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Sample records for short portable sarcopenia

  1. Models of sarcopenia: Short review.

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    Palus, S; Springer, J I; Doehner, W; von Haehling, S; Anker, M; Anker, S D; Springer, J

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 40-50% of the population over 80years of age suffers from sarcopenia making this condition a major geriatric clinical disorder and a key challenge to healthy aging. The hallmark symptom of sarcopenia is the loss of muscle mass and strength without the loss of overall body weight. Sarcopenic patients are likely to have worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality compared to healthy individuals. This review will focus on animal models designed to study sarcopenia including hind-limb unloading, de-nervation, and immobilization by using casts or wire strategies, as well as using aged rodents. Currently there are no registered treatments for sarcopenia. Most sarcopenic individuals show signs of physical frailty, which leads to increases the prevalence of balance disorders, falls, fractures and pain. Therefore, is it essential to develop and use relevant animal models to further the research on sarcopenia therapy? Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of Visceral Obesity and Sarcopenia on Short-Term Outcomes After Colorectal Cancer Surgery.

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    Chen, Wei-Zhe; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Liang-Liang; Zhang, Feng-Min; Lin, Ji; Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Chen, Xiao-Xi

    2018-06-01

    With the increased prevalence of obesity and sarcopenia, those patients with both visceral obesity and sarcopenia were at higher risk of adverse outcomes. The aim of this study was to ascertain the combined impact of visceral obesity and sarcopenia on short-term outcomes in patients undergoing colorectal cancer surgery. We conducted a prospective study from July 2014 to February 2017. Patients' demographic, clinical characteristics, physical performance, and postoperative short-term outcomes were collected. Patients were classified into four groups according to the presence of sarcopenia or visceral obesity. Clinical variables were compared. Univariate and multivariate analyses evaluating the risk factors for postoperative complications were performed. A total of 376 patients were included; 50.8 and 24.5% of the patients were identified as having "visceral obesity" and "sarcopenia," respectively. Patients with sarcopenia and visceral obesity had the highest incidence of total, surgical, and medical complications. Patients with sarcopenia or/and visceral obesity all had longer hospital stays and higher hospitalization costs. Age ≥ 65 years, visceral obesity, and sarcopenia were independent risk factors for total complications. Rectal cancer and visceral obesity were independent risk factors for surgical complications. Age ≥ 65 years and sarcopenia were independent risk factors for medical complications. Laparoscopy-assisted operation was a protective factor for total and medical complications. Patients with both visceral obesity and sarcopenia had a higher complication rate after colorectal cancer surgery. Age ≥ 65 years, visceral obesity, and sarcopenia were independent risk factors for total complications. Laparoscopy-assisted operation was a protective factor.

  3. Defining sarcopenia

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    Currently there is no standardized definition of sarcopenia. This hampers the clinical management of sarcopenia and retards the development and regulatory approval of interventions to reduce the progression of this common and debilitating condition in the elderly. Nine definitions of sarcopenia have...

  4. Sarcopenia and cognitive impairment in elderly women: results from the EPIDOS cohort.

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    Abellan van Kan, Gabor; Cesari, Matteo; Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Dupuy, Charlotte; Nourhashémi, Fati; Schott, Anne-Marie; Beauchet, Olivier; Annweiler, Cédric; Vellas, Bruno; Rolland, Yves

    2013-03-01

    common pathophysiological pathways are shared between age-related body composition changes and cognitive impairment. evaluate whether current operative sarcopenia definitions are associated with cognition in community-dwelling older women. cross-sectional analyses. a total of 3,025 women aged 75 years and older. body composition (assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry) and cognition (measured by short portable mental status questionnaire) were obtained in all participants. Multivariate logistic regression models assessed the association of six operative definitions of sarcopenia with cognitive impairment. Gait speed (GS, measured over a 6-meter track at usual pace) and handgrip strength (HG, measured by a hand-held dynamometer) were considered additional factors of interest. a total of 492 (16.3%) women were cognitively impaired. The prevalence of sarcopenia ranged from 3.3 to 18.8%. No sarcopenia definition was associated with cognitive impairment after controlling for potential confounders. To proof consistency, the analyses were performed using GS and HG, two well-established predictors of cognitive impairment. Low GS [odds ratio (OR) 2.42, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72-3.40] and low HG (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.33-2.46) were associated with cognitive impairment. no significant association was evidenced between different operative sarcopenia definitions and cognitive impairment. The study suggests that the association between physical performance and cognitive impairment in not mediated by sarcopenia.

  5. Age-related reduction of trunk muscle torque and prevalence of trunk sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly: Validity of a portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument and its application to a large sample cohort study.

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    Eiji Sasaki

    Full Text Available Trunk muscle weakness and imbalance are risk factors for postural instability, low back pain, and poor postoperative outcomes. The association between trunk muscle strength and aging is poorly understood, and establishing normal reference values is difficult. We aimed to establish the validity of a novel portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument (PTMI. We then estimated reference data for healthy young adults and elucidated age-related weakness in trunk muscle strength. Twenty-four university students were enrolled to validate values for PTMI, and 816 volunteers from the general population who were recruited to the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included to estimate reference data for trunk muscle strength. Trunk flexion and extension torque were measured with PTMI and KinCom, and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC were estimated to evaluate the reliability of PTMI values. Furthermore, from the young adult reference, the age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque and the prevalence of sarcopenia among age-sex groups were estimated. The ICC in flexion and extension torque were 0.807 (p<0.001 and 0.789 (p<0.001, respectively. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased with age, and the prevalence due to flexion torque was double that of extension torque. Flexion torque decreased significantly after 60 years of age, and extension torque decreased after 70 years of age. In males over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 49.1% in flexion and 63.5% in extension. In females over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 60.7% in flexion and 68.4% in extension. The validity of PTMI was confirmed by correlation with KinCom. PTMI produced reference data for healthy young adults, and demonstrated age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque. Trunk sarcopenia progressed with aging, and the loss of flexion torque began earlier than extension torque. At age 80, trunk muscle torque had decreased 60% compared with healthy young adults.

  6. SARCOPENIA: DESIGNING PHASE IIB TRIALS

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    CHUMLEA, WM.C.; CESARI, M.; EVANS, W.J.; FERRUCCI, L.; FIELDING, R.A.; PAHOR, M.; STUDENSKI, S.; VELLAS, B.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-related involuntary loss of skeletal muscle mass and functionality that can lead to the development of disability, frailty and increased health care costs. The development of interventions aimed at preventing and/or treating sarcopenia is complex, requiring the adoption of assumptions and standards that are not well established scientifically or clinically. A number of investigators and clinicians (both from academia and industry) met in Rome (Italy) in 2009 to develop a consensus definition of sarcopenia. Subsequently, in Albuquerque (New Mexico, USA) in 2010, the same group met again to consider the complex issues necessary for designing Phase II clinical trials for sarcopenia. Current clinical trial data indicate that fat-free mass (FFM) parameters are responsive to physical activity/nutritional treatment modalities over short time periods, but pharmacological trials of sarcopenia have yet to show significant efficacy. In order to conduct a clinical trial within a reasonable time frame, groups that model or display accelerated aging and loss of FFM are necessary. Few studies have used acceptable designs for testing treatment effects, sample sizes or primary outcomes that could provide interpretable findings or effects across studies. Dual energy x ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the measure of choice for assessing FFM, but sufficient time is needed for changes to be detected accurately and reliably. A tool set that would allow clinical, basic and epidemiological research on sarcopenia to advance rapidly toward diagnosis and treatment phases should be those reflecting function and strength. PMID:21623466

  7. A portable chemotaxis platform for short and long term analysis.

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    Chenjie Xu

    Full Text Available Flow-based microfluidic systems have been widely utilized for cell migration studies given their ability to generate versatile and precisely defined chemical gradients and to permit direct visualization of migrating cells. Nonetheless, the general need for bulky peripherals such as mechanical pumps and tubing and the complicated setup procedures significantly limit the widespread use of these microfluidic systems for cell migration studies. Here we present a simple method to power microfluidic devices for chemotaxis assays using the commercially available ALZET® osmotic pumps. Specifically, we developed a standalone chemotaxis platform that has the same footprint as a multiwell plate and can generate well-defined, stable chemical gradients continuously for up to 7 days. Using this platform, we validated the short-term (24 hours and long-term (72 hours concentration dependent PDGF-BB chemotaxis response of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells.

  8. Sarcopenia =/= dynapenia.

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    Clark, Brian C; Manini, Todd M

    2008-08-01

    Maximal voluntary force (strength) production declines with age and contributes to physical dependence and mortality. Consequently, a great deal of research has focused on identifying strategies to maintain muscle mass during the aging process and elucidating key molecular pathways of atrophy, with the rationale that the loss of strength is primarily a direct result of the age-associated declines in mass (sarcopenia). However, recent evidence questions this relationship and in this Green Banana article we argue the role of sarcopenia in mediating the age-associated loss of strength (which we will coin as dynapenia) does not deserve the attention it has attracted in both the scientific literature and popular press. Rather, we propose that alternative mechanisms underlie dynapenia (i.e., alterations in contractile properties or neurologic function), and urge that greater attention be paid to these variables in determining their role in dynapenia.

  9. [Sarcopenia in the elderly: diagnosis and treatment].

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    Chang, Shu-Fang

    2014-04-01

    The proportion of the population aged 65 years and older in Taiwan was 11.15% in 2012. This is expected to rise to 20% in 2026, at which time, the country would become a super-aged society. Sarcopenia, with a worldwide prevalence among people 65 years of age and older between 9.5% and 50%, has gained increasing attention in recent years. It is estimated that two-hundred million people worldwide will suffer from sarcopenia within 40 years. The various causes of sarcopenia include aging, inappropriate diet, a bedridden or sedentary lifestyle, chronic diseases, and hormones. The definition and interpretation of sarcopenia uses a cutoff point of 2 standard deviations below the muscle mass in young adults between the ages of 18 and 40 years. The quadriceps muscles are most commonly used to assess sarcopenia. A bioimpedance analyzer is appropriate for community-based assessment work because this instrument is inexpensive, easily operated, and portable. Decreased muscle mass in the elderly causes sarcopenia, which leads to movement disorders, fall events, fractures, loss of the capacity to live independently, frailty, and increased mortality risk. Therefore, developing a comprehensive care program for sarcopenia, including resistance training and sufficient protein and vitamin D intake, should be a priority task and important research focus for nursing professionals.

  10. Age-related reduction of trunk muscle torque and prevalence of trunk sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly: Validity of a portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument and its application to a large sample cohort study.

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    Sasaki, Eiji; Sasaki, Shizuka; Chiba, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Yuji; Nawata, Atsushi; Tsuda, Eiichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Ishibashi, Yasuyuki

    2018-01-01

    Trunk muscle weakness and imbalance are risk factors for postural instability, low back pain, and poor postoperative outcomes. The association between trunk muscle strength and aging is poorly understood, and establishing normal reference values is difficult. We aimed to establish the validity of a novel portable trunk muscle torque measurement instrument (PTMI). We then estimated reference data for healthy young adults and elucidated age-related weakness in trunk muscle strength. Twenty-four university students were enrolled to validate values for PTMI, and 816 volunteers from the general population who were recruited to the Iwaki Health Promotion Project were included to estimate reference data for trunk muscle strength. Trunk flexion and extension torque were measured with PTMI and KinCom, and interclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were estimated to evaluate the reliability of PTMI values. Furthermore, from the young adult reference, the age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque and the prevalence of sarcopenia among age-sex groups were estimated. The ICC in flexion and extension torque were 0.807 (psarcopenia increased with age, and the prevalence due to flexion torque was double that of extension torque. Flexion torque decreased significantly after 60 years of age, and extension torque decreased after 70 years of age. In males over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 49.1% in flexion and 63.5% in extension. In females over age 80, trunk muscle torque decreased to 60.7% in flexion and 68.4% in extension. The validity of PTMI was confirmed by correlation with KinCom. PTMI produced reference data for healthy young adults, and demonstrated age-related reduction in trunk muscle torque. Trunk sarcopenia progressed with aging, and the loss of flexion torque began earlier than extension torque. At age 80, trunk muscle torque had decreased 60% compared with healthy young adults.

  11. [Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. Sarcopenia and atherosclerosis].

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    Kohara, Katsuhiko

    2014-10-01

    Risk factors for sarcopenia, including aging, inflammation, oxidative stress, and sedentary life style, are also known as risks for atherosclerosis. Sarcopenia and atherosclerosis relate each other. We found that sarcopenia, especially sarcopenic visceral obesity in male subjects, was associated with higher arterial stiffness and central blood pressure. We also observed that leptin resistance may underlie the link between sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and atherosclerosis. In epidemiological studies, it has been demonstrated sarcopenic indices were associated with cardiovascular death. These findings indicate that sarcopenia could be regarded as risk factor for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular events.

  12. Nutrition for Sarcopenia

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    Yanai, Hidekatsu

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related sarcopenia means that muscle mass, strength, and physical performance tend to decline with age, and malnutrition is associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, nutritional interventions may make an important contribution to prevent the development of sarcopenia. Here I reviewed published articles about the effects of nutritional factors on sarcopenia in elderly people. A growing body of evidence suggests that metabolic factors associated with obesity and diabetes induce the progressi...

  13. Radiographic sarcopenia predicts postoperative infectious complications in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy.

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    Takagi, Kosei; Yoshida, Ryuichi; Yagi, Takahito; Umeda, Yuzo; Nobuoka, Daisuke; Kuise, Takashi; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2017-05-26

    Recently, skeletal muscle depletion (sarcopenia) has been reported to influence postoperative outcomes after certain procedures. This study investigated the impact of sarcopenia on postoperative outcomes following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). We performed a retrospective study of consecutive patients (n = 219) who underwent PD at our institution between January 2007 and May 2013. Sarcopenia was evaluated using preoperative computed tomography. We evaluated postoperative outcomes and the influence of sarcopenia on short-term outcomes, especially infectious complications. Subsequently, multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of prognostic factors (including sarcopenia) on postoperative infections. The mortality, major complication, and infectious complication rates for all patients were 1.4%, 16.4%, and 47.0%, respectively. Fifty-five patients met the criteria for sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was significantly associated with a higher incidence of in-hospital mortality (P = 0.004) and infectious complications (P sarcopenia (odds ratio = 3.43; P Sarcopenia is an independent preoperative predictor of infectious complications after PD. Clinical assessment combined with sarcopenia may be helpful for understanding the risk of postoperative outcomes and determining perioperative management strategies.

  14. The definition of sarcopenia

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    Bijlsma, Astrid Y.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia in old age has been associated with a higher mortality, poor physical functioning, poor outcome of surgery and higher drug toxicity. There is no general consensus on the definition of sarcopenia. The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to assess the implications of the use of

  15. Sarcopenia, a Neurogenic Syndrome?

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    Ping Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is an aging-associated condition, which is currently characterized by the loss of muscle mass and muscle strength. However, there is no consensus regarding its characterization hitherto. As the world older adult population is on the rise, the impact of sarcopenia becomes greater. Due to the lack of effective treatments, sarcopenia is still a persisting problem among the global older adults and should not be overlooked. As a result, it is vital to investigate deeper into the mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of sarcopenia in order to develop more effective therapeutic interventions and to inscribe a more uniform characterization. The etiology of sarcopenia is currently found to be multifactorial, and most of the pharmacological researches are focused on the muscular factors in aging. Although the complete mechanism underlying the development of sarcopenia is still waiting to be elucidated, we propose in this article that the primary trigger of sarcopenia may be neurogenic in origin based on the intimate relationship between the nervous and muscular system, namely, the motor neuron and its underlying muscle fibers. Both of them are affected by the cellular environment and their physiological activity.

  16. Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity

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    Kyung Mook Choi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aging process is associated with progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, as well as decline in physical functioning. Although consensus diagnosis has not been reached, sarcopenia is increasingly defined by both loss of muscle mass and loss of muscle function or strength. The cause of sarcopenia is suggested as multifactorial, including hormonal changes, inflammatory pathway activation, fatty infiltration, poor nutrition, and decreased physical activity. Sarcopenia is often associated with visceral obesity. Sarcopenic obesity in the elderly impacts metabolic complications and represents a major public health challenge in a rapidly aging society. Further research about sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity may be needed to confront the influence of aging society in Korea.

  17. [Sarcopenia: toward its clinical utilisation].

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    Bijlsma, Astrid Y; Meskers, Carel G M; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Maier, Andrea B

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a term that was introduced to describe 'low muscle mass'. There is no consensus definition for sarcopenia; a variety of criteria are being used to establish the diagnosis of 'sarcopenia'. Depending on the criteria used, the prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly varies from 7% to over 50%. The presence of sarcopenia often remains unrecognized when the loss of muscle mass is replaced by fat and connective tissue; body weight thus remains stable or even increases. Sarcopenia can be detected by measuring muscle mass with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) or bioimpedance analysis (BIA). Besides the generation of strength, muscle tissue is an important internal organ involved in protein storage, glucose regulation, hormonal homeostasis and cellular communication. Systemic, cellular, neuromechanical factors and lifestyle are linked to the pathophysiology of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is associated with higher mortality, dependency in activities of daily living, toxicity of chemotherapy, and disturbed glucose regulation.

  18. Pathogenesis and Management of Sarcopenia.

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    Dhillon, Robinder J S; Hasni, Sarfaraz

    2017-02-01

    Sarcopenia represents a loss of muscle strength and mass in older individuals. Sarcopenia in the elderly has now become a major focus of research and public policy debate due to its impact on morbidity, mortality, and health care expenditure. Despite its clinical importance, sarcopenia remains under-recognized and poorly managed in routine clinical practice. This is, in part, due to a lack of available diagnostic testing and uniform diagnostic criteria. The management of sarcopenia is primarily focused on physical therapy for muscle strengthening and gait training. There are no pharmacologic agents for the treatment of sarcopenia. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. A study on relationship between elderly sarcopenia and inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α.

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    Bian, Ai-Lin; Hu, Hui-Ying; Rong, Yu-Dong; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jun-Xiong; Zhou, Xin-Zi

    2017-07-12

    This report aims to study the relationship between sarcopenia of elderly in community and inflammatory factors IL-6 and TNF-α. A total of 441 elders who undertook physical examinations were included into this study. The age of these subjects were >60, in which 235 subjects were male and 206 subjects were female. According to the diagnostic standards of sarcopenia set by EWGSOP and AWGS, these subjects were divided into two groups: sarcopenia, and non-sarcopenia groups. The living habits, disease status, biochemical indexes, and levels of IL-6 and TNF-α of these subjects were investigated. The morbidity rate of sarcopenia was 17.02% in male subjects and 18.9% in female subjects. In elderly subjects >80 years old, morbidity rate was 25.3% in male subjects and 35.1% in female subjects. The history of smoking in patients with sarcopenia was long, and their regular exercise history was short (P sarcopenia and non-sarcopenia groups were statistically significant (P sarcopenia was associated with poor exercise habits, disease history, and nutritional status. The emergence of sarcopenia was accompanied by increased levels of inflammation factors TNF-α and IL-6. Plasma albumin, BMI, and VFA were inflammatory factor predictors of TNF and IL-6.

  20. Sarcopenia is an independent predictor of complications after colorectal cancer surgery.

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    Nakanishi, Ryota; Oki, Eiji; Sasaki, Shun; Hirose, Kosuke; Jogo, Tomoko; Edahiro, Keitaro; Korehisa, Shotaro; Taniguchi, Daisuke; Kudo, Kensuke; Kurashige, Junji; Sugiyama, Masahiko; Nakashima, Yuichiro; Ohgaki, Kippei; Saeki, Hiroshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-02-01

    The significance of sarcopenia after colorectal cancer (CRC) resection has only been discussed with relatively small samples or short follow-up periods. This study aimed to clarify the clinical significance of sarcopenia in a large-sample study. We retrospectively analyzed the relationship between sarcopenia and clinical factors, surgical outcomes, and the survival in 494 patients who underwent CRC surgery between 2004 and 2013. Sarcopenia was defined based on the sex-specific skeletal muscle mass index measured by preoperative computed tomography. Sarcopenia was associated with sex (higher rate of male, P Sarcopenia was associated with higher incidence of all postoperative complications (P = 0.02), especially for patients with Clavien-Dindo classification grade ≥2 (CDC; P = 0.0007). Postoperative hospital stays were significantly longer for sarcopenic patients than for non-sarcopenic patients (P = 0.02). In a multivariate analysis, sarcopenia was an independent predictor for postoperative complications (P = 0.01, odds ratio 1.82, 95% confidence interval 1.13-3.00). Among postoperative complications (CDC grade ≥2), sarcopenia was correlated with non-surgical-site infections (P = 0.03). Sarcopenia was not correlated with the overall or recurrence-free survival. Sarcopenia was an independent predictive factor for postoperative complications after CRC surgery.

  1. Consequences of sarcopenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, M.; Schaap, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the relationship of sarcopenia and dynapenia with three important outcomes in aging research: functional status, falls, and mortality. The data from epidemiologic studies conducted in large samples of older men and women suggest that muscle functioning, as indicated by muscle

  2. Sarcopenia and Health Care Utilization in Older Women

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    Lui, Li-Yung; McCulloch, Charles E.; Cauley, Jane A.; Paudel, Misti L.; Taylor, Brent; Schousboe, John T.; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although there are several consensus definitions of sarcopenia, their association with health care utilization has not been studied. Methods: We included women from the prospective Study of Osteoporotic Fractures with complete assessment of sarcopenia by several definitions at the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Year 10 (Y10) exam (1997–1998) who also had available data from Medicare Fee- For-Service Claims (N = 566) or Kaiser Encounter data (N = 194). Sarcopenia definitions evaluated were: International Working Group, European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older Persons, Foundation for the NIH Sarcopenia Project, Baumgartner, and Newman. Hurdle models and logistic regression were used to assess the relation between sarcopenia status (the summary definition and the components of slowness, weakness and/or lean mass) and outcomes that included hospitalizations, cumulative inpatient days/year, short-term (part A paid) skilled nursing facility stay in the 3 years following the Y10 visit. Results: None of the consensus definitions, nor the definition components of weakness or low lean mass, was associated with increased risk of hospitalization or greater likelihood of short-term skilled nursing facility stay. Women with slowness by any criterion definition were about 50% more likely to be hospitalized; had a greater rate of hospitalization days amongst those hospitalized; and had 1.8 to 2.1 times greater likelihood of a short-term skilled nursing facility stay than women without slowness. There was the suggestion of a protective association of low lean mass by the various criterion definitions on short-term skilled nursing facility stay. Conclusion: Estimated effects of sarcopenia on health care utilization were negligible. However, slowness was associated with greater health care utilization. PMID:27402050

  3. [Determination of fat, protein and DM in raw milk by portable short-wave near infrared spectrometer].

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    Li, Xiao-yun; Wang, Jia-hua; Huang, Ya-wei; Han, Dong-hai

    2011-03-01

    Near infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy calibrations of fat, protein and DM in raw milk were studied with partial least-squares (PLS) regression using portable short-wave near infrared spectrometer. The results indicated that good calibrations of fat and DM were found, the correlation coefficients were all 0.98, the RMSEC were 0.187 and 0.217, RMSEP were 0.187 and 0.296, the RPDs were 5.02 and 3.20 respectively; the calibration of protein needed to be improved but can be used for practice, the correlation coefficient was 0.95, RMSEC was 0.105, RMSEP was 0.120, and RPD was 2.60. Furthermore, the measuring accuracy was improved by analyzing the correction relation of fat and DM in raw milk This study will probably provide a new on-site method for nondestructive and rapid measurement of milk.

  4. SARCOPENIA: DIAGNOSIS, STAGES AND TREATMENT

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    Pasca Luminita Aurelia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and decline of function. The causes of sarcopenia are multi-factorial. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with declines in physical function, because of potential consequences for the development of frailty and disability. There are numerous techniques to assess muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Treatment consists of nutritional (macro- and micronutrients and physical activity (resistance exercise regimens adapted to person. There is an emerging role for testosterone and anabolic steroids in severe sarcopenia.

  5. The Association between Parameters of Malnutrition and Diagnostic Measures of Sarcopenia in Geriatric Outpatients

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    Reijnierse, Esmee M.; Trappenburg, Marijke C.; Leter, Morena J.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Meskers, Carel G. M.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia include measures of muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Consensus on the definition of sarcopenia has not been reached yet. To improve insight into the most clinically valid definition of sarcopenia, this study aimed to compare the association between parameters of malnutrition, as a risk factor in sarcopenia, and diagnostic measures of sarcopenia in geriatric outpatients. Material and Methods This study is based on data from a cross-sectional study conducted in a geriatric outpatient clinic including 185 geriatric outpatients (mean age 82 years). Parameters of malnutrition included risk of malnutrition (assessed by the Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire), loss of appetite, unintentional weight loss and underweight (body mass index malnutrition (independent variables) and diagnostic measures of sarcopenia (dependent variables) were analysed using multivariate linear regression models adjusted for age, body mass, fat mass and height in separate models. Results None of the parameters of malnutrition was consistently associated with diagnostic measures of sarcopenia. The strongest associations were found for both relative and absolute muscle mass; less stronger associations were found for muscle strength and physical performance. Underweight (p = malnutrition relate differently to diagnostic measures of sarcopenia in geriatric outpatients. The association between parameters of malnutrition and diagnostic measures of sarcopenia was strongest for both relative and absolute muscle mass, while less strong associations were found with muscle strength and physical performance. PMID:26284368

  6. Sarcopenia Adversely Impacts Postoperative Complications Following Resection or Transplantation in Patients with Primary Liver Tumors

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    Valero, Vicente; Amini, Neda; Spolverato, Gaya; Weiss, Matthew J.; Hirose, Kenzo; Dagher, Nabil N.; Wolfgang, Christopher L.; Cameron, Andrew A.; Philosophe, Benjamin; Kamel, Ihab R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is a surrogate marker of patient frailty that estimates the physiologic reserve of an individual patient. We sought to investigate the impact of sarcopenia on short- and long-term outcomes in patients having undergone surgical intervention for primary hepatic malignancies. Methods Ninety-six patients who underwent hepatic resection or liver transplantation for HCC or ICC at the John Hopkins Hospital between 2000 and 2013 met inclusion criteria. Sarcopenia was assessed by the measurement of total psoas major volume (TPV) and total psoas area (TPA). The impact of sarcopenia on perioperative complications and survival was assessed. Results Mean age was 61.9 years and most patients were men (61.4 %). Mean adjusted TPV was lower in women (23.3 cm3/m) versus men (34.9 cm3/m) (Psarcopenia. The incidence of a postoperative complication was 40.4 % among patients with sarcopenia versus 18.4 % among patients who did not have sarcopenia (P=0.01). Of note, all Clavien grade ≥3 complications (n=11, 23.4 %) occurred in the sarcopenic group. On multivariable analysis, the presence of sarcopenia was an independent predictive factor of postoperative complications (OR=3.06). Sarcopenia was not associated with long-term survival (HR=1.23; P=0.51). Conclusions Sarcopenia, as assessed by TPV, was an independent factor predictive of postoperative complications following surgical intervention for primary hepatic malignancies. PMID:25389056

  7. Sarcopenia: designing phase IIb trials: international working group on sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcopenia is the age-related involuntary loss of skeletal muscle mass and functionality that can lead to the development of disability, frailty and increased health care costs. The development of interventions aimed at preventing and/or treating sarcopenia is complex, requiring the adoption of assu...

  8. The Common Mechanisms of Sarcopenia and NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Current studies have shown that sarcopenia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD have similar pathophysiological profiles. The cooccurrence of sarcopenia and NAFLD has been observed in elderly patients. The actions of these conditions are linked, and their treatments are similar. Therefore, studies should be conducted on NAFLD-sarcopenia rather than on NAFLD or sarcopenia.

  9. The Common Mechanisms of Sarcopenia and NAFLD

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    Zhai, Yu; Xiao, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Current studies have shown that sarcopenia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have similar pathophysiological profiles. The cooccurrence of sarcopenia and NAFLD has been observed in elderly patients. The actions of these conditions are linked, and their treatments are similar. Therefore, studies should be conducted on NAFLD-sarcopenia rather than on NAFLD or sarcopenia.

  10. Sarcopenia: origins and clinical relevance

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    To a considerable extent, the advent of the term sarcopenia has contributed to the focus on this important condition and its effects on the quality of life and care of older persons. It is hoped that the advances in our understanding of the etiology and treatment of sarcopenia will further contribut...

  11. Cognitive impairment is independently associated with definitive and possible sarcopenia in hospitalized older adults: The prevalence and impact of comorbidities.

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    Maeda, Keisuke; Akagi, Junji

    2017-07-01

    Older adults often present with several comorbidities, including sarcopenia. However, the prevalence of sarcopenia and its associations with other comorbidities in hospitalized older adults are unknown. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia, and its associations with other comorbidities in hospitalized older adults. The present cross-sectional study included 619 patients admitted to a geriatric hospital. The prevalence of comorbidities in the presence and absence of sarcopenia, nutritional status (according to body mass index and the Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form), and activities of daily living (according to the Barthel Index) were assessed. Sarcopenia was defined as skeletal muscle loss evaluated by both bioelectrical impedance and handgrip strength analyses. Of the 619 participants (mean age 83.0 ± 8.2 years), 417 (67.4%) and 87 (14.1%) had definitive and possible sarcopenia, respectively. The prevalence rates of cognitive impairment and stroke were significantly higher in patients with definitive sarcopenia and those with possible sarcopenia than in those without sarcopenia (cognitive impairment 54.4%, 70.1% and 20.9%, respectively, P sarcopenia after adjusting for age, sex, the Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form score, Barthel Index and primary disease (adjusted odds ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.06-3.71; P = 0.032). Sarcopenia might be highly prevalent among hospitalized older adults. Furthermore, cognitive impairment might be an independent explanatory variable of sarcopenia. Therefore, further studies on sarcopenia in patients with cognitive impairment are warranted. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1048-1056. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. Pathogenesis and Management of Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, Robinder JS; Hasni, Sarfaraz

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Sarcopenia represents a loss of muscle strength and mass in older individuals and is a major determinant of fall risk and impaired ability to perform activities of daily living, often leading to disability, loss of independence and death. Sarcopenia in the elderly has now become a major focus of research and public policy debate due to its impact on morbidity, mortality and healthcare expenditure. Despite its clinical importance, sarcopenia remains under recognized and poorly managed in routine clinical practice. This is, in part, due to a lack of available diagnostic testing and uniform diagnostic criteria. The management of sarcopenia is primarily focused on physical therapy for muscle strengthening and gait training. There are no pharmacological agents currently approved for the treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:27886695

  13. Application of Copper Cladding Aluminum Composites in UHV Portable Earthing and Short-circuiting Wires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Jianjun

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the heavy weight and inconvenience when carrying and installing copper earthing wires on the UHV transmission lines, in this paper, we present the use of copper clad aluminum(CCA composite materials as a lightweight method for UHV earthing wire conductor. Theoretical calculations and tests of the fusing current in a short time for copper and CCA material are conducted. The results show that the theoretical value of the earthing wire conductor's fusing current corresponds with the test value on condition of the conductor cross section greater than 4mm2 as well as fusing time less than 1.5s. The CCA-10 earthing wires get 36.2% weight reduction compared with copper wires.

  14. Exercise and Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phu, Steven; Boersma, Derek; Duque, Gustavo

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a major component of the frailty syndrome and is also a strong predictor of disability, morbidity, and mortality in older persons. Without any available pharmacological intervention to sarcopenia, non-pharmacological interventions are the only option to prevent these poor outcomes in sarcopenic patients. Among those interventions, physical activity with or without protein supplementation has demonstrated to be effective in improving muscle mass and function and in preventing disability and frailty in older persons. Additionally, to the beneficial effect of physical activity on metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, a regular exercise program (3 times/wk) that includes resistance and endurance exercise training would have a major positive effect on sarcopenic muscle through improving muscle mass, strength, and function. In this review, we looked at the effect of exercise on sarcopenic frail older persons from the biological aspects of the response of the muscle to exercise to some practical aspects of exercise prescription in this high-risk population. We conclude that, although challenging, older persons should be encouraged to participate in this type of programs, which would improve not only their function and independence but also their quality of life. Copyright © 2015 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutrition and sarcopenia of ageing

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Satoshi; Volpi, Elena

    2004-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass and function with ageing, is a multifactorial condition that slowly develops over decades and becomes a significant contributor to disability in the older population. Malnutrition and alterations in the muscle anabolic response to nutritional stimuli have been identified as potentially preventable factors that may significantly contribute to sarcopenia. In the present article we review the most recent findings regarding the role of nutritional factors in th...

  16. Screening for sarcopenia in obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammarco, R.; Marra, M.; Montagnese, C.; De Rosa, E.; Onufrio, M.; Amato, V.; Santarpia, L.; De Caprio, C.; Contaldo, F.; Pasanisi, F.

    2013-04-01

    Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass (SM) and function which can also be found in obese adults. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in 1 245 obese women (18 - 67 years, weight 114.7±24.5 kg; BMI 44.1±9.2 fat mass 49.0±6.2%) from Southern Italy. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and SM calculated by using Janssen's equation; therefore the sex-specific cut-off points of percentage skeletal muscle index were used. The whole population was divided in two age groups: A (18-40 years; n. 808; weight 115.4±23.5 kg; BMI 43.8±8.8 kg/m2) and B (41-67 years; n. 438; weight 113.4±26.3 kg; BMI 44.8±9.9 kg/m2). In all the sample there was 2.7% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia; in group A, 1.9% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia whilst in group B 4.3% moderate and 0.7% severe sarcopenia. The results of our study suggest that, based on a screening examination by BIA, moderate/severe sarcopenia can be detected in an unselected middle-aged obese population. Further studies are required to clarify the diagnosis with functional tests.

  17. Screening for sarcopenia in obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sammarco, R; Marra, M; Montagnese, C; Rosa, E De; Onufrio, M; Amato, V; Santarpia, L; Caprio, C De; Contaldo, F; Pasanisi, F

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass (SM) and function which can also be found in obese adults. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in 1 245 obese women (18 – 67 years, weight 114.7±24.5 kg; BMI 44.1±9.2; fat mass 49.0±6.2%) from Southern Italy. Body composition was evaluated by bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and SM calculated by using Janssen's equation; therefore the sex-specific cut-off points of percentage skeletal muscle index were used. The whole population was divided in two age groups: A (18-40 years; n. 808; weight 115.4±23.5 kg; BMI 43.8±8.8 kg/m 2 ) and B (41-67 years; n. 438; weight 113.4±26.3 kg; BMI 44.8±9.9 kg/m 2 ). In all the sample there was 2.7% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia; in group A, 1.9% moderate and 0.6% severe sarcopenia whilst in group B 4.3% moderate and 0.7% severe sarcopenia. The results of our study suggest that, based on a screening examination by BIA, moderate/severe sarcopenia can be detected in an unselected middle-aged obese population. Further studies are required to clarify the diagnosis with functional tests.

  18. Decreased tongue pressure is associated with sarcopenia and sarcopenic dysphagia in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Keisuke; Akagi, Junji

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the association between tongue pressure and factors related to sarcopenia such as aging, activities of daily living, nutritional state, and dysphagia. One-hundred-and-four patients without a history of treatment of stroke and without a diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease (36 men and 68 women), with a mean age of 84.1 ± 5.6 years, hospitalized from May 2013 to June 2013 were included in this study. Maximum voluntary tongue pressure against the palate (MTP) was measured by a device consisting of a disposable oral balloon probe. Nutritional and anthropometric parameters such as serum albumin concentration, Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form (MNA-SF), body mass index, arm muscle area (AMA), and others and presence of sarcopenia and dysphagia were analyzed to evaluate their relationships. Correlation analysis and univariate or multivariate analysis were performed. Simple correlation analysis showed that MTP correlated with Barthel index (BI), MNA-SF, serum albumin concentration, body mass index, and AMA. Univariate and multivariate analysis showed that sarcopenia, BI, MNA-SF, and age were the independent explanatory factors for decreased MTP, and the propensity score for dysphagia, including causes of primary or secondary sarcopenia, and the presence of sarcopenia were significantly associated with the presence of dysphagia. Decreased MTP and dysphagia were related to sarcopenia or the causes of sarcopenia in the studied population. Furthermore, the clinical condition of sarcopenic dysphagia may be partially interpreted as the presence of sarcopenia and causal factors for sarcopenia.

  19. Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor of dysphagia in hospitalized older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Keisuke; Akagi, Junji

    2016-04-01

    Sarcopenia can cause varying physical function disorders, including dysphagia. Malnutrition, a potential result of dysphagia, can also cause sarcopenia. However, the association between sarcopenia and dysphagia is not fully understood, despite evidence suggesting correlations between deglutition disorders and degenerative loss of muscle mass. The present study investigated the prevalence of dysphagia among patients with sarcopenia, and the association between the two conditions. We included 224 older adults (mean age 82.5 ± 8.4 years; 37.9% men). Individuals who had a stroke or other diseases that could directly cause dysphagia were excluded. Logistic regression analyses were carried out after adjusting for potential causes of sarcopenia, including malnutrition, a low activity of daily living levels and aging, to investigate the relationship between the skeletal muscle index (SMI), prevalence of sarcopenia diagnosed based on a low SMI and grip strength, and swallowing functions. The Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form was used to assess their nutritional status, and the Barthel Index was used to evaluate their activities of daily living. The prevalences of sarcopenia and dysphagia were 76.8% and 30.0%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that Barthel Index, SMI and presence of sarcopenia were significant independent factors for the prevalence of dysphagia, after adjusting for sex, age and nutritional status. Furthermore, subgroup analysis showed that SMI in males, and both hand-grip strength and SMI in females were lower in dysphagic subjects than in non-dysphagic subjects (P ≤ 0.01). Sarcopenia was an independent risk factor for dysphagia among older individuals. However, further studies are required to define causality. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Assessing the Risk of Sarcopenia in the Elderly: The Mini Sarcopenia Risk Assessment (MSRA) Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, A P; Micciolo, R; Rubele, S; Fantin, F; Caliari, C; Zoico, E; Mazzali, G; Ferrari, E; Volpato, S; Zamboni, M

    2017-01-01

    to validate the MSRA questionnaire proposed as prescreening tool for sarcopenia, in a population of community-dwelling elderly subjects. observational study. community dwelling elderly subjects. 274 community dwelling elderly subjects, 177 women and 97 men, aged 66-78 years. Based on EWGSOP diagnostic criteria subjects were classified as sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic. The Mini Sarcopenia Risk Assessment (MSRA) questionnaire, is composed of seven questions and investigates anamnestic and nutritional characteristics related to risk of sarcopenia onset (age, protein and dairy products consumption, number of meals per day, physical activity level, number of hospitalizations and weight loss in the last year). 33.5% of the study population, were classified as sarcopenic. With the 7-item MSRA score, subjects with a score of 30 or less, had a 4-fold greater risk of being sarcopenic than subjects with a score higher than 30 (OR:4.20;95% CI:2.26-8.06); area under the ROC curve was 0.786 (95% CI:0.725-0.847). In a logistic regression, considering as dependent variable the probability of being sarcopenic, and as independent variables the 7 items of the questionnaire, two items (number of meals and milk and dairy products consumption) showed non-significant diagnostic power. A 5-item score was then derived and the area under the ROC curve was 0.789 (95% IC:0.728-0.851). Taking into account the cost of false positive and false negative costs and the prevalence of sarcopenia, the "optimal" threshold of the original MSRA score (based on 7 items) is 30, with a sensitivity of 0.804 and a specificity of 0.505, while the "optimal" threshold of the MSRA score based on 5 items, is 45, with a sensitivity of 0.804 and a specificity of 0.604. this preliminary study shows that the MSRA questionnaire is predictive of sarcopenia and can be suggested as prescreening instrument to detect this condition. The use of a short form of the MSRA questionnaire improves the capacity to identify

  1. Sarcopenia is a novel poor prognostic factor in male patients with pathological Stage I non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukioka, Takuma; Nishiyama, Noritoshi; Izumi, Nobuhiro; Mizuguchi, Shinjiro; Komatsu, Hiroaki; Okada, Satoshi; Toda, Michihito; Hara, Kantaro; Ito, Ryuichi; Shibata, Toshihiko

    2017-04-01

    Sarcopenia is the progressive loss of muscle mass and strength, and has a risk of adverse outcomes such as disability, poor quality of life and death. As prognosis depends not only on disease aggressiveness, but also on a patient's physical condition, sarcopenia can predict survival in patients with various cancer types. However, its effects on postoperative prognosis in patients with localized non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) have never been reported. We retrospectively investigated 215 male patients with pathological Stage I NSCLC. L3 muscle index is defined as the cross-section area of muscle at the third lumbar vertebra level, normalized for height, and is a clinical measurement of sarcopenia. We then investigated the effect of preoperative sarcopenia on their postoperative prognosis. Our 215 subjects included 30 patients with sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was significantly associated with body mass index, nutritional condition, serum CYFRA 21-1 level and pathological stage, but not with preoperative respiratory function or performance status. Frequency of postoperative complications, length of postoperative hospital stay, thoracic drainage period or causes of death were not correlated with the presence of sarcopenia. The sarcopenia group had a significantly shorter median overall survival (32 months) than the no-sarcopenia group. Sarcopenia might not affect short-term outcomes in patients with early-stage lung cancer. Sarcopenia was a predictor of poor prognosis in male patients with Stage I NSCLC. As sarcopenic patients with NSCLC patients are at risk for significantly worse outcomes, their treatments require careful planning, even for those with Stage I disease. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. [Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. Effect of nutritional support for the prevention of sarcopenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Hiroaki

    2014-10-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Sarcopenia is closely related with decreased physical function, fall, bone fracture, osteoporosis, and insulin resistance, which lead to increased morbidity and mortality in elderly people. The pathogenesis of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial, which remains not to be fully understood. Inappropriate food intake and reduced physical activity are known to increase the risk of developing sarcopenia. Resistance training and nutritional support have been shown to be an effective intervention for prevention of sarcopenia. Protein, especially branched chain amino acid, and vitamin D have been reported to improve sarcopenia. The intervention together with nutrition and exercise are more effective.

  3. Sarcopenia and Predictors of Skeletal Muscle Mass in Elderly Men With and Without Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Stoever MA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the variables which show the highest association with muscle mass and to identify the most important predictors for muscle mass in elderly men with and without sarcopenia. Methods: A total of 71 men participated, aged ≥65 years. Sarcopenia was assessed using the definition of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People with determining skeletal muscle index (SMI, hand-grip strength (HGS, and Short Physical Performance Battery. In addition, maximum strength at upper and lower extremities and physical activity were measured. Results: Strong correlations existed between SMI and gait speed, HGS, maximum isometric strength at leg and chest press. Physical activity showed low correlations with muscle strength. Regression analysis revealed HGS and gait speed as key predictors for SMI. Discussion: The recommendation is measuring gait speed and HGS in clinical practice at first followed by measuring muscle mass for determining sarcopenia.

  4. Sarcopenia e envelhecimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane da Silva Pícoli

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O envelhecimento está ligado ao grupo de alterações do desenvolvimento que ocorrem nos últimos anos de vida e está associado a alterações profundas na composição corporal. Essa perda relacionada à idade foi denominada "sarcopenia". OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a força muscular no processo de envelhecimento e identificar as variações entre os músculos do abdômen, membros superiores e inferiores. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Participaram deste estudo 48 indivíduos, que foram divididos em quatro grupos de acordo com a faixa etária: (G1 11 a 18 anos, (G2 20 a 26 anos, (G3 45 a 60 anos e (G4 66-82 anos. Os instrumentos de avaliação utilizados foram: 1 esfigmomanômetro (EM - para análise da força de flexores e extensores da articulação do joelho; 2 flexão de tronco em decúbito dorsal - para avaliação da força dos músculos abdominais (graus 0 a 5; 3 dinamômetro Jamar - para avaliação da força de preensão palmar; e 4 dinamômetro Preston Pinch Gauge - para avaliação da força na pinça dos dedos (polegar e indicador. RESULTADOS: Foi observado crescente incremento da força muscular de membros inferiores e superiores com o avançar da idade (G1, G2 e G3 e significativa diminuição da força muscular em todos os segmentos avaliados no G4 quando comparado com o G3. Foi observada importante variação entre a força muscular dos segmentos avaliados e a idade. O trabalho sugere que a diminuição da força muscular torna-se evidente a partir da sexta década de vida, e que esta apresenta variações entre os músculos do abdômen, membros superiores e inferiores.

  5. Impact of Sarcopenia on One-Year Mortality among Older Hospitalized Patients with Impaired Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourhassan, M; Norman, K; Müller, M J; Dziewas, R; Wirth, R

    2018-01-01

    However, the information regarding the impact of sarcopenia on mortality in older individuals is rising, there is a lack of knowledge concerning this issue among geriatric hospitalized patients. Therefore, aim of the present study was to investigate the associations between sarcopenia and 1-year mortality in a prospectively recruited sample of geriatric inpatients with different mobility and dependency status. Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Hand grip strength and skeletal muscle mass were measured using Jamar dynamometer and bioelectrical impedance analysis, respectively. Physical function was assessed with the Short Physical Performance Battery. Dependency status was defined by Barthel-Index (BI). Mobility limitation was defined according to walking ability as described in BI. The survival status was ascertained by telephone interview. The recruited population comprised 198 patients from a geriatric acute ward with a mean age of 82.8 ± 5.9 (70.2% females). 50 (25.3%) patients had sarcopenia, while 148 (74.7%) had no sarcopenia. 14 (28%) patients died among sarcopenic subjects compared with 28 (19%) non-sarcopenic subjects (P=0.229). After adjustment for potential confounders, sarcopenia was associated with increased mortality among patients with limited mobility prior to admission (n=138, hazard ratio, HR: 2.52, 95% CI: 1.17-5.44) and at time of discharge (n=162, HR: 1.93, 95% CI: 0.67-3.22). In a sub-group of patients with pre-admission BIsarcopenia and mortality across the different scores of BI during admission and at time of discharge. Sarcopenia is significantly associated with higher risk of mortality among sub-groups of older patients with limited mobility and impaired functional status, independently of age and other clinical variables.

  6. Health Outcomes of Sarcopenia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudart, Charlotte; Zaaria, Myriam; Pasleau, Françoise; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Bruyère, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review to assess the short-, middle- and long-term consequences of sarcopenia. Methods Prospective studies assessing the consequences of sarcopenia were searched across different electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBM Reviews, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EBM Reviews ACP Journal Club, EBM Reviews DARE and AMED). Only studies that used the definition of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People to diagnose sarcopenia were included. Study selection and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers. For outcomes reported by three or more studies, a meta-analysis was performed. The study results are expressed as odds ratios (OR) with 95% CI. Results Of the 772 references identified through the database search, 17 were included in this systematic review. The number of participants in the included studies ranged from 99 to 6658, and the duration of follow-up varied from 3 months to 9.8 years. Eleven out of 12 studies assessed the impact of sarcopenia on mortality. The results showed a higher rate of mortality among sarcopenic subjects (pooled OR of 3.596 (95% CI 2.96–4.37)). The effect was higher in people aged 79 years or older compared with younger subjects (p = 0.02). Sarcopenia is also associated with functional decline (pooled OR of 6 studies 3.03 (95% CI 1.80–5.12)), a higher rate of falls (2/2 studies found a significant association) and a higher incidence of hospitalizations (1/1 study). The impact of sarcopenia on the incidence of fractures and the length of hospital stay was less clear (only 1/2 studies showed an association for both outcomes). Conclusion Sarcopenia is associated with several harmful outcomes, making this geriatric syndrome a real public health burden. PMID:28095426

  7. Sarcopenia in Asia: consensus report of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Liu, Li-Kuo; Woo, Jean; Assantachai, Prasert; Auyeung, Tung-Wai; Bahyah, Kamaruzzaman Shahrul; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Chen, Liang-Yu; Hsu, Pi-Shan; Krairit, Orapitchaya; Lee, Jenny S W; Lee, Wei-Ju; Lee, Yunhwan; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Limpawattana, Panita; Lin, Chu-Sheng; Peng, Li-Ning; Satake, Shosuke; Suzuki, Takao; Won, Chang Won; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Wu, Si-Nan; Zhang, Teimei; Zeng, Ping; Akishita, Masahiro; Arai, Hidenori

    2014-02-01

    Sarcopenia, a newly recognized geriatric syndrome, is characterized by age-related decline of skeletal muscle plus low muscle strength and/or physical performance. Previous studies have confirmed the association of sarcopenia and adverse health outcomes, such as falls, disability, hospital admission, long term care placement, poorer quality of life, and mortality, which denotes the importance of sarcopenia in the health care for older people. Despite the clinical significance of sarcopenia, the operational definition of sarcopenia and standardized intervention programs are still lacking. It is generally agreed by the different working groups for sarcopenia in the world that sarcopenia should be defined through a combined approach of muscle mass and muscle quality, however, selecting appropriate diagnostic cutoff values for all the measurements in Asian populations is challenging. Asia is a rapidly aging region with a huge population, so the impact of sarcopenia to this region is estimated to be huge as well. Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) aimed to promote sarcopenia research in Asia, and we collected the best available evidences of sarcopenia researches from Asian countries to establish the consensus for sarcopenia diagnosis. AWGS has agreed with the previous reports that sarcopenia should be described as low muscle mass plus low muscle strength and/or low physical performance, and we also recommend outcome indicators for further researches, as well as the conditions that sarcopenia should be assessed. In addition to sarcopenia screening for community-dwelling older people, AWGS recommends sarcopenia assessment in certain clinical conditions and healthcare settings to facilitate implementing sarcopenia in clinical practice. Moreover, we also recommend cutoff values for muscle mass measurements (7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.4 kg/m(2) for women by using dual X-ray absorptiometry, and 7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.7 kg/m(2) for women by using bioimpedance analysis

  8. [Transdisciplinary approach for sarcopenia. Sarcopenic Dysphagia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka

    2014-10-01

    Sarcopenic dysphagia is difficulty swallowing due to sarcopenia of generalized skeletal muscles and swallowing muscles. Presbyphagia refers to age-related changes in the swallowing mechanism in the elderly associated with a frailty in swallowing. Presbyphagia is different from dysphagia. The most common cause of dysphagia is stroke. However, sarcopenic dysphagia may be common in the elderly with sarcopenia and dysphagia. Frail elderly with aspiration pneumonia can simultaneously experience activity-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia of generalized skeletal muscles and swallowing muscles, resulting in the development of sarcopenic dysphagia. Consensus diagnostic criteria for sarcopenic dysphagia were proposed at the 19th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Dysphagia Rehabilitation. The concept of rehabilitation nutrition as a combination of both rehabilitation and nutrition care management is useful for treatment of sarcopenic dysphagia. Therapy for sarcopenic dysphagia includes dysphagia rehabilitation, nutrition improvement and sarcopenia treatment. The core components of dysphagia rehabilitation are oral health care, rehabilitative techniques, and food modification. Nutrition improvement is important, because malnutrition contributes to the etiology of secondary sarcopenia and sarcopenic dysphagia. Assessment of the multi-factorial causes of primary and secondary sarcopenia is important because rehabilitation nutrition for sarcopenia differs depending on its etiology. Treatment of age-related sarcopenia should include resistance training and dietary supplements of amino acids. Therapy for activity-related sarcopenia includes reduced bed rest time and early mobilization and physical activity. Treatment for disease-related sarcopenia requires therapies for advanced organ failure, inflammatory disease, or malignancy, while therapy for nutrition-related sarcopenia involves appropriate nutrition management to increase muscle mass.

  9. Sarcopenia and malnutrition in acutely ill hospitalized elderly: Prevalence and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerri, Anna Paola; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Mazzone, Andrea; Pittella, Francesca; Landi, Francesco; Zambon, Antonella; Annoni, Giorgio

    2015-08-01

    Data about the prevalence of sarcopenia among hospitalized patients is lacking and it is unclear whether the diagnostic criteria commonly used in community-dwellers is applicable in acutely ill subjects. The aims of this report are: (i) to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia among hospitalized patients; (ii) to assess whether the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria are applicable in an acute care setting; and (iii) to assess the mortality rate at 3 months. 103 patients admitted to the Acute Geriatric Clinic were enrolled. Inclusion criteria were: age ≥65 years and malnutrition or risk of malnutrition, according to the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form. Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the EWGSOP criteria by means of bioimpedance analysis, handgrip strength and gait speed, within 72 h of admission. Information on deaths was obtained by telephone interview at 3 months following discharge. Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 22 patients (21.4%). Twenty-three patients (22.3%) were not able to perform the gait speed and/or the handgrip strength because bedridden or requiring intensive treatments. In this group, a definite diagnosis of sarcopenia was not possible, lacking at least one EWGSOP criteria. Eleven (10.7%) patients died within the 3 months post-discharge period. Kaplan-Meier survival curves showed that sarcopenic patients died significantly more frequently than others (log-rank p ≤ 0.001). In a population of hospitalized elderly malnourished or at risk of malnutrition, sarcopenia is highly prevalent and associated with an increased risk to die in the short-term. Furthermore, the EWGSOP criteria cannot be satisfactorily applied in a relevant proportion of patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors Associated with Sarcopenia among Older Patients Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... Keywords: Geriatric clinic, Nigeria, older patients, sarcopenia. Factors Associated ... sarcopenia are disuse‑related sarcopenia, disease‑related sarcopenia, ... psychiatry, and dental care. All newly .... respondents who received treatment in places other ..... physical disability: The cardiovascular health study.

  11. Considerations concerning the definition of sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this commentary, we describe the sarcopenia spectrum that results in frailty and consider the impact of several components of the frailty definition on its global prevalence. We review proposed operational definitions of sarcopenia the extent to which they have been shown to predict hard clinical...

  12. Sarcopenia and frailty in chronic respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bone, Anna E; Hepgul, Nilay; Kon, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia and frailty are geriatric syndromes characterized by multisystem decline, which are related to and reflected by markers of skeletal muscle dysfunction. In older people, sarcopenia and frailty have been used for risk stratification, to predict adverse outcomes and to prompt intervention aimed at preventing decline in those at greatest risk. In this review, we examine sarcopenia and frailty in the context of chronic respiratory disease, providing an overview of the common assessments tools and studies to date in the field. We contrast assessments of sarcopenia, which consider muscle mass and function, with assessments of frailty, which often additionally consider social, cognitive and psychological domains. Frailty is emerging as an important syndrome in respiratory disease, being strongly associated with poor outcome. We also unpick the relationship between sarcopenia, frailty and skeletal muscle dysfunction in chronic respiratory disease and reveal these as interlinked but distinct clinical phenotypes. Suggested areas for future work include the application of sarcopenia and frailty models to restrictive diseases and population-based samples, prospective prognostic assessments of sarcopenia and frailty in relation to common multidimensional indices, plus the investigation of exercise, nutritional and pharmacological strategies to prevent or treat sarcopenia and frailty in chronic respiratory disease. PMID:27923981

  13. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Associated Factors in Chinese Community-Dwelling Elderly: Comparison Between Rural and Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Langli; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Yang, Ming; Hao, Qiukui; Luo, Li; Dong, Birong

    2015-11-01

    To compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in urban and rural Chinese elderly adults and to identify the risk factors related to sarcopenia. A cross-sectional study. Urban and rural communities in western China. A total of 887 community-dwelling elderly adults aged 60 years or older. Sarcopenia was defined according to the recommended algorithm of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Cognitive function, depression, and nutrition status were assessed using the Chinese version of the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE), the Chinese version of the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-30), and the revised Mini Nutritional Assessment short-form (MNA-SF), respectively. A total of 612 individuals aged 70.6 ± 6.7 years (range, 60-91 years) were included in this study. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the study population was 9.8% (women, 12.0%; men, 6.7%; P = .031). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 13.1% in rural elders and 7.0% in urban elders (P = .012). Age (odds ratio [OR] 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.15-1.29), women (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.20-5.65), malnutrition or at risk for malnutrition (OR 3.53; 95% CI 1.68-7.41), rural residence (OR 2.15; 95% CI 1.33-4.51), and the number of medications (OR 1.23; 95% CI 1.06-1.44) were independently associated with sarcopenia. Rural elders are more vulnerable to sarcopenia than urban elders in a sample of western China's elderly population. More attention should focus on rural populations in future sarcopenia studies. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risks of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia in Chinese elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Taotao Wang; Xiao Feng; Jingjing Zhou; Hongyan Gong; Song Xia; Qing Wei; Xu Hu; Ran Tao; Lei Li; Frank Qian; Li Yu

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. In this study, we used a cross-sectional study with 1090 community-dwelling Chinese citizens aged 60 years and older to evaluate the association of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with the risk of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria that include both muscle mass and muscle function/physical activity. Pr...

  15. The impact of sarcopenia on the response to a physical activity intervention in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if the changes observed in the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) after a physical activity or health education intervention are influenced by sarcopenia status at baseline. Data were obtained from the Lifestyles for Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot Study, a RCT th...

  16. Factors associated with sarcopenia in institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Alice Ferreira; Silva, Emanuelle Cruz da; Eickemberg, Michaela; Roriz, Anna Karla Carneiro; Barreto-Medeiros, Jairza Maria; Ramos, Lílian Barbosa

    2017-03-30

    The sarcopenia is a negative aspect for the health of the elderly, increased the risk for disease and mortality. Additionally can contributes greatly to functional reducing capacity and quality of life. To identify the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in institutionalized elderly. This is a cross-sectional study, conducted with 216 elderly people, aged ≥ 60 years, of both sexes, residents in long-term care facilities in Salvador-Bahia, Brazil. To identify sarcopenia was used the skeletal muscle Index. Covariates were considered: gender, age, time of institutionalization, type of institution, body mass index and functional capacity. The Association between sarcopenia and covariates was evaluated using the Poisson regression model with robust variance. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly was 72.2% and this condition was associated with male sex (PR = 1,33; CI 95% = 1,081,65), thinness (PR = 1,29; CI 95% = 1,16-1,43) and obesity (PR = 0,37; CI 95% = 0,23-0,61). The prevalence of sarcopenia was high among the elderly living in long-term institutions, especially among men. Elderly with thinness showed greater impairment of muscle reserves, while the state of obesity was protective.

  17. Sarcopenia in daily practice: assessment and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudart, Charlotte; McCloskey, Eugène; Bruyère, Olivier; Cesari, Matteo; Rolland, Yves; Rizzoli, René; Araujo de Carvalho, Islène; Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan, Jotheeswaran; Bautmans, Ivan; Bertière, Marie-Claude; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Al-Daghri, Nasser M; Burlet, Nansa; Cavalier, Etienne; Cerreta, Francesca; Cherubini, Antonio; Fielding, Roger; Gielen, Evelien; Landi, Francesco; Petermans, Jean; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Visser, Marjolein; Kanis, John; Cooper, Cyrus

    2016-10-05

    Sarcopenia is increasingly recognized as a correlate of ageing and is associated with increased likelihood of adverse outcomes including falls, fractures, frailty and mortality. Several tools have been recommended to assess muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance in clinical trials. Whilst these tools have proven to be accurate and reliable in investigational settings, many are not easily applied to daily practice. This paper is based on literature reviews performed by members of the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis (ESCEO) working group on frailty and sarcopenia. Face-to-face meetings were afterwards organized for the whole group to make amendments and discuss further recommendations. This paper proposes some user-friendly and inexpensive methods that can be used to assess sarcopenia in real-life settings. Healthcare providers, particularly in primary care, should consider an assessment of sarcopenia in individuals at increased risk; suggested tools for assessing risk include the Red Flag Method, the SARC-F questionnaire, the SMI method or different prediction equations. Management of sarcopenia should primarily be patient centered and involve the combination of both resistance and endurance based activity programmes with or without dietary interventions. Development of a number of pharmacological interventions is also in progress. Assessment of sarcopenia in individuals with risk factors, symptoms and/or conditions exposing them to the risk of disability will become particularly important in the near future.

  18. Tools in the assessment of sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C; Fielding, R; Visser, M; van Loon, LJ; Rolland, Y; Orwoll, E; Reid, K; Boonen, S; Dere, W; Epstein, S; Mitlak, B; Tsouderos, Y; Sayer, AA; Rizzoli, R; Reginster, JY; Kanis, JA

    2013-01-01

    Summary This review provides a framework for development of an operational definition of sarcopenia and of the potential endpoints that might be adopted in clinical trials among older adults. Introduction While the clinical relevance of sarcopenia is widely recognized, there is currently no universally accepted definition of the disorder. The development of interventions to alter the natural history of sarcopenia also requires consensus on the most appropriate endpoints for determining outcomes of clinical importance which might be utilised in intervention studies. Methods and results We review current approaches to the definition of sarcopenia, and the methods used for the assessment of various aspects of physical function in older people. The potential endpoints of muscle mass, muscle strength, muscle power and muscle fatigue, as well as the relationships between them, are explored with reference to the availability and practicality of the available methods for measuring these endpoints in clinical trials. Conclusions Based on current evidence, none of the four potential outcomes in question is sufficiently comprehensive to recommend as a uniform single outcome in randomised clinical trials. We propose that sarcopenia may be optimally defined (for the purposes of clinical trial inclusion criteria, as well as epidemiological studies) using a combination of measures of muscle mass and physical performance. The choice of outcome measures for clinical trials in sarcopenia is more difficult; co-primary outcomes, tailored to the specific intervention in question, may be the best way forward in this difficult but clinically important area. PMID:23842964

  19. Relationships between sarcopenia and household status and locomotive syndrome in a community-dwelling elderly women in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoki, Chika; Habu, Daiki; Ogura, Juri; Tada, Arisa; Hasei, Ai; Sakurai, Kotone; Watanabe, Hatsumi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly women in Japan. A total of 186 women aged over 65 years attending preventive care classes were enrolled in the study. Muscle mass was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Sarcopenia was defined as low muscle mass and low muscle strength in accord with the consensus report of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Data regarding household status (living alone, with a spouse, or with children and/or grandchildren), calf circumference and the presence of locomotive syndrome were obtained, as well as dietary variety score, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence and Mini-Nutritional Assessment short form, and 10-item Eating Assessment Tool scores. Sarcopenia was identified in 21.0% of participants. Participants with sarcopenia were older, had a lower body mass index and calf circumference, and were more likely to have locomotive syndrome, and living with children and/or grandchildren. In multivariate analysis, age, body mass index sarcopenia, as were associated living alone (OR 1.69, 95% CI 0.45-6.41), and living with children and/or grandchildren (OR 2.46, 95% CI 0.71-8.54) and dietary variety score ≥9 (OR 4.98, 95% CI 0.97-25.56). Age, body mass index, dietary variety score, locomotive syndrome and household status were associated with sarcopenia. Early interventions are required for older adults identified as having a higher risk of sarcopenia to prevent its adverse health consequences. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 54-60. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  20. Sarcopenia Is Associated With Physical and Mental Components of Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manrique-Espinoza, Betty; Salinas-Rodríguez, Aarón; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar; Gutiérrez-Robledo, Luis Miguel; Avila-Funes, José Alberto

    2017-07-01

    To estimate the association between sarcopenia and the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. The Rural Frailty Study, a prospective study on the prevalence of frailty in rural settings in Mexico, with baseline and follow-up measurements conducted in 2009 and 2013, respectively. Five hundred forty-three men and women older than 70 years. Information regarding demographic characteristics, comorbidities, mental status, dependency in activities of daily living, frailty, HRQoL, and other characteristics was obtained. Objective measurements of muscle strength and physical performance were grip strength using a manual hydraulic dynamometer and walking speed; measure of low muscle was by a calf circumference. Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. Physical and mental components of the HRQoL were measured through the Medical Outcomes Study Health Survey Questionnaire 36-Item Short Form. Prevalence of sarcopenia was 20.6% for severe and 15.8% for moderate. After adjusting for sociodemographic and health characteristics, severe sarcopenia was significantly and inversely associated with both the physical (β = -5.39; P = .010) and the mental components (β = -3.69; P = .057) of HRQoL when compared with pre- and nonsarcopenic individuals. Our results on the association between sarcopenia and HRQoL suggest that the latter declines in the presence of severe sarcopenia in older adults. This finding highlights the relevance of the early detection of sarcopenia in older individuals, and even that its detection must be a part of routine diagnosis procedures. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with activities of daily living and dysphagia in convalescent rehabilitation ward inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yoshihiro; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Bise, Takahiro; Tanoue, Maiko

    2017-09-23

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia following stroke, musculoskeletal disease, or hospital-associated deconditioning in convalescent rehabilitation ward inpatients. The association between the activities of daily living (ADLs), dysphagia, and sarcopenia was also assessed. A cross-sectional study was performed in consecutive patients admitted to convalescent rehabilitation wards. Sarcopenia was defined as a loss of skeletal muscle mass and decreased muscle strength. The primary outcome was the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score. Body mass index, Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form score, Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) score, Charlson Comorbidity Index, premorbid modified Rankin scale, time from onset, reason for admission, bioelectrical impedance analysis for skeletal muscle mass and fat mass, and handgrip strength were also assessed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine whether ADLs and dysphagia were associated with sarcopenia. The study included 637 patients (mean age: 74 years; 271 men and 366 women). Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 343 (53.0%) patients (141 men and 202 women). Sarcopenia was identified in 53.6% (125/233) of stroke patients (59.8%, 50.0%, and 34.6% of patients with brain infarctions, brain hemorrhages, and subarachnoid hemorrhages, respectively). Sarcopenia was found in 51.3% (154/300) of patients with musculoskeletal diseases (59.5%, 53.6%, and 36.5% of patients with hip fractures, vertebral compression fractures, and total knee arthroplasty, respectively). Of patients with hospital-associated deconditioning, 61.5% (64/104) had sarcopenia (95.1% and 39.7% of patients with pneumonia and other acute diseases, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that FIM motor domain and FILS scores were independently associated with skeletal muscle mass loss and decreased muscle strength. The prevalence of sarcopenia in convalescent rehabilitation ward inpatients was 53.0%. ADLs and

  2. Portable computers - portable operating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegandt, D.

    1985-01-01

    Hardware development has made rapid progress over the past decade. Computers used to have attributes like ''general purpose'' or ''universal'', nowadays they are labelled ''personal'' and ''portable''. Recently, a major manufacturing company started marketing a portable version of their personal computer. But even for these small computers the old truth still holds that the biggest disadvantage of a computer is that it must be programmed, hardware by itself does not make a computer. (orig.)

  3. Diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia relate differently to insulin resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, A.Y.; Meskers, C.G.M.; van Heemst, D.; Westendorp, R.G.J.; Craen, A.J.M.; Maier, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is important in insulinstimulated glucose uptake. Sarcopenia is, therefore, a possible risk factor for insulin resistance. Currently, different diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia include low muscle mass, muscle strength, and walking speed. We assessed these muscle characteristics in

  4. Association between sarcopenia and quality of life in quilombola elderly in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Neto LS

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Luiz Sinésio Silva Neto,1–3 Margô GO Karnikowski,2 Neila B Osório,3 Leonardo C Pereira,2 Marcilio B Mendes,1 Dayani Galato,2 Liana B Gomide Matheus,4 João Paulo C Matheus2,4 1School of Medicine, Federal University of Tocantins, Palmas, Tocantins, 2Graduate Program in Health Sciences and Technology, Ceilândia College, University of Brasilia, Federal District, 3Graduate Program in Education, Federal University of Tocantins, Palmas, Tocantins, 4School of Physiotherapy, Ceilândia College, University of Brasília, Federal District, Brazil Introduction: Currently, there is no single consensual definition of sarcopenia in the literature. This creates a challenge for the evaluation of its prevalence and its direct or indirect impact on the quality of life of elderly populations of different races and ethnicities. Furthermore, no studies as yet have analyzed these variables in populations of elderly subjects of the "quilombola" ethnic group. Objective: We aimed to verify the association between sarcopenia and quality of life in quilombola elderly using the Baumgartner and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP criteria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 70 male and female participants (mean age: 65.58±6.67 years. Quality of life was evaluated using the multidimensional 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36 of the Medical Outcomes Study. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the Baumgartner cutoff for appendicular skeletal muscle mass and the criteria recommended by the EWGSOP. Muscle mass and fat mass percentages were analyzed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, while handgrip strength (HGS was evaluated using a hand-held dynamometer. Physical performance was assessed through a gait speed test. Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia was 15% according to the Baumgartner cutoff and 10% according to EWGSOP criteria. Quilombola elderly classified as physically active or very active were at least six times less

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risks of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia in Chinese elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taotao; Feng, Xiao; Zhou, Jingjing; Gong, Hongyan; Xia, Song; Wei, Qing; Hu, Xu; Tao, Ran; Li, Lei; Qian, Frank; Yu, Li

    2016-12-13

    Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. In this study, we used a cross-sectional study with 1090 community-dwelling Chinese citizens aged 60 years and older to evaluate the association of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with the risk of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria that include both muscle mass and muscle function/physical activity. Pre-sarcopenia was defined as having low skeletal muscle index but with normal muscle/physical activity. The prevalence of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia was significantly higher in T2DM patients than in healthy controls (14.8% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.035 for sarcopenia, and 14.4% vs. 8.4%, p = 0.002 for pre-sarcopenia). In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusting by age, gender, anti-diabetic medication, energy intake, protein intake, physical activity, and visceral fat area, we found that Chinese elderly with T2DM exhibited significantly increased risks of sarcopenia (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.02-2.03) and pre-sarcopenia (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.10-2.83) compared to non-diabetic individuals. This is the first study to evaluate the association of T2DM with the risks of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia in China. Among a group of community-dwelling Chinese elderly, T2DM was significantly associated with increased risks of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia.

  6. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with increased risks of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia in Chinese elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taotao; Feng, Xiao; Zhou, Jingjing; Gong, Hongyan; Xia, Song; Wei, Qing; Hu, Xu; Tao, Ran; Li, Lei; Qian, Frank; Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. In this study, we used a cross-sectional study with 1090 community-dwelling Chinese citizens aged 60 years and older to evaluate the association of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with the risk of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria that include both muscle mass and muscle function/physical activity. Pre-sarcopenia was defined as having low skeletal muscle index but with normal muscle/physical activity. The prevalence of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia was significantly higher in T2DM patients than in healthy controls (14.8% vs. 11.2%, p = 0.035 for sarcopenia, and 14.4% vs. 8.4%, p = 0.002 for pre-sarcopenia). In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusting by age, gender, anti-diabetic medication, energy intake, protein intake, physical activity, and visceral fat area, we found that Chinese elderly with T2DM exhibited significantly increased risks of sarcopenia (OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.02–2.03) and pre-sarcopenia (OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.10–2.83) compared to non-diabetic individuals. This is the first study to evaluate the association of T2DM with the risks of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia in China. Among a group of community-dwelling Chinese elderly, T2DM was significantly associated with increased risks of sarcopenia and pre-sarcopenia. PMID:27958337

  7. Defining sarcopenia : The impact of different diagnostic criteria on the prevalence of sarcopenia in a large middle aged cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijlsma, A. Y.; Meskers, C. G M; Ling, C. H Y; Narici, M.; Kurrle, S. E.; Cameron, I. D.; Westendorp, R. G J; Maier, A. B.

    Sarcopenia, low muscle mass, is an increasing problem in our ageing society. The prevalence of sarcopenia varies extremely between elderly cohorts ranging from 7% to over 50%. Without consensus on the definition of sarcopenia, a variety of diagnostic criteria are being used. We assessed the degree

  8. Sarcopenia and Age-Related Endocrine Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, and an increased risk of fall-related injuries. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, numerous targets exist for drug discovery. In this paper, we summarize the current understanding of the endocrine contribution to sarcopenia and provide an update on hormonal intervention to try to improve endocrine defects. Myostatin inhibition seems to be the most interesting strategy for attenuating sarcopenia other than resistance training with amino acid supplementation. Testosterone supplementation in large amounts and at low frequency improves muscle defects with aging but has several side effects. Although IGF-I is a potent regulator of muscle mass, its therapeutic use has not had a positive effect probably due to local IGF-I resistance. Treatment with ghrelin may ameliorate the muscle atrophy elicited by age-dependent decreases in growth hormone. Ghrelin is an interesting candidate because it is orally active, avoiding the need for injections. A more comprehensive knowledge of vitamin-D-related mechanisms is needed to utilize this nutrient to prevent sarcopenia.

  9. Osteoporosis and Sarcopenia in Older Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, MH; Dennison, EM; Sayer, A Aihie; Fielding, R; Cooper, C

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis and sarcopenia are common in older age and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Consequently, they are both attended by a considerable socioeconomic burden. Osteoporosis was defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) in 1994 as a bone mineral density of less than 2.5 standard deviations below the sex-specific young adult mean and this characterisation has been adopted globally. Subsequently, a further step forward was taken when bone mineral density was incorporated into fracture risk prediction algorithms, such as the Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®) also developed by the WHO. In contrast, for sarcopenia there have been several diagnostic criteria suggested, initially relating to low muscle mass alone and more recently low muscle mass and muscle function. However, none of these have been universally accepted. This has led to difficulties in accurately delineating the burden of disease, exploring geographic differences, and recruiting appropriate subjects to clinical trials. There is also uncertainty about how improvement in sarcopenia should be measured in pharmaceutical trials. Reasons for these difficulties including the number of facets of muscle health available, e.g. mass, strength, function, and performance, and the various clinical outcomes to which sarcopenia can be related such as falls, fracture, disability and premature mortality. It is imperative that a universal definition of sarcopenia is reached soon to facilitate greater progress in research into this debilitating condition. PMID:25886902

  10. Novel Intriguing Strategies Attenuating to Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunihiro Sakuma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, is characterized by a deterioration of muscle quantity and quality leading to a gradual slowing of movement, a decline in strength and power, increased risk of fall-related injury, and, often, frailty. Since sarcopenia is largely attributed to various molecular mediators affecting fiber size, mitochondrial homeostasis, and apoptosis, the mechanisms responsible for these deleterious changes present numerous therapeutic targets for drug discovery. Resistance training combined with amino acid-containing supplements is often utilized to prevent age-related muscle wasting and weakness. In this review, we summarize more recent therapeutic strategies (myostatin or proteasome inhibition, supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA or ursolic acid, etc. for counteracting sarcopenia. Myostatin inhibitor is the most advanced research with a Phase I/II trial in muscular dystrophy but does not try the possibility for attenuating sarcopenia. EPA and ursolic acid seem to be effective as therapeutic agents, because they attenuate the degenerative symptoms of muscular dystrophy and cachexic muscle. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α in skeletal muscle by exercise and/or unknown supplementation would be an intriguing approach to attenuating sarcopenia. In contrast, muscle loss with age may not be influenced positively by treatment with a proteasome inhibitor or antioxidant.

  11. Association between sleep duration and sarcopenia among community-dwelling older adults: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Jiaojiao; Wang, Haozhong; Zhang, Lei; Dong, Birong; Yang, Ming

    2017-03-01

    Both sleep disorders and sarcopenia are common among older adults. However, little is known about the relationship between these 2 conditions.This study aimed to investigate the possible association between sleep duration and sarcopenia in a population of Chinese community-dwelling older adults.Community-dwelling older adults aged 60 years or older were recruited. Self-reported sleep duration, anthropometric data, gait speed, and handgrip strength were collected by face-to-face interviews. Sarcopenia was defined according to the recommended algorithm of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS).We included 607 participants aged 70.6 ± 6.6 years (range, 60-90 years) in the analyses. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the whole study population was 18.5%. In women, the prevalence of sarcopenia was significantly higher in the short sleep duration group (hours) and long sleep duration group (>8 hours) compared with women in the normal sleep duration group (6-8 hours; 27.5%, 22.2% and 13.9%, respectively; P = .014). Similar results were found in men; however, the differences between groups were not statistically significant (18.5%, 20.6%, and 13.0%, respectively; P = .356). After adjustments for the potential confounding factors, older women having short sleep duration (OR: 4.34; 95% CI: 1.74-10.85) or having long sleep duration (OR: 2.50; 95% CI: 1.05-6.99) had greater risk of sarcopenia compared with women having normal sleep duration. With comparison to men with normal sleep duration, the adjusted OR for sarcopenia was 2.12 (0.96-8.39) in the short sleep duration group and 2.25 (0.88-6.87) in the long sleep duration group, respectively.A U-shape relationship between self-reported sleep duration and sarcopenia was identified in a population of Chinese community-dwelling older adults, especially in women.

  12. Sarcopenia, Osteoporosis and Its Complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.V. Povoroznyuk

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today, the significant attention of scientists is paid to the study of associative changes in muscle and bone tissue with age. The reduction of muscle mass and its function is associated with reduced bone mineral density, increased risk of falls, deterioration in the quality of life, functionality and increased patient mortality. However, there is a small number of studies that have examined the relationship between sarcopenia and osteoporotic fractures. The aim of research: to study the particularities of body composition, structural and functional state of bone in women aged 65 and older depending on the presence of vertebral deformations. We have examined 171 women aged 65–89 years. Depending on the presence of vertebral deformations, the patients were divided into two groups: A — 105 women without vertebral deformations, B — 66 women with vertebral deformations. Lean and fat masses, bone mineral density and trabecular bone score, lateral vertebral assessment were performed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (Prodigy, GEHC Lunar, Madison, WI, USA. We determined that patients with vertebral deformations as compared to the women without deformations had significantly lower indices of bone mineral density, trabecular bone score, lean and fat masses (p < 0.05. The incidence of presarcopenia (reduced lean mass in women with vertebral deformations was 14.6 %, in women without vertebral deformations — 2.2 %.

  13. [Sarcopenia in elderly : benefice of physical exercices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, André

    2016-11-09

    From the age of fifty onwards a progressive loss of muscle mass may be observed, it often leads to real sarcopenia. Sedentary life style and unbalanced feeding habits represent major risk factors. The decrease in muscle tone leads to a loss of function and an altered quality of life, not to mention socioeconomic factors. The molecular mechanisms of sarcopenia are complex but our understanding of them is increasing. There is no pharmaceutical treatment of sarcopenia of use in current practice. Regular, several times a week, practice of a combination of adapted muscle building physical and endurance exercises, associated with protein intake have shown there use. These exercises must be followed on the long term.

  14. Comparison of the prevalence of sarcopenia using skeletal muscle mass index and calf circumference applying the European consensus definition in elderly Mexican women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Alva, Maria Consuelo; Irigoyen Camacho, Maria Esther; Lazarevich, Irina; Delgadillo Velazquez, Jaime; Acosta Dominguez, Patricia; Zepeda Zepeda, Marco A

    2017-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of sarcopenia using two indicators: skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and calf circumference (CC) used in the algorithm proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Mexican elderly women. This was a cross-sectional study. Lean body mass was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. To define sarcopenia, the SMI was obtained using a cut-off value of 5.5 kg/m 2 , and the CC cut-off was 31 cm. For gait speed and handgrip strength, the cut-off values were 0.8 m/s and 20 kg, respectively. A total of 137 women (mean age 73.8 ± 6.7 years) participated in the study. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.6% using SMI and 11.0% using CC (P = 0.009). Body mass index was associated with a lower probability of sarcopenia applying SMI or CC (OR 0.75, P = 0.002 for SMI and OR 0.71, P = 0.004 for CC). Sarcopenia evaluated either with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or CC was not associated with physical performance, such as five times chair stand test, timed up and go test and short physical performance battery. Additionally, SMI was not associated with physical performance, five times chair stand test (P = 0.775) and timed up-and-go test (P = 0.341). The prevalence of sarcopenia in active elderly women was low. A higher prevalence of sarcopenia was detected using SMI compared with CC. It is important to identify the best methods to assess skeletal muscle mass to obtain a reliable diagnosis of sarcopenia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 161-170. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  15. Sarcopenia: what should a pharmacist know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso J. Cruz-Jentoft

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia (or muscle insufficiency is a geriatric syndrome characterized by a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and function which has adverse consequences, particularly physical disability, falls and death. It can develop slowly, as a chronic condition that emerges over many years, or acutely, generally due to immobilization associated with an acute disease. The physiopathology of sarcopenia is complex, and affects both the muscle and its neurological and hormonal regulation. The prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age and in certain healthcare settings (nursing homes, hospitals, rehabilitation centres. Its diagnosis is based on the documentation of a low muscle mass associated with low muscle strength and/or low physical performance. Once confirmed, a syndromic approach is needed, based on a comprehensive geriatric assessment in order to determine its causes and prepare a treatment plan which addresses the treatment of symptoms as well as the etiology. Prevention of sarcopenia starts in the adult age, through the promotion of adequate nutritional habits, an increase in physical activity and, ideally, resistance exercise. Sarcopenia treatment must necessarily include resistance exercises (that can be associated with other types of exercise and an improvement in diet, increasing protein intake up to 1.2-1.5 g/kg/day and covering caloric requirements. In some cases, this will require the use of nutritional supplements, which can contain leucine, beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate acid (HMB and vitamin D, in order to optimize its effects on the muscle. There are still no medications available to treat sarcopenia

  16. Relationship between pre-sarcopenia, sarcopenia and bone mineral density in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Fernando Borges; Leite, André Ferreira; de Paula, Ana Patrícia

    2015-02-01

    Analyze the influence of sarcopenia in bone health of elderly men. This cross-sectional study evaluated 198 men aged over 60 years. Body composition was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The BMD was measured at the femoral neck, total hip, lumbar spine and 33% radius. The diagnosis of abnormal BMD was defined for men who presented densitometric diagnosis of osteopenia or osteoporosis defined by T-score of femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine. The pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia were defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. The group diagnosed with normal BMD, compared to the group of abnormal BMD, have significantly higher body weight, body mass index, grip strength, lean mass, fat mass, and relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass (RASM). However, after multiple linear regression analysis, we found that only the RASM, lean mass, and handgrip strength in the dominant hand influenced the variability of the BMD after adjustment for age and weight. Regression analyzes showed a positive association between greater appendicular lean mass and a smaller number of elderly patients with abnormal BMD diagnostic. The regression analyzes showed that elderly men diagnosed with pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia had more abnormal BMD than non-sarcopenic elderly men. We concluded that pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia were associated with abnormal BMD. The lean mass, compared to fat mass, has a greater positive influence on the BMD of elderly men. This result suggests the importance of the increase in lean mass for the bone health of elderly men.

  17. Sarcopenia and Dynapenia in Patients With Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barichella, Michela; Pinelli, Giovanna; Iorio, Laura; Cassani, Erica; Valentino, Angela; Pusani, Chiara; Ferri, Valentina; Bolliri, Carlotta; Pasqua, Marianna; Pezzoli, Gianni; Frazzitta, Giuseppe; Cereda, Emanuele

    2016-07-01

    To estimate prevalence of sarcopenia and dynapenia in outpatients with Parkinson disease (PD) and to investigate their association with the features of the disease. Cross-sectional study. A specialized tertiary care center. Consecutive patients (n = 364) aged 65 years or older, affected by parkinsonian syndromes. Skeletal muscle mass (SMM), as well as strength and gait speed (GS) were assessed by bioimpedence analysis, handgrip dynamometry, and the 4-meter walking test, respectively. Based on these assessments, sarcopenia was diagnosed using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. Dynapenia was defined as handgrip strength less than 30 kg in men and less than 20 kg in women. In total, 235 patients (64.6%) had a diagnosis of idiopathic PD. Low SMM index was recorded in 27 patients. Due to gait disturbances and postural instability, GS could not be measured in 98 patients and was found to be reduced in 61.3% of those assessed. Prevalence of sarcopenia and dynapenia was 6.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.3-9.7) and 75.5% (95% CI 70.8-79.9), respectively. Sarcopenia tended to be higher in patients unable to perform GS assessment and was unrelated to the type of parkinsonian syndrome. It was associated with older age, longer disease duration, more severe disease, and higher disability in activities of daily living, as assessed by disease-specific clinical rating scale. Dynapenia was directly associated with parkinsonism other than PD, older age, and disability, whereas regular physical therapy appeared to be a preventive factor. However, it was unrelated to disease duration and severity. Finally, the disability score of activities of daily living was inversely correlated with handgrip strength and GS, whereas no association was found with SMM index. Being primarily motor disorders, parkinsonian syndromes are characterized by progressive disability in performing activities of daily living. Impaired functional status is a prominent

  18. [Sarcopenia and functionality in elderly inpatient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Moreno, Diana Victoria; Infante-Sierra, Héctor; Serralde-Zúñiga, Aurora E

    2015-04-01

    Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome associated with adverse events. The aim of the present study was to assess the sarcopenia prevalence and its association with the functionality in elderly inpatient. A cross sectional study, during 6 months were included elderly inpatients to determine the presence of sarcopenia using the Baumgartner method. The functionality to perform basic activities of daily living (ABVD) was determined by the Katz index. Student's t test or U de Mann-Whitney was used to assess the differences between two groups and one-factor ANOVA or Kruskal Wallis for multiple comparisons; X2 and Fisher's exact test were used to compare the categorical variables and the Pearson correlation was calculated to determine the correlations between variables. 102 patients were included, 41 women and 61 man; subjects had a mean age of 71±8.6 years, body mass index 27.8±5.2 kg/m2, grip strength 14.9±8.3 kg, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (MMEA) 17.6±4.3 kg and skeletal muscle mass index (IMME) 7.1±1.2 kg/m2. The global prevalence of sarcopenia was 27.5%, was major in men (RR 1.33; CI 95% 1.06-1.67 psarcopenia was associated to a major dependence in both genders (pSarcopenia is a frequent condition in the elderly inpatients associated with the functionality's deterioration,identifying it help to perform a primary or secondary prevention and opportunity treatment.

  19. Recent Advances in Sarcopenia Research in Asia: 2016 Update From the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-Kung; Lee, Wei-Ju; Peng, Li-Ning; Liu, Li-Kuo; Arai, Hidenori; Akishita, Masahiro

    2016-08-01

    Sarcopenia was recently classified a geriatric syndrome and is a major challenge to healthy aging. Affected patients tend to have worse clinical outcomes and higher mortality than those without sarcopenia. Although there is general agreement on the principal diagnostic characteristics, initial thresholds for muscle mass, strength, and physical performance were based on data from populations of predominantly Europid ancestry and may not apply worldwide. The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) issued regional consensus guidelines in 2014, and many more research studies from Asia have since been published; this review summarizes recent progress. The prevalence of sarcopenia estimated by the AWGS criteria ranges between 4.1% and 11.5% of the general older population; however, prevalence rates were higher in Asian studies that used European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People cut-offs. Risk factors include age, sex, heart disease, hyperlipidemia, daily alcohol consumption, and low protein or vitamin intake; physical activity is protective. Adjusting skeletal muscle mass by weight rather than height is better in showing the effect of older age in sarcopenia and identifying sarcopenic obesity; however, some Asian studies found no significant skeletal muscle loss, and muscle strength might be a better indicator. Although AWGS 2014 diagnostic cut-offs were generally well accepted, some may require further revision in light of conflicting evidence from some studies. The importance of sarcopenia in diverse therapeutic areas is increasingly evident, with strong research interest in sarcopenic obesity and the setting of malignancy. Pharmacologic interventions have been unsatisfactory, and the core management strategies remain physical exercise and nutritional supplementation; however, further research is required to determine the most beneficial approaches. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  20. [Prevention and therapy of sarcopenia in the ageing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadák, Zdeněk

    Sarcopenia is one of the severe disorders associated with nutritional imbalance. While sarcopenia is an inseparable part of the process of ageing as people get older, it plays a vital role in pathological situations such as protein-calorie and kwashiorkor malnutrition, it accompanies various diseases of rheumatic character and is an almost ever-present feature of the clinical picture of oncological patients. Sarcopenia in people under strain is fatally manifested mainly in the elderly, medically fragile patients. In view of the fact that sarcopenia is the decisive factor regarding the course of chronic as well as acute illnesses, it must be diagnosed, monitored and appropriately treated in time. Although nutrition is not the only factor involved especially in older age in the development of sarcopenia, the type of nutritional support and, in the new era, particularly nutritional pharmacology, form the underlying principles of the approach to the comprehensive care of the patient. ageing - lipids - malnutrition - proteosynthesis - sarcopenia.

  1. Portable dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buffa, A.; Caley, R.; Pfaff, K.

    1986-01-01

    A simple but very accurate portable dosimeter is described for indicating the intensity of ionizing radiation, comprising, as a unit: (a) a radiation-detection chamber having a pair of parallel, facing, electrically-conducting, radiation-permeable electrodes spaced from each other to define a volume for a gas which is ionized by the radiation when exposed thereto; (b) electric potential supply means connected across the electrodes for attracting the gas ions to the electrodes and transferring their charge to the electrodes; (c) detection circuit means connected across the electrodes and having at least one of high-frequency electromagnetic- and radiation-sensitive components for detecting the charge on the electrodes and indicating therefrom a representation of the intensity of the radiation; (d) radiation shield means surrounding the radiation-sensitive components of the detection circuit means for shielding the latter from the ionizing radiation; (e) electric shield means surrounding the sensitive components of the detection circuit means for shielding the latter from electromagnetic interference including any caused by the ionizing radiation; and (f) ion shield means potting the ion-sensitive components for shielding them from radiation-caused ambient ionization; whereby the entire dosimeter may be assembled as the unit and portably transported into various radiation sources

  2. Sarcopenia and physical activity in older male cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Oka, Koichiro; Kasahara, Yusuke; Morio, Yuji; Hiraki, Koji; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Omori, Yutaka; Suzuki, Norio; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J

    2016-11-01

    There is little information on the association of sarcopenia with physical activity in elderly cardiac patients. This study determined differences in physical activity and cutoff values for physical activity according to the presence or absence of sarcopenia in elderly male cardiac patients. Sixty-seven consecutive men aged ≥65 years with cardiac disease were enrolled. We defined sarcopenia using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People algorithm. Patients were divided into the sarcopenia group (n=25) and the non-sarcopenia group (n=42). In the patients with and without sarcopenia of physical activities were evaluated to determine cutoff values of physical activity. After adjusting for patient characteristics, both the average daily number of steps (3361.43±793.23 vs. 5991.55±583.57 steps, P=0.021) and the average daily energy expenditure of physical activity (71.84±22.19 vs. 154.57±16.18kcal, P=0.009) were significantly lower in the sarcopenia versus non-sarcopenia group. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis identified a cutoff value for steps of physical activity of 3551.80steps/day for 1 week, with a sensitivity of 0.73 and 1-specificity of 0.44 and a cutoff value for energy expenditure of physical activity of 85.17kcal/day for 1 week, with a sensitivity of 0.73 and 1-specificity of 0.27. Physical activity in the male cardiac patients with sarcopenia was significantly lower than that in those without sarcopenia. The cutoff values reported here may be useful values to aid in the identification of elderly male cardiac patients with sarcopenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cellular Basis for ADT-Induced Acceleration of Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0454 TITLE: Cellular Basis for ADT-Induced Acceleration of Sarcopenia PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Joe V...AND SUBTITLE Cellular Basis for ADT-Induced Acceleration of Sarcopenia 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0454 5c. PROGRAM...cell function and thereby regenerative capability contribute to the acceleration of sarcopenia observed in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT

  4. Novel Insights on Nutrient Management of Sarcopenia in Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena; Monteferrario, Francesca; Peroni, Gabriella; Repaci, Erica; Allieri, Francesca; Perna, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and strength. The more rationale approach to delay the progression of sarcopenia is based on the combination of proper nutrition, possibly associated with the use of dietary supplements and a regular exercise program. We performed a narrative literature review to evaluate the till-now evidence regarding (1) the metabolic and nutritional correlates of sarcopenia; (2) the optimum diet therapy fo...

  5. [Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. Sarcopenia : definition and the criteria for Asian elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuki, Atsumu; Ando, Fujiko; Shimokata, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by loss of skeletal muscle mass and function (strength and physical performance) with a risk of adverse outcomes. Asian criteria have been decided recently by the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) . AWGS defined sarcopenia as low skeletal muscle mass plus low muscle strength and/or low physical performance based on the previous reports. AWGS recommend cutoff values for muscle mass (7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.4 kg/m(2) for women by using dual X-ray absorptiometry, and 7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.7 kg/m(2) for women by using bioelectrical impedance analysis) , handgrip strength (sarcopenia in Japanese elderly men and women diagnosed using Asian criteria was 9.6% and 7.7%, respectively. The estimated number of prevalent cases of sarcopenia in Japanese elderly men and women was approximately 1.3 million and 1.4 million, respectively.

  6. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  7. The etiology and exercise implications of sarcopenia in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An increasing aging population greatly impacts health care services worldwide. A large percentage of healthcare expenditures for seniors arise from the negative outcomes of muscle loss, also known as sarcopenia. Aging-related losses of muscle strength and quality impair balance, walking ability and endurance and cause negative events such as falls, incident disability and frailty. This review systemically explores the significance of sarcopenia in the elderly and addresses several important physiological mechanisms of sarcopenia. The implications of crucial exercise regimens that improve muscle strength and delay the onset of sarcopenia are also discussed.

  8. Factors Affecting Sarcopenia in Korean Adults by Age Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Eun-Jung; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate factors affecting sarcopenia in different age groups among Korean adults aged 20 years or older. In this secondary analysis, data were collected from records for 17,968, participants who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008-2011. Data were analyzed using multiple logistic regression to determine the associated factors of sarcopenia by age groups. The prevalence of sarcopenia increased significantly with age. Physical activity, blood pressure, waist circumference, triglycerides, vitamin D level were found to be factors significantly associated with sarcopenia in all age groups. Total energy intake was found to be a factor that is significantly associated with sarcopenia among the adults aged 20-39 years. Fasting glucose, suicidal ideation, perceived health status, mobility problem, pain/discomfort, total energy intake were found to be factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults aged 40-64 years. Sex, residential area, smoking, drinking, fasting glucose, osteoarthritis, fall experience, usual activity problem, protein intake were factors associated with sarcopenia in the adults over 65 years of age. The findings show that sarcopenia in adults and the associated factors were different by age groups. Thus, these factors should be considered in the development of intervention programs for the care and prevention of sarcopenia, and such programs should be modified according to different age groups.

  9. Sarcopenia and Visceral Obesity in Esophageal and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-17

    Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Sarcopenia; Sarcopenic Obesity; Obesity; Visceral Obesity; Quality of Life; Surgery; Complication of Treatment; Chemotherapeutic Toxicity; Physical Activity; Oncology

  10. Prevalence and Factors Associated With Sarcopenia in Suburb-dwelling Older Chinese Using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia Definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peipei; Kang, Li; Guo, Qi; Wang, Jiazhong; Zhang, Wen; Shen, Suxing; Wang, Xiuyang; Dong, Renwei; Ma, Yixuan; Shi, Yu; Shi, Zhiyang; Li, Hongquan; Li, Chen; Ma, Yige; Wang, Liancheng; Niu, Kaijun

    2016-04-01

    Sarcopenia is a common condition in older people. The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in an elderly Chinese suburb-dwelling population. This study was conducted on 1,069 Chinese suburb-dwelling participants aged ≥60 years to evaluate sarcopenia using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria. Sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics, as well as medical conditions, were considered independent variables to determine factors associated with sarcopenia using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.4% in men and 11.5% in women. Age was a significant factor in both sexes. In addition, presence of sarcopenia was inversely associated with BMI for both sexes. The odds ration and 95% confidence interval for factors statistically significantly associated with sarcopenia were 5.04 (1.70-14.89) and 2.36 (1.06-5.25) for diabetes in males and females, respectively; 10.60 (1.75-64.24) for daily consumption of alcohol (daily drinkers), 5.58 (2.13-14.59) for peptic ulcer in female (not statistically significant in males). The Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criterion is useful for defining sarcopenia, and our data suggest that the prevalence of sarcopenia in the general elderly suburb-dwelling Chinese population is high. Moreover, we find that high body mass index is inversely associated with the likelihood of being sarcopenic and that several others factors such as diabetes, peptic ulcer, and drinking habits increase the prevalence of sarcopenia. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Increased Mortality in Elderly Patients with Sarcopenia and Acetabular Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deren, Matthew E; Babu, Jacob; Cohen, Eric M; Machan, Jason; Born, Christopher T; Hayda, Roman

    2017-02-01

    Sarcopenia is a condition of clinically relevant loss of muscle mass and function. Acetabular fractures in elderly patients are common and difficult to treat. This study aimed to determine if sarcopenia is common in elderly patients with acetabular fractures and correlates with lower-energy mechanisms of injury, higher rates of complications, and higher mortality than patients with normal muscle mass. The Rhode Island Hospital Trauma Database was queried for patients who were ≥60 years of age from 2005 to 2014 using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, code for closed acetabular fracture, 808.0. Charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographic data, operative intervention, mechanism of injury, mortality, comorbidities, and other factors. Computed tomography (CT) was used to determine the muscle cross-sectional area and to calculate the skeletal muscle index. The database revealed 192 patients coded for acetabular fracture; of these, 181 were correctly diagnosed. Ninety-nine patients had recorded body mass index (BMI) and adequate CT scans to measure the skeletal muscle index. Forty-two patients (42.4%) had sarcopenia, and 57 patients (57.6%) did not have sarcopenia. There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics between the groups with the exception of BMI and sex. BMI was higher in patients who did not have sarcopenia (31.7 kg/m) than it was in patients with sarcopenia (23.6 kg/m) (p sarcopenia at 76.2% (32 of 42 patients) than in patients without sarcopenia at 50.9% (29 of 57 patients). Fractures in patients without sarcopenia were associated with a higher-energy mechanism of injury in 78.9% of cases compared with 52.4% of cases of patients with sarcopenia (p = 0.005). Sarcopenia was significantly associated (p = 0.0419) with increased 1-year mortality (28.6%) compared with the absence of sarcopenia (12.3%). This association was even stronger if in-hospital mortality was excluded (p = 0.00074). Finally

  12. Association Between Sarcopenia and Metabolic Syndrome in Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Su Jung; Kim, Nam Cho

    Advanced cancer treatments have improved survival from cancer, but the incidence of cardiovascular disease in survivors has recently increased. Sarcopenia and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are related to cancer survival, and sarcopenia is an emerging risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, evidence of a relationship between sarcopenia and MetS in cancer survivors is lacking. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and MetS in cancer survivors and to investigate independent predictors of MetS in cancer survivors. From the fourth and fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Exam Survey (2008-2011), 798 consecutive cancer survivors were analyzed. Sarcopenia was defined as the appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by weight less than 1 SD below the sex-specific healthy population aged 20 to 39 years. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program definition. Among 798 cancer survivors, the prevalence rates of sarcopenia and MetS were 23.1% and 30.0%, respectively. Survivors with sarcopenia were more likely to have a higher waist circumference, body mass index, triglyceride level, and blood pressure and to have a lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level compared with those without sarcopenia. In multivariable analysis, sarcopenia was an independent predictor of MetS (odds ratio, 2.76; 95% confidence interval, 1.92-3.97). In addition, age and type of cancer were independent predictors of MetS. Sarcopenia was associated with an increased prevalence of MetS in cancer survivors. Interventions to prevent sarcopenia may be necessary to improve cardiovascular outcome in cancer survivors.

  13. Sarcopenia and frailty in elderly trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairchild, Berry; Webb, Travis P; Xiang, Qun; Tarima, Sergey; Brasel, Karen J

    2015-02-01

    Sarcopenia describes a loss of muscle mass and resultant decrease in strength, mobility, and function that can be quantified by CT. We hypothesized that sarcopenia and related frailty characteristics are related to discharge disposition after blunt traumatic injury in the elderly. We reviewed charts of 252 elderly blunt trauma patients who underwent abdominal CT prior to hospital admission. Data for thirteen frailty characteristics were abstracted. Sarcopenia was measured by obtaining skeletal muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) from each patient's psoas major muscle using Slice-O-Matic(®) software. Dispositions were grouped as dependent and independent based on discharge location. χ (2), Fisher's exact, and logistic regression were used to determine factors associated with discharge dependence. Mean age 76 years, 49 % male, median ISS 9.0 (IQR = 8.0-17.0). Discharge destination was independent in 61.5 %, dependent in 29 %, and 9.5 % of patients died. Each 1 cm(2) increase in psoas muscle CSA was associated with a 20 % decrease in dependent living (p elderly trauma patients and can be obtained from the admission CT. Lower psoas muscle CSA is related to loss of independence upon discharge in the elderly. The early availability of this variable during the hospitalization of elderly trauma patients may aid in discharge planning and the transition to dependent living.

  14. Quality of Life in Sarcopenia and Frailty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzoli, René; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Arnal, Jean-François; Bautmans, Ivan; Beaudart, Charlotte; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike; Biver, Emmanuel; Boonen, Steven; Brandi, Maria-Luisa; Chines, Arkadi; Cooper, Cyrus; Epstein, Sol; Fielding, Roger A.; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanis, John A.; Kaufman, Jean-Marc; Laslop, Andrea; Malafarina, Vincenzo; Mañas, Leocadio Rodriguez; Mitlak, Bruce H.; Oreffo, Richard O.; Petermans, Jean; Reid, Kieran; Rolland, Yves; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Tsouderos, Yannis; Visser, Marjolein; Bruyère, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The reduced muscle mass and impaired muscle performance that defines sarcopenia in older individuals is associated with increased risk of physical limitation and a variety of chronic diseases. It may also contribute to clinical frailty. A gradual erosion of quality of life (QoL) has been evidenced in these individuals, although much of this research has been done using generic QoL instruments, particularly the SF-36, which may not be ideal in older populations with significant comorbidities. This review and report of an expert meeting, presents the current definitions of these geriatric syndromes (sarcopenia and frailty). It then briefly summarises QoL concepts and specificities in older populations, examines the relevant domains of QoL and what is known concerning QoL decline with these conditions. It calls for a clearer definition of the construct of disability and argues that a disease-specific QoL instrument for sarcopenia/frailty would be an asset for future research and discusses whether there are available and validated components that could be used to this end and whether the psychometric properties of these instruments are sufficiently tested. It calls also for an approach using utility weighting to provide some cost estimates and suggests that a time trade off study could be appropriate. PMID:23828275

  15. Sarcopenia and falls in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan: Defining sarcopenia according to criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Sugiura, Yumiko; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Tamaki, Junko

    2014-01-01

    This study assessed the association between sarcopenia (using the definition of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People) and fall in the past year among community-dwelling Japanese elderly. Subjects were 1110 community-dwelling Japanese aged 65 or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance in a baseline study. "Sarcopenia" was characterized by low muscle mass and low muscle strength or low physical performance. "Presarcopenia" was characterized only by low muscle mass. Subjects who did not have any of these deficiencies were classified as "normal." We then administered a questionnaire assessing age, sex, household status, chronic illness, lifestyle-related habits, and fall. This study showed the prevalence of fall was 16.9% and 21.3% in men and women, respectively, while that of sarcopenia was 13.4% and 14.9% in men and women, respectively. In men and women, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher among those who had fallen. A logistic regression analysis using age, body fat, current drinker status, and physical inactivity for men, and age, body fat, smoking, and diabetes for women as covariate variables revealed that sarcopenia was significantly associated with a history of fall. The odds ratio for fall in the sarcopenia group relative to the normal group was 4.42 (95%CI 2.08-9.39) in men and 2.34 (95%CI 1.39-3.94) in women. This study revealed sarcopenia to be associated with falling in elderly Japanese. Sarcopenia prevention interventions may help prevent falls among elderly individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. PREVALENCE OF SARCOPENIA IN ELDERLY PATIENTS ON HEMODIALYSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Lamarca

    2012-06-01

    In conclusion, sarcopenia is highly prevalent in elderly HD patients and the inflammatory profile of sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients is similar. In addition, these results show that sarcopenia does not exclude the occurrence of increased adiposity, as shown by the elevated frequency of obesity and abdominal obesity in the elderly sarcopenic group.

  17. Sarcopenia: assessment of disease burden and strategies to improve outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Ilaria; Russo, Gennaro; Aran, Luisa; Bulli, Giulia; Curcio, Francesco; Della-Morte, David; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Testa, Gianluca; Cacciatore, Francesco; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale

    2018-01-01

    Life expectancy is increasing worldwide, with a resultant increase in the elderly population. Aging is characterized by the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength – a phenomenon called sarcopenia. Sarcopenia has a complex multifactorial pathogenesis, which involves not only age-related changes in neuromuscular function, muscle protein turnover, and hormone levels and sensitivity, but also a chronic pro-inflammatory state, oxidative stress, and behavioral factors – in particular, nutritional status and degree of physical activity. According to the operational definition by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), the diagnosis of sarcopenia requires the presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function, which can be defined by low muscle strength or low physical performance. Moreover, biomarkers of sarcopenia have been identified for its early detection and for a detailed identification of the main pathophysiological mechanisms involved in its development. Because sarcopenia is associated with important adverse health outcomes, such as frailty, hospitalization, and mortality, several therapeutic strategies have been identified that involve exercise training, nutritional supplementation, hormonal therapies, and novel strategies and are still under investigation. At the present time, only physical exercise has showed a positive effect in managing and preventing sarcopenia and its adverse health outcomes. Thus, further well-designed and well-conducted studies on sarcopenia are needed. PMID:29785098

  18. Evaluation of Sarcopenia in Elderly Women of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufang Chen

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Our findings suggested that both aging and menopause contributes to the decline of muscle strength and physical function rather primarily than the loss of muscle mass in the process of sarcopenia in Chinese older women. Hand-grip strength criteria is more sensitive to diagnose sarcopenia in elderly women of China.

  19. Significance of Sarcopenia Evaluation in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchida, Keiichi; Fujihara, Yuki; Hiroki, Jiro; Hakamata, Takahiro; Sakai, Ryohei; Nishida, Kota; Sudo, Koji; Tanaka, Komei; Hosaka, Yukio; Takahashi, Kazuyoshi; Oda, Hirotaka

    2018-01-27

    In patients with chronic heart failure (HF), the clinical importance of sarcopenia has been recognized in relation to disease severity, reduced exercise capacity, and adverse clinical outcome. Nevertheless, its impact on acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) is still poorly understood. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is a technique for quantitatively analyzing muscle mass and the degree of sarcopenia. Fat-free mass index (FFMI) is a noninvasive and easily applicable marker of muscle mass.This was a prospective observational cohort study comprising 38 consecutive patients hospitalized for ADHF. Sarcopenia, derived from DXA, was defined as a skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) two standard deviations below the mean for healthy young subjects. FFMI (kg/m 2 ) was calculated as 7.38 + 0.02908 × urinary creatinine (mg/day) divided by the square of height (m 2 ).Sarcopenia was present in 52.6% of study patients. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels were significantly higher in ADHF patients with sarcopenia than in those without sarcopenia (1666 versus 429 pg/mL, P sarcopenia as a predictor of higher BNP level (OR = 18.4; 95% CI, 1.86-181.27; P = 0.013).Sarcopenia is associated with increased disease severity in ADHF. SMI based on DXA is potentially superior to FFMI in terms of predicting the degree of severity, but FFMI is also associated with ADHF severity.

  20. Vitamin D Signaling in Myogenesis: Potential for Treatment of Sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Wagatsuma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muscle mass and strength progressively decrease with age, which results in a condition known as sarcopenia. Sarcopenia would lead to physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. Therefore, much is expected of an effective intervention for sarcopenia. Epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory evidence suggest an effect of vitamin D on muscle function. However, the precise molecular and cellular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Recent studies suggest that vitamin D receptor (VDR might be expressed in muscle fibers and vitamin D signaling via VDR plays a role in the regulation of myoblast proliferation and differentiation. Understanding how vitamin D signaling contributes to myogenesis will provide a valuable insight into an effective nutritional strategy to moderate sarcopenia. Here we will summarize the current knowledge about the effect of vitamin D on skeletal muscle and myogenic cells and discuss the potential for treatment of sarcopenia.

  1. Molecular mechanism of sarcopenia and cachexia: recent research advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, Kunihiro; Aoi, Wataru; Yamaguchi, Akihiko

    2017-06-01

    Skeletal muscle provides a fundamental basis for human function, enabling locomotion and respiration. Muscle loss occurs as a consequence of several chronic diseases (cachexia) and normal aging (sarcopenia). Although many negative regulators (atrogin-1, muscle ring finger-1, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB), myostatin, etc.) have been proposed to enhance protein degradation during both sarcopenia and cachexia, the adaptation of these mediators markedly differs within both conditions. Sarcopenia and cachectic muscles have been demonstrated to be abundant in myostatin-linked molecules. The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is activated during rapid atrophy model (cancer cachexia), but few mediators of the UPS change during sarcopenia. NF-κB signaling is activated in cachectic, but not in sarcopenic, muscle. Recent studies have indicated the age-related defect of autophagy signaling in skeletal muscle, whereas autophagic activation occurs in cachectic muscle. This review provides recent research advances dealing with molecular mediators modulating muscle mass in both sarcopenia and cachexia.

  2. Pharmacological intervention in frailty and sarcopenia: report by the International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research Task Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcopenia and frailty often co-exist and both have physical function impairment as a core component. Yet despite the urgency of the problem, the development of pharmaceutical therapies for sarcopenia and frailty has lagged, in part because of the lack of consensus definitions for the two conditions...

  3. Potential early biomarkers of sarcopenia among independent older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coto Montes, Ana; Boga, José Antonio; Bermejo Millo, Carlos; Rubio González, Adrián; Potes Ochoa, Yaiza; Vega Naredo, Ignacio; Martínez Reig, Marta; Romero Rizos, Luis; Sánchez Jurado, Pedro Manuel; Solano, Juan Jose; Abizanda, Pedro; Caballero, Beatriz

    2017-10-01

    There are no tools or biomarkers for a quantitative analysis of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional study of the diagnosis of sarcopenia in 200 independent adults aged 70 years or over. Sarcopenia was defined as loss of muscle mass together with low strength and/or loss of physical performance. We considered different clinical parameters and assayed potential blood biomarkers (cell energetic metabolism, muscle performance, inflammation, infection and oxidative stress). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 35.3% in women and 13.1% in men, and it was significantly associated with advanced age, a low functional performance in the lower extremities, deficient weekly consumption of kilocalories, risk of malnutrition, and drug use for the digestive system. A close relationship was found between sarcopenia, pre-frailty and depressed mood. With these confounding variables, we observed that products of lipid peroxidation were closely associated with sarcopenia in independent older adults (frail participants and those with severe dependence had been excluded from the sample). The best multivariate model proposed was able to predict 67.6% of the variance in sarcopenia, with a power of discrimination of 93.5%. Additional analyses considering lipid levels, fat mass, dyslipidemia, use of lipid-lowering drugs and hypertension confirmed this close association between lipid peroxidation and sarcopenia. Given the difficulty in the diagnosis of sarcopenia in clinical practice, we suggest the use of blood circulating products of lipid peroxidation as potential biomarkers for an early diagnosis of sarcopenia in independent older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Biomarkers of sarcopenia in clincal trials recommendations from the international working group on sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarcopenia, the age-related skeletal muscle decline, is associated with relevant clinical and socioeconomic negative outcomes in older persons. The study of this phenomenon and the development of preventive/therapeutic strategies represent public health priorities. The present document reports the r...

  5. Sarcopenia in patients with hip fracture: A multicenter cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Steihaug, Ole Martin; Gjesdal, Clara Gram; Bogen, Bård Erik; Kristoffersen, Målfrid Holen; Lien, Gunhild; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Sarcopenia is prevalent in older persons and is a risk factor for falls, fractures, and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine a) the feasibility of determining sarcopenia in patients with acute hip fracture, b) the prevalence of sarcopenia and c) associations of sarcopenia with nutritional status and comorbidities. Methods: A multicenter cross-sectional study on sarcopenia in male and female patients with acute hip fracture. Participants were previously ambulatory a...

  6. Regulation of satellite cell function in sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E Alway

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell function that is impacted by the environment (niche of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia, and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration. While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function.

  7. Regulation of Satellite Cell Function in Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alway, Stephen E.; Myers, Matthew J.; Mohamed, Junaith S.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to sarcopenia include reduced satellite cell (myogenic stem cell) function that is impacted by the environment (niche) of these cells. Satellite cell function is affected by oxidative stress, which is elevated in aged muscles, and this along with changes in largely unknown systemic factors, likely contribute to the manner in which satellite cells respond to stressors such as exercise, disuse, or rehabilitation in sarcopenic muscles. Nutritional intervention provides one therapeutic strategy to improve the satellite cell niche and systemic factors, with the goal of improving satellite cell function in aging muscles. Although many elderly persons consume various nutraceuticals with the hope of improving health, most of these compounds have not been thoroughly tested, and the impacts that they might have on sarcopenia and satellite cell function are not clear. This review discusses data pertaining to the satellite cell responses and function in aging skeletal muscle, and the impact that three compounds: resveratrol, green tea catechins, and β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate have on regulating satellite cell function and therefore contributing to reducing sarcopenia or improving muscle mass after disuse in aging. The data suggest that these nutraceutical compounds improve satellite cell function during rehabilitative loading in animal models of aging after disuse (i.e., muscle regeneration). While these compounds have not been rigorously tested in humans, the data from animal models of aging provide a strong basis for conducting additional focused work to determine if these or other nutraceuticals can offset the muscle losses, or improve regeneration in sarcopenic muscles of older humans via improving satellite cell function. PMID:25295003

  8. Sarcopenia in diabetic nephropathy: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliker, Meral; Selçuk, Mustafa Yavuz; Olt, Serdar

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between sarcopenia and diabetic nephropathy. 56 diabetic patients without complications, 50 diabetic patients with nephropathy, 53 healthy controls included in this present study. Demographic characteristics such as sex, age, anthropometric measurements such as weight, body mass index [BMI], hip circumference, waist circumference and upper arm circumference were measured. Sarcopenia diagnosis was based on European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People [EWGSOP] criteria which consist of hand grip strength, 6-meter walking test and muscle mass. The frequency of sarcopenia increased gradually from 15.1% in healthy control group to 21.4% in the diabetes group, and 34% in diabetic nephropathy group (X2 for trend, p = 0.029). The frequency of sarcopenia was similar in diabetes and diabetic nephropathy group. However, the frequency of sarcopenia was higher in diabetic nephropathy than healthy controls (OR = 2.89, CI [1.11-7.51] in logistic regression). In the present study, the prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in patients with diabetic nephropathy compared to healthy controls.

  9. Impact of sarcopenia in the management of urological cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Hiroshi; Koga, Fumitaka

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia, the degenerative and systemic loss of skeletal muscle mass, develops as a consequence of the progression of cancer cachexia. Recent studies suggest that sarcopenia may be used as a biomarker in the management of patients with several cancers. Areas covered: In this article, the authors review 1) the methods to simply and optimally evaluate and define sarcopenia using computed tomography images in daily clinical practice and 2) the impact of sarcopenia in the management of urological cancers, specifically focusing on the usefulness in predicting treatment-related complications and prognosis. The authors also discuss the prognostic importance of changes in skeletal muscle mass in the course of treatment and the potential roles of nutritional support and exercise to prevent progression of sarcopenia. Expert commentary: Sarcopenia is associated with treatment-related complications and unfavorable prognosis in urological cancer patients. Nutritional support and exercise might be helpful in improving sarcopenia. The impact of these interventions on clinical outcomes would be elucidated by ongoing or future clinical studies.

  10. Serum markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Busra; Kara, Ozgur; Kizilarslanoglu, Muhammet Cemal; Arik, Gunes; Aycicek, Gozde Sengul; Sumer, Fatih; Civelek, Ramazan; Demirtas, Canan; Ulger, Zekeriya

    2017-08-01

    Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome characterized by the presence of low muscle mass and function. Possible mechanisms underlying sarcopenia include oxidative stress and elevation of inflammatory cytokines. The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between sarcopenia and biomarkers that may be involved in its pathogenesis and hence early detection. A total of 72 patients (36 sarcopenic and 36 non-sarcopenic) were included in the study. An experienced geriatric team applied comprehensive geriatric assessment to all patients. Anthropometric measures, gait speed and handgrip strength were recorded. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used to assess skeletal muscle mass. In addition to routine clinical laboratory tests, serum adiponectin, thioredoxin-1 and pentraxin-3 levels were measured. Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in older Adults as the presence of low muscle mass and low muscle function or muscle performance. Sarcopenic patients were more likely to be functionally dependent and had lower scores on comprehensive geriatric assessment tools. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein levels were significantly higher in the sarcopenic group. There was no significant difference in serum levels of thioredoxin-1 and pentraxin-3. Sarcopenic patients had lower levels of hemoglobin, albumin, total protein, calcium, triglycerides, uric acid and adiponectin (p sarcopenia whereas ESR was positively correlated. The present study demonstrated an association of sarcopenia with inflammatory markers CRP, ESR and adiponectin. Long-term prospective studies are warranted to confirm the relationship between markers oxidative stress and age related muscle decline.

  11. Clinical relevance of sarcopenia in chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthi, Ranjani N.; Avin, Keith G.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose of review In this article, we review sarcopenia in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aim to present how definitions of sarcopenia from the general population may pertain to those with CKD, its assessment by clinicians and emerging therapies for sarcopenia in CKD. For this review, we limit our description and recommendations to patients with CKD who are not on dialysis. Recent findings Poorer parameters of lean mass, strength and physical function are associated with worsening patient-centered outcomes such as limiting mobility, falls and mortality in CKD; however, the magnitude of these associations are different in those with and without CKD. Sarcopenia in CKD is a balance between skeletal muscle regeneration and catabolism, which are both altered in the uremic environment. Multiple pathways are involved in these derangements, which are briefly reviewed. Differences between commonly used terms cachexia, frailty, protein-energy wasting, dynapenia and sarcopenia are described. Therapeutic options in predialysis CKD are not well studied; therefore, we review exercise options and emerging pharmacological therapies. Summary Sarcopenia, now with its own International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) code, is of importance clinically and should be accounted for in research studies in patients with CKD. Multiple therapies for sarcopenia are in development and will hopefully be available for our patients in the future. PMID:28198733

  12. Frequency of sarcopenia and associated factors among hospitalized elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Bruno Prata; Batista, Anne Karine Menezes Santos; Gomes, Isabela Barboza; Olivieri, Flávia Milholo; Camelier, Fernanda Warken Rosa; Camelier, Aquiles Assunção

    2015-05-06

    Sarcopenia is an important public health problem that affects mainly elders, and has negative consequences, such as disability and even death. Due to the lack of studies evaluating sarcopenia in elderly persons hospitalized in Brazil, the aim of the present study was to describe the frequency of sarcopenia and associated factors among elders in a hospital in the city of Salvador-Brazil. This cross-sectional study included 110 hospitalized elderly patients in a multi-specialty hospital in Salvador-BA, Brazil. Inclusion criteria: were elders aged ≥60 years between the first and fifth day of hospitalization; who were able to walk without external assistance; with medical permission to walk, and who did not take vasoactive and inotropic drugs. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was determined by combining the reduction in skeletal muscle mass with muscle weakness (women, sarcopenia was described in percentages with their respective confidence intervals and logistic regression was performed for multivariate analysis of factors associated with sarcopenia. Among the 110 patients included, the frequency of sarcopenia was 21.8%, with 10.0% being of the severe type. There was a predominance of clinical profile (59.1%), such as heart disease (20.0%), pneumonia (13.6%) and skin infections (9.1%), with a Charlson index of 5.4 ± 1.8. The factors associated with sarcopenia were age (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.06 to 1.23), clinical profile on admission (OR = 5.15; 95% CI = 1.16-22.9) and smoking (OR = 7.8; 95% CI = 1.53-39.9). The frequency of sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients was high (1 in 5 elderly) and anthropometric equation can be a viable and inexpensive alternative to screening and programming intervention in this population.

  13. Sarcopenia in COPD: relationship with COPD severity and prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Tatiana Munhoz da Rocha Lemos; Costa, Fabio Marcelo; Moreira, Carolina Aguiar; Rabelo, Leda Maria; Boguszewski, César Luiz; Borba, Victória Zeghbi Cochenski

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in COPD patients, as well as to determine whether sarcopenia correlates with the severity and prognosis of COPD. Methods: A cross-sectional study with COPD patients followed at the pulmonary outpatient clinic of our institution. The patients underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was made on the basis of the skeletal muscle index, defined as appendicular lean mass/height2 only for low-weight subjects and adjusted for fat mass in normal/overweight subjects. Disease severity (COPD stage) was evaluated with the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. The degree of obstruction and prognosis were determined by the Body mass index, airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise capacity (BODE) index. Results: We recruited 91 patients (50 females), with a mean age of 67.4 ± 8.7 years and a mean BMI of 25.8 ± 6.1 kg/m2. Sarcopenia was observed in 36 (39.6%) of the patients, with no differences related to gender, age, or smoking status. Sarcopenia was not associated with the GOLD stage or with FEV1 (used as an indicator of the degree of obstruction). The BMI, percentage of body fat, and total lean mass were lower in the patients with sarcopenia than in those without (p < 0.001). Sarcopenia was more prevalent among the patients in BODE quartile 3 or 4 than among those in BODE quartile 1 or 2 (p = 0.009). The multivariate analysis showed that the BODE quartile was significantly associated with sarcopenia, regardless of age, gender, smoking status, and GOLD stage. Conclusions: In COPD patients, sarcopenia appears to be associated with unfavorable changes in body composition and with a poor prognosis. PMID:26578132

  14. Influence of sarcopenia and functionality indicators on the frailty profile of community-dwelling elderly subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Joana U; Silva, Silvia L A; Torres, Juliana L; Dias, João M D; Pereira, Leani S M; Dias, Rosângela C

    2013-01-01

    Frailty and sarcopenia are frequent conditions in the elderly and are related to inactivity and functionality. However, little is known about the influence of the sarcopenia indicators on the frailty profile or their functional implications. To evaluate whether the indirect indicators of sarcopenia and functionality influence the frailty profile in elderly subjects. This was a cross-sectional study with 53 elderly subjects recruited by an active search in a secondary health care service. The indirect indicators of sarcopenia were body mass index (BMI), gait speed, Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Human Activity Profile (HAP), and handgrip strength. Frailty was characterized according to Fried's Frailty Phenotype. Functional capacity was assessed according to the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Physical activity level was assessed by HAP. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regression. Overall, 75.5% of the subjects were women, with a mean age of 76.72 (±5.89) years; 15.1% were frail and 54.7% pre-frail; and the level of physical activity was the most prevalent indicator of sarcopenia. Significant differences (psarcopenia indicators were associated with functional capacity and geriatric depression score. The level of physical activity and gait speed appeared to be the most relevant factors in the development of frailty in the study sample, which may have functional implications.

  15. Prevalence of malnutrition and sarcopenia in a post-acute care geriatric unit: Applying the new ESPEN definition and EWGSOP criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Dolores; Marco, Ester; Ronquillo-Moreno, Natalia; Miralles, Ramón; Vázquez-Ibar, Olga; Escalada, Ferran; Muniesa, Josep M

    2017-10-01

    The European Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) consensus definition of malnutrition has been applied in hospitalized older diabetics and middle-aged patients, geriatric outpatients, and healthy elderly and young individuals. In a post-acute care setting, our aim was to assess malnutrition (ESPEN definition) and determine its relationship with sarcopenia in older in-patients deconditioned due to an acute process. Eighty-eight in-patients aged ≥70 years with body mass index (BMI) malnutrition risk using biochemical markers and Mini-Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF). The ESPEN definition was applied: 1) BMI Malnutrition prevalence was 4.5%, 7.9%, and 17% using ESPEN definitions 1, 2a, and 2b, respectively; 19.3% were malnourished. Prevalence of sarcopenia was 37.5%, of which 90.9% fulfilled ESPEN malnutrition criteria, a significant association (p = 0.02). No differences in biochemical markers were observed between patients with or without malnutrition or sarcopenia. ESPEN criteria constitute an appropriate tool to establish a malnutrition diagnosis in post-acute care. Sarcopenia, as defined by EWGSOP, was present in 37.5% of patients, of which 90.9% fulfilled ESPEN criteria; therefore, malnutrition was significantly related to sarcopenia. Additional work is needed to determine further implications of the ESPEN consensus definition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  16. Sarcopenia in children with perforated appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Joseph J; Cooper, Jennifer N; Albert, Brett; Adler, Brent; King, Denis; Minneci, Peter C

    2017-12-01

    Decreased skeletal muscle mass, or sarcopenia, has been shown to be associated with worse postoperative recovery and a higher risk of complications in adult surgical patients. We hypothesized that pediatric patients with complicated appendicitis may experience sarcopenic changes over the course of their treatment. The medical records and computed tomography scans of 36 pediatric complex appendicitis patients who had both preoperative and postoperative computerized tomography scans at our hospital were reviewed. Changes in psoas muscle area were examined using linear mixed models with random patient-level intercept and time effects. The median change in body mass index among all patients from admission to discharge was -0.8 kg/m 2 (interquartile range: -1.3 to -0.2). The mean percentage change in psoas muscle area per day over the course of appendicitis-related treatment was -0.81% (95% confidence interval: -1.12 to -0.50) (P  0.10 for all interactions). Our data suggest that pediatric patients with complex appendicitis experience sarcopenic changes during their hospital admission. Given previous reports that sarcopenia is a significant predictor of worse surgical outcomes, more investigation is warranted to assess whether these changes are associated with postsurgical complications and to evaluate potential interventions that may prevent these changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults - a systematic review report of the international sarcopenia initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: to examine the clinical evidence reporting the prevalence of sarcopenia and the effect of nutrition and exercise interventions from studies using the consensus definition of sarcopenia proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Methods: PubMed and Dial...

  18. Sarcopenia and its determinants among Iranian elderly (SARIR: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi Rezvan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The elderly populations increase in world because of improved health status in communities, so health and independency of seniors has become and will be one of the main priorities of public health systems. Ageing have been associated with changes in body composition, including loss of muscle mass, loss of bone mass and increase fat mass. Involuntary age related loss of muscle mass, sarcopenia,has been linked to functional impairment and physical disability. Several definitions for sarcopenia have been presented based on the method of measuring body composition, but an internationally accepted definition doesn’t presently exist yet. In 2010, the European working group on sarcopenia developed a new definition for sarcopenia according to measure muscle mass and muscle function. Several studies have been done about sarcopenia in world, but to our knowledge this study is the first in Iran which is one of the largest countries of the Middle East that faces a fast growing elderly population. The aim of this study is to evaluate sarcopenia and related risk factors in Iran according new definition of sarcopenia. Methods This study will be conducted in two phase among elderly men and women over 55 years in the 6th district of TehranThe first phase will be a population-based cross-sectional study to determine the frequency of sarcopenia in the study population, and to conduct case finding for the second phase. The second phase will be a case–control study to comparison the metabolic and inflammatory factors in sarcopenic and non sarcopenic groups. The association between sarcopenia and major dietary pattern will be evaluated using factor analysis. Conclusion This study is the first study that evaluates sarcopenia and its risk factor in Iranian elderlies. We discuss details of how we collect the data and appropriate instruments to measure muscle mass, muscle power and muscle strength, and suitable cut- off to define sarcopenia in

  19. Protein and exercise in the prevention of sarcopenia and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseeb, Manal A; Volpe, Stella L

    2017-04-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength. The decline, known as sarcopenia, could lead to physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. In addition, the older population usually experiences age-related muscle changes that affect muscle mass, muscular strength, and functional abilities. The purpose of this review is to describe the role of protein and exercise in slowing the progression of sarcopenia. It will also discuss whether age-related changes can be attenuated by dietary protein and exercise in the older population. This review will also cover one of the possible mechanisms of how dietary protein and exercise are involved in sarcopenia prevention, as well as the available measurement tools. Based on the findings of this review, the adequate amount of protein required for older men and women needs to be revised and likely be higher. Moreover, studies are required to explore some inconclusive findings concerning sarcopenia in the older population. Further research is required to investigate the following: (1) the safety and effectiveness concerning the consumption of 1.4 g of protein/kg of body weight (or more) in this vulnerable population; (2) the effectiveness of amino acid supplementation in reducing progression of sarcopenia over time through longitudinal studies; (3) the preferred source and timing of protein for the older population to maintain muscular strength and attenuate sarcopenia; (4) exercise interventions, especially those of longer duration, in the attenuation of sarcopenia; (5) other types of exercise and their effects on age-related muscle changes; (6) the mechanism of how protein and exercise prevent muscle loss with aging; and (7) determine the best method to diagnose sarcopenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Resistance Exercise to Prevent and Manage Sarcopenia and Dynapenia

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Timothy D.; Clark, Leatha A.; Clark, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    For well over twenty centuries the muscle wasting (sarcopenia) and weakness (dynapenia) that occurs with old age has been a predominant concern of mankind. Exercise has long been suggested as a treatment to combat sarcopenia and dynapenia, as it exerts effects on both the nervous and muscular systems that are critical to positive physiological and functional adaptations (e.g., enhanced muscle strength). For more than two decades scientists have recognized the profound role that progressive re...

  1. Portable Exhauster Position Paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This document identifies the tasks that are involved in preparing the ''standby'' portable exhauster to support Interim Stabilization's schedule for saltwell pumping. A standby portable exhaust system will be assigned to any facility scheduled to be saltwell pumped with the exception of 241-S farm, 241-SX farm or 241-T farm. The standby portable exhauster shall be prepared for use and placed in storage. The standby portable exhaust system shall be removed from storage and installed to ventilate tanks being pumped that reach 25% LFL. There are three tasks that are evaluated in this document. Each task shall be completed to support portable exhaust system installation and operation. They are: Pre Installation Task; Portable Exhaust System Storage Task; and Portable Exhaust System Installation and Operation Task

  2. Secondary hyperparathyroidism and its relationship with sarcopenia in elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Genaro, Patrícia; de Medeiros Pinheiro, Marcelo; Szejnfeld, Vera Lúcia; Martini, Lígia Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Low dietary intake of calcium and poor vitamin D status during aging can result in mild secondary hyperparathyroidism, which may be associated with low muscle mass and reduced strength in the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low vitamin D, high parathormone (PTH), or both, are associated with sarcopenia. A total of 105 women, 35 with sarcopenia and 70 without sarcopenia, were enrolled in the present study. Body composition measurements were performed by DXA and sarcopenia was defined as skeletal muscle mass indexsarcopenia was higher in hyperparathyroidism (25(OH)D65 pg/dL) than in the absence of hyperparathyroidism (41.2 vs 16.2%, respectively; p=0.046). The odds ratio for sarcopenia in hyperparathyroidism cases was 6.81 (95%CI 1.29-35.9) compared with participants who had low PTH and a high 25(OH)D concentration. The present study showed that vitamin D insufficiency associated with secondary hyperparathyroidism increased the risk of sarcopenia, suggesting that the suppression of hyperparathyroidism by ensuring adequate calcium and vitamin D intake should be considered in interventional studies to confirm potential benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Novel insights on nutrient management of sarcopenia in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena; Monteferrario, Francesca; Peroni, Gabriella; Repaci, Erica; Allieri, Francesca; Perna, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and strength. The more rationale approach to delay the progression of sarcopenia is based on the combination of proper nutrition, possibly associated with the use of dietary supplements and a regular exercise program. We performed a narrative literature review to evaluate the till-now evidence regarding (1) the metabolic and nutritional correlates of sarcopenia; (2) the optimum diet therapy for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 67 eligible studies. In addition to the well recognized link between adequate intake of proteins/amino acids and sarcopenia, the recent literature underlines that in sarcopenic elderly subjects there is an unbalance in vitamin D synthesis and in omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio. Given the detrimental effect of these metabolic abnormalities, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the treatment of sarcopenia. The optimum diet therapy for the sarcopenia treatment must aim at achieving specific metabolic goals, which must be reached through accession of the elderly to specific personalized dietary program aimed at achieving and/or maintaining muscle mass; increasing their intake of fish (4 times/week) or taking omega-3 PUFA supplements; taking vitamin D supplementation, if there are low serum levels.

  4. Prevalence of sarcopenia in a media and long stay Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Maicas, C; Duarte-Alfonso, E; Beseler-Soto, M R; Moreno-Muñoz, I; Moral-Moral, P; Merino-Torres, J F

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia is characterized by the loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength and represents a risk factor for frailty, loss of independence and physical disabilities. This study aimed to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia in a population of patients admitted to a media and long-stay unit. Descriptive, cross-sectional observational study that included 166 patients over 18 years who were admitted consecutively for a year to palliative care, convalescence or rehabilitation. Administrative and anthropometric data were recorded. Sarcopenia detection was performed by assessing the strength in the scapular and pelvic girdle muscles, grip strength in the hands, muscle mass and physical functional capacity. The overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 77.6%. Most patients had severe sarcopenia (91.2%), with reduced levels of the 3 assessed parameters: muscle strength (88.2%), muscle mass (85.5%) and physical performance (94.70%). The prevalence of sarcopenia in patients admitted to our media and long-stay unit is higher than that reported in noninstitutionalized populations, and often has a significant degree of severity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  5. Inflammation and sarcopenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bano, Giulia; Trevisan, Caterina; Carraro, Sara; Solmi, Marco; Luchini, Claudio; Stubbs, Brendon; Manzato, Enzo; Sergi, Giuseppe; Veronese, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory cytokines have been shown to prompt muscle wasting, ultimately stimulating protein catabolism and suppressing muscle synthesis. However, the possible association between inflammatory parameters and sarcopenia is poorly understood. We therefore aimed to summarize the current evidence about this topic with a meta-analysis of studies reporting serum inflammatory parameters in patients with sarcopenia vs. people without sarcopenia (controls). An electronic PubMed and Scopus search through to 09/01/2016 and meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies comparing serum levels of inflammatory cytokines between patients with sarcopenia and controls was made, calculating random-effects standardized mean differences (SMDs) ±95% confidence intervals (CIs) as the effect size. Out of 1370 initial hits, 17 studies with a total of 11249 participants (3072 with sarcopenia and 8177 without) were meta-analyzed. Sarcopenic participants had significantly higher levels of CRP (SMD=0.51; 95%CI 0.26, 0.77; psarcopenia versus controls. Sarcopenic people did not have higher levels of TNF-α than controls (SMD=0.28; 95%CI -0.26, 0.83; p=0.31; I 2 =97%). In conclusion, sarcopenia seems to be associated with elevated serum CRP levels; future longitudinal studies are needed to clarify this relationship. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Relationship between major dietary patterns and sarcopenia among menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Reza; Aliakbar, Sima; Abdollahi, Afsoun; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Maghbooli, Zhila; Mirzaei, Khadijeh

    2017-12-01

    Dietary habits have been associated with the prevalence of the sarcopenia and limited data are available in this field for menopausal women. This study focused on the relationship between dietary patterns and prevalence of the sarcopenia in menopausal women. This cross-sectional study was done in 250 menopausal women 45 years old or older. Dietary data were collected using a food-frequency questionnaire and physical activity was assessed by International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Height, weight, skeletal muscle mass, hand grip, and gait speed were measured and sarcopenia was defined based on European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) guidelines. Using factor analysis, two major dietary patterns were found: a Western pattern (high in commercial beverage, sugar and dessert, snacks, solid fat, potato, high fat dairy, legume, organ meat, fast food, and sweets) and a Mediterranean pattern (high in olive, low-fat dairy, vegetable, fish, nut, and vegetable oil). After adjusting for confounding variables, for the highest vs the lowest tertiles, the Odds Ratio (OR) for sarcopenia was 1.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.47-2.37] in the Western pattern and 0.40 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-0.89] in the Mediterranean pattern. Our findings suggest that Mediterranean dietary pattern has a favorable role in the prevention of sarcopenia.

  7. Novel Insights on Nutrient Management of Sarcopenia in Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, Mariangela; Faliva, Milena; Monteferrario, Francesca; Peroni, Gabriella; Repaci, Erica

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and strength. The more rationale approach to delay the progression of sarcopenia is based on the combination of proper nutrition, possibly associated with the use of dietary supplements and a regular exercise program. We performed a narrative literature review to evaluate the till-now evidence regarding (1) the metabolic and nutritional correlates of sarcopenia; (2) the optimum diet therapy for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 67 eligible studies. In addition to the well recognized link between adequate intake of proteins/amino acids and sarcopenia, the recent literature underlines that in sarcopenic elderly subjects there is an unbalance in vitamin D synthesis and in omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio. Given the detrimental effect of these metabolic abnormalities, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the treatment of sarcopenia. The optimum diet therapy for the sarcopenia treatment must aim at achieving specific metabolic goals, which must be reached through accession of the elderly to specific personalized dietary program aimed at achieving and/or maintaining muscle mass; increasing their intake of fish (4 times/week) or taking omega-3 PUFA supplements; taking vitamin D supplementation, if there are low serum levels. PMID:25705670

  8. Novel Insights on Nutrient Management of Sarcopenia in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Rondanelli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and strength. The more rationale approach to delay the progression of sarcopenia is based on the combination of proper nutrition, possibly associated with the use of dietary supplements and a regular exercise program. We performed a narrative literature review to evaluate the till-now evidence regarding (1 the metabolic and nutritional correlates of sarcopenia; (2 the optimum diet therapy for the treatment of these abnormalities. This review included 67 eligible studies. In addition to the well recognized link between adequate intake of proteins/amino acids and sarcopenia, the recent literature underlines that in sarcopenic elderly subjects there is an unbalance in vitamin D synthesis and in omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio. Given the detrimental effect of these metabolic abnormalities, a change in the lifestyle must be the cornerstone in the treatment of sarcopenia. The optimum diet therapy for the sarcopenia treatment must aim at achieving specific metabolic goals, which must be reached through accession of the elderly to specific personalized dietary program aimed at achieving and/or maintaining muscle mass; increasing their intake of fish (4 times/week or taking omega-3 PUFA supplements; taking vitamin D supplementation, if there are low serum levels.

  9. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and sarcopenia in a Western population (NHANES III): The importance of sarcopenia definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Tao-Chun; Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Kao, Tung-Wei

    2017-12-08

    Recent epidemiological studies have shown that sarcopenia is associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and advanced fibrosis in an Asian population. We investigated whether NAFLD is associated with a higher risk of sarcopenia using a different definition in elderly patients. A population-based cross-sectional survey of US patients was conducted, involving 2551 participants aged 60-75 years. NAFLD was measured by ultrasound. Sarcopenia was defined by both a low muscle mass and poor muscle function. In addition, the skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as the absolute muscle mass (kilograms) divided by height 2 (meters) or total body mass (kilograms). A multivariable logistic regression was conducted to estimate the relationship between sarcopenia and NAFLD in the elderly. After adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, severe hepatic steatosis was associated with a decreased risk of sarcopenia as defined by the height-adjusted SMI (odds ratio (OR) 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-0.87). In contrast, severe hepatic steatosis was associated with an increased risk of sarcopenia as defined by the weight-adjusted SMI (OR 1.73; 95% CI 1.31-2.28). These significant associations remained after further adjustments for other potential confounding variables. NAFLD is associated with a lower risk of sarcopenia when using the height-adjusted SMI. In contrast, it showed the opposite result when using the weight-adjusted SMI. The definition of sarcopenia may be an important factor when examining its relationship with NAFLD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of sarcopenia and functionality indicators on the frailty profile of community-dwelling elderly subjects: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana U. Viana

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Frailty and sarcopenia are frequent conditions in the elderly and are related to inactivity and functionality. However, little is known about the influence of the sarcopenia indicators on the frailty profile or their functional implications. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the indirect indicators of sarcopenia and functionality influence the frailty profile in elderly subjects. METHOD : This was a cross-sectional study with 53 elderly subjects recruited by an active search in a secondary health care service. The indirect indicators of sarcopenia were body mass index (BMI, gait speed, Mini-Nutritional Assessment (MNA, Human Activity Profile (HAP, and handgrip strength. Frailty was characterized according to Fried's Frailty Phenotype. Functional capacity was assessed according to the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB. Physical activity level was assessed by HAP. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA and multiple regression. RESULTS: Overall, 75.5% of the subjects were women, with a mean age of 76.72 (±5.89 years; 15.1% were frail and 54.7% pre-frail; and the level of physical activity was the most prevalent indicator of sarcopenia. Significant differences (p<0.05 were observed in both the physical activity level and gait speed between the non-frail and pre-frail groups and between the non-frail and frail groups. In addition, some sarcopenia indicators were associated with functional capacity and geriatric depression score. CONCLUSION: The level of physical activity and gait speed appeared to be the most relevant factors in the development of frailty in the study sample, which may have functional implications.

  11. Rehabilitation nutrition for sarcopenia with disability: a combination of both rehabilitation and nutrition care management

    OpenAIRE

    Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Sakuma, Kunihiro

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition and sarcopenia often occur in rehabilitation settings. The prevalence of malnutrition and sarcopenia in older patients undergoing rehabilitation is 49–67 % and 40–46.5 %, respectively. Malnutrition and sarcopenia are associated with poorer rehabilitation outcome and physical function. Therefore, a combination of both rehabilitation and nutrition care management may improve outcome in disabled elderly with malnutrition and sarcopenia. The concept of rehabilitation nutrition as a c...

  12. Sarcopenia in Alcoholic Liver Disease: Clinical and Molecular Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasarathy, Jaividhya; McCullough, Arthur J; Dasarathy, Srinivasan

    2017-08-01

    Despite advances in treatment of alcohol use disorders that focus on increasing abstinence and reducing recidivism, alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is projected to be the major cause of cirrhosis and its complications. Malnutrition is recognized as the most frequent complication in ALD, and despite the high clinical significance, there are no effective therapies to reverse malnutrition in ALD. Malnutrition is a relatively imprecise term, and sarcopenia or skeletal muscle loss, the major component of malnutrition, is primarily responsible for the adverse clinical consequences in patients with liver disease. It is, therefore, critical to define the specific abnormality (sarcopenia) rather than malnutrition in ALD, so that therapies targeting sarcopenia can be developed. Skeletal muscle mass is maintained by a balance between protein synthesis and proteolysis. Both direct effects of ethanol (EtOH) and its metabolites on the skeletal muscle and the consequences of liver disease result in disturbed proteostasis (protein homeostasis) and consequent sarcopenia. Once cirrhosis develops in patients with ALD, abstinence is unlikely to be effective in completely reversing sarcopenia, as other contributors including hyperammonemia, hormonal, and cytokine abnormalities aggravate sarcopenia and maintain a state of anabolic resistance initiated by EtOH. Cirrhosis is also a state of accelerated starvation, with increased gluconeogenesis that requires amino acid diversion from signaling and substrate functions. Novel therapeutic options are being recognized that are likely to supplant the current "deficiency replacement" approach and instead focus on specific molecular perturbations, given the increasing availability of small molecules that can target specific signaling components. Myostatin antagonists, leucine supplementation, and mitochondrial protective agents are currently in various stages of evaluation in preclinical studies to prevent and reverse sarcopenia, in cirrhosis in

  13. The Association between Parameters of Malnutrition and Diagnostic Measures of Sarcopenia in Geriatric Outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, E.M.; Trappenburg, M.C.; Leter, M.J.; Blauw, G. J.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.; Meskers, C.G.M.; Maier, A.B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia include measures of muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Consensus on the definition of sarcopenia has not been reached yet. To improve insight into the most clinically valid definition of sarcopenia, this study aimed to compare the

  14. Sarcopenia and androgens: A link between pathology and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla eBasualto-Alarcón

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is becoming more prevalent as the lifespan continues to increase in most populations. As sarcopenia is highly disabling, being associated with increased risk of dependence, falls, fractures, weakness, disability, and death, development of approaches to its prevention and treatment are required. Androgens are the main physiologic anabolic steroid hormones and normal testosterone levels are necessary for a range of developmental and biological processes, including maintenance of muscle mass. Testosterone concentrations decline as age increase, suggesting that low plasma testosterone levels can cause or accelerate muscle- and age-related diseases, as sarcopenia. Currently, there is increasing interest on the anabolic properties of testosterone for therapeutic use in muscle diseases including sarcopenia. However, the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this muscle syndrome and its relationship with plasma level of androgens are not completely understood. This review discusses the recent findings regarding sarcopenia, the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms involved in the onset and progression of this disease and the treatment approaches that have been developed based on testosterone deficiency and their implications.

  15. The Effect of Sarcopenia on Outcomes in Geriatric Blunt Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekpour, Mahdi; Bridgham, Kelly; Jaap, Kathryn; Erwin, Ryan; Widom, Kenneth; Rapp, Megan; Leonard, Diane; Baro, Susan; Dove, James; Hunsinger, Marie; Blansfield, Joseph; Shabahang, Mohsen; Torres, Denise; Wild, Jeffrey

    2017-11-01

    Elderly patients are at a higher risk of morbidity and mortality after trauma, which is reflected through higher frailty indices. Data collection using existing frailty indices is often not possible because of brain injury, dementia, or inability to communicate with the patient. Sarcopenia is a reliable objective measure for frailty that can be readily assessed in CT imaging. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of sarcopenia on the outcomes of geriatric blunt trauma patients. Left psoas area (LPA) was measured at the level of the third lumbar vertebra on the axial CT images. LPA was normalized for height (LPA mm2/m2) and after stratification by gender, sarcopenia was defined as LPA measurements in the lowest quartile. A total of 1175 patients consisting of 597 males and 578 females were studied. LPAs below 242.6 mm2/m2 in males and below 187.8 mm2/m2 in females were considered to be sarcopenic. We found sarcopenia in 149 males and 145 females. In multivariate analysis, sarcopenia was associated with a higher risk of in-hospital mortality (odds ratio [OR]: 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-2.56) and a higher risk of discharge to less favorable destinations (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.05-1.97). Lastly, sarcopenic patients had an increased risk of prolonged hospitalization (hazard ratio: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.04-1.40).

  16. Portable modular detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, James S [Rodeo, CA; Singh, Anup [Danville, CA; Throckmorton, Daniel J [Tracy, CA; Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  17. Software Engineering for Portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanchev, Ivan

    1990-01-01

    Discussion of the portability of educational software focuses on the software design and development process. Topics discussed include levels of portability; the user-computer dialog; software engineering principles; design techniques for student performance records; techniques of courseware programing; and suggestions for further research and…

  18. Portable Medical Laboratory Applications Software

    OpenAIRE

    Silbert, Jerome A.

    1983-01-01

    Portability implies that a program can be run on a variety of computers with minimal software revision. The advantages of portability are outlined and design considerations for portable laboratory software are discussed. Specific approaches for achieving this goal are presented.

  19. Implications of ICD-10 for Sarcopenia Clinical Practice and Clinical Trials: Report by the International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellas, B; Fielding, R A; Bens, C; Bernabei, R; Cawthon, P M; Cederholm, T; Cruz-Jentoft, A J; Del Signore, S; Donahue, S; Morley, J; Pahor, M; Reginster, J-Y; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, Y; Roubenoff, R; Sinclair, A; Cesari, M

    2018-01-01

    Establishment of an ICD-10-CM code for sarcopenia in 2016 was an important step towards reaching international consensus on the need for a nosological framework of age-related skeletal muscle decline. The International Conference on Frailty and Sarcopenia Research Task Force met in April 2017 to discuss the meaning, significance, and barriers to the implementation of the new code as well as strategies to accelerate development of new therapies. Analyses by the Sarcopenia Definitions and Outcomes Consortium are underway to develop quantitative definitions of sarcopenia. A consensus conference is planned to evaluate this analysis. The Task Force also discussed lessons learned from sarcopenia trials that could be applied to future trials, as well as lessons from the osteoporosis field, a clinical condition with many constructs similar to sarcopenia and for which ad hoc treatments have been developed and approved by regulatory agencies.

  20. Is there a relation between pre-sarcopenia, sarcopenia, cachexia and osteoporosis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Maghraoui, Abdellah; Ebo'o, François Bertin; Sadni, Siham; Majjad, Abderrahim; Hamza, Toufik; Mounach, Aziza

    2016-07-11

    Osteoporosis is a well-known complication of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, data about body composition modifications and muscle performance showed conflicting results. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of pre-sarcopenia, sarcopenia and cachexia in patients with AS and analyze its relationship with bone loss and symptomatic and severity parameters of the disease. Sixty-seven consecutive male patients with AS (mean age of 40.9 ± 11.0 years) and 67 healthy controls were studied. Body composition and bone mineral density (BMD) scans were obtained using DXA. The fat-free mass index (FFMI; fat-free mass divided by height squared) and the percent of fat mass (%FM) were calculated. Pre-sarcopenia was defined by low skeletal muscle mass (SMI 10 s) and cachexia by a BMI 5 mg/l, SMI cachexia, and osteoporosis prevalences were (50.4, 34.3, 11.9, and 16.0) respectively. Patients had a mean 3 kg significant decrease in FFM and a 1 kg/m(2) decrease in appendicular mass vs. healthy controls. Pre-sarcopenia, sarcopenia and cachexia were significantly associated to higher BASDAI levels and low BMD. Our study showed that men with AS had a statistically significant reduction in total and appendicular lean mass that is related to higher disease activity and significantly associated to bone loss.

  1. Association between pre‐sarcopenia, sarcopenia, and bone mineral density in patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bering, Tatiana; Diniz, Kiara G.D.; Coelho, Marta Paula P.; Vieira, Diego A.; Soares, Maria Marta S.; Kakehasi, Adriana M.; Correia, Maria Isabel T.D.; Teixeira, Rosângela; Queiroz, Dulciene M.M.; Rocha, Gifone A.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Preserved skeletal muscle is essential for the maintenance of healthy bone. Loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and muscle strength, considered a predictor of BMD, have been demonstrated in patients with cirrhosis, but they are poorly studied in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) without cirrhosis. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the prevalence of low BMD and its association with body composition, muscle strength, and nutritional status in CHC. Methods One hundred and four subjects [mean age, 50.5 ± 11.3 years; 75.0% males; 67.3% non‐cirrhotic; and 32.7% with compensated cirrhosis] with CHC, prospectively, underwent scanning of the lean tissue, appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), fat mass, lumbar spine, hip, femoral neck, and whole‐body BMD by dual‐energy X‐ray absorptiometry. Muscle strength was assessed by dynamometry. Sarcopenia was defined by the presence of both low, ASM/height2 (ASMI) and low muscle strength according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. The cut‐off points for low ASMI and low muscle strength, for women and men, were  50 years, the T‐score of osteopenia is between −1.0 and −2.49 standard deviation (SD) below the young average value and of osteoporosis is ≥−2.5 SD below the young normal mean for men, and the Z‐score of low bone mass is ≤−2.0 SD below the expected range in men aged < 50 years and women in the menacme. Nutritional status evaluation was based on the Controlling Nutritional Status score. Results Low BMD, low muscle strength, pre‐sarcopenia, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity were observed in 34.6% (36/104), 27.9% (29/104), 14.4% (15/104), 8.7% (9/104), and 3.8% (4/104) of the patients, respectively. ASMI was an independent predictor of BMD (P < 0.001). Sarcopenia was independently associated with bone mineral content (P = 0.02) and malnutrition (P = 0.01). In 88.9% of the sarcopenic patients and in all with sarcopenic obesity, BMI was normal

  2. Association of the Baltic Sea and Mediterranean diets with indices of sarcopenia in elderly women, OSPTRE-FPS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isanejad, Masoud; Sirola, Joonas; Mursu, Jaakko; Rikkonen, Toni; Kröger, Heikki; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Erkkilä, Arja T

    2017-03-16

    To examine whether higher adherence to Baltic Sea diet (BSD) and Mediterranean diet (MED) have beneficial association with sarcopenia indices in elderly women. In total 554 women, aged 65-72 years belonging to OSTPRE-FPS study answered a questionnaire on lifestyle factors and 3-day food record at baseline in 2002. Food consumptions and nutrient intakes were calculated. Nine components were selected to calculate BSD score. MED score was calculated using eight components. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Physical function measures included walking speed 10 m, chair rises, one leg stance, knee extension, handgrip strength and squat at baseline and at year 3. Sarcopenia and short physical performance battery (SPPB) score were defined based on the European working group on sarcopenia criteria. Lower body muscle quality (LBMQ) was calculated as walking speed 10 m/leg muscle mass. Women in the higher quartiles of BSD and MED scores lost less relative skeletal muscle index and total body lean mass (LM) over 3-year follow-up (P trend  ≤ 0.034). At the baseline, women in the higher BSD score quartiles had greater LM, faster walking speed 10 m, greater LBMQ, higher SPPB score (P trend  ≤ 0.034), and higher proportion of squat test completion. Similarly, women in the higher quartiles of MED sore had significantly faster walking speed 10 m, greater LBMQ (P trend  ≤ 0.041) and higher proportion of squat test completion. Better diet quality as measured by higher adherence to BSD and MED might reduce the risk of sarcopenia in elderly women.

  3. The endocrine system and sarcopenia: potential therapeutic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntire, Kevin L; Hoffman, Andrew R

    2011-12-01

    Age related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia, is a major factor in disability, loss of mobility and quality of life in the elderly. There are many proposed mechanisms of age-related muscle loss that include the endocrine system. A variety of hormones regulate growth, development and metabolism throughout the lifespan. Hormone activity may change with age as a result of reduced hormone secretion or decreased tissue responsiveness. This review will focus on the complex interplay between the endocrine system, aging and skeletal muscle and will present possible benefits of therapeutic interventions for sarcopenia.

  4. Evaluation of sarcopenia in patients with distal radius fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Young Hak; Koh, Young Do; Noh, Jung Ho; Gong, Hyun Sik; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2017-12-01

    Sarcopenia is more prevalent in patients with distal radius fracture (DRF) than in age- and sex-matched controls. Lower appendicular mass index in men and weaker grip strength in both men and women increase the likelihood of DRF. Sarcopenia is a core component of physical frailty that predisposes older people to falls and negatively impacts the activities of daily living. The objectives of this study were to compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with DRF with that in age- and sex-matched controls without DRF; and evaluate the association between sarcopenia and the occurrence of DRF. We prospectively recruited 132 patients over 50 years of age who sustained DRF due to fall and 132 age- and sex-matched controls without DRF. A definition of sarcopenia was based on the consensus of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Sarcopenic components including appendicular lean body mass, grip strength, and gait speed were compared between the two groups. Other factors assessed for the occurrence of DRF were age, gender, body mass index (BMI), lumbar, and hip bone mineral density (BMD) values. A conditional logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the associations between sarcopenia and the occurrence of DRF. A total of 39 (30%) of 132 DRF patients were sarcopenic, whereas 23 (17%) of the 132 controls were within the sarcopenic criteria (p = 0.048). The patient group had significantly lower lean body mass and weaker grip strength than those of the control group. However, there was no significant difference in gait speed between the two groups. According to regression analysis, lower appendicular mass index in men was associated with an increased incidence of DRF (odds ratio [OR] = 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.72, 0.95) while weaker grip strength and lower total hip BMD values were associated with the occurrence of DRF in both men (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.63, 0.92; and OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.64, 0.94, respectively) and women (OR

  5. Respiratory muscle strength in relation to sarcopenia in elderly cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Oka, Koichiro; Kasahara, Yusuke; Morio, Yuji; Hiraki, Koji; Hirano, Yasuyuki; Omori, Yutaka; Suzuki, Norio; Kida, Keisuke; Suzuki, Kengo; Akashi, Yoshihiro J

    2016-12-01

    Little information exists on the relation between respiratory muscle strength such as maximum inspiratory muscle pressure (MIP) and sarcopenia in elderly cardiac patients. The present study aimed to determine the differences in MIP, and cutoff values for MIP according to sarcopenia in elderly cardiac patients. We enrolled 63 consecutive elderly male patients aged ≥65 years with cardiac disease in this cross-sectional study. Sarcopenia was defined based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People algorithm, and, accordingly, the patients were divided into two groups: the sarcopenia group (n = 24) and non-sarcopenia group (n = 39). The prevalence of sarcopenia in cardiac patients and MIP in the patients with and without sarcopenia were assessed to determine cutoff values of MIP. After adjustment for body mass index, the MIP in the sarcopenia group was significantly lower than that in the non-sarcopenia group (54.7 ± 36.8 cmH 2 O; 95 % CI 42.5-72.6 vs. 80.7 ± 34.7 cmH 2 O; 95 % CI 69.5-92.0; F = 4.89, p = 0.029). A receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis of patients with and without sarcopenia identified a cutoff value for MIP of 55.6 cmH 2 O, with a sensitivity of 0.76, 1-specificity of 0.37, and AUC of 0.70 (95 % CI 0.56-0.83; p = 0.01) in the study patients. Compared with elderly cardiac patients without sarcopenia, MIP in those with sarcopenia may be negatively affected. The MIP cutoff value reported here may be a useful minimum target value for identifying elderly male cardiac patients with sarcopenia.

  6. Assistive technologies to overcome sarcopenia in ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Rachel A; Callisaya, Michele L; Duque, Gustavo; Ebeling, Peter R; Scott, David

    2018-06-01

    Sarcopenia is an age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function that results in disability and loss of independence. It affects up to 30% of older adults. Exercise (particularly progressive resistance training) and nutrition are key strategies in preventing and reversing declines in muscle mass, strength and power during ageing, but many sarcopenic older adults fail to meet recommended levels of both physical activity and dietary nutrient intake. Assistive technology (AT) describes devices or systems used to maintain or improve physical functioning. These may help sarcopenic older adults to maintain independence, and also to achieve adequate physical activity and nutrition. There is a paucity of research exploring the use of AT in sarcopenic patients, but there is evidence that AT, including walking aids, may reduce functional decline in other populations with disability. Newer technologies, such as interactive and virtual reality games, as well as wearable devices and smartphone applications, smart homes, 3D printed foods, exoskeletons and robotics, and neuromuscular electrical stimulation also hold promise for improving engagement in physical activity and nutrition behaviours to prevent further functional declines. While AT may be beneficial for sarcopenic patients, clinicians should be aware of its potential limitations. In particular, there are high rates of patient abandonment of AT, which may be minimised by appropriate training and monitoring of use. Clinicians should preferentially prescribe AT devices which promote physical activity. Further research is required in sarcopenic populations to identify strategies for effective use of current and emerging AT devices. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Portable Instrumented Communication Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geist, G.A.; Heath, M.T.; Peyton, B.W.; Worley, P.H.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: PICL is a subroutine library that can be used to develop parallel programs that are portable across several distributed-memory multi-processors. PICL provides a portable syntax for key communication primitives and related system calls. It also provides portable routines to perform certain widely- used, high-level communication operations, such as global broadcast and global summation. PICL provides execution tracing that can be used to monitor performance or to aid in debugging. 2 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: PICL is a compatibility library built on top of the native multiprocessor operating system and message passing primitives. Thus, the portability of PICL programs is not guaranteed, being a function of idiosyncrasies of the different platforms. Predictable differences are captured with standard error trapping routines. PICL is a research tool, not a production software system

  8. Portable treatment systems study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas.

  9. Portable treatment systems study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherick, M.J.; Schwinkendorf, W.E.; Bechtold, T.E.; Cole, L.T.

    1997-03-01

    In developing their Site Treatment Plans (STPs), many of the Department of Energy installations identified some form of portable treatment, to facilitate compliant disposition of select mixed low-level wastestreams. The Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology requested that a systems study be performed to better define the potential role of portable treatment with respect to mixed low-level waste, highlight obstacles to implementation, and identify opportunities for future research and development emphasis. The study was performed by first establishing a representative set of mixed waste, then formulating portable treatment system concepts to meet the required processing needs for these wastes. The portable systems that were conceptualized were evaluated and compared to a fixed centralized treatment alternative. The system evaluations include a life-cycle cost analysis and an assessment of regulatory, institutional, and technical issues associated with the potential use of portable systems. The results of this study show that when all costs are included, there are no significant cost differences between portable systems and fixed systems. However, it is also emphasized that many uncertainties exist that could impact the cost of implementing portable treatment systems. Portable treatment could be made more attractive through private sector implementation, although there is little economic incentive for a commercial vendor to develop small, specialized treatment capabilities with limited applicability. Alternatively, there may also be valid reasons why fixed units cannot be used for some problematic wastestreams. In any event, there are some site-specific problems that still need to be addressed, and there may be some opportunity for research and development to make a positive impact in these areas

  10. Borderlines between sarcopenia and mild late-onset muscle disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna ePalmio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerous natural or disease-related alterations occur in different tissues of the body with advancing age. Sarcopenia is defined as age-related decrease of muscle mass and strength beginning in mid-adulthood and accelerating in people older than 60 years. Pathophysiology of sarcopenia involves both neural and muscle dependent mechanisms and is enhanced by multiple factors. Aged muscles show loss in fiber number, fiber atrophy and gradual increase in the number of ragged red fibers and cytochrome c oxidase-negative fibers. Generalized loss of muscle tissue and increased amount of intramuscular fat is seen on muscle imaging. However, the degree of these changes vary greatly between individuals and the distinction between normal age-related weakening of muscle strength and clinically significant muscle disease is not always obvious. Because some of the genetic myopathies can present at a very late age and be mild in severity, the correct diagnosis is easily missed. We highlight this difficult borderline zone between sarcopenia and muscle disease by two examples: LGMD1D and myotonic dystrophy type 2. Muscle MRI is a useful tool to help differentiate myopathies from sarcopenia and to reach the correct diagnosis also in the elderly.

  11. Sarcopenia and critical illness: a deadly combination in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Joseph S

    2015-03-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of lean skeletal muscle mass. It is the result of multiple physiologic derangements, ultimately resulting in an insidious functional decline. Frailty, the clinical manifestation of sarcopenia and physical infirmity, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The underlying pathology results in a disruption of the individual's ability to tolerate internal and external stressors such as injury or illness. This infirmity results in a markedly increased risk of falls and subsequent morbidity and mortality from the resulting traumatic injury, as well as an inability to recover from medical insults, resulting in critical illness. The increasing prevalence of sarcopenia and critical illness in the elderly has resulted in a deadly intersection of disease processes. The lethality of this combination appears to be the result of altered muscle metabolism, decreased mitochondrial energetics needed to survive critical illness, and a chronically activated catabolic state likely mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, these underlying derangements are independently associated with an increased incidence of critical illness, resulting in a progressive downward spiral. Considerable evidence has been gathered supporting the role of aggressive nutrition support and physical therapy in improving outcomes. Critical care practitioners must consider sarcopenia and the resulting frailty phenotype a comorbid condition so that the targeted interventions can be instituted and research efforts focused. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  12. Prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with socioeconomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It imposes significant costs on health care systems. Socioeconomic status is also the root cause of healthy challenges among the elderly. Therefore, investigating the association between ...

  13. Common Ground? The Concordance of Sarcopenia and Frailty Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M.; Trappenburg, Marijke C.; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Verlaan, Sjors; de van der Schueren, Marian A.E.; Meskers, Carel G.M.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to explore the concordance between definitions of sarcopenia and frailty in a clinically relevant population of geriatric outpatients. Design: Data were retrieved from a cross-sectional study. Setting: The study was performed in a geriatric outpatient clinic of a

  14. Role and potential mechanisms of anabolic resistance in sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a pressing need to understand the aging process to better cope with its associated physical and societal costs. The age-related muscle wasting known as sarcopenia is a major contributor to the problems faced by the elderly. By hindering mobility and reducing strength, it greatly diminishes ...

  15. Resistance Exercise to Prevent and Manage Sarcopenia and Dynapenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Timothy D; Clark, Leatha A; Clark, Brian C

    For well over twenty centuries the muscle wasting (sarcopenia) and weakness (dynapenia) that occurs with old age has been a predominant concern of mankind. Exercise has long been suggested as a treatment to combat sarcopenia and dynapenia, as it exerts effects on both the nervous and muscular systems that are critical to positive physiological and functional adaptations (e.g., enhanced muscle strength). For more than two decades scientists have recognized the profound role that progressive resistance exercise training can have on increasing muscle strength, muscle size and functional capacity in older adults. In this review article we discuss how resistance exercise training can be used in the management and prevention of sarcopenia and dynapenia. We first provide an overview of the evidence for this notion and highlight certain critical factors- namely exercise intensity, volume and progression- that are key to optimizing the resistance exercise prescription. We then highlight how many, if not most, of the commonly prescribed exercise programs for seniors are not the 'best practices', and subsequently present easy-to-read guidelines for a well-rounded resistance exercise training program designed for the management and prevention of sarcopenia and dynapenia, including example training programs for the beginner through the advanced senior resistance exerciser. These guidelines have been written for the academician as well as the student and health care provider across a variety of disciplines, including those in the long term care industry, such as wellness instructors or activity directors.

  16. Inflammatory markers and loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Laura A; Pluijm, Saskia M F; Deeg, Dorly J H; Visser, Marjolein

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate whether high levels of serum interleukin (IL)-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), and alpha1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) were associated with the loss of muscle strength or muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons. SUBJECTS: The study included 986 men and

  17. Carla Task Force on Sarcopenia: propositions for clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abellan van Kan, G.; Andre, E.; Bischoff Ferrari, H.A.; Boirie, Y.; Onder, G.; Pahor, M.; Ritz, P; Rolland, Y.; Sampaio, C.; Studenski, S.; Visser, M.; Vellas, B.

    2009-01-01

    In the presence of an aging population, public health priorities need to evolve. As the populations gets older, the already existing pathologies have become commonplace with specific geriatric clinical syndromes like frailty, mobility disability, or cognitive impairment, among others. Sarcopenia is

  18. Vitamin B12 deficiency might be related to sarcopenia in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulut, Esra Ates; Soysal, Pinar; Aydin, Ali Ekrem; Dokuzlar, Ozge; Kocyigit, Suleyman Emre; Isik, Ahmet Turan

    2017-09-01

    Sarcopenia and dynapenia are related to repeated falls, mobility restriction, depression, frailty, increased mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between vitamin B12 deficiency and sarcopenia in older adults. 403 patients, who attended to outpatient clinic and underwent comprehensive geriatric assessment, were included study. All cases' skeletal muscle mass (SMM), walking speed and hand grip strength were recorded by bioimpedance, 4meter walking test and hand dynamometer respectively. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was defined according to the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Sarcopenia was accepted low SMM with low handgrip strength or low physical performance. Dynapenia was defined as handgrip strength sarcopenia and dynapenia was 24.8% and 32.0%, respectively. In the patients with sarcopenia, mean age, osteoporosis and frailty were higher, and MMSE, and instrumental ADL scores were lower than the patients without sarcopenia (psarcopenia and dynapenia were 31.6% and 35.4%, respectively, in patients with vitamin B12 levels Sarcopenia, which results in lots of negative clinical outcomes in older adults, might be related to vitamin B12 deficiency. Therefore, these patients should be periodically examined for vitamin B12 deficiency due to the potential negative clinical outcomes such as sarcopenia in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A path model of sarcopenia on bone mass loss in elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondanelli, M; Guido, D; Opizzi, A; Faliva, M A; Perna, S; Grassi, M

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with decreases in muscle mass, strength, power (sarcopenia) and bone mineral density (BMD). The aims of this study were to investigate in elderly the role of sarcopenia on BMD loss by a path model, including adiposity, inflammation, and malnutrition associations. Body composition and BMD were measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry in 159 elderly subjects (52 male/107 female; mean age 80.3 yrs). Muscle strength was determined with dynamometer. Serum albumin and PCR were also assessed. Structural equations examined the effect of sarcopenia (measured by Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass, Total Muscle Mass, Handgrip, Muscle Quality Score) on osteoporosis (measured by Vertebral and Femoral T-scores) in a latent variable model including adiposity (measured by Total Fat Mass, BMI, Ginoid/Android Fat), inflammation (PCR), and malnutrition (serum albumin). The sarcopenia assumed a role of moderator in the adiposity-osteoporosis relationship. Specifically, increasing the sarcopenia, the relationship adiposity-osteoporosis (β: -0.58) decrease in intensity. Adiposity also influences sarcopenia (β: -0.18). Malnutrition affects the inflammatory and the adiposity states (β: +0.61, and β: -0.30, respectively), while not influencing the sarcopenia. Thus, adiposity has a role as a mediator of the effect of malnutrition on both sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Malnutrition decreases adiposity; decreasing adiposity, in turn, increase the sarcopenia and osteoporosis. This study suggests such as in a group of elderly sarcopenia affects the link between adiposity and BMD, but not have a pure independent effect on osteoporosis.

  20. Bioelectrical impedance analysis for diagnosing sarcopenia and cachexia: what are we really estimating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Maria Cristina; Heymsfield, Steven B

    2017-04-01

    As reference methods are not available for identifying low skeletal muscle mass in clinical practice, the European Group on Sarcopenia in Older People the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia and the International Consensus for Cancer Cachexia guidelines accept bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) as an option for sarcopenia and cachexia assessment. Using different BIA equations, several components that represent 'muscularity' can be assessed. Total skeletal muscle mass or appendicular skeletal muscle mass normalized in relation to height (skeletal muscle mass index or appendicular skeletal muscle index, respectively) is the most common term used in the consensus. These terms are similar, but they should not be used as synonymous. Both terms can be used to define sarcopenia, but adequate equations and cut-off values should be used according to the studied population. However, there is a disagreement between the sarcopenia definition assessed by using BIA from the European Group on Sarcopenia in Older People and Cachexia Consensus, and this can lead to an overestimation of sarcopenia and, consequently, cachexia. An effort should be made to standardize the terminology employed by the Societies to define low muscularity and sarcopenia by using BIA. Future validation studies may show the need for specific cut-off values for each population using this method. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  1. Sarcopenia is associated with an increased risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youn Su; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Lee, Jae Kyung; Kim, Joo Sung; Koh, Seong-Joon

    2017-04-01

    Although sarcopenia is associated with an increased risk for mortality after the curative resection of colorectal cancer, its influence on the development of advanced colonic neoplasia remains unclear. This study included 1270 subjects aged 40 years or older evaluated with first-time screening colonoscopy at Seoul National University Boramae Health Care Center from January 2010 to February 2015. Skeletal muscle mass was measured with a body composition analyzer (direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis method). Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with advanced colorectal neoplasia. Of 1270 subjects, 139 (10.9%) were categorized into the sarcopenia group and 1131 (89.1%) into the non-sarcopenia group. In the non-sarcopenia group, 55 subjects (4.9%) had advanced colorectal neoplasia. However, in the sarcopenia group, 19 subjects (13.7%) had advanced colorectal neoplasia, including 1 subject with invasive colorectal cancer (0.7%). In addition, subjects with sarcopenia had a higher prevalence of advanced adenoma (P sarcopenia. According to the multiple logistic regression analysis adjusted for variable confounders, age (odds ratio 1.062, 95% confidence interval 1.032-1.093; P sarcopenia (odds ratio 2.347, 95% confidence interval 1.311-4.202; P = 0.004) were associated with an advanced colorectal neoplasia. Sarcopenia is associated with an increased risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia.

  2. Relationship between sarcopenia and physical activity in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffl, Michal; Bohannon, Richard W; Sontakova, Lenka; Tufano, James J; Shiells, Kate; Holmerova, Iva

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) has been identified as beneficial for many diseases and health disorders, including sarcopenia. The positive influence of PA interventions on sarcopenia has been described previously on many occasions. Current reviews on the topic include studies with varied PA interventions for sarcopenia; nevertheless, no systematic review exploring the effects of PA in general on sarcopenia has been published. The main aim of this study was to explore the relationship between PA and sarcopenia in older people on the basis of cross-sectional and cohort studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO host , and ScienceDirect for articles addressing the relationship between PA and sarcopenia. Twenty-five articles were ultimately included in the qualitative and quantitative syntheses. A statistically significant association between PA and sarcopenia was documented in most of the studies, as well as the protective role of PA against sarcopenia development. Furthermore, the meta-analysis indicated that PA reduces the odds of acquiring sarcopenia in later life (odds ratio [OR] =0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.55). The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis confirm the beneficial influence of PA in general for the prevention of sarcopenia.

  3. Sarcopenia and mortality in older people living in a nursing home in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Ahmet; Aras, Sevgi; Atmis, Volkan; Cengiz, Ozlem Karaarslan; Cinar, Esat; Atli, Teslime; Varli, Murat

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between mortality and sarcopenia defined by the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People in older nursing home residents in Turkey. This was an observational prospective study. Nursing home residents who were aged older than 65 years and living in the Seyranbagları Nursing Home and Rehabilitation Center (Ankara, Turkey) were recruited for the study. The main outcome measure was the relationship between sarcopenia and mortality. Diagnosis of sarcopenia was carried out according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria. Bioelectrical impedance analysis was used for skeletal muscle mass measurement. Muscle strength and muscle performance were evaluated by handgrip testing and gait speed, respectively. Mortality was assessed at the end of 2 years. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analysis were used to evaluate the relationship between sarcopenia and all-cause mortality. The prevalence of sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia were 29% and 25.4%, respectively. A total of 44% (18) of sarcopenic participants died, whereas 15% (15) of participants without sarcopenia died after 2 years of follow up (P sarcopenia was associated with all-cause mortality among older nursing home residents in Turkey (HR 2.38, 95% CI 1.04-5.46; P = 0.039). However, sarcopenia was not significantly related with mortality after adjustment of MNA score (HR 2.04, 95% CI 0.85-4.9; P = 0.1). Sarcopenia independently increases all-cause mortality in older nursing home residents in Turkey. Nutritional status plays a role in sarcopenia-related mortality. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1118-1124. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  4. Populations and outcome measures used in ongoing research in sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Ordóñez, Gloria Gabriela; Bustamante Montes, Lilia Patricia; Ramírez Duran, Ninfa; Sánchez Castellano, Carmen; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J

    2017-08-01

    Sarcopenia research may be hampered by the heterogeneity of populations and outcome measures used in clinical studies. The aim of this study was to describe the inclusion/exclusion criteria and outcome measures used in ongoing research in sarcopenia. All active intervention studies registered in the World Health Organization with the keyword sarcopenia were included. Study design, type of intervention, inclusion/exclusion criteria and outcome measures were registered and classified. In April 2014, 151 studies on sarcopenia were registered in the WHO database. One hundred twenty-three were intervention studies. Most trials (94.3 %) were single centre and randomized (93.5 %), 51.2 % were double blind. Nutritional interventions (36.6 %), physical exercise (12.2 %) or both (19.5 %) were the most common interventions tested. Only 54.4 % included subjects of both genders, and 46.3 % had an upper age limit. Definition of the target populations was heterogeneous, with 57.7 % including healthy subjects and none using recent definitions of sarcopenia. Lifestyle and the degree of physical activity of subjects were not described or considered in most cases (79.7 %). Subjects with cardiovascular, neuropsychiatric or metabolic disorders and those with physical disability were usually excluded. Muscle mass and muscle strength were the primary outcome variables in 28.5 and 29.5 % of studies and physical performance in 19.5 %, but only 4.1 % used the three variables used the three of them. An additional 26.8 % used biological outcome variables. Little information and agreement existed in the way muscle and physical performance parameters were measured. We found a large heterogeneity in trial design, definition of populations and outcome measures in present research.

  5. Sarcopenia according to the european working group on sarcopenia in older people (EWGSOP) versus Dynapenia as a risk factor for disability in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Alexandre, T; de Oliveira Duarte, Y A; Ferreira Santos, J L; Wong, R; Lebrão, M L

    2014-05-01

    Sarcopenia, defined as low muscle mass (LMM), and dynapenia have been associated with adverse outcomes in elderly. Contrast the association of sarcopenia versus dynapenia with incidence of disability. A four-year prospective study (2006-2010). São Paulo, Brazil. 478 individuals aged 60 and older from the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE) study who were non-disabled at baseline. Sarcopenia, measured according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), includes: LMM assessed by skeletal muscle mass index ≤8.90kg/m2 (men) and ≤6.37kg/m2 (women); low muscle strength (LMS) assessed by handgrip strength sarcopenia required LMM plus LMS or LPP. Dynapenia was defined as handgrip strength sarcopenia or dynapenia status. After controlling for all covariates, sarcopenia was associated with mobility or IADL disability (relative risk ratio = 2.23, 95%Confidence Interval: 1.03-4.85). Dynapenia was not associated with disability. Sarcopenia according to the EWGSOP definition can be used in clinical practice as a screening tool for early functional decline (mobility or IADL disability).

  6. Sarcopenia according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) versus dynapenia as a risk factor for mortality in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, T da Silva; Duarte, Y A de Oliveira; Santos, J L Ferreira; Wong, R; Lebrão, M L

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia and dynapenia have been associated with poorer physical performance, disability and death. The aim of this study was to compare the association between sarcopenia and dynapenia with mortality. We studied 1,149 Brazilians aged 60 years or older residing in São Paulo. Sarcopenia was defined according to the consensus of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), which includes three components: low muscle mass (LMM) assessed by skeletal muscle mass index ≤ 8.90kg/m2 (men) and ≤ 6.37kg/m2 (women); low muscle strength (LMS) assessed by handgrip strength sarcopenia required presence of LMM plus LMS or LPP. Dynapenia was defined as handgrip strength sarcopenia were 65.9/1,000 person/years and 20.1/1,000 person/years and for dynapenia were 44.3/1,000 person/years and 14.9/1,000 person/years. The adjusted model showed that sarcopenia (HR=1.52, 95%CI: 1.06 - 2.19) and dynapenia (HR=2.04, 95%CI: 1.24 - 3.37) are independent risk factors for death. The EWGSOP definition of sarcopenia and dynapenia can help to determine risk for mortality and can be used as a screening instrument in public health.

  7. Preliminary Study on Prevalence and Associated Factors with Sarcopenia in a Geriatric Hospitalized Rehabilitation Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpipatpaiboon, K; Kondo, I; Onogi, K; Mori, S; Ozaki, K; Osawa, A; Matsuo, H; Itoh, N; Tanimoto, M

    2018-01-01

    The reported prevalence of sarcopenia has shown a wide range, crucially based on the diagnostic criteria and setting. This cross-sectional study evaluated the prevalence of sarcopenia and sought to identify factors associated with sarcopenia on admission in a specialized geriatric rehabilitation setting based on the newly developed the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia algorithm. Among 87 participants (mean age, 76.05 ± 7.57 years), 35 (40.2%) were classified as showing sarcopenia on admission. Prevalence was high, particularly among participants ≥80 years old, with tendencies toward lower body mass index, smoking habit, lower cognitive function, and greater functional impairment compared with the non-sarcopenic group. Identification of sarcopenia in elderly patients before rehabilitation and consideration of risk factors may prove helpful in achieving rehabilitation outcomes.

  8. Sarcopenia in Patients with Chronic Liver Disease: Can It Be Altered by Diet and Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Matthew R; Mendoza, Mardeli Saire; Nguyen, Douglas; Medici, Valentina; McClave, Stephen A

    2016-08-01

    Sarcopenia, a loss of muscle mass, is being increasingly recognized to have a deleterious effect on outcomes in patients with chronic liver disease. Factors related to diet and the inflammatory nature of chronic liver disease contribute to the occurrence of sarcopenia in these patients. Sarcopenia adversely influences quality of life, performance, morbidity, success of transplantation, and even mortality. Specific deficiencies in macronutrients (protein, polyunsaturated fatty acids) and micronutrients (vitamins C, D, and E, carotenoids, and selenium) have been linked to sarcopenia. Lessons learned from nutritional therapy in geriatric patient populations may provide strategies to manage sarcopenia in patients with liver disease. Combining diet modification and nutrient supplementation with an organized program of exercise may help ameliorate or even reverse the effects of sarcopenia on an already complex disease process.

  9. Consequences of sarcopenia among nursing home residents at long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henwood, Tim; Hassan, Bothaina; Swinton, Paul; Senior, Hugh; Keogh, Justin

    The consequences of and transition into sarcopenia with long-term survival was investigated in the nursing home setting. Eligible residents from 11 nursing homes were followed-up 18-months after their assessment for sarcopenia using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria, with other demographic, physical and cognitive health measures collected. Of the 102 older adults who consented at baseline, 22 had died and 58 agreed to participate at follow-up, 51.7% of whom had sarcopenic. Sarcopenia at baseline was associated with a depression (p sarcopenia is high and increases with long-term survival in end-of-life care. However, the risk of sarcopenia-related mortality is not as great as from increasing age alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Peak muscle mass in young men and sarcopenia in the ageing male

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Frost Munk; Nielsen, T L; Brixen, K

    2015-01-01

    of sarcopenia in men. INTRODUCTION: The ageing population increases the prevalence of sarcopenia. Estimation of normative data on muscle mass in young men during the peak of anabolic hormones is necessary for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in ageing males. The purposes of this study were to provide population......The prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. The diagnosis of sarcopenia relies in part on normative data on muscle mass, but these data are lacking. This study provides population-based reference data on muscle mass in young men, and these results may be used clinically for the diagnosis......-based reference data on lean body mass (LBM) in young men during the time of peak levels of GH/IGF-1 and testosterone and further to apply the reference data on a population-based sample of men aged 60-74 years to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, population-based single...

  11. Sarcopenia: a chronic complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiler, Heloísa; Kisielewicz, Gabrielle; Hoffmann Jonasson, Thaísa; Rasmussen Petterle, Ricardo; Aguiar Moreira, Carolina; Zeghbi Cochenski Borba, Victória

    2018-01-01

    Diabetics are at increased risk for impaired mobility and strength, frequently related to the disease control. Sarcopenia is the reduction of muscle mass associated with the decrease in muscle strength and/or performance, resulting in worse morbidity in chronic diseases. The objectives of this paper was to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and determine its association with diabetes characteristics, progression, and complications, as well as changes in bone mineral density. The sample consisted of patients with T2DM followed at the outpatient clinics of the Serviço de Endocrinologia e Metabologia do Hospital de Clínicas da Universidade Federal do Paraná, from March to August 2016. Participants were men and women above 18 years with T2DM diagnosed at least 1 year earlier. Individuals with chronic diseases, users of any drug that modifies body composition, patients with body mass index (BMI) > 35 or < 18 kg/m 2 , and users of illicit drugs or hormonal or nutritional supplementation were excluded. The selected patients answered questionnaires about demographics, eating habits, and disease characteristics, and performed a bone densitometry exam in a dual energy absorptiometry (total body; spine and femur (total and neck)), a handgrip test by manual dynamometer, and an evaluation of the abdominal circumference (AC). The medical records were reviewed seeking diabetes data and laboratory test results. Patients were matched for sex, age, and race with healthy controls [Control Group (CG)]. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was conducted according to the criteria of the Foundation for National Institute of Health. The final sample consisted of 83 patients in the DG and 83 in the CG. The DG had higher BMI, WC, past history of fractures and lower calcium and healthy diet intake (p < 0.005), compared to the CG. The DG presented a higher frequency of abnormal BMD (osteopenia in 45 (53%), and osteoporosis in 14 (19

  12. Cardiometabolic implication of sarcopenia: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Study (KNHANES) 2008–2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kyoung Min Kim; Soo Lim; Sung Hee Choi; Jung Hee Kim; Chan Soo Shin; Kyong Soo Park; Hak Chul Jang

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sarcopenia, the loss of muscle mass, contributes to various adverse health outcomes in the elderly. It may be associated with cardiometabolic risk. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between sarcopenia and cardiometabolic risks and to determine an appropriate operational definition for sarcopenia from a cardiometabolic perspective. Material and methods: Using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008–2010 (n = 20,812, ≥20 ...

  13. High prevalence of sarcopenia among binge drinking elderly women: a nationwide population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi,; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-01-01

    Background Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. Methods The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they wer...

  14. Association between sarcopenia with lifestyle and family function among community-dwelling Chinese aged 60 years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hai, Shan; Wang, Hui; Cao, Li; Liu, Ping; Zhou, Jianghua; Yang, Ying; Dong, Birong

    2017-08-18

    Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and function. The risk factors and causes of sarcopenia must be identified to develop prevention and treatment strategies for this syndrome. Our aim was to examine the association between sarcopenia with lifestyle and family function among community-dwelling Chinese people aged 60 years and older. We conducted this study to evaluate sarcopenia among 834 community-dwelling Chinese individuals aged ≥60 years using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria. The sociodemographic characteristics, food consumption patterns, habits of smoking, and alcohol consumption of the participants were collected using a general questionnaire, whereas physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ; long-form version). Family function was assessed using the Family APGAR scale. In addition, the association of sarcopenia with lifestyle and family function was examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. The total prevalence rate of sarcopenia was 10.6%. Female participants with sarcopenia had a lower frequency per week of nut consumption than those without sarcopenia (p sarcopenia versus those without sarcopenia were not significant. Among the participants, the mean Family APGAR score was 8 (standard deviation [SD] = 0.92). For both sexes, participants with sarcopenia had lower family function scores than those without sarcopenia. In the multivariate model, after adjustment for all covariates, frequency per week of nut consumption (adjusted OR 0.724, 95% CI 0.532-0.985, P sarcopenia. The relationship between other lifestyle habits and sarcopenia was not significant. There was significant association between sarcopenia with intake of nuts and family function. Further studies should evaluate if adequate intake of nuts and a well-functioning family may be effective in lowering the risk of sarcopenia.

  15. Portable water quality monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizar, N. B.; Ong, N. R.; Aziz, M. H. A.; Alcain, J. B.; Haimi, W. M. W. N.; Sauli, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Portable water quality monitoring system was a developed system that tested varied samples of water by using different sensors and provided the specific readings to the user via short message service (SMS) based on the conditions of the water itself. In this water quality monitoring system, the processing part was based on a microcontroller instead of Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) machines to receive the results. By using four main sensors, this system obtained the readings based on the detection of the sensors, respectively. Therefore, users can receive the readings through SMS because there was a connection between Arduino Uno and GSM Module. This system was designed to be portable so that it would be convenient for users to carry it anywhere and everywhere they wanted to since the processor used is smaller in size compared to the LCR machines. It was also developed to ease the user to monitor and control the water quality. However, the ranges of the sensors' detection still a limitation in this study.

  16. Sarcopenia and impairment in cognitive and physical performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolea MI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Magdalena I Tolea,1 James E Galvin1–3 1Alzheimer’s Disease Center, Department of Neurology, 2Department of Psychiatry, 3Department of Population Health, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Background: Whether older adults with sarcopenia who underperform controls on tests of physical performance and cognition also have a higher likelihood of combined cognitive-physical impairment is not clear. We assessed the impact of sarcopenia on impairment in both aspects of functionality and the relative contribution of its components, muscle mass and strength.Methods: Two hundred and twenty-three community-dwelling adults aged 40 years and older (mean age =68.1±10.6 years; 65% female were recruited and underwent physical functionality, anthropometry, and cognitive testing. Participants with low muscle mass were categorized as pre-sarcopenic; those with low muscle mass and muscle strength as sarcopenic; those with higher muscle mass and low muscle strength only were categorized as non-sarcopenic and were compared on risk of cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment <26; Ascertaining Dementia 8 ≥2, physical impairment (Mini Physical Performance Test <12, both, or neither by ordinal logistic regression. Results: Compared to controls, those with sarcopenia were six times more likely to have combined cognitive impairment/physical impairment with a fully adjusted model showing a three-fold increased odds ratio. The results were consistent across different measures of global cognition (odds ratio =3.46, 95% confidence interval =1.07–11.45 for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; odds ratio =3.61, 95% confidence interval =1.11–11.72 for Ascertaining Dementia 8. Pre-sarcopenic participants were not different from controls. The effect of sarcopenia on cognition is related to low muscle strength rather than low muscle mass. Conclusion: Individuals with sarcopenia are not only more likely to have single but also to have dual

  17. Risk of Malnutrition Evaluated by Mini Nutritional Assessment and Sarcopenia in Noninstitutionalized Elderly People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Ilaria; Curcio, Francesco; Russo, Gennaro; Cellurale, Michele; Aran, Luisa; Bulli, Giulia; Della-Morte, David; Gargiulo, Gaetano; Testa, Gianluca; Cacciatore, Francesco; Bonaduce, Domenico; Abete, Pasquale

    2018-02-13

    Malnutrition indices and muscle mass and strength in the elderly are poorly investigated. Moreover, malnutrition seems to be 1 of the more important factors in the cause of sarcopenia. The presence of sarcopenia and its relationship with malnutrition indices were studied in noninstitutionalized elderly people who underwent Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA). A total of 473 elderly subjects (mean age, 80.9 ± 6.6 years) admitted to CGA were studied. Malnutrition risk was evaluated with Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score, whereas muscle mass and muscle strength were evaluated by bioimpedentiometry and hand grip, respectively. Sarcopenia was assessed as indicated in the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) consensus. Overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 13.1%, and it increased from 6.1% to 31.4% as MNA decreased (P elderly subjects with sarcopenia (15.4 ± 4.2) than without sarcopenia (22.0 ± 4.0) (P = .024). Linear regression analysis showed that MNA score is linearly related both with muscle mass (r = 0.72; P elderly subjects with sarcopenia, and it is linearly related to muscle mass and muscle strength. These data indicate that MNA score, when evaluated with muscle mass and strength, may recognize elderly subjects with sarcopenia. © 2018 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  18. The influence of sarcopenia on survival and surgical complications in ovarian cancer patients undergoing primary debulking surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, I.J.; Ubachs, J.; Kruitwagen, R.F.P.M.; Dijk, D.P. van; Beets-Tan, R.G.; Massuger, L.F.A.G.; Oude Damink, S.W.; Gorp, T. Van

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia, severe skeletal muscle loss, has been identified as a prognostic factor in various malignancies. This study aims to investigate whether sarcopenia is associated with overall survival (OS) and surgical complications in patients with advanced ovarian cancer undergoing primary

  19. Assessing Ultraviolet Hazards Using Portable Measuring Instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridyard, A.

    2000-01-01

    The 'Erythemal Action Spectrum' shows an increase of 10 3 in human skin sensitivity to UV radiation over only 30 nm of change of wavelength, from 328 nm to 298 nm. This represents a severe challenge to the manufacturing and calibration of a portable instrument which can measure the vanishingly small amounts of short wavelength UV from solarium tanning lamps, and to apply accurately an action spectra to be able to quantify the hazard presented by such lamps to skin. The classification of UV lamp types from their 'effective irradiance' requires very sharp discrimination between UV power contained in the short wavelength and the long wavelength parts of the UV spectra, so radiometers give misleading results. The only instrument suitable for making these measurements is the spectroradiometer. The development of such an instrument in a hand held portable form is described, with the difficulties associated with its calibration and such factors as stray light rejection. (author)

  20. Recent genetic discoveries in osteoporosis, sarcopenia and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Tomohiko; Inoue, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a skeletal disorder characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and an increased susceptibility to fractures. Evidence from genetic studies indicates that BMD, a complex quantitative trait with a normal distribution, is genetically controlled. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) as well as studies using candidate gene approaches have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with BMD, osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. These SNPs have been mapped close to or within genes including those encoding WNT/β-catenin signaling proteins. Understanding the genetics of osteoporosis will help to identify novel candidates for diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Genetic factors are also important for the development of sarcopenia, which is characterized by a loss of lean body mass, and obesity, which is characterized by high fat mass. Hence, in this review, we discuss the genetic factors, identified by genetic studies, which regulate the body components related to osteoporosis, sarcopenia, and obesity.

  1. Association of sarcopenia with swallowing problems, related to nutrition and activities of daily living of elderly individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Shiozu, Hiroyasu; Higashijima, Misako; Koga, Tomoshige

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to clarify problems associated with swallowing, related to nutrition and activities of daily living (ADL), in elderly individuals with sarcopenia. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-seven subjects were assigned to a sarcopenia or a non-sarcopenia group according to a definition used by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Analyses were conducted including and excluding subjects with a central nervous system disorders in order to ...

  2. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in patients with muscular dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano eMerlini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aging sarcopenia and muscular dystrophy are two conditions characterized by lower skeletal muscle quantity, lower muscle strength, and lower physical performance. Aging is associated with a peculiar alteration in body composition called sarcopenic obesity characterized by a decrease in lean body mass and increase in fat mass. To evaluate the presence of sarcopenia and obesity in a cohort of adult patients with muscular dystrophy we have used the measurement techniques considered golden standard for sarcopenia that is for muscle mass dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA, for muscle strength hand held dynamometry, and for physical performance gait speed. The study involved 14 adult patients with different types of muscular dystrophy. We were able to demonstrate that all patient were sarcopenic-obese. We showed in fact that all were sarcopenic based on appendicular lean, fat & bone free, mass index (ALMI. In addition all resulted obese according to the % of body fat determined by DXA in contrast with their body mass index ranging from underweight to obese. Skeletal muscle mass determined by DXA was markedly reduced in all patients and correlated with residual muscle strength determined by hand held dynamometry, and physical performances determined by gait speed and respiratory function. Finally we showed that ALMI was the best linear explicator of muscle strength and physical function. Altogether, our study suggest the relevance of a proper evaluation of body composition in muscular dystrophy and we propose to use, both in research and practice, the measurement techniques that has already been demonstrated effective in aging sarcopenia.

  3. PORTABLE SOURCE OF RADIOACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, R.C.; Ferguson, K.R.; Rylander, E.W.; Safranski, L.M.

    1959-06-16

    A portable source for radiogiaphy or radiotherapy is described. It consists of a Tl/sup 170/ or Co/sup 60/ source mounted in a rotatable tungsten alloy plug. The plug rotates within a brass body to positions of safety or exposure. Provision is made for reloading and carrying the device safely. (T.R.H.)

  4. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  5. Influence of nutritional status in the diagnosis of sarcopenia in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardiés-Sánchez, Beatriz; Sanz-París, Alejandro; Pérez-Nogueras, Javier; Serrano-Oliver, Antonio; Torres-Anoro, María E; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J

    2017-09-01

    Malnutrition and sarcopenia frequently coexist in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of nutritional status in the diagnosis of sarcopenia in nursing home residents. A cross-sectional study was performed with data collected from 339 elderly patients living in five nursing homes. Sarcopenia was defined according to the consensus definition of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Body mass composition was assessed using bioimpedance analysis, handgrip strength using a dynamometer, and physical performance by 5-m gait speed test. The nutritional status of residents was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA). Of 436 patients, 339 (77.8%) were included. The mean age of participants was 84.9 y and 64.3% were women. More than one-third (38.1%) of the population had sarcopenia, with a higher prevalence in women (39.4%). According to the MNA, 32.4% of participants were at risk for malnutrition and 42.5% were malnourished. When analyzed together, the presence of malnutrition plus malnutrition risk, there was no difference between individuals with or without sarcopenia. However, the presence of malnutrition was statistically higher in individuals with sarcopenia compared with those without it. The prevalence of malnutrition was highest in individuals with low handgrip strength (62.8%), and in participants with severe sarcopenia. There were no significant differences in calf circumference between sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic participants. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, body mass index 80 y remained predictive of sarcopenia status after adjustment. Prevalence of sarcopenia and malnutrition were significant in this population, especially in women. Approximately two-thirds of sarcopenic individuals were malnourished. A low body mass index may be a better predictor of sarcopenia in this population than a small calf circumference (<1 cm). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Malnutrition and chronic inflammation as risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly patients with hip fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Choi, Hana; Kim, Kyu-Hwang; Lee, Young-Kyun; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Park, Ki-Soo

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate malnutrition and chronic inflammation as risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly patients with hip fractures, as defined by the criteria of the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia (AWGS). A total of 327 elderly patients with hip fractures were enrolled in this retrospective observational study. The main outcome measure was the nutritional status and nutritional risk factors for sarcopenia in elderly patients. Diagnosis of sarcopenia was made according to the guidelines of the AWGS. Whole body densitometry analysis was used to measure skeletal muscle mass, and muscle strength was evaluated by handgrip testing. Multivariable regression analysis was utilized to analyze the nutritional risk factors for sarcopenia in patients with hip fractures. Of 327 patients with hip fractures (78 men and 249 women), the prevalence of sarcopenia was 60.3% and 30.1% in men and women, respectively. The rates of three indicators of malnutrition in men and women (low BMI, hypoalbuminemia, and hypoproteinemia) in sarcopenia patients with hip fractures were 23.4%, 31.9%, and 53.2% and 21.3%, 21.3%, and 37.3%, respectively. The prevalence of markers of chronic inflammation (increased CRP and ESR) in men and women with sarcopenia and hip fractures were 74.9% and 52.2%, and 49.3% and 85.1%, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, low BMI and hypoproteinemia in women were associated with a 2.9- and 2.1-fold greater risk of sarcopenia than non-sarcopenia, respectively. The present study revealed a strong relationship between sarcopenia and malnutrition and chronic inflammatory factors in elderly patients with hip fractures.

  7. Sarcopenia in patients with hip fracture: A multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steihaug, Ole Martin; Gjesdal, Clara Gram; Bogen, Bård; Kristoffersen, Målfrid Holen; Lien, Gunhild; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia is prevalent in older persons and is a risk factor for falls, fractures, and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine a) the feasibility of determining sarcopenia in patients with acute hip fracture, b) the prevalence of sarcopenia and c) associations of sarcopenia with nutritional status and comorbidities. A multicenter cross-sectional study on sarcopenia in male and female patients with acute hip fracture. Participants were previously ambulatory and living in the community. Sarcopenia was assessed postoperatively with muscle mass estimated by anthropometry using triceps skinfold, arm circumference, height, weight and sex. Grip strength was measured by Jamar dynamometer and pre-fracture mobility was by self-report using the New Mobility Score. Out of 282 patients, 202 were assessed for sarcopenia of whom 74 (37%) were diagnosed as sarcopenic. Sarcopenia was associated with age, odds ratio (OR) 1.4 per 5 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.1, 1.8], ASA Physical Status Classification System score, OR 2.3 per point, 95% CI [1.3, 4.3] and number of medications at discharge, OR 1.2 per medication, 95% CI [1.0, 1.3] and inversely associated with BMI, OR 0.8, 95% CI [0.7, 0.9] and serum albumin, OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.8,1.0]. Thirty-seven percent of assessed subjects were diagnosed with sarcopenia. Our data demonstrates that the prevalence of sarcopenia is associated with older age, malnutrition and comorbidities. Determining sarcopenia at the bedside was feasible in postoperative hip fracture patients by using grip strength, estimation of muscle mass by anthropometry and self-reported mobility.

  8. Sarcopenia in patients with hip fracture: A multicenter cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Martin Steihaug

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is prevalent in older persons and is a risk factor for falls, fractures, and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine a the feasibility of determining sarcopenia in patients with acute hip fracture, b the prevalence of sarcopenia and c associations of sarcopenia with nutritional status and comorbidities.A multicenter cross-sectional study on sarcopenia in male and female patients with acute hip fracture. Participants were previously ambulatory and living in the community. Sarcopenia was assessed postoperatively with muscle mass estimated by anthropometry using triceps skinfold, arm circumference, height, weight and sex. Grip strength was measured by Jamar dynamometer and pre-fracture mobility was by self-report using the New Mobility Score.Out of 282 patients, 202 were assessed for sarcopenia of whom 74 (37% were diagnosed as sarcopenic. Sarcopenia was associated with age, odds ratio (OR 1.4 per 5 years, 95% confidence interval (CI [1.1, 1.8], ASA Physical Status Classification System score, OR 2.3 per point, 95% CI [1.3, 4.3] and number of medications at discharge, OR 1.2 per medication, 95% CI [1.0, 1.3] and inversely associated with BMI, OR 0.8, 95% CI [0.7, 0.9] and serum albumin, OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.8,1.0].Thirty-seven percent of assessed subjects were diagnosed with sarcopenia. Our data demonstrates that the prevalence of sarcopenia is associated with older age, malnutrition and comorbidities. Determining sarcopenia at the bedside was feasible in postoperative hip fracture patients by using grip strength, estimation of muscle mass by anthropometry and self-reported mobility.

  9. Relationship between sarcopenia and physical activity in older people: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffl M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Michal Steffl,1 Richard W Bohannon,2 Lenka Sontakova,1 James J Tufano,1 Kate Shiells,3 Iva Holmerova3 1Department of Physiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University Prague, Prague, Czech Republic; 2Department of Physical Therapy, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC, USA; 3Faculty of Humanities, Centre of Gerontology, Charles University Prague, Prague, Czech Republic Abstract: Physical activity (PA has been identified as beneficial for many diseases and health disorders, including sarcopenia. The positive influence of PA interventions on sarcopenia has been described previously on many occasions. Current reviews on the topic include studies with varied PA interventions for sarcopenia; nevertheless, no systematic review exploring the effects of PA in general on sarcopenia has been published. The main aim of this study was to explore the relationship between PA and sarcopenia in older people on the basis of cross-sectional and cohort studies. We searched PubMed, Scopus, EBSCOhost, and ScienceDirect for articles addressing the relationship between PA and sarcopenia. Twenty-five articles were ultimately included in the qualitative and quantitative syntheses. A statistically significant association between PA and sarcopenia was documented in most of the studies, as well as the protective role of PA against sarcopenia development. Furthermore, the meta-analysis indicated that PA reduces the odds of acquiring sarcopenia in later life (odds ratio [OR] =0.45; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.37–0.55. The results of this systematic review and meta-analysis confirm the beneficial influence of PA in general for the prevention of sarcopenia. Keywords: aging, sarcopenia, physical activity 

  10. Sarcopenia and post-hospital outcomes in older adults: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Sgaravatti, Aldo; Dent, Elsa

    Sarcopenia poses a significant problem for older adults, yet very little is known about this medical condition in the hospital setting. The aims of this hospital-based study were to determine: (i) the prevalence of sarcopenia; (ii) factors associated with sarcopenia; and (iii) the association of sarcopenia with adverse clinical outcomes post-hospitalisation. This is a longitudinal analysis of consecutive patients aged ≥70 years admitted to a Geriatric Management and Evaluation Unit (GEMU) ward. Sarcopenia was classified using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) algorithm, which included: handgrip strength, gait speed, and muscle mass using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA). Outcomes were assessed at 12-months post-hospital discharge, and included both mortality and admission to a hospital Emergency Department (ED). Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate survival, with Cox proportion hazard models then applied. All regression analyses controlled for age, sex, and co-morbidity. 172 patients (72% female) with a mean (SD) age of 85.2 (6.4) years were included. Sarcopenia was present in 69 (40.1%) of patients. Patients with sarcopenia were twice as likely to die in the 12-months post-hospitalisation (HR, 95% CI=2.23, 1.15-4.34), but did not have an increased likelihood of ED admission. Sarcopenia showed an independent association with 12-month post-hospital mortality in older adults. With the new recognition of sarcopenia as a medical condition with its own unique ICD-10-CM code, awareness and diagnosis of sarcopenia in clinical settings is paramount. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sarcopenia in patients with hip fracture: A multicenter cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjesdal, Clara Gram; Bogen, Bård; Kristoffersen, Målfrid Holen; Lien, Gunhild; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen

    2017-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is prevalent in older persons and is a risk factor for falls, fractures, and mortality. The aim of this study was to determine a) the feasibility of determining sarcopenia in patients with acute hip fracture, b) the prevalence of sarcopenia and c) associations of sarcopenia with nutritional status and comorbidities. Methods A multicenter cross-sectional study on sarcopenia in male and female patients with acute hip fracture. Participants were previously ambulatory and living in the community. Sarcopenia was assessed postoperatively with muscle mass estimated by anthropometry using triceps skinfold, arm circumference, height, weight and sex. Grip strength was measured by Jamar dynamometer and pre-fracture mobility was by self-report using the New Mobility Score. Results Out of 282 patients, 202 were assessed for sarcopenia of whom 74 (37%) were diagnosed as sarcopenic. Sarcopenia was associated with age, odds ratio (OR) 1.4 per 5 years, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.1, 1.8], ASA Physical Status Classification System score, OR 2.3 per point, 95% CI [1.3, 4.3] and number of medications at discharge, OR 1.2 per medication, 95% CI [1.0, 1.3] and inversely associated with BMI, OR 0.8, 95% CI [0.7, 0.9] and serum albumin, OR 0.9, 95% CI [0.8,1.0]. Conclusions Thirty-seven percent of assessed subjects were diagnosed with sarcopenia. Our data demonstrates that the prevalence of sarcopenia is associated with older age, malnutrition and comorbidities. Determining sarcopenia at the bedside was feasible in postoperative hip fracture patients by using grip strength, estimation of muscle mass by anthropometry and self-reported mobility. PMID:28902873

  12. Functional consequences of sarcopenia and dynapenia in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Brian C; Manini, Todd M

    2010-05-01

    The economic burden due to the sequela of sarcopenia (muscle wasting in the elderly) are staggering and rank similarly to the costs associated with osteoporotic fractures. In this article, we discuss the societal burden and determinants of the loss of physical function with advancing age, the physiologic mechanisms underlying dynapenia (muscle weakness in the elderly), and provide perspectives on related critical issues to be addressed. Recent epidemiological findings from longitudinal aging studies suggest that dynapenia is highly associated with both mortality and physical disability even when adjusting for sarcopenia indicating that sarcopenia may be secondary to the effects of dynapenia. These findings are consistent with the physiologic underpinnings of muscle strength, as recent evidence demonstrates that alterations in muscle quantity, contractile quality and neural activation all collectively contribute to dynapenia. Although muscle mass is essential for regulation of whole body metabolic balance, overall neuromuscular function seems to be a critical factor for maintaining muscle strength and physical independence in the elderly. The relative contribution of physiologic factors contributing to muscle weakness are not fully understood and further research is needed to better elucidate these mechanisms between muscle groups and across populations.

  13. Associations of sarcopenia definitions, and their components, with the incidence of recurrent falling and fractures; the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaap, Laura A; van Schoor, Natasja M; Lips, Paul; Visser, Marjolein

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim was to investigate the associations of sarcopenia as defined by European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project, and their underlying components, with the incidence of recurrent falling

  14. The Impact of Sarcopenia on Survival and Complications in Surgical Oncology: A Review of the Current Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    JOGLEKAR, SAVITA; NAU, PETER N.; MEZHIR, JAMES J.

    2016-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the subclinical loss of skeletal muscle and strength and has been extensively studied in both the cancer and surgical literature. Specifically, sarcopenia has gained significant recognition as an important prognostic factor for both complications and survival in cancer patients. Herein, we review the current literature to date highlighting the specific impact of sarcopenia in patients undergoing oncologic procedures. PMID:26310812

  15. Prevalence and Clinical Correlates of Sarcopenia in Community-Dwelling Older People: Application of the EWGSOP Definition and Diagnostic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background. Muscle impairment is a common condition in older people and a powerful risk factor for disability and mortality. The aim of this study was to apply the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria to estimate the prevalence and investigate the clinical correlates of sarcopenia, in a sample of Italian community-dwelling older people. Methods. Cross-sectional analysis of 730 participants (74% aged 65 years and older) enrolled in the InCHIANTI study. Sarcopenia was defined according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria using bioimpedance analysis for muscle mass assessment. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the factors independently associated with sarcopenia. Results. Sarcopenia defined by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria increased steeply with age (p Nutritional intake, physical activity, and level of comorbidity were not associated with sarcopenia. Conclusions. Sarcopenia identified by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria is a relatively common condition in Italian octogenarians, and its prevalence increases with aging. Correlates of sarcopenia identified in this study might suggest new approaches for prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. PMID:24085400

  16. "Chair Stand Test" as Simple Tool for Sarcopenia Screening in Elderly Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, P A; Carneiro, J A O; Coqueiro, R S; Pereira, R; Fernandes, M H

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between sarcopenia and "chair stand test" performance, and evaluate this test as a screening tool for sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly women. Cross-sectional Survey. 173 female individuals, aged ≥ 60 years and living in the urban area of the municipality of Lafaiete Coutinho, Bahia's inland, Brazil. The association between sarcopenia (defined by muscle mass, strength and/or performance loss) and performance in the "chair stand test" was tested by binary logistic regression technique. The ROC curve parameters were used to evaluate the diagnostic power of the test in sarcopenia screening. The significance level was set at 5 %. The model showed that the time spent for the "chair stand test" was positively associated (OR = 1.08; 95% CI = 1.01 - 1.16, p = 0.024) to sarcopenia, indicating that, for each 1 second increment in the test performance, the sarcopenia's probability increased by 8% in elderly women. The cut-off point that showed the best balance between sensitivity and specificity was 13 seconds. The performance of "chair stand test" showed predictive ability for sarcopenia, being an effective and simple screening tool for sarcopenia in elderly women. This test could be used for screening sarcopenic elderly women, allowing early interventions.

  17. Fat Modulates the Relationship between Sarcopenia and Physical Function in Nonobese Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin L. Marcus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is intuitive to think that sarcopenia should be associated with declines in physical function though recent evidence questions this assertion. This study investigated the relationship between absolute and relative sarcopenia, with physical performance in 202 nonobese (mean BMI =26.6 kg/ht2 community-dwelling older (mean age = 73.8±5.9 years adults. While absolute sarcopenia (appendicular skeletal mass (ASM/ht2 was either not associated, or weakly associated with physical performance, relative sarcopenia (ASM/kg demonstrated moderate (r=0.31 to r=0.51, P<0.01 relationships with performance outcomes in both males and females. Knee extension strength (r=0.27 and leg extension power (r=0.41 were both related to absolute sarcopenia (P<0.001 in females and not in males. Strength and power were associated with relative sarcopenia in both sexes (from r=0.47 to r=0.67, P<0.001. The ratio of lean mass to total body mass, that is, relative sarcopenia, is an important consideration relative to physical function in older adults even in the absence of obesity. Stratifying these individuals into equal tertiles of total body fat revealed a trend of diminished regression coefficients across each incrementally higher fat grouping for performance measures, providing further evidence that total body fat modulates the relationship between sarcopenia and physical function.

  18. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Sarcopenia in Older Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanse, Luc P.; Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; Echteld, Michael A.; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterised by progressive and generalised loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It has hardly been studied in older people with intellectual disabilities (ID). In this study 884 persons with borderline to profound ID aged 50 years and over, were investigated to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in…

  19. Sarcopenia in the prognosis of cirrhosis: Going beyond the MELD score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Yeon; Jang, Jeong Won

    2015-01-01

    Estimating the prognosis of patients with cirrhosis remains challenging, because the natural history of cirrhosis varies according to the cause, presence of portal hypertension, liver synthetic function, and the reversibility of underlying disease. Conventional prognostic scoring systems, including the Child-Turcotte-Pugh score or model for end-stage liver diseases are widely used; however, revised models have been introduced to improve prognostic performance. Although sarcopenia is one of the most common complications related to survival of patients with cirrhosis, the newly proposed prognostic models lack a nutritional status evaluation of patients. This is reflected by the lack of an optimal index for sarcopenia in terms of objectivity, reproducibility, practicality, and prognostic performance, and of a consensus definition for sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis in whom ascites and edema may interfere with body composition analysis. Quantifying skeletal muscle mass using cross-sectional abdominal imaging is a promising tool for assessing sarcopenia. As radiological imaging provides direct visualization of body composition, it is useful to evaluate sarcopenia in patients with cirrhosis whose body mass index, anthropometric measurements, or biochemical markers are inaccurate on a nutritional assessment. Sarcopenia defined by cross-sectional imaging-based muscular assessment is prevalent and predicts mortality in patients with cirrhosis. Sarcopenia alone or in combination with conventional prognostic systems shows promise for a cirrhosis prognosis. Including an objective assessment of sarcopenia with conventional scores to optimize the outcome prediction for patients with cirrhosis needs further research. PMID:26167066

  20. Physical activity energy expenditure and sarcopenia in black South African urban women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y)

  1. Hydrogen in portable devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garche, J. [ZSW - Electrochemical Energy storage and energy Conversion Division, Baden Wuerttemberg (Germany); Stimmer, U. [Technische Universitaet, Muenchen (Germany); Friedrich, A.K. [ZAE Bayern (Germany); Fiedenhans' l, R. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Res. Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    2004-10-01

    Fuel cells were originally intended for use in power plants and vehicles. More recently, developers realised the possibility for building much smaller units and for lower prices per kilowatt than their larger relatives. This has led to a strong interest in developing small fuel cells. Small fuel cells could replace batteries in portable electronic equipment and internal combustion engines in portable generators. The upper limit for portable generators is about 5kW, mainly because of the weight of the fuel cell. The main applications for low-power fuel cells are mobile phones, personal digital assistants, laptop and notebook computers, cameras, medical equipment, military applications and other portable electronic devices. In comparison to batteries, fuel cells can supply much more power per unit volume or weight, though they have lower output voltages and are slower to respond to transients. Fuel cell types that are suitable for portable applications include: proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) using pure hydrogen, PEMFCs using hydrogen-rich gases from hydrocarbon or alcohol reforming, direct methanol fuel cells and, high-temperature fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) using hydrocarbons directly. Fuel cells for portable devices is becoming a niche, high-value market area which has good opportunities for a fast introduction of fuel cell technology and for the first consumer products in the electronic market can be expected within the coming year and is believed to grow rapidly thereafter. Danish industry is involved in the development of SOFC, PEMFC and DMFC fuel cells and the industry has in particular a strong position in system components and complete systems. An important area for Danish industry is system integration, where fuel cells and hydrogen technologies are implemented in electrical powered products. This is an area that is particular suited for small and medium sized enterprises and for

  2. Hydrogen in portable devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garche, J.; Stimmer, U.; Friedrich, A.K.; Fiedenhans'l, R.

    2004-01-01

    Fuel cells were originally intended for use in power plants and vehicles. More recently, developers realised the possibility for building much smaller units and for lower prices per kilowatt than their larger relatives. This has led to a strong interest in developing small fuel cells. Small fuel cells could replace batteries in portable electronic equipment and internal combustion engines in portable generators. The upper limit for portable generators is about 5kW, mainly because of the weight of the fuel cell. The main applications for low-power fuel cells are mobile phones, personal digital assistants, laptop and notebook computers, cameras, medical equipment, military applications and other portable electronic devices. In comparison to batteries, fuel cells can supply much more power per unit volume or weight, though they have lower output voltages and are slower to respond to transients. Fuel cell types that are suitable for portable applications include: proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) using pure hydrogen, PEMFCs using hydrogen-rich gases from hydrocarbon or alcohol reforming, direct methanol fuel cells and, high-temperature fuel cells such as solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) using hydrocarbons directly. Fuel cells for portable devices is becoming a niche, high-value market area which has good opportunities for a fast introduction of fuel cell technology and for the first consumer products in the electronic market can be expected within the coming year and is believed to grow rapidly thereafter. Danish industry is involved in the development of SOFC, PEMFC and DMFC fuel cells and the industry has in particular a strong position in system components and complete systems. An important area for Danish industry is system integration, where fuel cells and hydrogen technologies are implemented in electrical powered products. This is an area that is particular suited for small and medium sized enterprises and for

  3. Sarcopenia in cases of chronic and acute illness. A mini-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovjak, Peter

    2016-02-01

    Loss of muscle mass and muscle weakness are often found in cases of acute or chronic illness in elderly patients. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for complications and higher mortality. Based on an exact diagnosis and knowledge of the risk factors for developing sarcopenia, it is now possible to improve the prognosis by providing effective treatment options. This review was carried out based on a PubMed search in the period from 1998 to 2015 using original articles and reviews and posting the terms "sarcopenia", "elderly" and "acute illness". Given the evidence from the current literature, in the case of acute illness it is feasible to identify patients at risk, diagnose sarcopenia and prescribe a multidimensional treatment program to prevent or treat sarcopenia even in the bustling environment of geriatric wards or institutions.

  4. Portable radiation monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masui, Kaoru; Ishikura, Takeshi; Inui, Daisuke

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of typical portable radiation monitors and introduces Fuji Electric's latest models. The overview describes the types, uses and performance of ion chamber survey meters, GM survey meters and neutron ambient dose equivalent rate meters. Fuji Electric's new model of a wide-energy-range X/gamma ray survey meter which measures low energy X-rays up to 8 keV, a battery-powered environmental dosemeter system which measures dose history and is capable of continuous measurement with batteries over a year, and a portable monitoring post which measures dose rates from background to 10 8 nGy/h and transmits data by cellular phone are introduced, and their specifications and performance are described. (author)

  5. Effect of interaction between dynapenic component of the European working group on sarcopenia in older people sarcopenia criteria and obesity on activities of daily living in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon-Pyo; Kim, Sun; Joh, Ju-Youn; Hwang, Hwan-Sik

    2014-05-01

    To examine the effects of interaction between dynapenic component of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) sarcopenia and obesity (dynapenia × obesity) on activities of daily living (ADL) in older participants. Cross-sectional analysis of the Validity and Reliability of Korean Frailty Index and the Validity and Reliability of the Kaigo-Yobo Checklist in Korean Elderly studies. Six welfare facilities operated by government in South Korea. Four hundred eighty-seven community-dwelling individuals (157 males, 330 females) >65 years of age. Dynapenic component of the EWGSOP sarcopenia was defined as usual gait speed sarcopenia and obesity in the elderly is associated with multiplicative interactions rather than additive interactions in ADL. Copyright © 2014 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Portable Planetariums Teach Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    With the Internet proving to be the wave of the future, in the 1990s Johnson Space Center awarded grants to Rice University in Houston for developing the world's first Internet-accessible museum kiosk. Further grants were awarded to the school for creating educational software for use in homes and schools, leading to the creation of Museums Teaching Planet Earth Inc. The company has gone on to develop and sell portable planetariums and accompanying educational shows.

  7. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furber, J. D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  8. Fully portable blood irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hungate, F.P.; Riemath, W.F.; Bunnell, L.R.

    1980-01-01

    A fully portable blood irradiator was developed using the beta emitter thulium-170 as the radiation source and vitreous carbon as the body of the irradiator, matrix for isotope encapsulation, and blood interface material. These units were placed in exteriorized arteriovenous shunts in goats, sheep, and dogs and the effects on circulating lymphocytes and on skin allograft retention times measured. The present work extends these studies by establishing baseline data for skin graft rejection times in untreated animals

  9. Portable shift register

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Bourret, S.C.; Hansen, W.J.; Hicks, D.V.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Krick, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    An electronics package for a small, battery-operated, self-contained, neutron coincidence counter based on a portable shift-register (PSR) has been developed. The counter was developed for applications not adequately addressed by commercial packages, including in-plant measurements to demonstrate compliance with regulations (domestic and international), in-plant process control, and in-field measurements (environmental monitoring or safeguards). Our package's features, which address these applications, include the following: Small size for portability and ease of installation;battery or mains operation; a built-in battery to power the unit and a typical detector such as a small sample counter, for over 6 h if power lines are bad or noisy, if there is a temporary absence of power, or if portability is desired; complete support, including bias, for standard neutron detectors; a powerful communications package to easily facilitate robust external control over a serial port; and a C-library to simplify creating external control programs in computers or other controllers. Whereas the PSR specifically addresses the applications mentioned above, it also performs all the measurements made by previous electronics packages for neutron coincidence counters developed at Los Alamos and commercialized. The PSR electronics package, exclusive of carrying handle, is 8 by 10 by 20 cm; it contains the circuit boards, battery, and bias supply and weighs less than 2 kg. This instrument package is the second in an emerging family of portable measurement instruments being developed; the first was the Miniature and Modular Multichannel Analyzer (M 3 CA). The PSR makes extensive use of hardware and software developed for the M 3 CA; like the M 3 CA, it is intended primarily for use with an external controller interfaced over a serial channel

  10. Understanding portable generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, A.; Hawkins, B. [Guelph Univ., ON (Canada); Clarke, S. [Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2000-06-01

    This factsheet is intended to help consumers select a small portable generator for emergency electrical needs. Interest in standby generators has been heightened ever since the prolonged power outage in Eastern Ontario and Southwestern Quebec during the 1998 ice storm and the concern over Y2K related outages. Farmers, in particular, have been reassessing their need for emergency electrical power supply. This document presents some of the factors that should be considered when purchasing and operating a portable generator in the 3 to 12 kW size. It provides a detailed review of power quality and describes the use of tractor-driven power-take-off generators of 15 kW and larger. Several manufacturers make portable generators in many sizes with a whole range of features. This document includes a table depicting generator Feature/Benefit analysis to help consumers understand the differences between features and benefits. A second table provides a check list for generator feature/benefits. Specific details for the operations of various generators are available from manufacturers, distributors and electrical contractors. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  11. High prevalence of sarcopenia among binge drinking elderly women: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jun-Il; Ha, Yong-Chan; Lee, Young-Kyun; Hana-Choi; Yoo, Moon-Jib; Koo, Kyung-Hoi

    2017-05-30

    Alcohol consumption is considered a risk factor for sarcopenia, but the association between alcohol consumption and the prevalence of sarcopenia has not been evaluated in detail. This study was to identify the relationship between alcohol drinking patterns and the prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly Korean population. The cross-sectional study was performed using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Participants were excluded if they were under the age of 65, or if data was not available regarding skeletal muscle mass or dietary intake. After these exclusions, a total of 4020 participants (men: 1698; women: 2322) were analyzed in the present study. Sarcopenia is defined according to the criteria for the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS). Binge drinking was defined as consuming ≥5 standard alcoholic drinks (≥4 drinks for women) consecutively on one occasion. This data was subcategorized into two groups based on presence of binge drinking: Social drinking (≤1 time/month) and binge drinking (>1 time/month). Women binge drinkers with weekly or daily consumption had 2.8 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (Odds Ratio [OR] = 2.84; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] = 1.12-7.29). However, there were no associations between binge drinkers and sarcopenia in men. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), energy intake, moderate physical activity, and energy intake, women binge drinkers with weekly or daily alcohol consumption had 3.9 times higher prevalence of sarcopenia than social drinkers (OR = 3.88; 95% CI = 1.33-11.36). The prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly women was related to binge drinking frequency and amounts of drinking after adjusting for covariates. Elderly Korean women who binge drink once or more per week may be associated with sarcopenia, as seen with the observed 3.9 times higher prevalence compared to social drinkers.

  12. Prognostic value of sarcopenia in patients with liver cirrhosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaeun Kim

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is a common syndrome in chronic diseases such as liver cirrhosis. The association between sarcopenia and outcomes, such as complications and survival has recently been described in various patient groups. However, study results remain inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the impact of sarcopenia on outcome in patients with cirrhosis.We conducted a systematic review (SR and meta-analysis (MA on the impact of sarcopenia on outcome in liver cirrhosis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Of the 312 studies identified, 20 were eligible according to our inclusion criteria. Most of the studies used CT to diagnose sarcopenia. Two studies used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA, 10 studies used skeletal muscle index (SMI and 8 studies used total psoas muscle area (TPA. Seven studies included Asian participants and the remaining 13 studies included Western participants. The prevalence rate of sarcopenia among participants was mean 48.1%, and appeared more among men with a rate of 61.6% whereas the rate was 36% for women. With respect to clinical outcomes, patients with sarcopenia had poorer survival rates and an increased risk of complications such as infection compared to those without sarcopenia. According to the analysis of race subgroup, Asians had a HR 2.45 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.44-4.16, P = 0.001 of mortality whereas Westerners had a HR 1.45 (95% CI = 1.002-2.09, P<0.05.Based on this SR and MA, the presence of sarcopenia is related to a poor prognosis and occurrence of cirrhotic complications and could be used for risk assessment. Moreover, Asian participants had higher mortality related to sarcopenia compared to the Western participants.

  13. Risk of Fracture in Women with Sarcopenia, Low Bone Mass, or Both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Rebekah; Chang, Yuefang; Beavers, Kristen; Laddu-Patel, Deepika; Bea, Jennifer; Johnson, Karen; LeBoff, Meryl; Womack, Catherine; Wallace, Robert; Li, Wenjun; Crandall, Carolyn; Cauley, Jane

    2017-12-01

    To determine whether women with sarcopenia and low bone mineral density (BMD) are at greater risk of clinical fractures than those with sarcopenia or low BMD alone. Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational and Clinical trials. Three U.S. clinical centers (Pittsburgh, PA; Birmingham, AL; Phoenix/Tucson, AZ). Women (mean age 63.3 ± 0.07) with BMD measurements (N = 10,937). Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular lean mass values corrected for height and fat mass. Low BMD was defined as a femoral neck T-score less than -1.0 based on the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reference database for white women. Cox proportional hazards analysis was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We followed women for incident fractures over a median of 15.9 years. Participants were classified into mutually exclusive groups based on BMD and sarcopenia status: normal BMD and no sarcopenia (n = 3,857, 35%), sarcopenia alone (n = 774, 7%), low BMD alone (n = 4,907, 45%), and low BMD and sarcopenia (n = 1,399, 13%). Women with low BMD, with (HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.44-2.06) or without sarcopenia (HR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.37-1.83), had greater risk of fracture than women with normal BMD; the difference remained statistically significant after adjustment for important covariates. Women with low BMD, with (HR = 2.78, 95% CI = 1.78-4.30 and without (HR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.63-3.59) sarcopenia had higher risk of hip fractures. Women with sarcopenia alone had similar HRs to women with normal BMD. Compared to women with normal BMD. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  14. Physical activity and incidence of sarcopenia: the population-based AGES—Reykjavik Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijnarends, Donja M.; Koster, Annemarie; Schols, Jos M. G. A.; Meijers, Judith M. M.; Halfens, Ruud J. G.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Jónsson, Pálmi V.; Meirelles, Osorio; Harris, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Background: the prevalence of sarcopenia increases with age. Physical activity might slow the rate of muscle loss and therewith the incidence of sarcopenia. Objective: to examine the association of physical activity with incident sarcopenia over a 5-year period. Design: data from the population-based Age, Gene/Environment, Susceptibility–Reykjavik Study were used. Setting: people residing in the Reykjavik area at the start of the study. Subjects: the study included people aged 66–93 years (n = 2309). Methods: the amount of moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. Sarcopenia was identified using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People algorithm, including muscle mass (computed tomography imaging), grip strength (computerised dynamometer) and gait speed (6 m). Results: mean age of the participants was 74.9 ± 4.7 years. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 7.3% at baseline and 16.8% at follow-up. The incidence proportion of sarcopenia over 5 years was 14.8% in the least-active individuals and 9.0% in the most-active individuals. Compared with the least-active participants, those reporting a moderate–high amount of MVPA had a significantly lower likelihood of incident sarcopenia (OR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.45–0.91). Participants with a high amount of MVPA had higher baseline levels of muscle mass, strength and walking speed, but baseline MVPA was not associated with the rate of muscle loss. Conclusion: a higher amount of MVPA seems to contribute to counteracting the development of sarcopenia. To delay the onset of sarcopenia and its potential adverse outcomes, attention should be paid to increasing physical activity levels in older adults. PMID:27189729

  15. Sarcopenia: An Undiagnosed Condition in Older Adults. Current Consensus Definition: Prevalence, Etiology, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, has considerable societal consequences for the development of frailty, disability and health care planning. A group of geriatricians and scientists from academia and industry met in Rome, Italy on November 18, 2009 to arrive at a consensus definition of sarcopenia. The current consensus definition was approved unanimously by the meeting participants and is as follows: Sarcopenia is defined as the age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and function. The causes of sarcopenia are multi-factorial and can include disuse, altered endocrine function, chronic diseases, inflammation, insulin resistance, and nutritional deficiencies. While cachexia may be a component of sarcopenia, the two conditions are not the same. The diagnosis of sarcopenia should be considered in all older patients who present with observed declines in physical function, strength, or overall health. Sarcopenia should specifically be considered in patients who are bedridden, cannot independently rise from a chair, or who have a measured gait speed less that 1.0 m·s−1. Patients who meet these criteria should further undergo body composition assessment using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with sarcopenia being defined using currently validated definitions. A diagnosis of sarcopenia is consistent with a gait speed of less than 1 m·s−1 and an objectively measured low muscle mass (eg: appendicular mass relative to ht2 that is ≤ 7.23 kg/ m2 in men ≤ 5.67 kg/ m2 in men). Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent condition in older persons that leads to disability, hospitalization and death. PMID:21527165

  16. Clinical impact of sarcopenia on prognosis in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninomiya, Go; Fujii, Tsutomu; Yamada, Suguru; Yabusaki, Norimitsu; Suzuki, Kojiro; Iwata, Naoki; Kanda, Mitsuro; Hayashi, Masamichi; Tanaka, Chie; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Koike, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the impact of the body composition such as skeletal muscle, visceral fat and body mass index (BMI) on patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). A total of 265 patients who underwent curative surgery for PDAC were examined in this study. The total skeletal muscle and fat tissue areas were evaluated in a single image obtained at the third lumber vertebra during a preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan. The patients were assigned to either the sarcopenia or non-sarcopenia group based on their skeletal muscle index (SMI) and classified into high visceral fat area (H-VFA) or low VFA (L-VFA) groups. The association of clinicopathological features and prognosis with the body composition were statistically analyzed. There were 170 patients (64.2%) with sarcopenia. The median survival time (MST) was 23.7 months for sarcopenia patients and 25.8 months for patients without sarcopenia. The MST was 24.4 months for H-VFA patients and 25.8 months for L-VFA patients. However, sarcopenia patients with BMI ≥22 exhibited significantly poorer survival than patients without sarcopenia (MST: 19.2 vs. 35.4 months, P = 0.025). There was a significant difference between patients with and without sarcopenia who did not receive chemotherapy (5-year survival rate: 0% vs. 68.3%, P = 0.003). The multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size, positive dissected peripancreatic tissue margin, and sarcopenia were independent prognostic factors. Sarcopenia is an independent prognostic factor in PDAC patients with a BMI ≥22. Therefore, evaluating skeletal muscle mass may be a simple and useful approach for predicting patient prognosis. Copyright © 2017 IJS Publishing Group Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso J.; Landi, Francesco; Schneider, Stéphane M.; Zúñiga, Clemente; Arai, Hidenori; Boirie, Yves; Chen, Liang-Kung; Fielding, Roger A.; Martin, Finbarr C.; Michel, Jean-Pierre; Sieber, Cornel; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Studenski, Stephanie A.; Vellas, Bruno; Woo, Jean; Zamboni, Mauro; Cederholm, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: to examine the clinical evidence reporting the prevalence of sarcopenia and the effect of nutrition and exercise interventions from studies using the consensus definition of sarcopenia proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Methods: PubMed and Dialog databases were searched (January 2000–October 2013) using pre-defined search terms. Prevalence studies and intervention studies investigating muscle mass plus strength or function outcome measures using the EWGSOP definition of sarcopenia, in well-defined populations of adults aged ≥50 years were selected. Results: prevalence of sarcopenia was, with regional and age-related variations, 1–29% in community-dwelling populations, 14–33% in long-term care populations and 10% in the only acute hospital-care population examined. Moderate quality evidence suggests that exercise interventions improve muscle strength and physical performance. The results of nutrition interventions are equivocal due to the low number of studies and heterogeneous study design. Essential amino acid (EAA) supplements, including ∼2.5 g of leucine, and β-hydroxy β-methylbutyric acid (HMB) supplements, show some effects in improving muscle mass and function parameters. Protein supplements have not shown consistent benefits on muscle mass and function. Conclusion: prevalence of sarcopenia is substantial in most geriatric settings. Well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before treatment guidelines can be developed. Physicians should screen for sarcopenia in both community and geriatric settings, with diagnosis based on muscle mass and function. Supervised resistance exercise is recommended for individuals with sarcopenia. EAA (with leucine) and HMB may improve muscle outcomes. PMID:25241753

  18. Smart portable rehabilitation devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leahey Matt

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s. Methods In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Results Laboratory tests of the devices

  19. Smart portable rehabilitation devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroidis, Constantinos; Nikitczuk, Jason; Weinberg, Brian; Danaher, Gil; Jensen, Katherine; Pelletier, Philip; Prugnarola, Jennifer; Stuart, Ryan; Arango, Roberto; Leahey, Matt; Pavone, Robert; Provo, Andrew; Yasevac, Dan

    2005-07-12

    The majority of current portable orthotic devices and rehabilitative braces provide stability, apply precise pressure, or help maintain alignment of the joints with out the capability for real time monitoring of the patient's motions and forces and without the ability for real time adjustments of the applied forces and motions. Improved technology has allowed for advancements where these devices can be designed to apply a form of tension to resist motion of the joint. These devices induce quicker recovery and are more effective at restoring proper biomechanics and improving muscle function. However, their shortcoming is in their inability to be adjusted in real-time, which is the most ideal form of a device for rehabilitation. This introduces a second class of devices beyond passive orthotics. It is comprised of "active" or powered devices, and although more complicated in design, they are definitely the most versatile. An active or powered orthotic, usually employs some type of actuator(s). In this paper we present several new advancements in the area of smart rehabilitation devices that have been developed by the Northeastern University Robotics and Mechatronics Laboratory. They are all compact, wearable and portable devices and boast re-programmable, real time computer controlled functions as the central theme behind their operation. The sensory information and computer control of the three described devices make for highly efficient and versatile systems that represent a whole new breed in wearable rehabilitation devices. Their applications range from active-assistive rehabilitation to resistance exercise and even have applications in gait training. The three devices described are: a transportable continuous passive motion elbow device, a wearable electro-rheological fluid based knee resistance device, and a wearable electrical stimulation and biofeedback knee device. Laboratory tests of the devices demonstrated that they were able to meet their design

  20. Loop diuretics are associated with greater risk of sarcopenia in patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Seiko; Naito, Shotaro; Iimori, Soichiro; Takahashi, Daiei; Zeniya, Moko; Sato, Hidehiko; Nomura, Naohiro; Sohara, Eisei; Okado, Tomokazu; Uchida, Shinichi; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2018-01-01

    Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of muscle mass and function, frequently accompanies chronic kidney disease. The aim of this study was to clarify the prevalence and the risk factors for sarcopenia among patients with non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (NDD-CKD), focusing on the use of drugs. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis on a cohort of 260 patients with NDD-CKD in a university hospital, recruited between June 2016 and March 2017. We extracted data on patient gender, age, cause of chronic kidney disease, use of drugs, and comorbidities that could potentially affect the prevalence of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was diagnosed using the criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the association of each factor on the prevalence of sarcopenia. 25.0% of our study subjects had sarcopenia. Multivariable analysis revealed that an increased risk of sarcopenia was significantly associated with age, male gender, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, and loop diuretic use (odds ratio, 4.59: 95% confidence interval, 1.81-11.61: P-value 0.001). In our cohort, the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with NDD-CKD was high, and diuretics use, particularly loop diuretic use, was suggested to be a risk factor of sarcopenia. Although loop diuretics are commonly used in patients with CKD, careful consideration of the risk of sarcopenia may be necessary.

  1. Incidence, Risk Factors, and the Protective Effect of High Body Mass Index against Sarcopenia in Suburb-Dwelling Elderly Chinese Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, P; Zhao, J; Guo, Q; Wang, J; Zhang, W; Shen, S; Wang, X; Dong, R; Ma, Y; Kang, L; Fu, L; Jia, L; Han, X; He, Z; Bao, Y; Wang, L; Niu, K

    2016-01-01

    Few studies have explored the risk factors of sarcopenia in certain cohorts. The objective of this study was to examine the incidence of sarcopenia and associated factors over a 1-year period in an elderly Chinese suburban population. This study was conducted on 356 Chinese suburb-dwelling participants aged ≥60 years, for whom detailed information regarding sociodemographics, behavioral characteristics, and medical conditions had been documented. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) criteria. Sarcopenia incidence was documented after one year of follow-up, and correlated with several possible factors. At baseline, 64 (9.7%) of the initial 657 participants had sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 10.4% after one year. Between baseline and 1-year follow-up, 13 of the participants without sarcopenia at baseline had developed sarcopenia. After multivariate adjustments, it was found that the incidence of sarcopenia increased with age and high body mass index (BMI) is associated with less incidence of sarcopenia. Incidence was also higher among women. We found sarcopenia incidence increased with age, and women were more likely to have sarcopenia. A higher BMI is also associated with a lower incidence of sarcopenia. Maintaining a healthy weight could be beneficial in the prevention of sarcopenia.

  2. Incidence and predictors of sarcopenia onset in community-dwelling elderly Japanese women: 4-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hunkyung; Suzuki, Takao; Kim, Miji; Kojima, Narumi; Yoshida, Yuko; Hirano, Hirohiko; Saito, Kyoko; Iwasa, Hajime; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Hosoi, Erika; Yoshida, Hideyo

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have explored the prevalence and risk factors of sarcopenia, but they have been based on cross-sectional data. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and predictors of the onset of sarcopenia over 4 years in community-dwelling elderly women. Four-year longitudinal follow-up study. Urban community in Tokyo, Japan. A total of 538 nonsarcopenic women older than 75 years. Body composition was determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Functional fitness measurements, including grip strength, usual walking speed, timed up and go (TUG), and interview surveys were conducted at baseline and 4-year follow-up. Blood samples were obtained to analyze serum albumin and hemoglobin A1c, and kidney function was analyzed using serum creatinine and cystatin C. Sarcopenia was defined based on the criteria suggested by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, and the development of all stages, that is, presarcopenia, sarcopenia, and severe sarcopenia as well as the components of sarcopenia skeletal muscle index (SMI), grip strength, and walking speed, were analyzed. The incidence of total sarcopenia was 39.6% (presarcopenia 23.8%, sarcopenia 11.2%, severe sarcopenia 4.6%). Older age was significantly predictive of the development of presarcopenia and severe sarcopenia. Body mass index (BMI) lower than 21.0 kg/m(2) was significantly predictive of the development of all stages of sarcopenia, as well as declines in SMI, grip strength, and walking speed. Slow TUG was a predictor of the development of presarcopenia and severe sarcopenia. Increased calf circumference showed protective effects from the development of all stages of sarcopenia. Greater albumin levels also showed lower risk of declines in SMI, walking speed, and development of presarcopenia. Cystatin C was positively associated with the development of severe sarcopenia (odds ratio 1.83, 95% confidence interval 1.08-3.12). Heart disease and hyperlipidemia history were

  3. Relationships among Obesity, Sarcopenia, and Osteoarthritis in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Sung Jin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background : The present study examined the correlations between obesity, sarcopenia, and osteoarthritis in Korea’s elderly population. Methods : A cross-sectional analysis of 1,865 and 1,769 respondents with knee osteoarthritis and lumbar spondylosis, respectively, was performed by using data from the 2010 and 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Obesity was defined as a body mass index of ≥25 kg/m²; osteoarthritis, as a Kellgren/Lawrence grade of ≥2; and sarcopenia, as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM; ASM/weight ×100 on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry of two standard deviations below the mean reference value. Results : The unadjusted and age-adjusted risks of knee osteoarthritis were as follows: 1.88 and 1.92 times greater, respectively, for male subjects with sarcopenic obesity; 6.03 and 7.64 times greater, respectively, for female subjects with non-sarcopenic obesity; and 1.97 and 2.43 times greater, respectively, for female subjects with sarcopenic obesity. The age-and-waist circumference-adjusted risks were 5.88 and 1.80 times greater for the female subjects with non-sarcopenic and sarcopenic obesities, respectively. No statistically significant finding was obtained for lumbar spondylosis. Conclusion : Obesity and sarcopenia were associated with knee osteoarthritis in the elderly subjects. The risk of knee osteoarthritis was greater in the male subjects with sarcopenic obesity than in the male subjects with non-sarcopenic obesity. In the female subjects, the risk of knee osteoarthritis was high in both obesity groups. Further research to explain the sex-related difference in knee osteoarthritis risk based on body composition will be beneficial.

  4. Rapid monitoring of gaseous radionuclides using a portable spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, C.; Tsai, C.H.

    1995-01-01

    A field gamma ray spectrometer, consisting of a portable high purity germanium detector, portable multichannel analyser, and a notebook computer, was used to conduct in situ rapid scanning of radioactive Ar, Kr and Xe isotopes in the air around a nuclear facility. The portable gamma ray spectrometer was calibrated using Ar, Kr, and Xe radioisotopes, activated in a research reactor and released in a sealed chamber. The unit was further tested inside the reactor containment to monitor the concentration of 41 Ar. In a typical one hour field measurement, the detection limits for some rare gas radionuclides corresponded to dose rates around 0.1 nSv.h -1 , which is far less than the dose rate induced by derived air concentrations imposed by the authority. The dose rate due to ground level concentrations of gaseous radionuclides dispersed from a source, such a nuclear facility or nuclear test, can be monitored in a short period using the portable unit. (Author)

  5. Towards Application Portability on Blockchains

    OpenAIRE

    Shudo, Kazuyuki; Saito, Kenji

    2018-01-01

    We pose a fundamental problem of public blockchain, "incentive mismatch." It is an open problem, but application portability is a provisional solution to the problem. Portability is also a desirable property for an application on a private blockchain. It is not even clear to be able to define a common API for various blockchain middlewares, but it is possible to improve portability by reducing dependency on a blockchain. We present an example of such middleware designs that provide applicatio...

  6. Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Community-Dwelling Chilean Elders According to an Adapted Version of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) Criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lera, L; Albala, C; Sánchez, H; Angel, B; Hormazabal, M J; Márquez, C; Arroyo, P

    2017-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the progressive loss of mass and skeletal muscle strength and has serious consequences on older people's health. The Chilean older population has a high life-expectancy, but the prevalence of functional dependence is also high. To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chilean older adults and its relationship with age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Cross-sectional study. Community. 1,006 non-disabled, community-dwelling subjects aged 60 years or older living in Santiago. Anthropometric measurements, handgrip strength, physical performance tests, and dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry (DXA) scan were performed. Sarcopenia was defined using the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Muscle mass was measured with DXA scan; skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and hand dynamometry were defined with cut-off points obtained for the Chilean population. For a 3m walking speed we used the cut-off point of the EWGSOP definition. Nutritional status and obesity were defined according to World Health Organization standards. Association between sarcopenia and age, gender, BMI and lean/fat mass ratio was estimated by logistic regression models. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 19.1% (95%CI: 16.8%-21.8%), similar in men and women. There was an increasing trend of sarcopenia by age group and a decreasing trend with nutritional status. After logistic regression, sarcopenia was positively associated with age (OR=1.10; 95%CI:1.06-1.15) and falls (OR=1.83; 95%CI:1.07-3.15) and negatively associated with overweight (OR=0.31; 95%CI:0.16-0.59), obesity (OR=0.02; 95%CI:0.004-0.11), lean mass/fat mass ratio (OR=0.69; 95%CI:0.48-0.9997), knee height (OR=0.78; 95%CI:0.68-0.89) and calf circumference (OR=0.87; 95%CI:0.77-0.97). The total prevalence of sarcopenia was 19.1% increasing with age reaching 39.6% in people of 80 or more years of age. A negative association of sarcopenia with overweight, obesity and lean/fat mass ratio was

  7. A comparison of pectoralis versus lumbar skeletal muscle indices for defining sarcopenia in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - two are better than one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Se-Il; Park, Mi Jung; Song, Haa-Na; Kim, Hoon-Gu; Kang, Myoung Hee; Kang, Jung Hun; Kim, Hye Ree; Lee, Gyeong-Won

    2017-07-18

    Sarcopenia is known to be associated with poor clinical outcome in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). There is no consensus concerning the optimal method to define sarcopenia in DLBCL. We retrospectively reviewed 193 DLBCL patients treated with rituximab plus cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP) therapy. Sarcopenia was classified by the region where the pretreatment skeletal muscle index (SMI) was measured. Both the sarcopenia-L3 and sarcopenia-pectoralis muscle (PM) groups had increased incidences of severe treatment-related toxicities and treatment discontinuation compared with the non-sarcopenia-L3 and non-sarcopenia-PM groups, respectively. The sarcopenia-L3 and non-sarcopenia-L3 groups had 5-year overall survival (OS) rates of 40.5% and 67.8% (p sarcopenia-PM and non-sarcopenia-PM groups had 5-year OS rates of 35.9% and 69.0% (p sarcopenia-L3 alone and sarcopenia-PM alone groups were compared, there were no differences in baseline characteristics, treatment toxicity, or survival. In multivariate analysis, when compared with the non-sarcopenia-both group, OS was significantly worse in the sarcopenia-both group (HR, 2.480; 95% CI, 1.284 - 4.792; p = 0.007), but not in patients with either sarcopenia-L3 alone or sarcopenia-PM alone (p = 0.151). L3- and PM-SMIs are equally useful to define sarcopenia, which is related to intolerance to R-CHOP therapy and to worse survival in patients with DLBCL. More prognostic information can be obtained when these two SMIs are combined to define sarcopenia.

  8. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Kenji; Nakamura, Marie; Adachi, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Akira; Hakamada, Tomomi; Abe, Yasuko; Kaneko, Eiji; Takahashi, Soiciro; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles. A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years) were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids. Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia. The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

  9. Sarcopenia: prevalence and associated factors among elderly from a Brazilian capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia Pelegrini

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Sarcopenia has been currently considered a public health problem, affecting a large portion of the elderly and making them more susceptible to the risk of falls. Objective: To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in the elderly from a Brazilian capital. Methods: This is an epidemiological study with cross-sectional design involving data of 439 elderly people from Florianópolis city, Santa Catarina state. The factors potentially associated with sarcopenia (sex, age, weight status were tested using binary logistic regression, estimating the Odds Ratio and the respective confidence intervals. Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia was 33.3% (95% CI: 28.9, 36.9. Older women (75 years or more showed less muscle mass in relation to other age groups (p < 0.05. Elderly men, individuals that are 75 years or more, and those with low weight were the subgroups at higher risk for sarcopenia. Obese individuals were less likely to have the outcome. Conclusion: More than one-third of elderly people were diagnosed with sarcopenia. Men, individuals who are older, and those with low weight had a higher risk of having sarcopenia.

  10. White blood cell counts, insulin resistance, vitamin D levels and sarcopenia in Korean elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang-Hwan; Kwon, Hyun Seok; Hwang, Hee-Jin

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia is a major determinant of frailty, disability and mortality in the elderly. Whether low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and vitamin D are independently associated with sarcopenia remains unclear. In our study, sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared (ASM/Ht 2 ) that was sarcopenia in Korean elderly men aged more than 65 years was 11.2%. ASM/Ht 2 were positively associated with vitamin D levels, but negatively associated with white blood cell counts and HOMA-IR by multiple regression analysis. After adjustment for covariables, sarcopenia was associated with the highest quartile of WBC counts (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.21-7.14) and the highest quartile of serum vitamin D levels (OR = 0.38, 95% CI = 0.15-0.95). In conclusion, the study findings suggest that higher WBC counts and lower vitamin D levels are independently associated with the presence of sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly men. They also provide a basis for further studies of the complex immune-endocrine network in sarcopenia.

  11. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity: do they predict inferior oncologic outcomes after gastrointestinal cancer surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly L. Mei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sarcopenia, or loss of skeletal muscle mass and quality, has been studied as part of aging and adverse health outcomes in elderly patients but has only recently been evaluated as a separate condition in cancer patients and important indicator of adverse outcomes. Currently, its definition and method of assessment are still being debated. Sarcopenia within an increasingly obese population has led to a subgroup with sarcopenic obesity, at even higher risk of adverse outcomes. Yet, sarcopenia often goes undiagnosed in these patients, hidden beneath higher body mass index. Identifying sarcopenic and sarcopenic obese subpopulations would allow for more effective treatment plans and potential avoidance of suboptimal outcomes, as well as the chance to intervene and combat these modifiable risk factors. This review will examine available literature on the definition and methods of evaluating sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity, summarize the effectiveness of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity as predictors of outcomes after gastrointestinal cancer surgery, including colorectal cancer resection, liver resection, and pancreatic resection, and outline strategies to minimize the impact of sarcopenia. It is clear that untreated sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity can be associated with suboptimal post-operative outcomes, especially infections and disease-free or overall survival.

  12. Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia among elderly in Brazil: findings from the SABE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, T da Silva; Duarte, Y A de Oliveira; Santos, J L Ferreira; Wong, R; Lebrão, M L

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the prevalence and factors associated with sarcopenia in older residents in São Paulo, Brazil. Cross-sectional study. São Paulo, Brazil. 1,149 older individuals from the second wave of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE) study from 2006. The definition of sarcopenia was based on the consensus of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), which include three components: low muscle mass, assessed by a skeletal muscle mass index of ≤8.90 kg/m2 for men and ≤6.37 kg/m2 for women; low muscle strength, assessed by handgrip strength sarcopenia required presence of low muscle mass plus low muscle strength or low physical performance. Socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics, medical conditions and nutritional status were considered as independent variables to determine the associated factors using a logistic regression model. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 16.1% in women and 14.4% in men. Advanced age with a dose response effect, cognitive impairment, lower income, smoking, undernutrition and risk for undernutrition (psarcopenia. The EWGSOP algorithm is useful to define sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia in the Brazilian elderly population is high and several associated factors show that this syndrome is affected by multiple domains. No differences were observed by gender in any age groups.

  13. Association of sarcopenia with functional decline in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Tanimoto, Keiji; Shishikura, Kanako; Sugiura, Yumiko; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Kono, Koichi

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to determine the association of sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance, with functional disability from a 2-year cohort study of community-dwelling elderly Japanese people. Participants were 743 community-dwelling elderly Japanese people aged 65 years or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance in a baseline study. Functional disability was defined using an activities of daily living (ADL) scale and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scale at baseline and during follow-up examinations 2 years later. Logistic regression analysis, adjusted for age and body mass index, was used to examine the association between sarcopenia and the occurrence of functional disability. In the present study, 7.8% of men and 10.2% of women were classified as having sarcopenia. Among sarcopenia patients in the baseline study, 36.8% of men and 18.8% of women became dependent in ADL at 2-year follow up. From the logistic regression analysis adjusted by age and body mass index, sarcopenia was significantly associated with the occurrences of physical disability compared with normal subjects in both men and women. Sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance, was associated with functional decline over a 2-year period in elderly Japanese. Interventions to prevent sarcopenia are very important to prevent functional decline among elderly individuals. © 2013 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Prevalence of and factors associated with sarcopenia in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jwa-Kyung; Choi, Sun Ryoung; Choi, Myung Jin; Kim, Sung Gyun; Lee, Young Ki; Noh, Jung Woo; Kim, Hyung Jik; Song, Young Rim

    2014-02-01

    We investigated the prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and its relationship with various markers of nutrition, cognitive function, depressive symptoms, inflammation and β2-microglobulin. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 95 patients having ESRD aged over 50 years. Sarcopenia was defined as a decline in both muscle mass and strength. The mean age was 63.9 ± 10.0 years; 56.8% were men and 52.6% had diabetes. Sarcopenia was highly prevalent in elderly patients with ESRD (37.0% in men and 29.3% in women). Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), inflammatory markers and β2-microglobulin levels were significantly associated with sarcopenia, even after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, and body mass index. Additionally, patients with depressive symptoms showed a higher risk of sarcopenia relative to those without depressive symptoms (odds ratio, OR = 6.87, 95% confidence interval, CI = 2.06-22.96) and sarcopenia was more likely to be present in patients with mild cognitive dysfunction (OR = 6.35, 95% CI = 1.62-34.96). Sarcopenia is highly prevalent in elderly patients with ESRD and is closely associated with SGA, inflammatory markers, β2-microglobulin, depression and cognitive dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  15. Sarcopenia is linked to treatment toxicity in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maximilien; Antoun, Sami; Dalban, Cécile; Malka, David; Mansourbakht, Touraj; Zaanan, Aziz; Latko, Ewa; Taieb, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy toxicity could be linked to decreased skeletal muscle (sarcopenia). We evaluated the effect of sarcopenia on chemotherapy toxicity among metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. All consecutive mCRC patients in 3 hospitals were enrolled in this prospective, cross-sectional, multicenter study. Several nutritional indexes and scores were generated. Computed tomography (CT) images were analyzed to evaluate cross-sectional areas of muscle tissue (MT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT). Toxicities were evaluated in the 2 mo following clinical evaluation. Fifty-one mCRC patients were included in the study. Sarcopenia was observed in 71% of patients (39% of women and 82% of men) whereas only 4% and 18% were considered as underweight using body mass index (BMI) or severely malnourished using the Nutritional Risk Index (NRI), respectively. Grade 3-4 toxicities were observed in 28% of patients. In multivariate analysis including age, sex, BMI, sarcopenia, SAT, and VAT, the only factor associated with Grade 3-4 toxicities was sarcopenia (odds ratio = 13.55; 95% confidence interval [1.08; 169.31], P = 0.043). In mCRC patients undergoing chemotherapy, sarcopenia was much more frequently observed than visible malnutrition. Despite the small number of patients included in our study, we found sarcopenia to be significantly associated with severe chemotherapy toxicity.

  16. One size may not fit all: anti-aging therapies and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Tyesha N; Cohn, Ronald D

    2011-12-01

    Sarcopenia refers to age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Several age-related changes occur in skeletal muscle including a decrease in myofiber size and number and a diminished ability of satellite cells to activate and proliferate upon injury leading to impaired muscle remodeling. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying sarcopenia are unknown, it is tempting to hypothesize that interplay between biological and environmental factors cooperate in a positive feedback cycle contributing to the progression of sarcopenia. Indeed many essential biological mechanisms such as apoptosis and autophagy and critical signaling pathways involved in skeletal muscle homeostasis are altered during aging and have been linked to loss of muscle mass. Moreover, the environmental effects of the sedentary lifestyle of older people further promote and contribute the loss of muscle mass. There are currently no widely accepted therapeutic strategies to halt or reverse the progression of sarcopenia. Caloric restriction has been shown to be beneficial as a sarcopenia and aging antagonist. Such results have made the search for caloric restriction mimetics (CRM) a priority. However given the mechanisms of action, some of the currently investigated CRMs may not combat sarcopenia. Thus, sarcopenia may represent a unique phenotypic feature of aging that requires specific and individually tailored therapeutic strategies.

  17. Association of Fatigue With Sarcopenia and its Elements: A Secondary Analysis of SABE-Bogotá

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patino-Hernandez, Daniela; David-Pardo, David Gabriel; Borda, Miguel Germán; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises; Cano-Gutiérrez, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Sarcopenia, fatigue, and depression are associated with higher mortality rates and adverse outcomes in the aging population. Understanding the association among clinical variables, mainly symptoms, is important for screening and appropriately managing these conditions. The aim of this article is to evaluate the association among sarcopenia and its elements with depression and fatigue. Method: We used cross-sectional data from 2012 SABE (Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento)-Bogotá study, which included 2,000 participants of ages ≥60 years. Sarcopenia and its elements were taken as the dependent variable, while fatigue and depression were the main independent variables. We tested the association among these through multiple logistic regression models, which were fitted for each dependent variable and adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Our findings showed that gait speed was associated with fatigue (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.05, 1.90], p = .02) as well as abnormal handgrip strength (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95% CI = [1.02, 1.93], p = .04). No other associations were significant. Conclusion: While sarcopenia and fatigue are not associated, two of the sarcopenia-defining variables are associated with fatigue; this suggests that lack of sarcopenia does not exclude undesirable outcomes related to fatigue in aging adults. Also, the lack of association between sarcopenia-defining elements and depression demonstrates that depression and fatigue are different concepts. PMID:28474000

  18. Association of Fatigue With Sarcopenia and its Elements: A Secondary Analysis of SABE-Bogotá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Patino-Hernandez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sarcopenia, fatigue, and depression are associated with higher mortality rates and adverse outcomes in the aging population. Understanding the association among clinical variables, mainly symptoms, is important for screening and appropriately managing these conditions. The aim of this article is to evaluate the association among sarcopenia and its elements with depression and fatigue. Method: We used cross-sectional data from 2012 SABE ( Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento -Bogotá study, which included 2,000 participants of ages ≥60 years. Sarcopenia and its elements were taken as the dependent variable, while fatigue and depression were the main independent variables. We tested the association among these through multiple logistic regression models, which were fitted for each dependent variable and adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Our findings showed that gait speed was associated with fatigue (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.05, 1.90], p = .02 as well as abnormal handgrip strength (adjusted OR = 1.40, 95% CI = [1.02, 1.93], p = .04. No other associations were significant. Conclusion: While sarcopenia and fatigue are not associated, two of the sarcopenia-defining variables are associated with fatigue; this suggests that lack of sarcopenia does not exclude undesirable outcomes related to fatigue in aging adults. Also, the lack of association between sarcopenia-defining elements and depression demonstrates that depression and fatigue are different concepts.

  19. Is sarcopenia associated with depression? A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ke-Vin; Hsu, Tsai-Hsuan; Wu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Han, Der-Sheng

    2017-09-01

    to explore whether sarcopenia is associated with depression. electronic literature databases from PubMed, Scopus, Embase and Google Scholar were searched. A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was conducted. community and outpatient clinic. people with and without diagnoses of sarcopenia. outcome measures of depression. about 15 articles were included, 5 of which were retrieved for narrative review. The crude odds ratios (ORs) between sarcopenia and depression were extracted from the remaining 10 studies, 6 of which also included adjusted ORs. Sarcopenia was associated with depression without adjusting covariates (crude OR, 1.640; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.247-2.155). After adjusting for potential confounders such as age, gender, cognitive performance and physical activity, sarcopenia still demonstrated a significant positive association with depression (adjusted OR, 1.821; 95% CI, 1.160-2.859). A stratified analysis showed that the studies that used bioelectrical impedance analysis for measurement of body composition tended to have an elevated association between sarcopenia and depression compared with those that used dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry or equation estimation. sarcopenia was independently associated with depression. The causal relationship between the two clinical conditions requires future validation with cohort studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  20. Sarcopenia is a Predictor of Surgical Morbidity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mark; Cromwell, John; Nau, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Sarcopenia is associated with an increased risk of operative morbidity and mortality. The impact of sarcopenia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not been evaluated. This study assessed the role of sarcopenia on operative outcomes in IBD. A retrospective review of American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data of patients with IBD was completed. Records were abstracted for comorbidities and perioperative complications. The Hounsfield unit average calculation was used from preoperative computed tomography (CT). Criteria for sarcopenia were based on the lowest 25th percentile. Complications were graded using the Clavien-Dindo classification system. Statistical analysis was completed using SAS. There were 178 patients included. Sarcopenic patients were more likely to be older (P = 0.001), have hypertension (odds ratio = 2.23), and be diabetic (5.27). In those patients younger than 40 years, sarcopenia was an independent predictor of complications. This subset was significantly more likely to have a normal or elevated body mass index. In this population, the average age of sarcopenic patients is increased from those who do not meet criteria. Among patients younger than 40 years, sarcopenia affects surgical outcomes. Assessment of sarcopenia can be used to improve preoperative management and describe risks before surgery in patients with IBD.

  1. Obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and reduced mobility in Brazilian older people aged 80 years and over.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa Ribeiro Dos; Gomes, Igor Conterato; Bueno, Denise Rodrigues; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Freitas, Ismael Forte; Gobbo, Luis Alberto

    2017-01-01

    To analyze which abnormalities in body composition (obesity, sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity) are related to reduced mobility in older people aged 80 years and older. The sample included 116 subjects aged 80 years and older. The body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and mobility was assessed by motor tests. The χ2 test was used to analyze the proportion of older people with sarcopenia, obesity and sarcopenic obesity based on sex as well as to indicate an association between obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and mobility. Binary logistic regression, adjusted for the variables (sex and osteoarticular diseases), was used to express the magnitude of these associations. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the mobility of four groups (Normal, Obesity, Sarcopenia and Sarcopenic Obesity). The Sarcopenia Group had lower performance in the lower limbs strength test and in sum of two tests compared with Obesity and Normal Groups. Older people with sarcopenia had higher chance of reduced mobility (OR: 3.44; 95%CI: 1.12-10.52). Older people aged 80 years and older with sarcopenia have more chance for reduction in mobility.

  2. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Toyoshima

    Full Text Available Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles.A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids.Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia.The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

  3. [Prevalence of sarcopenia in geriatric outpatients and nursing homes. The ELLI study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osuna-Pozo, Carmen María; Serra-Rexach, José Antonio; Viña, José; Gómez-Cabrera, María del Carmen; Salvá, Antoni; Ruiz, Domingo; Masanes, Ferrán; Lopez-Soto, Alfonso; Formiga, Francesc; Cuesta, Federico; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    There are few systematic studies on the prevalence of sarcopenia using the new diagnostic criteria in different geriatric care settings. To estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia, using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria in older subjects living in nursing homes and in those who attend geriatric outpatient clinics. A single country multicentre study in two samples of older subjects: patients cared for in outpatient geriatric clinics, and individuals living in nursing homes. Data collected will include demographic variables, medical history, medication, geriatric syndromes, functional status (assessment of basic and instrumental activities of daily living), mobility, cognitive status, comorbidity, quality of life, nutritional status, and laboratory parameters. For the diagnosis of sarcopenia, 4m walking speed, handgrip strength, and body composition measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis will be assessed. Using the EWGSOP algorithm, the prevalence of sarcopenia in an elderly Spanish population will be estimated. In addition, concordance and correlation between the three parameters included in the definition (muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance) will be analysed, using the different existing cut-off points, and examining the diagnostic accuracy of each. Finally, demographic, anthropometric and functional data that define subjects with sarcopenia will be investigated. The ELLI study should improve knowledge on the prevalence and characteristics of sarcopenia in older people in our population. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Attempt of portable HLS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, S.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the work that has been made to get a reliable magnet level surveys of the Spring-8 ring. The hydrostatic level system (HLS) completed with a capacitive sensor of water surface, has been used. If the length is about 20 m and the inner diameter of the water pipe is 10 mm, the decay time is stable within a few minutes after the sensor was set on stage. Thus the portable HLS is convenient for measuring points between the reference level ones

  5. Application Portable Parallel Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Gary L.; Blech, Richard A.; Quealy, Angela; Townsend, Scott

    1995-01-01

    Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL) computer program is subroutine-based message-passing software library intended to provide consistent interface to variety of multiprocessor computers on market today. Minimizes effort needed to move application program from one computer to another. User develops application program once and then easily moves application program from parallel computer on which created to another parallel computer. ("Parallel computer" also include heterogeneous collection of networked computers). Written in C language with one FORTRAN 77 subroutine for UNIX-based computers and callable from application programs written in C language or FORTRAN 77.

  6. Sarcopenia and its relationship with bone mineral density in middle-aged and elderly European men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschueren, S; Gielen, E; O'Neill, T W; Pye, S R; Adams, J E; Ward, K A; Wu, F C; Szulc, P; Laurent, M; Claessens, F; Vanderschueren, D; Boonen, S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between reduced muscle mass (sarcopenia) and areal bone mineral density (BMD(a)) in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling European men. Men with sarcopenia had significantly lower BMD(a) and were more likely to have osteoporosis compared with men without sarcopenia. In men, the relationship between reduced muscle mass (sarcopenia) and BMD(a) is unclear. This study aimed to determine this relationship in middle-aged and elderly community-dwelling men. Men aged 40-79 years from the Manchester (UK) and Leuven (Belgium) cohorts of the European Male Ageing Study were invited to attend for assessment including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, from which appendicular lean mass (aLM), fat mass (FM) and whole-body, spine and hip BMD(a) were determined. Relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass (RASM) was calculated as aLM/height². Muscle strength was assessed in subjects from Leuven. Sarcopenia was defined by RASM at Sarcopenia in Older People (RASM at sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Six hundred seventy-nine men with a mean age of 59.6 (SD = 10.7), contributed data to the analysis; 11.9 % were sarcopenic by the conventional definition. After adjustment for age and centre, aLM, RASM and FM were positively associated with BMD(a). Men with RASM at sarcopenia were more likely to have osteoporosis compared with those with normal RASM (odds ratio = 3.0; 95 % CI = 1.6-5.8). Sarcopenia is associated with low BMD(a) and osteoporosis in middle-aged and elderly men. Further studies are necessary to assess whether maintaining muscle mass contributes to prevent osteoporosis.

  7. Presbyphagia and Sarcopenic Dysphagia: Association between Aging, Sarcopenia, and Deglutition Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, H

    2014-01-01

    Presbyphagia refers to age-related changes in the swallowing mechanism in the elderly associated with a frailty in swallowing. Presbyphagia is different from dysphagia. Sarcopenic dysphagia is difficulty swallowing due to sarcopenia of generalized skeletal muscles and swallowing muscles. Age-related loss of swallowing muscle mass becomes evident in the geniohyoid muscle and tongue. Elderly subjects with both sarcopenia and dysphagia may have not only disease-related dysphagia but also sarcopenic dysphagia. In cases of aspiration pneumonia, deterioration in activity-, disease-, and nutrition-related sarcopenia of generalized skeletal muscles and swallowing muscles may develop into sarcopenic dysphagia. Assessment of sarcopenic dysphagia includes evaluation of both dysphagia and sarcopenia. The 10-item Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) and a water test combined with pulse oximetry are useful for dysphagia screening. Assessment of the multi-factorial causes of sarcopenia including nutritional review is important, because rehabilitation of sarcopenic dysphagia differs depending on its etiology. Consensus diagnostic criteria for sarcopenic dysphagia were proposed at the 19th Annual Meeting of the Japanese Society of Dysphagia Rehabilitation. Rehabilitation for sarcopenic dysphagia includes treatment of both dysphagia and sarcopenia. The core components of dysphagia rehabilitation are oral health care, rehabilitative techniques, and food modification. The causes of adult malnutrition may also contribute to the etiology of secondary sarcopenia and sarcopenic dysphagia. Therefore, nutrition management is indispensable for sarcopenic dysphagia rehabilitation. In cases of sarcopenia with numerous complicating causes, treatment should include pharmaceutical therapies for age-related sarcopenia and comorbid chronic diseases, resistance training, early ambulation, nutrition management, protein and amino acid supplementation, and non-smoking.

  8. Prognostic value of sarcopenia in patients with liver cirrhosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gaeun; Kim, Moon Young

    2017-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia is a common syndrome in chronic diseases such as liver cirrhosis. The association between sarcopenia and outcomes, such as complications and survival has recently been described in various patient groups. However, study results remain inconclusive. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically review the impact of sarcopenia on outcome in patients with cirrhosis. Methods and findings We conducted a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis (MA) on the impact of sarcopenia on outcome in liver cirrhosis was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis guidelines. Of the 312 studies identified, 20 were eligible according to our inclusion criteria. Most of the studies used CT to diagnose sarcopenia. Two studies used bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), 10 studies used skeletal muscle index (SMI) and 8 studies used total psoas muscle area (TPA). Seven studies included Asian participants and the remaining 13 studies included Western participants. The prevalence rate of sarcopenia among participants was mean 48.1%, and appeared more among men with a rate of 61.6% whereas the rate was 36% for women. With respect to clinical outcomes, patients with sarcopenia had poorer survival rates and an increased risk of complications such as infection compared to those without sarcopenia. According to the analysis of race subgroup, Asians had a HR 2.45 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.44–4.16, P = 0.001) of mortality whereas Westerners had a HR 1.45 (95% CI = 1.002–2.09, Psarcopenia is related to a poor prognosis and occurrence of cirrhotic complications and could be used for risk assessment. Moreover, Asian participants had higher mortality related to sarcopenia compared to the Western participants. PMID:29065187

  9. Portable wireless metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, L [Powtel Monitoring Systems, Inc., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Portable meters were discussed as alternatives to standard billing meters for temporary installations. Current, voltage and power factor at a distribution station were measured to calculate kW and kVAR, using an easy to install product that communicates live readings directly to the existing billing system. A background of situations where temporary metering is a possible alternative to regular meters was presented. Use of electronic, clamp on Electronic Recording Ammeters (ERA) and their drawbacks were discussed. An improved temporary metering solution using FM radio transmission to deliver live data to a receiving device, the Eagle Series 3500, was introduced. Improvements over previous ERA systems were discussed, including accuracy, lack of batteries, immediate confirmation of functionality, current, voltage and power factor monitoring, direct feed to billing system, line crew savings, need for only a single unit at any given site, bi-directional power flow metering, independent report storage media, and a portable voltage and P.F. diagnostic tool. Details of trial applications at the Utopia distribution station west of Barrie, ON were presented. This technology was said to be still in the testing stage, but its flexibility and economy were sonsidered to be very promising for future application.

  10. [Analysis of the dietary factors on sarcopenia in elderly in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhiwei; Meng, Liping; Man, Qingqing; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Li, Yuqian; Gao, Yixiong; Ja, Shanshan; Zhang, Jian

    2016-05-01

    To analyze the dietary factors on sarcopenia in elderly in Beijing and provide nutritional recommendations for the sarcopenia. A total of 830 participants aged 60 and above and without serious diseases were selected from two representative communities in Beijing. A cross-sectional research design was used, including inquiry investigation, dietary surveys (food frequency questionnaire) anthropometry, muscle mass and functional assessment. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 20.1% in this area, the men was 17.1%, while the women was 21.6% (P > 0.05). The prevalence of sarcopenia in the five age groups has significant statistically difference (chi2 = 19.03, P = 0.0008) and increased with age rising (Z = -4.18, P sarcopenia would be downward if the time of exercise prolonged and body mass index (BMI) increased (P sarcopenia in the group of meat consumption 70 g/d was 24.5%,19.9% and 15. 3% (chi2 = 6.02, P = 0.0492), respectively (trend test for groups comparison, Z = 2.45, P =0.0141). The prevalence of sarcopenia in the group of egg consumption 60 g/d was 25.8%, 18.7% and 11.3% (chi2 = 6.50, P = 0.0388), respectively ( trend test for groups comparison, Z =2. 55, P = 0.0109). The prevalence of sarcopenia in the group of energy consumption 2109 kcal/d was 25.8%,19.5% and 15. 0% (x2 = 8. 19 , P = 0. 0158), respectively (trend test for groups comparison, Z = 2.87, P = 0.0042). The prevalence of sarcopenia in the group of protein consumption 78.4 g/d was 25.3%, 18.2% and 16.7% (chi2 = 5.97, P = 0. 0505 ) , respectively (Z = 2.28, P = 0.0227). After controlling the influence of age, BMI, exercise and education, meat consumption (beta = -0.1703, P = 0.0119), egg consumption (beta = -0.1545, P = 0.0302) and the high quality protein consumption (beta = -0.1805, P = 0.0302) were negatively related with sarcopenia. Animal food, such as meet and egg, is an important protective factor for sarcopenia. Therefore, it is the first important thing for the elderly to ensure adequate energy

  11. [Sarcopenia: a concept of growing importance in the management of colorectal cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Maximilien; Berthaud, Constance; Taïeb, Julien

    2014-06-01

    Malnutrition in digestive oncology affects quality of life, increases postoperative complication rates, and results in increased chemotherapy toxicity and reduced survival. Loss of skeletal muscle or sarcopenia is not correlated to body mass index, and might play a major role in the complications of malnutrition in oncology. The diagnosis of sarcopenia can be made on routinely available CT scanner images using consensual cutoff numbers. Lean body mass may be useful in normalizing the doses of hydrophilic chemotherapy drugs, such as fluoropyrimidines. To date, neither nutritional intervention nor specific drugs have proven useful in preventing or treating sarcopenia in cancer patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanae, Yuhei; Fujita, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) has been shown to increase the risk of injury due to falls and incidence of metabolic complications including insulin resistance and diabetes, which subsequently becomes a significant factor to disability among the elderly population. Nutrient intake is the most important anabolic stimulus for skeletal muscle. Specifically, the amino acid leucine and meal-induced insulin both independently stimulate muscle protein synthesis. However, age-specific changes in muscle anabolic responses to leucine become apparent when sub-maximal amounts of amino acids are administered in older subjects. Furthermore, insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism with aging has been demonstrated in healthy non-diabetic older subjects. Resistance exercise is another anabolic stimulus which increases myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis in both young and older individuals. The increased muscle anabolism is apparent within 2-3 h after a single bout of heavy resistance exercise and remains elevated up to 2 d following the exercise. The mTOR signaling pathway in skeletal muscle is associated with an increased rate of muscle protein synthesis during the early recovery phase following a bout of resistance exercise. Finally, recent evidence on the cumulative effect of resistance exercise in combination with nutritional supplement on muscle protein metabolism will be discussed to propose a possible preventative measure against sarcopenia.

  13. Dynapenia and Sarcopenia as a Risk Factor for Disability in a Falls and Fractures Clinic in Older Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela-María Benjumea

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The role of sarcopenia and dynapenia in disability in older persons from falls and bone health clinics remain unknown. AIM: This study aims to compare the association of sarcopenia and dynapenia with physical and instrumental disability in a population of older persons attending a falls and fractures clinic. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in Manizales, Andes Mountains, Colombia.  534 subjects (mean age = 74, 75% female Sarcopenia was measured according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP including an index of skeletal mass, muscle strength, and gait speed. Dynapenia was defined as a handgrip force ≤ 30 kg for men and ≤ 20 kg for women. RESULTS: Dynapenia and sarcopenia were present in 84.6% and 71.2% respectively. Both were more prevalent in older subjects and women than men.  While sarcopenia was associated with body mass index and hypertension, dynapenia was associated with hypothyroidism and visual impairment.  After controlling for all covariates, sarcopenia was associated with low IADL and mobility disability. CONCLUSIONS: Sarcopenia was associated with mobility, ADL and IADL disability. Dynapenia was not associated with disability in this high - risk population. Systematic assessment of sarcopenia should be implemented in falls and fractures clinics to identify sarcopenia and develop interventions to prevent functional decline among elderly individuals.

  14. Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia in elderly subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Taiki; Ono, Rei; Murata, Shunsuke; Saji, Naoki; Matsui, Yasumoto; Niida, Shumpei; Toba, Kenji; Sakurai, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    To date, very little is known about the nature of sarcopenia in subjects with cognitive impairment. The aims of this study were firstly to clarify the prevalence of sarcopenia at various stages of cognitive impairment, and secondly to examine factors related to sarcopenia in men and women with cognitive impairment. The subjects were 418 outpatients (normal cognition; NC: 35, amnestic mild cognitive impairment; aMCI: 40, Alzheimer disease; AD: 343) who attended the Memory Clinic at the National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology of Japan during the period from October 2010 to July 2014. Cognitive status, vitality, depressive mood, body mass index, hand grip strength, timed up and go test, skeletal muscle mass and serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, albumin and creatinine were assessed. Sarcopenia was defined as the presence of both poor muscle function (low physical performance or low muscle strength) and low muscle mass. We performed the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to explore factors associated with sarcopenia. The overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 21.1% (NC = 8.6%, aMCI = 12.5%, AD = 23.3%). In both sexes, factors associated with sarcopenia were age (P sarcopenia (P sarcopenia. Prevention of sarcopenia in patients with cognitive impairment should be approached from physical and psychologic points of view.

  15. Dynapenia and Sarcopenia as a Risk Factor for Disability in a Falls and Fractures Clinic in Older Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjumea, Angela-María; Curcio, Carmen-Lucía; Duque, Gustavo; Gómez, Fernando

    2018-02-15

    The role of sarcopenia and dynapenia in disability in older persons from falls and bone health clinics remain unknown. This study aims to compare the association of sarcopenia and dynapenia with physical and instrumental disability in a population of older persons attending a falls and fractures clinic. This is a cross-sectional study in Manizales, Andes Mountains, Colombia. A cohort of 534 subjects (mean age = 74, 75% female) Sarcopenia was measured according to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) including an index of skeletal mass, muscle strength, and gait speed. Dynapenia was defined as a handgrip force ≤ 30 kg for men and ≤ 20 kg for women. Dynapenia and sarcopenia were present in 84.6% and 71.2% respectively. Both were more prevalent in older subjects and women than men. While sarcopenia was associated with body mass index and hypertension, dynapenia was associated with hypothyroidism and visual impairment. After controlling for all covariates, sarcopenia was associated with low IADL and mobility disability. Sarcopenia was associated with mobility, ADL and IADL disability. Dynapenia was not associated with disability in this high - risk population. Systematic assessment of sarcopenia should be implemented in falls and fractures clinics to identify sarcopenia and develop interventions to prevent functional decline among elderly individuals.

  16. Prevalence of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in older German men using recognized definitions: high accordance but low overlap!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, W; Teschler, M; Weißenfels, A; Sieber, C; Freiberger, E; von Stengel, S

    2017-06-01

    The relevance of sarcopenia and sarcopenic Obesity (SO) is rising in our aging societies. Applying recognized definitions to 965 community-dwelling Bavarian men 70 years+ resulted in a prevalence for sarcopenia between 3.7 and 4.9 and between 2.1 and 4.1% for SO. Despite this high consistency, the overlap between the definitions/approaches was sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity (SO) is rising steadily in the aging societies of most developed nations. However, different definitions, components, and cutoff points hinder the evaluation of the prevalence of sarcopenia and SO. The purpose of this contribution was to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and SO in a cohort of community-dwelling German men 70+ applying established sarcopenia (European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People, Foundation National Institute of Health, International Working Group on Sarcopenia) and obesity definitions. Further, we addressed the overlap between the definitions. Altogether, 965 community-dwelling men 70 years and older living in Northern Bavaria, Germany, were assessed during the screening phase of the Franconian Sarcopenic Obesity project. Segmental multi-frequency bio-impedance analysis (BIA) was applied to determine weight and body composition. Applying the definitions of EWGSOP, IWGS, and FNIH, 4.9, 3.8, and 3.7% of the total cohort were classified as sarcopenic, respectively. When further applying body fat to diagnose obesity, SO prevalence in the total cohort ranged from 4.1% (EWGSOP + body fat >25%) to 2.1% (IWGS + body fat >30%). Despite the apparently high consistency of the approaches with respect to prevalence, the overlap in individual sarcopenia diagnosis between the sarcopenia definitions was rather low (sarcopenia and SO in community-dwelling German men 70 years+ is relatively low (sarcopenia diagnosis varies considerably between the three definitions. Since sarcopenia is now recognized as an independent condition by the International Classification of

  17. The association between sarcopenia and functional outcomes among older patients with hip fracture undergoing in-hospital rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, F; Calvani, R; Ortolani, E; Salini, S; Martone, A M; Santoro, L; Santoliquido, A; Sisto, A; Picca, A; Marzetti, E

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluates the prevalence of sarcopenia among older people admitted to a rehabilitation unit after hip fracture and the association between sarcopenia and functional outcomes. The results show that sarcopenia had a negative impact on functional recovery. The assessment of sarcopenia among older adults receiving rehabilitation programs is crucial. Sarcopenia is a highly prevalent geriatric syndrome associated with adverse outcomes, including falls, disability, institutionalization, and mortality. Few studies assessed sarcopenia among older adults receiving rehabilitation programs. Patients aged 70 years or more consecutively admitted to in-hospital rehabilitation programs that had suffered from hip fracture entered the study. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Foundation for National Institutes of Health (FNIH) criteria. Multivariable linear regression models were used to analyze the association between the sarcopenia and functional recovery. The recruited population was composed of 127 patients, with a mean age of 81.3 ± 4.8 years, predominantly females (64.6%). Using the criteria proposed by the FNIH, patients with a diagnosis of sarcopenia were 43 (33.9%). After adjustment for potential confounders, participants with sarcopenia had a significant increased risk of incomplete functional recovery compared with non-sarcopenic patients (OR 3.07, 95% CI 1.07-8.75). Compared with participants without sarcopenia, those with sarcopenia showed lower Barthel index scores at the time of discharge from the rehabilitation unit (69.2 versus 58.9, respectively; p sarcopenia among older adults receiving rehabilitation programs to assist in the development of personalized treatment plans aimed at improving functional outcomes.

  18. Development of a portable radon progeny monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iimoto, Takeshi; Kosako, Toshiso; Sugiura, Nobuyuki

    2000-01-01

    Important nuclides in the radon family contributing to the effective dose are the members of the radon short-life progeny, 218 Po and 214 Po and direct measurement of these progenies is suitable for dosimetry. Survey of the radon progeny concentrations in a number of dwellings and offices is very difficult because we have no convenient instrument for the measurement. At present, radon dosimetry is carried out based on the concentration of the parent radon itself. Therefore, for accurate estimation of public or personal effective dose, it is necessary to develop a facile and portable radon progeny monitor. In this study, a portable radon progeny monitor (PRPM) was designed and developed to automatically estimate the individual progeny concentration in the natural environment. The properties of PRPM were investigated. The dimensions of the entire instrument were 65 x 145 x 170 mm and the total weight was 780 g. The portability of PRPM was much superior to the conventional instrument. The PRPM can operate automatically to estimate individual progeny concentration. All component materials of the monitor were selected based on the data of specified performance, cost performance and availability bon the market. The concentration of individual radon progeny was estimated by the build-up decay. It was concluded that PRPM is much suitable for outdoor study and personal dose estimation, as well as indoor measurement. In the field survey, especially in mines and caverns, PRPM is found as a valuable and convenient instrument. (M.N.)

  19. Portable Ultrasound Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    di Ianni, Tommaso

    This PhD project investigates hardware strategies and imaging methods for hand-held ultrasound systems. The overall idea is to use a wireless ultrasound probe linked to general-purpose mobile devices for the processing and visualization. The approach has the potential to reduce the upfront costs...... beamforming strategies are simulated from a system-level perspective. The quality of the B-mode image is evaluated and the minimum specifications are derived for the design of a portable probe with integrated electronics in-handle. The system is based on a synthetic aperture sequential beamforming approach...... that allows to significantly reduce the data rate between the probe and processing unit. The second part investigates the feasibility of vector flow imaging in a hand-held ultrasound system. Vector flow imaging overcomes the limitations of conventional imaging methods in terms of flow angle compensation...

  20. Unsatisfactory knowledge and use of terminology regarding malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia among dietitians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Beek, Lies; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Slinde, Frode; Orrevall, Ylva; Henriksen, Christine; Johansson, Madelene; Vereecken, Carine; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët

    2016-01-01

    Clinical signs of malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia overlap, as they all imply muscle wasting to a various extent. However, the underlying mechanisms differ fundamentally and therefore distinction between these phenomena has therapeutic and prognostic implications. We aimed to

  1. Predicting mortality and incident immobility in older Belgian men by characteristics related to sarcopenia and frailty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, C; Goemaere, S; De Buyser, S

    2018-01-01

    and bone mineral density scores were the most important predictors. INTRODUCTION: Machine learning principles were used to predict 5-year mortality and 3-year incident severe immobility in a population of older men by frailty and sarcopenia characteristics. METHODS: Using prospective data from 1997 on 264......There is an increasing awareness of sarcopenia in older people. We applied machine learning principles to predict mortality and incident immobility in older Belgian men through sarcopenia and frailty characteristics. Mortality could be predicted with good accuracy. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D...... the most important predictors of immobility. Sarcopenia assessed by lean mass estimates was relevant to mortality prediction but not immobility prediction. CONCLUSIONS: Using advanced statistical models and a machine learning approach 5-year mortality can be predicted with good accuracy using a Bayesian...

  2. Frailty and sarcopenia in Bogotá: results from the SABE Bogotá Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samper-Ternent, Rafael; Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J; Cano, Carlos A

    2017-04-01

    Latin American countries like Colombia are experiencing a unique aging process due to a mixed epidemiological regime of communicable and non-communicable diseases. To estimate the prevalence of frailty and sarcopenia among older adults in Colombia and identify variables associated with these conditions. Data come from the "Salud Bienestar y Envejecimiento" (SABE) Bogotá Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 in Bogotá, Colombia. Sociodemographic, health, cognitive and anthropometric measures were collected from 2000 community-dwelling adults aged 60 years and older. Frailty variable was created using the Fried phenotype and sarcopenia following the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People algorithm. Logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with frailty and sarcopenia. A total of 135 older adults are frail (9.4 %), while 166 have sarcopenia (11.5 %). Older age and female gender have a significant association with both conditions (Frailty: Age OR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.03-1.06, Gender OR 1.44, 95 % CI 1.12-1.84; Sarcopenia: Age 1.04, 95 % CI 1.02-1.07, Gender OR 1.51, 95 % CI 1.05-2.17). Depression was also significantly associated with frailty (OR 1.17, 95 % CI 1.12-1.22), while smoking was significantly associated with sarcopenia (OR 2.38, 95 % CI 1.29-4.37). Finally, higher function, measured by independence in IADL (Instrumental Activities of Daily Living) was significantly associated with less frailty (OR 0.74, 95 % CI 0.64-0.86). Education, higher number of comorbidities, better MMSE score, activities of daily living disability and alcohol consumption were not significantly associated with frailty or sarcopenia. Frailty, sarcopenia and multimorbidity are overlapping, yet distinct conditions in this sample. There are potentially reversible factors that are associated with frailty and sarcopenia in this sample. Future studies need to analyze the best way to prevent these conditions, and examine individuals

  3. Sarcopenia in rheumatoid arthritis: prevalence, influence of disease activity and associated factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngeuleu, Ange; Allali, F; Medrare, L; Madhi, A; Rkain, H; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N

    2017-06-01

    Evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia on patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), the influence of sarcopenia on disease activity and factors associated with sarcopenia. One hundred and twenty-three patients aged over 18 years with RA based on the 1987 ACR/EULAR classification criteria were enrolled. We performed a whole body DXA scan using a dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner lunar prodigy to measure fat mass, lean mass, and bone mass in the whole body and body parts. According to the anthropometric equation by Baumgartner et al., sarcopenia was defined as Relative skeletal mass index (RSMI) sarcopenia with the r of Pearson and Spearman. Factors associated and related to sarcopenia were assessed using multiple regression analysis and t independent test. We included 123 patients (107 women). 49 subjects (39.8%) where suffering from sarcopenia, of which 40 women. Most of the sarcopenic patients were between 41 and 50 years old. Sarcopenia on female subjects was not related to parameters of disease activity evaluated by DAS 28, CDAI and SDAI. Most of the sarcopenic patients had normal BMI and abnormal waist circumference. In simple regression analysis sarcopenia was related to BMI, DAS 28 ESR, bone erosion, waist circumference and HAQ. In multiple regression analysis, sarcopenia was positively related to an increase cardiometabolic risk [p = 0.025, OR 0.176, CI (0.038-0.980)], normal BMI [p = 0.004, OR 12.3, CI (2.27-67.6)], over fat BMI [p = 0.004, OR 12.3, CI (2.27-67.6)] and bone erosion [p = 0.012, OR 0.057 CI (0.006-0.532)]. No statistical difference was found according to disease duration and steroids use between sarcopenic and non sarcopenic patients. Sarcopenia is prevalent and related to age, bone erosion, normal/over fat BMI and high cardiometabolic risk according to waist circumference but not with disease activity.

  4. The impact of sarcopenia on the results of lumbar spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Inose

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: As the population ages, the number of lumbar spinal surgeries performed on sarcopenic patients will increase. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and evaluated its impact on the results of lumbar spinal surgery. Methods: This study included 2 groups: One group consisted of patients who underwent whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA scanning before the option of undergoing surgery for lumbar spinal disease (LSD group and a second group consisted of patients underwent DXA scanning for osteoporosis screening under hospital watch at the geriatric medicine department (control group. In order to evaluate the impact of sarcopenia on the clinical outcome of lumbar spinal surgery, the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA score, the recovery rate based on the JOA score, and visual analogue scale (VAS scores for lower back pain, lower extremity pain, and lower extremity numbness were compared within the LSD group. Results: The prevalence of sarcopenia showed no statistical difference between groups (control group, 50.7%; LSD group, 46.5%. In the LSD group, while the changes in VAS scores showed no statistical difference between the nonsarcopenia subgroup and sarcopenia subgroup, the sarcopenia subgroup demonstrated inferior JOA scores and recovery rates at the final follow-up when compared with the nonsarcopenia subgroup (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study demonstrated a high prevalence of sarcopenia among the elderly populations in Japan and a negative impact of sarcopenia on clinical outcomes after lumbar spinal surgery. Keywords: Lumbar canal stenosis, Sarcopenia

  5. Association of sarcopenia with depressive symptoms and functional status among ambulatory community-dwelling elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilavuz, Asli; Meseri, Reci; Savas, Sumru; Simsek, Hatice; Sahin, Sevnaz; Bicakli, Derya Hopanci; Sarac, Fulden; Uyar, Mehmet; Akcicek, Fehmi

    Sarcopenia, functional disability, and depression are common problems in the elderly. Sarcopenia is associated with physical disability, functional impairment, depression, cardiometabolic diseases, and even mortality. This study aims to determine the association of sarcopenia with depression and functional status among ambulatory community-dwelling elderly aged 65 years and older. The sample of this cross-sectional study consisted of 28,323 people, aged 65 years and older, living in Bornova, Izmir. Multi-stage sample selection was performed to reach 1007 individuals. However, 966 elderly people could be reached, and 861 elderly people who can walk were included in the study. The data were collected by the interviewers at home through face-to-face interview. The mean age was 72.2 ± 5.8 (65-100) years. The prevalence of functional disability, depressive symptoms, and sarcopenia were 21.7%, 25.2%, and 4.6%, respectively. In multivariate analysis depression was associated with sarcopenia, being illiterate and divorced, perception of the economic situation as poor/moderate, increased number of chronic diseases, and having at least one physical disability. IADL associated functional disability with sarcopenia, being illiterate/literate and female, increased age and number of medications, and the BMI. Sarcopenia in ambulatory community-dwelling elderly is significantly associated with depressive symptoms and functional disability. Elderly people at high risk of sarcopenia should be screened for functional disability and depression. Appropriate interventions should also be implemented. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Its Association with Socioeconomic Status among the Elderly in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorosty, Ahmadreza; Arero, Godana; Chamar, Maryam; Tavakoli, Sogand

    2016-07-01

    Sarcopenia is a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. It imposes significant costs on health care systems. Socioeconomic status is also the root cause of healthy challenges among the elderly. Therefore, investigating the association between sarcopenia and socioeconomic status is very important to improve healthy ageing of the elderly. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with socioeconomic status among the elderly in Tehran. Cross-sectional and case-control studies were conducted from August 2014-July 2015 among 310 men and 334 women elderly (60 and over years old) in Tehran health centers. Randomization, restriction and matching were setting during study design to minimize selection bias. Then study participants were recruited via phone call. Participants' phone numbers were already recorded in a telephone book electronically. When there were two elderly people in the same house, only one person was invited randomly. Association between sarcopenia and socio-economic status was analyzed by SPSS version 22. The overall prevalence of sarcopenia in the elderly was 16.5%. Prevalenceamong the low-income elderly was relatively higher than (20.5%) that among those with middle income status (18.2%) while in the higher income, the proportion of sarcopenia was very low (12.8%). The findings indicated that 339(52.6%) were in low-income status, 304(47.1%) were in middle-income status and 1(.2%) in high-income class. There was a significant association between socioeconomic status and sarcopenia (P-value sarcopenia was 0.97 times more likely higher in low socioeconomic class than those who were in middle and high income classes.

  7. One size may not fit all: anti-aging therapies and sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Burks, Tyesha N.; Cohn, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Sarcopenia refers to age-related loss of muscle mass and function. Several age-related changes occur in skeletal muscle including a decrease in myofiber size and number and a diminished ability of satellite cells to activate and proliferate upon injury leading to impaired muscle remodeling. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying sarcopenia are unknown, it is tempting to hypothesize that interplay between biological and environmental factors cooperate in a positive feedback cycle contrib...

  8. The Intriguing Regulators of Muscle Mass in Sarcopenia and Muscular Dystrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Sakuma, Kunihiro; Aoi, Wataru; Yamaguchi, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of the biology of muscle have led to new interest in the pharmacological treatment of muscle wasting. Loss of muscle mass and increased intramuscular fibrosis occur in both sarcopenia and muscular dystrophy. Several regulators (mammalian target of rapamycin, serum response factor, atrogin-1, myostatin, etc.) seem to modulate protein synthesis and degradation or transcription of muscle-specific genes during both sarcopenia and muscular dystrophy. This revie...

  9. Prevalence of sarcopenia in healthy community-dwelling elderly in an urban area of Barcelona (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masanes, F; Culla, A; Navarro-Gonzalez, M; Navarro-Lopez, M; Sacanella, E; Torres, B; Lopez-Soto, A

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of sarcopenia in a cohort of healthy community-dwelling elderly in an urban area in Barcelona (Spain) for native benchmarks and compare them with those published in other geographical areas. We prospectively evaluated a series of 200 healthy elderly in the community with preserved functional capacity and absence of cognitive impairment. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment and determined anthropometric data, muscle mass (MM) and the muscle mass index (MMI). Assessment of muscle mass was performed by bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). The cut-off point for defining sarcopenia MMI was established as less than 2 SD of the mean of a reference group comprising 220 healthy volunteers (20-42 years) in the same area. Results were compared with studies undertaken in the USA, France and Taiwan. The cut-off points obtained were 8.31 Kg/m(2) for men and 6.68 Kg/m2 for women, being similar to those observed in France and Taiwan but different from the USA. The prevalence of sarcopenia observed was 33% for elderly women and 10% for males. On comparison of the prevalence of sarcopenia in the four populations, we observed some differences, particularly in males. We have defined reference values for sarcopenia, determined by BIA, in our setting. We also observed a remarkable prevalence of sarcopenia in the healthy elderly community, especially in females, showing some differences from those in other geographical regions.

  10. Sarcopenia is not associated with morbidity, mortality, or recurrence after esophagectomy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, Steve R; Dolan, James P; Dewey, Elizabeth N; Guimaraes, Alexander R; Tieu, Brandon H; Schipper, Paul H; Hunter, John G

    2018-05-01

    Sarcopenia is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in hepatic, pancreatic and colorectal cancer. We examined the effect of sarcopenia on morbidity, mortality, and recurrence after resection for esophageal cancer. Retrospective review of consecutive esophagectomies from 2010 to 2015. Computed tomography studies were analyzed for sarcopenia. Morbidity was analyzed using Fischer's test and survival data with Kaplan Meier curves. The sarcopenic group (n = 127) had lower BMI, later stage disease, and higher incidence of neoadjuvant radiation than those without sarcopenia (n = 46). There were no differences in morbidity or mortality between the groups (p = .75 and p = .31, respectively). Mean length of stay was similar (p = .70). Disease free and overall survival were similar (p = .20 and p = .39, respectively). There is no association between sarcopenia and increased morbidity, mortality and disease-free survival in patients undergoing esophagectomy for cancer. Sarcopenia in esophageal cancer may not portend worse outcomes that have been reported in other solid tumors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sarcopenia in hiding: The risk and consequence of underestimating muscle dysfunction in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanji, Rahima A; Narayanan, Praveena; Allen, Alina M; Malhi, Harmeet; Watt, Kymberly D

    2017-12-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. Up to one third of individuals with NAFLD will develop nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is associated with progression to cirrhosis and is rapidly becoming the leading indication for liver transplantation. Sarcopenia is defined as a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength, and function. It is observed in up to 60% of patients with end-stage liver disease and portends a poor prognosis. Recent studies have shown that sarcopenia is a novel risk factor for developing NAFLD. Pathophysiological mechanisms relating sarcopenia and NASH may include insulin resistance (IR) and increased inflammation. IR leads to accumulation of triglycerides in both muscle tissue and the liver. It also exacerbates proteolysis and leads to muscle depletion. Chronic inflammation leads to liver injury and progression of fibrosis. The inflammatory milieu also stimulates protein catabolism. Viewing skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ that secretes various salutary myokines may help us understand its role in the development of steatosis. A better understanding of the pathophysiology will aid in developing physical and pharmacological therapeutic interventions. In this review, we will explore the complex inter-relationships between sarcopenia and NASH. We will discuss the impact of sarcopenia in patients with NASH and therapeutic options for the management of sarcopenia. (Hepatology 2017;66:2055-2065). © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  12. Differences in handgrip strength protocols to identify sarcopenia and frailty - a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa-Santos, A R; Amaral, T F

    2017-10-16

    Hand grip strength (HGS) is used for the diagnosis of sarcopenia and frailty. Several factors have been shown to influence HGS values during measurement. Therefore, variations in the protocols used to assess HGS, as part of the diagnosis of sarcopenia and frailty, may lead to the identification of different individuals with low HGS, introducing bias. The aim of this systematic review is to gather all the relevant studies that measured HGS to diagnose sarcopenia and frailty and to identify the differences between the protocols used. A systematic review was carried out following the recommendations of The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement. PubMed and Web of Science were systematically searched, until August 16, 2016. The evidence regarding HGS measurement protocols used to diagnose sarcopenia and frailty was summarised and the most recent protocols regarding the procedure were compared. From the described search 4393 articles were identified. Seventy-two studies were included in this systematic review, in which 37 referred to sarcopenia articles, 33 to frailty and two evaluated both conditions. Most studies presented limited information regarding the protocols used. The majority of the studies included did not describe a complete procedure of HGS measurement. The high heterogeneity between the protocols used, in sarcopenia and frailty studies, create an enormous difficulty in drawing comparative conclusions among them.

  13. Malnutrition-Sarcopenia Syndrome: Is This the Future of Nutrition Screening and Assessment for Older Adults?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurits F. J. Vandewoude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is common across varying patient populations, particularly older adults, and sarcopenia prevalence increases with advancing age. Both malnutrition and sarcopenia are associated with substantial adverse outcomes affecting both the patient and the healthcare system, including increased morbidity, mortality, rehospitalization rates, and healthcare costs. Healthcare practitioners may assess patients for either malnutrition or sarcopenia; however, many patients clinically present with both conditions, resulting in the syndrome, Malnutrition-Sarcopenia Syndrome, which is the clinical presentation of both malnutrition and accelerated age-associated loss of lean body mass, strength, and/or functionality. Clinicians are urged to screen, assess, and treat these conditions currently so as to adequately address the full spectrum of patients’ nutritional issues. By examining aspects of both conditions, clinicians can more fully assess their patients’ clinical and nutritional status and can tailor targeted therapies to meet their needs and improve outcomes. This proposed syndrome embodies the inherent association of malnutrition and sarcopenia, highlighting their combined impact on clinical outcomes. The objective of this review paper is to characterize Malnutrition-Sarcopenia Syndrome to advance clinical practice, by providing clinicians with the necessary background information to integrate nutritional assessment along with loss of muscle mass and functionality in their everyday clinical practice.

  14. Incidence of sarcopenia and dynapenia according to stage in patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, Tamer; Yazar, Hülya Olgun; Zayimoğlu, Emel; Çankaya, Soner

    2018-05-12

    In this study, the aim was to identify the incidence of sarcopenia and dynapenia according to disease stage among idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD) patients and collect data to illuminate precautions related to reducing the disease load. The study was completed with 166 patients divided by stage according to modified Hoehn and Yahr (HYR) criteria and 249 healthy volunteers aged from 18 to 39 and 68 to 75 years met the inclusion criteria. In our prospective and cross-sectional study, patients with IPD according to "UK Brain Bank" diagnostic criteria had the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and HYR scales applied. The patient and control groups had skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI), muscle power, and physical performance assessed. Diagnosis of sarcopenia used the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) diagnostic criteria. In our study, in parallel with the increase in disease stage among IPD patients, the incidence of sarcopenia (led by severe sarcopenia) and dynapenia was high compared to that among the control group of the same age. In the early stages of chronic progressive diseases like IPD, identification of sarcopenia and dynapenia is important considering the limitations of disease-preventive effects in treatments applied after diagnosis.

  15. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Dynapenia and Their Determinants in Iranian Peritoneal Dialysis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    As'habi, Atefeh; Najafi, Iraj; Tabibi, Hadi; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2018-01-01

    Uremic sarcopenia and dynapenia are prevalent in chronic kidney disease patients, including dialysis patients. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia and dynapenia and their determinants in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients in Tehran, Iran. All eligible PD patients at the peritoneal dialysis centers of Tehran were included in this cross-sectional study. Skeletal muscle mass and muscle strength were assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis and hand grip strength, respectively. Physical performance was determined by a 4-m walk gait speed test. The prevalence rates of dynapenia and sarcopenia were 43.0% and 11.5% in the PD patients, respectively. There were significant associations between the prevalence of dynapenia and the age of patients (P = .03), physical activity level (P = .04), and the presence of diabetes mellitus (P = .005). In addition, a significant association was found between the prevalence of sarcopenia and sex (P = .009). This study indicates that uremic sarcopenia and dynapenia are prevalent in PD patients in Tehran, Iran. These conditions may contribute to physical disability, decreased the quality of life, increased morbidity, and a high mortality rate. Therefore, prevention and treatment of uremic sarcopenia and dynapenia are necessary for Iranian PD patients.

  16. The influence of sarcopenia on survival and surgical complications in ovarian cancer patients undergoing primary debulking surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutten, I J G; Ubachs, J; Kruitwagen, R F P M; van Dijk, D P J; Beets-Tan, R G H; Massuger, L F A G; Olde Damink, S W M; Van Gorp, T

    2017-04-01

    Sarcopenia, severe skeletal muscle loss, has been identified as a prognostic factor in various malignancies. This study aims to investigate whether sarcopenia is associated with overall survival (OS) and surgical complications in patients with advanced ovarian cancer undergoing primary debulking surgery (PDS). Ovarian cancer patients (n = 216) treated with PDS were enrolled retrospectively. Total skeletal muscle surface area was measured on axial computed tomography at the level of the third lumbar vertebra. Optimum stratification was used to find the optimal skeletal muscle index cut-off to define sarcopenia (≤38.73 cm 2 /m 2 ). Cox-regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to analyse the relationship between sarcopenia and OS. The effect of sarcopenia on the development of major surgical complications was studied with logistic regression. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed a significant survival disadvantage for patients with sarcopenia compared to patients without sarcopenia (p = 0.010). Sarcopenia univariably predicted OS (HR 1.536 (95% CI 1.105-2.134), p = 0.011) but was not significant in multivariable Cox-regression analysis (HR 1.362 (95% CI 0.968-1.916), p = 0.076). Significant predictors for OS in multivariable Cox-regression analysis were complete PDS, treatment in a specialised centre and the development of major complications. Sarcopenia was not predictive of major complications. Sarcopenia was not predictive of OS or major complications in ovarian cancer patients undergoing primary debulking surgery. However a strong trend towards a survival disadvantage for patients with sarcopenia was seen. Future prospective studies should focus on interventions to prevent or reverse sarcopenia and possibly increase ovarian cancer survival. Complete cytoreduction remains the strongest predictor of ovarian cancer survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights

  17. A Trusted Portable Computing Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-wei, Fang; Jun-jun, Wu; Peng-fei, Yu; Xin-fang, Zhang

    A trusted portable computing device and its security mechanism were presented to solve the security issues, such as the attack of virus and Trojan horse, the lost and stolen of storage device, in mobile office. It used smart card to build a trusted portable security base, virtualization to create a secure virtual execution environment, two-factor authentication mechanism to identify legitimate users, and dynamic encryption to protect data privacy. The security environment described in this paper is characteristic of portability, security and reliability. It can meet the security requirement of mobile office.

  18. Association of anorexia with sarcopenia in a community-dwelling elderly population: results from the ilSIRENTE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Liperoti, Rosa; Russo, Andrea; Giovannini, Silvia; Tosato, Matteo; Barillaro, Christian; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2013-04-01

    There is increasing evidence that anorexia of aging can cause physical and mental impairment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between anorexia and sarcopenia in elderly persons aged 80 years or older. Data are from the baseline evaluation of 354 subjects enrolled in the ilSIRENTE study. The ilSIRENTE study is a prospective cohort study performed in the mountain community living in the Sirente geographic area (L'Aquila, Abruzzo) in Central Italy. We defined anorexia as the presence of loss of appetite and/or lower food intake. According to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) criteria, diagnosis of sarcopenia required the documentation of low muscle mass plus the documentation of either low muscle strength or low physical performance. The relationship between anorexia and sarcopenia was estimated by deriving odds ratios from the multiple logistic regression models considering sarcopenia as the dependent variable. Nearly 21 % of the study sample showed symptoms of anorexia. Using the EWGSOP-suggested algorithm, 103 subjects (29.1 %) with sarcopenia were identified. Thirty-four (46.6 %) participants were affected by sarcopenia among subjects with anorexia compared to 69 subjects [24.6 %] without anorexia (p sarcopenia compared with non-anorexic subjects (HR 1.88, 95 % CI 1.01-3.51). Anorexia is common among community-dwelling older subjects in Italy. Our results suggest that among old-old subjects, anorexia is independently associated with sarcopenia.

  19. Differences among skeletal muscle mass indices derived from height-, weight-, and body mass index-adjusted models in assessing sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung Min; Jang, Hak Chul; Lim, Soo

    2016-01-01

    Aging processes are inevitably accompanied by structural and functional changes in vital organs. Skeletal muscle, which accounts for 40% of total body weight, deteriorates quantitatively and qualitatively with aging. Skeletal muscle is known to play diverse crucial physical and metabolic roles in humans. Sarcopenia is a condition characterized by significant loss of muscle mass and strength. It is related to subsequent frailty and instability in the elderly population. Because muscle tissue is involved in multiple functions, sarcopenia is closely related to various adverse health outcomes. Along with increasing recognition of the clinical importance of sarcopenia, several international study groups have recently released their consensus on the definition and diagnosis of sarcopenia. In practical terms, various skeletal muscle mass indices have been suggested for assessing sarcopenia: appendicular skeletal muscle mass adjusted for height squared, weight, or body mass index. A different prevalence and different clinical implications of sarcopenia are highlighted by each definition. The discordances among these indices have emerged as an issue in defining sarcopenia, and a unifying definition for sarcopenia has not yet been attained. This review aims to compare these three operational definitions and to introduce an optimal skeletal muscle mass index that reflects the clinical implications of sarcopenia from a metabolic perspective. PMID:27334763

  20. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Its Impact on Postoperative Outcome in Patients With Crohn's Disease Undergoing Bowel Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tenghui; Cao, Lei; Cao, Tingzhi; Yang, Jianbo; Gong, Jianfeng; Zhu, Weiming; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2017-05-01

    Sarcopenia has been proposed to be a prognostic factor of outcomes for various diseases but has not been applied to Crohn's disease (CD). We aimed to assess the impact of sarcopenia on postoperative outcomes after bowel resection in patients with CD. Abdominal computed tomography images within 30 days before bowel resection in 114 patients with CD between May 2011 and March 2014 were assessed for sarcopenia as well as visceral fat areas and subcutaneous fat areas. The impact of sarcopenia on postoperative outcomes was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Of 114 patients, 70 (61.4%) had sarcopenia. Patients with sarcopenia had a lower body mass index, lower preoperative levels of serum albumin, and more major complications (15.7% vs 2.3%, P = .027) compared with patients without sarcopenia. Moreover, predictors of major postoperative complications were sarcopenia (odds ratio [OR], 9.24; P = .04) and a decreased skeletal muscle index (1.11; P = .023). Preoperative enteral nutrition (OR, 0.13; P = .004) and preoperative serum albumin level >35 g/L (0.19; P = .017) were protective factors in multivariate analyses. The prevalence of sarcopenia is high in patients with CD requiring bowel resection. It significantly increases the risk of major postoperative complications and has clinical implications with respect to nutrition management before surgery for CD.

  1. The role of nutrition in the prevention of sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Dorothee

    2011-09-01

    Nutrition is regarded as one important contributing factors in the complex etiology of sarcopenia. Associations between several nutritional factors and muscle mass, strength, function and physical performance were reported in a growing number of studies in recent years. Accordingly, the avoidance of weight loss is crucial to prevent the concomitant loss of muscle mass. Adequate amounts of high-quality protein are important for optimal stimulation of muscle protein synthesis. Vitamin D, antioxidants and ω 3-polyunsaturated fatty acids may also contribute to the preservation of muscle function. In order to ensure adequate intake in all elderly, nutritional problems like loss of appetite and weight loss should be recognized early by routine screening for malnutrition in the elderly. Underlying causes need to be identified and subsequently corrected. The importance of physical activity, specifically resistance training, is emphasized, not only in order to facilitate muscle protein anabolism but also to increase energy expenditure, appetite and food intake in elderly people at risk of malnutrition.

  2. Prevalence of pre-sarcopenia and sarcopenia in Hong Kong Chinese geriatric patients with hip fracture and its correlation with different factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, A Wh; Lee, M Ml; Chan, E Wc; Ng, H My; Lee, C W; Ng, W S; Wong, S H

    2016-02-01

    Sarcopenia and osteoporosis are age-related declines in the quantity of muscle and bone, respectively. Both contribute in disability, fall, and hip fracture in the elderly. This study reported the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chinese geriatric patients with hip fracture, and the correlation between relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and other factors. This case series was conducted in Kowloon West Cluster Orthopaedic Rehabilitation Centre in Hong Kong. Data of all geriatric patients with primary hip fracture admitted to the above Centre from June to December 2014 were studied. Isometric grip strength, the maximal handgrip strength, was measured using a JAMAR hand dynamometer. Body composition including appendicular and whole-body lean body mass was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Pearson's correlation was used to examine the correlation between relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and other factors. A total of 239 patients with a mean age of 82 years were included in the study. Stratifying patients as male or female, the mean (± standard deviation) hand grip strength was 20.6 ± 7.3 kg and 13.6 ± 4.5 kg, the mean relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass index was 5.72 ± 0.83 kg/m(2) and 4.87 ± 0.83 kg/m(2), and the mean hip bone mineral density was 0.696 ± 0.13 g/cm(2) and 0.622 ± 0.12 g/cm(2), respectively. The prevalence of sarcopenia based on relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass index and hand grip strength according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia definition was 73.6% in males and 67.7% in females. According to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia definition, the prevalence of pre-sarcopenia was 20.8% in males and 12.4% in females. Relative appendicular skeletal muscle mass index was positively correlated with hand grip strength, body weight, hip bone mineral density, body mass index, and total fat mass in males; and hand grip strength, body weight, body height, body mass index, and total fat

  3. Assessing Ultraviolet Hazards Using Portable Measuring Instruments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridyard, A

    2000-07-01

    The 'Erythemal Action Spectrum' shows an increase of 10{sup 3} in human skin sensitivity to UV radiation over only 30 nm of change of wavelength, from 328 nm to 298 nm. This represents a severe challenge to the manufacturing and calibration of a portable instrument which can measure the vanishingly small amounts of short wavelength UV from solarium tanning lamps, and to apply accurately an action spectra to be able to quantify the hazard presented by such lamps to skin. The classification of UV lamp types from their 'effective irradiance' requires very sharp discrimination between UV power contained in the short wavelength and the long wavelength parts of the UV spectra, so radiometers give misleading results. The only instrument suitable for making these measurements is the spectroradiometer. The development of such an instrument in a hand held portable form is described, with the difficulties associated with its calibration and such factors as stray light rejection. (author)

  4. PAT portable appliance testing

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The Electricity at Work Regulations 1989 require any electrical system to be constructed, maintained and used in such a manner as to prevent danger. This means that inspection and testing of systems, including portable appliances, is needed in order to determine if maintenance is required.This book explains in clear language what needs to be done and includes expert advice on legislation as well as actual testing. The book contains an appendix providing the electrical fundamentals needed by non-specialists and also has sample questions (with answers) for the C&G 2377 exam that anyone who conducts this work is required to take by law.It is an affordable and handy reference for electricians who administer PAT. It is also an ideal refesher and revision guide for the non-specialist, such as maintenance staff, caretakers and charity shop volunteers who carry out these tasks part-time, alongside their many other duties.Brian Scaddan, I Eng, MIET, is a consultant for and an Honorary Member of City & Guilds. ...

  5. Portable microdosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braby, L.A.; Ratcliffe, C.A.; Metting, N.F.

    1984-08-01

    Tissue equivalent proportional counters simulating solid volumes a few micrometers in diameter make exceptionally versatile neutron detectors. Since they are nearly tissue equivalent, the energy deposited in the detector is a good measure of the dose in tissue. The well known relationships between microdosimetric parameters and linear energy transfer provide several convenient options for calculating dose equivalent. However, this technique has found only very limited application in routine dosimetry due to the complexity of the electronics and of the spectral information collected. Recent developments in microelectronics combined with improved techniques for building proportional counters have now made it possible to develop a fully automated portable proportional counter system. A prototype device based on these principles has been developed for NASA as a potential space shuttle experiment. This system includes separate detectors and electronics to measure dose and the fluence of high energy heavy ions. Use of an internal alpha particle source provides reliable energy calibration so that the precision of dose measurements can be checked frequently. The dose monitoring detector simulates a 2 μm diameter sphere. The electronics system includes a low noise charge-sensitive preamplifier housed in the detector base, two analog-to-digital converters with amplifier gains differing by a factor of twenty, a pair of 128 channel memories and a CMOS microcomputer which controls the system and automatically calculates dose and dose equivalent. In order to simplify the calculations, the detector gain is automatically maintained at a preset value by adjusting the anode voltage

  6. Portable Data Acquisition System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers have developed a portable data acquisition system (PDAT) that can be easily transported and set up at remote locations to display and archive...

  7. Portable Decontamination and Sterilization System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, William; Smerjac, Suzanne; Smith, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    TDA Research, Inc., (TDA) is developing a portable system to generate chlorine dioxide, which can be used for biodecontamination of small items and to sterilize medical and dental instruments in austere environments...

  8. Short communication: Use of a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique for measuring enteric methane emissions in Holstein cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorich, C D; Varner, R K; Pereira, A B D; Martineau, R; Soder, K J; Brito, A F

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to measure enteric CH4 emissions using a new portable automated open-circuit gas quantification system (GQS) and the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique (SF6) in midlactation Holstein cows housed in a tiestall barn. Sixteen cows averaging 176 ± 34 d in milk, 40.7 ± 6.1 kg of milk yield, and 685 ± 49 kg of body weight were randomly assigned to 1 out of 2 treatments according to a crossover design. Treatments were (1) ad libitum (adjusted daily to yield 10% orts) and (2) restricted feed intake [set to restrict feed by 10% of baseline dry matter intake (DMI)]. Each experimental period lasted 22d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. A common diet was fed to the cows as a total mixed ration and contained 40.4% corn silage, 11.2% grass-legume haylage, and 48.4% concentrate on a dry matter basis. Spot 5-min measurements using the GQS were taken twice daily with a 12-h interval between sampling and sampling times advanced 2h daily to account for diurnal variation in CH4 emissions. Canisters for the SF6 method were sampled twice daily before milking with 4 local background gas canisters inside the barn analyzed for background gas concentrations. Enteric CH4 emissions were not affected by treatments and averaged 472 and 458 g/d (standard error of the mean = 18 g/d) for ad libitum and restricted intake treatments, respectively (data not shown). The GQS appears to be a reliable method because of the relatively low coefficients of variation (ranging from 14.1 to 22.4%) for CH4 emissions and a moderate relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.42) between CH4 emissions and DMI. The SF6 resulted in large coefficients of variation (ranging from 16.0 to 111%) for CH4 emissions and a poor relationship (coefficient of determination = 0.17) between CH4 emissions and DMI, likely because of limited barn ventilation and high background gas concentration. Research with improved barn ventilation systems or

  9. Sarcopenia is associated with severe postoperative complications in elderly gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Yasunari; Yamamoto, Kazuyoshi; Hirao, Motohiro; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Nagatsuma, Yukiko; Nakayama, Tamaki; Tanikawa, Sugano; Maeda, Sakae; Uemura, Mamoru; Miyake, Masakazu; Hama, Naoki; Miyamoto, Atsushi; Ikeda, Masataka; Nakamori, Shoji; Sekimoto, Mitsugu; Fujitani, Kazumasa; Tsujinaka, Toshimasa

    2016-07-01

    Malignancy is a secondary cause of sarcopenia, which is associated with impaired cancer treatment outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of preoperative sarcopenia among elderly gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy and the differences in preoperative dietary intake and postoperative complications between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients. Ninety-nine patients over 65 years of age who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer were analyzed. All patients underwent gait and handgrip strength testing, and whole-body skeletal muscle mass was measured using a bioimpedance analysis technique based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) algorithm for the evaluation of sarcopenia before surgery. Preoperative dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Of these patients, 21 (21.2 %) were diagnosed with sarcopenia. Sarcopenic patients consumed fewer calories and less protein preoperatively (23.9 vs. 27.8 kcal/kg ideal weight/day and 0.86 vs. 1.04 g/kg ideal weight/day; P = 0.001 and 0.0005, respectively). Although the overall incidence of postoperative complications was similar in the two groups (57.1 % vs. 35.9 %; P = 0.08), the incidence of severe (Clavien-Dindo grade ≥ IIIa) complications was significantly higher in the sarcopenic group than in the non-sarcopenic group (28.6 % vs. 9.0 %; P = 0.029). In the multivariate analysis, sarcopenia alone was identified as a risk factor for severe postoperative complications (odds ratio, 4.76; 95 % confidence interval, 1.03-24.30; P = 0.046). Preoperative sarcopenia as defined by the EWGSOP algorithm is a risk factor for severe postoperative complications in elderly gastric cancer patients undergoing gastrectomy.

  10. Accuracy of the Timed Up and Go test for predicting sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Bruno Prata; Gomes, Isabela Barboza; Oliveira, Carolina Santana de; Ramos, Isis Resende; Rocha, Mônica Diniz Marques; Forgiarini Júnior, Luiz Alberto; Camelier, Fernanda Warken Rosa; Camelier, Aquiles Assunção

    2015-05-01

    The ability of the Timed Up and Go test to predict sarcopenia has not been evaluated previously. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Timed Up and Go test for predicting sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients. This cross-sectional study analyzed 68 elderly patients (≥60 years of age) in a private hospital in the city of Salvador-BA, Brazil, between the 1st and 5th day of hospitalization. The predictive variable was the Timed Up and Go test score, and the outcome of interest was the presence of sarcopenia (reduced muscle mass associated with a reduction in handgrip strength and/or weak physical performance in a 6-m gait-speed test). After the descriptive data analyses, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of a test using the predictive variable to predict the presence of sarcopenia were calculated. In total, 68 elderly individuals, with a mean age 70.4±7.7 years, were evaluated. The subjects had a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 5.35±1.97. Most (64.7%) of the subjects had a clinical admission profile; the main reasons for hospitalization were cardiovascular disorders (22.1%), pneumonia (19.1%) and abdominal disorders (10.2%). The frequency of sarcopenia in the sample was 22.1%, and the mean length of time spent performing the Timed Up and Go test was 10.02±5.38 s. A time longer than or equal to a cutoff of 10.85 s on the Timed Up and Go test predicted sarcopenia with a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 88.7%. The accuracy of this cutoff for the Timed Up and Go test was good (0.80; IC=0.66-0.94; p=0.002). The Timed Up and Go test was shown to be a predictor of sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients.

  11. [Factors related to sarcopenia in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sugiura, Yumiko; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Kono, Koichi

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the factors associated with sarcopenia, defined as low muscle mass and strength and low physical performance, in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan. The subjects included 1,074 elderly, community-dwelling Japanese people aged 65 years or older. We measured appendicular muscle mass (AMM) by bioelectrical impedance analysis, grip strength, and usual walking speed. A low muscle mass was defined by the AMM index (AMI, weight [kg]/height [m(2)] as >2 standard deviations below the mean AMI for normal young subjects. The lowest quartile for grip strength and usual walking speed were classified as low muscle strength and low physical performance, respectively. "Sarcopenia" was characterized by a low muscle mass, combined with either a low muscle strength or low physical performance. Subjects without low muscle mass or strength and low physical performance were classified as "normal." Subjects were classified as being "intermediate" if they were neither "sarcopenic" nor "normal." Items in the questionnaire included residential status, past medical history, admission during the past year, smoking and drinking habits, leisure-time physical activity, health status, depression, masticatory ability, and dietary variety score. Sarcopenia was identified in 13.7% of men and 15.5% of women. Among men, a large proportion of subjects with sarcopenia had poor masticatory ability and a low dietary variety score compared with normal or intermediate subjects. Among women, a large proportion of the subjects with sarcopenia lived alone, had poor exercise habits, considered themselves to be unhealthy, and had poor masticatory ability compared with normal or intermediate subjects. A multiple logistic regression analysis showed that age and dietary variety in men and age and masticatory ability in women were associated with sarcopenia. The present study carried out in Japan showed that sarcopenia, assessed by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical

  12. Diet and its relationship to sarcopenia in community dwelling Iranian elderly: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Rezvan; Motlagh, Ahmadreza Dorosty; Heshmat, Ramin; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad; Payab, Moloud; Yousefinia, Mahsa; Siassi, Fereydoun; Pasalar, Parvin; Baygi, Fereshteh

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia is associated with frailty and disability among the elderly and imposes significant costs on health care systems. We tested whether adherence to a particular dietary pattern was associated with sarcopenia among the elderly in a district of Tehran, Iran. We used a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire to assess the dietary intake of 300 randomly-selected elderly men and women (at least 55 y old) living in the sixth district of Tehran; and the dietary patterns of the subjects were obtained using principal component analysis. We performed a logistic regression to measure the effect of adherence to each dietary pattern on the odds of sarcopenia. Subjects in the highest tertile of the Mediterranean dietary pattern, characterized by a higher consumption of olive oil, fruits, vegetables, fish, and nuts, had a lower odds ratio for sarcopenia than those in the lowest tertile (OR = 0.42; 95% CI = 0.18-0.97; P for trend = 0.04). In contrast, adherence to the Western dietary pattern, characterized by a high consumption of sugar, soy, and fast foods, was not associated with sarcopenia (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.21-1.24; P for trend = 0.13). Similarly, adherence to the Mixed dietary pattern, characterized by a high consumption of animal proteins, potatoes, and refined grains, did not affect the odds of sarcopenia (OR = 1.45; 95% CI = 0.66-3.19; P for trend = 0.95). This study suggests that adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with lower odds of sarcopenia among the Iranian elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Polypharmacy as a Risk Factor for Clinically Relevant Sarcopenia: Results From the Berlin Aging Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Maximilian; Spira, Dominik; Demuth, Ilja; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Norman, Kristina

    2017-12-12

    Sarcopenia affects more than 10% of older adults. Next to age-associated physiologic changes, diseases like diabetes or inflammatory, neurological, malignant and endocrine disorders may contribute to the development of sarcopenia. Likewise, polypharmacy, i.e., multiple drug use, is common among older adults. Although the two conditions frequently co-occur, the association of polypharmacy with sarcopenia has not yet been examined. We investigated the association of polypharmacy and sarcopenia in a large cohort of community-dwelling older adults (60-84 years). Thousand five hundred and two participants from the Berlin Aging Study II were included. Polypharmacy was defined as concurrent use of 5 or more drugs (prescription and nonprescription). Body composition was assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and appendicular lean mass (ALM) was calculated as sum of the four limbs' lean mass. Sarcopenia was defined as low ALM-to-body mass index (BMI)-ratio using validated sex-specific cutoffs. Mean age was 68.7 ± 3.7 years, 50.7% were female. The median (interquartile range) number of drugs was 2 (1-4); 21.1% of subjects reported regular use of ≥5 drugs. Subjects with polypharmacy were more often sarcopenic according to the applied ALM/BMI-cutoffs (16.3% vs 6.9%, p sarcopenia (odds ratio = 2.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33-3.75). Polypharmacy is associated with clinically relevant sarcopenia, as assessed by a low ALM/BMI. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Clinically Relevant Cut-off Points for the Diagnosis of Sarcopenia in Older Korean People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Yu-Ri; Joh, Ju-Youn; Kim, Yeon-Pyo

    2017-11-09

    The optimal criteria applied to older Korean people have not been defined. We aimed to define clinically relevant cut-off points for older Korean people and to compare the predictive validity with other definitions of sarcopenia. Nine hundred and sixteen older Koreans (≥65 years) were included in this cross-sectional observational study. We used conditional inference tree analysis to determine cut-off points for height-adjusted grip strength (GS) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), for use in the diagnosis of sarcopenia. We then compared the Korean sarcopenia criteria with the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health and Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria, using frailty, assessed with the Korean Frailty Index, as an outcome variable. For men, a residual GS (GSre) of ≤ 0.25 was defined as weak, and a residual ASM (ASMre) of ≤ 1.29 was defined as low. Corresponding cut-off points for women were a GSre of ≤ 0.17 and an ASMre of ≤ 0.69. GSre and ASMre values were adjusted for height. In logistic regression analysis with new cut-off points, the adjusted odds ratios for pre-frail or frail status in the sarcopenia group were 3.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-7.83) for the men and 1.74 (95% CI 0.91-3.35) for the women. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the unadjusted area under the curve for Korean sarcopenia criteria in men and women were 0.653 and 0.608, respectively (p sarcopenia in older Korean people. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Relationships between 25(OH)D concentration, sarcopenia and HOMA-IR in postmenopausal Korean women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Kim, S; Kim, M K; Yun, B H; Cho, S; Choi, Y S; Lee, B S; Seo, S K

    2018-02-01

    Sarcopenia and insulin resistance are common co-morbidities in the elderly and are known to be associated with vitamin D deficiency. However, no previous studies have investigated interactions between all three of these factors. We aimed to investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, sarcopenia, and insulin resistance in postmenopausal Korean women. This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2011. Participants were 3744 postmenopausal Korean women. Sarcopenia was defined as appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight >1 standard deviation below the mean for women aged 20-40 years. The serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and fasting insulin levels were measured, and insulin resistance was calculated using the formula: fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl) × fasting insulin (mIU/l)/405. We found a strong inverse association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and sarcopenia in postmenopausal Korean women (p = 0.0009). There was also a significant association between sarcopenia and insulin resistance, independent of vitamin D and obesity status (p < 0.0001). However, there was no significant association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and insulin resistance. In the subgroup analysis, insulin resistance was found to be determined by sarcopenic rather than vitamin D status. Sarcopenia was associated with both insulin resistance and 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in postmenopausal Korean women, regardless of obesity status. However, 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was not associated with insulin resistance. Sarcopenia is therefore of greater clinical importance due to its close relationship with insulin resistance.

  16. Sarcopenia Is Negatively Related to High Gravitational Impacts Achieved From Day-to-day Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartley, April; Gregson, Celia L; Hannam, Kimberly; Deere, Kevin C; Clark, Emma M; Tobias, Jon H

    2018-04-17

    Sarcopenia has been associated with reduced physical activity (PA). We aimed to determine if sarcopenia, and specific components of muscle size, function, and physical performance, are associated with high impacts achieved during habitual PA, as these are related to bone strength in community-dwelling older women. Participants were older women from the Cohort of Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon. We defined sarcopenia using the EWGSOP criteria. Lower limb peak muscle power and force were assessed using Jumping Mechanography (JM). High vertical impacts were assessed by tri-axial accelerometry (at least 1.5g above gravity). Cross-sectional associations were analyzed by linear regression, adjusting for age, height and weight (or fat mass for models including appendicular lean mass index), comorbidities, smoking, alcohol, and Index of Multiple Deprivation. Our analyses included 380 participants, with mean age 76.7 (SD 3.0) years; 242 (64%) also completed JM. In age-adjusted analysis, a negative relationship was observed between severity of sarcopenia and high, but not medium or low, impacts (p = .03 for trend). Regarding components of sarcopenia underlying this relationship, multivariable analyses revealed that gait speed (β 1.47 [95% CI 1.14, 1.89], [β-1] reflects the proportionate increase in high impacts per SD increase in exposure) and peak force (1.40 [1.07, 1.84]) were independently associated with high impacts. Older women with sarcopenia experienced fewer bone-strengthening high impacts than those with presarcopenia or without sarcopenia. To increase bone strengthening activity in older women, interventions need to improve both lower limb muscle force and walking speed.

  17. Predictive score of sarcopenia occurrence one year after bariatric surgery in severely obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voican, Cosmin Sebastian; Lebrun, Amandine; Maitre, Sophie; Lainas, Panagiotis; Lamouri, Karima; Njike-Nakseu, Micheline; Gaillard, Martin; Tranchart, Hadrien; Balian, Axel; Dagher, Ibrahim; Perlemuter, Gabriel; Naveau, Sylvie

    2018-01-01

    Sarcopenic obesity is a risk factor of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to generate a predictive score of sarcopenia occurrence one year after bariatric surgery. We conducted an observational prospective cohort study on a total of 184 severely obese patients admitted to our institution to undergo sleeve gastrectomy. Skeletal muscle cross-sectional area at the third lumbar vertebrae (SMA, cm2) was measured from the routinely performed computed tomography. The skeletal muscle index (SMI) was calculated as follows: SMA/height2 (cm2/m2). Sarcopenia was defined as an SMI predictive sarcopenia occurrence scores were constructed using SMA and gender (SS1 score) or SMI and gender (SS2 score). The area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve of the SS2 score was significantly greater than that of the SS1 score for the diagnosis of postoperative sarcopenia occurrence (0.95±0.02 versus 0.90±0.02; ppredictive value of 83%, and a negative predictive value of 95%. In the group of patients without baseline sarcopenia, the SS2 score had still an excellent AUROC of 0.92±0.02. A cut-off of 0.55 predicted development of sarcopenia one year after sleeve gastrectomy in these patients with a sensitivity of 87%, a specificity of 88%, and negative predictive value of 95%. The SS2 score has excellent predictive value for the occurrence of sarcopenia one year after sleeve gastrectomy. This score can be used to target early intensification of nutritional and dietetic follow-up to the predicted high-risk population.

  18. Portable, accurate toxicity testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabate, R.W.; Stiffey, A.V.; Dewailly, E.L.; Hinds, A.A.; Vieaux, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations, severe penalties for non-compliance, and expensive remediation costs have stimulated development of methods to detect and measure toxins. Most of these methods are bioassays that must be performed in the laboratory; none previously devised has been truly portable. The US Army, through the Small Business Innovative Research program, has developed a hand-held, field deployable unit for testing toxicity of battlefield water supplies. This patented system employs the measurable quenching, in the presence of toxins, of the natural bioluminescence produced by the marine dinoflagellate alga Pyrocystis lunula. The procedure's inventor used it for years to measure toxicity concentrations of chemical warfare agents actually, their simulants, primarily in the form of pesticides and herbicides plus assorted toxic reagents, waterbottom samples, drilling fluids, even blood. While the procedure is more precise, cheaper, and faster than most bioassays, until recently it was immobile. Now it is deployable in the field. The laboratory apparatus has been proven to be sensitive to toxins in concentrations as low as a few parts per billion, repeatable within a variation of 10% or less, and unlike some other bioassays effective in turbid or colored media. The laboratory apparatus and the hand-held tester have been calibrated with the EPA protocol that uses the shrimplike Mysidopsis bahia. The test organism tolerates transportation well, but must be rested a few hours at the test site for regeneration of its light-producing powers. Toxicity now can be measured confidently in soils, water columns, discharge points, and many other media in situ. Most significant to the oil industry is that drilling fluids can be monitored continuously on the rig

  19. Assessments of functional status, comorbidities, polypharmacy, nutritional status and sarcopenia in Turkish community-dwelling male elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahat, Gulistan; Tufan, Fatih; Bahat, Zumrut; Aydin, Yucel; Tufan, Asli; Akpinar, Timur Selcuk; Erten, Nilgun; Karan, Mehmet Akif

    2013-06-01

    Functionality, comorbidities, polypharmacy, nutritional status and sarcopenia affect the prognosis of elderly excessively. These parameters are influenced by the population, living settings and age. We aimed to study these parameters in Turkish community-dwelling male elderly. We studied 274 male elderly ≥60 years of age admitted to our Geriatrics outpatient clinics. Mean age was 74.4 ± 7.1 years; 47.4% of the subjects were ≥75 years, 24.1% were ≥80 years. Mean activities-of-daily-living (ADL) and instrumental ADL (IADL) scores were 9.4 and 11.1, respectively. Patients with at least one-dependence at ADL-IADL were 22.6%-47.2%, and more than half-dependence at ADL-IADL were 2.8%-17.9%, respectively. Mean number of comorbidities were 2.6. Most common diagnosis was hypertension with 65%; mean number of drugs were 4.5; 55.3% were using ≥4 chronic drugs. Prevalences of malnutrition were 3.7%-6.9%, malnutrition risk were 23.5%-26.7% by the mini nutritional assessment test-long form and short form, respectively. Calf circumference was measured elderly may have greater prevalences of functional dependence, sarcopenia but lower rates of malnutrition and similar rates of polypharmacy compared with the western developing countries and developed countries. This study emphasized the geographical differences in and/or between the individual countries highlighting the need for studies both country- and world-wide.

  20. A model including sarcopenia surpasses the MELD score in predicting waiting list mortality in cirrhotic liver transplant candidates : A competing risk analysis in a national cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Jeroen Laurens Ad; Alferink, Louise Johanna Maria; Buettner, Stefan; Gaspersz, Marcia Patricia; Bot, Daphne; Murad, Sarwa Darwish; Feshtali, Shirin; van Ooijen, Peter Martinus Adranius; Polak, Wojciech Grzegorz; Porte, Robert Jan; van Hoek, Bart; van den Berg, Aad Pieter; Metselaar, Herold Johnny; IJzermans, Jan Nicolaas Maria

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Frail patients with low MELD scores may be underprioritised. Low skeletal muscle mass (i.e. sarcopenia) has been identified as risk factor for waiting list mortality and a recent study proposed to incorporate sarcopenia in the MELD score (i.e. MELD-Sarcopenia score). We aimed to

  1. Sarcopenia predicts readmission and mortality in elderly patients in acute care wards: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ming; Hu, Xiaoyi; Wang, Haozhong; Zhang, Lei; Hao, Qiukui; Dong, Birong

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of sarcopenia and investigate the associations between sarcopenia and long-term mortality and readmission in a population of elderly inpatients in acute care wards. We conducted a prospective observational study in the acute care wards of a teaching hospital in western China. The muscle mass was estimated according to a previously validated anthropometric equation. Handgrip strength was measured with a handheld dynamometer, and physical performance was measured via a 4 m walking test. Sarcopenia was defined according to the recommended diagnostic algorithm of the Asia Working Group for Sarcopenia. The survival status and readmission information were obtained via telephone interviews at 12, 24, and 36 months during the 3 year follow-up period following the baseline investigation. Two hundred and eighty-eight participants (mean age: 81.1 ± 6.6 years) were included. Forty-nine participants (17.0%) were identified as having sarcopenia. This condition was similar in men and women (16.9% vs. 17.5%, respectively, P = 0.915). During the 3 year follow-up period, 49 men (22.7%) and 9 women (16.4%) died (P = 0.307). The mortality of sarcopenic participants was significantly increased compared with non-sarcopenic participants (40.8% vs. 17.1%, respectively, P sarcopenia was an independent predictor of 3 year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 2.49; 95% confidential interval: 1.25-4.95) and readmission (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.81; 95% confidential interval: 1.17-2.80). Sarcopenia, which is evaluated by a combination of anthropometric measures, gait speed, and handgrip strength, is valuable to predict hospital readmission and long-term mortality in elderly patients in acute care wards. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  2. Sarcopenia predicts 1-year mortality in elderly patients undergoing curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Dong; Chen, Xiao-Xi; Chen, Xi-Yi; Wang, Su-Lin; Shen, Xian; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Yu, Zhen; Zhuang, Cheng-Le

    2016-11-01

    One-year mortality is vital for elderly oncologic patients undergoing surgery. Recent studies have demonstrated that sarcopenia can predict outcomes after major abdominal surgeries, but the association of sarcopenia and 1-year mortality has never been investigated in a prospective study. We conducted a prospective study of elderly patients (≥65 years) who underwent curative gastrectomy for gastric cancer from July 2014 to July 2015. Sarcopenia was determined by the measurements of muscle mass, handgrip strength, and gait speed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the risk factors associated with 1-year mortality. A total of 173 patients were included, in which 52 (30.1 %) patients were identified as having sarcopenia. Twenty-four (13.9 %) patients died within 1 year of surgery. Multivariate analysis showed that sarcopenia was an independent risk factor for 1-year mortality. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated an increased predictive power for 1-year mortality with the inclusion of sarcopenia, from 0.835 to 0.868. Solely low muscle mass was not predictive of 1-year mortality in the multivariate analysis. Sarcopenia is predictive of 1-year mortality in elderly patients undergoing gastric cancer surgery. The measurement of muscle function is important for sarcopenia as a preoperative assessment tool.

  3. Lack of knowledge and availability of diagnostic equipment could hinder the diagnosis of sarcopenia and its management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M.; De Van Der Schueren, Marian A.E.; Trappenburg, Marijke C.; Doves, Marjan; Meskers, Carel G.M.; Maier, Andrea B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Sarcopenia is an emerging clinical challenge in an ageing population and is associated with serious negative health outcomes. This study aimed to assess the current state of the art regarding the knowledge about the concept of sarcopenia and practice of the diagnostic strategy and

  4. Sarcopenia: Prevalence, and Impact on Operative and Oncologic Outcomes in the Multimodal Management of Locally Advanced Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jessie A; Doyle, Suzanne L; Murphy, Conor F; King, Sinead; Guinan, Emer M; Beddy, Peter; Ravi, Narayanasamy; Reynolds, John V

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this article was to study the prevalence and significance of sarcopenia in the multimodal management of locally advanced esophageal cancer (LAEC), and to assess its independent impact on operative and oncologic outcomes. Sarcopenia in cancer may confer negative outcomes, but its prevalence and impact on modern multimodal regimens for LAEC have not been systematically studied. Two hundred fifty-two consecutive patients were studied. Lean body mass (LBM), skeletal muscle index (SMI), and fat mass (FM) were determined pre-treatment, preoperatively, and 1 year postoperatively. Sarcopenia was defined by computed tomography (CT) at L3 as SMI Sarcopenia increased (P = 0.02) from 16% at diagnosis to 31% post-neoadjuvant therapy, with loss of LBM (-3.0 ± 5.4 kg, P sarcopenia was associated with CCI (P = 0.043), and CDC ≥IIIb (P = 0.003). PPCs occurred in 36% nonsarcopenic versus 55% sarcopenic patients (P = 0.01). Sarcopenia did not impact disease-specific (P = 0.14) or overall survival (P = 0.11) after resection. At 1 year, 35% had sarcopenia, significantly associated with pre-treatment BMI (P = 0.013) but not complications (P = 0.20). Sarcopenia increases through multimodal therapy, is associated with an increased risk of major postoperative complications, and is prevalent in survivorship. These data highlight a potentially modifiable marker of risk that should be assessed and targeted in modern multimodal care pathways.

  5. Sarcopenia is a risk factor for complications and an independent predictor of hospital length of stay in trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeAndrade, James; Pedersen, Mark; Garcia, Luis; Nau, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. The impact of sarcopenia on morbidity and length of stay in a trauma population has not been completely defined. This project evaluated the influence of sarcopenia on patients admitted to the trauma service. A retrospective review of 778 patients presenting as a trauma alert at a single institution from 2012-2014 was completed. Records were abstracted for comorbidities and hospital complications. The Hounsfield Unit Area Calculation was collected from admission computed tomography scans. Criteria for sarcopenia were based on the lowest 25th percentile of muscle density measurements. Relationships to patient outcomes were evaluated by univariate and multivariable regression or analyses of variance, when applicable. A total of 432 (55.6%) patients suffered a complication. Sarcopenia was associated with overall complications (P sarcopenia into a novel length of stay calculator showed increased prognostic ability for prolonged length of stay over Abbreviated Injury Scale alone (P = 0.0002). Sarcopenia is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes and increased length of stay in trauma patients. Prognostic algorithms incorporating sarcopenia better predict hospital length of stay. Identification of patients at risk may allow for targeted interventions early in the patient's hospital course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ultrasonographic evaluation of the calf muscle mass and architecture in elderly patients with and without sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyumcu, Mehmet Emin; Halil, Meltem; Kara, Özgür; Çuni, Bledjan; Çağlayan, Gökhan; Güven, Serdar; Yeşil, Yusuf; Arık, Güneş; Yavuz, Burcu Balam; Cankurtaran, Mustafa; Özçakar, Levent

    2016-01-01

    To sonographically assess the muscle mass and architecture of sarcopenic elderly subjects, and to explore the utility of ultrasound (US) measurements in predicting sarcopenia. One hundred elderly subjects were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Mean age value of our study population was 73.08±6.18years. The diagnosis of sarcopenia was confirmed by measuring fat-free mass index (using bioelectrical impedance analysis) and handgrip strength. Calf circumference was measured and US evaluations comprised bilateral gastrocnemius muscle (MG) thickness, fascicle length and pennate angles; subcutaneous fat and dermis thicknesses in the calf. Bilateral muscle thickness and fascicle length values were significantly lower in patients with sarcopenia (both psarcopenia (all values>76.92%). Gastrocnemius muscle thickness and fascicle length values are lower in sarcopenic elderly and these two parameters can serve as alternative measurements for predicting/quantifying sarcopenia. Calf circumference measurements alone may not be appropriate for assessing sarcopenia. Instead, US imaging can conveniently be used to evaluate different compartments of the musculoskelal system in (sarcopenic) elderly. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Sarcopenia: a new predictor of postoperative complications for elderly gastric cancer patients who underwent radical gastrectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chong-Jun; Zhang, Feng-Min; Zhang, Fei-Yu; Yu, Zhen; Chen, Xiao-Lei; Shen, Xian; Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Chen, Xiao-Xi

    2017-05-01

    A geriatric assessment is needed to identify high-risk elderly patients with gastric cancer. However, the current geriatric assessment has been considered to be either time-consuming or subjective. The present study aimed to investigate the predictive effect of sarcopenia on the postoperative complications for elderly patients who underwent radical gastrectomy. We conducted a prospective study of patients who underwent radical gastrectomy from August 2014 to December 2015. Computed tomography-assessed lumbar skeletal muscle, handgrip strength, and gait speed were measured to define sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was present in 69 of 240 patients (28.8%) and was associated with lower body mass index, lower serum albumin, lower hemoglobin, and higher nutritional risk screening 2002 scores. Postoperative complications significantly increased in the sarcopenic patients (49.3% versus 24.6%, P sarcopenia (odds ratio: 2.959, 95% CI: 1.629-5.373, P Sarcopenia, presented as a new geriatric assessment factor, was a strong and independent risk factor for postoperative complications of elderly patients with gastric cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of protein intake and physical activity associated with sarcopenia in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Gabriela Peña-Ordóñez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the association between protein intake and physical activity with sarcopenia of the elderly. Older people are a vulnerable group and are easily reflected in their nutritional status, most do not cover their nutritional requirements and are physically inactive. A protein intake <1.2 g/kg/day and a low level of physical activity (<3.5 MET are factors associated with sarcopenia. Material and Methods: Observational, analytical, prospective, case-control study. Sampling was done for convenience in patients over 60 years of service outpatient Medical Center Adolfo Lopez Mateos, Toluca, Mexico. Questionnaires were used to determine protein intake and physical activity, and diagnostic tests for Sarcopenia (percentage of muscle mass, strength and speed Manual operation. 115 subjects were enrolled but 110 (55 cases and 55 controls were included. Results: The odds ratio (OR of the variables was obtained, finding that for every gram of total protein intake of 3% reduces the risk of sarcopenia and per unit of percent fat increases the risk by 20%. No statistically significant difference was found in physical activity, there is homogeneity between cases and controls regarding MET consumed. Conclusions: Protein intake is a protective factor against sarcopenia and excessive accumulation of fat is a risk factor for this disorder. It is important to further investigate the relationship between the two in older adults.

  9. Sarcopenia in post-menopausal women: Is there any role for vitamin D?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Dimopoulou, Christina; Karras, Spyridon; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Goulis, Dimitrios G

    2015-09-01

    Recently, special attention has been given to the role of vitamin D on the pathogenesis and therapy of sarcopenia in postmenopausal women. To elucidate the role of vitamin D with respect to sarcopenia in postmenopausal women, providing current evidence from both molecular and clinical studies. Systematic search to PubMed and Medline databases for publications reporting data on the role of vitamin D in sarcopenia. Sarcopenia has a high prevalence in postmenopausal women, leading to mobility restriction, functional impairment, physical disability and fractures. Accumulating evidence from molecular and clinical studies suggest that vitamin D deficiency is associated with sarcopenic status in elderly women independent of body composition, diet and hormonal status. Current data, but not in a uniform way, provide evidence about the beneficial effect of vitamin D supplementation on muscle strength, physical performance and prevention of falls and fractures in elderly female populations. It is still unclear if and to what extent treatment modalities, such as dose, mode of administration and duration of supplementation, could influence treatment outcome. Studies with superior methodological characteristics are needed in order to establish a role for vitamin D on the treatment of sarcopenia in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Sarcopenia and Physical Function in Middle-Aged and Older Stroke Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Alice S; Ivey, Frederick M; Serra, Monica C; Hartstein, Joseph; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E

    2017-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of sarcopenia in stroke survivors using different methodologies, and compare a subset of the stroke group to age-, sex-, and body mass index (BMI)-matched nonstroke control counterparts. Cohort study. A Veterans Affairs medical center and a university hospital. Mild to moderately disabled participants >6 months after onset of stroke aged 40 to 84 years (N=190, 61% men, 57% African American; mean BMI ± SEM, 29±1kg/m 2 ). Not applicable. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans to assess appendicular lean mass (ALM). Rates of sarcopenia were determined using 4 established methods: (1) ALM/height 2 (ALM/ht 2 ); (2) European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older Persons; (3) International Working Group on Sarcopenia; and (4) ALM/BMI. Sarcopenia prevalence in our stroke cohort ranged between 14% and 18%. The stroke survivor subset (n=38) matched one-for-one with control counterparts for race, sex, age ±4 years and BMI ±2.5kg/m 2 had higher prevalence rates compared with their nonstroke counterparts (13.2% vs 5.3%, Psarcopenia when considering age, sex, and race compared with nonstroke individuals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Frailty and sarcopenia: The potential role of an aged immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Daisy; Jackson, Thomas; Sapey, Elizabeth; Lord, Janet M

    2017-07-01

    Frailty is a common negative consequence of ageing. Sarcopenia, the syndrome of loss of muscle mass, quality and strength, is more common in older adults and has been considered a precursor syndrome or the physical manifestation of frailty. The pathophysiology of both syndromes is incompletely described with multiple causes, inter-relationships and complex pathways proposed. Age-associated changes to the immune system (both immunesenescence, the decline in immune function with ageing, and inflammageing, a state of chronic inflammation) have been suggested as contributors to sarcopenia and frailty but a direct causative role remains to be established. Frailty, sarcopenia and immunesenescence are commonly described in older adults but are not ubiquitous to ageing. There is evidence that all three conditions are reversible and all three appear to share common inflammatory drivers. It is unclear whether frailty, sarcopenia and immunesenescence are separate entities that co-occur due to coincidental or potentially confounding factors, or whether they are more intimately linked by the same underlying cellular mechanisms. This review explores these possibilities focusing on innate immunity, and in particular associations with neutrophil dysfunction, inflammation and known mechanisms described to date. Furthermore, we consider whether the age-related decline in immune cell function (such as neutrophil migration), increased inflammation and the dysregulation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway in neutrophils could contribute pathogenically to sarcopenia and frailty. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The Impact of Low Muscle Mass Definition on the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Older Australians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sarcopenia is the presence of low muscle mass and low muscle function. The aim of this study was to establish cutoffs for low muscle mass using three published methods and to compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Australians. Methods. Gender specific cutoffs levels were identified for low muscle mass using three different methods. Low grip strength was determined using established cutoffs of <30 kg for men and <20 kg for women to estimate the prevalence of sarcopenia. Results. Gender specific cutoffs levels for low muscle mass identified were (a <6.89 kg/m2 for men and <4.32 kg/m2 for women, <2 standard deviation (SD of a young reference population; (b <7.36 kg/m2 for men and <5.81 kg/m2 for women from the lowest 20% percentile of the older group; and (c <−2.15 for men and <−1.42 for women from the lowest 20% of the residuals of linear regressions of appendicular skeletal mass, adjusted for fat mass and height. Prevalence of sarcopenia in older (65 years and older people by these three methods for men was 2.5%, 6.2%, and 6.4% and for women 0.3%, 9.3%, and 8.5%, respectively. Conclusions. Sarcopenia is common but consensus on the best method to confirm low muscle mass is required.

  13. The relationship between sarcopenia,undernutrition, physical mobility and basic activities of daily living in a group of elderly women of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velázquez Alva, María del Consuelo; Irigoyen Camacho, Maria Esther; Delgadillo Velázquez, Jaime; Lazarevich, Irina

    2013-01-01

    Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome, which affects the functional status and mobility of individuals. To identify the prevalence of sarcopenia and undernutrition, and to assess the association between sarcopenia and mobility, and sarcopenia and basic activities of daily living (ADL) in a group of elderly women. A cross-sectional study was performed in patients attending a geriatric service at a government hospital in Mexico City. Sarcopenia was identified applying Baumgartner's equation by obtaining skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) and undernutrition was diagnosed using mini-nutritional assessment instrument (MNA). The SENECA questionnaire and Katz index were used to evaluate mobility and ADL, respectively. lineal regression models were constructed fitting SMI as a dependent variable and SENECA, and ADL scores as independent variables, adjusted for age. 90 women with a mean age of 78.2 (± 6.8) were studied. Undernutrition was identified in 15.5% of the patients. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 41.1%. Patients with sarcopenia presented a high prevalence of undernutrition (p Sarcopenia was associated with difficulty in climbing stairs (OR = 2.63, p = 0.03), adjusted for age. The mobility score was associated with sarcopenia, in the group without sarcopenia the mean score was 16.3, and with sarcopenia it was 18.3, (p = 0.04). Regarding ADL, 64.9% of the patients with intermediate independence and dependence had sarcopenia, while 35.1% with total independence presented sarcopenia (p elder women with sarcopenia had a higher prevalence of undernutrition. Sarcopenia was associated with difficulties in mobility, particularly difficulties in climbing stairs. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Relationship between tongue strength, lip strength, and nutrition-related sarcopenia in older rehabilitation inpatients: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakai K

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Kotomi Sakai,1,2 Enri Nakayama,2 Haruka Tohara,3 Keiji Kodama,4 Takahiro Takehisa,5 Yozo Takehisa,6 Koichiro Ueda2 1Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Setagaya Memorial Hospital, 2Department of Dysphagia Rehabilitation, Nihon University School of Dentistry, 3Gerodontology and Oral Rehabilitation, Department of Gerontology and Gerodontology, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 4Department of Internal Medicine, 5Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Setagaya Memorial Hospital, Tokyo, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Hakuai Memorial Hospital, Tokushima, Japan Objective: The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between tongue strength, lip strength, and nutrition-related sarcopenia (NRS.Patients and methods: A total of 201 older inpatients aged ≥65 years (70 men, median age: 84 years, interquartile range: 79–89 years consecutively admitted for rehabilitation were included in this cross-sectional study. The main factors evaluated were the presence of NRS diagnosed by malnutrition using the Mini-Nutrition Assessment – Short Form, sarcopenia based on the criteria of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, tongue strength, and lip strength. Other factors such as age, sex, comorbidity, physical function, cognitive function, and oral intake level were also assessed.Results: In all, 78 (38.8% patients were allocated to the NRS group, and 123 (61.2% patients were allocated to the non-NRS group. The median tongue strength and lip strength (interquartile range were significantly lower in the NRS group (tongue: 22.9 kPa [17.7–27.7 kPa] and lip: 7.2 N [5.6–9.8 N] compared with the non-NRS group (tongue: 29.7 kPa [24.8–35.1 kPa] and lip: 9.9 N [8.4–12.3 N], P<0.001 for both. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that NRS was independently associated with tongue strength (odds ratio [OR] =0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87–0.98, P=0.012 and lip

  15. Sarcopenia is an Independent Predictor of Severe Postoperative Complications and Long-Term Survival After Radical Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Cheng-Le; Huang, Dong-Dong; Pang, Wen-Yang; Zhou, Chong-Jun; Wang, Su-Lin; Lou, Neng; Ma, Liang-Liang; Yu, Zhen; Shen, Xian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, the association between sarcopenia and long-term prognosis after gastric cancer surgery has not been investigated. Moreover, the association between sarcopenia and postoperative complications remains controversial. This large-scale retrospective study aims to ascertain the prevalence of sarcopenia and assess its impact on postoperative complications and long-term survival in patients undergoing radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. From December 2008 to April 2013, the clinical data of all patients who underwent elective radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer were collected prospectively. Only patients with available preoperative abdominal CT scan within 30 days of surgery were considered for analysis. Skeletal muscle mass was determined by abdominal (computed tomography) CT scan, and sarcopenia was diagnosed by the cut-off values obtained by means of optimum stratification. Univariate and multivariate analyses evaluating risk factors of postoperative complications and long-term survival were performed. A total of 937 patients were included in this study, and 389 (41.5%) patients were sarcopenic based on the diagnostic cut-off values (34.9 cm2/m2 for women and 40.8 cm2/m2 for men). Sarcopenia was an independent risk factor for severe postoperative complications (OR = 3.010, P sarcopenia did not show significant association with operative mortality. Moreover, sarcopenia was an independent predictor for poorer overall survival (HR = 1.653, P sarcopenia remained an independent risk factor for overall survival and disease-free survival in patients with TNM stage II and III, but not in patients with TNM stage I. Sarcopenia is an independent predictive factor of severe postoperative complications after radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Moreover, sarcopenia is independently associated with overall and disease-free survival in patients with TNM stage II and III, but not in patients with TNM stage I. PMID:27043677

  16. Sarcopenia as a risk factor for falls in elderly individuals: results from the ilSIRENTE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Liperoti, Rosa; Russo, Andrea; Giovannini, Silvia; Tosato, Matteo; Capoluongo, Ettore; Bernabei, Roberto; Onder, Graziano

    2012-10-01

    Sarcopenia has been indicated as a reliable marker of frailty and poor prognosis among the oldest individuals. We evaluated the relationship between sarcopenia and 2-year risk of falls in a population of persons aged 80 years or older. Data are from the baseline and follow-up evaluations of the Aging and Longevity Study in the Sirente Geographic Area (ilSIRENTE Study) (n=260). According to the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP), sarcopenia was diagnosed in presence of low muscle mass (mid-arm muscle circumference) plus either low muscle strength (hand grip) or low physical performance (4-m walking speed). The primary outcome measure was the incident falls during the follow-up period of 2 years. The relationship between sarcopenia and incident falls was estimated by deriving hazard ratios (HRs) from multiple logistic regression models considering the dependent variable of interest at least one fall during the follow-up period. Sixty-six participants (25.4%) were identified as affected by sarcopenia. Eighteen out of 66 (27.3%) participants with sarcopenia and 19 out of 194 (9.8%) without sarcopenia reported incident falls during the two-year follow-up of the study (pgender, cognitive impairment, ADL impairment, sensory impairments, BMI, depression, physical activity, cholesterol, stroke, diabetes, number of medications, and C-reactive protein, participants with sarcopenia had a higher risk of incident falls compared with non sarcopenic subjects (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 3.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-8.29). The present study suggests that sarcopenia - assessed using the EWGSOP algorithm - is highly prevalent among elderly persons without gender differences (25%). Sarcopenic participants were over three times more likely to fall during a follow-up period of 2 years relative to non sarcopenic individuals, regardless of age, gender and other confounding factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical

  17. Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairment and physical disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ian; Heymsfield, Steven B; Ross, Robert

    2002-05-01

    To establish the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Americans and to test the hypothesis that sarcopenia is related to functional impairment and physical disability in older persons. Cross-sectional survey. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey using data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Fourteen thousand eight hundred eighteen adult NHANES III participants aged 18 and older. The presence of sarcopenia and the relationship between sarcopenia and functional impairment and disability were examined in 4,504 adults aged 60 and older. Skeletal muscle mass was estimated from bioimpedance analysis measurements and expressed as skeletal muscle mass index (SMI = skeletal muscle mass/body mass x 100). Subjects were considered to have a normal SMI if their SMI was greater than -one standard deviation above the sex-specific mean for young adults (aged 18-39). Class I sarcopenia was considered present in subjects whose SMI was within -one to -two standard deviations of young adult values, and class II sarcopenia was present in subjects whose SMI was below -two standard deviations of young adult values. The prevalence of class I and class II sarcopenia increased from the third to sixth decades but remained relatively constant thereafter. The prevalence of class I (59% vs 45%) and class II (10% vs 7%) sarcopenia was greater in the older (> or = 60 years) women than in the older men (P normal SMI, respectively. Some of the associations between class II sarcopenia and functional impairment remained significant after adjustment for age, race, body mass index, health behaviors, and comorbidity. Reduced relative skeletal muscle mass in older Americans is a common occurrence that is significantly and independently associated with functional impairment and disability, particularly in older women. These observations provide strong support for the prevailing view that sarcopenia may be an important and potentially reversible cause of

  18. Freely oriented portable superconducting magnet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmierer, Eric N [Los Alamos, NM; Prenger, F Coyne [Los Alamos, NM; Hill, Dallas D [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-01-12

    A freely oriented portable superconducting magnet is disclosed. Coolant is supplied to the superconducting magnet from a repository separate from the magnet, enabling portability of the magnet. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the magnet within a thermal shield. A plurality of support assemblies structurally anchor and thermally isolate the thermal shield within a vacuum vessel. The support assemblies restrain movement of the magnet resulting from energizing and cooldown, as well as from changes in orientation, enabling the magnet to be freely orientable.

  19. Anorexia of ageing: a key component in the pathogenesis of both sarcopenia and cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, John E

    2017-08-01

    The anorexia of aging was first recognized as a physiological syndrome 30 years ago. Its major causes are an alteration in fundal compliance with an increase in antral stretch and enhanced cholecystokinin activity leading to increased satiation.This anorexia leads to weight loss in aging persons and is one of the component causes of the aging related sarcopenia. This physiological anorexia also increases the risk of more severe anorexia when an older person has an increase in inflammatory cytokines such as occurs when they have an illness. This results in an increase in the anorexia due to cachexia in older persons. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders.

  20. Aging of the endocrine system and its potential impact on sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Cesari, Matteo; Mari, Daniela

    2016-11-01

    Sarcopenia, occurring as a primary consequence of aging, is a progressive generalized decline of skeletal muscle mass, strength and function. The pathophysiology of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial. One major cause of muscle mass and strength loss with aging appears to be the alteration in hormonal networks involved in the inflammatory processes, muscle regeneration and protein synthesis. This review describes the recent findings concerning the role of the aging on the endocrine system in the development of sarcopenia. We also report the benefits and safety of hormone replacement therapy in elderly subjects and discuss future perspectives in the therapy and prevention of skeletal muscle aging. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Publication trends in cachexia and sarcopenia in elderly heart failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Jochen; Anker, Stefan D

    2016-12-01

    The loss of skeletal mass - sarcopenia and cachexia - is considered to be a major contributor to morbidity and mortality in chronic heart failure (CHF). Unfortunately, sarcopenia is generally considered to be a geriatric syndrome, but not necessarily seen as a comorbidity in CHF, even though it has a wide range of adverse health outcomes. While there were 15,574 publication with the title word "heart failure" in PubMed in the 5‑year period from 1 June 2011 to 31 May 2016, only 22 or 71 publications were found with the search combination "sarcopenia" or "cachexia" (title word) and "heart failure" (all fields), respectively. This shows very clearly that loss of muscle quality and function due to heart failure is still an underappreciated problem in the medical field.

  2. Prevalence of sarcopenia among older community-dwelling people with normal health and nutritional state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Kerstin Khalaj; Dittmar, Manuela

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed whether sarcopenia, a risk factor for disability in the aged, also occurs in healthy community-dwelling elders with normal nutritional state. As indicators, body cell mass (BCM) and lean body mass (LBM) were determined in 110 Germans (ages 60-83) using bioimpedance analysis. Nutritional status, muscle function, anthropometry, and physical activity level were investigated. Sarcopenia was already present in well nourished healthy elders. Its prevalence depended on the measure of muscle mass used (BCM percent, 22 percent males, 20 percent females; LBM percent, 4 percent males, 11 percent females). In conclusion, screening for presence of sarcopenia is needed in healthy, well-nourished elderly populations requiring an international standardization. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  3. Sarcopenia is a predictor of outcomes in very elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yang; Karvellas, Constantine J; Baracos, Vickie; Williams, David C; Khadaroo, Rachel G

    2014-09-01

    With the increasing aging population, the number of very elderly patients (age ≥80 years) undergoing emergency operations is increasing. Evaluating patient-specific risk factors for postoperative morbidity and mortality in the acute care surgery setting is crucial to improving outcomes. We hypothesize that sarcopenia, a severe depletion of skeletal muscles, is a predictor of morbidity and mortality in very elderly patients undergoing emergency surgery. A total of 170 patients older than the age of 80 underwent emergency surgery between 2008 and 2010 at a tertiary care facility; 100 of these patients had abdominal computed tomography images within 30 days of the operation that were adequate for the assessment of sarcopenia. The impact of sarcopenia on the operative outcomes was evaluated using both univariate and multivariate analysis. The mean patient age was 84 years, with an in-hospital mortality of 18%. Sarcopenia was present in 73% of patients. More sarcopenic patients had postoperative complications (45% sarcopenic versus 15% nonsarcopenic, P = .005) and more died in hospital (23 vs 4%, P = .037). There were no differences in duration of stay or requirement for intensive care unit postoperatively. After we controlled for confounding factors, increasing skeletal muscle index (per incremental cm(2)/m(2)) was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality (odds ratio ∼0.834, 95% confidence interval 0.731-0.952, P = .007) in multivariate analysis. Sarcopenia was independently predictive of greater complication rates, discharge disposition, and in-hospital mortality in the very elderly emergency surgery population. Using sarcopenia as an objective tool to identify high-risk patients would be beneficial in developing tailored preventative strategies and potentially resource allocation in the future. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relationship between Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Sarcopenia in Elderly Subjects: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Prat, M; Papiol, M; Monteis, R; Palomera, E; Cabré, M

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma ghrelin levels and sarcopenia in elderly people. Cross-sectional study. Health consortium medical centers in the Maresme region, Barcelona (Spain). Two groups of subjects: persons ≥70 years (elderly group) and persons 25-65 years (young adults). Sarcopenia, diagnosed according to the EWGSOP definition, fasting and postprandial plasma ghrelin levels, body composition, hand grip, Barthel score, and frailty using Fried criteria. Fifty-five elderly subjects and 33 young adults were recruited. In both age groups, mean ghrelin levels were significantly higher in women than in men. However, mean ghrelin levels were similar in elderly and young men (716 vs. 752 pg mL-1, P = 0.763) as well as in elderly and young women (859 vs. 995 pg mL-1, P = 0.190). In the elderly group, subjects with sarcopenia showed significantly lower ghrelin levels than those without sarcopenia (650 vs. 899 pg mL-1, P = 0.036), but these differences disappeared when stratifying by gender. Elderly subjects without sarcopenia had the same ghrelin levels as young adults (899.3 vs. 899.6 pg mL-1). In young women, ghrelin levels correlated with fat free mass (rs = 0.58, P = 0.007) and muscular mass (rs = 0.54, P = 0.015) but these correlations were not observed in men nor in elderly women. This cross-sectional study does not allow a definitive conclusion about the relationship between ghrelin levels and sarcopenia. Further large prospective studies are needed to test this hypothesis.

  5. The assessment and impact of sarcopenia in lung cancer: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jemima; Noble, Simon; Chester, John; Coles, Bernadette; Byrne, Anthony

    2014-01-02

    There is growing awareness of the relationship between sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass and function), and outcomes in cancer, making it a potential target for future therapies. In order to inform future research and practice, we undertook a systematic review of factors associated with loss of muscle mass, and the relationship between muscle function and muscle mass in lung cancer, a common condition associated with poor outcomes. We conducted a computerised systematic literature search on five databases. Studies were included if they explored muscle mass as an outcome measure in patients with lung cancer, and were published in English. Secondary care. Patients with lung cancer. Factors associated with loss of muscle mass and muscle function, or sarcopenia, and the clinical impact thereof in patients with lung cancer. We reviewed 5726 citations, and 35 articles were selected for analysis. Sarcopenia, as defined by reduced muscle mass alone, was found to be very prevalent in patients with lung cancer, regardless of body mass index, and where present was associated with poorer functional status and overall survival. There were diverse studies exploring molecular and metabolic factors in the development of loss of muscle mass; however, the precise mechanisms that contribute to sarcopenia and cachexia remain uncertain. The effect of nutritional supplements and ATP infusions on muscle mass showed conflicting results. There are very limited data on the correlation between degree of sarcopenia and muscle function, which has a non-linear relationship in older non-cancer populations. Loss of muscle mass is a significant contributor to morbidity in patients with lung cancer. Loss of muscle mass and function may predate clinically overt cachexia, underlining the importance of evaluating sarcopenia, rather than weight loss alone. Understanding this relationship and its associated factors will provide opportunities for focused intervention to improve clinical outcomes.

  6. Sarcopenia Is Risk Factor for Development of Hepatic Encephalopathy After Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardelli, Silvia; Lattanzi, Barbara; Torrisi, Sabrina; Greco, Francesca; Farcomeni, Alessio; Gioia, Stefania; Merli, Manuela; Riggio, Oliviero

    2017-06-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an important complication in patients with cirrhosis who received transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). We investigated whether a decrease in muscle mass was associated independently with the occurrence of HE after TIPS. We performed a prospective study of 46 consecutive patients with cirrhosis (mean age, 58.6 ± 9.1 y; mean model for end-stage liver disease score, 11.3 ± 3.3; mean Child-Pugh score, 7.6 ± 1.5) who received TIPS from January 2013 through December 2014 at a tertiary center in Rome, Italy. All patients underwent computed tomography analysis at the level of the third lumbar vertebrae to determine the skeletal muscle index; sarcopenia was defined by sex-specific cut-off values. We estimated the incidence of the first episode of HE after TIPS, taking into account the competing risk nature of the data (death or liver transplantation). Twenty-six patients (57%) were found to have sarcopenia. Twenty-one patients (46%) developed overt HE in the 7 ± 9 months after TIPS placement; all of these patients were sarcopenic, according to the skeletal muscle index. Of the 25 patients without HE after TIPS, only 5 had sarcopenia. In multivariate analysis, model for end-stage liver disease score (subdistribution hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.34; P = .043) and sarcopenia (subdistribution hazard ratio, 31.3; 95% confidence interval, 4.5-218.07; P Sarcopenia should be considered in selecting patients for TIPS therapy. Nutritional status should be evaluated in patients with sarcopenia before TIPS placement, which might reduce the incidence of HE. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sarcopenia increases risk of long-term mortality in elderly patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Erika L; Rios-Diaz, Arturo J; Uyeda, Jennifer W; Castillo-Angeles, Manuel; Cooper, Zara; Olufajo, Olubode A; Salim, Ali; Sodickson, Aaron D

    2017-12-01

    Frailty is associated with poor surgical outcomes in elderly patients but is difficult to measure in the emergency setting. Sarcopenia, or the loss of lean muscle mass, is a surrogate for frailty and can be measured using cross-sectional imaging. We sought to determine the impact of sarcopenia on 1-year mortality after emergency abdominal surgery in elderly patients. Sarcopenia was assessed in patients 70 years or older who underwent emergency abdominal surgery at a single hospital from 2006 to 2011. Average bilateral psoas muscle cross-sectional area at L3, normalized for height (Total Psoas Index [TPI]), was calculated using computed tomography. Sarcopenia was defined as TPI in the lowest sex-specific quartile. Primary outcome was mortality at 1 year. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality and mortality at 30, 90, and 180 days. The association of sarcopenia with mortality was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression and model performance judged using Harrell's C-statistic. Two hundred ninety-seven of 390 emergency abdominal surgery patients had preoperative imaging and height. The median age was 79 years, and 1-year mortality was 32%. Sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic patients were comparable in age, sex, race, comorbidities, American Society of Anesthesiologists classification, procedure urgency and type, operative severity, and need for discharge to a nursing facility. Sarcopenic patients had lower body mass index, greater need for intensive care, and longer hospital length of stay (p Sarcopenia was independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality (risk ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-3.7) and mortality at 30 days (hazard ratio [HR], 3.7; 95% CI, 1.9-7.4), 90 days (HR, 3.3; 95% CI, 1.8-6.0), 180 days (HR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.4-4.4), and 1 year (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.4-3.9). Sarcopenia is associated with increased risk of mortality over 1 year in elderly patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. Sarcopenia defined by TPI is

  8. Impact of sarcopenia on the outcomes of elective total arch replacement in the elderly†.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Yuki; Koide, Yutaka; Abe, Noriyuki; Matsueda, Takashi; Izawa, Naoto; Yamazato, Takahiro; Miyahara, Shunsuke; Nomura, Yoshikatsu; Sato, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Hiroaki; Inoue, Takeshi; Matsumori, Masamichi; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Satoshi; Nakayama, Shinichi; Sugimoto, Koji; Okita, Yutaka

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the cut-off value of sarcopenia based on the psoas muscle area index and evaluate early and late outcomes following elective total arch replacement in the elderly. Sarcopenia was assessed by the psoas muscle area index [defined as the psoas muscle area at the L3 level on computed tomography (cm 2 )/body surface area (m 2 )]. The cut-off value for sarcopenia was defined as > 2 standard deviations below the mean psoas muscle area index value obtained from 464 normal control patients. Between October 1999 and July 2015, 266 patients who were ≥ 65 years and had undergone psoas muscle area index measurement underwent elective total arch replacement. These patients were classified into the sarcopenia (Group S, n  = 81) and non-sarcopenia (Group N, n  = 185) groups. The mean age was 76.2 ± 5.6 years in Group S and 75.7 ± 5.7 years in Group N ( P  = 0.553). Hospital mortality was 3.7% (3/81) in Group S and 2.2% (4/185) in Group N ( P  = 0.483). Mean follow-up was 48.3 ± 38.7 months. Five-year survival was significantly worse in Group S (S: 63.2 ± 6.6% vs N: 88.7 ± 2.6%, P  sarcopenia significantly predicted poor survival (hazard ratio 2.59; 95% confidence interval 1.27-5.29; P  = 0.011). Sarcopenia did not predict hospital death following total arch replacement, but it was negatively associated with overall survival. Sarcopenia can be an additional risk factor to estimate the outcomes of thoracic aortic surgery. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  9. [Analysis of elderly outpatients in relation to nutritional status, sarcopenia, renal function, and bone density].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaso, Franciany Viana; Vigário, Patrícia dos Santos; Mendonça, Laura Maria Carvalho de; Madeira, Miguel; Vieira Netto, Leonardo; Guimarães, Marcela Rodrigues Moreira; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss de

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate relationships between nutritional status, sarcopenia and osteoporosis in older women. We studied 44 women, 67-94 years, by mini-nutritional assessment (MAN), glomerular filtration corr. 1.73 m(2), body mass index (BMI), arm circumference and calf (CP and CB), bone mineral density and body composition, DXA (fat mass MG; lean MM). We gauge sarcopenia: IMM MM = MSS + MIS/height(2). We used the Pearson correlation coefficient, p nutritional status and body composition; and major influences on BMD were nutritional status and fat mass.

  10. Sarcopenia in patients with chronic kidney disease not yet on dialysis: Analysis of the prevalence and associated factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dílmerson; Barbosa, Sérgio Ribeiro; Corrêa, José Otávio do Amaral; Colugnati, Fernando Antônio Basile; Mansur, Henrique Novais; Fernandes, Natália Maria da Silva; Bastos, Marcus Gomes

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Sarcopenia is a chronic condition that is associated with aging and characterized by a reduction of muscle mass, strength, and function. Sarcopenia is prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as well as cardiovascular complications. Objectives To investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with CKD not yet on dialysis and its correlation with clinical and laboratory variables and inflammatory markers. Methods A total of 100 patients of both sexes aged over 18 were evaluated. Sarcopenia was defined using the criteria of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and of the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project. Sociodemographic and clinical data, activities of daily living, functional capacity, and physical activity were also evaluated. Inflammation was assessed by the serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin (IL) 4 and 6. Results The prevalence of sarcopenia was 11.9% and 28.7% using the EWGSOP and FNIH criteria, respectively. Sarcopenia was more prevalent in the more advanced stages of CKD (34.5% in stages 2 and 3A; and 65.5% in stages 3B, 4, and 5) and associated with worse performance in activities of daily living (p = 0.049), lower walking speeds (p sarcopenia had lower functional capacity (p = 0.012) and higher prevalence of physical inactivity (p = 0.041) compared with patients without sarcopenia. After adjustment for confounding variables, sarcopenia was still significantly correlated with walking speed (p = 0.004) and BMI (p = 0.002). HsCRP levels were inversely correlated with appendicular lean mass adjusted for BMI (p = 0.007) and were also positively associated with BMI (p = 0.001). IL4 levels were positively correlated with walking speed (p = 0.007) and lean mass in the lower limbs (p = 0.022). Conclusions Sarcopenia is common in patients with CKD, particularly in the

  11. 49 CFR 172.326 - Portable tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... petroleum gas (LPG) that is unodorized as authorized in § 173.315(b)(1) unless it is legibly marked NON... the portable tank are not visible. (d) NON-ODORIZED marking on portable tanks containing LPG. After...

  12. 29 CFR 1917.119 - Portable ladders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Requirements for Portable Reinforced Plastic Ladders (d) Standards for job-made portable ladders. Job-made... usage. (1) Ladders made by fastening rungs or devices across a single rail are prohibited. (2) Ladders...

  13. Sarcopenia as a Determinant of Blood Pressure in Older Koreans: Findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES) 2008–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuk-Sang; Ko, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hwan; Yim, Hyeon Woo; Lee, Won-Chul; Park, Yong Gyu; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Yong-Moon

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) is directly and causally associated with body size in the general population. Whether muscle mass is an important factor that determines BP remains unclear. Objective To investigate whether sarcopenia is associated with hypertension in older Koreans. Participants We surveyed 2,099 males and 2,747 females aged 60 years or older. Measurements Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight (ASM/Wt) that was sarcopenia. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP (SBP) ≥140 mmHg, a diastolic BP (DBP) ≥90 mmHg, or a self-reported current use of antihypertensive medications. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension in the four groups was as follows 49.7% for non-obese non-sarcopenia, 60.9% for non-obese sarcopenia, 66.2% for obese non-sarcopenia and 74.7% for obese sarcopenia. After adjustment for age, gender, regular activity, current smoking and alcohol use, the odds ratio (OR) for having hypertension was 1.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23–1.84) in subjects in the non-obese sarcopenia group, 2.08 (95% CI = 1.68–2.57) in the obese non-sarcopenia group and 3.0 (95% CI = 2.48–3.63) in the obese sarcopenia group, compared with the non-obese non-sarcopenia group (p for trend sarcopenia. The association between sarcopenia and hypertension was more robust in the subjects with diabetes mellitus. Conclusion Body composition beyond BMI has a considerable impact on hypertension in elderly Koreans. Subjects with sarcopenic obesity appear to have a greater risk of hypertension than simply obese or sarcopenia subjects. PMID:24489804

  14. Portable File Format (PFF) specifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Created at Sandia National Laboratories, the Portable File Format (PFF) allows binary data transfer across computer platforms. Although this capability is supported by many other formats, PFF files are still in use at Sandia, particularly in pulsed power research. This report provides detailed PFF specifications for accessing data without relying on legacy code.

  15. Portable sandblaster cleans small areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, H. J.

    1966-01-01

    Portable sandblasting unit rapidly and effectively cleans localized areas on a metal surface. The unit incorporates a bellows enclosure, masking plate, sand container, and used sand accummulator connected to a vacuum system. The bellows is equipped with an inspection window and light for observation of the sanding operation.

  16. A portable luminescence dating instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kook, M.H.; Murray, A.S.; Lapp, Torben

    2011-01-01

    We describe a portable luminescence reader suitable for use in remote localities in the field. The instrument weighs about 8kg and is based around a 30mm bialkali photomultiplier detecting signals through a glass filter centered on 340nm. Stimulation is by 470nm blue LEDs (24W in total) operating...

  17. A portable storage maximum thermometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayart, Gerard.

    1976-01-01

    A clinical thermometer storing the voltage corresponding to the maximum temperature in an analog memory is described. End of the measurement is shown by a lamp switch out. The measurement time is shortened by means of a low thermal inertia platinum probe. This portable thermometer is fitted with cell test and calibration system [fr

  18. Prototype Pompa Air Portable Tenaga Surya

    OpenAIRE

    Taufik, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Makalah ini menyajikan purwarupa pompa air portable tenaga surya. Sistem pompa air portable terdiri atas pompa air, panel surya, solar charge controller, battery, solar frame, tiang, dan box. Sistem dapat dirangkai, sehingga bersifat portable. Pompa air portable ini berguna untuk kolam, irigasi, dan penyediaan air bersih. Hasil optimasi memberikan spesifikasi pompa air berdaya 50 Watt dan tegangan 12 VDC, solar panel berdaya 50 Wp, battery berkapasitas 50 Ah dan tegangan 12 VDC, da...

  19. 48 CFR 1837.170 - Pension portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Pension portability. 1837... ADMINISTRATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Service Contracts-General 1837.170 Pension portability. (a) It is NASA's policy not to require pension portability in service contracts. However, pension...

  20. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Its Relationship with Sites of Fragility Fractures in Elderly Chinese Men and Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hong

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia might be associated with bone fragility in elderly individuals. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with fragility fracture sites in elderly Chinese patients.Patients (322 men and 435 women aged 65-94 years and with a history of fragility fractures in the ankle, wrist, vertebrae or hip, and healthy men (n = 1263 and women (n = 1057 aged 65-92 years without a history of fractures were enrolled. Whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze skeletal muscle mass index (SMI, fat mass and bone mineral density. Sarcopenia was defined as SMI less than two standard deviations below the mean of a young reference group.Sarcopenia occurrence varied with fracture location. Sarcopenia was more common in females with vertebral and hip fractures and in men with hip and ankle fractures than in the non-fracture group. Sarcopenia was significantly more prevalent in men with wrist, hip and ankle fractures than in women. SMI was correlated with BMD in different fracture groups. Logistic regression analyses revealed that lower SMI was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture both in men and women and ankle fracture in men.Sarcopenia may be an independent risk factor for hip and ankle fractures in men, and for hip fractures in women.

  1. Prevalence of Sarcopenia and Its Relationship with Sites of Fragility Fractures in Elderly Chinese Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei; Cheng, Qun; Zhu, Xiaoying; Zhu, Hanmin; Li, Huilin; Zhang, Xuemei; Zheng, Songbai; Du, Yanping; Tang, Wenjing; Xue, Sihong; Ye, Zhibin

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia might be associated with bone fragility in elderly individuals. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia and its association with fragility fracture sites in elderly Chinese patients. Patients (322 men and 435 women) aged 65-94 years and with a history of fragility fractures in the ankle, wrist, vertebrae or hip, and healthy men (n = 1263) and women (n = 1057) aged 65-92 years without a history of fractures were enrolled. Whole-body dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to analyze skeletal muscle mass index (SMI), fat mass and bone mineral density. Sarcopenia was defined as SMI less than two standard deviations below the mean of a young reference group. Sarcopenia occurrence varied with fracture location. Sarcopenia was more common in females with vertebral and hip fractures and in men with hip and ankle fractures than in the non-fracture group). Sarcopenia was significantly more prevalent in men with wrist, hip and ankle fractures than in women. SMI was correlated with BMD in different fracture groups. Logistic regression analyses revealed that lower SMI was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture both in men and women and ankle fracture in men. Sarcopenia may be an independent risk factor for hip and ankle fractures in men, and for hip fractures in women.

  2. Clinical Definitions of Sarcopenia and Risk of Hospitalization in Community-Dwelling Older Men: The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Lui, Li-Yung; Taylor, Brent C; McCulloch, Charles E; Cauley, Jane A; Lapidus, Jodi; Orwoll, Eric; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2017-10-01

    The association between various definitions of sarcopenia and hospitalization has not been evaluated in community-dwelling older men. We used data from 1,516 participants at Visit 3 of the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) study who also had linked Medicare Fee-For-Service Claims data available. We examined the association between several sarcopenia definitions (International Working Group, European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older Persons, Foundation for the NIH Sarcopenia Project, Baumgartner, and Newman) and hospitalization, using two-part ("hurdle") models, adjusted for age, clinical center, functional limitations, self-reported health, comorbidity, and cognitive function. Predictors included sarcopenia status (the summary definitions and the components of slowness, weakness, and/or lean mass); outcomes included hospitalization and cumulative inpatient days/year in the 3 years following the Visit 3 exam. After accounting for confounding factors, none of the summary definitions or the definition components (slowness, weakness, or low lean mass) were associated with likelihood of hospitalization, the rate ratio of inpatient days among those hospitalized, or the mean rate of inpatient days amongst all participants. Sarcopenia was not associated hospitalization in community-dwelling older men. These results provide further evidence that current sarcopenia definitions are unlikely to identify those who are most likely to have greater hospitalization. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. [CONSISTENCY OF MINI NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT TO IDENTIFY SARCOPENIA IN OLDER ADULTS IN NURSING HOMES IN BOGOTA, COLOMBIA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Muñoz, Gustavo Alfonso; Cárdenas Zuluaga, Diana María; Mesa Jimenez, Alfonso

    2015-07-01

    malnutrition and sarcopenia, which have similar physiological mechanisms and are both responsible for adverse health outcomes, are highly prevalent in the elderly. to measure the consistency of the MNA with the diagnosis of sarcopenia in older adults. cross-sectional study of consistency in four nursing homes in Bogotá. The nutritional screening and nutritional assessment were made with the Mini Nutritional Assessment in its long form; the diagnosis of sarcopenia was done with the algorithm and the breakpoints of the European Consensus (EWGSOP). Pearson Chi2, Mann-Whitney and consistency by Cohen's kappa coefficient. we included 108 patients, 62% women, mean age 80.4 years (SD 7.7). The prevalence of sarcopenia, malnutrition and risk of malnutrition were 38.9%, 33.3% and 2.8% respectively. The concordance of the MNA with the diagnosis of sarcopenia was slight (kappa 0.1908 95% CI 0.0025 to 0.3791, p sarcopenia, suggesting that it is not an appropriate tool for the diagnosis of sarcopenia in older institutionalized adults. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older adults: the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinhee; Lee, Yunhwan; Kye, Seunghee; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Kwang-Min

    2015-01-01

    several studies have found nutrients, including antioxidants, to be associated with sarcopenia. However, whether specific foods, such as vegetables and fruits, are associated with sarcopenia has not been studied. to examine the association of the frequency of vegetables and fruits consumption with sarcopenia in older people. this study used cross-sectional data from the Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008-09. Subjects were community-dwelling 823 men and 1,089 women aged ≥65 years. Frequency of food group consumption was obtained by using the food frequency questionnaire. Body composition was measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and sarcopenia was defined as appendicular lean mass adjusted for height and fat mass. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of the frequency of food group consumption with sarcopenia, controlling for sociodemographics and health-related variables. dietary intake of vegetables, fruits and both vegetables and fruits was associated with a significantly reduced risk of sarcopenia after controlling for covariates in men (P = 0.026 for trend, P = 0.012 for trend, P = 0.003 for trend, respectively). Men in the highest quintile, compared with those in the lowest quintile, of vegetables [odds ratio (OR) = 0.48; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.24-0.95], fruits (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13-0.70) and vegetables and fruits consumption (OR = 0.32; 95% CI: 0.16-0.67) demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia. In women, high consumption of fruits demonstrated a lower risk of sarcopenia (OR = 0.39; 95% CI: 0.18-0.83). frequent vegetables and fruits consumption was inversely associated with sarcopenia in older adults. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Association between sarcopenia and higher-level functional capacity in daily living in community-dwelling elderly subjects in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanimoto, Yoshimi; Watanabe, Misuzu; Sun, Wei; Sugiura, Yumiko; Tsuda, Yuko; Kimura, Motoshi; Hayashida, Itsushi; Kusabiraki, Toshiyuki; Kono, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the association between sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, and higher-level functional capacity in community-dwelling Japanese elderly people. Subjects were 1158 elderly, community-dwelling Japanese people aged 65 or older. We used bioelectrical impedance analysis to measure muscle mass, grip strength to measure muscle strength, and usual walking speed to measure physical performance. Sarcopenia was characterized by low muscle mass, plus low muscle strength or low physical performance. Subjects without low muscle mass, low muscle strength, and low physical performance were classified as "normal." Examination of higher-level functional capacity was performed using the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence (TMIG-IC). The TMIG-IC is a 13-item questionnaire completed by the subject; it contains five questions on self-maintenance and four questions each on intellectual activity and social role. Sarcopenia was identified in 11.3% and 10.7% of men and women, respectively. The percentage of disability for instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) was 39.0% in men with sarcopenia and 30.6% in women with sarcopenia. After adjustment for age, in men, sarcopenia was significantly associated with IADL disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. In women, sarcopenia was significantly associated with every subscale of the TMIG-IC disability compared with intermediate and normal subjects. This study revealed that sarcopenia, defined by muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance, had a significant association with disability in higher-level functional capacity in elderly Japanese subjects. Interventions to prevent sarcopenia may prevent higher-level functional disability among elderly people. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Long Sleep Duration is Associated With Sarcopenia in Korean Adults Based on Data from the 2008-2011 KNHANES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yu-Jin; Jang, Suk-Yong; Park, Eun-Cheol; Cho, A-Ra; Shim, Jae-Yong; Linton, John A

    2017-09-15

    Sarcopenia, or loss of muscle mass, occurs with aging and results in frailty, disability, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Recently, researchers have asserted that sarcopenia is not an inevitable process, but is a modifiable condition. Adequate sleep duration is also important to maintain good physical and mental health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the association between sleep duration and sarcopenia in Korean adults. Data from 16,148 participants (7,158 men and 8,990 women) were analyzed from the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). We defined sarcopenia as one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of the appendicular skeletal muscle/height-squared values of a young reference group. Participants were categorized into 5 groups according to sleep duration. The odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for sarcopenia according to sleep duration were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.3% in the total population (males 18.7%, females 9.7%). Compared to the 7 hours of sleep group, the OR (95% CI) for sarcopenia of the long sleep duration group (9 hours or more) was 1.589 (1.100-2.295) after controlling for confounding factors. From the results of subgroup analysis, high-risk groups for sarcopenia are as follows: 40-64 years old (OR = 1.868), normal body mass index (OR = 1.516), smoking (OR = 2.219), no regular exercise (OR = 1.506) in long sleepers. Long sleep duration (9 hours or longer) is independently associated with sarcopenia in Korean adults. © 2017 American Academy of Sleep Medicine

  7. Association of Sarcopenia With Nutritional Parameters, Quality of Life, Hospitalization, and Mortality Rates of Elderly Patients on Hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, Juliana; Kamimura, Maria Ayako; Lamarca, Fernando; Rodrigues, Juliana; Santin, Fernanda; Avesani, Carla Maria

    2018-05-01

    This study aimed to assess whether diminished muscle mass, diminished muscle strength, or both conditions (sarcopenia) are associated with worse nutritional status, poor quality of life (QoL), and hard outcomes, such as hospitalization and mortality, in elderly patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). This is a multicenter observational longitudinal study that included 170 patients on MHD (age 70 ± 7 years, 65% male) from 6 dialysis centers. The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People defines sarcopenia as the presence of both low muscle mass by appendicular skeletal + low muscle function by handgrip strength. This study evaluated the clinical and nutritional status (laboratory, anthropometry, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, 7-point subjective global assessment) and QoL (Kidney Disease Quality of Life) at baseline. Hospitalization and mortality were recorded during 36 months. Reduced muscle mass was observed in 64% of the patients, reduced muscle strength in 52%, and sarcopenia in 37%. The group with sarcopenia was older, had a higher proportion of men and showed worse clinical and nutritional conditions when compared with patients without sarcopenia. Although reduced muscle mass was strongly associated with poor nutritional status, low muscle strength was associated with worse QoL domains. In the multivariate Cox analyses adjusted by age, gender, dialysis vintage, and diabetes mellitus, low muscle strength alone and sarcopenia were associated with higher hospitalization, and sarcopenia was a predictor of mortality. In conclusion, in this sample, comprised of elderly patients on MHD, sarcopenia was associated with worse nutritional and clinical conditions and was a predictor of hospitalization and mortality. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Sarcopenia associada ao envelhecimento: aspectos etiológicos e opções terapêuticas Sarcopenia and aging: etiological aspects and therapeutic options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Alves de Araujo Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência de incapacidade e dependência funcional é maior em idosos e está intimamente associada à redução da massa muscular, que ocorre, até mesmo, em indivíduos saudáveis. A sarcopenia parece decorrer da interação complexa de distúrbios da inervação, diminuição de hormônios, aumento de mediadores inflamatórios e alterações da ingestão protéico-calórica que ocorrem durante o envelhecimento. A perda de massa e força muscular é responsável pela redução de mobilidade e aumento da incapacidade funcional e dependência. Quando associada à fragilidade, esta perda gera custos econômicos e sociais. Neste artigo, pretende-se avaliar aspectos relacionados à gênese da sarcopenia, bem como analisar possíveis opções terapêuticas e de prevenção.The high prevalence of inability and functional dependence is an important problem in elderly people. It is closely related with aging decrease of lean muscle mass that occurs even in healthy subjects. Skeletal muscle mass deficiency, or sarcopenia, results from complex interactions between innervations disturbances, hormones deficiency, inflammatory cytokines and restriction in caloric-proteic ingestion. Loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength results in disability and functional dependency that are associated to frailty in many elderly people. These conditions represent enormous economic and social budget. In this article, we evaluate pathogenesis of sarcopenia and discuss potential therapies.

  9. Predictive Values of the New Sarcopenia Index by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health Sarcopenia Project for Mortality among Older Korean Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Hee; Moon, Jae Hoon; Choi, Sung Hee; Lim, Soo; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki Woong; Park, Kyong Soo; Jang, Hak Chul

    2016-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health (FNIH) Sarcopenia Project’s recommended criteria for sarcopenia’s association with mortality among older Korean adults. Methods We conducted a community-based prospective cohort study which included 560 (285 men and 275 women) older Korean adults aged ≥65 years. Muscle mass (appendicular skeletal muscle mass-to-body mass index ratio (ASM/BMI)), handgrip strength, and walking velocity were evaluated in association with all-cause mortality during 6-year follow-up. Both the lowest quintile for each parameter (ethnic-specific cutoff) and FNIH-recommended values were used as cutoffs. Results Forty men (14.0%) and 21 women (7.6%) died during 6-year follow-up. The deceased subjects were older and had lower ASM, handgrip strength, and walking velocity. Sarcopenia defined by both low lean mass and weakness had a 4.13 (95% CI, 1.69–10.11) times higher risk of death, and sarcopenia defined by a combination of low lean mass, weakness, and slowness had a 9.56 (3.16–28.90) times higher risk of death after adjusting for covariates in men. However, these significant associations were not observed in women. In terms of cutoffs of each parameter, using the lowest quintile showed better predictive values in mortality than using the FNIH-recommended values. Moreover, new muscle mass index, ASM/BMI, provided better prognostic values than ASM/height2 in all associations. Conclusions New sarcopenia definition by FNIH was better able to predict 6-year mortality among Korean men. Moreover, ethnic-specific cutoffs, the lowest quintile for each parameter, predicted the higher risk of mortality than the FNIH-recommended values. PMID:27832145

  10. [Advances of portable electrocardiogram monitor design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Shenping; Wang, Yinghai; Wu, Weirong; Deng, Lingli; Lu, Jidong

    2014-06-01

    Portable electrocardiogram monitor is an important equipment in the clinical diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases due to its portable, real-time features. It has a broad application and development prospects in China. In the present review, previous researches on the portable electrocardiogram monitors have been arranged, analyzed and summarized. According to the characteristics of the electrocardiogram (ECG), this paper discusses the ergonomic design of the portable electrocardiogram monitor, including hardware and software. The circuit components and software modules were parsed from the ECG features and system functions. Finally, the development trend and reference are provided for the portable electrocardiogram monitors and for the subsequent research and product design.

  11. Association between the nutritional status and the severity of sarcopenia among community-dwelling elderly Japanese people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komai, Satsuki; Watanabe, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kim, Hunkyung; Edahiro, Ayako; Kawai, Hisashi; Yoshida, Hideyo; Obuchi, Shuichi; Tanaka, Yayoi; Hirano, Hirohiko

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between nutritional evaluation indices (body mass index, albumin, and weight loss) and sarcopenia severity among community-dwelling elderly people in Japan. The subjects consisted of 758 community-dwelling elderly people ≥65 years of age, categorized into two groups by based on Operation of long life medical care system (medical care system for elderly in the latter stage of life), the cut-off value for age used was 75. The outcome measures were basic characteristics, anthropometric measures, physical function, and blood biochemistry (five assessments). The appendicular skeletal muscle mass was calculated via a bioelectrical impedance analysis. The subjects were categorized into three groups by the body mass index (BMI) [BMI 3 group]. The cut-off value for albumin used was 3.8 g/dL [A1b 2 group]. Weight loss was assessed using item 11 on the Kihon check list: "Have you experienced more than 2-3 kg weight loss over the past 6 months? Yes=1, No=0." [weight loss 2 group]. Sarcopenia was defined based on the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People definition, using the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia cut-off values. All subjects were then categorized into four groups based on their sarcopenia status: non-sarcopenic (non-), pre-sarcopenic (pre-), sarcopenic (sarco-), or severely sarcopenic (severe-) [sarco4 group]. The prevalence of sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia in men was 5.6% (n=18) and 1.2% (n=4), respectively, and in women was 7.8% (n=34) and 1.6% (n=7), respectively. The analysis showed that, among the people (>75 years of age) with normal BMI (18.5-25.0), 10.4%-15.6% were in the Sarco group. Further, among women over 75 years of age with BMI >25.0, 5.7% (n=2) were in the Sarco group. There was a significant association between weight loss and sarcopenia severity in older men. No significant association between albumin levels and sarcopenia severity was observed. 80.0% of weight-loss was presented in above BMI 18

  12. Instruments to assess sarcopenia and physical frailty in older people living in a community (care) setting: similarities and discrepancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijnarends, Donja M; Schols, Jos M G A; Meijers, Judith M M; Tan, Frans E S; Verlaan, Sjors; Luiking, Yvette C; Morley, John E; Halfens, Ruud J G

    2015-04-01

    Both sarcopenia and physical frailty are geriatric syndromes causing loss of functionality and independence. This study explored the association between sarcopenia and physical frailty and the overlap of their criteria in older people living in different community (care) settings. Moreover, it investigated the concurrent validity of the FRAIL scale to assess physical frailty, by comparison with the widely used Fried criteria. Data were retrieved from the cross-sectional Maastricht Sarcopenia Study (MaSS). The study was undertaken in different community care settings in an urban area (Maastricht) in the south of the Netherlands. Participants were 65 years or older, gave written informed consent, were able to understand Dutch language, and were not wheelchair bound or bedridden. Not applicable. Sarcopenia was identified using the algorithm of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Physical frailty was assessed by the Fried criteria and by the FRAIL scale. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association between sarcopenia and physical frailty measured by the Fried criteria. Spearman correlation was performed to assess the concurrent validity of the FRAIL scale compared with the Fried criteria. Data from 227 participants, mean age 74.9 years, were analyzed. Sarcopenia was identified in 23.3% of the participants, when using the cutoff levels for moderate sarcopenia. Physical frailty was identified in 8.4% (≥3 Fried criteria) and 9.3% (≥3 FRAIL scale criteria) of the study population. Sarcopenia and physical frailty were significantly associated (P = .022). Frail older people were more likely to be sarcopenic than those who were not frail. In older people who were not frail, the risk of having sarcopenia increased with age. Next to poor grip strength (78.9%) and slow gait speed (89.5%), poor performance in other functional tests was common in frail older people. The 2 physical frailty scales were significantly correlated (r = 0.617, P

  13. Prevalence of sarcopenia in elderly maintenance hemodialysis patients: the impact of different diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarca, F; Carrero, J J; Rodrigues, J C D; Bigogno, F G; Fetter, R L; Avesani, C M

    2014-07-01

    The prevalence of sarcopenia on elderly maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) has been scarcely investigated. To investigate the prevalence of decreased muscle mass and strength alone or combined (true sarcopenia) in elderly patients on MHD according to different methods and cutoff limits. Additionally, we evaluated the agreement between dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and surrogate methods for the assessment of muscle mass. Observational and cross-sectional study. Non-institutionalized 102 elderly (age > 60 years) patients on MHD. Sarcopenia was considered when the patient fit one criteria for low muscle mass assessed by DXA, bioelectrical impedance (BIA), sum of skinfold thicknesses (SKF), calf circumference and mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC) and one for low muscle strength evaluated by handgrip dynamometer. Decreased muscle strength was found in 85% of the patients. The prevalence of decreased muscle mass varied from 4 to 73.5% and of sarcopenia (decreased muscle mass and strength combined) from 4 to 63%, depending on the method and cutoff limit applied. A small percentage of patients (2 to 15%) were classified as sarcopenic by more than one diagnostic criteria. The agreement between DXA and the surrogate methods to assess muscle mass showed better kappa coefficients with BIA (r=0.36; Psarcopenia is observed depending on the method and cutoff limit applied. This may limit extrapolate on to clinical practice. BIA and SKF were the surrogate methods to assess muscle mass with the best concordance with DXA in elderly MHD patients.

  14. Sarcopenia in older mice is characterized by a decreased anabolic response to a protein meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van Miriam; Nagel, Jolanda; Dijk, Francina J.; Salles, Jerôme; Verlaan, Sjors; Walrand, Stephane; Norren, van Klaske; Luiking, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    Ageing is associated with sarcopenia, a progressive decline of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality and muscle function. Reduced sensitivity of older muscles to respond to anabolic stimuli, i.e. anabolic resistance, is part of the underlying mechanisms. Although, muscle parameters have been

  15. Nutritional problems in older adults with Alzheimer’s disease: Risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Rodrigues LECHETA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective Understand the nutritional problems and detect the presence of sarcopenia in older adults with Alzheimer’s disease. Methods Descriptive cross-sectional study carried out among elderly patients with Alzheimer’s disease receiving care at the Unidade de Saúde de Atenção ao Idoso (Elderly Care Unit in a capital city in Southern Brazil between November 2010 and July 2011. The Clinical Dementia Rating scale was used for the evaluation of staging severity of dementia. Participants’ nutritional status was classified using The Mini Nutritional Assessment. The following tests were used to diagnose sarcopenia: bioelectrical impedance, hand grip strength, and the Timed Up and Go test. Anthropometric measurements and laboratory tests (hemoglobin, lymphocytes, serum albumin, and total cholesterol were performed. Results Ninety-six older adults (mean age of 78 years were evaluated. It was observed prevalence of mild Alzheimer’s disease in 54.2% of the participants; 55.2% were at risk of malnutrition; unintentional weight loss was observed in 64.6%, 55.3% had lower number of lymphocytes, and 43.7% had severe sarcopenia. Conclusion The prevalence of risk of malnutrition and sarcopenia is high among older adults with Alzheimer’s disease. Future studies should focus on the evaluation of nutritional interventions aimed at maintaining the nutritional status and muscle mass in these individuals.

  16. Impact of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation nutrition team on evaluating sarcopenia, cachexia and practice of rehabilitation nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokura, Yoji; Wakabayashi, Hidetaka; Maeda, Keisuke; Nishioka, Shinta; Nakahara, Saori

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether the presence of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation nutrition team affects sarcopenia and cachexia evaluation and practice of rehabilitation nutrition. A cross-sectional study using online questionnaire among members of the Japanese Association of Rehabilitation Nutrition (JARN) was conducted. Questions were related to sarcopenia and cachexia evaluation and practice of rehabilitation nutrition. 677 (14.7%) questionnaires were analysed. 44.5% reported that their institution employed a rehabilitation nutrition team, 20.2% conducted rehabilitation nutrition rounds and 26.1% conducted rehabilitation nutrition meetings. A total of 51.7%, 69.7%, 69.0% and 17.8% measured muscle mass, muscle strength, physical function and cachexia, respectively. For those with a rehabilitation nutrition team, 63.5%, 80.7%, 82.4% and 22.9% measured muscle mass, muscle strength, physical function and cachexia, respectively, whereas 46.7%, 78.0% and 78.1% of the respondents reported implementation of nutrition planning strategies in consideration of energy accumulation, rehabilitation training in consideration of nutritional status and use of dietary supplements, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the use of a rehabilitation nutrition team independently affected sarcopenia evaluation and practice of rehabilitation nutrition but not cachexia evaluation. The presence of a multidisciplinary rehabilitation nutrition team increased the frequency of sarcopenia evaluation and practice of rehabilitation nutrition. J. Med. Invest. 64: 140-145, February, 2017.

  17. Recommendations for the conduct of clinical trials for drugs to treat or prevent sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    PURPOSE: Sarcopenia is an age related muscle condition which is frequently a precursor of frailty, mobility disability and premature death. It has a high prevalence in older populations and presents a considerable social and economic burden. Potential treatments are under development but, as yet, no...

  18. Nutrition and physical activity for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosaeus, Ingvar; Rothenberg, Elisabet

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia, defined as loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is associated with adverse outcomes such as physical disability, impaired quality of life and increased mortality. Several mechanisms are involved in the development of sarcopenia. Potentially modifiable factors include nutrition and physical activity. Protein metabolism is central to the nutritional issues, along with other potentially modifying nutritional factors as energy balance and vitamin D status. An increasing but still incomplete knowledge base has generated recent recommendations on an increased protein intake in the elderly. Several factors beyond the total amount of protein consumed emerge as potentially important in this context. A recent summit examined three hypotheses: (1) A meal threshold; habitually consuming 25-30 g protein at breakfast, lunch and dinner provides sufficient protein to effectively stimulate muscle protein anabolism; (2) Protein quality; including high-quality protein at each meal improves postprandial muscle protein synthesis; and (3) performing physical activity in close temporal proximity to a high-quality protein meal enhances muscle anabolism. Optimising the potential for muscle protein anabolism by consuming an adequate amount of high-quality protein at each meal, in combination with physical activity, appears as a promising strategy to prevent or delay the onset of sarcopenia. However, results of interventions are inconsistent, and well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before guidelines can be developed for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia.

  19. Vitamin E in Sarcopenia: Current Evidences on Its Role in Prevention and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shy Cian Khor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome that is characterized by gradual loss of muscle mass and strength with increasing age. Although the underlying mechanism is still unknown, the contribution of increased oxidative stress in advanced age has been recognized as one of the risk factors of sarcopenia. Thus, eliminating reactive oxygen species (ROS can be a strategy to combat sarcopenia. In this review, we discuss the potential role of vitamin E in the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia. Vitamin E is a lipid soluble vitamin, with potent antioxidant properties and current evidence suggesting a role in the modulation of signaling pathways. Previous studies have shown its possible beneficial effects on aging and age-related diseases. Although there are evidences suggesting an association between vitamin E and muscle health, they are still inconclusive compared to other more extensively studied chronic diseases such as neurodegenerative diseases and cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, we reviewed the role of vitamin E and its potential protective mechanisms on muscle health based on previous and current in vitro and in vivo studies.

  20. The impact of low muscle mass definition on the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Solomon; Appleton, Sarah; Adams, Robert; Chapman, Ian; Wittert, Gary; Visvanathan, Thavarajah; Visvanathan, Renuka

    2014-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the presence of low muscle mass and low muscle function. The aim of this study was to establish cutoffs for low muscle mass using three published methods and to compare the prevalence of sarcopenia in older Australians. Gender specific cutoffs levels were identified for low muscle mass using three different methods. Low grip strength was determined using established cutoffs of standard deviation (SD) of a young reference population; (b) <7.36 kg/m(2) for men and <5.81 kg/m(2) for women from the lowest 20% percentile of the older group; and (c) <-2.15 for men and <-1.42 for women from the lowest 20% of the residuals of linear regressions of appendicular skeletal mass, adjusted for fat mass and height. Prevalence of sarcopenia in older (65 years and older) people by these three methods for men was 2.5%, 6.2%, and 6.4% and for women 0.3%, 9.3%, and 8.5%, respectively. Sarcopenia is common but consensus on the best method to confirm low muscle mass is required.

  1. Physical Activity Energy Expenditure and Sarcopenia in Black South African Urban Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Herculina S; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J; Tieland, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) were randomly selected. Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, dietary intakes, and physical activity were measured. Activity was also measured by combined accelerometery/heart rate monitoring (ActiHeart), and HIV status was tested. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure appendicular skeletal mass (ASM). Sarcopenia was defined according to a recently derived SA cutpoint of ASM index (ASM/height squared) decreasing to 8.1% after exclusion of participants who were HIV positive. In multiple regressions with ASM index, grip strength, and gait speed, respectively, as dependent variables, only activity energy expenditure (β = .27) was significantly associated with ASM index. Age (β = -.50) and activity energy expenditure (β = .17) were significantly associated with gait speed. Age (β = -.11) and lean mass (β = .21) were significantly associated with handgrip strength. Sarcopenia was prevalent among these SA women and was associated with low physical activity energy expenditure.

  2. The evaluation in terms of sarcopenia of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Irfan; Savas, Esen; Ozturk, Zeynel Abidin; Boyaci, Ahmet; Tutoglu, Ahmet; Alkan, Samet; Yildiz, Hamit; Kimyon, Gezmiş

    2016-11-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is an extra-articular rheumatic illness, characterized by widespread body pain and decreased muscle function. Generalized loss of muscle mass and strength is named as sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to evaluate patients with FMS regarding sarcopenia. This was a cross sectional, case-controlled, single-blinded, and single-centered study. The FMS patients were assessed by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), visual analog scale (VAS), Beck Depression Index (BDI), and Pittsburg Sleep Quality Scale (PSQI). All the participants were evaluated for sarcopenia by bioimpedance analysis (BIA), anthropometric measurements, handgrip strength, and the parameters of walking speed. In this study, 82 patients with FMS and 38 healthy control female subjects were included. VAS, BDI, and PSQI scores were statistically higher in the FMS group than the control group (p FIQ in patients was significantly correlated with BIA, waist circumference, HS, WS, and body mass index (r = 0.267, p = 0.018; r = 0.291, p = 0.010; r = - 0.319, p = 0.004; r = - 0.360, p = 0.001; and r  = 0.304, p = 0.007 respectively). Evaluation of female patients with primary FMS by the sarcopenia parameters could contribute a more objective evaluation during the patients' follow-up.

  3. Sarcopenia and its relationship with osteoarthritis: risk factor or direct consequence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, R; Zampogna, B; Torre, G; Lanotte, A; Vasta, S; Albo, E; Tecame, A; Denaro, V

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the clinical role of sarcopenia in patients affected by osteoarthritis (OA) of major joints. An online database research was performed, in order to retrieve all articles investigating the relationship between sarcopenia and OA. No peer-reviewed journal was excluded. Papers in English, French, Spanish and Italian language were considered. After consulting the full-text article, five studies have been included in the review. Of the five studies included, four are prospective studies and only one is a cross-sectional study which retrieved data retrospectively. A total of 4,231 patients, presenting a mean age of 62.0 years, were studied. Three studies evaluated only female subjects. Weight, height and body mass index were reported in all the articles. Knee OA has been assessed using the Kellgren-Lawrence grading system and the American college of rheumatology criteria. Alterations of the lean body mass on body weight ratio have been reported to be as a significant predictive parameter in two studies. Relationship between radiographic OA and an increase in the leg lean mass has been observed in one study. We cannot support neither the thesis of a direct effect of sarcopenia on OA development nor the opposite relation, because the up-to-date literature lacks basic science studies concerning these topics. The absence of clinical studies regarding measurements and tools to compare sarcopenia and OA do not allow to definitely clarify this relationship.

  4. Sarcopenia as an Independent Risk Factor for Decreased BMD in COPD Patients: Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008-2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Won; Choi, Eun-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is a systemic consequence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Past reports have rarely examined any correlation between sarcopenia and BMD. We investigated the relationship cross-sectionally between the presence of sarcopenia and BMD reduction in COPD patients. Methods COPD patients aged 50 or older with qualifying spirometry and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry data were from participants in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys IV and V (2008–2011). Results There were 286 (33.3%) subjects in the sarcopenia group and 572 (66.7%) in the non-sarcopenia group. The sarcopenia group had lower T-scores than the non-sarcopenia group (femur: -0.73±0.88 vs. -0.18±0.97, p sarcopenia group and 45.6% and 13.3% in the non-sarcopenia group (both p sarcopenia associated with increased the risk of osteopenia, osteoporosis, and a low BMD (OR = 3.227, 95% CI = 2.125–4.899, p sarcopenia was associated with increased the risk for decreased BMD in COPD. PMID:27749901

  5. Unsatisfactory knowledge and use of terminology regarding malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia among dietitians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ter Beek, Lies; Vanhauwaert, Erika; Slinde, Frode; Orrevall, Ylva; Henriksen, Christine; Johansson, Madelene; Vereecken, Carine; Rothenberg, Elisabet; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët

    2016-12-01

    Clinical signs of malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia overlap, as they all imply muscle wasting to a various extent. However, the underlying mechanisms differ fundamentally and therefore distinction between these phenomena has therapeutic and prognostic implications. We aimed to determine whether dietitians in selected European countries have 'sufficient knowledge' regarding malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia, and use these terms in their daily clinical work. An anonymous online survey was performed among dietitians in Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Sweden. 'Sufficient knowledge' was defined as having mentioned at least two of the three common domains of malnutrition according to ESPEN definition of malnutrition (2011): 'nutritional balance', 'body composition' and 'functionality and clinical outcome', and a correct answer to three cases on starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia. Chi-square test was used to analyse differences in experience, work place and number of malnourished patients treated between dietitians with 'sufficient knowledge' vs. 'less sufficient knowledge'. 712/7186 responded to the questionnaire, of which data of 369 dietitians were included in the analysis (5%). The term 'malnutrition' is being used in clinical practice by 88% of the respondents. Starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia is being used by 3%, 30% and 12% respectively. The cases on starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia were correctly identified by 58%, 43% and 74% respectively. 13% of the respondents had 'sufficient knowledge'. 31% of the respondents identified all cases correctly. The proportion of respondents with 'sufficient knowledge' was significantly higher in those working in a hospital or in municipality (16%, P four European countries show that the percentage of dietitians with 'sufficient knowledge' regarding malnutrition, starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia is unsatisfactory (13%). The terms starvation, cachexia and sarcopenia are not often used

  6. Endocrine determinants of incident sarcopenia in middle-aged and elderly European men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Evelien; O'Neill, Terence W; Pye, Stephen R; Adams, Judith E; Wu, Frederick C; Laurent, Michaël R; Claessens, Frank; Ward, Kate A; Boonen, Steven; Bouillon, Roger; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Verschueren, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    Background In men, the long-term consequences of low serum levels of sex steroids, vitamin D metabolites, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the evolution of muscle mass, muscle strength, or physical performance are unclear. Moreover, there are no data about the relationship between these hormones and incident sarcopenia defined as low muscle mass and function. The aim of this study was to determine whether the baseline levels of sex hormones, vitamin D metabolites, and IGF-1 predict changes in muscle mass, muscle strength, physical performance, and incident sarcopenia. Methods In 518 men aged 40–79 years, recruited for participation in the European Male Ageing Study, total, free, and bioavailable testosterone (T), oestradiol (E), sex hormone-binding globulin, IGF-1, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), and parathyroid hormone were assessed at baseline. Appendicular lean mass (aLM), gait speed, and grip strength were measured at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 4.3 years. Sarcopenia was defined by the definition of Baumgartner (relative aLM ≤7.26 kg/m2), the International Working Group on Sarcopenia (IWGS), and the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Results aLM significantly decreased from age 50 years, while gait speed and grip strength significantly decreased from age 70 years. The incidence of sarcopenia by the definitions of Baumgartner, IWGS, and EWGSOP was 8.1%, 3.0%, and 1.6%, respectively. After adjustment for age, centre, body mass index, smoking, and number of comorbidities at baseline, baseline levels of T and vitamin D metabolites were not associated with change in aLM, gait speed, and/or grip strength, while a high baseline level of total E2 was associated with a greater decrease in aLM. In men aged ≥70 years, low IGF-1 was associated with a greater decrease in gait speed. Baseline endocrine variables were not independently associated with an increased risk of incident

  7. Accuracy of the Timed Up and Go test for predicting sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Prata Martinez

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The ability of the Timed Up and Go test to predict sarcopenia has not been evaluated previously. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Timed Up and Go test for predicting sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed 68 elderly patients (≥60 years of age in a private hospital in the city of Salvador-BA, Brazil, between the 1st and 5th day of hospitalization. The predictive variable was the Timed Up and Go test score, and the outcome of interest was the presence of sarcopenia (reduced muscle mass associated with a reduction in handgrip strength and/or weak physical performance in a 6-m gait-speed test. After the descriptive data analyses, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of a test using the predictive variable to predict the presence of sarcopenia were calculated. RESULTS: In total, 68 elderly individuals, with a mean age 70.4±7.7 years, were evaluated. The subjects had a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 5.35±1.97. Most (64.7% of the subjects had a clinical admission profile; the main reasons for hospitalization were cardiovascular disorders (22.1%, pneumonia (19.1% and abdominal disorders (10.2%. The frequency of sarcopenia in the sample was 22.1%, and the mean length of time spent performing the Timed Up and Go test was 10.02±5.38 s. A time longer than or equal to a cutoff of 10.85 s on the Timed Up and Go test predicted sarcopenia with a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 88.7%. The accuracy of this cutoff for the Timed Up and Go test was good (0.80; IC=0.66-0.94; p=0.002. CONCLUSION: The Timed Up and Go test was shown to be a predictor of sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients.

  8. Quality of life and physical components linked to sarcopenia: The SarcoPhAge study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudart, C; Reginster, J Y; Petermans, J; Gillain, S; Quabron, A; Locquet, M; Slomian, J; Buckinx, F; Bruyère, O

    2015-09-01

    The SarcoPhAge project is an ongoing longitudinal study following community-dwelling elderly subjects with the objective to assess some health and functional consequences of sarcopenia. The sarcopenia diagnosis algorithm developed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) and used in the present study needs further validation through cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. The aim of the present study is to assess, using this algorithm, the prevalence of sarcopenia and the clinical components linked to this geriatric syndrome. Participants were community dwelling subjects aged 65years or older. To diagnose sarcopenia, we applied the definition of the EWGSOP. Muscle mass was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, muscle strength by a hydraulic dynamometer and physical performance by the SPPB test. Large amounts of socio-demographic, anamnestic and clinical data were collected in all subjects. 534 subjects were recruited for this study (60.5% of women, mean age of 73.5±6.16years), among whom 73 subjects were diagnosed sarcopenic, which represents a global prevalence of 13.7%. Prevalence was 11.8% in men and 14.9% in women. Sarcopenic subjects were older; had a lower Body Mass Index, lower calf, waist, wrist and arm circumferences; presented more cognitive impairments (Mini-Mental State Examination), more comorbidities; were more often malnourished; and consumed more drugs. After adjustment for age, BMI, cognitive status, nutritional status, number of comorbidities and number of drugs, sarcopenic subjects had a worse physical health-related quality of life (SF-36) for the domain of physical functioning, were at higher risk of falls (Timed Up and Go test), were more frail (Fried), presented more often tiredness for the achievement of activities of daily living (Mobility-test), presented less fat mass and obviously less lean mass. Sarcopenic women were also more dependent for housekeeping and handling finances (Lawton scale) than non

  9. Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglseer, Doris; Eminovic, Sandra; Lohrmann, Christa

    2016-07-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ARTICLE INSTRUCTIONS 1.2 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded once you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. To obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Association Between Sarcopenia and Nutritional Status in Older Adults: A Systematic Literature Review" found on pages 33-41, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website listed above to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name; contact information; and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until June 30, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. ACTIVITY OBJECTIVES 1. Describe the geriatric syndrome of sarcopenia. 2. Identify the outcome of the

  10. iPad Portable Genius

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Everything everyone wants to know about using the Apple iPad. On January 27, 2010, Apple announced the latest in its line of revolutionary, ultraportable devices - the iPad. iPad Portable Genius is the latest in a line of ultra handy, go-to and goes-with you anywhere guides for getting the most out of a new Apple product. Written to provide readers with highly useful information that's easily accessible, iPad Portable Genius is full of tips, tricks and techniques for maximizing each of the iPad's most popular features.:; Designed in full-color with an Apple look and feel, and written in a hip,

  11. Portable technologies at the museum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svabo, Connie

    2011-01-01

    A topic of interest in contemporary museum studies is how digital technologies contribute to museum visitor experiences. Building on insights from media and technology studies that new media should be understood for how they overlap with old media, the article reports an ethnographic study...... of the intersections between the exhibition at a modern museum of natural history and three portable technologies – one of which is digital. Mobile phone cameras, exercise pamphlets and dress-up costumes link visitors with an exhibition, but they simultaneously shape this relation in their own specific directions....... This is shown by drawing on the concept of mediation as it is developed by philosopher Michel Serres and philosopher of technology Bruno Latour. The article is based on the Ph.D. thesis entitled “Portable Objects at the Museum”, defended at Roskilde University on 22 September 2010....

  12. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piper, L.G.; Fraser, M.E.; Davis, S.J. [Physical Sciences Inc., Andover, MA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    We are beginning the second phase of a three and a half year program designed to develop a portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection. The ultimate goal of the program is to develop our concept to the prototype instrument level. Our monitor will be a compact, portable instrument that will allow real-time, in situ, monitoring of hazardous wastes. This instrument will be able to provide the means for rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map the areas of greatest contamination. Remediation efforts can then focus on these areas. Further, our instrument can show whether cleanup technologies are successful at reducing hazardous materials concentrations below regulated levels, and will provide feedback to allow changes in remediation operations, if necessary, to enhance their efficacy.

  13. Development of portable flow calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Kiyomitsu; Iijima, Nobuo

    1995-01-01

    In the nuclear facilities, air sniffer system is often utilized to evaluate atmospheric concentration of radioactivity in the working environment. The system collects airborne dust on the filter during some sampling period. In this method, total air flow during the sampling period is an important parameter to evaluate the radioactivity concentration correctly. Therefore, calibration for the flow meter of air sniffer system must be done periodically according to Japan Industry Standards (JIS). As we have had to available device to calibrate the flow meter in the working area, we had to remove the flow meters from the installed place and carry them to another place where calibration can be made. This work required a great deal of labor. Now we have developed a portable flow calibrator for air sniffer system which enables us to make in-site calibration of the flow meter in the working area more easily. This report describes the outline of portable flow calibrator and it's experimental results. (author)

  14. Portable telepathology: methods and tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Luis; Roca, Ma José

    2008-07-15

    Telepathology is becoming easier to implement in most pathology departments. In fact e-mail image transmit can be done from almost any pathologist as a simplistic telepathology system. We tried to develop a way to improve capabilities of communication among pathologists with the idea that the system should be affordable for everybody. We took the premise that any pathology department would have microscopes and computers with Internet connection, and selected a few elements to convert them into a telepathology station. Needs were reduced to a camera to collect images, a universal microscope adapter for the camera, a device to connect the camera to the computer, and a software for the remote image transmit. We found out a microscope adapter (MaxView Plus) that allowed us connect almost any domestic digital camera to any microscope. The video out signal from the camera was sent to the computer through an Aver Media USB connector. At last, we selected a group of portable applications that were assembled into a USB memory device. Portable applications are computer programs that can be carried generally on USB flash drives, but also in any other portable device, and used on any (Windows) computer without installation. Besides, when unplugging the device, none of personal data is left behind. We selected open-source applications, and based the pathology image transmission to VLC Media Player due to its functionality as streaming server, portability and ease of use and configuration. Audio transmission was usually done through normal phone lines. We also employed alternative videoconferencing software, SightSpeed for bi-directional image transmission from microscopes, and conventional cameras allowing visual communication and also image transmit from gross pathology specimens. All these elements allowed us to install and use a telepathology system in a few minutes, fully prepared for real time image broadcast.

  15. A Portable Passive Physiotherapeutic Exoskeleton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dasheek Naidu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The public healthcare system in South Africa is in need of urgent attention in no small part because there has been an escalation in the number of stroke victims which could be due to the increase in hypertension in this urbanizing society. There is a growing need for physiotherapists and occupational therapists in the country, which is further hindered by the division between urban and rural areas. A possible solution is a portable passive physiotherapeutic exoskeleton device. The exoskeleton device has been formulated to encapsulate methodologies that enable the anthropomorphic integration between a biological and mechatronic limb. A physiotherapeutic mechanism was designed to be portable and adjustable, without limiting the spherical motion and workspace of the human arm. The exoskeleton was designed to be portable in the sense that it could be transported geographically. It is a complete device allowing for motion in the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand joints. The inverse kinematics was solved iteratively via the Damped Least Squares (DLS method. The electronic and computer system allowed for professional personnel to either change an individual joint or a combination of joints angles via the kinematic models. A ramp PI controller was established to provide a smooth response to simulate the passive therapy motion.

  16. Portable radiography using linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    There are numerous instances where the availability of a portable high-energy radiography machine that could be transported to the inspection site with relative ease would save time, money, and make radiography of permanent installations, such as bridges, possible. One such machine, the Minac built by Schoenberg Radiation Inc., is commercially available. It operates at 9.3 GHz, has an electron energy on target of 3.5 MeV, and an output dose rate of 100 R/min. A second portable accelerator, recently completed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, operates at 2.998 GHz, has electron energies on target of 6, 8, and 10 MeV, and an output dose rate of 800 R/min at 8 MeV. This paper discusses the need for and applications of portable accelerators for radiography. Physical characteristics and beam parameters of both machines are examined in detail. Problems of operating at higher frequencies to further minimize size and weight are discussed

  17. Applicability and agreement of different diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia estimation in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagotto, Valéria; Silveira, Erika Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study cross-sectional study comprising 132 community dwelling elderly (≥ 60 years) was to identify sarcopenia prevalence in the Brazilian elderly, utilizing different diagnostic criteria and analyze agreement between criteria. Sarcopenia was assessed by nine muscle mass diagnostic criteria, by two muscle strength criteria and also by the combination of criteria. Prevalence was analyzed for each method, along with differences by gender and age group through calculation of the prevalence ratio (PR) and confidence interval (CI) 95%. The Kappa coefficient was used to analyze the level of agreement between all criteria. Sarcopenia prevalence varied between 60.6% and 8.3% with the application of muscle mass criteria, and between 54.2% and 48.8% with the application of strength criteria. The combination muscle mass+strength resulted in a decrease of prevalence in all criteria, varying between 36.6% and 6.1%. There was an increase in prevalence according to age groups for all methods. Prevalence was higher for men according to three muscle mass criteria, and higher in women for strength criteria and by two combined mass+strength criteria. The best level of agreement was obtained for two methods that utilized dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The prevalence of sarcopenia differs by gender and age and definition criteria. The low agreement levels obtained between methods and the different prevalence values encountered indicate the necessities of an operational definition for the estimation of sarcopenia in different population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The impacts of sarcopenia and obesity on physical performance in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ching-I; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Chan, Ding-Cheng; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Hsiung, Chao A; Hsu, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Ching-Yu

    2015-01-01

    The current definition of sarcopenic obesity in the elderly does not seem to take the ageing difference of body composition into sufficient consideration. The study accordingly attempted to better define sarcopenia/obesity based on various references, and the impacts of sarcopenia/obesity on elderly physical performance were also examined. 2629 elderly subjects (age ≧65) and 998 young adults were recruited for Sarcopenia and Translational Ageing Research in Taiwan (START). For each eligible subject, body composition was measured by bio-impedance analysis and physical performance, including upper and lower extremity function, was examined. The thresholds of sarcopenic obesity were defined as a value at two standard deviations from the gender-specific means of the young population or at the adopted value of our elderly population. Compared to the young adults, the elderly subjects reported a lower appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI, kg/m(2)) and a significantly higher fat percentage (%). From three different criteria, thresholds of obesity or sarcopenia were 31.41%, 30.16%, 30.64% (fat percentage) or 6.76kg/m(2), 7.36kg/m(2), 7.09kg/m(2) (ASMI) for men and 39.17%, 41.43%, 43.25% or 5.28kg/m(2), 5.74kg/m(2), 5.70kg/m(2) for women. The elderly subjects were classified into four groups. With covariates adjusted, the "sarcopenia only," "obesity only," and "sarcopenic obesity" elderly subjects were worse than their normal counterparts in physical performance (all pelderly physical performance. Body composition should be an essential part in geriatric assessment and elderly care. Copyright © 2014 Asian Oceanian Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidative stress is increased in sarcopenia and associated with cardiovascular disease risk in sarcopenic obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellanti, Francesco; Romano, Antonino D; Lo Buglio, Aurelio; Castriotta, Valeria; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Greco, Antonio; Serviddio, Gaetano; Vendemiale, Gianluigi

    2018-03-01

    To define whether circulating markers of oxidative stress correlate with sarcopenia in terms of glutathione balance and oxidative protein damage, and whether these biomarkers are associated with risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Population-based cross-sectional study. 115 out of 347 elderly subjects were classified as non-sarcopenic non-obese (NS-NO), sarcopenic non-obese (S-NO), non-sarcopenic obese (NS-O), and sarcopenic obese (S-O). Sarcopenia was defined as a relative skeletal muscle mass index (RASM) 27 for men or >38 for women. The CVD risk was estimated by the carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and the Framingham score. Blood reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), plasma malondialdehyde-(MDA) and 4-hydroxy-2,3-nonenal-(HNE) protein adducts were analyzed. Significantly greater blood GSSG/GSH ratio and plasma MDA/HNE protein adducts were observed in sarcopenic than in non-sarcopenic patients. A logistic regression model showed a close relationship between serum HNE and MDA adducts and sarcopenia (OR=1.133, 95% CI 1.057-1.215, and OR=1.592, 95% CI 1.015-1.991, respectively). Linear and logistic regression analysis evidenced strong associations between the IMT or the Framingham CVD risk category and blood GSSG/GSH or serum HNE protein adducts in the S-O group. Circulating markers of oxidative stress are increased in sarcopenia and related to CVD risk in sarcopenic obesity, suggesting that redox balance analysis would be a useful part of a multidimensional evaluation in aging. Further research is encouraged to support interventional strategies to correct redox imbalance, which might contribute to the prevention or at least limitation of sarcopenia and its co-morbidities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Is there a social gradient of sarcopenia? A meta-analysis and systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Darci; Duque, Gustavo; Fredman, Nick; Rizvi, Aoun; Brennan-Olsen, Sharon Lee

    2018-01-13

    Sarcopenia (or loss of muscle mass and function) is a relatively new area within the field of musculoskeletal research and medicine. Investigating whether there is a social gradient, including occupation type and income level, of sarcopenia, as observed for other diseases, will contribute significantly to the limited evidence base for this disease. This new information may inform the prevention and management of sarcopenia and widen the evidence base to support existing and future health campaigns. We will conduct a systematic search of the databases PubMed, Ovid, CINAHL, Scopus and EMBASE to identify articles that investigate associations between social determinants of health and sarcopenia in adults aged 50 years and older. Eligibility of the selected studies will be determined by two independent reviewers. The methodological quality of eligible studies will be assessed according to predetermined criteria. Established statistical methods to identify and control for heterogeneity will be used, and where appropriate, we will conduct a meta-analysis. In the event that heterogeneity prevents numerical synthesis, a best evidence analysis will be employed. This systematic review protocol adheres to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols reporting guidelines and will be registered with the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO). This systematic review will use published data, thus ethical permissions will not be required. In addition to peer-reviewed publication, our results will be presented at (inter)national conferences relevant to the field of sarcopenia, ageing and/or musculoskeletal health and disseminated both electronically and in print. CRD42017072253. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Sarcopenia in older mice is characterized by a decreased anabolic response to a protein meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Miriam; Nagel, Jolanda; Dijk, Francina J; Salles, Jerôme; Verlaan, Sjors; Walrand, Stephane; van Norren, Klaske; Luiking, Yvette

    Ageing is associated with sarcopenia, a progressive decline of skeletal muscle mass, muscle quality and muscle function. Reduced sensitivity of older muscles to respond to anabolic stimuli, i.e. anabolic resistance, is part of the underlying mechanisms. Although, muscle parameters have been studied in mice of various ages/strains; the aim was to study if mice display similar deteriorating processes as human ageing. Therefore, 10,16,21 and 25 months-old C57BL6/6J male mice were studied to measure parameters of sarcopenia and factors contributing to its pathophysiology, with the aim of characterizing sarcopenia in old mice. Muscle mass of the hind limb was lower in 25 as compared to 10 month-old mice. A significant decrease in physical daily activity, muscle grip strength and ex vivo muscle maximal force production was observed in 25 compared to 10 month-old mice. The muscle anabolic response to a single protein meal showed increased muscle protein synthesis in young, but not in old mice, indicative to anabolic resistance. However, by increasing the protein content in meals, anabolic resistance could be overcome, similar as in human elderly. Additionally, aged mice showed higher fasted insulin and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (=marker oxidative stress). This study shows clear characteristics of sarcopenia that coincide with anabolic resistance, insulin resistance and oxidative stress in 25 month-old C57/BL6 male mice, similar to human ageing. Furthermore, similar decline in muscle mass, strength and function was observed in this aged-mice-model. These observations offer potential for the future to explore in old mice the effects of interventions targeting sarcopenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of Different Diagnostic Criteria on the Prevalence of Sarcopenia in Healthy Elderly Participants and Geriatric Outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijnierse, Esmee M; Trappenburg, Marijke C; Leter, Morena J; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Sipilä, Sarianna; Sillanpää, Elina; Narici, Marco V; Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Butler-Browne, Gillian; McPhee, Jamie S; Gapeyeva, Helena; Pääsuke, Mati; de van der Schueren, Marian A E; Meskers, Carel G M; Maier, Andrea B

    2015-01-01

    A consensus on the diagnostic criteria for sarcopenia, a common syndrome in the elderly, has not been reached yet. Prevalence rates vary between studies due to the use of different criteria encompassing different measures, correction factors and cutoff points. This study compared prevalence rates of sarcopenia using nine sets of diagnostic criteria applied in two different elderly populations. The study population encompassed 308 healthy elderly participants (152 males, 156 females; mean age 74 years) and 123 geriatric outpatients (54 males, 69 females; mean age 81 years). Diagnostic criteria included relative muscle mass, absolute muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance. Prevalence rates of sarcopenia varied between 0 and 15% in healthy elderly participants and between 2 and 34% in geriatric outpatients. This study clearly demonstrates the dependency of sarcopenia prevalence rates on the applied diagnostic criteria. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Indicators of sarcopenia and their relation to intrinsic and extrinsic factors relating to falls among active elderly women

    OpenAIRE

    Rossetin, Liliana Laura; Rodrigues, Elisangela Valevein; Gallo, Luiza Herminia; Macedo, Darla Silvério; Schieferdecker, Maria Eliana Madalozzo; Pintarelli, Vitor Last; Rabito, Estela Iraci; Gomes, Anna Raquel Silveira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Musculoskeletal aging can impair functional performance increasing the risk of falls. Objective: To analyze the correlation between sarcopenia and the intrinsic and extrinsic factors involved in falls among community-dwelling elderly women. Method: A cross-sectional study evaluated the number of falls of 85 active community-dwelling elderly women in the previous year and then divided them into two groups: non-fallers (n=61) and fallers (n=24). The sarcopenia indic...

  4. Insulinotropic and Muscle Protein Synthetic Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acids: Potential Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes and Sarcopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Darren G. Candow; Scott C. Forbes; Jonathan P. Little; Ralph J. Manders

    2012-01-01

    The loss of muscle mass and strength with aging (i.e., sarcopenia) has a negative effect on functional independence and overall quality of life. One main contributing factor to sarcopenia is the reduced ability to increase skeletal muscle protein synthesis in response to habitual feeding, possibly due to a reduction in postprandial insulin release and an increase in insulin resistance. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), primarily leucine, increases the activation of pathways involved in muscl...

  5. The Challenge of Appropriate Identification and Treatment of Starvation, Sarcopenia, and Cachexia: A Survey of Australian Dietitians

    OpenAIRE

    Yaxley, Alison; Miller, Michelle D.

    2011-01-01

    Malnutrition is an umbrella term that includes starvation, sarcopenia, and cachexia; however, differentiating between these terms is infrequent in clinical practice. Given that the effectiveness of treatment depends on the aetiology of unintentional weight loss, it is important that clinicians are aware of the defining characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine whether Australian dietitians understand and use the terms starvation, sarcopenia, and cachexia and provide targeted tre...

  6. An animal model of co-existing sarcopenia and osteoporotic fracture in senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ning; Chow, Simon Kwoon Ho; Leung, Kwok Sui; Lee, Ho Hin; Cheung, Wing Hoi

    2017-10-15

    Sarcopenia and osteoporotic fracture are common aging-related musculoskeletal problems. Recent evidences report that osteoporotic fracture patients showed high prevalence of sarcopenia; however, current clinical practice basically does not consider sarcopenia in the treatment or rehabilitation of osteoporotic fracture. There is almost no report studying the relationship of the co-existing of sarcopenia and osteoporotic fracture healing. In this study, we validated aged senescence accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) and senescence accelerated mouse resistant 1 (SAMR1) as animal models of senile osteoporosis with/without sarcopenia. Bone mineral density (BMD) at the 5th lumbar and muscle testing of the two animal strains were measured to confirm the status of osteoporosis and sarcopenia, respectively. Closed fracture was created on the right femur of 8-month-old animals. Radiographs were taken weekly post-fracture. MicroCT and histology of the fractured femur were performed at week 2, 4 and 6 post-fracture, while mechanical test of both femora at week 4 and 6 post-fracture. Results showed that the callus of SAMR1 was significantly larger at week 2 but smaller at week 6 post-fracture than SAMP8. Mechanical properties were significantly better at week 4 post-fracture in SAMR1 than SAMP8, indicating osteoporotic fracture healing was delayed in sarcopenic SAMP8. This study validated an animal model of co-existing sarcopenia and osteoporotic fracture, where a delayed fracture healing might be resulted in the presence of sarcopenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A cross-sectional study of sarcopenia in Japanese men and women: reference values and association with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, K; Miyachi, M; Tanimoto, M; Yamamoto, K; Murakami, H; Okumura, S; Gando, Y; Suzuki, K; Tabata, I; Higuchi, M

    2010-09-01

    In this study of Japanese men and women, we determine reference values for sarcopenia and test the hypothesis that sarcopenia is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, independent of waist circumference. A total of 1,488 Japanese men and women aged 18-85 years participated in this study. Appendicular muscle mass (AMM) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Reference values for classes 1 and 2 sarcopenia (skeletal muscle index: AMM/height2, kg m-2) in each sex were defined as values one and two standard deviations below the sex-specific means of reference values obtained in this study from young adults aged 18-40 years. The reference values for class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia were 7.77 and 6.87 kg m-2 in men and 6.12 and 5.46 kg m-2 in women. In subjects both with class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia, body mass index and % body fat were significantly lower than in normal subjects. Despite whole-blood glycohaemoglobin A1c in men with class 1 sarcopenia was significantly higher than in normal subjects, and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in women both with class 1 and class 2 sarcopenia were significantly higher than in normal subjects, using one-way ANCOVA with adjustment for the covariate of waist circumference. Although sarcopenia is associated with thin body mass, it is associated with more glycation of serum proteins in men and with greater arterial stiffness in women, independent of waist circumference.

  8. Sarcopenia as a Risk Factor for Cognitive Deterioration in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A 1-Year Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiguchi, Shu; Yamada, Minoru; Shirooka, Hidehiko; Nozaki, Yuma; Fukutani, Naoto; Tashiro, Yuto; Hirata, Hinako; Yamaguchi, Moe; Tasaka, Seishiro; Matsushita, Tomofumi; Matsubara, Keisuke; Tsuboyama, Tadao; Aoyama, Tomoki

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this 1-year prospective study was to determine whether sarcopenia is an independent risk factor of cognitive deterioration in community-dwelling older adults. One-year prospective study. Japanese community. A total of 131 community-dwelling older adults aged 65 years and older participated in this study. We defined sarcopenia using the diagnostic algorithm recommended by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia, and the participants were classified into the sarcopenia and normal groups according to this definition. The participants' cognitive functions were assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) during pre- and postdata collection (after 1 year). The rate of change in pre- and post-MMSE scores during the follow-up term was significantly different between the 2 groups (normal group, -0.32 ± 8.39%; sarcopenia group, -5.86 ± 5.16%; P = .002). The analysis of covariance, adjusted for demographic data and the pre-MMSE scores, showed a significant change in the MMSE scores between the normal and sarcopenia group (F = 9.30, P = .003). Furthermore, in the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the cognitive function was significantly more likely to deteriorate (defined as a loss of at least 2 points of MMSE) in the sarcopenia group during the follow-up term (odds ratio: 7.86, 95% confidence interval: 1.53-40.5). Sarcopenia was identified as an independent risk factor of cognitive deterioration in community-dwelling older adults during the 1-year study period. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of portable HPGe spectrometer for in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kail Artjoms

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In situ applications require a very high level of portability of high-resolution spectrometric equipment. Usage of HPGe detectors for radioactivity measurements in the environment or for nuclear safeguard applications, to combat illicit trafficking of nuclear materials or uranium and plutonium monitoring in nuclear wastes, has become a norm in the recent years. Portable HPGe-based radionuclide spectrometer with electrical cooling has lately appeared on the market for in situ applications. At the same time deterioration of energy resolution associated with vibrations produced by cryocooler or high weight of the instrument, short time of autonomous operation and high price of these spectrometers are limiting their usage in many cases. In this paper we present development results of ultra compact hand held all-in-one spectrometer for in situ measurements based on HPGe detector cooled by liquid nitrogen without listing the above disadvantages.

  10. Prevalence of sarcopenia in a population of nursing home residents according to their frailty status: results of the SENIOR cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckinx, F.; Reginster, J-Y.; Brunois, T.; Lenaerts, C.; Beaudart, C.; Croisier, J-L.; Petermans, J.; Bruyère, O.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between frailty and sarcopenia, by evaluating the prevalence of sarcopenia among frail, pre-frail and robust elderly nursing home residents in Belgium. Methods: This is an analysis of baseline data collected from the SENIOR (Sample of Elderly Nursing home Individuals: an Observational Research) cohort. All subjects received a sarcopenia evaluation, based on the definition proposed by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). The frailty evaluation was primarily based on FRIED’s definition but also on 9 other operational definitions. Results: A total of 662 subjects (73.1% of women) were included in this analysis (mean age: 83.2±8.99 years). The prevalence of sarcopenia was 38.1% whereas the prevalence of frail and pre-frail persons was respectively 24.7% and 61.4%. Among frail, pre-frail and robust subjects, respectively 47%, 38.9% and 16.3% were diagnosed sarcopenic. The prevalence of sarcopenia according to ten different operational definitions of frailty ranged between 32.8 % (i.e. Frail scale Status and Frailty Index) and 47% (i.e. Fried definition). Conclusion: This research highlights that over a third of nursing home residents are sarcopenic and the percentage is almost 50% among frail subjects; those latter constitute about 1 in 4 of the population of nursing home residents studied here. PMID:28860423

  11. The Challenge of Appropriate Identification and Treatment of Starvation, Sarcopenia, and Cachexia: A Survey of Australian Dietitians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Yaxley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is an umbrella term that includes starvation, sarcopenia, and cachexia; however, differentiating between these terms is infrequent in clinical practice. Given that the effectiveness of treatment depends on the aetiology of unintentional weight loss, it is important that clinicians are aware of the defining characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine whether Australian dietitians understand and use the terms starvation, sarcopenia, and cachexia and provide targeted treatment strategies accordingly. Members of the Dietitians Association of Australia were surveyed to gain information on practices and attitudes to diagnosis and treatment of adult malnutrition. In addition, three case studies were provided to examine understanding of starvation, sarcopenia, and cachexia. 221 dietitians accessed the survey. 81 respondents (43% indicated the use of at least one alternate term (starvation, sarcopenia, and/or cachexia. Muscle wasting was the most commonly used diagnostic criterion. High-energy high-protein diet was the most common therapy prescribed. Correct diagnoses for case studies were recorded by 6% of respondents for starvation, 46% for sarcopenia, and 21% for cachexia. There is a need for increased awareness of the existence of starvation, sarcopenia, and cachexia amongst Australian dietitians and research into appropriate methods of identification and treatment for each condition.

  12. Association of sarcopenia with both latent autoimmune diabetes in adults and type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchi, Ryotaro; Fukuda, Tatsuya; Takeuchi, Takato; Nakano, Yujiro; Murakami, Masanori; Minami, Isao; Izumiyama, Hajime; Hashimoto, Koshi; Yoshimoto, Takanobu; Ogawa, Yoshihiro

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the association of both latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with muscle mass and function (sarcopenia). Japanese patients with LADA (N=20), T2DM (N=208), and control subjects (N=41) were included in this cross-sectional study. The definition of LADA was based on age of onset (≥30), positive glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies, and insulin requirement within the first 6months after diagnosis. Sarcopenia was diagnosed by the criteria for Asians, using skeletal muscle index (male sarcopenia was higher in LADA (35.0%) than in either T2DM (13.3%) or control subjects (9.8%). LADA was significantly associated with an increased risk for sarcopenia in a multivariate model in which age and body mass index were incorporated (OR: 9.57, 95% CI: 1.86-49.27). In contrast, T2DM tended to be associated with an increased risk for sarcopenia (OR: 2.99, 95% CI: 0.83-10.80). This study provides evidence that patients with LADA are at a high risk for sarcopenia compared to those with T2DM or to control subjects. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Current review of the SarQoL®: a health-related quality of life questionnaire specific to sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudart, Charlotte; Reginster, Jean-Yves; Geerinck, Anton; Locquet, Médéa; Bruyère, Olivier

    2017-08-01

    Sarcopenia, defined by a progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and muscle function, is associated with many harmful clinical consequences. Several studies have reported the impact of sarcopenia on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) using generic quality of life (QoL) questionnaires. The results of these observational studies are quite heterogenous. Indeed, generic tools may not be able to detect subtle effects of sarcopenia on QoL. Recently, a sarcopenia-specific HRQoL questionnaire was developed and validated in a population of sarcopenic subjects to more accurately assess the impact of sarcopenia on QoL. Areas covered: The purpose of this review is to present evidence regarding the impact of sarcopenia on QoL and to introduce a new specific HRQoL questionnaire, the SarQoL®. Expert commentary: The self-administered SarQoL®, initially developed in French, comprises 55 items translated into 22 questions. The questionnaire has been shown to be understandable, valid, consistent, and reliable and can therefore be recommended for clinical and research purposes. The questionnaire is now available in 11 different languages with another 20 translations in progress. The instrument's sensitivity to change still needs to be assessed in future longitudinal studies.

  14. Association between Sarcopenia and Dipstick Proteinuria in the Elderly Population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009–2011

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang, Duna; Cho, Mi-Ryung; Choi, Minyong; Lee, Sang Hyun; Park, Youngmin

    2017-01-01

    Background Sarcopenia and proteinuria are significant health difficulties in the elderly; however, few studies have investigated their relationship. In this study, we investigated the association between sarcopenia and proteinuria in Korean subjects over 60 years old. Methods We included data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey conducted from 2009 to 2011 (n=4,008). Sarcopenia was defined using appendicular skel...

  15. Telepositional portable real time radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talpalariu, Jeni; Matei, Corina; Popescu, Oana

    2010-01-01

    Technology development for complex portable networks is on going to meet the area dosimetry challenge, improving the basic design using new telepositional GPS satellite methods and GSM terrestrial civil radio transmission networks. The system and devices proposed overcome the limitations of fixed and portable dosimeters, providing wireless real time radiations data and geospatial information's means, using many portable dosimeter stations and a mobile dosimeter computerised central console. (authors)

  16. Living in a box or call of the wild? Revisiting lifetime inactivity and sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, John M; Hindle, Allyson

    2011-11-01

    The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In addition, aging shrews displayed a remarkable ability to

  17. Living in a Box or Call of the Wild? Revisiting Lifetime Inactivity and Sarcopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Significance The accepted effects of aging in mammalian skeletal muscle are progressive atrophy and weakening, or sarcopenia. Canonical hallmarks of aging in skeletal muscle include a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area, a loss in muscle fibers through apoptosis and denervation, and infiltration of connective tissue or fibrosis. Emerging thought suggests that pro-inflammatory signaling and oxidative stress may contribute to sarcopenia. Critical Issues Unfortunately, most of the mammalian models used to examine and understand sarcopenia are confounded by the pervasive influence of prolonged physical inactivity. Further, the potential for underlying metabolic disorder and chronic disease (e.g., type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease) may accelerate skeletal muscle wasting. Because physical inactivity may share elevated pro-inflammatory (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and inducible nitric oxide synthase) and insufficient stress response (insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], heat-shock protein 25 [HSP25], NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-3 [SIRT-3], and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1[PGC-1α]) signaling with aging and chronic disease, it is critical to distinguish true aging from chronic inactivity or underlying disease. Conversely, the efficacy of exercise and caloric restrictive interventions against sarcopenia in aging populations appears highly effective when (a) conducted across the lifespan, or (b) at higher intensities when commenced in middle age or later. Recent Advances While the prospective mechanisms by which exercise or daily activity provide have not been elucidated, upregulation of HSPs, PGC-1α, and IGF-1 may ameliorate inflammatory signaling, apoptosis, and sarcopenia. Limited data indicate that the aging phenotype exhibited by mammals living in their natural habitat (Weddell seal and shrews) express limited apoptosis and fiber atrophy, whereas significant collagen accumulation remains. In

  18. Forcing the vicious circle: sarcopenia increases toxicity, decreases response to chemotherapy and worsens with chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzetti, F

    2017-09-01

    Sarcopenia has recently emerged as a new condition that, independently from malnutrition, may adversely affect the prognosis of cancer patients. Purpose of this narrative review is to define the prevalence of sarcopenia in different primaries, its role in leading to chemotherapy toxicity and decreased compliance with the oncological therapy and the effect of some drugs on the onset of sarcopenia. Finally, the review aims to describe the current approaches to restore the muscle mass through nutrition, exercise and anti-inflammatory agents or multimodal programmes with a special emphasis on the results of randomized controlled trials. The examination of the computed tomography scan at the level of the third lumbar vertebra-a common procedure for staging many tumours-has allowed the oncologist to evaluate the muscle mass and to collect many retrospective data on the prevalence of sarcopenia and its clinical consequences. Sarcopenia is a condition affecting a high percentage of patients with a range depending on type of primary tumour and stage of disease. It is noteworthy that patients may be sarcopenic even if their nutritional status is apparently maintained or they are obese. Sarcopenic patients exhibited higher chemotherapy toxicity and poorer compliance with oncological treatments. Furthermore, several antineoplastic drugs appeared to worsen the sarcopenic status. Therapeutic approaches are several and this review will focus on those validated by randomized controlled trials. They include the use of ω-3-enriched oral nutritional supplements and orexigenic agents, the administration of adequate high-protein regimens delivered enterally or parenterally, and programmes of physical exercise. Better results are expected combining different procedures in a multimodal approach. In conclusion, there are several premises to prevent/treat sarcopenia. The oncologist should coordinate this multimodal approach by selecting priorities and sequences of treatments and then

  19. Association of Dynapenia, Sarcopenia, and Cognitive Impairment Among Community-Dwelling Older Taiwanese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Yu; Hwang, An-Chun; Liu, Li-Kuo; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chen, Liang-Yu; Peng, Li-Ning; Lin, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-02-01

    A decline in physical and/or cognitive function is a common feature of aging, and frailty has been shown to be associated with cognitive impairment and dementia. This study aimed to evaluate the association between dynapenia, sarcopenia, and cognitive impairment among community-dwelling older people in Taiwan. Data from the I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study (ILAS) were retrieved for study. Global cognitive function was assessed by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), whereas the Chinese Version Verbal Learning Test, Boston Naming Test, Verbal Fluency Test, Taylor Complex Figure Test, Digits Backward Test, and Clock Drawing Test were used to assess different domains of cognitive function. Association between sarcopenia and global cognitive function as well as all different dimensions of cognitive function were evaluated. Data from 731 elderly participants (mean age 73.4 ± 5.4 years, 53.8% males) were used for study analysis. The overall prevalence of sarcopenia was 6.8%, which was significantly higher in men (9.3% versus 4.1%, p < 0.05). The mean MMSE score was 23.4 ± 4.4 for all participants, and 10.3% of the study participants were cognitively impaired. Sarcopenia was not significantly associated with global cognitive function (odds ratio [OR] = 1.55, p = 0.317), but global cognitive impairment was significantly associated with low physical performance (OR = 2.31, p = 0.003) and low muscle strength (OR = 2.59, p = 0.011). Nonetheless, sarcopenia was significantly associated with impairment in the verbal fluency test (OR = 3.96, p = 0.006) after adjustment for potential confounders. Dynapenia was significantly associated with cognitive impairment in multiple dimensions and global cognitive function, but sarcopenia was only associated with an impaired verbal fluency test. Reduced muscle strength and/or physical performance related to non-muscle etiology were strongly associated with cognitive impairment. More longitudinal

  20. Jump test performance and sarcopenia status in men and women, 55 to 75 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harshvardhan; Kim, Daeyeol; Kim, Eonho; Bemben, Michael G; Anderson, Mark; Seo, Dong-Il; Bemben, Debra A

    2014-01-01

    Jumping mechanography uses maximal countermovement jumps to test obtain such as jump power (JPow). Recently, it has been shown to be a safe method for assessing muscle function in older adults; however, little is known about the relationships between JPow, muscle strength, and sarcopenia status. The purpose of this study was to examine jump performance, muscle strength, and sarcopenia status in older adults. This was a cross-sectional study that included men (n = 27) and women (n = 33) (55-75 years) recruited from the general community. Participants completed health status and physical activity questionnaires. Body composition, including appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), bone free lean body mass, and relative skeletal muscle mass index, were assessed by total body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans. The criteria for sarcopenia were relative skeletal muscle mass index values less than 7.26 kg/m2 for men and less than 5.45 kg/m2 for women. Three vertical jumps on a jump mat were performed to assess JPow, jump velocity (JVel), and jump height (JHt). Muscle strength was measured by 1RM testing for leg press (LP) and right and left hip abduction isotonic resistance exercises. Sarcopenia was found in 20% (12/60) of the participants. Jump power was significantly lower (P = .001) in the sarcopenia group than in the normal group, 651.1 (41.7) W versus 851.0 (27.4) W, respectively. Jump power and JHt were significantly (P mass. Significant (P muscle strength (LP, right and left hip abduction). The jump test protocol was conducted safely with no injuries or balance issues. Our finding of lower JPow in sarcopenic individuals adds new information to the existing literature on age-related declines in muscle power. Community-dwelling individuals classified as sarcopenic had significantly lower JPow but not muscle strength compared with their counterparts with normal amounts of muscle mass. Jump test variables were positively correlated with lean tissue and lower body

  1. Portable compact multifunction IR calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, C.L.; Jacobsen, L.; Steed, A.

    1988-01-01

    A compact portable multifunction calibrator designed for future sensor systems is described which enables a linearity calibration for all detectors simultaneously using a near small-area source, a high-resolution mapping of the focal plane with 10 microrad setability and with a blur of less than 100 microrad, system spectral response calibration (radiometer) using a Michelson interferometer source, relative spectral response (spectrometer) using high-temperature external commercial blackbody simulators, and an absolute calibration using an internal low-temperature extended-area source. 5 references

  2. Portable laboratories for radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damljanovic, D.; Smelcerovic, M.; Koturovic, A.; Drndarevic, V.; Sobajic, M.

    1989-01-01

    The portable radiometric laboratories LARA-10, LARA-GS, LARA-86 and ALARA-10 designed, developed and produced at the Boris Kidric Institute are described. Earlier models (LARA-1, LARA-1D, LARA-2 and LARA-5) are presented in brief. The basic characteristics of the devices and methods of measurements are given. All the instruments are battery operated and almost all can also use 220V/50Hz supply. They are a very suitable facility for radiological monitoring of soil, water, food, clothes etc., when working in field conditions (author)

  3. Portable counter for geological research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, O J

    1949-05-01

    A portable counter which has been developed for prospecting for radio-active uranium and thorium minerals, for general geological investigations, and as an ultra-sensitive detector of lost or mislaid radium, is described. The aforementioned general usage includes the identification of changes in strata by means of the investigation of the slight amount of residual activity pressent in most minerals. The apparatus, which consists essentially of a scaled-down version of a standard laboratory Geiger-Muller counter, is highly sensitive since a variation equivalent to 4% of the cosmic ray background can be detected by a three-minute count.

  4. Portable X-Ray Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Portable x-ray instrument developed by NASA now being produced commercially as an industrial tool may soon find further utility as a medical system. The instrument is Lixiscope - Low Intensity X-Ray Imaging Scope -- a self-contained, battery-powered fluoroscope that produces an instant image through use of a small amount of radioactive isotope. Originally developed by Goddard Space Flight Center, Lixiscope is now being produced by Lixi, Inc. which has an exclusive NASA license for one version of the device.

  5. NRC licensing criteria for portable radwaste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, J.J. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The shortcomings of various components of the liquid and solid radwaste systems at nuclear power reactors has resulted in the contracting of the functions performed by these systems to various contractors who utilize portable equipment. In addition, some streams, for which treatment was not originally anticipated, have been processed by portable equipment. The NRC criteria applicable to portable liquid and solid radwaste systems is presented along with discussion on what is required to provide an adequate 10 CFR Part 50.59 review for those situations where changes are made to an existing system. The criteria the NRC is considering for facilities which may intend to utilize portable incinerators is also presented

  6. Portable Weather Intelligence for the Soldier

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sauter, David

    2008-01-01

    Enhancements in computer hardware and software technology have allowed the development and porting of advanced environmental effects applications on highly portable lightweight computing devices. The U.S...

  7. Portable digital electronic radiography system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawicka, B.D.

    1995-01-01

    Radiography is a standard nondestructive technique in the industrial testing of materials and components. It is routinely used during the construction, maintenance and repair of nuclear plants. Traditionally, radiography is performed using photographic film (film radiography, FR). Recent developments in solid-state area imaging radiation detectors, miniature electronics and computer software/hardware techniques have brought electronic alternatives to FR. In recent years various electronic radiography (ER) techniques have served as alternatives to FR, these proved beneficial in some applications. While originally developed to provide real time imaging, ER may offer other advantages over FR, depending on the application. Work was undertaken at CRL to review progress in ER techniques and evaluate the possibility of constructing a portable DER (digital electronic radiography) system, for the inspection of power plant components. A suitable DER technique has been developed and a proof of principle portable system constructed. As this paper demonstrates, a properly designed ER system can be small and compact, while providing radiographic examination with acceptable image quality and the benefits of ER imaging. The CRL DER system can operate with radioactive sources typical of FR. While it does not replace FR, our DER system is expected to be beneficial in specific applications for Candu maintenance, reducing cost, labour and time. Practical, cost saving applications of this system are expected to include valve monitoring and foreign object location during maintenance at Candu reactors

  8. A portable neutron coincidence counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peurrung, A.J.; Bowyer, S.M.; Craig, R.A.; Dudder, G.B.; Knopf, M.A.; Panisko, M.E.; Reeder, P.L.; Stromswold, D.C.; Sunberg, D.S.

    1996-11-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has designed and constructed a prototype portable neutron coincidence counter intended for use in a variety of applications, such as the verification and inspection of weapons components, safety measurements for novel and challenging situations, portable portal deployment to prevent the transportation of fissile materials, uranium enrichment measurements in hard-to-reach locations, waste assays for objects that cannot be measured by existing measurement systems, and decontamination and decommissioning. The counting system weighs less than 40 kg and is composed of parts each weighing no more than 5 kg. In addition, the counter`s design is sufficiently flexible to allow rapid, reliable assembly around containers of nearly arbitrary size and shape. The counter is able to discern the presence of 1 kg of weapons-grade plutonium within an ALR-8 (30-gal drum) in roughly 100 seconds and 10 g in roughly 1000 seconds. The counter`s electronics are also designed for maximum adaptability, allowing operation under a wide variety of circumstances, including exposure to gamma-ray fields of 1 R/h. This report provides a detailed review of the design and construction process. Finally, preliminary experimental measurements that confirm the performance capabilities of this counter are discussed. 6 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Portable electrocardiograph through android application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Oliveira, Igor H; Cene, V H; Balbinot, A

    2015-01-01

    An electrocardiograph was designed and implemented, being capable of obtaining electrical signals from the heart, and sending this data via Bluetooth to a tablet, in which the signals are graphically shown. The user interface is developed as an Android application. Because of the technological progress and the increasing use of full portable systems, such as tablets and cell phones, it is important to understand the functioning and development of an application, which provides a basis for conducting studies using this technology as an interface. The project development includes concepts of electronics and its application to achieve a portable and functional final project, besides using a specific programmable integrated circuit for electrocardiogram, electroencephalogram and electromyogram, the ADS1294. Using a simulator of cardiac signals, 36 different waveforms were recorded, including normal sinus rhythm, arrhythmias and artifacts. Simulations include variations of heart rate from 30 to 190 beats per minute (BPM), with variations in peak amplitude of 1 mV to 2 mV. Tests were performed with a subject at rest and in motion, observing the signals obtained and the damage to their interpretation due to the introduction of muscle movement artifacts in motion situations.

  10. A portable accelerator control toolkit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, W.A. III

    1997-06-01

    In recent years, the expense of creating good control software has led to a number of collaborative efforts among laboratories to share this cost. The EPICS collaboration is a particularly successful example of this trend. More recently another collaborative effort has addressed the need for sophisticated high level software, including model driven accelerator controls. This work builds upon the CDEV (Common DEVice) software framework, which provides a generic abstraction of a control system, and maps that abstraction onto a number of site-specific control systems including EPICS, the SLAC control system, CERN/PS and others. In principle, it is now possible to create portable accelerator control applications which have no knowledge of the underlying and site-specific control system. Applications based on CDEV now provide a growing suite of tools for accelerator operations, including general purpose displays, an on-line accelerator model, beamline steering, machine status displays incorporating both hardware and model information (such as beam positions overlaid with beta functions) and more. A survey of CDEV compatible portable applications will be presented, as well as plans for future development.

  11. Portable Health Algorithms Test System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Kevin J.; Wong, Edmond; Fulton, Christopher E.; Sowers, Thomas S.; Maul, William A.

    2010-01-01

    A document discusses the Portable Health Algorithms Test (PHALT) System, which has been designed as a means for evolving the maturity and credibility of algorithms developed to assess the health of aerospace systems. Comprising an integrated hardware-software environment, the PHALT system allows systems health management algorithms to be developed in a graphical programming environment, to be tested and refined using system simulation or test data playback, and to be evaluated in a real-time hardware-in-the-loop mode with a live test article. The integrated hardware and software development environment provides a seamless transition from algorithm development to real-time implementation. The portability of the hardware makes it quick and easy to transport between test facilities. This hard ware/software architecture is flexible enough to support a variety of diagnostic applications and test hardware, and the GUI-based rapid prototyping capability is sufficient to support development execution, and testing of custom diagnostic algorithms. The PHALT operating system supports execution of diagnostic algorithms under real-time constraints. PHALT can perform real-time capture and playback of test rig data with the ability to augment/ modify the data stream (e.g. inject simulated faults). It performs algorithm testing using a variety of data input sources, including real-time data acquisition, test data playback, and system simulations, and also provides system feedback to evaluate closed-loop diagnostic response and mitigation control.

  12. A portable accelerator control toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, W.A. III.

    1997-01-01

    In recent years, the expense of creating good control software has led to a number of collaborative efforts among laboratories to share this cost. The EPICS collaboration is a particularly successful example of this trend. More recently another collaborative effort has addressed the need for sophisticated high level software, including model driven accelerator controls. This work builds upon the CDEV (Common DEVice) software framework, which provides a generic abstraction of a control system, and maps that abstraction onto a number of site-specific control systems including EPICS, the SLAC control system, CERN/PS and others. In principle, it is now possible to create portable accelerator control applications which have no knowledge of the underlying and site-specific control system. Applications based on CDEV now provide a growing suite of tools for accelerator operations, including general purpose displays, an on-line accelerator model, beamline steering, machine status displays incorporating both hardware and model information (such as beam positions overlaid with beta functions) and more. A survey of CDEV compatible portable applications will be presented, as well as plans for future development

  13. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  14. Effects of a Vitamin D and Leucine-Enriched Whey Protein Nutritional Supplement on Measures of Sarcopenia in Older Adults, the PROVIDE Study: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bauer, J.M.; Verlaan, S.; Bautmans, I.; Brandt, K.; Donini, L.M.; Maggio, M.; McMurdo, M.E.T.; Mets, T.; Seal, C.; Wijers, S.L.; Ceda, G.P.; De Vito, G.; Donders, G.; Drey, M.; Greig, C.; Holmback, U.; Narici, M.; McPhee, J.; Poggiogalle, E.; Power, D.; Scafoglieri, A.; Schultz, R.; Sieber, C.C.; Cederholm, T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-related losses of muscle mass, strength, and function (sarcopenia) pose significant threats to physical performance, independence, and quality of life. Nutritional supplementation could positively influence aspects of sarcopenia and thereby prevent mobility disability. Objective: To

  15. Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation of the Spanish-Language Version of the SARC-F to Assess Sarcopenia in Mexican Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Rodríguez, Lorena; Szlejf, Claudia; García-González, Ana Isabel; Malmstrom, Theodore K; Cruz-Arenas, Esteban; Rosas-Carrasco, Oscar

    2016-12-01

    To cross-culturally adapt and validate the Spanish-language version of the SARC-F in Mexican community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional analysis of a prospective cohort. The FraDySMex study, a 2-round evaluation of community-dwelling adults from 2 municipalities in Mexico City. Participants were 487 men and women older than 60 years, living in the designated area in Mexico City. Information from questionnaires regarding demographic characteristics, comorbidities, mental status, nutritional status, dependence in activities of daily living, frailty, and quality of life. Objective measurements of muscle mass, strength and function were as follows: skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) was taken using dual-energy x-ray, grip strength using a hand dynamometer, 6-meter gait speed using a GAIT Rite instrumented walkway, peak torque and power for knee extension using a isokinetic dynamometer, lower extremity functioning measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and balance using evaluation on a foam surface, with closed eyes, in the Modified Clinical Test of Sensory Integration. The SARC-F scale translated to Spanish and the consensus panels' criteria from European, international, and Asian sarcopenia working groups were applied to evaluate sarcopenia. The Spanish language version of the SARC-F scale showed reliability (Cronbach alfa = 0.641. All items in the scale correlated to the scale's total score, rho = 0.43 to 0.76), temporal consistency evaluated by test-retest (CCI = 0.80), criterion validity when compared to the consensus panels' criteria (high specificity and negative predictive values). The scale was also correlated to other measures related to sarcopenia (such as age, quality of life, self-rated health status, cognition, dependence in activities of daily living, nutritional status, depression, gait speed, grip strength, peak torque and power for knee extension, SPPB, balance, SMI, and frailty). The SARC-F scale was successfully adapted to

  16. Physical frailty, sarcopenia, and the enablement of autonomy: philosophical issues in geriatric medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasimme, Alessandro

    2017-02-01

    Physical frailty and loss of muscular mass (sarcopenia) are believed to be predictors of age-related conditions, such as disability and loss of autonomy. In this paper, I show that what in political and moral philosophy has come to be known as "the capability approach" may indeed provide much needed conceptual clarification in the area of frailty research. Other than being useful at the theoretical level, the capability approach can definitely help in the implementation of clinical guidelines and public health measures aimed at translating the results that are accumulating from frailty research. I will first briefly review the main philosophical tenets of the capability approach, and then analyze how they relate to current debates about frailty and sarcopenia by introducing the notion of "enablement". Finally, I will show how my analysis bears on both clinical research in this domain and public policy aimed at tackling some of the age-related issues in an aging society.

  17. Accuracy of Body Mass Index Versus Lean Mass Index for Prediction of Sarcopenia in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, M J; Silva-Smith, A L

    2018-01-01

    We compared accuracy of body mass index (BMI) versus lean mass index (LMI) to predict sarcopenia in 58 community-dwelling women (74.1±0.9 years). Lean mass was measured with multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis, and strength was measured with Arm Curl test, Chair Stand test, and handgrip dynamometry. Sarcopenia was defined as low LMI. When categorized by BMI, normal women had less absolute lean mass (37.6±1.0 vs. 42.6±0.9 kg; Plean mass (14.1±0.2 vs. 16.1±0.2 kg/m2; Plean mass (44.0±0.7 vs. 35.7±0.7 kg; Plean mass (16.2±0.2 vs. 13.8±0.2 kg/m2; Plean mass and strength. For clinical assessment, calculation of LMI rather than BMI is appropriate.

  18. ''Cutie Pie,'' A portable radiation instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballou, C.O.

    1947-01-01

    A portable beta and gamma radiation meter of exceedingly small dimensions and weight has been developed. User acceptance has been more enthusiastic than any previous instrument of its type. The circuit, using one Victoreen V-32 tube, is the simplest electronic circuit possible for radiation work and gives high sensitivity. Stability exceeds anything of comparable sensitivity which has come to our attention. The short term stability is due to a circuit which prevents emission before the cathode reaches operating temperature. Long term stability has been improved by evacuating the tube enclosure and switch. The complete, one unit instrument, weighs four pounds two ounces, and is carried with a pistol grip. Exclusive of chamber and handle, its dimensions are 3'' wide, 6 1/2'' long, and 5'' high. The case is formed of aluminum and is designed to give excellent visibility of the meter. Three ranges of approximately 50, 500 and 5000 mr/hr have been incorporated in the instruments. The instrument has been named ''Cutie Pie'' due to its diminutive size

  19. Portable Digital Radiography and Computed Tomography Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-11-01

    This user manual describes the function and use of the portable digital radiography and computed tomography (DRCT) scanner. The manual gives a general overview of x-ray imaging systems along with a description of the DRCT system. An inventory of the all the system components, organized by shipping container, is also included. In addition, detailed, step-by-step procedures are provided for all of the exercises necessary for a novice user to successfully collect digital radiographs and tomographic images of an object, including instructions on system assembly and detector calibration and system alignment. There is also a short section covering the limited system care and maintenance needs. Descriptions of the included software packages, the DRCT Digital Imager used for system operation, and the DRCT Image Processing Interface used for image viewing and tomographic data reconstruction are given in the appendixes. The appendixes also include a cheat sheet for more experienced users, a listing of known system problems and how to mitigate them, and an inventory check-off sheet suitable for copying and including with the machine for shipment purposes.

  20. Comprehensive proteome analysis of human skeletal muscle in cachexia and sarcopenia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebhardt, H Alexander; Degen, Simone; Tadini, Valentina; Schilb, Alain; Johns, Neil; Greig, Carolyn A; Fearon, Kenneth C H; Aebersold, Ruedi; Jacobi, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    Cancer cachexia (cancer-induced muscle wasting) is found in a subgroup of cancer patients leaving the patients with a poor prognosis for survival due to a lower tolerance of the chemotherapeutic drug. The cause of the muscle wasting in these patients is not fully understood, and no predictive biomarker exists to identify these patients early on. Skeletal muscle loss is an inevitable consequence of advancing age. As cancer frequently occurs in old age, identifying and differentiating the molecular mechanisms mediating muscle wasting in cancer cachexia vs. age-related sarcopenia are a challenge. However, the ability to distinguish between them is critical for early intervention, and simple measures of body weight may not be sufficiently sensitive to detect cachexia early. We used a range of omics approaches: (i) undepleted proteome was quantified using advanced high mass accuracy mass spectrometers in SWATH-MS acquisition mode; (ii) phospho epitopes were quantified using protein arrays; and (iii) morphology was assessed using fluorescent microscopy. We quantified the soluble proteome of muscle biopsies from cancer cachexia patients and compared them with cohorts of cancer patients and healthy individuals with and without age-related muscle loss (aka age-related sarcopenia). Comparing the proteomes of these cohorts, we quantified changes in muscle contractile myosins and energy metabolism allowing for a clear identification of cachexia patients. In an in vitro time lapse experiment, we mimicked cancer cachexia and identified signal transduction pathways governing cell fusion to play a pivotal role in preventing muscle regeneration. The work presented here lays the foundation for further understanding of muscle wasting diseases and holds the promise of overcoming ambiguous weight loss as a measure for defining cachexia to be replaced by a precise protein signature. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on

  1. Portable direct methanol fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.; Valdez, T. I.

    2002-01-01

    This article includes discussion of the specific power and power density requirements for various portable system applications, the status of stack technology, progress in the implementation of balance-of-plant designs, and a summary of the characteristics of various DMFC portable power source demonstrations.

  2. The Economics of Educational Software Portability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joao Batista Araujo e

    1990-01-01

    Discusses economic issues that affect the portability of educational software. Topics discussed include economic reasons for portability, including cost effectiveness; the nature and behavior of educational computer software markets; the role of producers, buyers, and consumers; potential effects of government policies; computer piracy; and…

  3. Body Composition, Sarcopenia, and Suicidal Ideation in Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyeon; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Park, Yong Soon

    2016-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the relationship between body composition and suicidal ideation among the Korean elderly population (n = 302; ≥ 65 years) who participated in the Hallym Aging Study in 2010. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was measured by the indices of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), and body fat percentage. Sarcopenia was defined as presence of both low muscle mass and low muscle function. Suicidal ideation was assessed using the Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation. We found no differences in body composition measures between subjects with suicidal ideation and those without. In the logistic regression analyses, there were no significant relationships for suicidal ideation according to body composition measures, including BMI, WC, WHR, WHtR, and body fat percentage in both sexes. After adjusting for age, smoking status, alcohol drinking, regular exercise, medical comorbidities, monthly income, education level, and presence of depressive symptoms, the odds ratio (OR) of suicidal ideation was higher in elderly men with sarcopenia compared to those without, whereas no significant relationships were observed in elderly women (OR 8.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-61.34 in men; OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.07-8.43 in women). Sarcopenia is closely associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation in elderly men.

  4. Influence of diet, exercise, and serum vitamin d on sarcopenia in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Caitlin; Xiao, Liren; Imayama, Ikuyo; Duggan, Catherine R; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Kong, Angela; Campbell, Kristin L; Wang, Ching-Yun; Villasenor, Adriana; Neuhouser, Marian L; Alfano, Catherine M; Blackburn, George L; McTiernan, Anne

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of 12 months of dietary weight loss and/or aerobic exercise on lean mass and the measurements defining sarcopenia in postmenopausal women and to examine the potential moderating effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and age. Four hundred thirty-nine overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to diet modification (N = 118), exercise (N = 117), diet + exercise (N = 117), or control (N = 87). The diet intervention was a group-based program with a 10% weight loss goal. The exercise intervention was 45 min·d, 5 d·wk, of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic activity. Total and appendicular lean mass (ALM) were quantified by dual x-ray absorptiometry at baseline and 12 months. A skeletal muscle index (SMI = ALM (kg) / height (m)) and the prevalence of sarcopenia (SMI exercise significantly preserved ALM and SMI. Diet + exercise attenuated the loss of ALM and SMI compared with diet alone and did not result in significant loss of total mass or ALM compared with controls. Neither serum 25(OH)D nor age was significant moderators of the intervention effects. Aerobic exercise added to dietary weight loss can attenuate the loss of ALM during weight loss and may be effective for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia among overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

  5. A robust neuromuscular system protects rat and human skeletal muscle from sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannérec, Alice; Springer, Margherita; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Ireland, Alex; Piasecki, Mathew; Karaz, Sonia; Jacot, Guillaume; Métairon, Sylviane; Danenberg, Esther; Raymond, Frédéric; Descombes, Patrick; McPhee, Jamie S; Feige, Jerome N

    2016-04-01

    Declining muscle mass and function is one of the main drivers of loss of independence in the elderly. Sarcopenia is associated with numerous cellular and endocrine perturbations, and it remains challenging to identify those changes that play a causal role and could serve as targets for therapeutic intervention. In this study, we uncovered a remarkable differential susceptibility of certain muscles to age-related decline. Aging rats specifically lose muscle mass and function in the hindlimbs, but not in the forelimbs. By performing a comprehensive comparative analysis of these muscles, we demonstrate that regional susceptibility to sarcopenia is dependent on neuromuscular junction fragmentation, loss of motoneuron innervation, and reduced excitability. Remarkably, muscle loss in elderly humans also differs in vastus lateralis and tibialis anterior muscles in direct relation to neuromuscular dysfunction. By comparing gene expression in susceptible and non-susceptible muscles, we identified a specific transcriptomic signature of neuromuscular impairment. Importantly, differential molecular profiling of the associated peripheral nerves revealed fundamental changes in cholesterol biosynthetic pathways. Altogether our results provide compelling evidence that susceptibility to sarcopenia is tightly linked to neuromuscular decline in rats and humans, and identify dysregulation of sterol metabolism in the peripheral nervous system as an early event in this process.

  6. Clinical Assessment of Sarcopenia and Changes in Body Composition During Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Esophageal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Hiroshi; Sugimura, Keijiro; Motoori, Masaaki; Fujiwara, Yoshiyuki; Omori, Takeshi; Yanagimoto, Yoshitomo; Ohue, Masayuki; Yasui, Masayoshi; Miyoshi, Norikatsu; Tomokuni, Akira; Akita, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Shogo; Takahashi, Hidenori; Yano, Masahiko

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess changes in body composition during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and investigate whether chemotherapy-related toxicities affect body composition in patients with esophageal cancer. In ninety-four patients who underwent NAC for esophageal cancer, body composition was assessed before and after NAC. Associations between the incidence of toxicities and change in body composition during NAC were investigated. Forty-four (46.8%) and 50 (53.2%) out of 94 patients were defined as having sarcopenia before and after NAC, respectively. There was no significant difference in the incidence of any toxicity pre-treatment between patients with sarcopenia and those without sarcopenia. No significant reduction in skeletal muscle mass or fat mass was observed in the patients during NAC (p=0.501 and p=0.072). However, patients who experienced grade 4 neutropenia or febrile neutropenia during NAC showed a significantly larger decrease in change of skeletal muscle mass compared to patients who did not experience those toxicities (p=0.013 and 0.036, respectively). The incidence of serious adverse events such as febrile neutropenia and grade 4 neutropenia is associated with a significant reduction of skeletal muscle mass during NAC. We should make an effort to reduce the incidence of adverse events in order to maintain an appropriate body composition during NAC. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Influence of diet, exercise and serum vitamin D on sarcopenia in post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Caitlin; Xiao, Liren; Imayama, Ikuyo; Duggan, Catherine R.; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Kong, Angela; Campbell, Kristin L.; Wang, Ching-Yun; Villasenor, Adriana; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Alfano, Catherine M.; Blackburn, George L.; McTiernan, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of 12 months of dietary weight loss and/or aerobic exercise on lean mass and the measurements defining sarcopenia in postmenopausal women, and to examine the potential moderating effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and age. Methods 439 overweight and obese postmenopausal women were randomized to: diet modification (N=118); exercise (N=117), diet+exercise (N=117), or control (N=87). The diet intervention was a group-based program with a 10% weight loss goal. The exercise intervention was 45 mins/day, 5 days/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic activity. Total and appendicular lean mass were quantified by dual Xray absorptiometry (DXA) at baseline and 12 months. A skeletal muscle index (SMI=appendicular lean mass (kg)/m2) and the prevalence of sarcopenia (SMIlean mass, and a borderline significant decrease in appendicular lean mass and SMI compared to controls. In contrast, aerobic exercise significantly preserved appendicular lean mass and SMI. Diet + exercise attenuated the loss of appendicular lean mass and SMI compared to diet alone, and did not result in significant loss of total- or appendicular lean mass compared to controls. Neither serum 25(OH)D nor age were significant moderators of the intervention effects. Conclusions Aerobic exercise added to dietary weight loss can attenuate the loss of appendicular lean mass during weight loss, and may be effective for the prevention and treatment of sarcopenia among overweight and obese postmenopausal women. PMID:23190588

  8. Exploring the Link between Serum Phosphate Levels and Low Muscle Strength, Dynapenia, and Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan-Yuei; Kao, Tung-Wei; Chou, Cheng-Wai; Wu, Chen-Jung; Yang, Hui-Fang; Lai, Ching-Huang; Wu, Li-Wei; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2018-02-23

    Emerging evidences addressed an association between phosphate and muscle function. Because little attention was focused on this issue, the objective of our study was to explore the relationship of phosphate with muscle strength, dynapenia, and sarcopenia. From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a total of 7421 participants aged 20 years or older were included in our study with comprehensive examinations included anthropometric parameters, strength of the quadriceps muscle, and appendicular lean masses. Within the normal range of serum phosphate, we used quartile-based analyses to determine the potential relationships of serum phosphate with dynapenia, and sarcopenia through multivariate regression models. After adjusting for the pertinent variables, an inverse association between the serum phosphate quartiles and muscle strength was observed and the linear association was stronger than other anthropometric parameters. Notably, the significant association between phosphate and muscle strength was existed in >65 years old age group, not in 20-65 years old. The higher quartiles of phosphate had higher likelihood for predicting the presence of dynapenia rather than sarcopenia in entire population. Our study highlighted that higher quartiles of phosphate had significant association with lower muscle strength and higher risks for predicting the presence of dynapenia.

  9. Is sarcopenia a useful predictor of outcome in patients after emergency laparotomy? A study using the NELA database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, John; Johnston, Judith; Ng, Alvin; Gatt, Marcel; MacFie, John; McNaught, Clare

    2018-05-01

    Introduction Studies have reported on the use of frailty as a prognostic indicator in patients undergoing elective surgery. Similar data do not exist for patients undergoing emergency surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative sarcopenia measured by computed tomography (CT) on outcome following emergency laparotomy. Materials and methods Data from the National Emergency Laparotomy Audit database were retrieved for patients who had undergone an emergency laparotomy over 12 months at York NHS Foundation Trust. Sarcopenia was assessed by psoas density and area on preoperative CT. Mortality rates at 30 days and 1 year were recorded. Secondary outcomes included discharge rates to non-independent living. Results A total of 259 patients were included. Overall cohort 30-day and 1-year mortality was 13.9% (36/259) and 28.2% (73/259), respectively. Sarcopenia measured by psoas density was associated with increased mortality compared with patients who did not develop sarcopenia at 30 days (29.7%, 19/64, vs. 8.7%, 17/195; P sarcopenia measured by psoas area at 30 days (21.3%, 13/61, vs. 9.1%, 17/187; OR 2.71; 95%CI 1.23-5.96, P = 0.013) and at 1 year (42.6%, 26/61, vs. 20.9%, 39/187; OR 2.82; 95% CI 1.52-5.23, P Sarcopenia assessed by measurement of psoas density and area on CT is associated with increased mortality following emergency laparotomy. The use of sarcopenia as a predictive tool merits further attention and may be useful in patients undergoing emergency surgery.

  10. Portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Fan; Yang, Renfu; Nian, Feng; Zhang, Zhenwei; Cui, Yongshun; Zhao, Huan; Wang, Nuanrang; Feng, Keming

    2015-05-01

    In this work, a portable atomic frequency standard based on coherent population trapping is designed and demonstrated. To achieve a portable prototype, in the system, a single transverse mode 795nm VCSEL modulated by a 3.4GHz RF source is used as a pump laser which generates coherent light fields. The pump beams pass through a vapor cell containing atom gas and buffer gas. This vapor cell is surrounded by a magnetic shield and placed inside a solenoid which applies a longitudinal magnetic field to lift the Zeeman energy levels' degeneracy and to separate the resonance signal, which has no first-order magnetic field dependence, from the field-dependent resonances. The electrical control system comprises two control loops. The first one locks the laser wavelength to the minimum of the absorption spectrum; the second one locks the modulation frequency and output standard frequency. Furthermore, we designed the micro physical package and realized the locking of a coherent population trapping atomic frequency standard portable prototype successfully. The short-term frequency stability of the whole system is measured to be 6×10-11 for averaging times of 1s, and reaches 5×10-12 at an averaging time of 1000s.

  11. A portable contamination monitor with a numerical display

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, A.R.

    1980-10-01

    A portable contamination monitor, its performance and application are described. The monitor is equipped with two 15.5 cm 2 'pancake' type Geiger-Mueller counters with thin windows ( 2 ). The summed counting rate is displayed in the range 0.2000 counts/s on a liquid crystal digital voltmeter. Every tenth pulse is signaled by flashing an LED and emitting a short (0.1 s) pulse of sound. The efficiencies for detecting a variety of α-, β- and γ- emitters have been measured and are reported. Data on the effects of varying battery voltage and temperature are also reported. (auth)

  12. RTOS kernel in portable electrocardiograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, C. A.; Voos, J. A.; Riva, G. G.; Zerbini, C.; Gonzalez, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents the use of a Real Time Operating System (RTOS) on a portable electrocardiograph based on a microcontroller platform. All medical device digital functions are performed by the microcontroller. The electrocardiograph CPU is based on the 18F4550 microcontroller, in which an uCOS-II RTOS can be embedded. The decision associated with the kernel use is based on its benefits, the license for educational use and its intrinsic time control and peripherals management. The feasibility of its use on the electrocardiograph is evaluated based on the minimum memory requirements due to the kernel structure. The kernel's own tools were used for time estimation and evaluation of resources used by each process. After this feasibility analysis, the migration from cyclic code to a structure based on separate processes or tasks able to synchronize events is used; resulting in an electrocardiograph running on one Central Processing Unit (CPU) based on RTOS.

  13. RTOS kernel in portable electrocardiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centeno, C A; Voos, J A; Riva, G G; Zerbini, C; Gonzalez, E A

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the use of a Real Time Operating System (RTOS) on a portable electrocardiograph based on a microcontroller platform. All medical device digital functions are performed by the microcontroller. The electrocardiograph CPU is based on the 18F4550 microcontroller, in which an uCOS-II RTOS can be embedded. The decision associated with the kernel use is based on its benefits, the license for educational use and its intrinsic time control and peripherals management. The feasibility of its use on the electrocardiograph is evaluated based on the minimum memory requirements due to the kernel structure. The kernel's own tools were used for time estimation and evaluation of resources used by each process. After this feasibility analysis, the migration from cyclic code to a structure based on separate processes or tasks able to synchronize events is used; resulting in an electrocardiograph running on one Central Processing Unit (CPU) based on RTOS.

  14. Portable sensor for hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, L.G.

    1994-01-01

    Objective was to develop a field-portable monitor for sensitive hazardous waste detection using active nitrogen energy transfer (ANET) excitation of atomic and molecular fluorescence (active nitrogen is made in a dielectric-barrier discharge in nitrogen). It should provide rapid field screening of hazardous waste sites to map areas of greatest contamination. Results indicate that ANET is very sensitive for monitoring heavy metals (Hg, Se) and hydrocarbons; furthermore, chlorinated hydrocarbons can be distinguished from nonchlorinated ones. Sensitivity is at ppB levels for sampling in air. ANET appears ideal for on-line monitoring of toxic heavy metal levels at building sites, hazardous waste land fills, in combustor flues, and of chlorinated hydrocarbon levels at building sites and hazardous waste dumps

  15. A Portable Diode Array Spectrophotometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David

    2016-05-01

    A cheap portable visible light spectrometer is presented. The spectrometer uses readily sourced items and could be constructed by anyone with a knowledge of electronics. The spectrometer covers the wavelength range 450-725 nm with a resolution better than 5 nm. The spectrometer uses a diffraction grating to separate wavelengths, which are detected using a 128-element diode array, the output of which is analyzed using a microprocessor. The spectrum is displayed on a small liquid crystal display screen and can be saved to a micro SD card for later analysis. Battery life (2 × AAA) is estimated to be 200 hours. The overall dimensions of the unit are 120 × 65 × 60 mm, and it weighs about 200 g. © The Author(s) 2016.

  16. Compact portable electric power sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fry, D.N.; Holcomb, D.E.; Munro, J.K.; Oakes, L.C.; Matson, M.J.

    1997-02-01

    This report provides an overview of recent advances in portable electric power source (PEPS) technology and an assessment of emerging PEPS technologies that may meet US Special Operations Command`s (SOCOM) needs in the next 1--2- and 3--5-year time frames. The assessment was performed through a literature search and interviews with experts in various laboratories and companies. Nineteen PEPS technologies were reviewed and characterized as (1) PEPSs that meet SOCOM requirements; (2) PEPSs that could fulfill requirements for special field conditions and locations; (3) potentially high-payoff sources that require additional R and D; and (4) sources unlikely to meet present SOCOM requirements. 6 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. iPad portable genius

    CERN Document Server

    McFedries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Make the most of your iPad with these savvy tips and techniques The iPad, iPad Air, and iPad mini are taking the world by storm. This no-nonsense guide covers everything you want to know to take full advantage of all your iPad has to offer. Along with necessary basics about the newest iPad; iPad Air, iPad mini; and iOS; it gives you smart; innovative ways to accomplish a variety of tasks and tips to help you maximize the convenience of your Apple digital lifestyle. More than 100 million iPads have been sold; and the number continues to growHip and practical; Portable Genius guides are packed

  18. PORTABLE ACOUSTIC MONITORING PACKAGE (PAMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John l. Loth; Gary J. Morris; George M. Palmer; Richard Guiler; Deepak Mehra

    2003-07-01

    The 1st generation acoustic monitoring package was designed to detect and analyze weak acoustic signals inside natural gas transmission lines. Besides a microphone it housed a three-inch diameter aerodynamic acoustic signal amplifier to maximize sensitivity to leak induced {Delta}p type signals. The theory and test results of this aerodynamic signal amplifier was described in the master's degree thesis of our Research Assistant Deepak Mehra who is about to graduate. To house such a large three-inch diameter sensor required the use of a steel 300-psi rated 4 inch weld neck flange, which itself weighed already 29 pounds. The completed 1st generation Acoustic Monitoring Package weighed almost 100 pounds. This was too cumbersome to mount in the field, on an access port at a pipeline shut-off valve. Therefore a 2nd generation and truly Portable Acoustic Monitor was built. It incorporated a fully self-contained {Delta}p type signal sensor, rated for line pressures up to 1000 psi with a base weight of only 6 pounds. This is the Rosemont Inc. Model 3051CD-Range 0, software driven sensor, which is believed to have industries best total performance. Its most sensitive unit was purchased with a {Delta}p range from 0 to 3 inch water. This resulted in the herein described 2nd generation: Portable Acoustic Monitoring Package (PAMP) for pipelines up to 1000 psi. Its 32-pound total weight includes an 18-volt battery. Together with a 3 pound laptop with its 4-channel data acquisition card, completes the equipment needed for field acoustic monitoring of natural gas transmission pipelines.

  19. Portable Pbars, traps that travel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, S.D.; Hynes, M.V.; Picklesimer, A.

    1987-10-01

    The advent of antiproton research utilizing relatively small scale storage devices for very large numbers of these particles opens the possibility of transporting these devices to a research site removed from the accelerator center that produced the antiprotons. Such a portable source of antiprotons could open many new areas of research and make antiprotons available to a new research community. At present antiprotons are available at energies down to 1 MeV. From a portable source these particles can be made available at energies ranging from several tens of kilovolts down to a few millielectron volts. These low energies are in the domain of interest to the atomic and condensed matter physicist. In addition such a source can be used as an injector for an accelerator which could increase the energy domain even further. Moreover, the availability of such a source at a university will open research with antiprotons to a broader range of students than possible at a centralized research facility. This report focuses on the use of ion traps, in particular cylindrical traps, for the antiproton storage device. These devices store the charged antiprotons in a combination of electric and magnet fields. At high enough density and low enough temperature the charged cloud will be susceptible to plasma instabilities. Present day ion trap work is just starting to explore this domain. Our assessment of feasibility is based on what could be done with present day technology and what future technology could achieve. We conclude our report with a radiation safety study that shows that about 10 11 antiprotons can be transported safely, however the federal guidelines for this transport must be reviewed in detail. More antiprotons than this will require special transportation arrangements. 28 refs., 8 figs

  20. Physical frailty and sarcopenia (PF&S): a point of view from the industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Signore, Susanna; Roubenoff, Ronenn

    2017-02-01

    We have observed over the last 15 years a wide debate both in the medical scientific community and in the public health arena on the definition and operationalization of frailty, typically a geriatric condition, and in particular of physical frailty linked to sarcopenia. Because physical frailty in its initial phase can still be reversed, fighting sarcopenia in elderly persons has the potential to slow or halt progressive decline towards disability and dependency. Quite recently, regulators focused attention on frailty as an indicator of biological age to be measured to characterize elderly patients before their inclusion in clinical trials. A European guidance regarding most adapted evaluation instruments of frailty is currently under public consultation. Does the regulatory initiative imply we should now consider frailty, and particularly physical frailty, primarily as an important risk factor for adverse events and poor response, or mainly as a clinical tool helping the physician to opt for one therapeutic pathway or another? Or is physical frailty above all a specific geriatric condition deserving an effective and innovative therapeutic approach with the objective to curb the incidence of its most common result, e.g., mobility disability? Pharmaceutical industry developers consider both faces of the coin very relevant. We agree with regulators that better characterization of subpopulations, not only in elderly patients, can improve the benefit risk ratio of medicines. At the same time, we believe it is in the public health interest to develop novel drugs indicated for specific geriatric conditions, like osteoporosis in the 1990s and sarcopenia today. We consider it an important therapeutic goal to effectively delay mobility disability and to extend the active, independent, and healthy life years of aging people. The "Sarcopenia and Physical fRailty IN older people: multi-componenT Treatment strategies" (SPRINTT) collaborative project under IMI is paving the

  1. Malnutrition and sarcopenia in a large cohort of patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caimmi, C; Caramaschi, P; Venturini, A; Bertoldo, E; Vantaggiato, E; Viapiana, O; Ferrari, M; Lippi, G; Frulloni, L; Rossini, M

    2018-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease which may lead to malnutrition. Previous studies have defined it with different criteria. No thorough evaluations of sarcopenia in SSc are available. The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence and the potential association of malnutrition and sarcopenia in a large cohort of SSc cases. A total of 141 SSc consecutive outpatients were enrolled. Body composition was analyzed by densitometry. Malnutrition was defined according to recently published ESPEN criteria, whereas sarcopenia was diagnosed in patients with reduced skeletal muscle index. Malnutrition was diagnosed in 9.2% of patients (95% CI, 4.4-14.0%). Malnourished patients had worse gastrointestinal symptoms according to UCLA SCTC GIT 2.0 questionnaire (p = 0.007), lower physical activity (p = 0.028), longer disease duration (p = 0.019), worse predicted DLCO/VA and FVC (p = 0.009, respectively), worse disease severity according to Medsger severity score (p < 0.001), lower hemoglobin (p = 0.023), and fat-free mass (p < 0.001) and were more often sarcopenic (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, only FVC (p = 0.006) and disease severity (p = 0.003), in particular for the lungs (p = 0.013), were confirmed to be worse in malnourished patients. Sarcopenia was diagnosed in 29\\140 patients (20.7%; 95% CI, 14.0-27.4%); 11\\29 were also malnourished. In multivariate analysis, sarcopenic patients had longer disease duration (p = 0.049), worse DLCO/VA (p = 0.002), and lung (p = 0.006) and skin (p = 0.014) involvement. In SSc, malnutrition defined with ESPEN criteria was found to be lower than previously reported. Sarcopenia was found to be somewhat common. Lung involvement was significantly associated with nutritional status and may not be explained only by muscle weakness.

  2. Sarcopenia Screened by the SARC-F Questionnaire and Physical Performances of Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland, Yves; Dupuy, Charlotte; Abellan Van Kan, Gabor; Cesari, Matteo; Vellas, Bruno; Faruch, Marie; Dray, Cedric; de Souto Barreto, Philipe

    2017-10-01

    Screening for sarcopenia in daily practice can be challenging. Our objective was to explore whether the SARC-F questionnaire is a valid screening tool for sarcopenia (defined by the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health [FNIH] criteria). Moreover, we evaluated the physical performance of older women according to the SARC-F questionnaire. Cross-sectional study. Data from the Toulouse and Lyon EPIDémiologie de l'OStéoporose study (EPIDOS) on 3025 women living in the community (mean age: 80.5 ± 3.9 years), without a previous history of hip fracture, were assessed. The SARC-F self-report questionnaire score ranges from 0 to 10: a score ≥4 defines sarcopenia. The FNIH criteria uses handgrip strength (GS) and appendicular lean mass (ALM; assessed by DXA) divided by body mass index (BMI) to define sarcopenia. Outcome measures were the following performance-based tests: knee-extension strength, 6-m gait speed, and a repeated chair-stand test. The associations of sarcopenia with performance-based tests was examined using bootstrap multiple linear-regression models; adjusted R 2 determined the percentage variation for each outcome explained by the model. Prevalence of sarcopenia was 16.7% (n = 504) according to the SARC-F questionnaire and 1.8% (n = 49) using the FNIH criteria. Sensibility and specificity of the SARC-F to diagnose sarcopenia (defined by FNIH criteria) were 34% and 85%, respectively. Sarcopenic women defined by SARC-F had significantly lower physical performance than nonsarcopenic women. The SARC-F improved the ability to predict poor physical performance. The validity of the SARC-F questionnaire to screen for sarcopenia, when compared with the FNIH criteria, was limited. However, sarcopenia defined by the SARC-F questionnaire substantially improved the predictive value of clinical characteristics of patients to predict poor physical performance. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine

  3. Estimation of prevalence of sarcopenia by using a new bioelectrical impedance analysis in Chinese community-dwelling elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Hai, Shan; Cao, Li; Zhou, Jianghua; Liu, Ping; Dong, Bi-Rong

    2016-12-28

    The aim of the present study was to validate the usefulness of the new octapolar multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) for assessment of appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) by comparing it with that of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and to investigate the prevalence of sarcopenia in Chinese community-dwelling elderly according to Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) definition. A cross-sectional study was conducted in communities of Chengdu, China. A total of 944 community-dwelling elderly adults aged ≥60 years were included. ASM was measured by using DXA as a criterion method to validate a standing eight-electrode multifrequency BIA (InBody 720), followed by a further estimation of the prevalence of sarcopenia according the AWGS definition. In the Bland-Altman analysis, no significant difference was found between DXA and BIA based on the ASM measurements. The prevalence of AWGS-defined sarcopenia was 12.5% in the elderly women and 8.2% in the elderly men. BIA is suitable for body composition monitoring (ASM) in elderly Chinese as a fast, noninvasive, and convenient method; therefore, it may be a better choice in large epidemiological studies in the Chinese population. The prevalence of AWGS-defined sarcopenia was approximately 10.4% and increased with age in the Chinese community-dwelling elderly in this study.

  4. [Detection and evaluation of the role of sarcopenia in elderly patients with cancer treated with chemotherapy. ONCOSARCO project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina Garrido, Maria José; Guillén Ponce, Carmen; Fernández Félix, Borja Manuel; Muñoz Sánchez, Maria Del Mar; Soriano Rodríguez, Maria Del Carmen; Olaverri Hernández, Amaya; Santiago Crespo, Jose Antonio

    To develop a predictive model of toxicity to chemotherapy in elderly patients with cancer, using the variables associated with sarcopenia, and to identify which of these parameters, sarcopenia or frailty, is the best predictor of toxicity to chemotherapy in the elderly. A prospective observational study with patients ≥70 years treated with chemotherapy in the Cancer Unit for the Elderly, in the Medical Oncology Section of the Hospital Virgen de la Luz de Cuenca. The following tests will be performed by each patient before chemotherapy: muscle strength (handgrip, cylindrical handgrip, pinch gauge, hip flexion, knee extension), muscle mass (skeletal muscle mass index), and physical function (gait speed and 5STS test). The occurrence of severe toxicity will be recorded over a period of 4 months of chemotherapy treatment. It will be evaluated, using logistic regression analysis, whether sarcopenia (defined by the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People) or frailty (defined by the phenotype of frailty) is the best predictor of chemotherapy toxicity. Using a multinomial logistic regression analysis, we will try to create the first model to predict toxicity to chemotherapy in elderly patients with diagnosis of cancer, based on the definition of sarcopenia. It is expected that the final analysis of this project will be useful to detect predictive factors of toxicity to chemotherapy in elderly patients with cancer. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. The Effect of Physiological Stimuli on Sarcopenia; Impact of Notch and Wnt Signaling on Impaired Aged Skeletal Muscle Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Susan Tsivitse; Cooley, Ian D.

    2012-01-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function that is associated with sarcopenia can result in ultimate consequences such as decreased quality of life. The causes of sarcopenia are multifactorial and include environmental and biological factors. The purpose of this review is to synthesize what the literature reveals in regards to the cellular regulation of sarcopenia, including impaired muscle regenerative capacity in the aged, and to discuss if physiological stimuli have the potential to slow the loss of myogenic potential that is associated with sarcopenia. In addition, this review article will discuss the effect of aging on Notch and Wnt signaling, and whether physiological stimuli have the ability to restore Notch and Wnt signaling resulting in rejuvenated aged muscle repair. The intention of this summary is to bring awareness to the benefits of consistent physiological stimulus (exercise) to combating sarcopenia as well as proclaiming the usefulness of contraction-induced injury models to studying the effects of local and systemic influences on aged myogenic capability. PMID:22701343

  6. The Long Winding Road to Transplant: How Sarcopenia and Debility Impact Morbidity and Mortality on the Waitlist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanji, Rahima A; Carey, Elizabeth J; Yang, Liu; Watt, Kymberly D

    2017-10-01

    Frailty and sarcopenia are common complications of cirrhosis. Frailty has been described as an increased susceptibility to stressors secondary to a cumulative decline in physiologic reserve; this decline occurs with aging or is a result of the disease process, across multiple organ systems. Sarcopenia, a key component of frailty, is defined as progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. The presence of either of these complications is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, as these are tightly linked to decompensation and increased complication rates. Recognition of these entities is critical. Studies have shown improvement in muscle strength and function lead to reduced mortality, suggesting both frailty and sarcopenia are modifiable risk factors. In this review we outline the prevalence of frailty and sarcopenia in cirrhosis and the impact on clinical outcomes such as decompensation, hospitalization, and mortality. Existing and potential novel therapeutic approaches for frailty and sarcopenia are also reviewed. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The most effective factors to offset sarcopenia and obesity in the older Korean: Physical activity, vitamin D, and protein intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chorong; Jeon, Byeong Hwan; Reid Storm, Shaun Nicholas; Jho, Sunkug; No, Jae-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the types and levels of physical activity in conjunction with protein intake and vitamin D on sarcopenia and obesity status in an elderly population. Study participants (N = 4452) were ages ≥60 y and included 1929 men and 2523 women who completed a body composition analysis with a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and provided health and dietary data. Higher appendicular skeletal muscle mass/weight was observed in the non-obese group, although obese participants had greater weights. The non-obese sarcopenia subgroup showed health problems related to insulin resistance and metabolic-related factors compared with the nonsarcopenic group. The total metabolic equivalent was significantly different in both obese categories, regardless of sarcopenic status. The prevalence of obesity, sarcopenia, and sarcopenic obesity relatively increased with a diet deficient of protein intake and vitamin D. These data suggest that sarcopenia had a significant association with metabolic-related factors; physical activity, especially vigorous activity; and protein intake and vitamin D levels in a non-obese elderly population. Therefore, maintaining healthy body weight by means of resistance exercise and enhanced protein intake and vitamin D may help offset sarcopenia in this age group. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Incremental predictive value of sarcopenia for incident fracture in an elderly Chinese cohort: results from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOs) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Leung, Jason; Woo, Jean

    2014-08-01

    We examined whether sarcopenia is predictive of incident fractures among older men, whether the inclusion of sarcopenia in models adds any incremental value to bone mineral density (BMD), and whether sarcopenia is associated with a higher risk of fractures in elderly with osteoporosis. A cohort of 2000 community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years were examined for which detailed information regarding demographics, socioeconomic, medical history, clinical, and lifestyle factors were documented. Body composition and BMD were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenia was defined according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) algorithm. Incident fractures were documented during the follow-up period from 2001 to 2013, and related to sarcopenia and its component measures using Cox proportional hazard regressions. The contribution of sarcopenia for predicting fracture risk was evaluated by receiver operating characteristic analysis, net reclassification improvement (NRI), and integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). During an average of 11.3 years of follow-up, 226 (11.3%) men sustained at least 1 incident fracture, making the incidence of fractures 1200.6/100,000 person-years. After multivariate adjustments, sarcopenia was associated with increased fracture risk (hazard ratio [HR], 1.87, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-2.79) independent of BMD and other clinical risk factors. The addition of sarcopenia did not significantly increase area under curve or IDI but significantly improved the predictive ability on fracture risk over BMD and other clinical risk factors by 5.12% (P sarcopenia (sarco-osteoporosis) resulted in a significantly increased risk of fractures (HR, 3.49, 95% CI, 1.76-6.90) compared with those with normal BMD and without sarcopenia. This study confirms that sarcopenia is a predictor of fracture risk in this elderly men cohort, establishes that sarcopenia provides incremental predictive value for fractures over the

  9. Sarcopenia as a determinant of blood pressure in older Koreans: findings from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES 2008-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungdo Han

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP is directly and causally associated with body size in the general population. Whether muscle mass is an important factor that determines BP remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether sarcopenia is associated with hypertension in older Koreans. PARTICIPANTS: We surveyed 2,099 males and 2,747 females aged 60 years or older. MEASUREMENTS: Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by body weight (ASM/Wt that was <1 SD below the gender-specific mean for young adults. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2. Subjects were divided into four groups based on presence or absence of obesity or sarcopenia. Hypertension was defined as a systolic BP (SBP ≥ 140 mmHg, a diastolic BP (DBP ≥ 90 mmHg, or a self-reported current use of antihypertensive medications. RESULTS: The overall prevalence of hypertension in the four groups was as follows 49.7% for non-obese non-sarcopenia, 60.9% for non-obese sarcopenia, 66.2% for obese non-sarcopenia and 74.7% for obese sarcopenia. After adjustment for age, gender, regular activity, current smoking and alcohol use, the odds ratio (OR for having hypertension was 1.5 (95% confidence interval (CI = 1.23-1.84 in subjects in the non-obese sarcopenia group, 2.08 (95% CI = 1.68-2.57 in the obese non-sarcopenia group and 3.0 (95% CI = 2.48-3.63 in the obese sarcopenia group, compared with the non-obese non-sarcopenia group (p for trend <0.001. Controlling further for body weight and waist circumference did not change the association between hypertension and sarcopenia. The association between sarcopenia and hypertension was more robust in the subjects with diabetes mellitus. CONCLUSION: Body composition beyond BMI has a considerable impact on hypertension in elderly Koreans. Subjects with sarcopenic obesity appear to have a greater risk of hypertension than simply obese or sarcopenia subjects.

  10. Prevalence of and Factors Associated with Sarcopenia in Korean Cancer Survivors: Based on Data Obtained by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Kirang; Kim, Young Saing; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho; Choi, Won-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Using a representative dataset from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 to 2011, we analyzed anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-determined body composition findings for 493 cancer survivors (mean age a61.1 ± 12.6 years; 35.7% male). A much higher proportion of men (30.1%) than women (0.6%) met the criteria of sarcopenia. Subjects with a history of lung cancer, genitourinary cancer, or gastric cancer were prone to develop sarcopenia (31.6%, 26.3%, and 21.4%, respectively). Furthermore, sarcopenia was more prevalent among elderly (≥65 years; P sarcopenia was significantly associated with male gender (odds ratio [OR], 68.14; 95% CI, 15.52-299.13), a BMI of sarcopenia in Korean cancer survivors.

  11. Making Nuclear Malaysia Email Archives Portable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharum Ramli

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Malaysia e-mails can be accessed from any computer and anywhere, even worldwide, via web access. However, this mobility is lost when the e-mails are moved to a personal computer into archive files such as Microsoft Outlook data files. Outlook e-mail archives can only be read on the computer where it is stored. This removal has to be done because of storage space constraints on the e-mail server. This paper shows how e-mail archives can be made portable, brought and read anywhere using a free portable e-mail client application such as Mozilla Thunderbird, Portable Edition. (author)

  12. One of the First Portable Macs

    CERN Multimedia

    1989-01-01

    It was one of the first portable macs released. The Portable had many new advances in mobile computing : The display was crispy clear, and looked beautiful when used in daylight ; The Portable came with a Lead-acid gel/cell battery that could run a anywhere from 6 -12 hours ; It supported to internal hard drives, and an external one. The reaction to the laptop was weak because it was slow, it had no capacity for expansion, it weighed heavily, its price was expensive. It has been stayed 1 year and half on the market.

  13. Clinical Outcomes of Living Liver Transplantation According to the Presence of Sarcopenia as Defined by Skeletal Muscle Mass, Hand Grip, and Gait Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harimoto, N; Yoshizumi, T; Izumi, T; Motomura, T; Harada, N; Itoh, S; Ikegami, T; Uchiyama, H; Soejima, Y; Nishie, A; Kamishima, T; Kusaba, R; Shirabe, K; Maehara, Y

    2017-11-01

    Sarcopenia is an independent predictor of death after living-donor liver transplantation (LDLT). However, the ability of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria for sarcopenia (defined as reduced skeletal muscle mass plus low muscle strength) to predict surgical outcomes in patients who have undergone LDLT has not been determined. This study prospectively enrolled 366 patients who underwent LDLT at Kyushu University Hospital. Skeletal muscle area (determined by computed tomography), hand-grip strength, and gait speed were measured in 102 patients before LDLT. We investigated the relationship between sarcopenia and surgical outcomes after LDLT performed in three time periods. The number of patients with lower skeletal muscle area has increased to 52.9% in recent years. The incidence of sarcopenia according to the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria was 23.5% (24/102). Patients with sarcopenia (defined by skeletal muscle area and functional parameters) had significantly lower skeletal muscle area and weaker hand-grip strength than did those without sarcopenia. Compared with non-sarcopenic patients, patients with sarcopenia also had significantly worse liver function, greater estimated blood loss, greater incidence of postoperative complications of Clavien-Dindo grade IV or greater (including amount of ascites on postoperative day 14, total bilirubin on postoperative day 14, and postoperative sepsis), and longer postoperative hospital stay. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed sarcopenia as a significant predictor of 6-month mortality. The combination of skeletal muscle mass and function can predict surgical outcomes in LDLT patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fall and Fracture Risk in Sarcopenia and Dynapenia With and Without Obesity: the Role of Lifestyle Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David; Daly, Robin M; Sanders, Kerrie M; Ebeling, Peter R

    2015-08-01

    Due to their differing etiologies and consequences, it has been proposed that the term "sarcopenia" should revert to its original definition of age-related muscle mass declines, with a separate term, "dynapenia", describing muscle strength and function declines. There is increasing interest in the interactions of sarcopenia and dynapenia with obesity. Despite an apparent protective effect of obesity on fracture, increased adiposity may compromise bone health, and the presence of sarcopenia and/or dynapenia ("sarcopenic obesity" and "dynapenic obesity") may exacerbate the risk of falls and fracture in obese older adults. Weight loss interventions are likely to be beneficial for older adults with sarcopenic and dynapenic obesity but may result in further reductions in muscle and bone health. The addition of exercise including progressive resistance training and nutritional strategies, including protein and vitamin D supplementation, may optimise body composition and muscle function outcomes thereby reducing falls and fracture risk in this population.

  15. Inspector-2000. A DSP-based, portable, multi-purpose MCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koskelo, M.J.; Sielaff, W.A.; Hall, D.L.; Kastner, M.H.; Jordanov, V.T.

    2001-01-01

    Various in-situ gamma-spectroscopy applications need a versatile, multi-purpose, portable multi-channel analyzer (MCA). Recently, Canberra has introduced the Inspector-2000 for this purpose. It uses digital signal processing (DSP) technology and weighs only about 1.2 kg. It also supports CdTe, NaI and Ge detectors. Due to its use of DSP technology, the Inspector-2000 also provides a longer battery life, a better detector resolution and a better temperature stability than most portable MCAs. A short description of the Inspector-2000 MCA is included and its performance characteristics compared to an analog MCA. (author)

  16. Spectrometric assembly for portable installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluger, A.; Popescu, C.

    1997-01-01

    The components of the portable spectrometric assembly are: - the detecting probe with Na I(Tl) crystal and air-tight case of industrial type; - a microcomputer; - a unit of analogical processing of the signal from the detecting probe; - a single-channel analyzer with adjustable threshold; - commands and display module; - a source of high voltage; - an electrical supply battery. The device uses the method of gamma photons detection in energetic windows. Through theoretical and experimental studies carried out during the prototype development phase, the superiority of this method has been proved as compared with the installations which make use of the classical principle of photon integral detection. The achieved prototype has a basic program enabling the setting of all working parameters (measuring time, discriminating thresholds, discriminators operating conditions, etc.). Through the included interface RS232 it is possible to transmit the data to a more powerful computer in order to continually process the results. The spectrometric assembly, realized on the basis of micro-computers, can be used in a wide range of applications: measurement of thickness and erosion of walls and tubes, measurement of level in closed containers, of soil density, etc. The adjustment for specific application is performed only through a program modification. (authors)

  17. Development of portable fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakatou, K.; Sumi, S.; Nishizawa, N. [Sanyo Electric Co., Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Sanyo Electric has been concentrating on developing a marketable portable fuel cell using phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFC). Due to the fact that this power source uses PAFC that operate at low temperature around 100{degrees} C, they are easier to handle compared to conventional fuel cells that operate at around 200{degrees} C , they can also be expected to provide extended reliable operation because corrosion of the electrode material and deterioration of the electrode catalyst are almost completely nonexistent. This power source is meant to be used independently and stored at room temperature. When it is started up, it generates electricity itself using its internal load to raise the temperature. As a result, the phosphoric acid (the electolyte) absorbs the reaction water when the temperature starts to be raised (around room temperature). At the same time the concentration and volume of the phosphoric acid changes, which may adversely affect the life time of the cell. We have studied means for starting, operating PAFC stack using methods that can simply evaluate changes in the concentration of the electrolyte in the stack with the aim of improving and extending cell life and report on them in this paper.

  18. NZG 201 portable spectrometric unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jursa, P.; Novakova, O.; Slezak, V.

    The NZG 201 spectrometric unit is a portable single-channel processing unit supplied from the mains or a battery which allows the qualitative and quantitative measurement of different types of ionizing radiation when connected to a suitable detection unit. The circuit layout and the choice of control elements makes the spectrometric unit suitable for use with scintillation detector units. The spectrometric unit consists of a pulse amplifier, an amplitude pulse analyzer, a pulse counter, a pulse rate counter with an output for a recorder, a high voltage source and a low voltage source. The block diagram is given. All circuits are modular and are mounted on PCB's. The apparatus is built in a steel cabinet with a raised edge which protects the control elements. The linear pulse amplifier has a maximum gain of 1024, the pulse counter has a maximum capacity of 10 6 -1 imp and time resolution better than 0.5 μs. The temperature interval at which the apparatus is operational is 0 to 45 degC, its weight is 12.5 kg and dimensions 36x280x310 mm, energy range O.025 to 2.5 MeV, for 137 Cs the energy resolution is 8 to 10%. The spectrometric unit NZG 2O1 may, with regard to its parameters, number and range of control elements, be used as a universal measuring unit. (J.P.)

  19. Portable microcomputer controlled radiation counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, E.W.; Weber, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    A portable microcomputer controlled counter for use as a radiation counter is described. The counter uses digital processing of input pulses from a radiation detector. The number of counts received by the microcomputer per unit time is used to calculate a value for display using a calibration factor obtained during physical calibration of the instrument with a radiation source or with a pulse generator. The keyboard is used to enter calibration points. The number of calibration points which may be entered depends on the degree of accuracy desired by the user. The high voltage generator which drives the detector is triggered by pulses from the microcomputer in relation to the count rate. After processing the count, the resulting count rate or dose rate is displayed on the liquid crystal display. The counter is autoranging in which the decimal point is shifted as necessary by the microcomputer. The units displayed are determined by the user by means of a multiposition switch. Low battery and an overrange condition are displayed. An interface is provided via a connector to allow parallel transmission of data to peripheral devices. Low battery power consumption is featured. The counter is capable of providing more accurate readings than currently available counters

  20. Portable and Automatic Moessbauer Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, P. A. de; Garg, V. K.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Gellert, R.; Guetlich, P.

    2002-01-01

    A portable Moessbauer spectrometer, developed for extraterrestrial applications, opens up new industrial applications of MBS. But for industrial applications, an available tool for fast data analysis is also required, and it should be easy to handle. The analysis of Moessbauer spectra and their parameters is a barrier for the popularity of this wide-applicable spectroscopic technique in industry. Based on experience, the analysis of a Moessbauer spectrum is time-consuming and requires the dedication of a specialist. However, the analysis of Moessbauer spectra, from the fitting to the identification of the sample phases, can be faster using by genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks. Industrial applications are very specific ones and the data analysis can be performed using these algorithms. In combination with an automatic analysis, the Moessbauer spectrometer can be used as a probe instrument which covers the main industrial needs for an on-line monitoring of its products, processes and case studies. Some of these real industrial applications will be discussed.

  1. Portable system to luminaries characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecpoyotl-Torres, M.; Vera-Dimas, J. G.; Koshevaya, S.; Escobedo-Alatorre, J.; Cisneros-Villalobos, L.; Sanchez-Mondragon, J.

    2014-09-01

    For illumination sources designers is important to know the illumination distribution of their products. They can use several viewers of IES files (standard file format determined by Illuminating Engineering Society). This files are necessary not only know the distribution of illumination, but also to plain the construction of buildings by means of specialized softwares, such as Autodesk Revit. In this paper, a complete portable system for luminaries' characterization is given. The components of the systems are: Irradiance profile meter, which can generate photometry of luminaries of small sizes which covers indoor illumination requirements and luminaries for general areas. One of the meteŕs attributes is given by the color sensor implemented, which allows knowing the color temperature of luminary under analysis. The Graphic Unit Interface (GUI) has several characteristics: It can control the meter, acquires the data obtained by the sensor and graphs them in 2D under Cartesian and polar formats or 3D, in Cartesian format. The graph can be exported to png, jpg, or bmp formats, if necessary. These remarkable characteristics differentiate this GUI. This proposal can be considered as a viable option for enterprises of illumination design and manufacturing, due to the relatively low investment level and considering the complete illumination characterization provided.

  2. Does sarcopenia predict change in mobility after hip fracture? a multicenter observational study with one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steihaug, Ole Martin; Gjesdal, Clara Gram; Bogen, Bård; Kristoffersen, Målfrid Holen; Lien, Gunhild; Hufthammer, Karl Ove; Ranhoff, Anette Hylen

    2018-03-05

    Patients with hip fracture frequently have sarcopenia and are at great risk of loss of mobility. We have investigated if sarcopenia predicts change in mobility after hip fracture. This is a prospective, multicenter observational study with one-year follow-up. Patients with hip fracture who were community-living and capable of walking before the fracture were included at three hospitals in Norway (2011-2013). The primary outcome of the study was change in mobility, measured by the New Mobility Score (NMS). Sarcopenia was determined postoperatively by anthropometry, grip strength, and NMS. We included 282 participants and sarcopenia status was determined in 201, of whom 38% (77/201) had sarcopenia, 66% (128/194) had low muscle mass, 52% (116/222) had low grip strength and 8% (20/244) had low pre-fracture mobility (NMS mobility (effect 0.2 points; 95% CI -0.5 to 0.9, P = 0.6), but it was associated with having lower mobility at one-year (NMS 5.8 (SD 2.3) vs. 6.8 (SD 2.2), P = 0.003), becoming a resident of a nursing home (odds ratio 3.2, 95% CI 0.9 to 12.4, P = 0.048), and the combined endpoint of becoming a resident of a skilled nursing home or death (odds ratio 3.6, 95% CI 1.2 to 12.2, P = 0.02). Sarcopenia did not predict change in mobility in the year after hip fracture.

  3. Animal models of cachexia and sarcopenia in chronic illness: Cardiac function, body composition changes and therapeutic results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Junichi; Saitoh, Masakazu; Doehner, Wolfram; von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Markus; Anker, Stefan D; Springer, Jochen

    2017-07-01

    Cachexia is defined as a complex metabolic syndrome associated with underlying illness that is characterized by the loss of body weight consisting of muscle and fat mass wasting. Sarcopenia is defined as the ageing related loss of muscle mass in health and disease that may not have an effect on body weight. As millions of patients are in cachectic or sarcopenic states, both conditions contribute to high numbers to death worldwide. A number of treatments have been proposed for cachexia and sarcopenia, but these are either in the preclinical stage or in clinical trials and hence not available to the general population. Particularly in cachexia there is a massive problem of recruiting patients for trials and also with the follow-up, due to the seriousness of the disease. This underlines the importance of well-characterized animal models. Obviously, most of the widely used cachexia and sarcopenia animal models have limitations in reproducibility of the condition and novel models are warranted in this context. The key findings of developing models in the field of cachexia and sarcopenia are that more types of the conditions have been taken into the researchers' interest. In cardiac cachexia, technical issues, which limit the preciseness and reproducibility in surgical heart failure models, have been overcome by a combination of surgery and the use of transgenic mouse models or salt sensitive rat models. Fatigue is the most pronounced symptom of cachexia and may be caused by reduced cardiac function independent of the underlying disease. Sarcopenia models often suffer from the use of young animals, due to the limited availability and very high costs of using aged animals. This review will focus on rodent models designed to mimic cachexia and sarcopenia including co-morbidities such as cancer, heart failure, as well as other diseases and conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Sarcopenia exacerbates obesity-associated insulin resistance and dysglycemia: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preethi Srikanthan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia often co-exists with obesity, and may have additive effects on insulin resistance. Sarcopenic obese individuals could be at increased risk for type 2 diabetes. We performed a study to determine whether sarcopenia is associated with impairment in insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in obese and non-obese individuals.We performed a cross-sectional analysis of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III data utilizing subjects of 20 years or older, non-pregnant (N = 14,528. Sarcopenia was identified from bioelectrical impedance measurement of muscle mass. Obesity was identified from body mass index. Outcomes were homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA IR, glycosylated hemoglobin level (HbA1C, and prevalence of pre-diabetes (6.0≤ HbA1C<6.5 and not on medication and type 2 diabetes. Covariates in multiple regression were age, educational level, ethnicity and sex.Sarcopenia was associated with insulin resistance in non-obese (HOMA IR ratio 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.26 to 1.52 and obese individuals (HOMA-IR ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.18. Sarcopenia was associated with dysglycemia in obese individuals (HbA1C ratio 1.021, 95% CI 1.011 to 1.043 but not in non-obese individuals. Associations were stronger in those under 60 years of age. We acknowledge that the cross-sectional study design limits our ability to draw causal inferences.Sarcopenia, independent of obesity, is associated with adverse glucose metabolism, and the association is strongest in individuals under 60 years of age, which suggests that low muscle mass may be an early predictor of diabetes susceptibility. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, further research is urgently needed to develop interventions to prevent sarcopenic obesity and its metabolic consequences.

  5. [A comparison of the associations of dynapenia and sarcopenia with fear of falling in elderly diabetic patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Satoshi; Murata, Kazuya; Ishihara, Yuki; Imataka, Kanako; Kaneko, Ryutaro; Fujiwara, Ryoko; Takahashi, Hiroka

    2017-01-01

    To comparatively investigate whether dynapenia and sarcopenia, as defined by the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS), are associated with fear of falling in elderly patients with diabetes. The subjects were outpatients with diabetes who were at least 65 years of age when they visited our hospital. Sarcopenia was evaluated based on the AWGS definition. The cutoff values for the appendicular skeletal mass index (multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance method), grip strength, and walking speed were, respectively, 7.0 kg/m 2 for men and 5.7 kg/m 2 for women, 26 kg for men and 18 kg for women, and ≤0.8 m/s for both men and women. Those with grip strength of less than or equal to the cutoff value were considered to have dynapenia. Fear of falling was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire survey with the Fall Efficacy Scale (FES) Japanese version. A multiple regression analysis was conducted using the FES score as a dependent variable and dynapenia or sarcopenia and moderators as explanatory variables. A total of 202 patients (male, n=127; female, n=75) were analyzed in this study. The FES scores of the patients with and without sarcopenia did not differ to a statistically significant extent in either male or female patients. The multiple regression analysis revealed a statistically significant association between dynapenia and the FES score in men (P=0.028). In elderly outpatients with diabetes, no association was found between sarcopenia and the fear of falling in either men or women. In contrast, a statistically significant association was found between dynapenia and fear of falling in men. This suggests the importance paying attention to the fear of falling when examining elderly male diabetes patients with dynapenia.

  6. Portable Tablets in Science Museum Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gronemann, Sigurd Trolle

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increasing use of portable tablets in learning, their impact has received little attention in research. In five different projects, this media-ethnographic and design-based analysis of the use of portable tablets as a learning resource in science museums investigates how young people...... is identified. It is argued that, paradoxically, museums’ decisions to innovate by introducing new technologies, such as portable tablets, and new pedagogies to support them conflict with many young people’s traditional ideas of museums and learning. The assessment of the implications of museums’ integration...... of portable tablets indicates that in making pedagogical transformations to accommodate new technologies, museums risk opposing didactic intention if pedagogies do not sufficiently attend to young learners’ systemic expectations to learning and to their expectations to the digital experience influenced...

  7. Cardiovascular fitness strengthening using portable device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqudah, Hamzah; Kai Cao; Tao Zhang; Haddad, Azzam; Su, Steven; Celler, Branko; Nguyen, Hung T

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes a reliable and valid Portable Exercise Monitoring system developed using TI eZ430-Chronos watch, which can control the exercise intensity through audio stimulation in order to increase the Cardiovascular fitness strengthening.

  8. 46 CFR 78.47-70 - Portable magazine chests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 78.47-70 Section 78.47-70... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-70 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chest shall be marked in letters of at least 3 inches high “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND...

  9. 46 CFR 108.651 - Portable magazine chests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 108.651 Section 108.651... AND EQUIPMENT Equipment Markings and Instructions § 108.651 Portable magazine chests. Each portable magazine chest must be marked: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND FIRE AWAY” in letters at...

  10. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP...

  11. 46 CFR 169.743 - Portable magazine chests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 169.743 Section 169.743... Vessel Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment Markings § 169.743 Portable magazine chests. Portable magazine chests must be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST...

  12. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE — KEEP...

  13. Portability of Technical Skills Across Occupations

    OpenAIRE

    Mukuni, Joseph Siloka

    2012-01-01

    In the literature, much has been reported about skill shortages in the labor market and many solutions have been suggested but most of them do not appear to work well for developing countries. This study investigated the place of portable technical skills as an option for addressing skill shortages, particularly in developing countries. The objective of the study was to determine whether different occupations have portable technical skills, which graduates of workforce development programs ca...

  14. Forensic Analysis of the Sony Playstation Portable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Scott; Rodriguez, Carlos; Marberry, Chris; Craiger, Philip

    The Sony PlayStation Portable (PSP) is a popular portable gaming device with features such as wireless Internet access and image, music and movie playback. As with most systems built around a processor and storage, the PSP can be used for purposes other than it was originally intended - legal as well as illegal. This paper discusses the features of the PSP browser and suggests best practices for extracting digital evidence.

  15. Muscle atrophy as pre-sarcopenia in Japanese patients with chronic liver disease: computed tomography is useful for evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Hiraoka, Atsushi; Aibiki, Toshihiko; Okudaira, Tomonari; Toshimori, Akiko; Kawamura, Tomoe; Nakahara, Hiromasa; Suga, Yoshifumi; Azemoto, Nobuaki; Miyata, Hideki; Miyamoto, Yasunao; Ninomiya, Tomoyuki; Hirooka, Masashi; Abe, Masanori; Matsuura, Bunzo; Hiasa, Yoichi

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim The definition of muscle atrophy (pre-sarcopenia) and its diagnostic criteria have not been well reported. To elucidate the frequency of pre-sarcopenia in chronic liver disease (CLD), we examined clinical features of Japanese CLD patients using abdominal computed tomography (CT) findings. Methods We enrolled 988 CLD (736 with na?ve hepatocellular carcinoma) and 372 normal control subjects (NCs). The psoas muscle area index [PI, psoas muscle area at the mid-L3 level in CT (cm2)/...

  16. Significance of sarcopenia as a prognostic factor for metastatic urothelial carcinoma patients treated with systemic chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Hideyuki; Takei, Kohei; Uematsu, Toshitaka; Tokura, Yuumi; Suzuki, Issei; Sakamoto, Kazumasa; Nishihara, Daisaku; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki; Mizuno, Tomoya; Nukui, Akinori; Kobayashi, Minoru; Kamai, Takao

    2018-04-01

    Recently, numerous studies have reported an association between sarcopenia and poor outcomes in various kinds of malignancies. We investigated whether sarcopenia predicts the survival of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma who underwent systemic chemotherapy. We reviewed 87 metastatic urothelial carcinoma patients who underwent chemotherapy (gemcitabine plus cisplatin or gemcitabine plus carboplatin for cisplatin-unfit patients) between 2007 and 2015. A computed tomography scan prior to chemotherapy was used for evaluating sarcopenia, and we measured three cross-sectional areas of skeletal muscle at the third lumbar vertebra and calculated the skeletal muscle index (SMI), the paraspinal muscle index (PSMI), and the total psoas area (TPA) of each patient. Predictive values of survival were assessed using Cox regression analysis. The median overall survival (OS) was 16 months (95% CI 13.5-18). Although SMI alone was not a significant predictor of shorter OS (P = 0.117) in univariate analysis, SMI stratified by the value of the body mass index (BMI) was a significant predictor of shorter OS in univariate analysis (P = 0.037) and was also an independent predictor of shorter OS in multivariate analysis (P = 0.026). PSMI and TPA were not significant prognostic factors even when stratified by BMI (P = 0.294 and 0.448), respectively. Neither PSMI nor TPA could substitute SMI as a predictor for poor outcomes in metastatic urothelial carcinoma patients treated with systemic chemotherapy in our study. SMI stratified by BMI is a useful predictor of prognosis in these patients.

  17. The Relationship between Sarcopenia and Systemic Inflammatory Response for Cancer Cachexia in Small Cell Lung Cancer.

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    Eun Young Kim

    Full Text Available The prognostic significance of sarcopenia, an important component of cancer cachexia, has been demonstrated in oncologic patients. Catabolic drivers have been suggested to be key features of cancer cachexia.To determine the relationship between systemic inflammatory markers and CT-determined muscle mass in patients with SCLC.Cross-sectional muscle areas were evaluated at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3 using baseline CT images in 186 SCLC patients. Sarcopenia was defined as a L3 muscle index (L3MI, muscle area at L3/height2 of < 55 cm2/m2 for men and of < 39 cm2/m2 for women. Systemic inflammatory markers investigated included serum white blood cell count (WBC, neutrophil: lymphocyte ratio (NLR, C-reactive protein (CRP, and albumin.Mean L3MI was 47.9 ± 9.7 cm2/m2 for men and 41.6 ± 7.0 cm2/m2 for women. Sarcopenia was present in 128 patients (68.8%, and sarcopenic patients had significant serum lymphocyte counts and albumin levels (p = 0.002 and 0.041, respectively, and higher NLRs and CRP levels (p = 0.011 and 0.026 than non-sarcopenic patients. Multivariable analysis revealed that CRP independently predicted L3MI (β = -0.208; 95% CI, -0.415 to -0.002; p = 0.048, along with gender and BMI (p values < 0.001 and performance status (p = 0.010.The present study confirms a significant linear relationship exists between CT-determined muscle mass and CRP in SCLC patients. This association might provide a better understanding of the mechanism of cancer cachexia.

  18. Sarcopenia is a predictive factor for intestinal resection in admitted patients with Crohn's disease.

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    Shigeki Bamba

    Full Text Available The relationship between skeletal muscle volume and the prognosis of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD remains undetermined. We conducted a retrospective study of 72 IBD patients who were admitted to the hospital due to disease exacerbation. We enrolled IBD patients who had undergone abdominal computed tomography and assessed the nutritional indices, such as the Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (O-PNI and the controlling nutritional status (CONUT index. The L3 skeletal muscle index (SMI, which is the ratio of the cross-sectional area of skeletal muscles at the level of the third lumbar (L3 vertebra to the height squared, was used to identify sarcopenia. Sarcopenia, defined as a low SMI, was observed in 42% of all IBD patients (37% with Crohn's disease (CD and 48% with ulcerative colitis (UC. In UC patients, the O-PNI and CONUT values, height, and albumin levels were significantly lower than in CD patients. The SMI strongly correlated with sex, body weight, albumin level, and O-PNI in IBD patients. Multivariate analysis using the Cox regression model demonstrated that the presence of sarcopenia (P = 0.015 and disease t