SPSS facility as a first option. (author)

  16. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hui; Hazi, A. U.; Maren, R. van; Chen, S. N.; Le Pape, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Shepherd, R.; Fuchs, J.; Gauthier, M.

    2010-01-01

    The ultraintense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In addition to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and nonimaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.

  17. An imaging proton spectrometer for short-pulse laser plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Hui; Hazi, A. U.; Maren, R. van; Chen, S. N.; Le Pape, S.; Rygg, J. R.; Shepherd, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livemore, California 94551 (United States); Fuchs, J.; Gauthier, M. [LULI Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2010-10-15

    The ultraintense short pulse laser pulses incident on solid targets can generate energetic protons. In addition to their potentially important applications such as in cancer treatments and proton fast ignition, these protons are essential to understand the complex physics of intense laser plasma interaction. To better characterize these laser-produced protons, we designed and constructed a novel spectrometer that will not only measure proton energy distribution with high resolution but also provide its angular characteristics. The information obtained from this spectrometer compliments those from commonly used diagnostics including radiochromic film packs, CR39 nuclear track detectors, and nonimaging magnetic spectrometers. The basic characterizations and sample data from this instrument are presented.

  18. Bunching phase evolution of short-pulse FEL oscillator system

    CERN Document Server

    Song, S B; Choi, D I

    2000-01-01

    We studied numerically the short-pulse FEL oscillator system using properly defined bunching phase theta sub B and PSI sub B. In stable operation, we have found that the optical field 'locks' the phase to pi/2 at the trailing edge, which gives the maximum gain. Moreover, electrons can be detrapped from ponderomotive bucket due to the spatial variation of the optical field, and this detrapping effect is a major cause of the limit cycle oscillation of the system. The 'bump' of the output power during the amplification usually exists at the near-perfect cavity synchronism regime, which can be explained as the change of the matching condition between electron micropulse and optical pulse.

  19. Traveling waves of the regularized short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y; Horikis, T P; Kevrekidis, P G; Frantzeskakis, D J

    2014-01-01

    The properties of the so-called regularized short pulse equation (RSPE) are explored with a particular focus on the traveling wave solutions of this model. We theoretically analyze and numerically evolve two sets of such solutions. First, using a fixed point iteration scheme, we numerically integrate the equation to find solitary waves. It is found that these solutions are well approximated by a finite sum of hyperbolic secants powers. The dependence of the soliton's parameters (height, width, etc) to the parameters of the equation is also investigated. Second, by developing a multiple scale reduction of the RSPE to the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we are able to construct (both standing and traveling) envelope wave breather type solutions of the former, based on the solitary wave structures of the latter. Both the regular and the breathing traveling wave solutions identified are found to be robust and should thus be amenable to observations in the form of few optical cycle pulses. (paper)

  20. Computational modeling of ultra-short-pulse ablation of enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, R.A.; Bailey, D.S.; Young, D.A. [and others

    1996-02-29

    A computational model for the ablation of tooth enamel by ultra-short laser pulses is presented. The role of simulations using this model in designing and understanding laser drilling systems is discussed. Pulses of duration 300 sec and intensity greater than 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} are considered. Laser absorption proceeds via multi-photon initiated plasma mechanism. The hydrodynamic response is calculated with a finite difference method, using an equation of state constructed from thermodynamic functions including electronic, ion motion, and chemical binding terms. Results for the ablation efficiency are presented. An analytic model describing the ablation threshold and ablation depth is presented. Thermal coupling to the remaining tissue and long-time thermal conduction are calculated. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements of the ablation efficiency. Desired improvements in the model are presented.

  1. Pulsed neutron generator for mass flow measurement using the pulsed neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G.E.; Hornsby, D.R.; Mareda, J.F.; Riggan, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    A high-output, transportable neutron generator has been developed to measure mass flow velocities in reactor safety tests using the Pulsed Neutron Activation (PNA) Technique. The PNA generator produces >10 10 14 MeV D-T neutrons in a 1.2 millisecond pulse. The Millisecond Pulse (MSP) Neutron Tube, developed for this application, has an expected operational life of 1000 pulses, and it limits the generator pulse repetition rate to 12 pulses/minute. A semiconductor neutron detector is included in the generator package to monitor the neutron output. The control unit, which can be operated manually or remotely, also contains a digital display with a BCD output for the neutron monitor information. The digital logic of the unit controls the safety interlocks and rejects transient signals which could accidently fire the generator

  2. Multifunctional pulse generator for high-intensity focused ultrasound system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamano, Satoshi; Yoshizawa, Shin; Umemura, Shin-Ichiro

    2017-07-01

    High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) can achieve high spatial resolution for the treatment of diseases. A major technical challenge in implementing a HIFU therapeutic system is to generate high-voltage high-current signals for effectively exciting a multichannel HIFU transducer at high efficiencies. In this paper, we present the development of a multifunctional multichannel generator/driver. The generator can produce a long burst as well as an extremely high-voltage short pulse of pseudosinusoidal waves (trigger HIFU) and second-harmonic superimposed waves for HIFU transmission. The transmission timing, waveform, and frequency can be controlled using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) via a universal serial bus (USB) microcontroller. The hardware is implemented in a compact printed circuit board. The test results of trigger HIFU reveal that the power consumption and the temperature rise of metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors were reduced by 19.9% and 38.2 °C, respectively, from the previous design. The highly flexible performance of the novel generator/driver is demonstrated in the generation of second-harmonic superimposed waves, which is useful for cavitation-enhanced HIFU treatment, although the previous design exhibited difficulty in generating it.

  3. Briquetting of titanium shavings with using of short electrical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramova, K.B.; Samujlov, S.D.; Filin, Yu.A.

    1998-01-01

    It is proposed and tested a new technology of briquetting of metallic shavings. The technology includes pressing of shavings with comparatively low pressure and processing it by means of short pulse of high density electrical current. Strength of the briquette arrears as a result of the sport electric welding of the contacts between the shaving particles. The technology permits: to produce firm briquettes from the shavings or other scrap of any metal or alloy, for example from titanium; to produce briquettes practically of any porosity; to decrease the compression and abandon heating almost for high-strength alloy in comparison with existing methods [ru

  4. 21 CFR 870.1750 - External programmable pacemaker pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. 870.1750 Section 870.1750 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... External programmable pacemaker pulse generator. (a) Identification. An external programmable pacemaker...

  5. Self-focusing and guiding of short laser pulses in ionizing gases and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esarey, E.; Sprangle, P.; Krall, J.; Ting, A.

    1997-01-01

    The propagation of intense laser pulses in gases and plasmas is relevant to a wide range of applications, including laser-driven accelerators, laser-plasma channeling, harmonic generation, supercontinuum generation, X-ray lasers, and laser-fusion schemes. Here, several features of intense, short-pulse (≤1 ps) laser propagation in gases undergoing ionization and in plasmas are reviewed, discussed, and analyzed. The wave equations for laser pulse propagation in a gas undergoing ionization and in a plasma are derived. The source-dependent expansion method is discussed, which is a general method for solving the paraxial wave equation with nonlinear source terms. In gases, the propagation of high-power (near the critical power) laser pulses is considered including the effects of diffraction, nonlinear self-focusing, ionization, and plasma generation. Self-guided solutions and the stability of these solutions are discussed. In plasmas, optical guiding by relativistic effects, ponderomotive effects, and preformed density channels is considered. The self-consistent plasma response is discussed, including plasma wave effects and instabilities such as self-modulation. Recent experiments on the guiding of laser pulses in gases and in plasmas are briefly summarized

  6. Short-time action electric generators to power physical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glebov, I.A.; Kasharskij, Eh.G.; Rutberg, F.G.; Khutoretskij, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by power-supply sources of the native electrophysical facilities have been analyzed and trends in designing foreign electric machine units of short-time action have been considered. Specifications of a generator, manufactured in the form of synchronous bipolar turbogenerator with an all-forged rotor with indirect air cooling of the rotor and stator windings are presented. Front parts of the stator winding are additionally fixed using glass-textolite rings, brackets and gaskets. A flywheel, manufactured in the form of all-forged steel cylinder is joined directly with the generator rotor by means of a half-coupling. An acceleration asynchronous engine with a phase rotor of 4 MW nominal capacity is located on the opposite side of the flywheel. The generator peak power is 242 MVxA; power factor = 0.9; energy transferred to the load 5per 1 pulse =00 MJ; the flywheel weight 81 t

  7. Single-cycle Optical Pulses and Isolated Attosecond Pulse Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    picosecond green light from a frequency-doubled hybrid cryogenic Yb:YAG laser system,” 36 UFO /HFSW 2009 (Arcachon, France, Aug. 31-Sept. 4, 2009...High Fields Short Wavelength,” ( UFO VII – HFSW XIII), Arcachon, France, August 31 – September 4, 2009 (invited). 25) Kyung-Han Hong, Juliet Gopinath

  8. Measurement of Ultra-Short Solitary Electromagnetic Pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gescheidtova

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In connection with the events of the last few years and with the increased number of terrorist activities, the problem of identification and measurement of electromagnetic weapons or other systems impact occurred. Among these are also microwave sources, which can reach extensive peak power of up to Pmax = 100 MW. Solitary, in some cases several times repeated, impulses lasting from tp E <1, 60>ns, cause the destruction of semiconductor junctions. These days we can find scarcely no human activity, where semiconductor structures are not used. The problem of security support of the air traffic, transportation, computer nets, banks, national strategic data canter’s, and other applications crops up. Several types of system protection from the ultra-short electromagnetic pulses present itself, passive and active protection. The analysis of the possible measuring methods, convenient for the identification and measurement of the ultra-short solitary electromagnetic pulses in presented in this paper; some of the methods were chosen and used for practical measurement. This work is part of Research object MSM262200022 "Research of microelectronic systems".

  9. Energy concentration on S-300 pulsed power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakshaev, Yu Z; Chernenko, A S; Korolev, V D; Mizhiritskij, V I; Zazhivikhin, V V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    Energy concentration in fast Z-pinch investigation experiments on an 8-module 10 TW pulsed power S-300 generator (1.3 MV, 45 ns FWHM, 0.15 Ohm) is realized by a 3-d vacuum energy concentrator. The concentrator was constructed on the basis of triplate MITLs connected in parallel at the central unit where the Z-pinch is formed. At some start-up experiments on the 8-module installation version at 700 kV incident wave amplitude on concentrator for a gas puff load current of 4 MA with rise time of about 60 ns was obtained. The efficiency or current transfer from the concentrator input to the load for both a gas liner and a short-circuited case was practically the same. (author). 4 figs., 4 refs.

  10. Generation of ultra-short relativistic-electron-bunch by a laser wakefield

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; Boller, Klaus J.; van Goor, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    The possibility of the generation of an ultra-short (about one micron long) relativistic (up to a few GeVs) electron-bunch in a moderately nonlinear laser wakefield excited in an underdense plasma by an intense laser pulse is investigated. The ultra-short bunch is formed by trapping, effective

  11. Strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. One- and two-photon Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seipt, Daniel

    2012-12-20

    The purpose of this thesis is to advance the understanding of strong-field QED processes in short laser pulses. The processes of non-linear one-photon and two-photon Compton scattering are studied, that is the scattering of photons in the interaction of relativistic electrons with ultra-short high-intensity laser pulses. These investigations are done in view of the present and next generation of ultra-high intensity optical lasers which are supposed to achieve unprecedented intensities of the order of 10{sup 24} W/cm{sup 2} and beyond, with pulse lengths in the order of some femtoseconds. The ultra-high laser intensity requires a non-perturbative description of the interaction of charged particles with the laser field to allow for multi-photon interactions, which is beyond the usual perturbative expansion of QED organized in powers of the fine structure constant. This is achieved in strong-field QED by employing the Furry picture and non-perturbative solutions of the Dirac equation in the presence of a background laser field as initial and final state wave functions, as well as the laser dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator. The primary objective is a realistic description of scattering processes with regard to the finite laser pulse duration beyond the common approximation of infinite plane waves, which is made necessary by the ultra-short pulse length of modern high-intensity lasers. Non-linear finite size effects are identified, which are a result of the interplay between the ultra-high intensity and the ultra-short pulse length. In particular, the frequency spectra and azimuthal photon emission spectra are studied emphasizing the differences between pulsed and infinite laser fields. The proper description of the finite temporal duration of the laser pulse leads to a regularization of unphysical infinities (due to the infinite plane-wave description) of the laser-dressed Dirac-Volkov propagator and in the second-order strong-field process of two-photon Compton

  12. Study of general digital DC/pulse neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gang; Liu Zheng; Li Wensheng; Liu Hanlin; Liu Linmao

    2014-01-01

    Preliminary experimental results of digital DC/pulse neutron generator based on a ceramic drive-in target neutron tube for explosives detection are presented. The generator is a portable and on-off neutron source, and it can be controlled by remote PC. The generator can produce DC neutrons, pulse neutrons and multiple pulse neutrons. The maximum neutron yield is about 2 × 10"8 n/s, the minimum pulse width is 10 μs and the maximum pulse frequency is 10 kHz. Neutron yield and time-spectrum is measured in China Academy of Engineering Physics. The generator is suitable for explosive detection with PFTNA technology, and it can be used in other areas such as reactor measurements and on-line industrial test systems. (authors)

  13. Intense isolated attosecond pulse generation from relativistic laser plasmas using few-cycle laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Guangjin; Dallari, William; Borot, Antonin; Tsakiris, George D.; Veisz, Laszlo; Krausz, Ferenc; Yu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    We have performed a systematic study through particle-in-cell simulations to investigate the generation of attosecond pulse from relativistic laser plasmas when laser pulse duration approaches the few-cycle regime. A significant enhancement of attosecond pulse energy has been found to depend on laser pulse duration, carrier envelope phase, and plasma scale length. Based on the results obtained in this work, the potential of attaining isolated attosecond pulses with ∼100 μJ energy for photons >16 eV using state-of-the-art laser technology appears to be within reach

  14. Development of transient collisional excitation x-ray laser with ultra short-pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Masataka; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tanaka, Momoko; Sukegawa, Kouta; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    We have observed lasing on Ne-like 3s-3p line from titanium (32.4 nm), Ni-like 4p-4d line from silver (13.9 nm) and tin (11.9 nm) with the transient collisional excitation (TCE) scheme that uses combination of a long pre-pulse (∼ns) and a short main pulse (∼ps). A gain coefficient of 23 cm -1 was measured for plasma length up to 4 mm with silver slab targets. We have also observed lasing on Ne-like and Ni-like lines with new TCE scheme that used pico-seconds laser pulse to generate plasma and observed strong improvement of x-ray laser gain coefficient. A gain coefficient of 14 cm -1 was measured for plasma length up to 6 mm with tin targets. (author)

  15. Compressing and focusing a short laser pulse by a thin plasma lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, C.; Duda, B. J.; Hemker, R. G.; Mori, W. B.; Katsouleas, T.; Antonsen, T. M.; Mora, P.

    2001-01-01

    We consider the possibility of using a thin plasma slab as an optical element to both focus and compress an intense laser pulse. By thin we mean that the focal length is larger than the lens thickness. We derive analytic formulas for the spot size and pulse length evolution of a short laser pulse propagating through a thin uniform plasma lens. The formulas are compared to simulation results from two types of particle-in-cell code. The simulations give a greater final spot size and a shorter focal length than the analytic formulas. The difference arises from spherical aberrations in the lens which lead to the generation of higher-order vacuum Gaussian modes. The simulations also show that Raman side scattering can develop. A thin lens experiment could provide unequivocal evidence of relativistic self-focusing

  16. Measurement and deconvolution of detector response time for short HPM pulses: Part 1, Microwave diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolton, P.R.

    1987-06-01

    A technique is described for measuring and deconvolving response times of microwave diode detection systems in order to generate corrected input signals typical of an infinite detection rate. The method has been applied to cases of 2.86 GHz ultra-short HPM pulse detection where pulse rise time is comparable to that of the detector; whereas, the duration of a few nanoseconds is significantly longer. Results are specified in terms of the enhancement of equivalent deconvolved input voltages for given observed voltages. The convolution integral imposes the constraint of linear detector response to input power levels. This is physically equivalent to the conservation of integrated pulse energy in the deconvolution process. The applicable dynamic range of a microwave diode is therefore limited to a smaller signal region as determined by its calibration

  17. Laser system using ultra-short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantus, Marcos [Okemos, MI; Lozovoy, Vadim V [Okemos, MI; Comstock, Matthew [Milford, MI

    2009-10-27

    A laser system using ultrashort laser pulses is provided. In another aspect of the present invention, the system includes a laser, pulse shaper and detection device. A further aspect of the present invention employs a femtosecond laser and binary pulse shaping (BPS). Still another aspect of the present invention uses a laser beam pulse, a pulse shaper and a SHG crystal.

  18. Fabrication of Multi-Harmonic Buncher for Pulsed Proton Beam Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, H. S.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S. [Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex, Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Fast neutrons with a broad spectrum can be generated by irradiating the proton beams on target materials. To measure the neutron energy by time of flight (TOF) method, the short pulse width of the proton beam is preferred because the neutron energy uncertainty is proportional to the pulse width. In addition, the pulse repetition rate should be low enough to extend the lower limit of the available neutron energy. Pulsed proton beam generation system is designed based on an electrostatic deflector and slit system as shown in Fig. 1. In a simple deflector with slit system, most of the proton beam is blocked by slit, especially when the beam pulse width is short. The ideal field pattern inside the buncher cavity is saw-tooth wave. To make the field pattern similar to the saw-tooth waveform, we adopted a multi-harmonic buncher (MHB). The design for the multi-harmonic buncher including 3D electromagnetic calculation has been performed. Based on the design, a multi-harmonic buncher cavity was fabricated. It consists of two resonators, two drift tubes and a vacuum chamber. The resonator is a quarter-wave coaxial resonator type. The drift tube is connected to the resonator by using a coaxial vacuum feedthrough. Design summary and detailed fabrication method of the multi-harmonic buncher is presented in this paper. A multi-harmonic buncher for a proton beam chopper system to generate a short pulse neutron beam was designed, fabricated and assembled.

  19. Current pulse generator of an induction accelerator electromagnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baginskij, B.A.; Makarevich, V.N.; Shtejn, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    Thyristor generator forming in betatron electromagnet coil sinusoidal and quasisinusoidal current unipolar pulses, the field being deforced at the beginning of acceleration cycle, and with the pulse flat top in the cycle end, is described. The current amplitude is controlled by pulse-phase method. The current pulse time shift permitted to decrease the loss rate in the accumulating capacitor. The generator is used in systems with 1-10 ms pulse duration, electromagnet magnetic field maximal energy - 45-450 J, the voltage amplitude in the coil 960-1500 V and amplitude of the current passing the coil 100-500 A, the repetition frequency being 50-200 Hz. In particular, the generator is used to supply betatrons designed for defectoscopy in nonstationary conditions, the accelerated electron energy being 4, 6, 8 and 15 MeV

  20. Stochastic modeling of the hypothalamic pulse generator activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camproux, A C; Thalabard, J C; Thomas, G

    1994-11-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) is released by the pituitary in discrete pulses. In the monkey, the appearance of LH pulses in the plasma is invariably associated with sharp increases (i.e, volleys) in the frequency of the hypothalamic pulse generator electrical activity, so that continuous monitoring of this activity by telemetry provides a unique means to study the temporal structure of the mechanism generating the pulses. To assess whether the times of occurrence and durations of previous volleys exert significant influence on the timing of the next volley, we used a class of periodic counting process models that specify the stochastic intensity of the process as the product of two factors: 1) a periodic baseline intensity and 2) a stochastic regression function with covariates representing the influence of the past. This approach allows the characterization of circadian modulation and memory range of the process underlying hypothalamic pulse generator activity, as illustrated by fitting the model to experimental data from two ovariectomized rhesus monkeys.

  1. Delayed neutron spectra from short pulse fission of uranium-235

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwater, H.F.; Goulding, C.A.; Moss, C.E.; Pederson, R.A.; Robba, A.A.; Wimett, T.F.; Reeder, P.; Warner, R.

    1986-01-01

    Delayed neutron spectra from individual short pulse (∼50 μs) fission of small 235 U samples (50 mg) were measured using a small (5 cm OD x 5 cm length) NE 213 neutron spectrometer. The irradiating fast neutron flux (∼10 13 neutrons/cm 2 ) for these measurements was provided by the Godiva fast burst reactor at the Los Alamos Critical Experiment Facility (LACEF). A high speed pneumatic transfer system was used to transfer the 50 mg 235 U samples from the irradiation position near the Godiva assembly to a remote shielded counting room containing the NE 213 spectrometer and associated electronics. Data were acquired in sixty-four 0.5 s time bins and over an energy range 1 to 7 MeV. Comparisons between these measurements and a detailed model calculation performed at Los Alamos is presented

  2. Generation of ultrafast pulse via combined effects of stimulated

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A project of ultrafast pulse generation has been presented and demonstrated by utilizing the combined nonlinear effects of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and non-degenerate two-photon absorption (TPA) based on silicon nanophotonic chip, in which a continuous wave (CW) and an ultrafast dark pulse are ...

  3. Ozone Generation in Dry Air Using Pulsed Discharges With and Without a Solid Dielectric Layer

    OpenAIRE

    Samaranayake, W.J.M.; Miyahara, Y.; Namihira, T.; Katsuki, S.; Hackam, R.; Akiyama, H.; ミヤハラ, Y.; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 浪平, 隆男; 勝木, 淳; 秋山, 秀典

    2001-01-01

    Energy efficient generation of ozone is very important because ozone is being used increasingly in a wide range of industrial applications. Ozonizers usually use dielectric barrier discharges and employ alternating current (ac) with consequent heat generation, which necessitates cooling. In the present study, very short duration pulsed voltage is employed resulting in reduced heating of the gas and discharge reactor. A comparison of ozone generation in dry air using a coaxial concentric elect...

  4. High-order harmonic generation spectra and isolated attosecond pulse generation with a two-color time delayed pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Liqiang; Chu Tianshu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Investigation of HHG spectra and single isolated attosecond pulse generation. ► Irradiation from a model Ne atom by two-color time delayed pulse. ► Observation of time delay effect and relative phase effect. ► Revelation of the optimal condition for generating isolated attosecond pulse. ► Generation of a single isolated attosecond pulse of 45as. - Abstract: In this paper, we theoretically investigate the delay time effect on the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) when a model Ne atom is exposed to a two-color time delayed pulse, consisting of a 5fs/800 nm fundamental field and a 20fs/2000 nm controlling field. It shows that the HHG spectra are strongly sensitive to the delay time between the two laser fields, in particular, for the zero carrier-envelope phase (CEP) φ case (corresponding to the 800 nm fundamental field), the maximum cutoff energy has been achieved at zero delay time. However, with the introduction of the CEP (φ = 180°), the delay effect on HHG is changed, exhibiting a ‘U’ structure harmonic emission from −1 T to 1 T. In addition, the combinations of different controlling pulse frequencies and pulse intensities have also been considered, showing the similar results as the original controlling field case, but with some characteristics. Finally, by properly superposing the optimal harmonic spectrum, an isolated 45as pulse is generated without phase compensation.

  5. High-explosive-driven delay line pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The inclusion of a delay line circuit into the design of a high-explosive-driven generator shortens the time constant of the output pulse. After a brief review of generator concepts and previously described pulse-shortening methods, a geometry is presented which incorporates delay line circuit techcniques into a coil generator. The circuit constants are adjusted to match the velocity of the generated electromagnetic wave to the detonation velocity of the high explosive. The proposed generator can be modeled by adding a variable inductance term to the telegrapher's equation. A particular solution of this equation is useful for exploring the operational parameters of the generator. The duration of the electromagnetic pulse equals the radial expansion time of the high-explosive-driven armature until it strikes the coil. Because the impedance of the generator is a constant, the current multiplication factor is limited only by nonlinear effects such as voltage breakdown, diffusion, and compression at high energies

  6. Characterization of a high repetition-rate laser-driven short-pulsed neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hah, J.; Nees, J. A.; Hammig, M. D.; Krushelnick, K.; Thomas, A. G. R.

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate a repetitive, high flux, short-pulsed laser-driven neutron source using a heavy-water jet target. We measure neutron generation at 1/2 kHz repetition rate using several-mJ pulse energies, yielding a time-averaged neutron flux of 2 × 105 neutrons s‑1 (into 4π steradians). Deuteron spectra are also measured in order to understand source characteristics. Analyses of time-of-flight neutron spectra indicate that two separate populations of neutrons, ‘prompt’ and ‘delayed’, are generated at different locations. Gamma-ray emission from neutron capture 1H(n,γ) is also measured to confirm the neutron flux.

  7. Nonlinear Pulse Shaping in Fibres for Pulse Generation and Optical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boscolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new all-optical technologies for data processing and signal manipulation is a field of growing importance with a strong potential for numerous applications in diverse areas of modern science. Nonlinear phenomena occurring in optical fibres have many attractive features and great, but not yet fully explored, potential in signal processing. Here, we review recent progress on the use of fibre nonlinearities for the generation and shaping of optical pulses and on the applications of advanced pulse shapes in all-optical signal processing. Amongst other topics, we will discuss ultrahigh repetition rate pulse sources, the generation of parabolic shaped pulses in active and passive fibres, the generation of pulses with triangular temporal profiles, and coherent supercontinuum sources. The signal processing applications will span optical regeneration, linear distortion compensation, optical decision at the receiver in optical communication systems, spectral and temporal signal doubling, and frequency conversion.

  8. An 8-GW long-pulse generator based on Tesla transformer and pulse forming network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jiancang; Zhang, Xibo; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang; Sun, Xu; Wang, Limin; Zeng, Bo; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Ying; Peng, Jianchang; Song, Xiaoxin

    2014-06-01

    A long-pulse generator TPG700L based on a Tesla transformer and a series pulse forming network (PFN) is constructed to generate intense electron beams for the purpose of high power microwave (HPM) generation. The TPG700L mainly consists of a 12-stage PFN, a built-in Tesla transformer in a pulse forming line, a three-electrode gas switch, a transmission line with a trigger, and a load. The Tesla transformer and the compact PFN are the key technologies for the development of the TPG700L. This generator can output electrical pulses with a width as long as 200 ns at a level of 8 GW and a repetition rate of 50 Hz. When used to drive a relative backward wave oscillator for HPM generation, the electrical pulse width is about 100 ns on a voltage level of 520 kV. Factors affecting the pulse waveform of the TPG700L are also discussed. At present, the TPG700L performs well for long-pulse HPM generation in our laboratory.

  9. An 8-GW long-pulse generator based on Tesla transformer and pulse forming network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Jiancang; Zhang, Xibo; Li, Rui; Zhao, Liang, E-mail: zhaoliang0526@163.com; Sun, Xu; Wang, Limin; Zeng, Bo; Cheng, Jie; Wang, Ying; Peng, Jianchang; Song, Xiaoxin [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710024 (China)

    2014-06-15

    A long-pulse generator TPG700L based on a Tesla transformer and a series pulse forming network (PFN) is constructed to generate intense electron beams for the purpose of high power microwave (HPM) generation. The TPG700L mainly consists of a 12-stage PFN, a built-in Tesla transformer in a pulse forming line, a three-electrode gas switch, a transmission line with a trigger, and a load. The Tesla transformer and the compact PFN are the key technologies for the development of the TPG700L. This generator can output electrical pulses with a width as long as 200 ns at a level of 8 GW and a repetition rate of 50 Hz. When used to drive a relative backward wave oscillator for HPM generation, the electrical pulse width is about 100 ns on a voltage level of 520 kV. Factors affecting the pulse waveform of the TPG700L are also discussed. At present, the TPG700L performs well for long-pulse HPM generation in our laboratory.

  10. Apparatus and method for generating high density pulses of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.; Oettinger, P.E.

    1981-01-01

    An apparatus and method are described for the production of high density pulses of electrons using a laser energized emitter. Caesium atoms from a low pressure vapour atmosphere are absorbed on and migrate from a metallic target rapidly heated by a laser to a high temperature. Due to this heating time being short compared with the residence time of the caesium atoms adsorbed on the target surface, copious electrons are emitted which form a high current density pulse. (U.K.)

  11. Third-harmonic generation in isotropic media by focused pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasgal, Richard S.; Band, Y.B.

    2004-01-01

    For focused pulses of light in isotropic nonlinear media, third-harmonic generation can be strongly affected by group-velocity mismatch between the fundamental and third-harmonic. There is a characteristic time determined by the group-velocity mismatch and the Rayleigh range of the focused pulse. The dynamics depend on two dimensionless quantities, namely the ratio of the characteristic time to the pulse duration and the phase-velocity mismatch times the Rayleigh range. Pulses shorter than the characteristic time have physics described by simple analytic formulas. Pulses near the characteristic time have an intermediate behavior given by an explicit but more complicated formula. Pulses longer than the characteristic time tend to the continuous-wave case

  12. Generation and amplification of nanaosecond duration multiline hf laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getzinger, R.L.; Ware, K.D.; Carpenter, J.P.

    1976-01-01

    High-power, fast-rising pulses of hydrogen fluoride laser energy suitable for laser-fusion target interaction experiments can in principle be generated by directing an electro-optically shuttered oscillator pulse through one or more electron-beam driven amplifiers. A three-stage HF master oscillator-power amplifier (MOPA) configuration was constructed and tested using SF 6 -C 2 H 6 in which an E-O generated 4-ns-FWHM pulse was amplified in an electron-beam-excited third stage and subsequently isolated with a Brewster angle splitter. Independent experiments in which a 100-ns-FWHM pilot pulse interacted with the power amplifier demonstrated for the first time complete extraction of the available laser energy. These two results provide strong evidence that with upgrading to H 2 -F 2 , it should be possible to obtain nanosecond duration pulses with power levels sufficient for meaningful laser fusion target coupling experiments

  13. Elemental analysis using temporal gating of a pulsed neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Sudeep

    2018-02-20

    Technologies related to determining elemental composition of a sample that comprises fissile material are described herein. In a general embodiment, a pulsed neutron generator periodically emits bursts of neutrons, and is synchronized with an analyzer circuit. The bursts of neutrons are used to interrogate the sample, and the sample outputs gamma rays based upon the neutrons impacting the sample. A detector outputs pulses based upon the gamma rays impinging upon the material of the detector, and the analyzer circuit assigns the pulses to temporally-based bins based upon the analyzer circuit being synchronized with the pulsed neutron generator. A computing device outputs data that is indicative of elemental composition of the sample based upon the binned pulses.

  14. Short intense ion pulses for materials and warm dense matter research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidl, Peter A., E-mail: PASeidl@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Persaud, Arun; Waldron, William L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Barnard, John J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Davidson, Ronald C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Friedman, Alex [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Gilson, Erik P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Greenway, Wayne G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Grote, David P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Kaganovich, Igor D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Lidia, Steven M.; Stettler, Matthew; Takakuwa, Jeffrey H.; Schenkel, Thomas [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-11-11

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by generating beam spots size with radius r<1 mm within 2 ns FWHM and approximately 10{sup 10} ions/pulse. To enable the short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV Li{sup +} ion beam is neutralized in a 1.6-meter drift compression section located after the last accelerator magnet. An 8-Tesla short focal length solenoid compresses the beam in the presence of the large volume plasma near the end of this section before the target. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including selected topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Here we describe the accelerator commissioning and time-resolved ionoluminescence measurements of yttrium aluminum perovskite using the fully integrated accelerator and neutralized drift compression components.

  15. Short intense ion pulses for materials and warm dense matter research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Persaud, Arun; Waldron, William L.; Barnard, John J.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Friedman, Alex; Gilson, Erik P.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, David P.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Lidia, Steven M.; Stettler, Matthew; Takakuwa, Jeffrey H.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We have commenced experiments with intense short pulses of ion beams on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, by generating beam spots size with radius r<1 mm within 2 ns FWHM and approximately 10"1"0 ions/pulse. To enable the short pulse durations and mm-scale focal spot radii, the 1.2 MeV Li"+ ion beam is neutralized in a 1.6-meter drift compression section located after the last accelerator magnet. An 8-Tesla short focal length solenoid compresses the beam in the presence of the large volume plasma near the end of this section before the target. The scientific topics to be explored are warm dense matter, the dynamics of radiation damage in materials, and intense beam and beam-plasma physics including selected topics of relevance to the development of heavy-ion drivers for inertial fusion energy. Here we describe the accelerator commissioning and time-resolved ionoluminescence measurements of yttrium aluminum perovskite using the fully integrated accelerator and neutralized drift compression components.

  16. Enhancement and stabilization of plasma using collinear long-short double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Minchao; Deguchi, Yoshihiro; Wang, Zhenzhen; Fujita, Yuki; Liu, Renwei; Shiou, Fang-Jung; Zhao, Shengdun

    2018-04-01

    A collinear long-short dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS) method was employed to enhance and stabilize the laser-induced plasma from steel sample. The long-pulse-width laser beam with the pulse width of 60 μs was generated by a Nd: YAG laser which was operated at FR (free running) mode. The comparative experiments were carried out between single pulse LIBS (SP-LIBS) and long-short DP-LIBS. The recorded results showed that the emission intensities and the temperature of plasma were enhanced by long-short DP-LIBS. The plasma images showed that the plasma was bigger and had a longer lifetime in long-short DP-LIBS situation. Through the calculation of time-resolved plasma temperature and intensity ratio, it can be concluded that the plasma was stabilized by the long-pulse-width laser beam. The long-short DP-LIBS method also generated the stable plasma condition from the samples with different initial temperatures, which overcame the difficulties of LIBS in the online measurement for steel production line.

  17. Generation of a single-cycle optical pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shverdin, M.Y.; Walker, D.R.; Yavuz, D.D.; Yin, G.Y.; Harris, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    We make use of coherent control of four-wave mixing to the ultraviolet as a diagnostic and describe the generation of a periodic optical waveform where the spectrum is sufficiently broad that the envelope is approximately a single-cycle in length, and where the temporal shape of this envelope may be synthesized by varying the coefficients of a Fourier series. Specifically, using seven sidebands, we report the generation of a train of single-cycle optical pulses with a pulse width of 1.6 fs, a pulse separation of 11 fs, and a peak power of 1 MW

  18. Generation of a few femtoseconds pulses in seeded FELs using a seed laser with small transverse size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Heting, E-mail: liheting@ustc.edu.cn; Jia, Qika

    2016-09-11

    We propose a simple method to generate a few femtosecond pulses in seeded FELs. We use a longitudinal energy-chirped electron beam passing through a dogleg where transverse dispersion will generate a horizontal energy chirp, then in the modulator, a seed laser with narrow beam radius will only modulate the center portion of the electron beam and then short pulses at high harmonics will be generated in the radiator. Using a representative realistic set of parameters, we show that 30 nm XUV pulse based on the HGHG scheme and 9 nm soft x-ray pulse based on the EEHG scheme with duration of about 8 fs (FWHM) and peak power of GW level can be generated from a 180 nm UV seed laser with beam waist of 75 μm. This new scheme can provide an optional operation mode for the existing seeded FEL facilities to meet the requirement of short-pulse FEL.

  19. PROTO-II: a short pulse water insulated accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, T.H.; VanDevender, J.P.; Johnson, D.L.; McDaniel, D.H.; Aker, M.

    1975-01-01

    A new accelerator, designated Proto-II, is presently under construction at Sandia Laboratories. Proto-II will have a nominal output of 100 kJ into a two-sided diode at a voltage of 1.5 MV and a total current of over 6 MA for 24 ns. This accelerator will be utilized for electron beam fusion experiments and for pulsed power and developmental studies leading to a proposed further factor of five scale-up in power. The design of Proto-II is based upon recent water switching developments and represents a 10-fold extrapolation of those results. Initial testing of Proto-II is scheduled to begin in 1976. Proto-II power flow starts with eight Marx generators which charge 16 water-insulated storage capacitors. Eight triggered, 3 MV, SF 6 gas-insulated switches next transfer the energy through oil-water interfaces into the first stage of 16 parallel lines. Next, the 16 first stages transfer their energy into the pulse forming lines and fast switching sections.The energy is then delivered to two converging, back-to-back, disk-shaped transmission line. Two back-to-back diodes then form the electron beams which are focused onto a common anode

  20. High efficiency, monolithic fiber chirped pulse amplification system for high energy femtosecond pulse generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiang; Kim, Kyungbum; Mielke, Michael; Jennings, Stephen; Masor, Gordon; Stohl, Dave; Chavez-Pirson, Arturo; Nguyen, Dan T; Rhonehouse, Dan; Zong, Jie; Churin, Dmitriy; Peyghambarian, N

    2013-10-21

    A novel monolithic fiber-optic chirped pulse amplification (CPA) system for high energy, femtosecond pulse generation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. By employing a high gain amplifier comprising merely 20 cm of high efficiency media (HEM) gain fiber, an optimal balance of output pulse energy, optical efficiency, and B-integral is achieved. The HEM amplifier is fabricated from erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber and yields gain of 1.443 dB/cm with slope efficiency >45%. We experimentally demonstrate near diffraction-limited beam quality and near transform-limited femtosecond pulse quality at 1.55 µm wavelength. With pulse energy >100 µJ and pulse duration of 636 fs (FWHM), the peak power is estimated to be ~160 MW. NAVAIR Public Release Distribution Statement A-"Approved for Public release; distribution is unlimited".

  1. Pulse generation and preamplification for long pulse beamlines of Orion laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, David I; Winter, David N; Hopps, Nicholas W

    2010-06-01

    We describe the pulse generation, shaping, and preamplification system for the nanosecond beamlines of the Orion laser facility. The system generates shaped laser pulses of up to approximately 1 J of 100 ps-5 ns duration with a programmable temporal profile. The laser has a 30th-power supergaussian spatial profile and is diffraction limited. The system is capable of imposing 2D smoothing by spectral dispersion upon the beam, which will produce a nonuniformity of 10% rms at the target.

  2. The nanosecond generator RG-1 with near-rectangular pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulan, V.V.; Grabovskij, E.V.; Gribov, A.N.; Luzhnov, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    The 300 kV, 17 Ohm generator RG-1, which can deliver near-rectangular pulses with a pulse duration of 80 ns FWHM, is described. The polarity of the output pulse can be changed by a simple switch. The fast capacities of the Marx generator are used instead of the pulse forming line. Multi-spark gas switches were developed to decrease the inductance of the discharged circuit. The generator is supplied by a built-in high voltage source and its operation is controlled by a minicomputer. It is used the power supply-line 220 V. The RG-1 can be used in different modes of operation: gas discharge, particle beam formation, etc. (author). 4 figs., 3 refs

  3. A programmable Gaussian random pulse generator for automated performance measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Aal, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a versatile random signal generator which produces logic pulses with a Gaussian distribution for the pulse spacing. The average rate at the pulse generator output can be software-programmed, which makes it useful in performing automated measurements of dead time and CPU time performance of data acquisition systems and modules over a wide range of data rates. Hardware and software components are described and data on the input-output characteristics and the statistical properties of the pulse generator are given. Typical applications are discussed together with advantages over using radioactive test sources. Results obtained from an automated performance run on a VAX 11/785 data acquisition system are presented. (orig.)

  4. The nanosecond generator RG-1 with near-rectangular pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulan, V V; Grabovskij, E V; Gribov, A N; Luzhnov, V G [TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The 300 kV, 17 Ohm generator RG-1, which can deliver near-rectangular pulses with a pulse duration of 80 ns FWHM, is described. The polarity of the output pulse can be changed by a simple switch. The fast capacities of the Marx generator are used instead of the pulse forming line. Multi-spark gas switches were developed to decrease the inductance of the discharged circuit. The generator is supplied by a built-in high voltage source and its operation is controlled by a minicomputer. It is used the power supply-line 220 V. The RG-1 can be used in different modes of operation: gas discharge, particle beam formation, etc. (author). 4 figs., 3 refs.

  5. 125-GHz Microwave Signal Generation Employing an Integrated Pulse Shaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Shasha; Ding, Yunhong; Dong, Jianji

    2017-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an on-chip pulse shaper for 125-GHz microwave waveform generation. The pulse shaper is implemented based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform that has a structure with eight-tap finite impulse response (FIR) and there is an amplitude modulator on each...... of the generated microwave waveforms is larger than 100 GHz, and it has wide bandwidth when changing the time delay of the adjacent taps and compactness, capability for integration with electronics and small power consumption are also its merits.......We propose and experimentally demonstrate an on-chip pulse shaper for 125-GHz microwave waveform generation. The pulse shaper is implemented based on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform that has a structure with eight-tap finite impulse response (FIR) and there is an amplitude modulator on each...

  6. Nearly penalty-free, less than 4 ps supercontinuum Gbit/s pulse generation over 1535-1560 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morioka, T.; Kawanishi, S.; Mori, K.; Saruwatari, M.

    1994-05-01

    Nearly penalty-free less than 4ps supercontinuum WDM pulses are generated at 6.3 Gbit/s over 1535-1560 nm for the first time using a 200 nm superbroadened supercontinuum in an optical fibre pumped by 1.7 W, 3.3 ps, 1542 nm short pulses from an Er(3+)-doped fibre ring laser.

  7. Generation and subsequent amplification of few-cycle femtosecond pulses from a picosecond pump laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhin, I. B.; Kuznetsov, I. I.; Palashov, O. V.

    2018-04-01

    Using a new approach, in which generation of femtosecond pulses as short as a few field cycles is implemented directly from the radiation of a picosecond pump laser, pulses with the microjoule energy, the repetition rate 10 kHz, and the duration less than 26 fs are generated in the spectral range 1.3 ‑ 1.4 μm. In the process of generating this radiation, use was made of a method providing passive phase stabilisation of the carrier oscillation of the electromagnetic field and its slow envelope. The radiation spectrum was converted into the range of parametric amplification in the BBO crystal by the broadband second harmonic generation; the pulse was parametrically amplified up to the microjoule level and compressed by chirped mirrors to a duration of 28 fs.

  8. Ultrashort laser pulses and electromagnetic pulse generation in air and on dielectric surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprangle, P.; Penano, J.R.; Hafizi, B.; Kapetanakos, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    Intense, ultrashort laser pulses propagating in the atmosphere have been observed to emit sub-THz electromagnetic pulses (EMPS). The purpose of this paper is to analyze EMP generation from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with air and with dielectric surfaces and to determine the efficiency of conversion of laser energy to EMP energy. In our self-consistent model the laser pulse partially ionizes the medium, forms a plasma filament, and through the ponderomotive forces associated with the laser pulse, drives plasma currents which are the source of the EMP. The propagating laser pulse evolves under the influence of diffraction, Kerr focusing, plasma defocusing, and energy depletion due to electron collisions and ionization. Collective effects and recombination processes are also included in the model. The duration of the EMP in air, at a fixed point, is found to be a few hundred femtoseconds, i.e., on the order of the laser pulse duration plus the electron collision time. For steady state laser pulse propagation the flux of EMP energy is nonradiative and axially directed. Radiative EMP energy is present only for nonsteady state or transient laser pulse propagation. The analysis also considers the generation of EMP on the surface of a dielectric on which an ultrashort laser pulse is incident. For typical laser parameters, the power and energy conversion efficiency from laser radiation to EMP radiation in both air and from dielectric surfaces is found to be extremely small, -8 . Results of full-scale, self-consistent, numerical simulations of atmospheric and dielectric surface EMP generation are presented. A recent experiment on atmospheric EMP generation is also simulated

  9. Programmable pseudo-random detector-pulse-pattern generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putten, R. van der; Nationaal Inst. voor Kernfysica en Hoge-Energiefysica

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the design and realization of the digital part of the programmable pseudo-random detector pulse-pattern generator. For the design and realization use has been made of F-TTL and high speed special purpose ic's, in particular FAL's (15 ns). The design possibilities offered by the software for pro-gramming of the FAL's have been utilized as much as possible. In this way counters, registers and a state machine with extended control possibilities have been designed and an advanced 8 channel pulse generator has been developed which is controlled via the VME system bus. the generator possesses an internal clock oscillator of 16 MHZ. The moment when a pulse is generated can be adjusted with a step size of 250 ps. 2000 different periods (time windows) can be stored for generating a pattern. (author). 37 refs.; 6 figs

  10. Development of a 100 KV 10 a pulse generator on the basis of electron tubes for plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Barve, D.N.; Chakravarthy, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    The design of a high-voltage pulsing system on the basis of hard tube of hard tube for a plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) facility is presented. A list of requirements, which have to be fulfilled by a high-voltage pulse generator to get best results and an optimum operation of the PIII system, is given. The requirement for the pulse generator can be fulfilled well using a pulse generator design, which employs a hard tube switch. The pulse generator design presented is optimized for PIII systems. The hard tube control can produce nearly rectangular pulses of any duration and repetition frequencies and is especially optimized for obtaining voltage rise times as short as possible. (author)

  11. Uranium vapor generator: pulsed hollow cathode lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carleer, M.; Gagne, J.; Leblanc, B.; Demers, Y.; Mongeau, B.

    1979-01-01

    The production of uranium vapors has been studied in the 5 L 0 6 ground state using a pulsed hollow cathode lamp. The evolution of the 238 U ( 5 L 0 6 ) concentration with time has been studied with Xe and Ar as buffer gases. A density of 2.7 x 10 13 atoms cm -3 was obtained with Xe as a buffer gas. In addition, those measurements, obtained from the absorption of a laser beam tuned to the 5758.143 A ( 5 L 0 6 -17,361 7 L 6 ) transition, allowed the determination of the transition probability A=2.1 x 10 5 sec -1 and of the branching ratio BR=0.08 for this transition

  12. Interaction of ultrashort laser pulses and silicon solar cells under short circuit conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mundus, M., E-mail: markus.mundus@ise.fraunhofer.de; Giesecke, J. A.; Fischer, P.; Hohl-Ebinger, J.; Warta, W. [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstraße 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-02-28

    Ultrashort pulse lasers are promising tools for numerous measurement purposes. Among other benefits their high peak powers allow for efficient generation of wavelengths in broad spectral ranges and at spectral powers that are orders of magnitude higher than in conventional light sources. Very recently this has been exploited for the establishment of sophisticated measurement facilities for electrical characterization of photovoltaic (PV) devices. As the high peak powers of ultrashort pulses promote nonlinear optical effects they might also give rise to nonlinear interactions with the devices under test that possibly manipulate the measurement outcome. In this paper, we present a comprehensive theoretical and experimental study of the nonlinearities affecting short circuit current (I{sub SC}) measurements of silicon (Si) solar cells. We derive a set of coupled differential equations describing the radiation-device interaction and discuss the nonlinearities incorporated in those. By a semi-analytical approach introducing a quasi-steady-state approximation and integrating a Green's function we solve the system of equations and obtain simulated I{sub SC} values. We validate the theoretical model by I{sub SC} ratios obtained from a double ring resonator setup capable for reproducible generation of various ultrashort pulse trains. Finally, we apply the model to conduct the most prominent comparison of I{sub SC} generated by ultrashort pulses versus continuous illumination. We conclude by the important finding that the nonlinearities induced by ultrashort pulses are negligible for the most common I{sub SC} measurements. However, we also find that more specialized measurements (e.g., of concentrating PV or Si-multijunction devices as well as highly localized electrical characterizations) will be biased by two-photon-absorption distorting the I{sub SC} measurement.

  13. Production of very short electron, X or γ-ray pulses by means of laser and magnetic compression techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joly, S.

    1995-01-01

    The ELSA electron accelerator, initially developed for a free-electron laser, is under modification to deliver very short X and γ-ray pulses (10 to 20 ps). This paper describes the main characteristics of the accelerator as well as the physical processes used to generate these radiation bursts. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  14. Analog Amplitude Modulation of a High Voltage, Solid State Inductive Adder, Pulse Generator Using MOSFETS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gower, E J; Sullivan, J S

    2002-01-01

    High voltage, solid state, inductive adder, pulse generators have found increasing application as fast kicker pulse modulators for charged particle beams. The solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator is similar in operation to the linear induction accelerator. The main difference is that the solid state, adder couples energy by transformer action from multiple primaries to a voltage summing stalk, instead of an electron beam. Ideally, the inductive adder produces a rectangular voltage pulse at the load. In reality, there is usually some voltage variation at the load due to droop on primary circuit storage capacitors, or, temporal variations in the load impedance. Power MOSFET circuits have been developed to provide analog modulation of the output voltage amplitude of a solid state, inductive adder, pulse generator. The modulation is achieved by including MOSFET based, variable subtraction circuits in the multiple primary stack. The subtraction circuits can be used to compensate for voltage droop, or, to tailor the output pulse amplitude to provide a desired effect in the load. Power MOSFET subtraction circuits have been developed to modulate short, temporal (60-400 ns), voltage and current pulses. MOSFET devices have been tested up to 20 amps and 800 Volts with a band pass of 50 MHz. An analog modulation cell has been tested in a five cell high, voltage adder stack

  15. Optical UWB pulse generator using an N tap microwave photonic filter and phase inversion adaptable to different pulse modulation formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolea, Mario; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2009-03-30

    We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally an optical architecture for flexible Ultra-Wideband pulse generation. It is based on an N-tap reconfigurable microwave photonic filter fed by a laser array by using phase inversion in a Mach-Zehnder modulator. Since a large number of positive and negative coefficients can be easily implemented, UWB pulses fitted to the FCC mask requirements can be generated. As an example, a four tap pulse generator is experimentally demonstrated which complies with the FCC regulation. The proposed pulse generator allows different pulse modulation formats since the amplitude, polarity and time delay of generated pulse is controlled.

  16. Theory of suppressing avalanche process of carrier in short pulse laser irradiated dielectrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, H. X., E-mail: hxdeng@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaisun@umich.edu; Zu, X. T., E-mail: hxdeng@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaisun@umich.edu; Xiang, X. [School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Zheng, W. G.; Yuan, X. D. [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Sun, K., E-mail: hxdeng@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: xtzu@uestc.edu.cn, E-mail: kaisun@umich.edu [Department of Materials Engineering and Sciences, University of Michigan, 413B Space Research Building, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2143 (United States); Gao, F. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P. O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-05-28

    A theory for controlling avalanche process of carrier during short pulse laser irradiation is proposed. We show that avalanche process of conduction band electrons (CBEs) is determined by the occupation number of phonons in dielectrics. The theory provides a way to suppress avalanche process and a direct judgment for the contribution of avalanche process and photon ionization process to the generation of CBEs. The obtained temperature dependent rate equation shows that the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics, e.g., fused silica, increase nonlinearly with the decreases of temperature. Present theory predicts a new approach to improve the laser induced damage threshold of dielectrics.

  17. Parametric generation of high-energy 14.5-fs light pulses at 1.5 mum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisoli, M; Stagira, S; De Silvestri, S; Svelto, O; Valiulis, G; Varanavicius, A

    1998-04-15

    High-energy light pulses that are tunable from 1.1 to 2.6 mum, with a duration as short as 14.5 fs were generated in a type II phase-matching beta-BaB(2)O(4) traveling-wave parametric converter pumped by 18-fs pulses obtained from a Ti:sapphire laser with chirped-pulse amplification, followed by a hollow-fiber compressor.

  18. XPS studies of short pulse laser interaction with copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanov, P.; Minkovski, N.; Balchev, I.; Avramova, I.; Sabotinov, N.; Marinova, Ts.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of laser ablation on copper foil irradiated by a short 30 ns laser pulse was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The laser fluence was varied from 8 to 16.5 J/cm 2 and the velocity of the laser beam from 10 to 100 mm/s. This range of laser fluence is characterized by a different intensity of laser ablation. The experiments were done in two kinds of ambient atmosphere: air and argon jet gas. The chemical state and composition of the irradiated copper surface were determined using the modified Auger parameter (α') and O/Cu intensity ratio. The ablation atmosphere was found to influence the size and chemical state of the copper particles deposited from the vapor plume. During irradiation in air atmosphere the copper nanoparticles react with oxygen and water vapor from the air and are deposited in the form of a CuO and Cu(OH) 2 thin film. In argon atmosphere the processed copper surface is oxidized after exposure to air

  19. A compact high-voltage pulse generator based on pulse transformer with closed magnetic core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Liu, Jinliang; Cheng, Xinbing; Bai, Guoqiang; Zhang, Hongbo; Feng, Jiahuai; Liang, Bo

    2010-03-01

    A compact high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator, based on a pulse transformer with a closed magnetic core, is presented in this paper. The pulse generator consists of a miniaturized pulse transformer, a curled parallel strip pulse forming line (PFL), a spark gap, and a matched load. The innovative design is characterized by the compact structure of the transformer and the curled strip PFL. A new structure of transformer windings was designed to keep good insulation and decrease distributed capacitance between turns of windings. A three-copper-strip structure was adopted to avoid asymmetric coupling of the curled strip PFL. When the 31 microF primary capacitor is charged to 2 kV, the pulse transformer can charge the PFL to 165 kV, and the 3.5 ohm matched load can deliver a high-voltage pulse with a duration of 9 ns, amplitude of 84 kV, and rise time of 5.1 ns. When the load is changed to 50 ohms, the output peak voltage of the generator can be 165 kV, the full width at half maximum is 68 ns, and the rise time is 6.5 ns.

  20. A compact bipolar pulse-forming network-Marx generator based on pulse transformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huibo; Yang, Jianhua; Lin, Jiajin; Yang, Xiao

    2013-11-01

    A compact bipolar pulse-forming network (PFN)-Marx generator based on pulse transformers is presented in this paper. The high-voltage generator consisted of two sets of pulse transformers, 6 stages of PFNs with ceramic capacitors, a switch unit, and a matched load. The design is characterized by the bipolar pulse charging scheme and the compact structure of the PFN-Marx. The scheme of bipolar charging by pulse transformers increased the withstand voltage of the ceramic capacitors in the PFNs and decreased the number of the gas gap switches. The compact structure of the PFN-Marx was aimed at reducing the parasitic inductance in the generator. When the charging voltage on the PFNs was 35 kV, the matched resistive load of 48 Ω could deliver a high-voltage pulse with an amplitude of 100 kV. The full width at half maximum of the load pulse was 173 ns, and its rise time was less than 15 ns.

  1. High power, short pulses ultraviolet laser for the development of a new x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meixler, L.; Nam, C.H.; Robinson, J.; Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Suckewer, S.; Goldhar, J.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.

    1989-04-01

    A high power, short pulse ultraviolet laser system (Powerful Picosecond-Laser) has been developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) as part of experiments designed to generate shorter wavelength x-ray lasers. With the addition of pulse compression and a final KrF amplifier the laser output is expected to have reached 1/3-1/2 TW (10 12 watts) levels. The laser system, particularly the final amplifier, is described along with some initial soft x-ray spectra from laser-target experiments. The front end of the PP-Laser provides an output of 20--30 GW (10 9 watts) and can be focussed to intensities of /approximately/10 16 W/cm 2 . Experiments using this output to examine the effects of a prepulse on laser-target interaction are described. 19 refs., 14 figs

  2. Subnanosecond-rise-time, low-impedance pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, R.; Vogtlin, G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes a fast rise, low-impedance pulse generator that has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The design specifications of this generator are: 50-kV operating voltage, 1-ohm output impedance, subnanosecond rise time, and a 2 to 10 nanosecond pulse length. High repetition rate is not required. The design chosen is a parallel-plate, folded Blumlein generator. A tack switch is utilized for its simple construction and high performance. The primary diagnostic is a capacitive voltage divider with a B probe used to measure the current waveform

  3. Subnanosecond-rise-time, low-impedance pulse generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, R.; Vogtlin, G.

    1983-06-03

    This paper describes a fast rise, low-impedance pulse generator that has been developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The design specifications of this generator are: 50-kV operating voltage, 1-ohm output impedance, subnanosecond rise time, and a 2 to 10 nanosecond pulse length. High repetition rate is not required. The design chosen is a parallel-plate, folded Blumlein generator. A tack switch is utilized for its simple construction and high performance. The primary diagnostic is a capacitive voltage divider with a B probe used to measure the current waveform.

  4. Subnanosecond-rise-time, low-impedance pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druce, R.; Vigtlin, G.

    1983-06-01

    A fast rise, low impedance pulse generator developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is described. The design specifications of this generator are: 50-kV operating voltage, 1-ohm output impedance, subnanosecond rise time, and a 2 to 10 nanosecond pulse length. High repetition rate is not required. The design chosen is a parallel plate, folded Blumlein generator. A tack switch is utilized for its simple construction and high performance. The primary diagnostic is a capacitive voltage divider with a B probe used to measure the current waveform.

  5. High Intensity, Pulsed, D-D Neutron Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L.; Vainionpaa, J.H.; Jones, G.; Piestrup, M.A.; Gary, C.K.; Harris, J.L.; Fuller, M.J.; Cremer, J.T.; Ludewigt, Bernhard A.; Kwan, J.W.; Reijonen, J.; Leung, K.-N.; Gough, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    Single ion-beam RF-plasma neutron generators are presented as a laboratory source of intense neutrons. The continuous and pulsed operations of such a neutron generator using the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction are reported. The neutron beam can be pulsed by switching the RF plasma and/or a gate electrode. These generators are actively vacuum pumped so that a continuous supply of deuterium gas is present for the production of ions and neutrons. This contributes to the generator's long life. These single-beam generators are capable of producing up to 1E10 n/s. Previously, Adelphi and LBNL have demonstrated these generators applications in fast neutron radiography, Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). Together with an inexpensive compact moderator, these high-output neutron generators extend useful applications to home laboratory operations.

  6. The random signal generator of imitated nuclear radiation pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dongcang; Yang Lei; Yuan Shulin; Yang Yinghui; Zang Fujia

    2007-01-01

    Based in pseudo-random uniformity number, it produces random numbers of Gaussian distribution and exponential distribution by arithmetic. The hardware is the single-chip microcomputer of 89C51. Program language makes use of Keil C. The output pulse amplitude is Gaussian distribution, exponential distribution or uniformity distribution. Likewise, it has two mode or upwards two. The time alternation of output pulse is both periodic and exponential distribution. The generator has achieved output control of multi-mode distribution, imitated random characteristic of nuclear pulse in amplitude and in time. (authors)

  7. Thin film surface processing by UltraShort Laser Pulses (USLP)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.; Workum, M.; Theelen, M.J.; Zeman, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we studied the feasibility of surface texturing of thin molybdenum layers on a borosilicate glass substrate with Ultra-Short Laser Pulses (USLP). Large areas of regular diffraction gratings were produced consisting of Laserinduced periodic surface structures (LIPSS). A short pulsed

  8. Synthesizing genetic sequential logic circuit with clock pulse generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Chia-Hua; Lin, Chun-Liang

    2014-05-28

    Rhythmic clock widely occurs in biological systems which controls several aspects of cell physiology. For the different cell types, it is supplied with various rhythmic frequencies. How to synthesize a specific clock signal is a preliminary but a necessary step to further development of a biological computer in the future. This paper presents a genetic sequential logic circuit with a clock pulse generator based on a synthesized genetic oscillator, which generates a consecutive clock signal whose frequency is an inverse integer multiple to that of the genetic oscillator. An analogous electronic waveform-shaping circuit is constructed by a series of genetic buffers to shape logic high/low levels of an oscillation input in a basic sinusoidal cycle and generate a pulse-width-modulated (PWM) output with various duty cycles. By controlling the threshold level of the genetic buffer, a genetic clock pulse signal with its frequency consistent to the genetic oscillator is synthesized. A synchronous genetic counter circuit based on the topology of the digital sequential logic circuit is triggered by the clock pulse to synthesize the clock signal with an inverse multiple frequency to the genetic oscillator. The function acts like a frequency divider in electronic circuits which plays a key role in the sequential logic circuit with specific operational frequency. A cascaded genetic logic circuit generating clock pulse signals is proposed. Based on analogous implement of digital sequential logic circuits, genetic sequential logic circuits can be constructed by the proposed approach to generate various clock signals from an oscillation signal.

  9. Isolated grid electron gun and pulser system for long/short pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Feathers, L.; Kilbourne, C.; Leger, G.; McKinney, T.

    1984-04-01

    The new NPI gun at SLAC serves the dual functions of producing long pulse (up to 5 μsec, 180 pps) electron bursts for nuclear physics experiments, and also short (1 nsec) pulses for filling Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). This is accomplished by means of a newly designed, isolated grid gun, cathode pulsed with a solid state long pulse pulser, and grid pulsed with a fast recharging avalanche type short pulse (1 nsec) grid pulser. The grid pulser is bipolar so that a fast blackout notch can be placed in the long cathode pulse. This fast notch can be seen by Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) instrumentation and allows the long pulse beam to be computer controlled by SLC intensity and beam position monitors

  10. An isolated grid electron gun and pulser system for long/short pulse operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, R.F.; Feathers, L.; Kilbourne, C.; Leger, G.; McKinney, T.

    1984-01-01

    The new NPI gun at SLAC serves the dual functions of producing long pulse (up to 5 μsec, 180 pps) electron bursts for nuclear physics experiments, and also short ( 1 nsec) pulses for filling Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL). This is accomplished by means of a newly designed, isolated grid gun, cathode pulsed with a solid state long pulse pulser, and grid pulsed with a fast recharging avalanche type short pulse (1 nsec) grid pulser. The grid pulser is bipolar so that a fast blackout notch can be placed in the long cathode pulse. This fast notch can be seen by Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) instrumentation and allows the long pulse beam to be computer controlled by SLC intensity and beam position monitors. (orig.)

  11. Design and construction of a precision pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles G, J.C.

    1977-06-01

    The design and consruction of a pulse generator is considered to simulate in due form and magnitude the pulses obtained in semiconductor detectors of nuclear radiation in a frequency interval to allow its use in testing and calibration of spectrometric systems. A parameters analysis which define the pulse form through the various types of semiconductor detectors was realized with the object to obtain the most important characteristics of the pulse transmitted by the generator. These are the characteristics: Variable frequency from 0.0124 to 120 Hz, variable amplitude from 0 to 1 V, Integral lineality +- 0.25%, amplitude stability -0.031%/degC exponential going up time and variable according to steps of 6.5, 25, 60, 130 and 275 nsec., decay time constant 200 or 400μsec. with output ending at 100Ω. According to the results, the stability is less than the established in the design. In order to improve it, an analysis was made in function with the temperature of the components which integrate the circuit that produces the pulse. This analysis allow us to define the specifications related to the components which integrate the circuit that produces the pulse. This analysis allow us to define the specifications related to the components. Finally a compilation was made of the most common applications of the generator in nuclear instrumentation. (author)

  12. Generation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in a longitudinal space charge amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    A longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA), operating in soft X-ray regime, was recently proposed. Such an amplifier consists of a few amplification cascades (focusing channel and chicane) and a short radiator undulator in the end. Broadband nature of LSCA supports generation of few-cycle pulses as well as wavelength compression. In this paper we consider an application of these properties of LSCA for generation of attosecond X-ray pulses. It is shown that a compact and cheap addition to the soft X-ray free electron laser facility FLASH would allow to generate 60 attosecond (FWHM) long X-ray pulses with the peak power at 100 MW level and a contrast above 98%. (orig.)

  13. Generation of attosecond soft X-ray pulses in a longitudinal space charge amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohlus, M.; Schneidmiller, E.A.; Yurkov, M.V.

    2011-03-01

    A longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA), operating in soft X-ray regime, was recently proposed. Such an amplifier consists of a few amplification cascades (focusing channel and chicane) and a short radiator undulator in the end. Broadband nature of LSCA supports generation of few-cycle pulses as well as wavelength compression. In this paper we consider an application of these properties of LSCA for generation of attosecond X-ray pulses. It is shown that a compact and cheap addition to the soft X-ray free electron laser facility FLASH would allow to generate 60 attosecond (FWHM) long X-ray pulses with the peak power at 100 MW level and a contrast above 98%. (orig.)

  14. Generation of attosecond soft x-ray pulses in a longitudinal space charge amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dohlus

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A longitudinal space charge amplifier (LSCA, operating in soft x-ray regime, was recently proposed. Such an amplifier consists of a few amplification cascades (focusing channel and chicane and a short radiator undulator in the end. The broadband nature of LSCA supports generation of few-cycle pulses as well as wavelength compression. In this paper we consider an application of these properties of LSCA for generation of attosecond x-ray pulses. It is shown that a compact and cheap addition to the soft x-ray free-electron laser facility FLASH would allow one to generate 60 attosecond (FWHM long x-ray pulses with the peak power at the 100 MW level and a contrast above 98%.

  15. Pulsed corona generation using a diode-based pulsed power generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pemen, A.J.M.; Grekhov, I.V.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Yan, K.; Nair, S.A.; Korotkov, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Pulsed plasma techniques serve a wide range of unconventional processes, such as gas and water processing, hydrogen production, and nanotechnology. Extending research on promising applications, such as pulsed corona processing, depends to a great extent on the availability of reliable, efficient and

  16. Compact pulse topology for adjustable high-voltage pulse generation using an SOS diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, A.B.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Huiskamp, T.; Beckers, F.J.C.M.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a compact circuit topology is presented for pulsed power generation with a semiconductor opening switch (SOS). Such circuits require the generation of a fast forward current through the diode, followed by a reverse current that activates the recovery process. In general, magnetic

  17. Digitally controlled twelve-pulse firing generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berde, D.; Ferrara, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Control System Studies for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) indicate that accurate thyristor firing in the AC-to-DC conversion system is required in order to achieve good regulation of the various field currents. Rapid update and exact firing angle control are required to avoid instabilities, large eddy currents, or parasitic oscillations. The Prototype Firing Generator was designed to satisfy these requirements. To achieve the required /plus or minus/0.77/degree/firing accuracy, a three-phase-locked loop reference was designed; otherwise, the Firing Generator employs digital circuitry. The unit, housed in a standard CAMAC crate, operates under microcomputer control. Functions are performed under program control, which resides in nonvolatile read-only memory. Communication with CICADA control system is provided via an 11-bit parallel interface

  18. Prediction of electromagnetic pulse generation by picosecond avalanches in high-pressure air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayhall, D.J.; Yee, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    The gas avalanche switch is a laser-activated, high-voltage switch, consisting of a set of pulse-charged electrodes in a high-pressure gas. Induced electrons from a picosecond-scale laser pulse initiate an avalanche discharge between high-voltage and grounded electrodes. If the voltage, pressure, and dimensions are correct, the rapid avalanche, fueled by the immense number of electrons available in the gas, collapses the applied voltage in picoseconds and generates electromagnetic pulses with widths as short as 1-10 ps and 3 dB bandwidths of 20-120 GHz. With proper voltage or pressure detuning, wider pulses and lower bandwidths occur. In addition to picosecond electromagnetic pulse generation, application of this switch should result in ultra-fast Marx bank pulsers. A number of versions of the switch are possible. The simplest is a parallel plate capacitor, consisting of a gas between two parallel plate conductors. High voltage is applied across the two plates. A parallel plate, Blumlein geometry features a center electrode between two grounded parallel plates. This geometry emits a single pulse in each direction along the parallel plates. A frozen wave geometry with multiple, oppositely charged center electrodes will emit AC pulses. Series switches consisting of gas gaps between two electrodes are also possible

  19. Development of a compact generator for gigawatt, nanosecond high-voltage pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Lin, E-mail: zhoulin-2003@163.com; Jiang, Zhanxing; Liang, Chuan; Li, Mingjia; Wang, Wenchuan; Li, Zhenghong [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-226, Mianyang 621999 (China)

    2016-03-15

    A compact generator producing 2.2-ns 1.5 GW high-voltage pulses was developed. The generator employed a 27.6 Ω, 0.9 ns pulse-forming-line (PFL), which was charged by an iron core transformer with a turn ratio of 2:33.5 and a coefficient of 0.94. A 1.2 μF, 20 kV capacitor and a hydrogen thyratron were used in the primary circuit. When the thyratron closed at 14.5 kV, 3.4% of the energy stored in the capacitor was delivered to the PFL in 850 ns, producing a peak voltage of up to ∼500 kV. In addition, the principle of triple resonance transformation was employed by adding a 50 pF tuning capacitor and a 1.15 mH inductor between the transformer and the PFL, which led to a significant reduction of the duration and peak value of the transformer voltage without reducing that in the PFL. Meanwhile, an adjustable self-break oil switch was applied. By using transmission lines with impedance overmatched to that of the PFL, the generator delivered a 512 kV pulse across an electron beam diode, generating radiation with a dose of 20 mR/pulse at 20 cm ahead of the diode. The generator provides an excellent ultra-short radiation pulse source for the studies on radiation physics.

  20. Generating picosecond x-ray pulses in synchrotron light sources using dipole kickers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Guo

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The duration of the x-ray pulse generated at a synchrotron light source is typically tens of picoseconds. Shorter pulses are highly desired by the users. In electron storage rings, the vertical beam size is usually orders of magnitude less than the bunch length due to radiation damping; therefore, a shorter pulse can be obtained by slitting the vertically tilted bunch. Zholents proposed tilting the bunch using rf deflection. We found that tilted bunches can also be generated by a dipole magnet kick. A vertical tilt is developed after the kick in the presence of nonzero chromaticity. The tilt was successfully observed and a 4.2-ps pulse was obtained from a 27-ps electron bunch at the Advanced Photon Source. Based on this principle, we propose a short-pulse generation scheme that produces picosecond x-ray pulses at a repetition rate of 1–2 kHz, which can be used for pump-probe experiments.

  1. Pulsed White Spectrum Neutron Generator for Explosive Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, Michael J.; Miller, Gill T.; Reijonen, Jani; Ji, Qing; Andresen, Nord; Gicquel, Frederic; Kavlas, Taneli; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Kwan, Joe

    2008-01-01

    Successful explosive material detection in luggage and similar sized containers is a critical issue in securing the safety of all airline passengers. Tensor Technology Inc. has recently developed a methodology that will detect explosive compounds with pulsed fast neutron transmission spectroscopy. In this scheme, tritium beams will be used to generate neutrons with a broad energy spectrum as governed by the T(t,2n)4He fission reaction that produces 0-9 MeV neutrons. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in collaboration with Tensor Technology Inc., has designed and fabricated a pulsed white-spectrum neutron source for this application. The specifications of the neutron source are demanding and stringent due to the requirements of high yield and fast pulsing neutron emission, and sealed tube, tritium operation. In a unique co-axial geometry, the ion source uses ten parallel rf induction antennas to externally couple power into a toroidal discharge chamber. There are 20 ion beam extraction slits and 3 concentric electrode rings to shape and accelerate the ion beam into a titanium cone target. Fast neutron pulses are created by using a set of parallel-plate deflectors switching between +-1500 volts and deflecting the ion beams across a narrow slit. The generator is expected to achieve 5 ns neutron pulses at tritium ion beam energies between 80-120 kV. First experiments demonstrated ion source operation and successful beam pulsing

  2. Spectral Phase Modulation and chirped pulse amplification in High Gain Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zilu; Krinsky, Sam; Loos, Henrik; Murphy, James; Shaftan, Timur; Sheehy, Brian; Shen, Yuzhen; Wang, Xijie; Yu Li Hua

    2004-01-01

    High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG), because it produces longitudinally coherent pulses derived from a coherent seed, presents remarkable possibilities for manipulating FEL pulses. If spectral phase modulation imposed on the seed modulates the spectral phase of the HGHG in a deterministic fashion, then chirped pulse amplification, pulse shaping, and coherent control experiments at short wavelengths become possible. In addition, the details of the transfer function will likely depend on electron beam and radiator dynamics and so prove to be a useful tool for studying these. Using the DUVFEL at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, we present spectral phase analyses of both coherent HGHG and incoherent SASE ultraviolet FEL radiation, applying Spectral Interferometry for Direct Electric Field Reconstruction (SPIDER), and assess the potential for employing compression and shaping techniques.

  3. New methods of generation of ultrashort laser pulses for ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Hamal, Karel; Kubecek, V.; Prochazka, Ivan

    1993-01-01

    To reach the millimeter satellite laser ranging accuracy, the goal for nineties, new laser ranging techniques have to be applied. To increase the laser ranging precision, the application of the ultrashort laser pulses in connection with the new signal detection and processing techniques, is inevitable. The two wavelength laser ranging is one of the ways to measure the atmospheric dispersion to improve the existing atmospheric correction models and hence, to increase the overall system ranging accuracy to the desired value. We are presenting a review of several nonstandard techniques of ultrashort laser pulses generation, which may be utilized for laser ranging: compression of the nanosecond pulses using stimulated Brillouin and Raman backscattering; compression of the mode-locked pulses using Raman backscattering; passive mode-locking technique with nonlinear mirror; and passive mode-locking technique with the negative feedback.

  4. Modulational instability of short pulses in long optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P. K.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    The effect of time-derivative nonlinearity is incorporated into the study of the modulational instability of heat pulses propagating through long optical fibers. Conditions for soliton formation are discussed......The effect of time-derivative nonlinearity is incorporated into the study of the modulational instability of heat pulses propagating through long optical fibers. Conditions for soliton formation are discussed...

  5. Generation of shock fronts in the interaction of the short pulses of intense laser light in supercritical plasma; Generacion de frentes de choque en la interaccion de pulsos cortos de luz laser intensa en plasmas supercriticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez V, V.E

    2004-07-01

    The plasma is the state of the matter but diffused in the nature. The sun and the stars big heaps of hot plasma can be considered. The external surface of the terrestrial atmosphere this recovered by a layer of plasma. All gassy discharge (lightning spark arch etc.) this related with the formation of plasma. This way, 99 percent of our environment this formed almost of plasma. It is denominated plasma to the ionized gas in the one which all or most of the atoms have lost one or several of the electrons that belonged him, becoming positive ions and free electrons. In the plasma certain physical characteristics exist as for their behavior like they are the collective movements the quasi neutrality, the Debye length, the uncertainty etc. All these behaviors make that the study of the plasma is complex. For this they exist technical of numeric simulation joined to the technological advance of big computers of more capacity and prosecution speed. The simulation techniques of particles are those where a numeric code is built based on a model or theory of a system that it is wanted to investigate. This way through the simulation the results are compared with those theoretical predictions based on an analytic model. The applications of the physics of the plasma are multiple however we focus ourselves in the interaction laser-plasma. Both finish decades of investigation in the interaction of lasers with plasma they have been carried out in laboratories of Europe, Japan, United States. This studies concern the propagation of intense light laser in dense plasma homogeneous, the radiation absorption in cold plasma and problems related with the generation of suprathermal electrons among others. Other areas of the physics of the plasma-laser interaction that it has been considerable attention is the broadly well-known field as parametric uncertainties induced instabilities by the light and that they include the dispersions for example stimulated Raman and Brillouin being able to

  6. Molecular spinning by a chiral train of short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floß, Johannes; Averbukh, Ilya Sh.

    2012-12-01

    We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of molecular rotational excitation by a chiral pulse train, a sequence of linearly polarized pulses with the polarization direction rotating from pulse to pulse by a controllable angle. Molecular rotation with a preferential rotational sense (clockwise or counterclockwise) can be excited by this scheme. We show that the directionality of the rotation is caused by quantum interference of different excitation pathways. The chiral pulse train is capable of selective excitation of molecular isotopologs and nuclear spin isomers in a mixture. We demonstrate this using 14N2 and 15N2 as examples for isotopologs and para- and ortho-nitrogen as examples for nuclear-spin isomers.

  7. Propagation dynamics and X-pulse formation in phase-mismatched second-harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valiulis, G.; Jukna, V.; Jedrkiewicz, O.; Clerici, M.; Rubino, E.; DiTrapani, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the theoretical, numerical, and experimental study of the second-harmonic-generation (SHG) process under conditions of phase and group-velocity mismatch and aims to demonstrate the dimensionality transition of the SHG process caused by the change of the fundamental wave diameter. We show that SHG from a narrow fundamental beam leads to the spontaneous self-phase-matching process with, in addition, the appearance of angular dispersion for the off-axis frequency components generated. The angular dispersion sustains the formation of the short X pulse in the second harmonic (SH) and is recognized as three-dimensional (3D) dynamics. On the contrary, the large-diameter fundamental beam reduces the number of the degrees of freedom, does not allow the generation of the angular dispersion, and maintains the so-called one-dimensional (1D) SHG dynamics, where the self-phase-matching appears just for axial components and is accompanied by the shrinking of the SH temporal bandwidth, and sustains a long SH pulse formation. The transition from long SH pulse generation typical of the 1D dynamics to the short 3D X pulse is illustrated numerically and experimentally by changing the conditions from the self-defocusing to the self-focusing regime by simply tuning the phase mismatch. The numerical and experimental verification of the analytical results are also presented.

  8. High-voltage pulsed generator for dynamic fragmentation of rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Vizir, V A; Kumpyak, V V; Zorin, V B; Kiselev, V N

    2010-10-01

    A portable high-voltage (HV) pulsed generator has been designed for rock fragmentation experiments. The generator can be used also for other technological applications. The installation consists of low voltage block, HV block, coaxial transmission line, fragmentation chamber, and control system block. Low voltage block of the generator, consisting of a primary capacitor bank (300 μF) and a thyristor switch, stores pulse energy and transfers it to the HV block. The primary capacitor bank stores energy of 600 J at the maximum charging voltage of 2 kV. HV block includes HV pulsed step up transformer, HV capacitive storage, and two electrode gas switch. The following technical parameters of the generator were achieved: output voltage up to 300 kV, voltage rise time of ∼50 ns, current amplitude of ∼6 kA with the 40 Ω active load, and ∼20 kA in a rock fragmentation regime (with discharge in a rock-water mixture). Typical operation regime is a burst of 1000 pulses with a frequency of 10 Hz. The operation process can be controlled within a wide range of parameters. The entire installation (generator, transmission line, treatment chamber, and measuring probes) is designed like a continuous Faraday's cage (complete shielding) to exclude external electromagnetic perturbations.

  9. High-voltage pulsed generator for dynamic fragmentation of rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B. M.; Kharlov, A. V.; Vizir, V. A.; Kumpyak, V. V.; Zorin, V. B.; Kiselev, V. N.

    2010-10-01

    A portable high-voltage (HV) pulsed generator has been designed for rock fragmentation experiments. The generator can be used also for other technological applications. The installation consists of low voltage block, HV block, coaxial transmission line, fragmentation chamber, and control system block. Low voltage block of the generator, consisting of a primary capacitor bank (300 μF) and a thyristor switch, stores pulse energy and transfers it to the HV block. The primary capacitor bank stores energy of 600 J at the maximum charging voltage of 2 kV. HV block includes HV pulsed step up transformer, HV capacitive storage, and two electrode gas switch. The following technical parameters of the generator were achieved: output voltage up to 300 kV, voltage rise time of ˜50 ns, current amplitude of ˜6 kA with the 40 Ω active load, and ˜20 kA in a rock fragmentation regime (with discharge in a rock-water mixture). Typical operation regime is a burst of 1000 pulses with a frequency of 10 Hz. The operation process can be controlled within a wide range of parameters. The entire installation (generator, transmission line, treatment chamber, and measuring probes) is designed like a continuous Faraday's cage (complete shielding) to exclude external electromagnetic perturbations.

  10. Software emulator of nuclear pulse generation with different pulse shapes and pile-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pechousek, Jiri, E-mail: jiri.pechousek@upol.cz [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Konecny, Daniel [Department of Optics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 77 146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Novak, Petr; Kouril, Lukas; Kohout, Pavel [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Celiktas, Cuneyt [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Ege University, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey); Vujtek, Milan [Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 1192/12, 771 46 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2016-08-21

    The optimal detection of output signals from nuclear counting devices represents one of the key physical factors that govern accuracy and experimental reproducibility. In this context, the fine calibration of the detector under diverse experimental scenarios, although time costly, is necessary. However this process can be rendered easier with the use of systems that work in lieu of emulators. In this report we describe an innovative programmable pulse generator device capable to emulate the scintillation detector signals, in a way to mimic the detector performances under a variety of experimental conditions. The emulator generates a defined number of pulses, with a given shape and amplitude in the form of a sampled detector signal. The emulator output is then used off-line by a spectrometric system in order to set up its optimal performance. Three types of pulse shapes are produced by our device, with the possibility to add noise and pulse pile-up effects into the signal. The efficiency of the pulse detection, pile-up rejection and/or correction, together with the dead-time of the system, are therein analyzed through the use of some specific algorithms for pulse processing, and the results obtained validate the beneficial use of emulators for the accurate calibration process of spectrometric systems.

  11. Pulsed power sources based on MHD generators (A state-of-art review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.K.; Venkatramani, N.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    pulsed Power sources are finding increased applications in powering plasma experiments, CTF devices, investigations of structure of earth's crust or self-contained compact power supplies for military applications. This report reviews the development of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power systems for pulsed power applications. The major critical components, which are analysed in detail, include the combustor, high energy fuel development, high field magnet, high power density channel and power conditioning unit. The report concludes that the MHD research has now reached a stage, where it is possible to design and achieve requisite performance from short duration high power compact MHD generators. (author)

  12. Experimental investigation of powerful pulse current generators based on capacitive storage and explosive magnetic generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shurupov, A. V.; Zavalova, V. E.; Kozlov, A. V.; Shurupov, M. A.; Povareshkin, M. N.; Kozlov, A. A.; Shurupova, N. P.

    2018-01-01

    Experimental models of microsecond duration powerful generators of current pulses on the basis of explosive magnetic generators and voltage impulse generator have been developed for the electromagnetic pulse effects on energy facilities to verify their stability. Exacerbation of voltage pulse carried out through the use of electro explosive current interrupter made of copper wires with diameters of 80 and 120 μm. Experimental results of these models investigation are represented. Voltage fronts about 100 ns and the electric field strength of 800 kV/m are registered.

  13. Projectile-power-compressed magnetic-field pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlett, R.H.; Takemori, H.T.; Chase, J.B.

    1983-01-01

    Design considerations and experimental results are presented of a compressed magnetic field pulsed energy source. A 100-mm-diameter, gun-fired projectile of approx. 2MJ kinetic energy was the input energy source. An initial magnetic field was trapped and compressed by the projectile. With a shorted load, a magajoule in a nanohenry was the design goal, i.e., 50 percent energy transformation from kinetic to magnetic. Five percent conversion was the highest recorded before gauge failure

  14. High-voltage pulse generator synchronous with LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, M.; Hiratsuka, Yoshio; Niimura, Nobuo

    1974-01-01

    High-voltage pulse generator (H.V. Flip-Flop) No.2, an improved type of No.1, is described, which is used in the structural analysis of transient phenomena in materials through the neutron TOF with a Linac. The method of producing positive and negative high-voltage pulses synchronous with the Linac is identical with that in No.1. However, No.2 has outstanding features as follows: (1) The rise time of output pulses is reduced to 0.3 msec, due to the improvement of switching circuit and the winding of a step-up transformer; (2) The widths of positive and negative pulses are variable up to maximum 8 and 16 frames, respectively (One frame = 10 msec); (3) The distribution of TOF signals from a BF 3 counter to a time analyzer is possible even in the negative voltage duration. The panel is provided with the switches for choosing pulse width and the frame for analysis, as well as the dials for setting positive/negative pulse voltage values and the respective indicating meters. (Mori, K)

  15. High-voltage variable-duration pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimova, T.E.; Akkuratov, E.V.; Gromovenko, V.M.; Nikonov, Yu.P.; Malinin, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    A high-voltage generator is described that allows pulse duration tau to be varied within wide limits and has high efficiency (at least 50% for tau = 0.5 tau/sub max/) and an amplitude of up to 5 kV, a repetition frequency of up to 200 Hz,and a variable duration of 0-30 μsec. The generator is used in the controller of an electron accelerator

  16. Utilization of a pulsed D-T neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaithong, T.; Singkarat, S.; Tippawan, U.

    2000-01-01

    In the past two decades the IAEA has supported the establishment of neutron laboratories in many developing countries by providing small D-T neutron generators. The neutron generator is basically a low energy (100-400 keV) ion accelerator capable of producing a continuous beam of deuterons with a current in the range between 1-2.5 mA. These neutron generators are primarily intended to be used for fast neutron activation analysis. This paper describes the utilization of a 14 MeV neutron generator in continuous and pulsed beam modes in applied neutron physics program at Chiang Mai University. (author)

  17. Production of ozone using nanosecond short pulsed power

    OpenAIRE

    Shimomura, N.; Wakimoto, M.; Togo, H.; Namihira, Takao; Akiyama, Hidenori; ナミヒラ, タカオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 浪平, 隆男; 秋山, 秀典

    2003-01-01

    Production of ozone is one of the most typical industrial and commercial applications of electrical discharge. The demand of ozone will be increasing for wholesome and environment-friendly sterilizations. The production of ozone using the pulsed power discharge will apply electron accelerations around the head of streamer discharge. The breakdowns in reactor, however, often limit the efficient production. The pulse shape should be controlled for dimension of the reactor. On the other hand, th...

  18. Development of short pulse laser pumped x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J; Osterheld, A L; Hunter, J R; Shlyaptsev, V N

    2000-01-01

    X-ray lasers have been extensively studied around the world since the first laboratory demonstration on the Novette laser at LLNL in 1984 [l]. The characteristic properties of short wavelength, high monochromaticity, collimation and coherence make x-ray lasers useful for various applications. These include demonstrations of biological imaging within the water window, interferometry of laser plasmas and radiography of laser-heated surfaces. One of the critical issues has been the high power pump required to produce the inversion. The power scaling as a function of x-ray laser wavelength follows a -k4 to law. The shortest x-ray laser wavelength of ∼ 35 (angstrom) demonstrated for Ni-like All was at the limit of Nova laser capabilities. By requiring large, high power lasers such as Nova, the shot rate and total number of shots available have limited the rapid development of x-ray lasers and applications. In fact over the last fifteen years the main thrust has been to develop more efficient, higher repetition rate x-ray lasers that can be readily scaled to shorter wavelengths. The recent state of progress in the field can be found in references. The objective of the project was to develop a soft x-ray laser (XRL) pumped by a short pulse laser of a few joules. In effect to demonstrate a robust, worlung tabletop x-ray laser at LLNL for the first time. The transient collisional scheme as proposed by Shlyaptsev et al [8, 9] was the candidate x-ray laser for study. The successful endeavour of any scientific investigation is often based upon prudent early decisions and the choice of this scheme was both sound and fruitful. It had been demonstrated very recently for Ne-like Ti at 326 A using a small tabletop laser [10] but had not yet reached its full potential. We chose this scheme for several reasons: (a) it was a collisional-type x-ray laser which has been historically the most robust; (b) it had the promise of high efficiency and low energy threshold for lasing; (c) the

  19. Generation of Attosecond Light Pulses from Gas and Solid State Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanos Chatziathanasiou

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-time observation of ultrafast dynamics in the microcosm is a fundamental approach for understanding the internal evolution of physical, chemical and biological systems. Tools for tracing such dynamics are flashes of light with duration comparable to or shorter than the characteristic evolution times of the system under investigation. While femtosecond (fs pulses are successfully used to investigate vibrational dynamics in molecular systems, real time observation of electron motion in all states of matter requires temporal resolution in the attosecond (1 attosecond (asec = 10−18 s time scale. During the last decades, continuous efforts in ultra-short pulse engineering led to the development of table-top sources which can produce asec pulses. These pulses have been synthesized by using broadband coherent radiation in the extreme ultraviolet (XUV spectral region generated by the interaction of matter with intense fs pulses. Here, we will review asec pulses generated by the interaction of gas phase media and solid surfaces with intense fs IR laser fields. After a brief overview of the fundamental process underlying the XUV emission form these media, we will review the current technology, specifications and the ongoing developments of such asec sources.

  20. High intensity pulse self-compression in short hollow core capillaries

    OpenAIRE

    Butcher, Thomas J.; Anderson, Patrick N.; Horak, Peter; Frey, Jeremy G.; Brocklesby, William S.

    2011-01-01

    The drive for shorter pulses for use in techniques such as high harmonic generation and laser wakefield acceleration requires continual improvement in post-laser pulse compression techniques. The two most commonly used methods of pulse compression for high intensity pulses are hollow capillary compression via self-phase modulation (SPM) [1] and the more recently developed filamentation [2]. Both of these methods can require propagation distances of 1-3 m to achieve spectral broadening and com...

  1. Electromagnetic-implosion generation of pulsed high energy density plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, W.L.; Broderick, N.F.; Degnan, J.H.; Hussey, T.W.; Kiuttu, G.F.; Kloc, D.A.; Reinovsky, R.E.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter reports on the experimental and theoretical investigation of the generation of pulsed high-energy-density plasmas by electromagnetic implosion of cylindrical foils (i.e., imploding liners or hollow Z-pinches) at the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. Presents a comparison of experimental data with one-dimensional MHD and two-dimensional calculations. Points out that the study is distinct from other imploding liner efforts in that the approach is to produce a hot, dense plasma from the imploded liner itself, rather than to compress a magnetic-field-performed plasma mixture. The goal is to produce an intense laboratory pulsed X-ray source

  2. Chirped or time modulated excitation compared to short pulses for photoacoustic imaging in acoustic attenuating media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgholzer, P.; Motz, C.; Lang, O.; Berer, T.; Huemer, M.

    2018-02-01

    In photoacoustic imaging, optically generated acoustic waves transport the information about embedded structures to the sample surface. Usually, short laser pulses are used for the acoustic excitation. Acoustic attenuation increases for higher frequencies, which reduces the bandwidth and limits the spatial resolution. One could think of more efficient waveforms than single short pulses, such as pseudo noise codes, chirped, or harmonic excitation, which could enable a higher information-transfer from the samples interior to its surface by acoustic waves. We used a linear state space model to discretize the wave equation, such as the Stoke's equation, but this method could be used for any other linear wave equation. Linear estimators and a non-linear function inversion were applied to the measured surface data, for onedimensional image reconstruction. The proposed estimation method allows optimizing the temporal modulation of the excitation laser such that the accuracy and spatial resolution of the reconstructed image is maximized. We have restricted ourselves to one-dimensional models, as for higher dimensions the one-dimensional reconstruction, which corresponds to the acoustic wave without attenuation, can be used as input for any ultrasound imaging method, such as back-projection or time-reversal method.

  3. A 70 kV solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2014-02-01

    High voltage pulse generators are widely applied in many fields. In recent years, solid-state and operating at repetitive mode are the most important developing trends of high voltage pulse generators. A solid-state high voltage pulse generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. The proposed generator is consisted of three parts. They are charging system, triggering system, and the major loop. Saturable pulse transformer is the key component of the whole generator, which acts as a step-up transformer and main switch during working process of this generator. The circuit and working principles of the proposed pulse generator are introduced first in this paper, and the saturable pulse transformer used in this generator is introduced in detail. Circuit of the major loop is simulated to verify the design of the system. Demonstration experiments are carried out, and the results show that when the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to a high voltage, such as 2.5 kV, a voltage with amplitude of 86 kV can be achieved on the secondary winding. The magnetic core of saturable pulse transformer is saturated deeply and the saturable inductance of the secondary windings is very small. The switch function of the saturable pulse transformer can be realized ideally. Therefore, a 71 kV output voltage pulse is formed on the load. Moreover, the magnetic core of the saturable pulse transformer can be reset automatically.

  4. Generation of Attosecond X-Ray Pulse through Coherent Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K; Jeong, Y U; Lee, B C; Park, S H

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to some recent experimental results, which state that the Nonlinear Thomson Scattered (NTS) radiation is incoherent, a coherent condition under which the scattered radiation of an incident laser pulse by a bunch of electrons can be coherently superposed has been investigated. The Coherent Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattered (C-RNTS) radiation makes it possible utilizing the ultra-short pulse nature of NTS radiation with a bunch of electrons, such as plasma or electron beams. A numerical simulation shows that a 25 attosecond X-ray pulse can be generated by irradiating an ultra-intense laser pulse of 4x10(19) W/cm2 on an ultra-thin solid target of 50 nm thickness, which is commercially available. The coherent condition can be easily extended to an electron beam from accelerators. Different from the solid target, much narrower electron beam is required for the generation of an attosecond pulse. Instead, this condition could be applied for the generation of intense Compton scattered X-rays with a...

  5. Absorption of short-pulse electromagnetic energy by a resistively loaded straight wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.K.; Deadrick, F.J.; Landt, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Absorption of short-pulse electromagnetic energy by a resistively loaded straight wire is examined. Energy collected by the wire, load energy, peak load currents, and peak load voltages are found for a wide range of parameters, with particular emphasis on nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP) phenomena. A series of time-sequenced plots is used to illustrate pulse propagation on wires when loads and wire ends are encountered

  6. CIAE 600 kV ns pulse neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Guanren; Guan Xialing; Chen Hongtao

    2001-01-01

    The overall composition of CIAE 600 kV ns Pulse Neutron Generator (CPNG) are introduced, and its characteristic, main technological performance and application were also given. CPNG consists of high voltage power supply with highest output voltage 600 kV, direct current 15 mA, stability and ripple ≤0.1%, 2214 mm x 1604 mm x 1504 mm stainless steel high voltage electrode, built in head equipment uniform field accelerating tube, ns pulsed installation, turbomolecular vacuum pump system and drift pipes at 0 degree and 45 degree. Its characteristics are: (1) high current beam; (2) high current beam ns pulsed installation made use of low energy for chopper and high energy for buncher; (3) compactly laid out and simple in structure

  7. The VELOCE pulsed power generator for isentropic compression experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ao, Tommy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Asay, James Russell [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Chantrenne, Sophie J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Hickman, Randall John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Willis, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Shay, Andrew W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Grine-Jones, Suzi A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Hall, Clint Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dynamic Material Properties; Baer, Melvin R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Engineering Sciences Center

    2007-12-01

    Veloce is a medium-voltage, high-current, compact pulsed power generator developed for isentropic and shock compression experiments. Because of its increased availability and ease of operation, Veloce is well suited for studying isentropic compression experiments (ICE) in much greater detail than previously allowed with larger pulsed power machines such as the Z accelerator. Since the compact pulsed power technology used for dynamic material experiments has not been previously used, it is necessary to examine several key issues to ensure that accurate results are obtained. In the present experiments, issues such as panel and sample preparation, uniformity of loading, and edge effects were extensively examined. In addition, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the ALEGRA code were performed to interpret the experimental results and to design improved sample/panel configurations. Examples of recent ICE studies on aluminum are presented.

  8. A Test Bed for Short Pulse OA Detection of Optical Directors in Amphibious Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ertem, M

    1999-01-01

    ...) system to detect optical directors of potential threats in amphibious operations. The use of a short pulse duration allows discrimination of retroreflections from natural sources such as rock formations and vegetation...

  9. The transformation of optical bistability effect and of generated pulses in operation of a DFB laser with two sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Van Phu; Dinh Van Hoang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper is presented the transformation of characteristics of optical bistability effect and of generated pulses in operation of a DFB laser with two sections. By solving the rate equations describing the operation of this laser the appearance of optical bistability effect in stationary regime and of short pulses in transient regime is obtained. With the variation of dynamical laser parameter we can evaluate the transformation indicated above. The method of examination used here is simple for determining the influence of any dynamical laser parameter on characteristics of optical bistability effect and generated pulses. (author)

  10. Alignment of symmetric top molecules by short laser pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Edward; Seideman, Tamar; Ejdrup, Tine

    2005-01-01

    -resolved photofragment imaging. Using methyliodide and tert-butyliodide as examples, we calculate and measure the alignment dynamics, focusing on the temporal structure and intensity of the revival patterns, including their dependence on the pulse duration, and their behavior at long times, where centrifugal distortion......Nonadiabatic alignment of symmetric top molecules induced by a linearly polarized, moderately intense picosecond laser pulse is studied theoretically and experimentally. Our studies are based on the combination of a nonperturbative solution of the Schrodinger equation with femtosecond time...

  11. Pondermotive absorption of a short intense laser pulse in a non-uniform plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, A A; Platonov, K Yu [Inst. for Laser Physics, SC ` Vavilov State Optical Inst.` 12, Birzhevaya line, St Petersburg (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K A

    1998-03-01

    An analytical description of the pondermotive absorption mechanism at a short high intense laser pulse interaction with a strong inhomogeneous plasma is presented. The optimal conditions for the maximum of resonance absorption of laser pulse interaction with non-uniform plasma at normal incidence are founded. (author)

  12. Modular High Voltage Pulse Converter for Short Rise and Decay Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, S.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis explores a modular HV pulse converter technology with short rise and decay times. A systematic methodology to derive and classify HV architectures based on a modularization level of power building blocks of the HV pulse converter is developed to summarize existing architectures and

  13. Dependence of Initial Oxygen Concentration on Ozone Yield Using Inductive Energy Storage System Pulsed Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Tomio; Tanaka, Yasushi; Yamazaki, Nobuyuki; Mukaigawa, Seiji; Takaki, Koichi; Fujiwara, Tamiya

    Dependence of initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield using streamer discharge reactor driven by an inductive energy storage system pulsed power generator is described in this paper. Fast recovery type diodes were employed as semiconductor opening switch to interrupt a circuit current within 100 ns. This rapid current change produced high-voltage short pulse between a secondary energy storage inductor. The repetitive high-voltage short pulse was applied to a 1 mm diameter center wire electrode placed in a cylindrical pulse corona reactor. The streamer discharge successfully occurred between the center wire electrode and an outer cylinder ground electrode of 2 cm inner diameter. The ozone was produced with the streamer discharge and increased with increasing pulse repetition rate. The ozone yield changed in proportion to initial oxygen concentration contained in the injected gas mixture at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. However, the decrease of the ozone yield by decreasing oxygen concentration in the gas mixture at 180 ns forward pumping time of the current was lower than the decrease at 800 ns forward pumping time of the current. This dependence of the initial oxygen concentration on ozone yield at 180 ns forward pumping time is similar to that of dielectric barrier discharge reactor.

  14. Short-circuited coil in a solenoid circuit of a pulse magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kivshik, A.F.; Dubrovin, V.Yu.

    1976-01-01

    A short-circuited coil at the end of a long pulse solenoid attenuates the dissipation field by 3-5 times. A plug-configuration field is set up in the middle portion of the pulse solenoid incorporating the short-circuited coils. Shunting of the coils with the induction current by resistor Rsub(shunt) provides for the adjustment of the plug ratio γ

  15. Influence of short heat pulses on the helium boiling heat transfer rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, V.K.; Deev, V.I.; Savin, A.N.; Kutsenko, K.V.

    1987-01-01

    Investigation results on heat transfer in the process of helium boiling on a heated wall under conditions of pulsed heat effect are described. Results of the given study point to one of possible ways of heat exchange intensification in boiling helium by supplying short heat pulse to the heater. Even short-time noncontrolled or incidental increase in the heater capacity during experiment with boiling helium can result in a considerable disagreement of experimental data on heat transfer

  16. High Energy, Short Pulse Fiber Injection Lasers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, J W; Messerly, M J; Phan, H H; Crane, J K; Beach, R J; Siders, C W; Barty, C J

    2008-09-10

    A short pulse fiber injection laser for the Advanced Radiographic Capability (ARC) on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This system produces 100 {micro}J pulses with 5 nm of bandwidth centered at 1053 nm. The pulses are stretched to 2.5 ns and have been recompressed to sub-ps pulse widths. A key feature of the system is that the pre-pulse power contrast ratio exceeds 80 dB. The system can also precisely adjust the final recompressed pulse width and timing and has been designed for reliable, hands free operation. The key challenges in constructing this system were control of the signal to noise ratio, dispersion management and managing the impact of self phase modulation on the chirped pulse.

  17. Programmable pulse sequence generator with multiple output lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabczyk, Hubert

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents a novel concept of pulse sequence generator and its prototype as an electronic circuit testing laboratory tool. The generator has multiple output lines and is capable of using control data defining different pulse sequences to be given to the outputs. It is also possible to use different voltage levels in output signal and switch output lines for reading data from driven system. The pulse sequence generator can be used for runtime environment simulation, as hardware tester or auxiliary tool in new designs. Important design factors were to keep cost of the tool low and allow integration with other projects by using flexible architecture. The prototype was based on universal programmer with adjustable power supply, '51 microcontroller and Altera Cyclone chip. The generator communicates witch PC computer via RS232 port. Dedicated software was developed in the course of this project, to control the tool and data transmission. The prototype confirmed the possibility to create an inexpensive multipurpose laboratory tool for programming, testing and simulation of digital devices.

  18. Short pulse mid-infrared amplifier for high average power

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, LR

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available High pressure CO2 lasers are good candidates for amplifying picosecond mid infrared pulses. High pressure CO2 lasers are notorious for being unreliable and difficult to operate. In this paper a high pressure CO2 laser is presented based on well...

  19. Modeling short-pulse laser excitation of dielectric materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Sandkamm, Ditte Både; Haahr-Lillevang, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical description of ultrashort-pulse laser excitation of dielectric materials based on strong-field excitation in the Keldysh picture combined with a multiple-rateequation model for the electronic excitation including collisional processes is presented. The model includes light attenuation...

  20. Radiobiological response to ultra-short pulsed megavoltage electron beams of ultra-high pulse dose rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyreuther, Elke; Karsch, Leonhard; Laschinsky, Lydia; Leßmann, Elisabeth; Naumburger, Doreen; Oppelt, Melanie; Richter, Christian; Schürer, Michael; Woithe, Julia; Pawelke, Jörg

    2015-08-01

    In line with the long-term aim of establishing the laser-based particle acceleration for future medical application, the radiobiological consequences of the typical ultra-short pulses and ultra-high pulse dose rate can be investigated with electron delivery. The radiation source ELBE (Electron Linac for beams with high Brilliance and low Emittance) was used to mimic the quasi-continuous electron beam of a clinical linear accelerator (LINAC) for comparison with electron pulses at the ultra-high pulse dose rate of 10(10) Gy min(-1) either at the low frequency of a laser accelerator or at 13 MHz avoiding effects of prolonged dose delivery. The impact of pulse structure was analyzed by clonogenic survival assay and by the number of residual DNA double-strand breaks remaining 24 h after irradiation of two human squamous cell carcinoma lines of differing radiosensitivity. The radiation response of both cell lines was found to be independent from electron pulse structure for the two endpoints under investigation. The results reveal, that ultra-high pulse dose rates of 10(10) Gy min(-1) and the low repetition rate of laser accelerated electrons have no statistically significant influence (within the 95% confidence intervals) on the radiobiological effectiveness of megavoltage electrons.

  1. Transient pulse analysis of ionized electronics exposed to γ-radiation generated from a relativistic electron beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sun-Hong; Kwon, Ohjoon; Sattorov, Matlabjon; Baek, In-Keun; Kim, Seontae; Hong, Dongpyo; Jeong, Jin-Young; Jang, Jungmin; Bera, Anirban; Barik, Ranjan Kumar; Bhattacharya, Ranajoy; Cho, Ilsung; Kim, Byungsu; Park, Chawon; Jung, Wongyun; Park, Seunghyuk; Park, Gun-Sik

    2018-02-01

    When a semiconductor element is irradiated with radiation in the form of a transient pulse emitted from a nuclear explosion, a large amount of charge is generated in a short time in the device. A photocurrent amplified in a certain direction by these types of charges cause the device to break down and malfunction or in extreme cases causes them to burn out. In this study, a pulse-type γ-ray generator based on a relativistic electron beam accelerator (γ=2.2, β=0.89) which functions by means of tungsten impingement was constructed and tested in an effort to investigate the process and effects of the photocurrent formed by electron hole pairs (EHP) generated in a pMOSFET device when a transient radiation pulse is incident in the device. The pulse-type γ-ray irradiating device used here to generate the electron beam current in a short time was devised to allow an increase in the irradiation dose. A precise signal processing circuit was constructed to measure the photocurrent of the small signal generated by the pMOSFET due to the electron beam accelerator pulse signal from the large noise stemming from the electromagnetic field around the relativistic electron beam accelerator. The pulse-type γ-ray generator was installed to meet the requirements of relativistic electron beam accelerators, and beam irradiation was conducted after a beam commissioning step.

  2. Controllable nonlocal behaviour by cascaded second-harmonic generation of fs pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw

    2008-01-01

    Second-harmonic generation (SHG) of ultra-short pulses can act as a prototypical nonlocal nonlinear model, since the strength and nature of the temporal nonlocality can be controlled through the phase-mismatch parameter. The presence of a group-velocity mismatch namely implies that when the phase...... mismatch is small the nonlocal response function becomes oscillatory, while for large phase mismatch it becomes localized. In the transition between the two regimes the strength of the nonlocality diverges, and the system goes from a weakly nonlocal to a strongly nonlocal state. When simulating soliton...... compression to few-cycle pulses in the cascaded quadratic soliton compressor, the spectral content of the full coupled SHG model is predicted by the nonlocal model even when few-cycle pulses are interacting....

  3. Applications of lightweight composite materials in pulsed rotating electrical generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.A.; Maifold, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Present rotating electrical pulse power generators are limited in energy storage capability, specific energy, and peak power density by the use of iron-magnetic circuits. This paper discusses lightweight and compact iron-core homopolar generators (HPGs) which have attained specific energies of 6 kJ/kg and have the potential to achieve 8 kJ/kg in the near future. Prototype iron based pulsed alternators are the favored choice for high power to mass ratio applications and have estimated peak ratings of 180 kW/kg. In terms of total energy storage capability, these machines are limited to several hundred MJ due to the availability of large steel forgings for rotors and basic design considerations including rotor dynamics, allowable rotor tip speeds, and present high speed current collection technology

  4. Low-cost programmable pulse generator for particle telescope calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, S; Seisdedos, M; Meziat, D; Carbajo, M; Medina, J; Bronchalo, E; Peral, L D; Rodríguez-Pacheco, J

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present a new calibration system for particle telescopes including multipulse generator and digital controller. The calibration system generates synchronized pulses of variable height for every detector channel on the telescope. The control system is based on a commercial microcontroller linked to a personal computer through an RS-232 bidirectional line. The aim of the device is to perform laboratory calibration of multi-detector telescopes prior to calibration at accelerator. This task includes evaluation of linearity and resolution of each detector channel, as well as coincidence logic. The heights of the pulses sent to the detectors are obtained by Monte Carlo simulation of telescope response to a particle flux of any desired geometry and composition.

  5. Formation of very short pulse by neutron spin flip chopper for J-PARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, T.; Soyama, K.; Yamazaki, D.; Tasaki, S.; Sakai, K.; Oku, T.; Maruyama, R.; Hino, M.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed neutron spin flip choppers with high S/N ratio and high intensity for pulsed sources using multi-stage spin flip choppers. It is not easy for us to obtain a very short neutron pulse less than 10 μs using a spin flip chopper, due to the time constant L/R in the normal LR circuit. We will discuss a method obtaining a very short neutron pulse applying the modified push-pull circuit proposed by Ito and Takahashi [4] to the double spin flip chopper with polarizing guides

  6. Time-dependent Bragg diffraction and short-pulse reflection by one-dimensional photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    André, Jean-Michel; Jonnard, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The time-dependence of the Bragg diffraction by one-dimensional photonic crystals and its influence on the short pulse reflection are studied in the framework of the coupled-wave theory. The indicial response of the photonic crystal is calculated and it appears that it presents a time-delay effect with a transient time conditioned by the extinction length. A numerical simulation is presented for a Bragg mirror in the x-ray domain and a pulse envelope modelled by a sine-squared shape. The potential consequences of the time-delay effect in time-dependent optics of short-pulses are emphasized. (paper)

  7. Operation and technology of high pulsed power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eyl, P.; Romary, P.

    1995-01-01

    In order to satisfy the needs of ''components and electronic circuits hardness'', a range of high pulsed power generators is available in the French Atomic Energy Commission. The goal of this paper is to present the general principles of operation and the main characteristics of the irradiation facilities which are operational at the CESTA center. Finally, we give a brief outline of the new technology developments. (authors). 6 refs., 16 figs

  8. Hot-electron surface retention in intense short-pulse laser-matter interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R J; Dodd, E S; Albright, B J

    2005-07-01

    Implicit hybrid plasma simulations predict that a significant fraction of the energy deposited into hot electrons can be retained near the surface of targets with steep density gradients illuminated by intense short-pulse lasers. This retention derives from the lateral transport of heated electrons randomly emitted in the presence of spontaneous magnetic fields arising near the laser spot, from geometric effects associated with a small hot-electron source, and from E fields arising in reaction to the ponderomotive force. Below the laser spot hot electrons are axially focused into a target by the B fields, and can filament in moderate Z targets by resistive Weibel-like instability, if the effective background electron temperature remains sufficiently low. Carefully engineered use of such retention in conjunction with ponderomotive density profile steepening could result in a reduced hot-electron range that aids fast ignition. Alternatively, such retention may disturb a deeper deposition needed for efficient radiography and backside fast ion generation.

  9. Upconversion imaging using short-wave infrared picosecond pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathez, Morgan David; Rodrigo, Peter John; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    beam diameter to upconvert a wider range of signal spatial frequencies in the crystal. The 1877 nm signal is converted into 849 nm—enabling an image to be acquired by a silicon CCD camera. The measured size of the smallest resolvable element of this imaging system is consistent with the value predicted...... repetition rate of 21.7 MHz. Due to synchronization of high peak-power pulses, efficient upconversion is achieved in a single-pass setup that employs a bulk lithium niobate crystal. Optimizing the temporal overlap of the pulses for high upconversion efficiency enables us to exploit a relatively large pump...... by an improved model that considers the combined image blurring effect due to finite pump beam size, thick nonlinear crystal, and polychromatic infrared illumination....

  10. Mechanism for the generation of cavitation maxima by pulsed ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flynn, H.G.; Church, C.C.

    1984-01-01

    A train of 1-MHz pulses can generate maxima of cavitation activity at pulse lengths of 6 and 60 ms and at pressure amplitudes, P/sub A/, between 5.4 and 9.4 bars (or intensities between 10 and 30 W/cm 2 ). Generation of maxima at P/sub A/ between these limits on pressure amplitude implies that the increase in cavitation activity originates from gas nuclei with radii lying in a critical size range centered at about 0.08 μm. The mechanism proposed for this phenomenon suggests that nuclei in this critical range are unstabilized nuclei generated in one pulse and surviving to the next with an appreciable fraction of the survivors lying in the critical range. Transient cavities that grow from such small nuclei are shown to behave as isolated mechanical systems that on reaching maximum size collapse as imploding spheres. The maximum pressures reached in such imploding cavities would then approximate those calculated for the spherical collapse of cavities. The occurrence of the observed maxima is ascribed to the spherical collapse of transient cavities. 17 references, 5 figures

  11. Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl; Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw 50-370 (Poland); Macherzynski, W.; Paletko, P. [Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, Wroclaw 50-372 (Poland)

    2015-08-03

    Low-dimensional materials, due to their unique and versatile properties, are very interesting for numerous applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Recently rediscovered black phosphorus, with a graphite-like layered structure, can be effectively exfoliated up to the single atomic layer called phosphorene. Contrary to graphene, it possesses a direct band gap controllable by the number of stacked atomic layers. For those reasons, black phosphorus is now intensively investigated and can complement or replace graphene in various photonics and electronics applications. Here, we demonstrate that black phosphorus can serve as a broadband saturable absorber and can be used for ultrashort optical pulse generation. The mechanically exfoliated ∼300 nm thick layers of black phosphorus were transferred onto the fiber core, and under pulsed excitation at 1560 nm wavelength, its transmission increases by 4.6%. We have demonstrated that the saturable absorption of black phosphorus is polarization sensitive. The fabricated device was used to mode-lock an Er-doped fiber laser. The generated optical solitons with the 10.2 nm bandwidth and 272 fs duration were centered at 1550 nm. The obtained results unambiguously show that black phosphorus can be effectively used for ultrashort pulse generation with performances similar or even better than currently used graphene or carbon nanotubes. This application of black phosphorus proves its great potential to future practical use in photonics.

  12. Peculiarities of the propagation of multidimensional extremely short optical pulses in germanene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, Alexander V., E-mail: alex_zhukov@sutd.edu.sg [Singapore University of Technology and Design, 8 Somapah Road, 487372 Singapore (Singapore); Bouffanais, Roland [Singapore University of Technology and Design, 8 Somapah Road, 487372 Singapore (Singapore); Konobeeva, Natalia N. [Volgograd State University, 400062 Volgograd (Russian Federation); Belonenko, Mikhail B. [Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Volgograd Institute of Business, 400048 Volgograd (Russian Federation); Volgograd State University, 400062 Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-07

    Highlights: • Established dynamics of ultra-short pulses in germanene. • Studied balance between dispersive and nonlinear effects in germanene. • Spin–orbit interaction effect onto pulse propagation. - Abstract: In this Letter, we study the propagation characteristics of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional extremely short optical pulses in germanene. A distinguishing feature of germanene—in comparison with other graphene-like structures—is the presence of a significant spin–orbit interaction. The account of this interaction has a significant impact on the evolution of extremely short pulses in such systems. Specifically, extremely short optical pulses, consisting of two electric field oscillations, cause the appearance of a tail associated with the excitation of nonlinear waves. Due to the large spin–orbit interaction in germanene, this tail behind the main pulse is much smaller in germanene-based samples as compared to graphene-based ones, thereby making germanene a preferred material for the stable propagation of pulses along the sample.

  13. Generation of atto-second pulses on relativistic mirror plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincenti, H.

    2012-12-01

    When an ultra intense femtosecond laser (I > 10 16 W.cm -2 ) with high contrast is focused on a solid target, the laser field at focus is high enough to completely ionize the target surface during the rising edge of the laser pulse and form a plasma. This plasma is so dense (the electron density is of the order of hundred times the critical density) that it completely reflects the incident laser beam in the specular direction: this is the so-called 'plasma mirror'. When laser intensity becomes very high, the non-linear response of the plasma mirror to the laser field periodically deforms the incident electric field leading to high harmonic generation in the reflected beam. In the temporal domain this harmonic spectrum is associated to a train of atto-second pulses. The goals of my work were to get a better comprehension of the properties of harmonic beams produced on plasma mirrors and design new methods to control theses properties, notably in order to produce isolated atto-second pulses instead of trains. Initially, we imagined and modeled the first realistic technique to generate isolated atto-second on plasma mirrors. This brand new approach is based on a totally new physical effect: 'the atto-second lighthouse effect'. Its principle consists in sending the atto-second pulses of the train in different directions and selects one of these pulses by putting a slit in the far field. Despite its simplicity, this technique is very general and applies to any high harmonic generation mechanism. Moreover, the atto-second lighthouse effect has many other applications (e.g in metrology). In particular, it paves the way to atto-second pump-probe experiments. Then, we studied the spatial properties of these harmonics, whose control and characterization are crucial if one wants to use this source in future application experiments. For instance, we need to control very precisely the harmonic beam divergence in order to achieve the atto-second lighthouse effect and get

  14. Symmetry issues in a class of ion beam targets using short direct drive pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mark, J.W.K.; Lindl, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    We address a class of modified ion beam targets where the symmetry issues are ameliorated in the regime of short bursts of direct drive pulses. Short pulses are here defined so that the fractional change in target radii of peak beam energy deposition are assumed to be small (during each such direct drive burst with a fixed beam focal radius). This requirement is actually not stringent on the temporal pulse-length. In fact we show an explicit example where this can be satisfied by a ≥ 60 ns direct drive pulse-train. A new beam placement scheme is used which systematically eliminated low order spherical harmonic asymmetries. The residual asymmetries of such pulses are studied with both simple model and numerical simulations

  15. SHORT-PULSE ELECTROMAGNETIC TRANSPONDER FOR HOLE-TO-HOLE USE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, David L.; Watts, Raymond D.; Bramsoe, Erik

    1983-01-01

    Hole-to-hole observations were made through nearly 20 m of granite using an electromagnetic transponder (an active reflector) in one borehole and a single-hole short-pulse radar in another. The transponder is inexpensive, operationally simple, and effective in extending the capability of a short-pulse borehole radar system to allow hole-to-hole operation without requiring timing cables. A detector in the transponder senses the arrival of each pulse from the radar. Each pulse detection triggers a kilovolt-amplitude pulse for retransmission. The transponder 'echo' may be stronger than that of a passive reflector by a factor of as much as 120 db. The result is an increase in range capability by a factor which depends on attenuation in the medium and hole-to-hole wavepath geometry.

  16. Development of ultra-short high voltage pulse technology using magnetic pulse compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, S. G.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, B. C.; Lee, S. M.; Jeong, Y. U.; Cho, S. O.; Jin, J. T.; Choi, H. L

    1998-01-01

    The control circuit for high voltage switches, the saturable inductor for magnetic assist, and the magnetic pulse compression circuit were designed, constructed, and tested. The core materials of saturable inductors in magnetic pulse compression circuit were amorphous metal and ferrite and total compression stages were 3. By the test, in high repetition rate, high pulse compression were certified. As a result of this test, it became possible to increase life-time of thyratrons and to replace thyratrons by solid-state semiconductor switches. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs.

  17. Development of ultra-short high voltage pulse technology using magnetic pulse compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Byung Heon; Kim, S. G.; Nam, S. M.; Lee, B. C.; Lee, S. M.; Jeong, Y. U.; Cho, S. O.; Jin, J. T.; Choi, H. L.

    1998-01-01

    The control circuit for high voltage switches, the saturable inductor for magnetic assist, and the magnetic pulse compression circuit were designed, constructed, and tested. The core materials of saturable inductors in magnetic pulse compression circuit were amorphous metal and ferrite and total compression stages were 3. By the test, in high repetition rate, high pulse compression were certified. As a result of this test, it became possible to increase life-time of thyratrons and to replace thyratrons by solid-state semiconductor switches. (author). 16 refs., 16 tabs

  18. Practical system for the generation of pulsed quantum frequency combs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roztocki, Piotr; Kues, Michael; Reimer, Christian; Wetzel, Benjamin; Sciara, Stefania; Zhang, Yanbing; Cino, Alfonso; Little, Brent E; Chu, Sai T; Moss, David J; Morandotti, Roberto

    2017-08-07

    The on-chip generation of large and complex optical quantum states will enable low-cost and accessible advances for quantum technologies, such as secure communications and quantum computation. Integrated frequency combs are on-chip light sources with a broad spectrum of evenly-spaced frequency modes, commonly generated by four-wave mixing in optically-excited nonlinear micro-cavities, whose recent use for quantum state generation has provided a solution for scalable and multi-mode quantum light sources. Pulsed quantum frequency combs are of particular interest, since they allow the generation of single-frequency-mode photons, required for scaling state complexity towards, e.g., multi-photon states, and for quantum information applications. However, generation schemes for such pulsed combs have, to date, relied on micro-cavity excitation via lasers external to the sources, being neither versatile nor power-efficient, and impractical for scalable realizations of quantum technologies. Here, we introduce an actively-modulated, nested-cavity configuration that exploits the resonance pass-band characteristic of the micro-cavity to enable a mode-locked and energy-efficient excitation. We demonstrate that the scheme allows the generation of high-purity photons at large coincidence-to-accidental ratios (CAR). Furthermore, by increasing the repetition rate of the excitation field via harmonic mode-locking (i.e. driving the cavity modulation at harmonics of the fundamental repetition rate), we managed to increase the pair production rates (i.e. source efficiency), while maintaining a high CAR and photon purity. Our approach represents a significant step towards the realization of fully on-chip, stable, and versatile sources of pulsed quantum frequency combs, crucial for the development of accessible quantum technologies.

  19. High beam quality and high energy short-pulse laser with MOPA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Quanwei; Pang, Yu; Jiang, JianFeng; Tan, Liang; Cui, Lingling; Wei, Bin; Sun, Yinhong; Tang, Chun

    2018-03-01

    A high energy, high beam quality short-pulse diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power-amplifier (MOPA) laser with two amplifier stages is demonstrated. The two-rod birefringence compensation was used as beam quality controlling methods, which presents a short-pulse energy of 40 mJ with a beam quality value of M2 = 1.2 at a repetition rate of 400Hz. The MOPA system delivers a short-pulse energy of 712.5 mJ with a pulse width of 12.4 ns.The method of spherical aberration compensation is improved the beam quality, a M2 factor of 2.3 and an optical-to-optical efficiency of 27.7% is obtained at the maximum laser out power.The laser obtained 1.4J out energy with polarization integration.

  20. Numerical simulation of compact intracloud discharge and generated electromagnetic pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babich, L. P.; Bochkov, E. I.; Kutsyk, I. M.

    2015-06-01

    Using the concept of the relativistic runaway electron avalanche, numerical simulation of compact intracloud discharge as a generator of powerful natural electromagnetic pulses (EMPs) in the HF-UHF range was conducted. We evaluated the numbers of electrons initiating the avalanche, with which the calculated EMP characteristics are consistent with measured ones. The discharge capable of generating EMPs produces runaway electrons in numbers close to those in the source of terrestrial γ-flashes (TGF) registered in the nearest space, which may be an argument for a joint EMP and TGF source.

  1. Current multiplier to improved generator-to-load coupling for pulse-power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuvatin, A.S.; Rudakov, L.I.; Weber, B.V.; Bayol, F.; Cadiergues, R.

    2005-01-01

    The circuit presented improves the coupling of existing and future pulsed power generators to physical loads. The efficiency of the proposed current multiplication scheme could theoretically exceed the values for a typical direct load-to-generator circuit. The scheme could be beneficial for use in actual applications and two examples of such applications are given [ru

  2. Bit rate and pulse width dependence of four-wave mixing of short optical pulses in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diez, S.; Mecozzi, A.; Mørk, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the saturation properties of four-wave mixing of short optical pulses in a semiconductor optical amplifier. By varying the gain of the optical amplifier, we find a strong dependence of both conversion efficiency and signal-to-background ratio on pulse width and bit rate....... In particular, the signal-to-background ratio can be optimized for a specific amplifier gain. This behavior, which is coherently described in experiment and theory, is attributed to the dynamics of the amplified spontaneous emission, which is the main source of noise in a semiconductor optical amplifier....

  3. Optimization of Industrial Ozone Generation with Pulsed Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Jose; Guerrero, Daniel; Freilich, Alfred; Ramoino, Luca; Seton Hall University Team; Degremont Technologies-Ozonia Team

    2013-09-01

    Ozone (O3) is widely used for applications ranging from various industrial chemical synthesis processes to large-scale water treatment. The consequent surge in world-wide demand has brought about the requirement for ozone generation at the rate of several hundreds grams per kilowatt hour (g/kWh). For many years, ozone has been generated by means of dielectric barrier discharges (DBD), where a high-energy electric field between two electrodes separated by a dielectric and gap containing pure oxygen or air produce various microplasmas. The resultant microplasmas provide sufficient energy to dissociate the oxygen molecules while allowing the proper energetics channels for the formation of ozone. This presentation will review the current power schemes used for large-scale ozone generation and explore the use of high-voltage nanosecond pulses with reduced electric fields. The created microplasmas in a high reduced electric field are expected to be more efficient for ozone generation. This is confirmed with the current results of this work which observed that the efficiency of ozone generation increases by over eight time when the rise time and pulse duration are shortened. Department of Physics, South Orange, NJ, USA.

  4. Generation of Ultra-high Intensity Laser Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.; Malkin, V.M.

    2003-01-01

    Mainly due to the method of chirped pulse amplification, laser intensities have grown remarkably during recent years. However, the attaining of very much higher powers is limited by the material properties of gratings. These limitations might be overcome through the use of plasma, which is an ideal medium for processing very high power and very high total energy. A plasma can be irradiated by a long pump laser pulse, carrying significant energy, which is then quickly depleted in the plasma by a short counterpropagating pulse. This counterpropagating wave effect has already been employed in Raman amplifiers using gases or plasmas at low laser power. Of particular interest here are the new effects which enter in high power regimes. These new effects can be employed so that one high-energy optical system can be used like a flashlamp in what amounts to pumping the plasma, and a second low-power optical system can be used to extract quickly the energy from the plasma and focus it precisely. The combined system can be very compact. Thus, focused intensities more than 10 25 W/cm 2 can be contemplated using existing optical elements. These intensities are several orders of magnitude higher than what is currently available through chirped pump amplifiers

  5. A new digital pulse generator for the CALIFA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, Michael; Gernhaeuser, Roman; Heiss, Benjamin; Klenze, Philipp; Remmels, Patrick; Winkel, Max [Physik Department E12, Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The 4π-calorimeter CALIFA ist one of the major detectors of the R3B-experiment at the upcoming Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research in Darmstadt. The monitoring of stability, single channel properties, temperature effects and rate dependency in a high resolution, high granularity calorimeter is essential for the success of the whole experiment. A new digital pulse generator will emulate the complex signal of the CsI(Tl) crystals in order to fine tune the online pulse shape analysis for particle identification, background suppression, energy calibration and for deadtime and pileup studies. The total pulse generator firmware is implemented into the digital readout platform FEBEX used in CALIFA. The FPGA and a small analog add on board allow for highly flexible parameter adjustment. New applications are easy to implement and even very complex shapes are produced by simple lookup tables. The concept, features and implementation of a prototype and a first application in the CALIFA Demonstrator Experiment in October 2014 at GSI in Darmstadt are presented.

  6. A short-pulse mode for the SPHINX LTD Z-pinch driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Almeida, Thierry; Lassalle, Francis; Zucchini, Frederic; Loyen, Arnaud; Morell, Alain; Chuvatin, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The SPHINX machine is a 6MA, 1 μs, LTD Z-pinch driver at CEA Gramat (France) and primarily used for studying radiation effects. Different power amplification concepts were examined in order to reduce the current rise time without modifying the generator discharge scheme, including the Dynamic Load Current Multiplier (DLCM) proposed by Chuvatin. A DLCM device, capable of shaping the current pulse without reducing the rise time, was developed at CEA. This device proved valuable for isentropic compression experiments in cylindrical geometry. Recently, we achieved a short pulse operation mode by inserting a vacuum closing switch between the DLCM and the load. The current rise time was reduced to ~300 ns. We explored the use of a reduced-height wire array for the Dynamic Flux Extruder in order to improve the wire array compression rate and increase the efficiency of the current transfer to the load. These developments are presented. Potential benefits of these developments for future Z pinch experiments are discussed.

  7. Theoretical analysis of ozone generation by pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, L. S.; Zhou, J. H.; Wang, Z. H.; Cen, K. F.

    2007-08-01

    The use of very short high-voltage pulses combined with a dielectric layer results in high-energy electrons that dissociate oxygen molecules into atoms, which are a prerequisite for the subsequent production of ozone by collisions with oxygen molecules and third particles. The production of ozone depends on both the electrical and the physical parameters. For ozone generation by pulsed dielectric barrier discharge in oxygen, a mathematical model, which describes the relation between ozone concentration and these parameters that are of importance in its design, is developed according to dimensional analysis theory. A formula considering the ozone destruction factor is derived for predicting the characteristics of the ozone generation, within the range of the corona inception voltage to the gap breakdown voltage. The trend showing the dependence of the concentration of ozone in oxygen on these parameters generally agrees with the experimental results, thus confirming the validity of the mathematical model.

  8. Generation of Attosecond x-ray pulse using Coherent Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki Tae; Park, Seong Hee; Cha, Yong Ho; Jeong, Young Uk; Lee, Byung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Relativistic plasma, a new regime in physics, has been opened due to the development in ultra-intense laser technology during the past decade. Not only the fundamental aspect of relativistic plasma are attractive but also its potential application seems to be significant especially in the area of the generation of high energy particles such as electrons, ions, positrons, and {gamma}-rays. The generation of x-ray radiation with a pulse width of sub-femtoseconds presently draws much attention because such a radiation allows one to explore ultra-fast dynamics of electrons and nucleons. Several schemes have been proposed and/or demonstrated to generate an ultra-short x-ray pulse: the relativistic Doppler shift of a backscattered laser pulse by a relativistic electron beam, the harmonic frequency upshift of a laser pulse by relativistic nonlinear motion of electrons, high order harmonic generation in the interaction of intense laser pulse with noble gases and solids The train of a few 100 attosecond pulses has been observed in the case of laser-noble gas interaction. When a low-intensity laser pulse is irradiated on an electron, the electron undergoes a harmonic oscillatory motion and generates a dipole radiation with the same frequency as the incident laser pulse, which is called Thomson scattering. As the laser intensity increases, the oscillatory motion of the electron becomes relativistically nonlinear, which leads to the generation of harmonic radiations, referred to as Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattered (RNTS) radiation. The motion of the electron begins to be relativistic as the following normalized vector potential approaches to unity: a{sub 0}=8.5 x 10{sup -10} {lambda}{iota}{sup 1/2} , (1) where {lambda} is the laser wavelength in {mu}m and I the laser intensity in W/cm{sup 2} The RNTS radiation has been investigated in analytical ways. Recently, indebted to the development of the ultra-intense laser pulse, experiments on RNTS radiation have been carried

  9. New developments in short-pulse eye safe lasers pay the way for future LADARs and 3D mapping performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasmanik, Guerman; Latone, Kevin; Shilov, Alex; Shklovsky, Eugeni; Spiro, Alex; Tiour, Larissa

    2005-06-01

    We have demonstrated that direct excitation of 3rd Stokes Raman emission in crystal can produce short (few nanosecond) eye-safe pulses. Produced beam has very high quality and the pulse energy can be as high as tens of millijoules. For pulsed diode pumped solid state lasers the demonstrated repetition rate was 250 Hz but higher repetition rates are certainly achievable. It is important that tested schemes do not have strict requirements on laser pump parameters, namely beam divergence and frequency bandwidth. The obtained results are very relevant to the development of eye-safe lasers, such as the new generation of rangefinders, target designators, and laser tracking and pin-pointing devices, as well as remote 2D and 3D imaging systems.

  10. Diagnosis of a short-pulse dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure in helium with hydrogen-methane admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastuta, A. V.; Pohoata, V.; Mihaila, I.; Topala, I.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, we present results from electrical, optical, and spectroscopic diagnosis of a short-pulse (250 ns) high-power impulse (up to 11 kW) dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure running in a helium/helium-hydrogen/helium-hydrogen-methane gas mixture. This plasma source is able to generate up to 20 cm3 of plasma volume, pulsed in kilohertz range. The plasma spatio-temporal dynamics are found to be developed in three distinct phases. All the experimental observations reveal a similar dynamic to medium power microsecond barrier discharges, although the power per pulse and current density are up to two orders of magnitude higher than the case of microsecond barrier discharges. This might open the possibility for new applications in the field of gas or surface processing, and even life science. These devices can be used in laboratory experiments relevant for molecular astrophysics.

  11. GENERATION OF HIGH SHOCK PRESSURES BY LASER PULSES

    OpenAIRE

    Romain , J.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 µm wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of ...

  12. Optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films after ultra-short pulsed laser annealing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Bor, T.; Ogieglo, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Lenferink, A.; Otto, C.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Grob, F.; Lange, D.F. de; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short pulsed laser sources, with pulse durations in the ps and fs regime, are commonly exploited for cold ablation. However, operating ultra-short pulsed laser sources at fluence levels well below the ablation threshold allows for fast and selective thermal processing. The latter is especially

  13. Photoconductive switch enhancements for use in Blumlein pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davanloo, F.; Park, H.; Collins, C. B.; Agee, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    Stacked Blumlein pulse generators developed at the University of Texas at Dallas have produced high-power waveforms with risetimes and repetition rates in the range of 0.2-50 ns and 1-300 Hz, respectively, using a conventional thyratron, spark gap or photoconductive switch. Adaptation of the design has enabled the stacked Blumleins to produce 80 MW, nanosecond pulses with risetimes better than 200 ps into nominally matched loads. The device has a compact line geometry and is commutated by a single GaAs photoconductive switch triggered by a low power laser diode array. Our current investigations involve the switch characteristics that affect the broadening of the current channels in the avalanche, pre-avalanche seedings, the switch lifetime and the durability. This report presents the progress toward improving the GaAs switch operation and lifetime in stacked Blumlein pulsers. Advanced switch treatments including diamond film overcoating are implemented and discussed

  14. Chromium carbide thin films deposited by ultra-short pulse laser deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teghil, R.; Santagata, A.; De Bonis, A.; Galasso, A.; Villani, P.

    2009-01-01

    Pulsed laser deposition performed by a laser with a pulse duration of 250 fs has been used to deposit films from a Cr 3 C 2 target. Due to the different processes involved in the laser ablation when it is performed by an ultra-short pulse source instead of a conventional short pulse one, it has been possible to obtain in vacuum films containing only one type of carbide, Cr 3 C 2 , as shown by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. On the other hand, Cr 3 C 2 is not the only component of the films, since a large amount of amorphous carbon is also present. The films, deposited at room temperature, are amorphous and seem to be formed by the coalescence of a large number of particles with nanometric size. The film composition can be explained in terms of thermal evaporation from particles ejected from the target.

  15. Selective laser melting of hypereutectic Al-Si40-powder using ultra-short laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullsperger, T.; Matthäus, G.; Kaden, L.; Engelhardt, H.; Rettenmayr, M.; Risse, S.; Tünnermann, A.; Nolte, S.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the use of ultra-short laser pulses for the selective melting of Al-Si40-powder to fabricate complex light-weight structures with wall sizes below 100 μ {m} combined with higher tensile strength and lower thermal expansion coefficient in comparison to standard Al-Si alloys. During the cooling process using conventional techniques, large primary silicon particles are formed which impairs the mechanical and thermal properties. We demonstrate that these limitations can be overcome using ultra-short laser pulses enabling the rapid heating and cooling in a non-thermal equilibrium process. We analyze the morphology characteristics and micro-structures of single tracks and thin-walled structures depending on pulse energy, repetition rate and scanning velocity utilizing pulses with a duration of 500 {fs} at a wavelength of 1030 {nm}. The possibility to specifically change and optimize the microstructure is shown.

  16. Generating photon pairs from a silicon microring resonator using an electronic step recovery diode for pump pulse generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savanier, Marc, E-mail: msavanier@eng.ucsd.edu; Mookherjea, Shayan, E-mail: smookherjea@eng.ucsd.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Generation of photon pairs from compact, manufacturable, and inexpensive silicon (Si) photonic devices at room temperature may help develop practical applications of quantum photonics. An important characteristic of photon-pair generation is the two-photon joint spectral intensity, which describes the frequency correlations of the photon pair. Recent attempts to generate a factorizable photon-pair state suitable for heralding have used short optical pump pulses from mode-locked lasers, which are much more expensive and bigger table-top or rack-sized instruments compared with the Si microchip used for generating photon pairs, and thus dominate the cost and inhibit the miniaturization of the source. Here, we generate photon pairs from an Si microring resonator by using an electronic step-recovery diode to drive an electro-optic modulator which carves the pump light from a continuous-wave laser diode into pulses of the appropriate width, thus potentially eliminating the need for optical mode-locked lasers.

  17. Use of a pulsed neutron generator for in vivo measurement of body carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kehayias, J.J.; Ellis, K.J.; Cohn, S.H.; Yasumura, S.

    1986-01-01

    The measurement of total body fat is of importance in studies of nutritional assessment, dietary regimens, and for the management of obesity. In the past, fat has been determined either by anthropometric methods, which introduce high uncertainties, or by model-dependent estimation of fat-free tissue. The validity, however, of the different models in disease is questionable. Total body carbon measurements provide a more direct evaluation of body fat both in normal subjects and in patients. The authors present here a facility for carbon measurements without the use of a major accelerator. The same facility can be used for the measurement of other major body elements and for the evaluation of the body's compartments. Carbon is measured in vivo through neutron inelastic scattering, by detecting the 4.44 MeV gamma rays. A miniature (10 cm long) 14 MeV D-T neutron generator is used. The short half-life of the 4.44 MeV state of carbon requires detection of the gamma rays simultaneously with the 10 μs neutron pulse. Generators with low pulsing rate were found inappropriate for carbon measurement because of their low duty-cycle (high neutron output during pulse). The detection system consists of NaI(T1) detectors and fast electronics for handling the high even rate during the neutron pulse. A description of the facility and an evaluation of the technique will be presented

  18. Propagation of Partial Discharge and Noise Pulses in Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mogens; Stone, G. C.; Kurtz, M.

    1986-01-01

    Changes with time in the partial discharge (PD) activity originating in a generator stator's insulation system provide information about the electrical integrity of the stator winding. It is desirable to measure PD during normal service to minimize costs. To do this successfully, the influence...... of electrical interference must be reduced. Tests are reported which characterize the nature of discharge and noise pulses when using capacitive couplers mounted on each of the phase leads and an RF current transformer mounted on the neutral lead for signal detection. Significant differences between PD...... and electrical noise have been observed....

  19. UV saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, H; Kuranishi, H; Ueda, K; Takuma, H

    1989-07-01

    A derivative of the linear tricyclic compound, acridine, is shown to be useful as a saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF lasers. The saturation characteristics and absorption recovery of a methanol solution of acridine for a 20-psec KrF laser pulse are reported. We obtain a saturation fluence of 1.2 mJ/cm(2) and a ratio of the primary to the excited absorption cross section of 6.25:1.

  20. UV saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF laser systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, H.; Kuranishi, H.; Ueda, K.; Takuma, H.

    1989-07-01

    A derivative of the linear tricyclic compound, acridine, is shown to beuseful as a saturable absorber for short-pulse KrF lasers. The saturationcharacteristics and absorption recovery of a methanol solution of acridine for a20-psec KrF laser pulse are reported. We obtain a saturation fluence of 1.2mJ/cm/sup 2/ and a ratio of the primary to the excited absorption cross sectionof 6.25:1.

  1. Multiloop soliton and multibreather solutions of the short pulse model equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Yoshimasa

    2007-01-01

    We develop a systematic procedure for constructing the multisoliton solutions of the short pulse (SP) model equation which describes the propagation of ultra-short pulses in nonlinear medica. We first introduce a novel hodograph transformation to convert the SP equation into the sine-Gordon (sG) equation. With the soliton solutions of the sG equation, the system of linear partial differential equations governing the inverse mapping can be integrated analytically to obtain the soliton solutions of the SP equation in the form of the parametric representation. By specifying the soliton parameters, we obtain the multiloop and multibreather solutions. We investigate the asymptotic behavior of both solutions and confirm their solitonic feature. The nonsingular breather solutions may play an important role in studying the propagation of ultra-short pulses in an optical fibre. (author)

  2. Complex {PT}-symmetric extensions of the nonlinear ultra-short light pulse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2012-11-01

    The short pulse equation u_{xt}=u+\\frac{1}{2}(u^2u_x)_x is PT symmetric, which arises in nonlinear optics for the ultra-short pulse case. We present a family of new complex PT-symmetric extensions of the short pulse equation, i[(iu_x)^{\\sigma }]_t=au+bu^m+ic[u^n(iu_x)^{\\epsilon }]_x \\,\\, (\\sigma ,\\, \\epsilon ,\\,a,\\,b,\\,c,\\,m,\\,n \\in {R}), based on the complex PT-symmetric extension principle. Some properties of these equations with some chosen parameters are studied including the Hamiltonian structures and exact solutions such as solitary wave solutions, doubly periodic wave solutions and compacton solutions. Our results may be useful to understand complex PT-symmetric nonlinear physical models. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Quantum physics with non-Hermitian operators’.

  3. Verification of the validity of the short-pulse approximation for one-dimensional Rydberg atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopyciuk, T; Grajek, M

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the short-pulse approximation (SPA) for one-dimensional Rydberg atoms. We analyse the limits that SPA has to fulfil in order to be applicable. These concern the shape, the duration and the displacement caused by the pulse. The correctness of SPA is tested by comparing the results obtained using SPA with a numerical solution of the set of time-dependent Schroedinger equations. We show that the limit for the displacement caused by the pulse is of greatest importance. Violation of the limit for the duration of the pulse is shown to lead to concurrent violation of the limit for the displacement. We also show that the shape of the pulse has no influence on the created wave packet.

  4. Forward voltage short-pulse technique for measuring high power laser array junction temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Byron L. (Inventor); Amzajerdian, Frazin (Inventor); Barnes, Bruce W. (Inventor); Baker, Nathaniel R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method of measuring the temperature of the P-N junction within the light-emitting region of a quasi-continuous-wave or pulsed semiconductor laser diode device. A series of relatively short and low current monitor pulses are applied to the laser diode in the period between the main drive current pulses necessary to cause the semiconductor to lase. At the sufficiently low current level of the monitor pulses, the laser diode device does not lase and behaves similar to an electronic diode. The voltage across the laser diode resulting from each of these low current monitor pulses is measured with a high degree of precision. The junction temperature is then determined from the measured junction voltage using their known linear relationship.

  5. GINGER simulations of short-pulse effects in the LEUTL FEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Fawley, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    While the long-pulse, coasting beam model is often used in analysis and simulation of self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) free-electron lasers (FELs), many current SASE demonstration experiments employ relatively short electron bunches whose pulse length is on the order of the radiation slippage length. In particular, the low-energy undulator test line (LEUTL) FEL at the Advanced Photon Source has recently lased and nominally saturated in both visible and near-ultraviolet wavelength regions with a sub-ps pulse length that is somewhat shorter than the total slippage length in the 22-m undulator system. In this paper we explore several characteristics of the short pulse regime for SASE FELs with the multidimensional, time-dependent simulation code GINGER, concentrating on making a direct comparison with the experimental results from LEUTL. Items of interest include the radiation gain length, pulse energy, saturation position, and spectral bandwidth. We address the importance of short-pulse effects when scaling the LEUTL results to proposed x-ray FELs and also briefly discuss the possible importance of coherent spontaneous emission at startup

  6. Short pulse absorption dynamics in a p-i-n InGaAsP MQW waveguide saturable absorber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romstad, Francis Pascal; Öhman, Filip; Mørk, Jesper

    2002-01-01

    The saturation properties and absorption dynamics of an InGaAsP MQW waveguide saturable absorber is measured using short 200-fs and 1-ps pulses. The dependence on the pulse energy and reverse bias is characterized.......The saturation properties and absorption dynamics of an InGaAsP MQW waveguide saturable absorber is measured using short 200-fs and 1-ps pulses. The dependence on the pulse energy and reverse bias is characterized....

  7. Propagation and spatiotemporal coupling characteristics of ultra-short Gaussian vortex pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jianye; Liu, Guodong; Zhang, Rongzhu

    2018-05-01

    Based on Collins diffraction integral formula, the propagation equation of ultra-short Gaussian vortex pulse beam has been derived. Using the equation, the intensity distribution variations of vortex pulse in the propagation process are calculated. Specially, the spatiotemporal coupling characteristics of ultra-short vortex beams are discussed in detail. The results show that some key parameters, such as transverse distance, transmission distance, pulse width and topological charge number will influence the spatiotemporal coupling characteristics significantly. With the increasing of transverse distance, the waveforms of the pulses distort obviously. And when transmission distance is far than 50 mm, the distribution curve of transverse intensity gradually changes into a Gaussian type. In addition, initial pulse width will affect the distribution of light field, however, when initial pulse width is larger than 3 fs, the spatiotemporal coupling effect will be insignificant. Topological charge number does not affect the time delay characteristics, since with the increasing of topological charge number, the waveform of the pulse distorts gradually but the time delay does not occur.

  8. Pulsed thermal neutron source at the fast neutron generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracz, Grzegorz; Drozdowicz, Krzysztof; Gabańska, Barbara; Krynicka, Ewa

    2009-06-01

    A small pulsed thermal neutron source has been designed based on results of the MCNP simulations of the thermalization of 14 MeV neutrons in a cluster-moderator which consists of small moderating cells decoupled by an absorber. Optimum dimensions of the single cell and of the whole cluster have been selected, considering the thermal neutron intensity and the short decay time of the thermal neutron flux. The source has been built and the test experiments have been performed. To ensure the response is not due to the choice of target for the experiments, calculations have been done to demonstrate the response is valid regardless of the thermalization properties of the target.

  9. Generation of atto-second pulses in atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haessler, St.

    2009-12-01

    When a low-frequency laser pulse is focused to a high intensity into a gas, the electric field of the laser light may become of comparable strength to that felt by the electrons bound in an atom or molecule. A valence electron can then be 'freed' by tunnel ionization, accelerated by the strong oscillating laser field and can eventually re-collide and recombine with the ion. The gained kinetic energy is then released as a burst of coherent X-UV light and the macroscopic gas medium then becomes a source of X-UV light pulses of atto-second (1 as equals 10 -18 s) duration. This is the natural time-scale of electron dynamics in atoms and molecules. The largest part of this thesis deals with experiments where molecules are the harmonic generation medium and the re-colliding electron wave packet acts as a 'self-probe'. In several experiments, we demonstrate the potential of this scheme to observe or image ultra-fast intra-molecular electronic and nuclear dynamics. In particular, we have performed the first phase measurements of the high harmonic emission from aligned molecules and we have extracted the recombination dipole matrix element. This observable contains signatures of quantum interference between the continuum and bound parts of the total electronic wavefunction. It is shown how this quantum interference can be utilized to shape the atto-second light emission from the molecules. In a second part of this thesis, we use the well characterized coherent X-UV light emitted by rare gas atoms to photo-ionize molecules. Measuring the ejected photoelectron wave packet then allows to extract information on the photoionization process itself, and possibly about the initial bound and final continuum states of the electron. The last chapter of this manuscript describes studies of high harmonic and atto-second light pulse generation in a different medium: ablation plasmas. (author)

  10. Broadband and tunable optical parametric generator for remote detection of gas molecules in the short and mid-infrared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert-Girard, Simon; Allard, Martin; Piché, Michel; Babin, François

    2015-04-01

    The development of a novel broadband and tunable optical parametric generator (OPG) is presented. The OPG properties are studied numerically and experimentally in order to optimize the generator's use in a broadband spectroscopic LIDAR operating in the short and mid-infrared. This paper discusses trade-offs to be made on the properties of the pump, crystal, and seeding signal in order to optimize the pulse spectral density and divergence while enabling energy scaling. A seed with a large spectral bandwidth is shown to enhance the pulse-to-pulse stability and optimize the pulse spectral density. A numerical model shows excellent agreement with output power measurements; the model predicts that a pump having a large number of longitudinal modes improves conversion efficiency and pulse stability.

  11. Optical third-harmonic generation using ultrashort laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoker, D.; Keto, J.W.; Becker, M.F.

    2005-01-01

    To better predict optical third-harmonic generation (THG) in transparent dielectrics, we model a typical ultrashort pulsed Gaussian beam, including both group velocity mismatch and phase mismatch of the fundamental and harmonic fields. We find that competition between the group velocity mismatch and phase mismatch leads to third-harmonic generation that is sensitive only to interfaces. In this case, the spatial resolution is determined by the group velocity walk-off length. THG of modern femtosecond lasers in optical solids is a bulk process, without a surface susceptibility, but bears the signature of a surface enhancement effect in z-scan measurements. We demonstrate the accuracy of the model, by showing the agreement between the predicted spectral intensity and the measured third-harmonic spectrum from a thin sapphire crystal

  12. Intense relativistic electron beam generation from KALI-5000 pulse accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, A.; Mondal, J.; Mitra, S.; Durga Praveen Kumar, D.; Sharma, Archana; Nagesh, K.V.; Chakravarthy, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Intense Relativistic Electron Beam (IREB) with parameters 420 keV, 22 kA, 100 ns has been generated from indigenously developed pulse power system KALI- 5000. High current electron beam is generated from explosive field emission graphite cathodes. Studies have been conducted by changing the diameter of graphite cathode and also the anode cathode gap. In order to avoid prepulse effect it was concluded that anode cathode (AK) gap should be kept larger than estimated by the Child Langmuir relation. Beam voltage has been measured by a copper sulphate voltage divider, beam current by a self integrating Rogowski coil and B-dot probe. Electron beam diode Impedance and Perveance were obtained from the experimentally measured beam voltage and current. (author)

  13. Fast SMES for generation of high power pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juengst, K.P.; Salbert, H.

    1996-01-01

    A technique for generation of high power pulses based on a fast SMES has been developed and a model of a power modulator for linear accelerators was built. The basic function of the modulator that generates 2 ms long, approximately 1 MW power pulses at a repetition rate of 10 Hz is described in this paper. A modular construction of the SMES that consists of up to six coils has been chosen to meet the demands of several applications in high energy physics and energy distribution. The rate of change of magnetic field achieved during ramping of the magnet was more than 60 T/s without a quench. The magnet was designed with respect to the high AC losses during repetitive ramping of the SMES. The suitability of mixed matrix superconductors instead of more expensive net frequency wires for this kind of AC stress was investigated. The applied mixed matrix Cu/CuNi/NbTi wire and the construction of a single coil is described

  14. Generation of high shock pressures by laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romain, J.P. (GRECO ILM, Laboratoire d' Energetique et Detonique, E.N.S.M.A., 86 - Poitiers (France))

    1984-11-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 ..mu..m wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of achieving shock pressures in the 10 TPa range with the use of the impedance match technique is examined.

  15. Generation of high shock pressures by laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romain, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Aspects of laser generated high shock pressures and results obtained over the last years are reviewed. Shock pressures up to 5 TPa inferred from shock velocity measurements are reported. Effects of laser wavelength, intensity and 2-D plasma expansion on the generated shock pressure are discussed. The hydrodynamic efficiency determined from various data including new results at 0,26 μm wavelength outlines the advantage of short wavelengths for producing very high pressures. The possibility of achieving shock pressures in the 10 TPa range with the use of the impedance match technique is examined

  16. Ultrashort Generation Regimes in the All-Fiber Kerr Mode-Locked Erbium-Doped Fiber Ring Laser for Terahertz Pulsed Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Voropaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many femtosecond engineering applications require for a stable generation of ultrashort pulses. Thus, in the terahertz pulsed spectroscopy a measurement error in the refractive index is strongly dependent on the pulse duration stability with allowable variation of few femtoseconds. The aim of this work is to study the ultrashort pulses (USP regimes stability in the all – fiber erbium doped ring laser with Kerr mode-locking. The study was conducted at several different values of the total resonator intra-cavity dispersion. Three laser schemes with the intra-cavity dispersion values from -1.232 ps2 to +0.008 ps2 have been studied. In the experiment there were two regimes of generation observed: the stretched pulse generation and ordinary soliton generation. Main attention is focused on the stability of regimes under study. The most stable regime was that of the stretched pulse generation with a spectrum form of sech2 , possible pulse duration of 490 fs at least, repetition rate of 2.9 MHz, and average output power of 17 mW. It is worth noting, that obtained regimes had characteristics suitable for the successful use in the terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. The results may be useful in the following areas of science and technology: a high-precision spectroscopy, optical frequency standards, super-continuum generation, and terahertz pulsed spectroscopy. The future system development is expected to stabilize duration and repetition rate of the obtained regime of ultra-short pulse generation.

  17. Efficient and controllable thermal ablation induced by short-pulsed HIFU sequence assisted with perfluorohexane nanodroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Nan; Lu, Shukuan; Qin, Dui; Xu, Tianqi; Han, Meng; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi

    2018-07-01

    A HIFU sequence with extremely short pulse duration and high pulse repetition frequency can achieve thermal ablation at a low acoustic power using inertial cavitation. Because of its cavitation-dependent property, the therapeutic outcome is unreliable when the treatment zone lacks cavitation nuclei. To overcome this intrinsic limitation, we introduced perfluorocarbon nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei into short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. Two types of nanodroplets were used with perfluorohexane (PFH) as the core material coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) or an anionic fluorosurfactant (FS) to demonstrate the feasibility of this study. The thermal ablation process was recorded by high-speed photography. The inertial cavitation activity during the ablation was revealed by sonoluminescence (SL). The high-speed photography results show that the thermal ablation volume increased by ∼643% and 596% with BSA-PFH and FS-PFH, respectively, than the short-pulsed HIFU alone at an acoustic power of 19.5 W. Using nanodroplets, much larger ablation volumes were created even at a much lower acoustic power. Meanwhile, the treatment time for ablating a desired volume significantly reduced in the presence of nanodroplets. Moreover, by adjusting the treatment time, lesion migration towards the HIFU transducer could also be avoided. The SL results show that the thermal lesion shape was significantly dependent on the inertial cavitation in this short-pulsed HIFU-mediated thermal ablation. The inertial cavitation activity became more predictable by using nanodroplets. Therefore, the introduction of PFH nanodroplets as extra cavitation nuclei made the short-pulsed HIFU thermal ablation more efficient by increasing the ablation volume and speed, and more controllable by reducing the acoustic power and preventing lesion migration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. High reliability low jitter 80 kV pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, Mark Edward; Stoltzfus, Brian Scott

    2009-01-01

    Switching can be considered to be the essence of pulsed power. Time accurate switch/trigger systems with low inductance are useful in many applications. This article describes a unique switch geometry coupled with a low-inductance capacitive energy store. The system provides a fast-rising high voltage pulse into a low impedance load. It can be challenging to generate high voltage (more than 50 kilovolts) into impedances less than 10 (Omega), from a low voltage control signal with a fast rise time and high temporal accuracy. The required power amplification is large, and is usually accomplished with multiple stages. The multiple stages can adversely affect the temporal accuracy and the reliability of the system. In the present application, a highly reliable and low jitter trigger generator was required for the Z pulsed-power facility [M. E. Savage, L. F. Bennett, D. E. Bliss, W. T. Clark, R. S. Coats,J. M. Elizondo, K. R. LeChien, H. C. Harjes, J. M. Lehr, J. E. Maenchen, D. H. McDaniel, M. F. Pasik, T. D. Pointon, A. C. Owen, D. B. Seidel, D. L. Smith, B. S. Stoltzfus, K.W. Struve, W.A. Stygar, L.K. Warne, and J. R. Woodworth, 2007 IEEE Pulsed Power Conference, Albuquerque, NM (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 2007), p. 979]. The large investment in each Z experiment demands low prefire probability and low jitter simultaneously. The system described here is based on a 100 kV DC-charged high-pressure spark gap, triggered with an ultraviolet laser. The system uses a single optical path for simultaneously triggering two parallel switches, allowing lower inductance and electrode erosion with a simple optical system. Performance of the system includes 6 ns output rise time into 5.6 (Omega), 550 ps one-sigma jitter measured from the 5 V trigger to the high voltage output, and misfire probability less than 10 -4 . The design of the system and some key measurements will be shown in the paper. We will discuss the design goals related to high reliability and low jitter. While

  19. Enhanced self-magnetic field by atomic polarization in partially stripped plasma produced by a short and intense laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Qianglin; Liu Shibing; Jiang, Y.J.; Zhang Jie

    2005-01-01

    The enhancement and redistribution of a self-generated quasistatic magnetic field, due to the presence of the polarization field induced by partially ionized atoms, are analytically revealed when a linearly polarized intense and short pulse laser propagates in a partially stripped plasma with higher density. In particular, the shorter wavelength of the laser pulse can evidently intensify the amplitude of the magnetic field. These enhancement and redistribution of the magnetic field are considered physically as a result of the competition of the electrostatic field (electron-ion separation) associated with the plasma wave, the atomic polarization field, and the pondoromotive potential associated with the laser field. This competition leads to the generation of a positive, large amplitude magnetic field in the zone of the pulse center, which forms a significant difference in partially and fully stripped plasmas. The numerical result shows further that the magnetic field is resonantly modulated by the plasma wave when the pulse length is the integer times the plasma wavelength. This apparently implies that the further enhancement and restructure of the large amplitude self-magnetic field can evidently impede the acceleration and stable transfer of the hot-electron beam

  20. Temperature field analysis of single layer TiO2 film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Zhang, Hongchao; Qin, Yuan; Wang, Xi; Ni, Xiaowu; Shen, Zhonghua; Lu, Jian

    2011-07-10

    To study the differences between the damaging of thin film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers, a model of single layer TiO(2) film components with platinum high-absorptance inclusions was established. The temperature rises of TiO(2) films with inclusions of different sizes and different depths induced by a 1 ms long-pulse and a 10 ns short-pulse lasers were analyzed based on temperature field theory. The results show that there is a radius range of inclusions that corresponds to high temperature rises. Short-pulse lasers are more sensitive to high-absorptance inclusions and long-pulse lasers are more easily damage the substrate. The first-damage decision method is drawn from calculations. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  1. Temperature field analysis of single layer TiO2 film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Bin; Zhang Hongchao; Qin Yuan; Wang Xi; Ni Xiaowu; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian

    2011-01-01

    To study the differences between the damaging of thin film components induced by long-pulse and short-pulse lasers, a model of single layer TiO 2 film components with platinum high-absorptance inclusions was established. The temperature rises of TiO 2 films with inclusions of different sizes and different depths induced by a 1 ms long-pulse and a 10 ns short-pulse lasers were analyzed based on temperature field theory. The results show that there is a radius range of inclusions that corresponds to high temperature rises. Short-pulse lasers are more sensitive to high-absorptance inclusions and long-pulse lasers are more easily damage the substrate. The first-damage decision method is drawn from calculations.

  2. Safe protocols for generating power pulses with heterogeneous populations of thermostatically controlled loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai A.; Kundu, Soumya; Backhaus, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Algorithms to produce useful load response from a heterogeneous group of TCLs. ► Generation of sharp power pulses without initiating any unwanted oscillation. ► Open-loop methods, not requiring any detailed system modeling. ► One-way, utility-to-consumer, communication. ► Potential use in secondary frequency regulation, generation-load balancing, etc. - Abstract: We explore methods to use thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), such as water heaters and air conditioners, to provide ancillary services by assisting in balancing generation and load. We show that by adding simple imbedded instructions and a small amount of memory to temperature controllers of TCLs, it is possible to design open-loop control algorithms capable of creating short-term pulses of demand response without unwanted power oscillations associated with temporary synchronization of the TCL dynamics. By moving a small amount of intelligence to each of the end point TCL devices, we are able to leverage our knowledge of the time dynamics of TCLs to shape the demand response pulses for different power system applications. A significant benefit of our open-loop method is the reduction from two-way to one-way broadcast communication which also eliminates many basic consumer privacy issues. In this work, we focus on developing the algorithms to generate a set of fundamental pulse shapes that can subsequently be used to create demand response with arbitrary profiles. Demand response control methods, such as the one developed here, open the door to fast, nonperturbative control of large aggregations of TCLs

  3. Isolated sub-100-attosecond pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Pengfei; Lu, Peixiang; Cao, Wei; Li, Yuhua; Wang, Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    A new method to coherently control the electron dynamics is proposed using a few-cycle laser pulse in combination with a controlling field. It is shown that this method not only broadens the attosecond pulse bandwidth, but also reduces the chirp, then an isolated 80-as pulse is straightforwardly obtained and even shorter pulse is achievable by increasing the intensity of the controlling field. Such ultrashort pulses allow one to investigate ultrafast electronic processes which have never be a...

  4. Triboelectric-generator-driven pulse electrodeposition for micropatterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang; Pan, Caofeng; Guo, Wenxi; Chen, Chih-Yen; Zhou, Yusheng; Yu, Ruomeng; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2012-09-12

    By converting ambient energy into electricity, energy harvesting is capable of at least offsetting, or even replacing, the reliance of small portable electronics on traditional power supplies, such as batteries. Here we demonstrate a novel and simple generator with extremely low cost for efficiently harvesting mechanical energy that is typically present in the form of vibrations and random displacements/deformation. Owing to the coupling of contact charging and electrostatic induction, electric generation was achieved with a cycled process of contact and separation between two polymer films. A detailed theory is developed for understanding the proposed mechanism. The instantaneous electric power density reached as high as 31.2 mW/cm(3) at a maximum open circuit voltage of 110 V. Furthermore, the generator was successfully used without electric storage as a direct power source for pulse electrodeposition (PED) of micro/nanocrystalline silver structure. The cathodic current efficiency reached up to 86.6%. Not only does this work present a new type of generator that is featured by simple fabrication, large electric output, excellent robustness, and extremely low cost, but also extends the application of energy-harvesting technology to the field of electrochemistry with further utilizations including, but not limited to, pollutant degradation, corrosion protection, and water splitting.

  5. High Harmonic Radiation Generation and Attosecond pulse generation from Intense Laser-Solid Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Alexander Roy [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Krushelnick, Karl [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2016-09-08

    We have studied ion motion effects in high harmonic generation, including shifts to the harmonics which result in degradation of the attosecond pulse train, and how to mitigate them. We have examined the scaling with intensity of harmonic emission. We have also switched the geometry of the interaction to measure, for the first time, harmonics from a normal incidence interaction. This was performed by using a special parabolic reflector with an on axis hole and is to allow measurements of the attosecond pulses using standard techniques. Here is a summary of the findings: First high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions at 1021 Wcm-2, demonstration of harmonic focusing, study of ion motion effects in high harmonic generation in laser-solid interactions, and demonstration of harmonic amplification.

  6. Correction of echo shift in reconstruction processing for ultra-short TE pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takizawa, Masahiro; Ootsuka, Takehiro; Abe, Takayuki; Takahashi, Tetsuhiko

    2010-01-01

    An ultra-short echo time (TE) pulse sequence is composed of a radial sampling that acquires echo signals radially in the K-space and a half-echo acquisition that acquires only half of the echo signal. The shift in the position of the echo signal (echo shift) caused by the timing errors in the gradient magnetic field pulses affects the image quality in the radial sampling with the half-echo acquisition. To improve image quality, we have developed a signal correction algorithm that detects and eliminates this echo shift during reconstruction by performing a pre-scan within 10 seconds. The results showed that image quality is improved under oblique and/or off-centering conditions that frequently cause image distortion due to hardware error. In conclusion, we have developed a robust ultra-short TE pulse sequence that allows wide latitude in the scan parameters, including oblique and off-centering conditions. (author)

  7. Experimental approach to interaction physics challenges of the shock ignition scheme using short pulse lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyon, C; Depierreux, S; Yahia, V; Loisel, G; Baccou, C; Courvoisier, C; Borisenko, N G; Orekhov, A; Rosmej, O; Labaune, C

    2013-12-06

    An experimental program was designed to study the most important issues of laser-plasma interaction physics in the context of the shock ignition scheme. In the new experiments presented in this Letter, a combination of kilojoule and short laser pulses was used to study the laser-plasma coupling at high laser intensities for a large range of electron densities and plasma profiles. We find that the backscatter is dominated by stimulated Brillouin scattering with stimulated Raman scattering staying at a limited level. This is in agreement with past experiments using long pulses but laser intensities limited to 2×10(15)  W/cm2, or short pulses with intensities up to 5×10(16)  W/cm2 as well as with 2D particle-in-cell simulations.

  8. Allowable propagation of short pulse laser beam in a plasma channel and electromagnetic solitary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shan; Hong, Xue-Ren; Wang, Hong-Yu; Xie, Bai-Song

    2011-01-01

    Nonparaxial and nonlinear propagation of a short intense laser beam in a parabolic plasma channel is analyzed by means of the variational method and nonlinear dynamics. The beam propagation properties are classified by five kinds of behaviors. In particularly, the electromagnetic solitary wave for finite pulse laser is found beside the other four propagation cases including beam periodically oscillating with defocussing and focusing amplitude, constant spot size, beam catastrophic focusing. It is also found that the laser pulse can be allowed to propagate in the plasma channel only when a certain relation for laser parameters and plasma channel parameters is satisfied. For the solitary wave, it may provide an effective way to obtain ultra-short laser pulse.

  9. 76 FR 64223 - Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of External Pacemaker Pulse Generator Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 870 Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of External Pacemaker... Special Controls Guidance Document: External Pacemaker Pulse Generator; Availability; Proposed Rule and... [Docket No. FDA-2011-N-0650] Cardiovascular Devices; Reclassification of External Pacemaker Pulse...

  10. Numerical analysis of short-pulse laser interactions with thin metal film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin metal film subjected to a short-pulse laser heating is considered. The hyperbolic two-temperature model describing the temporal andspatial evolution of the lattice and electrons temperatures is discussed. At the stage of numerical computations the finite difference method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  11. Streak camera measurements of laser pulse temporal dispersion in short graded-index optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Phillips, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Streak camera measurements were used to determine temporal dispersion in short (5 to 30 meter) graded-index optical fibers. Results show that 50-ps, 1.06-μm and 0.53-μm laser pulses can be propagated without significant dispersion when care is taken to prevent propagation of energy in fiber cladding modes

  12. Features of the mechanoluminescence of thin metal films, excited by short and long laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banishev, A.F.; Panchenko, V.Ya.; Shishkov, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    The results of the study on the deformation-induced luminescence of the fine grain metal films, originating by the impact of the short (submicrosecond) and long (millisecond) laser pulses, are presented. The supposition os made relative to the luminescence excitation mechanism [ru

  13. Ultra-short laser pulses: review of the 3. physics talks, September 17-18, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, P.

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with the operation of lasers with ultra-short pulses and with the laser beam-matter interaction. The applications in concern are: the acceleration of particles, the production of X-ray or photon sources, the micro-machining, the fast ignition in thermonuclear fusion, the production of thin films and the surgery of cornea. (J.S.)

  14. Annealing of SnO2 thin films by ultra-short laser pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Bor, T.; Eijt, S.W.H.; Schut, H.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Lange, D.F. de; Huis In't Veld, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Post-deposition annealing by ultra-short laser pulses can modify the optical properties of SnO2 thin films by means of thermal processing. Industrial grade SnO2 films exhibited improved optical properties after picosecond laser irradiation, at the expense of a slightly increased sheet resistance

  15. Dynamic behavior of HTSC opening switch models controlled by short over-critical current pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonov, A.V.; Krastelev, E.G.; Voronin, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    We present results of experimental research of dynamical properties of thin films of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 HTSC-switch models under action of short overcritical current pulses to test this method of control of fast high-power opening switches for accelerator applications

  16. Short Pulse High Brightness X-ray Production with the PLEIADES Thomson Scattering Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, S.G.; Barty, C.P.J.; Betts, S.M.; Brown, W.J.; Crane, J.K.; Cross, R.R.; Fittinghoff, D.N.; Gibson, D.J.; Hartemann, F.V.; Kuba, J.; LaSage, G.P.; Rosenzweig, J.B.; Slaughter, D.R.; Springer, P.T.; Tremaine, A.M.

    2003-01-01

    We describe PLEIADES, a compact, tunable, high-brightness, ultra-short pulse, Thomson x-ray source. The peak brightness of the source is expected to exceed 10 20 photons/s/0.1% bandwidth/mm 2 /mrad 2 . Initial results are reported and compared to theoretical calculations

  17. Some models of propagation of extremely short electromagnetic pulses in a nonlinear medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maimistov, Andrei I

    2000-01-01

    Some cases of model media considered in this paper allow analytical solutions to nonlinear wave equations to be found and the time dependence of the electric field strength to be determined in the explicit form for arbitrarily short electromagnetic pulses. Our analysis does not employ any assumptions concerning a harmonic carrier wave or the variation rate of the field in such pulses. The class of models considered includes two-level resonance and quasi-resonance systems. Nonresonance media are analysed in terms of models of anharmonic oscillators - the Duffing and Lorentz models. In most cases, only particular solutions describing the stationary propagation of a video pulse (a unipolar transient of the electric field or a pulse including a small number of oscillations of the electric field around zero) can be found. These solutions correspond to sufficiently strong electromagnetic fields when the dispersion inherent in the medium is suppressed by nonlinear processes. (invited paper)

  18. Multiphoton atomic ionization in the field of a very short laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, V.S.

    2001-01-01

    Closed analytic expressions are derived for the probability of multiphoton atomic and ionic ionization in a variable electric field E(t), which are applicable for arbitrary Keldysh parameters γ. Dependencies of the ionization probability and photoelectron pulse spectrum on the shape of a very short laser pulse are analyzed. Examples of pulse fields of various forms, including a modulated light pulse with a Gaussian or Lorentz envelope, are considered in detail. The interference effect in the photoelectron energy spectrum during atomic ionization by a periodic field of a general form is examined. The range of applicability of the adiabatic approximation in the multiphoton ionization theory is discussed. The imaginary time method is used in the calculations, which allows the probability of particle tunneling through oscillating barriers to be effectively calculated

  19. An ultra short pulse reconstruction software applied to the GEMINI high power laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galletti, Mario, E-mail: mario.gall22@gmail.com [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Galimberti, Marco [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Hooker, Chris [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Chekhlov, Oleg; Tang, Yunxin [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot (United Kingdom); Bisesto, Fabrizio Giuseppe [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Curcio, Alessandro [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Sapienza – University of Rome, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Rome (Italy); Anania, Maria Pia [INFN – LNF, Via Enrico Fermi 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Giulietti, Danilo [Physics Department of the University and INFN, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    The GRENOUILLE traces of Gemini pulses (15 J, 30 fs, PW, shot per 20 s) were acquired in the Gemini Target Area PetaWatt at the Central Laser Facility (CLF), Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). A comparison between the characterizations of the laser pulse parameters made using two different types of algorithms: Video Frog and GRenouille/FrOG (GROG), was made. The temporal and spectral parameters came out to be in great agreement for the two kinds of algorithms. In this experimental campaign it has been showed how GROG, the developed algorithm, works as well as VideoFrog algorithm with the PetaWatt pulse class. - Highlights: • Integration of the diagnostic tool on high power laser. • Validation of the GROG algorithm in comparison to a well-known commercial available software. • Complete characterization of the GEMINI ultra-short high power laser pulse.

  20. Generation of programmable temporal pulse shape and applications in micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X.; Jordens, B.; Hooper, A.; Baird, B. W.; Ren, W.; Xu, L.; Sun, L.

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we presented a pulse shaping technique on regular solid-state lasers and the application in semiconductor micromachining. With a conventional Q-switched laser, all of the parameters can be adjusted over only limited ranges, especially the pulse width and pulse shape. However, some laser link processes using traditional laser pulses with pulse widths of a few nanoseconds to a few tens of nanoseconds tend to over-crater in thicker overlying passivation layers and thereby cause IC reliability problems. Use of a laser pulse with a special shape and a fast leading edge, such as tailored pulse, is one technique for controlling link processing. The pulse shaping technique is based on light-loop controlled optical modulation to shape conventional Q-switched solid-state lasers. One advantage of the pulse shaping technique is to provide a tailored pulse shape that can be programmed to have more than one amplitude value. Moreover, it has the capability of providing programmable tailored pulse shapes with discrete amplitude and time duration components. In addition, it provides fast rising and fall time of each pulse at fairly high repetition rate at 355nm with good beam quality. The regular-to-shaped efficiency is up to 50%. We conclude with a discussion of current results for laser processing of semiconductor memory link structures using programmable temporal pulse shapes. The processing experiments showed promising results with shaped pulse.

  1. Applications of ultra-short pulsed laser ablation: thin films deposition and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teghil, R; De Bonis, A; Galasso, A; Santagata, A; Albano, G; Villani, P; Spera, D; Parisi, G P

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we report a survey of two of the large number of possible practical applications of the laser ablation performed by an ultra-short pulse laser, namely pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and fs/ns dual-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (DP-LIBS). These applications differ from those using just longer pulsed lasers as a consequence of the distinctive characteristics of the plasma produced by ultra-short laser beams. The most important feature of this plasma is the large presence of particles with nanometric size which plays a fundamental role in both applications.

  2. A broadly tunable autocorrelator for ultra-short, ultra-high power infrared optical pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szarmes, E.B.; Madey, J.M.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    We describe the design of a crossed-beam, optical autocorrelator that uses an uncoated, birefringent beamsplitter to split a linearly polarized incident pulse into two orthogonally polarized pulses, and a Type II, SHG crystal to generate the intensity autocorrelation function. The uncoated beamsplitter accommodates extremely broad tunability while precluding any temporal distortion of ultrashort optical pulses at the dielectric interface, and the specific design provides efficient operation between 1 {mu}m and 4 {mu}m. Furthermore, the use of Type II SHG completely eliminates any single-beam doubling, so the autocorrelator can be operated at very shallow crossed-beam angles without generating a background pedestal. The autocorrelator has been constructed and installed in the Mark III laboratory at Duke University as a broadband diagnostic for ongoing compression experiments on the chirped-pulse FEL.

  3. Anapole nanolasers for mode-locking and ultrafast pulse generation

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero; Miroshnichenko, Andrey E.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Fratalocchi, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Nanophotonics is a rapidly developing field of research with many suggestions for a design of nanoantennas, sensors and miniature metadevices. Despite many proposals for passive nanophotonic devices, the efficient coupling of light to nanoscale optical structures remains a major challenge. In this article, we propose a nanoscale laser based on a tightly confined anapole mode. By harnessing the non-radiating nature of the anapole state, we show how to engineer nanolasers based on InGaAs nanodisks as on-chip sources with unique optical properties. Leveraging on the near-field character of anapole modes, we demonstrate a spontaneously polarized nanolaser able to couple light into waveguide channels with four orders of magnitude intensity than classical nanolasers, as well as the generation of ultrafast (of 100 fs) pulses via spontaneous mode locking of several anapoles. Anapole nanolasers offer an attractive platform for monolithically integrated, silicon photonics sources for advanced and efficient nanoscale circuitry.

  4. Neonatal testosterone suppresses a neuroendocrine pulse generator required for reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Jean-Marc; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Le Masson, Gwendal; Oliet, Stéphane H.; Ciofi, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    The pituitary gland releases hormones in a pulsatile fashion guaranteeing signalling efficiency. The determinants of pulsatility are poorly circumscribed. Here we show in magnocellular hypothalamo-neurohypophyseal oxytocin (OT) neurons that the bursting activity underlying the neurohormonal pulses necessary for parturition and the milk-ejection reflex is entirely driven by a female-specific central pattern generator (CPG). Surprisingly, this CPG is active in both male and female neonates, but is inactivated in males after the first week of life. CPG activity can be restored in males by orchidectomy or silenced in females by exogenous testosterone. This steroid effect is aromatase and caspase dependent, and is mediated via oestrogen receptor-α. This indicates the apoptosis of the CPG network during hypothalamic sexual differentiation, explaining why OT neurons do not burst in adult males. This supports the view that stereotypic neuroendocrine pulsatility is governed by CPGs, some of which are subjected to gender-specific perinatal programming.

  5. Anapole nanolasers for mode-locking and ultrafast pulse generation

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2017-05-31

    Nanophotonics is a rapidly developing field of research with many suggestions for a design of nanoantennas, sensors and miniature metadevices. Despite many proposals for passive nanophotonic devices, the efficient coupling of light to nanoscale optical structures remains a major challenge. In this article, we propose a nanoscale laser based on a tightly confined anapole mode. By harnessing the non-radiating nature of the anapole state, we show how to engineer nanolasers based on InGaAs nanodisks as on-chip sources with unique optical properties. Leveraging on the near-field character of anapole modes, we demonstrate a spontaneously polarized nanolaser able to couple light into waveguide channels with four orders of magnitude intensity than classical nanolasers, as well as the generation of ultrafast (of 100 fs) pulses via spontaneous mode locking of several anapoles. Anapole nanolasers offer an attractive platform for monolithically integrated, silicon photonics sources for advanced and efficient nanoscale circuitry.

  6. Isolated sub-100-as pulse generation via controlling electron dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lan Pengfei; Lu Peixiang; Cao Wei; Li Yuhua; Wang Xinlin

    2007-01-01

    A method to coherently control electron dynamics is proposed using a few-cycle laser pulse in combination with a controlling field. It is shown that this method not only broadens the attosecond pulse bandwidth, but also reduces the chirp; thus an isolated 80-as pulse is straightforwardly obtained, and even shorter pulses are achievable by increasing the intensity of the controlling field. Such ultrashort pulses allow one to investigate ultrafast electronic processes. In addition, the few-cycle synthesized pulse is expected to be useful for manipulating a wide range of laser-atom interactions

  7. Installation And Test Of Electron Beam Generation System To Produce Far-Infrared Radiation And X-Ray Pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichaisirimongkol, Pathom; Jinamoon, Witoon; Khangrang, Nopadon; Kusoljariyakul, Keerati; Rhodes, Michael W.; Rimjaem, Sakhorn; Saisut, Jatuporn; Chitrlada, Thongbai; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Wiedemann, Helmut

    2005-10-01

    SURIYA project at the Fast Neutron Research Facility, Chiang Mai University, aims to establish a facility to generate femtosecond electron beams. This electron beam can be used to generate high intensity far-infrared radiation and ultra-short X-ray pulses. The main components of the system are a 3 MeV RF electron gun with a thermionic cathode, an a-magnet as a bunch compressor, and post acceleration 15-20 MeV by a linear accelerator (linac). Between the main components, there are focusing quadrupole magnets and steering magnets to maintain the electron beam within a high vacuum tube. At the end of the beam transport line, a dipole magnet has been installed to function as a beam dump and an energy spectrometer. After the installation and testing of individual major components were completed, we have been investigating the generation of the electron beam, intense far- infrared radiation and ultra short X-ray pulses

  8. Copper vapour laser with an efficient semiconductor pump generator having comparable pump pulse and output pulse durations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurkin, A A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-31

    We report the results of experimental studies of a copper vapour laser with a semiconductor pump generator capable of forming virtually optimal pump pulses with a current rise steepness of about 40 A ns{sup -1} in a KULON LT-1.5CU active element. To maintain the operating temperature of the active element's channel, an additional heating pulsed oscillator is used. High efficiency of the pump generator is demonstrated. (lasers)

  9. Ultrawide spectral broadening and compression of single extremely short pulses in the visible, uv-vuv, and middle infrared by high-order stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalosha, V. P.; Herrmann, J.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a comprehensive analytical and numerical study of ultrawide spectral broadening and compression of isolated extremely short visible, uv-vuv and middle infrared (MIR) pulses by high-order stimulated Raman scattering in hollow waveguides. Spectral and temporal characteristics of the output pulses and the mechanism of pulse compression using dispersion of the gas filling and output glass window are investigated without the slowly varying envelope approximation. Physical limitations due to phase mismatch, velocity walk off, and pump-pulse depletion as well as improvements through the use of pump-pulse sequences and dispersion control are studied. It is shown that phase-locked pulses as short as ∼2 fs in the visible and uv-vuv, and 6.5 fs in the MIR can be generated by coherent scattering in impulsively excited Raman media without the necessity of external phase control. Using pump-pulse sequences, shortest durations in the range of about 1 fs for visible and uv-vuv probe pulses are predicted

  10. Short-term forecasting model for aggregated regional hydropower generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteiro, Claudio; Ramirez-Rosado, Ignacio J.; Fernandez-Jimenez, L. Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Original short-term forecasting model for the hourly hydropower generation. • The use of NWP forecasts allows horizons of several days. • New variable to represent the capacity level for generating hydroelectric energy. • The proposed model significantly outperforms the persistence model. - Abstract: This paper presents an original short-term forecasting model of the hourly electric power production for aggregated regional hydropower generation. The inputs of the model are previously recorded values of the aggregated hourly production of hydropower plants and hourly water precipitation forecasts using Numerical Weather Prediction tools, as well as other hourly data (load demand and wind generation). This model is composed of three modules: the first one gives the prediction of the “monthly” hourly power production of the hydropower plants; the second module gives the prediction of hourly power deviation values, which are added to that obtained by the first module to achieve the final forecast of the hourly hydropower generation; the third module allows a periodic adjustment of the prediction of the first module to improve its BIAS error. The model has been applied successfully to the real-life case study of the short-term forecasting of the aggregated hydropower generation in Spain and Portugal (Iberian Peninsula Power System), achieving satisfactory results for the next-day forecasts. The model can be valuable for agents involved in electricity markets and useful for power system operations

  11. Photodetachment of H- by a short laser pulse in crossed static electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Liangyou; Wang Qiaoling; Starace, Anthony F.

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed quantum mechanical treatment of the photodetachment of H - by a short laser pulse in the presence of crossed static electric and magnetic fields. An exact analytic formula is presented for the final state electron wave function (describing an electron in both static electric and magnetic fields and a short laser pulse of arbitrary intensity). In the limit of a weak laser pulse, final state electron wave packet motion is examined and related to the closed classical electron orbits in crossed static fields predicted by Peters and Delos [Phys. Rev. A 47, 3020 (1993)]. Owing to these closed orbit trajectories, we show that the detachment probability can be modulated, depending on the time delay between two laser pulses and their relative phase, thereby providing a means to partially control the photodetachment process. In the limit of a long, weak pulse (i.e., a monochromatic radiation field) our results reduce to those of others; however, for this case we analyze the photodetachment cross section numerically over a much larger range of electron kinetic energy (i.e., up to 500 cm -1 ) than in previous studies and relate the detailed structures both analytically and numerically to the above-mentioned, closed classical periodic orbits

  12. Model documentation report: Short-Term Hydroelectric Generation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Short- Term Hydroelectric Generation Model (STHGM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on the model structure. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with the Energy Information Administration's (AYE) legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). The STHGM performs a short-term (18 to 27- month) forecast of hydroelectric generation in the United States using an autoregressive integrated moving average (UREMIA) time series model with precipitation as an explanatory variable. The model results are used as input for the short-term Energy Outlook

  13. Short generators without quantum computers : the case of multiquadratics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauch, J.; Bernstein, D.J.; de Valence, H.; Lange, T.; van Vredendaal, C.; Coron, J.-S.; Nielsen, J.B.

    2017-01-01

    Finding a short element g of a number field, given the ideal generated by g, is a classic problem in computational algebraic number theory. Solving this problem recovers the private key in cryptosystems introduced by Gentry, Smart–Vercauteren, Gentry–Halevi, Garg– Gentry–Halevi, et al. Work over the

  14. High voltage short plus generation based on avalanche circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yuanfeng; Yu Xiaoqi

    2006-01-01

    Simulate the avalanche circuit in series with PSPICE module, design the high voltage short plus generation circuit by avalanche transistor in series for the sweep deflection circuit of streak camera. The output voltage ranges 1.2 KV into 50 ohm load. The rise time of the circuit is less than 3 ns. (authors)

  15. Generation of 70-fs pulses at 286 μm from a mid-infrared fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, R. I.; Hudson, D. D.; Fuerbach, A.; Jackson, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    We propose and demonstrate a simple route to few-optical-cycle pulse generation from a mid-infrared fiber laser through nonlinear compression of pulses from a holmium-doped fiber oscillator using a short length of chalcogenide fiber and a grating pair. Pulses from the oscillator with 265-fs duration at 2.86 {\\mu}m are spectrally broadened through self-phase modulation in step-index As2S3 fiber to 141-nm bandwidth and then re-compressed to 70 fs (7.3 optical cycles). These are the shortest pulses from a mid-infrared fiber system to date, and we note that our system is compact, robust, and uses only commercially available components. The scalability of this approach is also discussed, supported by numerical modeling.

  16. Interaction of relativistic electrons with an intense laser pulse: High-order harmonic generation based on Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hack, Szabolcs; Varró, Sándor; Czirják, Attila

    2016-01-01

    We investigate nonlinear Thomson scattering as a source of high-order harmonic radiation with the potential to enable attosecond light pulse generation. We present a new analytic solution of the electron’s relativistic equations of motion in the case of a short laser pulse with a sine-squared envelope. Based on the single electron emission, we compute and analyze the radiated amplitude and phase spectrum for a realistic electron bunch, with special attention to the correct initial values. These results show that the radiation spectrum of an electron bunch in head-on collision with a sufficiently strong laser pulse of sine-squared envelope has a smooth frequency dependence to allow for the synthesis of attosecond light pulses.

  17. Interaction of relativistic electrons with an intense laser pulse: High-order harmonic generation based on Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Szabolcs [ELI-ALPS, ELI-HU Non-Profit Ltd., Dugonics tér 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Szeged, Tisza L. krt. 84-86, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Varró, Sándor [ELI-ALPS, ELI-HU Non-Profit Ltd., Dugonics tér 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Wigner Research Center for Physics, SZFI, PO Box 49, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Czirják, Attila [ELI-ALPS, ELI-HU Non-Profit Ltd., Dugonics tér 13, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary); Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Szeged, Tisza L. krt. 84-86, H-6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2016-02-15

    We investigate nonlinear Thomson scattering as a source of high-order harmonic radiation with the potential to enable attosecond light pulse generation. We present a new analytic solution of the electron’s relativistic equations of motion in the case of a short laser pulse with a sine-squared envelope. Based on the single electron emission, we compute and analyze the radiated amplitude and phase spectrum for a realistic electron bunch, with special attention to the correct initial values. These results show that the radiation spectrum of an electron bunch in head-on collision with a sufficiently strong laser pulse of sine-squared envelope has a smooth frequency dependence to allow for the synthesis of attosecond light pulses.

  18. Speckles generated by skewed, short-coherence light beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogioli, D; Salerno, D; Ziano, R; Mantegazza, F; Croccolo, F

    2011-01-01

    When a coherent laser beam impinges on a random sample (e.g. a colloidal suspension), the scattered light exhibits characteristic speckles. If the temporal coherence of the light source is too short, then the speckles disappear, along with the possibility of performing homodyne or heterodyne scattering detection or photon correlation spectroscopy. Here we investigate the scattering of a so-called ‘skewed coherence beam’, i.e. a short-coherence beam modified such that the field is coherent within slabs that are skewed with respect to the wave fronts. We show that such a beam generates speckles and can be used for heterodyne scattering detection, despite its short temporal coherence. Moreover, we show that the heterodyne signal is not affected by multiple scattering. We suggest that the phenomenon presented here can be used as a means of carrying out heterodyne scattering measurement with any short-coherence radiation, including x-rays. (paper)

  19. Ultrafast pulse generation in integrated arrays of anapole nanolasers

    KAUST Repository

    Gongora, J. S. Totero

    2017-11-02

    One of the main challenges in photonics is the integration of ultrafast coherent sources in silicon compatible platforms at the nanoscale [1]. Generally, the emission of ultra-short pulses is achieved by synchronizing the cavity modes of the system via external active components, such as, e.g., Q-switch or saturable absorbers. Consequently, the required optical setups are complex and difficult to integrate on-chip. To address these difficulties, we propose a novel type of integrated source based on the spontaneous synchronization of several near-field nanolasers. We design our near-field lasers by considering the nonlinear amplification of non-radiating Anapole modes [2]. Anapoles represent an intriguing non-conventional state of radiation, whose excitation is responsible for the formation of scattering suppression states in dielectric nanostructures [3]. Due to their inherent near-field emission properties, an ensemble of anapole-based nanolasers represent an ideal candidate to investigate and tailor spontaneous synchronization phenomena in a silicon-compatible framework. Additionally, their mutual non-linear interaction can be precisely controlled within standard nanofabrication tolerances.

  20. Optical and electrical properties of SnO2 thin films after ultra-short pulsed laser annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Scorticati, D.; Illiberi, A.; Römer, G.R.B.E.; Bor, T.; Ogieglo, W.; Klein Gunnewiek, M.; Lenferink, A.; Otto, C.; Skolski, J.Z.P.; Grob, F.; Lange, D.F. de; Huis in 't Veld, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Ultra-short pulsed laser sources, with pulse durations in the ps and fs regime, are commonly exploited for cold ablation. However, operating ultra-short pulsed laser sources at fluence levels well below the ablation threshold allows for fast and selective thermal processing. The latter is especially advantageous for the processing of thin films. A precise control of the heat affected zone, as small as tens of nanometers, depending on the material and laser conditions, can be achieved. It enab...

  1. Q-switched all-fiber laser with short pulse duration based on tungsten diselenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyi; OuYang, Yuyi; Ma, Guoli; Liu, Mengli; Liu, Wenjun

    2018-05-01

    Fiber lasers are widely used in industrial processing, sensing, medical and communications applications due to their simple structure, good stability and low cost. With the rapid development of fiber lasers and the sustained improvement of industrial laser quality requirements, researchers in ultrafast optics focus on how to get laser pulses with high output power and narrow pulse duration. Q-switched technology is one of the most effective techniques to generate ultrashort pulses. In this paper, a tungsten diselenide saturable absorber with 16.82% modulation depth is prepared by chemical vapor deposition. Experimental results show that when the pump power changes from 115.7 mW to 630 mW, the all-fiber laser can achieve a stable Q-switched pulse output. The repetition rate of the output pulse varies from 80.32 kHz to 204.2 kHz, the pulse duration is 581 ns, the maximum output power is 17.1 mW and the maximum pulse energy is 83.7 nJ. Results in this paper show that tungsten diselenide can be applied to ultrafast optics, which is a kind of saturable absorption material with excellent properties.

  2. Efficient femtosecond mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersivewave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Binbin; Guo, Hairun; Bache, Morten

    2014-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm.......We experimentally demonstrate efficient mid-infrared pulse generation by dispersive wave radiation in bulk lithium niobate crystal. Femtosecond mid-IR pulses centering from 2.8–2.92 µm are generated using the single pump wavelengths from 1.25–1.45 µm....

  3. Generation of electromagnetic pulses from plasma channels induced by femtosecond light strings

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chung-Chieh; Wright, E. M.; Moloney, J. V.

    2000-01-01

    We present a model that elucidates the physics underlying the generation of an electromagnetic pulse from a femtosecond laser induced plasma channel. The radiation pressure force from the laser pulse spatially separates the ionized electrons from the heavier ions and the induced dipole moment subsequently oscillates at the plasma frequency and radiates an electromagnetic pulse.

  4. A 6.4 kV pulse generator with transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastein, W.L.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility has been investigated to perform a pulse generator which generates pulse for the cathode of the injector of the NIKHEF electron accelerator, which generates pulses of 6.4 kV with sides of 100 ns a duration of 2 to 50 microseconds and a frequency of 2500 Hz. The voltage ripple should be smaller than frequency part and one for the high-frequency part, it is possible to generate a pulse which fulfills the requirements with regard to the sides. However installing an tuning of circuits in order to obtain a sufficiently flat pulse will cost much time. Moreover the losses are such high that it deserves recommendation to investigate the possibility ot generate the pulse with a number of MOSFets connected in series. (author). 8 refs.; 8 figs.; 14 photos; 1 tab

  5. Extension of supercontinuum spectrum, generated in polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber, using chirped femtosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengelis, Julius; Jarutis, Vygandas; Sirutkaitis, Valdas

    2018-01-01

    We present results of experimental and numerical investigation of supercontinuum (SC) generation in polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PCF) using chirped femtosecond pulses. The initial unchirped pump pulse source was a mode-locked Yb:KGW laser generating 52-nJ energy, 110-fs duration pulses at 1030 nm with a 76-MHz repetition rate. The nonlinear medium was a 32-cm-long polarization-maintaining PCF manufactured by NKT Photonics A/S. We demonstrated the influence of pump pulse chirp on spectral characteristics of a SC. We showed that by chirping pump pulses positively or negatively one can obtain a broader SC spectrum than in the case of unchirped pump pulses at the same peak power. Moreover, the extension can be controlled by changing the amount of pump pulse chirp. Numerical simulation results also indicated that pump pulse chirp yields an extension of SC spectrum.

  6. Injection-seeded tunable mid-infrared pulses generated by difference frequency mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Yuki; Hara, Hideaki; Masuda, Takahiko; Hiraki, Takahiro; Sasao, Noboru; Uetake, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    We report on the generation of nanosecond mid-infrared pulses having frequency tunability, a narrow linewidth, and a high pulse energy. These pulses are obtained by frequency mixing between injection-seeded near-infrared pulses in potassium titanyl arsenate crystals. A continuous-wave external cavity laser diode or a Ti:sapphire ring laser is used as a tunable seeding source for the near-infrared pulses. The typical energy of the generated mid-infrared pulses is in the range of 0.4-1 mJ/pulse. The tuning wavelength ranges from 3142 to 4806 nm. A narrow linewidth of 1.4 GHz and good frequency reproducibility of the mid-infrared pulses are confirmed by observing a rovibrational absorption line of gaseous carbon monoxide at 4587 nm.

  7. Generation of 25-TW Femtosecond Laser Pulses at 515 nm with Extremely High Temporal Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Hornung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We report on the frequency doubling of femtosecond laser pulses at 1030 nm center wavelength generated from the fully diode-pumped laser system POLARIS. The newly generated pulses at a center wavelength of 515 nm have a pulse energy of 3 J with a pulse duration of 120 fs. On the basis of initially ultra-high contrast seed pulses we expect a temporal intensity contrast better 10 17 200 ps before the peak of the main pulse. We analyzed the temporal intensity contrast from milliseconds to femtoseconds with a dynamic range covering more than 20 orders of magnitude. The pulses were focussed with a f/2-focussing parabola resulting in a peak intensity exceeding 10 20 W / cm 2 . The peak power and intensity are to the best of our knowledge the highest values for 515 nm-laser-pulses achieved so far.

  8. Towards shorter wavelength x-ray lasers using a high power, short pulse pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tighe, W.; Krushelnick, K.; Valeo, E.; Suckewer, S.

    1991-05-01

    A near-terawatt, KrF* laser system, focussable to power densities >10 18 W/cm 2 has been constructed for use as a pump laser in various schemes aimed at the development of x-ray lasing below 5nm. The laser system along with output characteristics such as the pulse duration, the focal spot size, and the percentage of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) emitted along with the laser pulse will be presented. Schemes intended to lead to shorter wavelength x-ray emission will be described. The resultant requirements on the pump laser characteristics and the target design will be outlined. Results from recent solid target experiments and two-laser experiments, showing the interaction of a high-power, short pulse laser with a preformed plasma, will be presented. 13 refs., 5 figs

  9. A differential optical interferometer for measuring short pulses of surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Anurupa; Teyssieux, Damien; Laude, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The measurement of the displacements caused by the propagation of a short pulse of surface acoustic waves on a solid substrate is investigated. A stabilized time-domain differential interferometer is proposed, with the surface acoustic wave (SAW) sample placed outside the interferometer. Experiments are conducted with surface acoustic waves excited by a chirped interdigital transducer on a piezoelectric lithium niobate substrate having an operational bandwidth covering the 200-400MHz frequency range and producing 10-ns pulses with 36nm maximum out-of-plane displacement. The interferometric response is compared with a direct electrical measurement obtained with a receiving wide bandwidth interdigital transducer and good correspondence is observed. The effects of varying the path difference of the interferometer and the measurement position on the surface are discussed. Pulse compression along the chirped interdigital transducer is observed experimentally. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Nonlinear interaction of powerful short electromagnetic pulses with an electron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.N.; Yu, M.Y.; Shukla, P.K.

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear interaction of powerful short electromagnetic pulses with a plasma consisting of two groups of electrons and immobile ions has been studied. It is shown that the interaction is governed by a nonlinear equation for the electromagnetic wave envelope and a driven nonlinear equation for the low-frequency electron fluctuations. The driver for the latter depends explicitly on the spatio-temporal evolution of the electromagnetic wave flux. It is found that, depending on the cold-to-hot electron density ratio, the localized pulse can propagate with sub- as well as supersonic velocities accompanied by compressional or rarefactional density perturbations. The conditions of existence for the different types of solitary pulses are obtained. The present investigation may be relevant to the study of wave-plasma interaction devices such as inertial fusion confinement as well as to ionospheric modification experiments. (author)

  11. All-optical short pulse translation through cross-phase modulation in a VO₂ thin film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardad, Shima; Das, Susobhan; Salandrino, Alessandro; Breckenfeld, Eric; Kim, Heungsoo; Wu, Judy; Hui, Rongqing

    2016-01-15

    VO2 is a promising material for reconfigurable photonic devices due to the ultrafast changes in electronic and optical properties associated with its dielectric-to-metal phase transition. Based on a fiber-optic, pump-probe setup at 1550 nm wavelength window, and by varying the pump-pulse duration, we show that the material phase transition is primarily caused by the pump-pulse energy. For the first time, we demonstrate that the instantaneous optical phase modulation of probe during pump leading edge can be utilized to create short optical pulses at probe wavelength, through optical frequency discrimination. This circumvents the impact of long recovery time well known for the phase transition of VO2.

  12. Linear transformer driver for pulse generation with fifth harmonic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazarakis, Michael G.; Kim, Alexander A.; Sinebryukhov, Vadim A.; Volkov, Sergey N.; Kondratiev, Sergey S.; Alexeenko, Vitaly M.; Bayol, Frederic; Demol, Gauthier; Stygar, William A.; Leckbee, Joshua; Oliver, Bryan V.; Kiefer, Mark L.

    2017-03-21

    A linear transformer driver includes at least one ferrite ring positioned to accept a load. The linear transformer driver also includes a first, second, and third power delivery module. The first power delivery module sends a first energy in the form of a first pulse to the load. The second power delivery module sends a second energy in the form of a second pulse to the load. The third power delivery module sends a third energy in the form of a third pulse to the load. The linear transformer driver is configured to form a flat-top pulse by the superposition of the first, second, and third pulses. The first, second, and third pulses have different frequencies.

  13. Q-switched pulse laser generation from double-cladding Nd:YAG ceramics waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yang; Luan, Qingfang; Liu, Fengqin; Chen, Feng; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier Rodríguez

    2013-08-12

    This work reports on the Q-switched pulsed laser generation from double-cladding Nd:YAG ceramic waveguides. Double-cladding waveguides with different combination of diameters were inscribed into a sample of Nd:YAG ceramic. With an additional semiconductor saturable absorber, stable pulsed laser emission at the wavelength of 1064 nm was achieved with pulses of 21 ns temporal duration and ~14 μJ pulse energy at a repetition rate of 3.65 MHz.

  14. Control of the electrode metal transfer by means of the welding current pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz'kov, A.; Pustovykh, O.; Verevkin, A.; Terekhin, V.; Shachek, A.; Knyaz'kov, S.; Tyasto, A.

    2016-04-01

    The paper presents a generator of welding current pulses to transfer an electrode metal into the molten pool. A homogeneous artificial line is used to produce near rectangular pulses. The homogeneous artificial line provides the minimum heat input with in the pulse to transfer the electrode metal, and it significantly decreases the impact of disturbances affecting this transfer. The pulse frequency does not exceed 300 Hz, and the duration is 0.6 ÷ 0.9 ms.

  15. Generation of sub-100-fs Stokes pulses upon SRS in a barium nitrate crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyashchenko, Aleksandr V; Losev, Leonid L; Tenyakov, S Yu

    2010-01-01

    72-fs pulses are generated at the first Stokes component frequency upon stimulated Raman scattering in a barium nitrate crystal for the radiation of the Ti 3+ :Al 2 O 3 laser with the pulse duration of 50 fs. The energy efficiency of conversion is 20%. The barium nitrate crystal was optically pumped by two consecutive orthogonally polarised chirped pulses with the following time compression of the Stokes radiation pulse. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  16. Pulse excitation experiment of a superconducting generator; chodendo hatsudenki no parusu reiki shiken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyaike, K.; Iimura, T.; Nishimura, M.; Arata, M.; Takabatake, M. [Toshiba Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamada, M.; Kanamori, Y.; Hasegawa, K. [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1999-11-10

    Efficiency improvement, improvement in the stability of electric power system it is miniaturization and weight reduction can be expected in comparison with the traditional-model generator superconducting generator. We produce the small superconducting generator for the experiment experimentally, and performance characteristics verification of the generator is carried out experimentally. This time, pulse excitation test of the superconducting generator was carried out, and the ac loss of the conductor by the pulse excitation investigated the effect on the quenching current. (NEDO)

  17. Quantum computer based on activated dielectric nanoparticles selectively interacting with short optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadomskii, Oleg N; Kharitonov, Yu Ya

    2004-01-01

    The operation principle of a quantum computer is proposed based on a system of dielectric nanoparticles activated with two-level atoms - cubits, in which electric dipole transitions are excited by short intense optical pulses. It is proved that the logical operation (logical operator) CNOT (controlled NOT) is performed by means of time-dependent transfer of quantum information over 'long' (of the order of 10 4 nm) distances between spherical nanoparticles owing to the delayed interaction between them in the optical radiation field. It is shown that one-cubit and two-cubit logical operators required for quantum calculations can be realised by selectively exciting dielectric particles with short optical pulses. (quantum calculations)

  18. Comment on "Defocusing complex short-pulse equation and its multi-dark-soliton solution"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssoufa, Saliou; Kuetche, Victor K.; Kofane, Timoleon C.

    2017-08-01

    In their recent paper, Feng et al. [Phys. Rev. E 93, 052227 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.052227] proposed a complex short-pulse equation of both focusing and defocusing types. They studied in detail the defocusing case and derived its multi-dark-soliton solutions. Nonetheless, from a physical viewpoint in order to better and deeply understand their genuine implications, we find it useful to provide a real and proper background for the derivation of the previous evolution system while showing that the expression of the nonlinear electric polarization the above authors used in their scheme is not suitable for getting the defocusing complex short-pulse equation.

  19. Temporal analysis of reflected optical signals for short pulse laser interaction with nonhomogeneous tissue phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivedi, Ashish; Basu, Soumyadipta; Mitra, Kunal

    2005-01-01

    The use of short pulse laser for minimally invasive detection scheme has become an indispensable tool in the technological arsenal of modern medicine and biomedical engineering. In this work, a time-resolved technique has been used to detect tumors/inhomogeneities in tissues by measuring transmitted and reflected scattered temporal optical signals when a short pulse laser source is incident on tissue phantoms. A parametric study involving different scattering and absorption coefficients of tissue phantoms and inhomogeneities, size of inhomogeneity as well as the detector position is performed. The experimental measurements are validated with a numerical solution of the transient radiative transport equation obtained by using discrete ordinates method. Thus, both simultaneous experimental and numerical studies are critical for predicting the optical properties of tissues and inhomogeneities from temporal scattered optical signal measurements

  20. Wavelet-Based Signal Processing of Electromagnetic Pulse Generated Waveforms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ardolino, Richard S

    2007-01-01

    This thesis investigated and compared alternative signal processing techniques that used wavelet-based methods instead of traditional frequency domain methods for processing measured electromagnetic pulse (EMP) waveforms...

  1. Z a Fast Pulsed Power Generator for Ultra-High Magnetic Field Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, R. B.; Stygar, W. A.; Struve, K. W.; Asay, J. R.; Hall, C. A.; Bernard, M. A.; Bailey, J. E.; McDaniel, D. H.

    2004-11-01

    Advances in fast, pulsed-power technologies have resulted in the development of very high current drivers that have current rise times ~100 ns. The largest such pulsed power driver today is the new Z accelerator located at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Z can deliver more than 20 MA with a time-to-peak of 105 ns to low inductance (~1 nH) loads. Such large drivers are capable of directly generating magnetic fields approaching 3 kT in small, 1 cm3 volumes. In addition to direct field generation, Z can be used to compress an applied, axial seed field with a plasma. Flux compression schemes are not new and are, in fact, the basis of all explosive flux-compression generators, but we propose the use of plasma armatures rather than solid, conducting armatures. We present experimental results from the Z accelerator in which magnetic fields of ~2 kT are generated and measured with several diagnostics. Issues such as energy loss in solid conductors and dynamic response of current-carrying conductors to very large magnetic fields are reviewed in context with Z experiments. We describe planned flux-compression experiments that are expected to create the highest-magnitude uniform-field volumes yet attained in the laboratory.

  2. Experimental Observation of Generation of Superradiance Pulses in the Process of Backscattering of Pump Wave on the Intense Electron Bunch

    CERN Document Server

    Ginzburg, N S; Denisov, G G; Rozental, R M; Sergeev, A; Zotova, I V

    2005-01-01

    Recently significant progress was archived in the generation of multimegawatt subnanosecond pulses in millimeter wave band utilizing the cyclotron and Cherenkov mechanisms of superradiance (SR) [1,2]. We study the novel mechanism of SR when the powerful pumping wave undergoes the stimulated back scattering on the intense electron bunch. Due to the Doppler up shift the radiation frequency can significantly exceed the frequency of the pumping wave. With the relativistic microwave generator as a pumping wave source such a mechanism can be used for generation of the powerful pulse radiation in the short millimeter and submillimeter wave bands. Experiments on the observation of the stimulated scattering in the superradiance regime were carried out at Institute of Electrophysics RAS with two synchronized accelerators. The 4 ns electron beam from the first accelerator is used for generation of the 38 GHz 100 MW pumping wave which subsequently scattered on the subnanosecond 250 keV 1 kA electron bunch produced by the...

  3. Resonant-enhanced above-threshold ionization of atoms by XUV short laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, V.D. [Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: vladimir@df.uba.ar; Macri, P.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Departamento de Fisica, FCEyN, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, CONICET, Funes 3350, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Arbo, D.G. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, UBA-CONICET, CC 67 Suc 28 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-01-15

    Above-threshold ionization of atoms by XUV short laser pulses is investigated close to the resonant 1s-2p transitions. Both ab initio TDSE and a theoretical Coulomb-Volkov like theory are used to study the enhancement in the ionization probabilities. Our modified Coulomb-Volkov theory, fully accounting for the important 1s-2p transition is able to explain the spectrum as well as the total ionization cross sections.

  4. Electron emission from insulator surfaces by ultra-short laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acuna, M; Gravielle, M S, E-mail: mario@iafe.uba.a, E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.a [Institutes de AstronomIa y Fisica del Espacio, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-11-01

    Photoelectron emission from insulator surfaces induced by ultra-short laser pulses is studied within a time-dependent distorted wave method. The proposed approach combines the Volkov phase, which takes into account the laser interaction, with a simple representation of the unperturbed surface states, given by the Tight-binding method. The model is applied to evaluate the photoelectron emission from a LiF(001) surface, finding effects of interference produced by the crystal lattice.

  5. Computational Design of Short Pulse Laser Driven Iron Opacity Measurements at Stellar-Relevant Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Madison E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2017-05-20

    Opacity is a critical parameter in the simulation of radiation transport in systems such as inertial con nement fusion capsules and stars. The resolution of current disagreements between solar models and helioseismological observations would bene t from experimental validation of theoretical opacity models. Overall, short pulse laser heated iron experiments reaching stellar-relevant conditions have been designed with consideration of minimizing tamper emission and optical depth effects while meeting plasma condition and x-ray emission goals.

  6. Temperature measurement on neurological pulse generators during MR scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alesch François

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract According to manufacturers of both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI machines, and implantable neurological pulse generators (IPGs, MRI is contraindicated for patients with IPGs. A major argument for this restriction is the risk to induce heat in the leads due to the electromagnetic field, which could be dangerous for the surrounding brain parenchyma. The temperature change on the surface of the case of an ITREL-III (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN and the lead tip during MRI was determined. An anatomical realistic and a cubic phantom, filled with phantom material mimicking human tissue, and a typical lead configuration were used to imitate a patient who carries an IPG for deep brain stimulation. The measurements were performed in a 1.5 T and a 3.0 T MRI. 2.1°C temperature increases at the lead tip uncovered the lead tip as the most critical part concerning heating problems in IPGs. Temperature increases in other locations were low compared to the one at the lead tip. The measured temperature increase of 2.1°C can not be considered as harmful to the patient. Comparison with the results of other studies revealed the avoidance of loops as a practical method to reduce heating during MRI procedures.

  7. Pulsed x-ray generation from a plasma focus device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zambra, M; Bruzzone, H; Sidelnikov, Y; Kies, W; Moreno, C; Sylvester, G; Silva, P; Moreno, J; Soto, L

    2003-01-01

    Dynamical pinches coupled to electrodes like the dense Z-pinch or the dense plasma focus have been intensively studied in the last four decades for their high fusion efficiency and their application potential. Though the expectations of the eighties of the last century, scaling these pinches up to fusion reactors, did not come true, the development of fast and powerful experiments resulted in new insights in pinch physics and paved the way for developing compact dynamical pinches as pulsed neutron and X-radiation sources for many applications. There is a permanent and growing interest in the research community for understanding and determining the generation properties of X-rays, neutrons and charged particles emitted from a high-temperature high-density plasmas, especially in the plasma focus configuration. The Plasma Physics and Plasma Technology Group of the CCHEN has developed the SPEED4 fast-plasma focus device, in collaboration with the Plasma Physics Group of the Dusseldorf University, in order to perform experimental studies such as X-ray and neutron emission, and electron and ion beam characterization (author)

  8. Gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line generator of high voltage pulses modulated at 4 GHz frequency with 1000 Hz pulse repetition rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmasculov, M R; Sharypov, K A; Shunailov, S A; Shpak, V G; Yalandin, M I; Pedos, M S; Rukin, S N

    2017-01-01

    Results of testing of a generator based on a solid-state drive and the parallel gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines with external bias are presented. Stable rf-modulated high-voltage nanosecond pulses were shaped in each of the four channels in 1 s packets with 1000 Hz repetition frequencies. Pulse amplitude reaches -175 kV, at a modulation depth of rf-oscillations to 50 % and the effective frequency ∼4 GHz. (paper)

  9. Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, Emeric; Kovacs, Katalin; Dombi, Peter; Fulop, Jozsef A.; Farkas, Gyozo; Hebling, Janos; Tosa, Valer; Varju, Katalin

    2011-08-01

    High-order harmonic generation by few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses in neon gas in the presence of a strong terahertz (THz) field is investigated numerically with propagation effects taken into account. Our calculations show that the combination of THz fields with up to 12 fs laser pulses can be an effective gating technique to generate single attosecond pulses. We show that in the presence of the strong THz field only a single attosecond burst can be phase matched, whereas radiation emitted during other half cycles disappears during propagation. The cutoff is extended and a wide supercontinuum appears in the near-field spectra, extending the available spectral width for isolated attosecond pulse generation from 23 to 93 eV. We demonstrate that phase-matching effects are responsible for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, even in conditions when single-atom response yields an attosecond pulse train.

  10. Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balogh, Emeric; Kovacs, Katalin; Dombi, Peter; Farkas, Gyozo; Fulop, Jozsef A.; Hebling, Janos; Tosa, Valer; Varju, Katalin

    2011-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation by few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses in neon gas in the presence of a strong terahertz (THz) field is investigated numerically with propagation effects taken into account. Our calculations show that the combination of THz fields with up to 12 fs laser pulses can be an effective gating technique to generate single attosecond pulses. We show that in the presence of the strong THz field only a single attosecond burst can be phase matched, whereas radiation emitted during other half cycles disappears during propagation. The cutoff is extended and a wide supercontinuum appears in the near-field spectra, extending the available spectral width for isolated attosecond pulse generation from 23 to 93 eV. We demonstrate that phase-matching effects are responsible for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, even in conditions when single-atom response yields an attosecond pulse train.

  11. Single attosecond pulse from terahertz-assisted high-order harmonic generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balogh, Emeric [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); Kovacs, Katalin [Department of Optics and Quantum Electronics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary); National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dombi, Peter; Farkas, Gyozo [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Fulop, Jozsef A.; Hebling, Janos [Department of Experimental Physics, University of Pecs, H-7624 Pecs (Hungary); Tosa, Valer [National Institute for R and D of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, RO-400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Varju, Katalin [HAS Research Group on Laser Physics, University of Szeged, H-6701 Szeged (Hungary)

    2011-08-15

    High-order harmonic generation by few-cycle 800 nm laser pulses in neon gas in the presence of a strong terahertz (THz) field is investigated numerically with propagation effects taken into account. Our calculations show that the combination of THz fields with up to 12 fs laser pulses can be an effective gating technique to generate single attosecond pulses. We show that in the presence of the strong THz field only a single attosecond burst can be phase matched, whereas radiation emitted during other half cycles disappears during propagation. The cutoff is extended and a wide supercontinuum appears in the near-field spectra, extending the available spectral width for isolated attosecond pulse generation from 23 to 93 eV. We demonstrate that phase-matching effects are responsible for the generation of isolated attosecond pulses, even in conditions when single-atom response yields an attosecond pulse train.

  12. Development of a short pulsed corona discharge ionization source for ion mobility spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Yuan; Aliaga-Rossel, R.; Choi, Peter; Gilles, Jean-Paul

    2005-01-01

    The development of a pulsed corona discharge ionization source and its use in ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) is presented. In a point-plane electrode geometry, an electrical pulse up to 12 kV, 150 ns rise time and 500 ns pulse width was used to generate a corona discharge in air. A single positive high voltage pulse was able to generate about 1.6x10 10 ions at energy consumption of 22 μJ. Since the temporal distribution of ions is in a pulsed form, the possibility of removal the ion gate has been investigated. By purposely arranging the interface between discharge field and drift field, nearly 10 7 positive ions were drawn into the drift region with absence of the ion gate after every single discharge. The positive spectrum of acetone dimer (working at room temperature) was obtained with a resolving power of 20 by using this configuration. The advantages of this new scheme are the low power consumption compared with the dc method as well as the simplicity of the IMS cell structure

  13. Construction of double discharge pulsed electron beam generator and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goektas, H.

    2001-12-01

    Generation of fast pulsed electron beam by superposing DC and pulsed hollow cathode discharge is studied. The electrical characteristics and measurements of the electron beam generator are done dc glow discharge and for the pulsed one. The electron beam current, its density and magnetic field effect, pinch effect, have been studied. The dependence of the electron beam parameters with respect to pressure and magnetic field have been studied. The pulsing effect of the beam is reviewed. By using the generator, micron holes drilling and carbon deposition was done at the laboratory. As a target source for carbon deposition methane gas is used and for Hydrogen-free carbon deposition was graphite

  14. Generation of high harmonics and attosecond pulses with ultrashort ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    input Gaussian pulse into a non-diffractive and non-dispersive conical wavepacket [4,5], source of secondary radiation [6], and remote actions to mention a few. ... gas before propagation of the ionizing pulse: NAr(t → −∞) = N0. e and me ...

  15. Picoseconds pulse generation and pulse width determination processes of a distributed feedback dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Ghani, B.; Hammadi, M.

    2004-08-01

    A mathematical model has been developed to describe the dynamic emission of Nd-glass, distributed feedback dye laser (DFDL), and periodical grating temperature. The suggested model allows the investigation of the time behavior of Nd-glass laser and DFDL pulsed. Moreover, it allows studying the effect of the laser input parameters of Nd-glass laser on the spectral characteristics of the output DFDL pulses such as pulse width, delay time, and time separation

  16. Experiments of a 100 kV-level pulse generator based on metal-oxide varistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan-cheng; Wu, Qi-lin; Yang, Han-wu; Gao, Jing-ming; Li, Song; Shi, Cheng-yu

    2018-03-01

    This paper introduces the development and experiments of a 100 kV-level pulse generator based on a metal-oxide varistor (MOV). MOV has a high energy handling capacity and nonlinear voltage-current (V-I) characteristics, which makes it useful for high voltage pulse shaping. Circuit simulations based on the measured voltage-current characteristics of MOV verified the shaping concept and showed that a circuit containing a two-section pulse forming network (PFN) will result in better defined square pulse than a simple L-C discharging circuit. A reduced-scale experiment was carried out and the result agreed well with simulation prediction. Then a 100 kV-level pulse generator with multiple MOVs in a stack and a two-section pulse forming network (PFN) was experimented. A pulse with a voltage amplitude of 90 kV, rise time of about 50 ns, pulse width of 500 ns, and flat top of about 400 ns was obtained with a water dummy load of 50 Ω. The results reveal that the combination of PFN and MOV is a practical way to generate high voltage pulses with better flat top waveforms, and the load voltage is stable even if the load's impedance varies. Such pulse generator can be applied in many fields such as surface treatment, corona plasma generation, industrial dedusting, and medical disinfection.

  17. Scaled-Up Nonequilibrium Air Plasmas Generated by DC and Pulsed Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-08

    memory effect - these electrons can remain from previous pulse thanks to the high f . During the short spark pulse, Rp drops down to few hundred ohms ...Morvova, E. Marode, and I. Morva. J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 33:3198, 2000. [23] Y Akishev, O Goossens, T Callebaut, C Leys , A Napartovich, and N

  18. Efficient temporal compression of coherent nanosecond pulses in compact SBS generator-amplifier setup

    OpenAIRE

    Schiemann, S.; Ubachs, W.M.G.; Hogervorst, W.

    1997-01-01

    A pulse compressor based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in liquids is experimentally and theoretically investigated. It allows for the compression of Fourier-transform limited nanosecond pulses of several hundreds of millijoules of energy with both high conversion efficiency and a high temporal compression factor. The two-cell generator-amplifier arrangement is of a compact design not requiring external attenuation of the generator cell input energy. Pulses from an injection-seeded,...

  19. Results and plans on the development of a pulsed neutron generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sztaricskai, T.; Vasvary, L.; Petoe, G.

    1976-01-01

    Using the vacuum system of an old van de Graaff machine a new pulsed neutron generator has been developed. The block diagram, the scheme of generators arrangement and the electrode system of the ion bunching parts are shown

  20. Generation of fast-rise time, repetitive, (sub) nanosecond, high-voltage pulses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huiskamp, T.; Pemen, A.J.M.

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution we present our fast-rise time nanosecond pulse generator, capable of generating up to 50 kV (positive and negative) rectangular pulses at a repetition rate of up to 1 kHz and with a rise time of less than 200 picoseconds. We focus on the general concepts involved in the design

  1. High-order harmonic and attosecond pulse generation for a few-cycle laser pulse in modulated hollow fibres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiangyun; Sun Zhenrong; Wang Yufeng; Chen Guoliang; Wang Zugeng; Li Ruxin; Zeng Zhinan; Xu Zhizhan

    2007-01-01

    High harmonic generation from Ar and He atoms by a few-cycle laser pulse in periodic and chirped hollow fibres is investigated theoretically by a self-consistent model. Based on enhanced high harmonics in a periodic hollow fibre, a chirped hollow fibre is proposed to improve quasi-phase matching for the generated harmonics near the cutoff. The results show that the extended and enhanced harmonics near the cutoff are well phase-matched, and a single x-ray pulse with a duration of 279 as in Ar gas and 255 as in He gas can be achieved by frequency synthesizing of high harmonics in the well-selected cutoff bandwidth. The results show that this technique is a potential candidate to generate an intense isolated attosecond pulse in the 'water window' spectrum

  2. Note: Tesla based pulse generator for electrical breakdown study of liquid dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veda Prakash, G.; Kumar, R.; Patel, J.; Saurabh, K.; Shyam, A.

    2013-12-01

    In the process of studying charge holding capability and delay time for breakdown in liquids under nanosecond (ns) time scales, a Tesla based pulse generator has been developed. Pulse generator is a combination of Tesla transformer, pulse forming line, a fast closing switch, and test chamber. Use of Tesla transformer over conventional Marx generators makes the pulse generator very compact, cost effective, and requires less maintenance. The system has been designed and developed to deliver maximum output voltage of 300 kV and rise time of the order of tens of nanoseconds. The paper deals with the system design parameters, breakdown test procedure, and various experimental results. To validate the pulse generator performance, experimental results have been compared with PSPICE simulation software and are in good agreement with simulation results.

  3. Higher order harmonic generation in the intense laser pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvizi, R.; Bahrampour, A.; Karimi, M.

    2006-01-01

    The high intensity pulse of laser field ionizes the atoms and electrons are going to the continuum states of atoms. electrons absorb energy from the strong laser field. The back ground electromagnetic field causes to come back the electrons to ground states of atoms and the absorbed energy is emitted as a high order odd harmonics of incident light. The intensity of emitted harmonics depends on the material atoms and the laser pulse shape. I this paper the effects of step pulse duration on the high order harmonic radiated by the Argon, Helium, and Hydrogen atoms are reported.

  4. Short pulse, high resolution, backlighters for point projection high-energy radiography at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasini, R.; Bailey, C.; Bradley, D. K.; Bowers, M.; Chen, H.; Di Nicola, J. M.; Di Nicola, P.; Gururangan, G.; Hall, G. N.; Hardy, C. M.; Hargrove, D.; Hermann, M.; Hohenberger, M.; Holder, J. P.; Hsing, W.; Izumi, N.; Kalantar, D.; Khan, S.; Kroll, J.; Landen, O. L.; Lawson, J.; Martinez, D.; Masters, N.; Nafziger, J. R.; Nagel, S. R.; Nikroo, A.; Okui, J.; Palmer, D.; Sigurdsson, R.; Vonhof, S.; Wallace, R. J.; Zobrist, T.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution, high-energy X-ray backlighters are very active area of research for radiography experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [Miller et al., Nucl. Fusion 44, S228 (2004)], in particular those aiming at obtaining Compton-scattering produced radiographs from the cold, dense fuel surrounding the hot spot. We report on experiments to generate and characterize point-projection-geometry backlighters using short pulses from the advanced radiographic capability (ARC) [Crane et al., J. Phys. 244, 032003 (2010); Di Nicola et al., Proc. SPIE 2015, 93450I-12], at the NIF, focused on Au micro-wires. We show the first hard X-ray radiographs, at photon energies exceeding 60 keV, of static objects obtained with 30 ps-long ARC laser pulses, and the measurements of strength of the X-ray emission, the pulse duration and the source size of the Au micro-wire backlighters. For the latter, a novel technique has been developed and successfully applied.

  5. Half-period optical pulse generation using a free-electron laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaroszynski, D.A.; Chaix, P.; Piovella, N.

    1995-01-01

    Recently there has been growth, in interest in non-equilibrium interaction of half-period long optical pulses with matter. To date the optical pulses have been produced by chopping out a half-period long segment from a longer pulse using a semiconductor switch driven by a femtosecond laser. In this paper we present new methods for producing tunable ultra-short optical pulses as short as half an optical period using a free-electron laser driven by electron bunches with a duration a fraction of an optical period. Two different methods relying on the production of coherent spontaneous emission will be described. In the first method we show that when a train of ultra-short optical pulses as short as one half period. We present calculations which show that the small signal gain is unimportant in the early stages of radiation build up in the cavity when the startup process is dominated by coherent spontaneous emission. To support our proposed method we present encouraging experimental results from the FELIX experiment in the Netherlands which show that interference effects between the coherent spontaneous optical pulses at start-up are very important. The second proposed method relies on the fact that coherent spontaneous emission mimics the undulations of electrons as they pass through the undulator. We show that ultra-short optical pulses are produced by coherent spontaneous emission when ultra-short electron bunches pass through an ultra-short undulator. We discuss the interesting case of such undulator radiation in the presence of an optical cavity and show that the optical pulse can be open-quotes tayloredclose quotes by simply adjusting the optical cavity desynchronism. The proposed methods may be realisable using existing rf driven FELs in the far-infrared

  6. Study of surface layer assessment of solids by ultra-slow and short-pulsed positron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Ryouichi; Ohdaira, Toshiyuki; Mikado, Tomohisa; Yamada, Kawakatsu

    2004-01-01

    Thin films of insulators with low dielectric constant, as a candidate for next generation LSI (large scale integration), were assessed by two dimensional positron life time and wave height measurements using variable incident energy and also short pulsed positron beams. Linkages and openness of nano-scale voids in the films were evaluated by the measurements. Amorphous SiO 2 films were compared with SiCOH films synthesized by plasma CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) by measurements of the correlation between positron lifetime and momentum using short-pulsed positron beams. From the measurements, many hydrocarbons were found on void surface of SiCOH films. Positron lifetime measurement gives information about void sizes, and Doppler broadening due to annihilation γ-rays offers electron momentum distribution, which is a counterpart of positron annihilation. Two γ-rays are emitted on the positron annihilation. Coincident measurements of these two γ-rays provide the correlation spectra between positron lifetime and momentum. An instrument for positron annihilation excitation Auger electron spectroscopy (PAES) was improved, and a time-of-flight (TOF) PAES instrument was developed. Double counting rate and high resolution, compared with a conventional Auger electron spectrometer, were attained in elementary analysis using above TOF-PAES instrument. (Y. Kazumata)

  7. Input energy measurement toward warm dense matter generation using intense pulsed power generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R.; Ito, T.; Ishitani, T.; Tamura, F.; Kudo, T.; Takakura, N.; Kashine, K.; Takahashi, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, Nob.; Jiang, W.; Tokuchi, A.

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate properties of warm dense matter (WDM) in inertial confinement fusion (ICF), evaluation method for the WDM with isochoric heating on the implosion time-scale using an intense pulsed power generator ETIGO-II (∼1 TW, ∼50 ns) has been considered. In this study, the history of input energy into the sample is measured from the voltage and the current waveforms. To achieve isochoric heating, a foamed aluminum with pore sizes 600 μm and with 90% porosity was packed into a hollow glass capillary (ø 5 mm × 10 mm). The temperature of the sample is calculated from the numerical calculation using the measured input power. According to the above measurements, the input energy into a sample and the achievable temperature are estimated to be 300 J and 6000 K. It indicates that the WDM state is generated using the proposed method with ICF implosion time-scale.

  8. Aurora: A short-pulse multikilojoule KrF inertial fusion laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosocha, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Aurora is a laser system that serves as an operating technology demonstration prototype for large-scale high-energy KrF laser systems of interest for inertial fusion applications. This system will incorporate the following elements to achieve an end-to-end 248-nm laser fusion concept demonstration: an injection-locked oscillator-amplifier front end; an optical angular multiplexer to produce 96 encoded optical channels each of 5-nsec duration; a chain of four electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers; automated alignment systems for beam alignment; a decoder to provide for pulse compression of some fraction of the total beam train to be delivered to target, and a target chamber to house and diagnose fusion targets. The front end configuration uses a stable resonator master oscillator to drive an injection-locked unstable resonator slave oscillator. An extension of existing technology has been used to develop an electrooptic switchout at 248 nm that produces a 5-nsec pulse from the longer slave oscillator pulse. This short pulse is amplified by a postamplifier. Using these discharge lasers, the front end then delivers at least 250 mJ of KrF laser light output to the optical encoder

  9. Development of the dense plasma focus for short-pulse applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, N.; Blasco, M.; Breeding, K.; Constantino, D.; DeYoung, A.; DiPuccio, V.; Friedman, J.; Gall, B.; Gardner, S.; Gatling, J.; Hagen, E. C.; Luttman, A.; Meehan, B. T.; Misch, M.; Molnar, S.; Morgan, G.; O'Brien, R.; Robbins, L.; Rundberg, R.; Sipe, N.; Welch, D. R.; Yuan, V.

    2017-01-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF) has long been considered a compact source for pulsed neutrons and has traditionally been optimized for the total neutron yield. In this paper, we describe the efforts to optimize the DPF for short-pulse applications by introducing a reentrant cathode at the end of the coaxial plasma gun. The resulting neutron pulse widths are reduced by an average of 21 ±9 % from the traditional long-drift DPF design. Pulse widths and yields achieved from deuterium-tritium fusion at 2 MA are 61.8 ±30.7 ns FWHM and 1.84 ±0.49 ×1012 neutrons per shot. Simulations were conducted concurrently to elucidate the DPF operation and confirm the role of the reentrant cathode. A hybrid fluid-kinetic particle-in-cell modeling capability demonstrates correct sheath velocities, plasma instabilities, and fusion yield rates. Consistent with previous findings that the DPF is dominated by beam-target fusion from superthermal ions, we estimate that the thermonuclear contribution is at the 1% level.

  10. Multi-time-scale heat transfer modeling of turbid tissues exposed to short-pulsed irradiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghan; Guo, Zhixiong

    2007-05-01

    A combined hyperbolic radiation and conduction heat transfer model is developed to simulate multi-time-scale heat transfer in turbid tissues exposed to short-pulsed irradiations. An initial temperature response of a tissue to an ultrashort pulse irradiation is analyzed by the volume-average method in combination with the transient discrete ordinates method for modeling the ultrafast radiation heat transfer. This response is found to reach pseudo steady state within 1 ns for the considered tissues. The single pulse result is then utilized to obtain the temperature response to pulse train irradiation at the microsecond/millisecond time scales. After that, the temperature field is predicted by the hyperbolic heat conduction model which is solved by the MacCormack's scheme with error terms correction. Finally, the hyperbolic conduction is compared with the traditional parabolic heat diffusion model. It is found that the maximum local temperatures are larger in the hyperbolic prediction than the parabolic prediction. In the modeled dermis tissue, a 7% non-dimensional temperature increase is found. After about 10 thermal relaxation times, thermal waves fade away and the predictions between the hyperbolic and parabolic models are consistent.

  11. Phonon transport in a curved aluminum thin film due to laser short pulse irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Saad Bin; Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2018-05-01

    Laser short-pulse heating of a curved aluminum thin film is investigated. The Boltzmann transport equation is incorporated to formulate the heating situation. A Gaussian laser intensity distribution is considered along the film arc and time exponentially decaying of pulse intensity is incorporated in the analysis. The governing equations of energy transport in the electron and lattice sub-systems are coupled through the electron-phonon coupling parameter. To quantify the phonon intensity distribution in the thin film, equivalent equilibrium temperature is introduced, which is associated with the average energy of all phonons around a local point when the phonon energies are redistributed adiabatically to an equilibrium state. It is found the numerical simulations that electron temperature follows similar trend to the spatial distribution of the laser pulse intensity at the film edge. Temporal variation of electron temperature does not follow the laser pulse intensity distribution. The rise of temperature in the electron sub-system is fast while it remains slow in the lattice sub-system.

  12. Study of the fast inversion recovery pulse sequence. With reference to fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery and fast short TI inversion recovery pulse sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Maki, Toshio; Suzuki, Takeshi

    1997-01-01

    The fast inversion recovery (fast IR) pulse sequence was evaluated. We compared the fast fluid attenuated inversion recovery (fast FLAIR) pulse sequence in which inversion time (TI) was established as equal to the water null point for the purpose of the water-suppressed T 2 -weighted image, with the fast short TI inversion recovery (fast STIR) pulse sequence in which TI was established as equal to the fat null point for purpose of fat suppression. In the fast FLAIR pulse sequence, the water null point was increased by making TR longer. In the FLAIR pulse sequence, the longitudinal magnetization contrast is determined by TI. If TI is increased, T 2 -weighted contrast improves in the same way as increasing TR for the SE pulse sequence. Therefore, images should be taken with long TR and long TI, which are longer than TR and longer than the water null point. On the other hand, the fat null point is not affected by TR in the fast STIR pulse sequence. However, effective TE was affected by variation of the null point. This increased in proportion to the increase in effective TE. Our evaluation indicated that the fast STIR pulse sequence can control the extensive signals from fat in a short time. (author)

  13. Pulsed Operation of a Compact Fusion Neutron Source Using a High-Voltage Pulse Generator Developed for Landmine Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Kunihito; Watanabe, Masato; Okino, Akitoshi; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Hotta, Eiki; Yuura, Morimasa

    2005-01-01

    Preliminary experimental results of pulsed neutron source based on a discharge-type beam fusion called Inertial Electrostatic Confinement Fusion (IECF) for landmine detection are presented. In Japan, a research and development project for constructing an advanced anti-personnel landmine detection system by using IECF, which is effective not only for metal landmines but also for plastic ones, is now in progress. This project consists of some R and D topics, and one of them is R and D of a high-voltage pulse generator system specialized for landmine detection, which can be used in the severe environment such as that in the field in Afghanistan. Thus a prototype of the system for landmine detection was designed and fabricated in consideration of compactness, lightness, cooling performance, dustproof and robustness. By using this prototype pulse generator system, a conventional IECF device was operated as a preliminary experiment. As a result, it was confirmed that the suggested pulse generator system is suitable for landmine detection system, and the results follow the empirical law obtained by the previous experiments. The maximum neutron production rate of 2.0x10 8 n/s was obtained at a pulsed discharge of -51 kV, 7.3 A

  14. Activation analysis with neutron generators using short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salma, I.

    1993-01-01

    The short half-life involves a number of important differences in production, transportation and measurement of radionuclides, and in counting statistics as compared with those in traditional activation analysis. Experiments were performed to investigate the analytical possibilities and prospective utilization of short-lived radionuclides produced by 14-MeV neutron irradiation. A rapid pneumatic transfer system for use with neutron generators was installed and applied for detecting radionuclides with a half-life from 300 ms to 30 s. The transport time for samples with a total mass of 1-4 g is between 130 and 160 ms for pressurized air of 0.1-0.4 MPa. 11 elements were studied by the conventional activation method using both a typical pneumatic transport system (run time 3 s) and the fast pneumatic transport facility. The effect of the cyclic activation technique on the elemental sensitivities was also investigated. (orig.)

  15. Multiplex Outputs ns Grade High-voltage Fast Pulse Generator Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xin; Chen Kenan

    2009-01-01

    Using a double-grid hydrogen thyratron, a fast pulse generator with four outputs, high-voltage, low jitter, was made to use at special occasion.In this paper, the basic structure of pulser, switching theory and double-grid driving of hydrogen thyratron was introduced, and also, the effects of grids driving pulses characteristics, the delay between too grids driving, the reservoir heater voltage and cathode heater voltage on the output are carefully examined in experiments. The pulse generator with four outputs was made to producing pulses with amplitude up to 4 kV, rise-time less than 15 ns and jitter less than 3 ns. (authors)

  16. Short pulse laser-induced optical damage and fracto-emission of amorphous, diamond-like carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SOKOLOWSKI-TINTEN,K.; VON DER LINDE,D.; SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-02-07

    Short pulse laser damage and ablation of amorphous, diamond-like carbon films is investigated. Material removal is due to fracture of the film and ejection of large fragments, which exhibit a broadband emission of microsecond duration.

  17. Short-Pulse-Width Repetitively Q-Switched ~2.7-μm Er:Y2O3 Ceramic Laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing Ren

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A short-pulse-width repetitively Q-switched 2.7-μm Er:Y2O3 ceramic laser is demonstrated using a specially designed mechanical switch, a metal plate carved with slits of both slit-width and duty-cycle optimized. With a 20% transmission output coupler, stable pulse trains with durations (full-width at half-maximum, FWHM of 27–38 ns were generated with a repetition rate within the range of 0.26–4 kHz. The peak power at a 0.26 kHz repetition rate was ~3 kW.

  18. Third order effects generated by refractive lenses on sub 20 femtosecond optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada-Silva, F C; Rosete-Aguilar, M; Garduno-Mejia, J; Gonzalez-Galicia, M A; Bruce, N C; Ortega-Martinez, R

    2011-01-01

    When using lenses to focus ultra-short pulses, chromatic aberration produces pulse spreading, after propagation through the lens. The focusing of ultra-short pulses has been analyzed by using Fourier optics where the field amplitude of the pulse is evaluated around the focal region of the lens by performing a third order expansion on the wave number around the central frequency of the carrier. In the literature, the pulse focusing in the neighborhood of the focal region of the lens has been calculated by expanding the wave number up to second order. The second order approximation works for pulses with a duration greater than 20fs, or pulses propagating through low dispersion materials; but, it is necessary to do third order approximation for pulses with a shorter duration, or propagating through highly dispersive materials. In this paper we analyze 15fs and 20fs pulses, with a carrier wavelength of 810nm, at the paraxial focal plane of singlets and achromatic doublets. The analysis includes the third order GVD and the results are compared with those obtained when the wave number is expanded up to second order.

  19. Nonlinear propagation of vector extremely short pulses in a medium of symmetric and asymmetric molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sazonov, S. V., E-mail: sazonov.sergey@gmail.com [National Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute,” (Russian Federation); Ustinov, N. V., E-mail: n-ustinov@mail.ru [Moscow State University of Railways, Kaliningrad Branch (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The nonlinear propagation of extremely short electromagnetic pulses in a medium of symmetric and asymmetric molecules placed in static magnetic and electric fields is theoretically studied. Asymmetric molecules differ in that they have nonzero permanent dipole moments in stationary quantum states. A system of wave equations is derived for the ordinary and extraordinary components of pulses. It is shown that this system can be reduced in some cases to a system of coupled Ostrovsky equations and to the equation intagrable by the method for an inverse scattering transformation, including the vector version of the Ostrovsky–Vakhnenko equation. Different types of solutions of this system are considered. Only solutions representing the superposition of periodic solutions are single-valued, whereas soliton and breather solutions are multivalued.

  20. Short-pulse CO2-laser damage studies of NaCl and KCl windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newnam, B.E.; Nowak, A.V.; Gill, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    The damage resistance of bare surfaces and the bulk interior of NaCl and KCl windows was measured with a short-pulse CO 2 laser at 10.6 μm. Parametric studies with 1.7-ns pulses indicated that adsorbed water was probably the limiting agent on surface thresholds in agreement with previous studies at long pulsewidths. Rear-surface thresholds up to 7 J/cm 2 were measured for polished NaCl windows, whereas KCl surfaces damaged at approximately 60% of this level. The breakdown electric-field thresholds of exit surfaces were only 50% of the value of the bulk materials. The pulsewidth dependence of surface damage from 1 to 65 ns, in terms of incident laser fluence, increased as t/sup 1/3/

  1. Hydrodynamic model for ultra-short pulse ablation of hard dental tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, R.A.; Bailey, D.S.; Young, D.A.; Alley, W.E.; Feit, M.D.; Rubenchik, A.M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Neev, J. [Beckman Laser Inst., Irvine, CA (United States)

    1996-02-29

    A computational model for the ablation of tooth enamel by ultra-short laser pulses is presented. The role of simulations using this model in designing and understanding laser drilling systems is discussed. Pulses of duration 300 fsec and intensity greater than 10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2} are considered. Laser absorption proceeds via multi-photon initiated plasma mechanism. The hydrodynamic response is calculated with a finite difference method, using an equation of state constructed from thermodynamic functions including electronic, ion motion, and chemical binding terms. Results for the ablation efficiency are presented. An analytic model describing the ablation threshold and ablation depth is presented. Thermal coupling to the remaining tissue and long-time thermal conduction are calculated. Simulation results are compared to experimental measurements of the ablation efficiency. Desired improvements in the model are presented.

  2. Dynamical resonance shift and unification of resonances in short-pulse laser-cluster interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, S. S.; Kundu, M.

    2018-06-01

    Pronounced maximum absorption of laser light irradiating a rare-gas or metal cluster is widely expected during the linear resonance (LR) when Mie-plasma wavelength λM of electrons equals the laser wavelength λ . On the contrary, by performing molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of an argon cluster irradiated by short 5-fs (FWHM) laser pulses it is revealed that, for a given laser pulse energy and a cluster, at each peak intensity there exists a λ —shifted from the expected λM—that corresponds to a unified dynamical LR at which evolution of the cluster happens through very efficient unification of possible resonances in various stages, including (i) the LR in the initial time of plasma creation, (ii) the LR in the Coulomb expanding phase in the later time, and (iii) anharmonic resonance in the marginally overdense regime for a relatively longer pulse duration, leading to maximum laser absorption accompanied by maximum removal of electrons from cluster and also maximum allowed average charge states for the argon cluster. Increasing the laser intensity, the absorption maxima is found to shift to a higher wavelength in the band of λ ≈(1 -1.5 ) λM than permanently staying at the expected λM. A naive rigid sphere model also corroborates the wavelength shift of the absorption peak as found in MD and unequivocally proves that maximum laser absorption in a cluster happens at a shifted λ in the marginally overdense regime of λ ≈(1 -1.5 ) λM instead of λM of LR. The present study is important for guiding an optimal condition laser-cluster interaction experiment in the short-pulse regime.

  3. Flat-top pulse generation by the optical Fourier transform technique for ultrahigh speed signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palushani, Evarist; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Galili, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super-Gaussian sp......This paper reports on the generation of 1.6-ps fullwidth at half-maximum flat-top pulses by the optical Fourier transform technique, and the utilization of these pulses in a 320-Gb/s demultiplexing experiment. It is demonstrated how a narrow pulse having a 15-nm wide third-order super...

  4. Visible continuum pulses based on enhanced dispersive wave generation for endogenous fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Quan; Chen, Zhongyun; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Zhihong; Luo, Qingming; Fu, Ling

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we demonstrate endogenous fluorescence imaging using visible continuum pulses based on 100-fs Ti:sapphire oscillator and a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber. Broadband (500-700 nm) and high-power (150 mW) continuum pulses are generated through enhanced dispersive wave generation by pumping femtosecond pulses at the anomalous dispersion region near zero-dispersion wavelength of high-nonlinear photonic crystal fibers. We also minimize the continuum pulse width by determining the proper fiber length. The visible-wavelength two-photon microscopy produces NADH and tryptophan images of mice tissues simultaneously. Our 500-700 nm continuum pulses support extending nonlinear microscopy to visible wavelength range that is inaccessible to 100-fs Ti:sapphire oscillators and other applications requiring visible laser pulses.

  5. MOSFET-based high voltage double square-wave pulse generator with an inductive adder configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xin [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Zhang, Qiaogen, E-mail: hvzhang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Long, Jinghua [College of Physics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China); Lei, Yunfei; Liu, Jinyuan [Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a fast MOSFET-based solid-state pulse generator for high voltage double square-wave pulses. The generator consists mainly of an inductive adder system stacked of 20 solid-state modules. Each of the modules has 18 power MOSFETs in parallel, which are triggered by individual drive circuits; these drive circuits themselves are synchronously triggered by a signal from avalanche transistors. Our experiments demonstrate that the output pulses with amplitude of 8.1 kV and peak current of about 405 A are available at a load impedance of 20 Ω. The pulse has a double square-wave form with a rise and fall time of 40 ns and 26 ns, respectively and bottom flatness better than 12%. The interval time of the double square-wave pulses can be adjustable by varying the interval time of the trigger pulses.

  6. Generation of an incident focused light pulse in FDTD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capoğlu, Ilker R; Taflove, Allen; Backman, Vadim

    2008-11-10

    A straightforward procedure is described for accurately creating an incident focused light pulse in the 3-D finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) electromagnetic simulation of the image space of an aplanatic converging lens. In this procedure, the focused light pulse is approximated by a finite sum of plane waves, and each plane wave is introduced into the FDTD simulation grid using the total-field/scattered-field (TF/SF) approach. The accuracy of our results is demonstrated by comparison with exact theoretical formulas.

  7. Extremely short pulses via stark modulation of the atomic transition frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeonychev, Y V; Polovinkin, V A; Kocharovskaya, Olga

    2010-10-29

    We propose a universal method to produce extremely short pulses of electromagnetic radiation in various spectral ranges. The essence of the method is a resonant interaction of radiation with atoms under the conditions of adiabatic periodic modulation of atomic transition frequencies by a far-off-resonant control laser field via dynamic Stark shift of the atomic levels and proper adjustment of the control field intensity and frequency, as well as the optical depth of the medium. The potential of the method is illustrated by an example in a hydrogenlike atomic system.

  8. Spectral phase encoding of ultra-short optical pulse in time domain for OCDMA application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Wada, Naoya

    2007-06-11

    We propose a novel reconfigurable time domain spectral phase encoding (SPE) scheme for coherent optical code-division-multiple-access application. In the proposed scheme, the ultra-short optical pulse is stretched by dispersive device and the SPE is done in time domain using high speed phase modulator. The time domain SPE scheme is robust to wavelength drift of the light source and is very flexible and compatible with the fiber optical system. Proof-of-principle experiments of encoding with 16-chip, 20 GHz/chip binary-phase-shift-keying codes and 1.25 Gbps data transmission have been successfully demonstrated together with an arrayed-wave-guide decoder.

  9. Partial Shading Detection in Solar System Using Single Short Pulse of Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartczak Mateusz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A single photovoltaic panel under uniform illumination has only one global maximum power point, but the same panel in irregularly illuminated conditions can have more maxima on its power-voltage curve. The irregularly illuminated conditions in most cases are results of partial shading. In the work a single short pulse of load is used to extract information about partial shading. This information can be useful and can help to make some improvements in existing MPPT algorithms. In the paper the intrinsic capacitance of a photovoltaic system is used to retrieve occurrence of partial shading.

  10. High-quality electron pulse generation from a laser photocathode RF gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jinfeng; Sakai, Fumio; Aoki, Yasushi

    1999-01-01

    A laser photocathode RF gun system was developed for ultra short X-ray pulse generation via the inverse Compton scattering. The gun is a BNL-type S-band RF gun and the performance test of the gun was performed at the Linear Accelerator Facility in the Institute of Scientific and Industries Research, Osaka University. The gun system produced 115 pC electron bunches with the energy of 1.6 MeV under the condition of RF peak power of 1.5 MW and laser pulse energy of 65 μJ. The quantum efficiency and dark current were obtained to be 10 -5 and 0.6 nA at the repetition rate of 10 Hz, respectively. The energy and charge of the electron bunch were measured as a function of laser injection phase. Furthermore, the electron bunches were accelerated up to 117 MeV by three s-band TW linacs and the energy monochromaticity (ΔE/E) of the beam was 1.2%. The transverse emittance was also experimentally investigated at the end of the linacs. (author)

  11. Solid-state pulse modulator using Marx generator for a medical linac electron-gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Heuijin; Hyeok Jeong, Dong; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Mujin; Yi, Jungyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Ro, Sung Chae

    2016-04-01

    A medical linac is used for the cancer treatment and consists of an accelerating column, waveguide components, a magnetron, an electron-gun, a pulse modulator, and an irradiation system. The pulse modulator based on hydrogen thyratron-switched pulse-forming network is commonly used in linac. As the improvement of the high power semiconductors in switching speed, voltage rating, and current rating, an insulated gate bipolar transistor has become the more popular device used for pulsed power systems. We propose a solid-state pulse modulator to generator high voltage by multi-stacked storage-switch stages based on the Marx generator. The advantage of our modulator comes from the use of two semiconductors to control charging and discharging of the storage capacitor at each stage and it allows to generate the pulse with various amplitudes, widths, and shapes. In addition, a gate driver for two semiconductors is designed to reduce the control channels and to protect the circuits. It is developed for providing the pulsed power to a medical linac electron-gun that requires 25 kV and 1 A as the first application. In order to improve the power efficiency and achieve the compactness modulator, a capacitor charging power supply, a Marx pulse generator, and an electron-gun heater isolated transformer are constructed and integrated. This technology is also being developed to extend the high power pulsed system with > 1 MW and also other applications such as a plasma immersed ion implantation and a micro pulse electrostatic precipitator which especially require variable pulse shape and high repetition rate > 1 kHz. The paper describes the design features and the construction of this solid-state pulse modulator. Also shown are the performance results into the linac electron-gun.

  12. Principles and techniques of radiation hardening. Volume 3. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) and system generated EMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudie, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    The three-volume book is intended to serve as a review of the effects of thermonuclear explosion induced radiation (x-rays, gamma rays, and beta particles) and the resulting electromagnetic pulse (EMP). Volume 3 deals with the following topics: selected fundamentals of electromagnetic theory; EMP induced currents on antennas and cables; the EMP response of electronics; EMP hardening; EMP testing; injection currents; internal electromagnetic pulse (IEMP); replacement currents; and system generated electromagnetic pulse (SGEMP) hardening

  13. Flat-top pulse generation based on a fiber Bragg grating in transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preciado, Miguel A; Muriel, Miguel A

    2009-03-15

    We propose and analyze a flat-top pulse generator based on a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) in transmission. As is shown in the examples, a uniform period FBG properly designed can exhibit a spectral response in transmission close to sinc function (in amplitude and phase) in a certain bandwidth, because of the logarithm Hilbert transform relations, which can be used to reshape a Gaussian-like input pulse into a flat-top pulse.

  14. Solid-state pulse modulator using Marx generator for a medical linac electron-gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Heuijin; Jeong, Dong Hyeok; Lee, Manwoo; Lee, Mujin; Yi, Jungyu; Yang, Kwangmo; Ro, Sung Chae

    2016-01-01

    A medical linac is used for the cancer treatment and consists of an accelerating column, waveguide components, a magnetron, an electron-gun, a pulse modulator, and an irradiation system. The pulse modulator based on hydrogen thyratron-switched pulse-forming network is commonly used in linac. As the improvement of the high power semiconductors in switching speed, voltage rating, and current rating, an insulated gate bipolar transistor has become the more popular device used for pulsed power systems. We propose a solid-state pulse modulator to generator high voltage by multi-stacked storage-switch stages based on the Marx generator. The advantage of our modulator comes from the use of two semiconductors to control charging and discharging of the storage capacitor at each stage and it allows to generate the pulse with various amplitudes, widths, and shapes. In addition, a gate driver for two semiconductors is designed to reduce the control channels and to protect the circuits. It is developed for providing the pulsed power to a medical linac electron-gun that requires 25 kV and 1 A as the first application. In order to improve the power efficiency and achieve the compactness modulator, a capacitor charging power supply, a Marx pulse generator, and an electron-gun heater isolated transformer are constructed and integrated. This technology is also being developed to extend the high power pulsed system with > 1 MW and also other applications such as a plasma immersed ion implantation and a micro pulse electrostatic precipitator which especially require variable pulse shape and high repetition rate > 1 kHz. The paper describes the design features and the construction of this solid-state pulse modulator. Also shown are the performance results into the linac electron-gun

  15. Layout of NALM fiber laser with adjustable peak power of generated pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Sergey; Kobtsev, Sergey; Ivanenko, Alexey; Kokhanovskiy, Alexey; Kemmer, Anna; Gervaziev, Mikhail

    2017-05-01

    The Letter proposes a new layout of a passively mode-locked fiber laser based on a nonlinear amplifying loop mirror (NALM) with two stretches of active fiber and two independently controlled pump modules. In contrast with conventional NALM configurations using a single piece of active fiber that yields virtually constant peak power, the proposed novel laser features larger than a factor of 2 adjustment range of peak power of generated pulses. The proposed layout also provides independent adjustment of duration and peak power of generated pulses as well as power-independent control of generated pulse spectral width impossible in NALM lasers with a single piece of active fiber.

  16. Research on determine the absolute neutron output of distributed pulse generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Bojun; Tang Zhangkui; Wang Dong; Yang Gaozhao; Peng Taiping

    2009-01-01

    In order to determine the absolute neutron output of distributed pulse generators, we deduced equivalent length to deal with experimental data, according to the different layout and weighting of multiple pulse generators. The deposited energy in scintillation crystal and the integral flux which drilling through crystal interface was simulated by MCNP code. The result shows the simulated proportion of different distributed pulse generators is approximately agreed with experimental data. The validity of the equivalent length model was proved by the consistent results between calculation and experimental data. (authors)

  17. Development of a fast rise-time, high-voltage pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanxia; Zhu Jie; Li Xianyou

    2006-01-01

    In order to test the attenuation of the system, a fast rise-time, high-voltage pulse generator is required for the fast pulse signal measurement. The paper presents the development of the generator. More emphasis is paid on the discussion of the difficulties occurring in the circuit debugging and their resolutions. The output rise-time of the generator is 700 ps, the amplitude is adjustable in the range of 0 to 500 V, the pulse-width is adjustable in the range of 4ns to 1μs. (authors)

  18. Study of the oncogenic expression in human fibroblast cells after exposure to very short pulsed laser radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dormont, D.; Freville, Th.; Raoul, H.; Courant, D.; Court, L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capacity of a laser, delivering very short pulses in the near infrared spectrum with a high pulse ratio frequency, to induce genetic modification on biological tissues. The absence of dicentric among chromosomal aberrations on human lymphocytes suggests that a repetitive very short pulses irradiation has a relatively low capacity to induce genetic abnormalities. The studies of the radiation effects on the cellular growth and the oncogenic expression show that the modifications, induced at the cellular level, do not seem the origin of a cellular transformation and a possible mechanism of carcinogenesis. (author)

  19. Design for a FET based 1 MHz, 10 kV pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Wait, G.D.

    1995-08-01

    A pulse generator consisting of a coaxial cable and a high voltage modulator, incorporating two stacks of Field-Effect Transistor (FET) switches operating in ''push-pull'' mode, has been designed and built. The modulator generates a continuous, unipolar, pulse train at a fundamental frequency of 1 MHz and a magnitude of 10 kV. The rise and fall times of the pulses are less than 39 ns. The two stacks each utilize 14 FETS, which are individually rated at 1 kV. The design incorporates a low-loss coaxial cable on which pulses are stored. Extensive PSpice simulations have been carried out to evaluate various design options. Subsequent measurements on the prototype pulse generator confirm the PSpice predictions. This system is applicable for the kicker system at TRIUMF

  20. Dual comb generation from a mode-locked fiber laser with orthogonally polarized interlaced pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akosman, Ahmet E; Sander, Michelle Y

    2017-08-07

    Ultra-high precision dual-comb spectroscopy traditionally requires two mode-locked, fully stabilized lasers with complex feedback electronics. We present a novel mode-locked operation regime in a thulium-holmium co-doped fiber laser, a frequency-halved state with orthogonally polarized interlaced pulses, for dual comb generation from a single source. In a linear fiber laser cavity, an ultrafast pulse train composed of co-generated, equal intensity and orthogonally polarized consecutive pulses at half of the fundamental repetition rate is demonstrated based on vector solitons. Upon optical interference of the orthogonally polarized pulse trains, two stable microwave RF beat combs are formed, effectively down-converting the optical properties into the microwave regime. These co-generated, dual polarization interlaced pulse trains, from one all-fiber laser configuration with common mode suppression, thus provide an attractive compact source for dual-comb spectroscopy, optical metrology and polarization entanglement measurements.