on a distinction between history and narrative, I outline an account of historical becoming through a process of sedimentation and a rich notion of what I call historical selfhood on an embodied level. Five embodied existentials are suggested, sketching a preliminary understanding of how selves are concretely......Narrative theories currently dominate our understanding of how selfhood is constituted and concretely individuated throughout personal history. Despite this success, the narrative perspective has recently been exposed to a range of critiques. Whilst these critiques have been effective in pointing...... out the shortcomings of narrative theories of selfhood, they have been less willing and able to suggest alternative ways of understanding personal history. In this article, I assess the criticisms and argue that an adequate phenomenology of personal history must also go beyond narrative. Drawing...
Levie, S.A.; Wildschut, P.A.
This article investigates the interaction of person marking and focalization in the short story ‘Signs and Symbols’ (first published 1948, The New Yorker) by Russian-American author Vladimir Nabokov. This story has been studied extensively for its symbolism, its metafictional aspect, and its
Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Geise, Aaron C; Roberts, Brent W; Robins, Richard W
The present research investigated the longitudinal relations between personality traits and narratives. Specifically, the authors examined how individual differences in 170 college students' narratives of personality change (a) were predicted by personality traits at the beginning of college, (b) related to actual changes and perceived changes in personality traits during college, and (c) related to changes in emotional health during college. Individual differences in narratives of personality trait change told in the 4th year of college fell into 2 dimensions: affective processing, characterized by positive emotions, and exploratory processing, characterized by meaning making and causal processing. Conscientious, open, and extraverted freshmen told exploratory stories of change as seniors. Emotionally healthy freshmen told stories of change that were high in positive affect. Both positive affective and exploratory stories corresponded to change in emotional stability and conscientiousness during college above and beyond the effects of perceived changes in these traits. In addition, both positive affective and exploratory narratives corresponded to increases in emotional health during college independent of the effects of changes in personality traits. These findings improve our understanding of how individuals conceptualize their changing identity over time.
The work of Carol Berkenkotter and others who have expanded the realm of personal narrative studies over the past several decades would not have been possible without the pioneering efforts of those who first brought the study of narrative to nonliterary discourses. By revisiting what personal narratives were to these pioneers-working outward from…
Gaydos, H Lea
This paper explores the need for and nature of personal narratives and their relevance to nursing practice. It proposes that the co-creative aesthetic process can be used to understand and co-create personal narratives through an emphasis on self-defining memories and metaphor. Many authors in nursing and other human sciences have recognized the need for and importance of personal narrative, its relationship to aesthetic knowing and its value in qualitative research and in practice. The role of memory and metaphor in the creation of meaning in personal narratives, however, has not been sufficiently explored in nursing literature. The nature of personal narrative is explored, focusing on the way meaning is created from self-defining memories using metaphor. Then, the importance of personal narratives in nursing practice is considered, followed by discussion about how meaning in personal narratives may be co-created between clients and nurses using an aesthetic process developed by the author. The co-creative aesthetic process is an example of nursing as art and can be used to co-create personal narratives in practice. The experience of co-creating a self story with a nurse can be healing, as the self story is heard by a caring person, memories are understood in new ways, and the self story is both confirmed and recreated.
John T. Booker
Full Text Available Gide's The Immoralist , a short first-person novel written at the beginning of the century, has long been seen as an early example of the unreliable narrator. More recently, critical attention has focused on the tensions set up in the work between the carefully drawn formal structure of the narrative and the claim of Michel, the narrator, to tell his story in a direct and simple manner. Of more general interest, however, is the way Michel's narration provides insight into important developments that have taken place in the first-person novel itself in the twentieth century. Cast initially in a very traditional mold, Michel's story breaks down progressively as it moves from events of a more distant past to those much closer in time to his moment of narration. This breakdown of Michel's narrative seems to presage the movement in the first- person novel in France away from the relation of a story as traditionally conceived and towards the increasing importance accorded the present of narration itself. In that sense, The Immoralist is a key, pivotal work in the long line of short first-person works of fiction in France.
The aim of this study was to show some specificity of syntax of narratives created by persons diagnosed with antisocial personality. The author attempted to verify and supplement information that persons with antisocial personality have an incapacity for emotional language. Scores of 60 prisoners with high antisocial tendencies, 40 prisoners with…
Ladeira , Ilda; Marsden , Gary; Green , Lesley
Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; We describe an ongoing collaboration with the District Six Museum, in Cape Town, aimed at designing a storytelling prototype for preserving personal experience narratives. We detail the design of an interactive virtual environment (VE) which was inspired by a three month ethnography of real-life oral storytelling. The VE places the user as an audience member in a virtual group listening to two storytelling agents capable of two forms of i...
Miller, Peggy J.; Chen, Eva Chian-Hui; Olivarez, Megan
Although very young children are unable to formulate a personal narrative of the life course, their everyday lives are steeped in narratives. Drawing on ethnographic studies in diverse sociocultural worlds, we argue that the early years of life form a vital preamble to the personal narrative. In this phase of life, the universal predisposition to…
Cantell, Saara (kirjoittaja); Jeremiah, Fleur (kääntäjä)
Saara Cantell proposes and discusses alternative ways of approaching short film. This book emphasizes short film as an independent and challenging cinematic art form of its own right. The "mystery" of short film is approached by examining the aesthetics of other short forms, The structural parallels between e.g. jokes and short films, as well as narrative strategies found in poetry, offer meaningful references. The research consists of both the analysis of selected short films and the five sh...
Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Fivush, Robyn
Relations between narratives, especially the inclusion of internal state language within narratives, and well-being have been found in adults. However, research with adolescents has been sparse and the findings inconsistent. We examined gender differences in adolescents' personal autobiographical narratives as well as relations between internal…
Soto, Gloria; Solomon-Rice, Patti; Caputo, Michele
Children who use augmentative and alternative communication have been found to experience significant difficulties in the production of fictional and personal narratives. The important role of personal narratives in establishing personal and social identity has received substantial attention in developmental psychology but little attention in the…
Shokouhi, Hossein; Daram, Mahmood; Sabah, Somayeh
This article reports on the difference between points of view in narrating a short story. The EFL learners taking part in the control group were required to recount the events from the third person perspective and the subjects in the experimental group from the first person perspective. The methodological frame of the study was based on Koven's…
Bliss, Lynn S.; McCabe, Allyssa
A study was conducted to examine the misdiagnosis of cultural difference deficits and how mistaking deficits in narrative production for cultural differences can be avoided. Findings reveal the implications for intervention.
Stakić Mirjana M.
Full Text Available The paper investigates the stylistic features of narrative procedure in a psychological short story in the context of its interpretation in the teaching of the Serbian language and literature. The narrative procedure in a psychological short story is characterized by the use of the first person in narrating, that is I form, an interior monologue and direct interior monologue, dreams, oversights and introspective. It is also characterized by a particular sentence structure, of often incomplete and elliptical form, used to express the conflicts going on in characters' inner sphere and verbal interaction between the characters. The narrative procedure applied in a psychological short story indicates that its plot is subdued to the internal psychological experiences. During the interpretation of a psychological short story students, through the interpretation of stylistic and narrative procedures, are directed and encouraged to discover complex and often hidden psychological mechanisms which spur the characters to act, influence their behavior, verbal expression and mutual relations. The interpretation of language signs which may have psychological and semantic potential leads to the revealing of unconscious internal psychological processes and mechanisms which take place within a literary character.
Waters, Theodore E A; Köber, Christin; Raby, K Lee; Habermas, Tilmann; Fivush, Robyn
Narrative theories of personality assume that individual differences in coherence reflect consistent and stable differences in narrative style rather than situational and event-specific differences (e.g., McAdams & McLean, 2013). However, this assumption has received only modest empirical attention. Therefore, we present two studies testing the theoretical assumption of a consistent and stable coherent narrative style. Study 1 focused on the two most traumatic and most positive life events of 224 undergraduates. These event-specific narratives were coded for three coherence dimensions: theme, context, and chronology (NaCCs; Reese et al., 2011). Study 2 focused on two life narratives told 4 years apart by 98 adults, which were coded for thematic, causal, and temporal coherence (Köber, Schmiedek, & Habermas, 2015). Confirmatory factor analysis in both studies revealed that individual differences in the coherence ratings were best explained by a model including both narrative style and event-/narration-specific latent variables. The ways in which we tell autobiographical narratives reflect a stable feature of individual differences. Further, they suggest that this stable element of personality is necessary, but not sufficient, in accounting for specific event and life narrative coherence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Meininger, Herman P
Both in The Netherlands and in Britain, practices of 'life story work' have emerged in nursing for persons with intellectual disabilities. The narrative approach to care and support may at the same time be considered as an attempt to compensate for the 'disabled authorship' of many persons with intellectual disabilities and as a sign of controversy with standard practices of diagnosis and treatment that tend to neglect the personal identities of both clients and care givers, their particular historical and relational contexts and their spiritual needs. This paper argues that narrative ethics not only offers an appropriate moral framework for practices of life story work, but that these practices are a narrative ethics in action. Starting with an account of the concept of 'life story work' as it has been introduced in nursing practices in the field of intellectual disability, the paper explains its relationship with key characteristics of narrative ethics. The teleological dimension in narrative ethics and in practices of life story work sparks off a dialectic process of understanding of the client and self-understanding of the care giver. It also invites a respect for life in its openness toward the future and presupposes an openness toward other possible versions of the life narrative. The phenomenological and hermeneutic-interpretative methodologies in narrative ethics aim at a 'sudden moment of intimacy' in relationships of nurses and clients. The 'epiphany' of this essential moment of recognition, insight and engagement cannot, however, be brought about by methodology.
Kinkead, Joyce, Ed.
This book presents edited versions of the personal narratives of 24 Mormon women who taught school in frontier Utah. Drawn primarily from the archives of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints, the accounts detail the women's lives as Mormons, as pioneers, and as teachers and have been edited to focus on the education of women,…
Through a student/teacher classroom conflict, the author explores ways adults produce student writers as vulnerable. Drawing on post-structural concepts of adolescence, identity production, interrogation, and vulnerability, the author details how an English teacher invited students to perform vulnerability in personal narratives about issues like…
Dalsgaard, Matias Møl
Within philosophy and psychology the view is today being advanced that the well-being of a person is essentially related to the person's capacity to construct and live out meaningful life narratives. Most notably, thinkers such as Alasdair MacIntyre, Paul Ricoeur and Charles Taylor represent this...... willing to be oneself. In discussing the notion of willing wholeheartedly the paper links Kierkegaard to Harry G. Frankfurt's philosophy of personhood.......Within philosophy and psychology the view is today being advanced that the well-being of a person is essentially related to the person's capacity to construct and live out meaningful life narratives. Most notably, thinkers such as Alasdair MacIntyre, Paul Ricoeur and Charles Taylor represent...
Korhonen, Olli; Oduor, Michael; Isomursu, Minna
and self-monitoring are common for activity and emotion tracking applications, and lately there has been interest also in the use of narratives. Consequently, in this study we evaluate through a qualitative study how narratives are used to motivate physical activity. We analyze both user and system......Technology supporting motivation for physical activity has been a common theme for researchers and companies during the last decade. Mobile devices and applications with diverse features provide novel and personalized ways to motivate users for healthier lifestyles. Features like goal orientation...
It is often emphasised that persons diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) show difficulties in understanding their own psychological states. In this article, I argue that from a phenomenological perspective, BPD can be understood as an existential modality in which the embodied self is profoundly saturated by an alienness regarding the person's own affects and responses. However, the balance of familiarity and alienness is not static, but can be cultivated through, e.g., psychotherapy. Following this line of thought, I present the idea that narrativising experiences can play an important role in processes of appropriating such embodied self-alienness. Importantly, the notion of narrative used is that of a scalar conception of narrativity as a variable quality of experience that comes in degrees. From this perspective, narrative appropriation is a process of gradually attributing the quality of narrativity to experiences, thereby familiarising the moods, affects, and responses that otherwise govern 'from behind'. Finally, I propose that the idea of a narrative appropriation of embodied self-alienness is also relevant to the much-debated question of personal responsibility in BPD, particularly as this question plays out in psychotherapeutic contexts where a narrative self-appropriation may facilitate an increase in sense of autonomy and reduce emotions of guilt and shame.
Full Text Available It is often assumed that narrating a story from the protagonist’s perspective increases the readers’ inclination to take over this perspective. In a questionnaire study, we examined to which degree different textual modes of narration (a increase the degree to which the reader can generally relate to the protagonist (what we will call 'relatedness', (b make the reader prone to imagine the scene from the 'spatial point-of-view 'of the protagonist, and (c enhance the psychological perspective-taking of the reader, measured as 'identification 'with the protagonist. We employed two different types of texts—one literary and one non-literary—and tested them in four different modes of narration: free indirect discourse, psycho-narration, first-person narration and external focalization. In terms of the 'relatedness 'between the reader and protagonist and 'spatial perspective-taking 'the largest differences (descriptively occurred between external focalization and psycho-narration ('p'& .05 for 'relatedness', 'p'& .05 for 'spatial perspective-taking' and between external focalization and first-person narration ('p'& .05 for 'relatedness', for 'spatial perspective-taking p'& .1. 'Identification', measured with items from a questionnaire on reading experience (Appel et al. 2002, was highest for first-person narration. Here, the difference between first-person narration and external focalization turned out significant only after including dispositional empathy, thematic interest for the text and attention during reading as covariates. Results for the other two perspective-taking measures were unaffected by the inclusion of the same covariates. In conclusion, our data show that first-person and psycho-narration increased the tendency to take over the perspective of the protagonist, but FID did not. This article is part of the special collection: Perspective Taking
Su, I-Ru; Chou, Yi-Chun
Most of the research on second language (L2) narratives has focused on whether or how L2 learners carry their L1 narrative styles into L2 narration; few studies have explored whether L2 learners' knowledge of the L2 also in turn affects their L1 narrative performance. The present study attempted to probe the issue of cultural transfer in narrative…
The article considers the features of the narrative approach as a new methodology for the study of personality and its development mechanisms. The article discusses the basic settings of social constructionism, in which most of the narrative research are carried out to date, and discloses the basic approaches and concepts of the narrative approach. The article also shows the ability of the narrative approach in the in the research process of socialization and the formation of human identity i...
Warriner, Doris S.
This article investigates when and how narratives of personal experience and displacement reference and characterize dimensions of time and space, with a focus on how temporal elasticity might serve as an interactional resource. Examining the dynamic, situated, and intertwined nature of such narratives, the analysis looks at how…
D'Cruz, Kate; Douglas, Jacinta; Serry, Tanya
Although narrative storytelling has been found to assist identity construction, there is little direct research regarding its application in rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aim of this review was to identify published evidence on the use of personal narrative approaches in rehabilitation following TBI and to synthesise the findings across this literature. A systematic search of four databases was conducted in December 2016. No limit was set on the start date of the search. Personal narrative approaches were defined as direct client participation in sharing personal stories using written, spoken or visual methods. The search retrieved 12 qualitative research articles on the use of personal narrative approaches in TBI rehabilitation. Thematic synthesis of the narrative data and authors' reported findings of the 12 articles yielded an overall theme of building a strengths-based identity and four sub-themes: 1) expressing and communicating to others; 2) feeling validated by the act of someone listening; 3) reflecting and learning about oneself; and 4) being productive. The findings of this review support the use of personal narrative approaches in addressing loss of identity following TBI. Healthcare professionals and the community are encouraged to seek opportunities for survivors of TBI to share their stories.
Fredy Orlando Salamanca González
Full Text Available In a public university in Tunja (Colombia, undergraduate language students mentioned that writing was important and yet, they kept at a distance from it due to its requirements. The aim of this pedagogical intervention was to find a strategy to encourage students to write and, more importantly, to feel an identity with their texts. For this pedagogical intervention, students were required to write narratives that allowed them to portray their experiences using the target language and to look for the most accurate words and descriptions. From a pedagogical perspective, writing the narratives provided the teacher with the possibility of knowing his students better and to feel an affiliation towards them.
Singer, Jefferson A; Blagov, Pavel; Berry, Meredith; Oost, Kathryn M
An integrative model of narrative identity builds on a dual memory system that draws on episodic memory and a long-term self to generate autobiographical memories. Autobiographical memories related to critical goals in a lifetime period lead to life-story memories, which in turn become self-defining memories when linked to an individual's enduring concerns. Self-defining memories that share repetitive emotion-outcome sequences yield narrative scripts, abstracted templates that filter cognitive-affective processing. The life story is the individual's overarching narrative that provides unity and purpose over the life course. Healthy narrative identity combines memory specificity with adaptive meaning-making to achieve insight and well-being, as demonstrated through a literature review of personality and clinical research, as well as new findings from our own research program. A clinical case study drawing on this narrative identity model is also presented with implications for treatment and research. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Reese, Elaine; Chen, Yan; McAnally, Helena M; Myftari, Ella; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona
Narrative and trait levels of personality were assessed in a sample of 268 adolescents from age 12 to 21 from New Zealand Māori, Chinese, and European cultures. Adolescents narrated three critical events and completed a Big Five personality inventory. Each narrative was coded for causal and thematic coherence. NZ Chinese adolescents reported lower levels of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness, and higher levels of neuroticism, than NZ Māori or European adolescents. Cultural differences were also evident in narrative coherence. Adolescents in all three groups demonstrated age-related increases in thematic coherence, but only NZ European adolescents demonstrated the expected age-related increases in causal coherence. Narrative identity and traits were distinct aspects of personality for younger adolescents, but were linked for middle and older adolescents. These findings support the importance of both narrative identity and traits in understanding personality development in adolescents across cultures. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... 1918-1979) pubblicato all'inizio degli anni Sessanta. Grazie a tali scelte narrative, Gasperini riesce a costruire un romanzo estremamente innovativo nel panorama della narrativa popolare rivolta a un pubblico femminile. Mentre il racconto in prima persona facilita l'identificazione delle lettrici con la voce narrante, il punto ...
Full Text Available From the starting point of narrative ethnography, this article explores a specific kind of service user involvement in psychiatry: staff training activities in which patients and former patients are invited to “tell their stories”. A core feature of these stories is that they are based on the narrators’ self-perceived experience, and they all have a highly personal character. I call these stories service user narratives, and these are the topic of study in this article. The narratives’ disposition, content and functions are explored, as is the role played by the personal aspects of the stories. This article investigates two functions of the service user narrative: the narrative as a means (1 of creating alternative images of mental ill health, and (2 of enabling a critique of psychiatry.
Citizens participating in contemporary socio-scientific issues (SSI) need to draw on local knowledge and personal experience. If curricular developments in the teaching of controversial SSI are to reflect contemporary notions of citizenship then the personal narrative is an indispensable instrument in bridging the gap between the local/personal…
Wadensten, Barbro; Ahlström, Gerd
The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences of persons with severe functional disabilities who receive personal assistance in their homes, the focus being on their daily life in relation to the ethical principles represented in the Swedish Disability Act: autonomy, integrity, influence and participation. Qualitative interviews were performed with 26 persons and thereafter subjected to qualitative latent content analysis. The experiences of personal assistance were very much in accordance with the said principles, the most important factor being that one is met with understanding. The participants described situations in which their integrity was violated in that they were not treated as competent adults. This indicates the importance of future efforts in nursing to support personal assistants with ethical knowledge and supervision so that they can empower people with disabilities and thereby enable them to maintain their self-esteem and dignity.
Villar, Feliciano; Serrat, Rodrigo
The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of narrative care in the attention of older people who receive care in institutions, underlining how its use provides a better understanding of the Person Centered Care (PCC) model and valuable strategies to put it into practice. To achieve this goal, firstly, we describe the relevance of a narrative approach for understanding the experience of the old person who receive care in institutions, with regards to individual aspects as well as to her/his relationships with professionals and the institutional discourse which contextualize these relationships. Secondly, we specify different ways in which the use of narratives could have an impact on the improvement of the quality of attention and well-being of older people receiving care in institutions. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Jones, Richard G; Calafell, Bernadette Marie
In this article, we use personal narrative to explore allies and alliance building between marginalized people working in and through higher education, with an eye toward interrogating the ways in which ideologies of neoliberalism work to maintain hierarchy through the legitimation of othering. Inspired by Conquergood (1985 ), who calls scholars to engage in intimate conversation rather than distanced observation, we offer our embodied experiences as a way to use the personal to reflect on the cultural, social, and political. Our narratives often recount being out of place, moments of incongruence, or our marked otherness. Through the sharing of these narratives, we will demonstrate the possibility for ally building based in affective connections forged through shared queer consciousness, paying particular attention to the ways in which neoliberal ideologies, such as individualism and postracism, may advance and impede such alliances.
Full Text Available Nostalgic narratives occur in two major forms – as historical nostalgia and as personal nostalgia. Personal contents and historical stories can be registered in the free form of life stories, a well-known genre in folkloristics, as well as in narratives obtained through two forms of interview. The first form of interview is generated from anthropological tradition, or rather, ethnographic data gathering and refers to descriptions of social, economic and all other elements of the past, while the other form of interview, generated in psychology, similar to an in-depth interview, refers to personal experiences from an earlier time. When nostalgic narratives are collected using either of these two approaches, it is possible to a conduct an analysis of each narrative on its own, or b compare them in order to determine similarities and differences. Based on this it is possible to determine where and how descriptions of the past which do not coincide with personal experience are generated, which is the main characteristic of both yugonostalgia and other similar ways of remembering the past.
Finestack, Lizbeth; O'Brien, Katy H.; Hyppa-Martin, Jolene; Lyrek, Kristen A.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of an intervention focused on improving personal narrative skills of school-age children with Down syndrome (DS) using an approach involving visual supports. Four females with DS, ages 10 through 15 years, participated in this multiple baseline across participants single-subject…
Edwards, Sharon L
Storytelling is intrinsic to human beings, and stories can explain events, stances taken and actions engaged in. When experience is represented as story it can become more organised and be used for analysis, critique and learning. Experience is important in nursing, as it is in many other practice-based professions, and it can contribute much to nurses' learning. Through a process of sharing and engaging with the author's personal stories, this article encourages nurses to begin to organise their own experiences in story form for use in learning and as part of their personal and professional development.
Glazzard, Jonathan; Dale, Kirsty
This paper tells the stories of two trainee teachers and their personal experiences of dyslexia. Both informants were English and training to be primary school teachers in England. Through drawing on their own experiences of education, the stories illustrate how dyslexia has shaped the self-concept, self-esteem and resilience of each informant.…
Full Text Available The present study seeks to explore some of the major assumptions made by cognitive linguists regarding language in an attempt to see how various language processes can participate in the emergence of literary meaning. Also, this is an attempt to bridge the gap between linguistics and literary studies. For that purpose, linguistic work with a cognitive orientation can open the floor to one highly debatable question in critical literary theory: the question of interpretation. The primary step in order to meet my objectives is the presentation of a model of analysis that investigates the processes of meaning formation in literary texts – the theory of blending seems to be extremely suitable for an account of meaning formation. I believe that my article can profit substantially from the wide array of instruments provided by the blending theory in order to understand the nature of the reader’s mind while reading literary (short stories. The study of the basic mental operation of blending is motivated by the general relationship of cognitive poetics and narrative theories. To this end, I will be extensively making use of the blending framework in order to address its narrative implications in two of Hemingway’s already canonical short stories – Big Two-Hearted River and Soldier’s Home. What I hope to demonstrate is that the conceptualization of the narrative mental spaces in these two short stories always has counterfactuality available and uses it as a valuable mental resource. Also, I will try to show that conceptual integration/ blending plays a central role in the self-construal of characters’ identity.
Cole, Barbara Ann
This paper examines narrative methodologies as one approach to exploring issues of gender, education and social justice and, particularly, insights into "undoing gender". It furthermore examines the possibilities of exploring gender and its multiple intersections in a range of global and policy contexts through the use of personal experience approaches. The "storying" of lived experience is examined as a means of challenging dominant discourses which can construct and other individuals and groups in relation to many aspects of gender and education. Drawing on intersectionality, as a complex and developing feminist theory, the paper considers ways in which narrative can illuminate often hidden complexities while seeking to avoid generalisations and essentialisms. The difficulties of using narrative in relation to these aims are explored in the light of the warnings of feminist writers such as Michele Fine and bell hooks. The paper briefly considers narrative as both methodology and phenomenon, and finally, drawing on critical discourse analysis, discusses the potential of intersectionality and narrative in relation to undoing gender.
Mills, Monique T.; Watkins, Ruth V.; Washington, Julie A.
Purpose To report preliminary comparisons of developing structural characteristics associated with fictional and personal narratives in school-age African American children. Method Forty-three children, grades two through five, generated a fictional and a personal narrative in response to a wordless-book elicitation task and a story-prompt task, respectively. Narratives produced in these two contexts were characterized for macrostructure, microstructure, and dialect density. Differences across narrative type and grade level were examined. Results Statistically significant differences between the two types of narratives were found for both macrostructure and microstructure but not for dialect density. There were no grade-related differences in macrostructure, microstructure, or dialect density. Conclusion The results demonstrate the complementary role of fictional and personal narratives for describing young children's narrative skills. Use of both types of narrative tasks and descriptions of both macrostructure and macrostructure may be particularly useful for characterizing the narrative abilities of young school-age African American children, for whom culture-fair methods are scarce. Further study of additional dialect groups is warranted. PMID:23633645
The study investigated how Taiwanese mothers with different socioeconomic statuses (SES) co-constructed personal experience with their children in narrative conversations. Forty dyads recruited in Taiwan participated in the study, half from middle-class families and half from the working-class. Narrative conversations in Mandarin Chinese were…
This paper develops Bruner’s (1991) notion of narrative accrual, in conjunction with ‘life-stories’ and ‘event-stories’, to focus on the accumulation of experiences as a contributor to working class identity. Situated between Mills’ (1959) personal troubles and public issues, and framed by Nouri and Helterline (1998) argument that identity is framed by social interaction with signification systems and other people, the author’s own experiences as an early career academic in two different Brit...
Van Der Zee, Karen; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Fietzer, Alexander W.
This study reports on the development of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire-Short Form among 511 participants. Using a split-sample scale validation design, Study 1 (N = 260) employed a principal component analysis and rigorous item selection criteria to extract a 40-item short form
Greene, Jessica; Hibbard, Judith H; Sacks, Rebecca M
This study tests whether a personal narrative can persuade people to value comparative data on physician quality. We conducted an online experiment with 850 adults. One group viewed a cartoon narrative on physician quality variation, another saw text on physician quality variation, and there was a control group. Study participants hypothetically selected a physician from a display of four physicians. The top-quality physician was furthest away and most expensive. We conducted multivariate models examining the relationship between experimental group and choice of the top-quality physician. There was no overall relationship between narrative or text information and choice of the highest quality physician. Among higher numerate participants, however, those who viewed the narrative had odds 2.7 times higher of selecting the top-quality physician compared with the control group. Personal narratives can persuade higher numerate people to consider quality when selecting physicians.
Lang, Fabian U; Otte, Stefanie; Vasic, Nenad; Jäger, Markus; Dudeck, Manuela
The study aimed to investigate the correlation between impulsiveness and the antisocial personality disorder among short-term prisoners. The impulsiveness was diagnosed by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS). Short-term prisoners with antisocial personality disorder scored significant higher marks on the BIS total scale than those without any personality disorder. In detail, they scored higher marks on each subscale regarding attentional, motor and nonplanning impulsiveness. Moderate and high effects were calculated. It is to be considered to regard impulsivity as a conceptual component of antisociality. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Rosenman, S; Handelsman, I
Through honing its collective memory, especially after the Holocaust, the Jewish community has attempted to sustain its culture, bolster the Jewish identity of its members, and regain a resolute sense that its narrative is again proceeding. To some degree, all these aims are realized by instilling in its members the Jewish modal character structure: a psychological configuration with two contrastable entities. One chronically discomposed self-structure, defining itself as polluted and helpless, trembles with the appalling imagery of historical and imminent community disasters. The other entity believes in its unmatched capacity for reparative, socially beneficial actions. The paradigm of this psychological organization is found in many children of survivors. The memory of a tragic history abides alongside the community's hopes in the Jewish modal personality. The need to set forth and accommodate these two motifs imprints upon the Jewish "national" character many of its distinctive qualities. The designs of the Jewish community for this particularly Jewish twofold personality formation are augmented by the personal revelations of survivors. Therefore, Holocaustic testimonies are invested with a sacred aura. In measure, these recitals of the disaster with their stark images, plus the clashing affects aroused in the reader toward main characters of the narrative, dictate the way Jews define themselves in the world and the way they live. A confluence of being covertly commissioned by the Jewish community joins with the narrators' more idiosyncratic longings. Together they generate a steady stream of Holocaustic accounts. Complementary vectors drive the reader to peruse these records. The results therefrom, intimate knowledge of the disaster, plus the twofold personality motifs stamp many Jews as scions of the Holocaust.
Larson, Martha; Jochems, Bart; Smits, Ewine; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Peters, Carol; Caputo, Barbara; Gonzalo, Julio
Narrative peaks are points at which the viewer perceives a spike in the level of dramatic tension within the narrative ﬂow of a video. This paper reports on four approaches to narrative peak detection in television documentaries that were developed by a joint team consisting of members from Delft
Nørtoft, Kamilla Pernille Johansen; Jakobsen, Helle Nordentoft
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential of ethnographic video narratives to initiate informal interdisciplinary learning by exposing the diversity in how different professionals interpret the same situation. In the paper we draw on data from a pilot study in Denmark in which we showed...... two ethnographic video narratives to interdisciplinary focus groups with health care professionals at 3 care centres. The video narratives are about Bodil in her home and Benny in a senior centre. When the participants had watched the video narratives they were asked to write down their impressions...... her medicine and the way Benny moves and talks make the research participants draw on embodied knowledge and professional values and goals in various ways depending on their professional background and personal experiences. When they meet each other’s interpretation of the video narratives...
Nilmanat, Kittikorn; Street, Annette
Facing an incurable prognosis Thai families search for a cure for AIDS using all possible means available to them. This paper reports a longitudinal narrative case study of eight family caregivers caring for a relative with AIDS in rural Southern Thailand. The paper demonstrates how the caregivers living with a person with AIDS made sense of illness episodes, and how they chose and evaluated particular treatments and care. Caregivers moved between modern medicine, traditional/folk medicine, supernatural healing rites, religious performances, and home remedies in their search for a cure. The findings indicate that a more holistic and palliative approach is needed toward AIDS care.
Caldron, Paul H; Impens, Ann; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim
Short-term medical missions (STMMs) refer to the provision of direct pro bono medical services in lower and middle income countries for periods ranging from days to a few weeks by physicians from rich countries. Survey data have provided limited information on demographic and professional profiles of physicians as well as monetary and manpower inputs. Understanding why physicians participate, however, remains incomplete. The study's objective was to elicit physicians' motivations directly. Semi-structured interviews of physicians identified through snowball recruiting were conducted to explore motivational themes and then analyzed using narrative software employing directed content analysis methodology. Twenty physicians from varying backgrounds and specialties were interviewed. Responses identified aspects of the decision to participate and the relative influence of economic, diplomatic, value-related, and emotive constructs. Personality traits may be more influential to participation than demographic, professional, or socioeconomic determinants. Word-of-mouth recruitment appears to underlie the increase in STMM activity, facilitated by information technology. Reported key motivators for physician participation in STMMs tend to parallel schools of thought regarding philanthropy and volunteering and include satisfaction from helping in challenging conditions of limited resources, learning experiences, appreciation from patients, sense of renewal, and the legacy effect of teaching. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Low, Lee-Fay; Fletcher, Jennifer
Worldwide trends of increasing dementia prevalence, have put economic and workforce pressures to shifting care for persons with dementia from residential care to home care. We reviewed the effects of the four dominant models of home care delivery on outcomes for community-dwelling persons with dementia. These models are: case management, integrated care, consumer directed care, and restorative care. This narrative review describes benefits and possible drawbacks for persons with dementia outcomes and elements that comprise successful programs. Case management for persons with dementia may increase use of community-based services and delay nursing home admission. Integrated care is associated with greater client satisfaction, increased use of community based services, and reduced hospital days however the clinical impacts on persons with dementia and their carers are not known. Consumer directed care increases satisfaction with care and service usage, but had little effect on clinical outcomes. Restorative models of home care have been shown to improve function and quality of life however these trials have excluded persons with dementia, with the exception of a pilot study. There has been a little research into models of home care for people with dementia, and no head-to-head comparison of the different models. Research to inform evidence-based policy and service delivery for people with dementia needs to evaluate both the impact of different models on outcomes, and investigate how to best deliver these models to maximize outcomes.
Bunning, Karen; Gooch, Lynsey; Johnson, Miranda
Sharing personal experience in narrative is challenging for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The aim was to investigate the potential of Storysharing ® (Storysharing is an innovative communication method based on personal narrative, which has been developed to support conversations with people who have severe difficulties in communication) intervention. The study involved eleven pupil-educational supporter dyads at a special school. Storysharing ® was implemented over a 15-week period. Personal narratives were captured on video pre- and post-intervention. The data were analysed for discourse and narrative. Significant differences revealed a decline in 'query-answer' sequences and an increase in supporter use of 'prompts'. After intervention, there were fewer story episodes. Narrative structure showed gains in action sequences leading to climax, and in closing elements, indicating a more complete narrative. The Storysharing ® intervention appears to be associated with changes to the dyadic, personal narratives illustrating its potential. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Keefe, John R; DeRubeis, Robert J
Personality disorder (PD) is a negative prognostic indicator for treatment, and absolute improvements in functioning among these patients are often modest. This may be because personality features that give rise to dysfunction in PD are not targeted optimally during most treatments. Attachment, mentalization, core beliefs, and personality organization/defense use were identified as personality constructs that have been pursued in treatment studies and that are proposed to underlie PD. All constructs correlate with psychiatric symptoms, PD diagnosis, and functioning. Defense mechanisms and core beliefs further distinguish specific PDs, whereas personality organization separates more versus less severe PDs. Evidence from treatment and naturalistic studies indicate that maturation of defense mechanisms temporally precedes improvements in symptoms and functioning. Changes in attachment and mentalization correlate with some outcomes, but mediation of improvement has not been established. In psychodynamic therapy, transference interpretations may promote amelioration of personality dysfunction. With the exception of attachment, the experimental literature is lacking that could explicate the mechanisms by which these personality constructs maintain psychosocial dysfunction. Future research should aim to identify changes in these mechanisms that mediate positive outcomes in PD, as well as the specific therapeutic procedures that best promote positive change in PD.
Marcia Stanley Wertz
Full Text Available This paper illustrates the use of composite first person narrative interpretive methods, as described by Todres, across a range of phenomena. This methodology introduces texture into the presently understood structures of phenomena and thereby creates new understandings of the phenomenon, bringing about a form of understanding that is relationally alive that contributes to improved caring practices. The method is influenced by the work of Gendlin, Heidegger, van Manen, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. The method's applicability to different research topics is demonstrated through the composite narratives of nursing students learning nursing practice in an accelerated and condensed program, obese female adolescents attempting weight control, chronically ill male parolees, and midlife women experiencing distress during menopause. Within current research, these four phenomena have been predominantly described and understood through quantified articulations that give the reader a structural understanding of the phenomena, but the more embodied or “contextual” human qualities of the phenomena are often not visible. The “what is it like” or the “unsaid” aspects of such human phenomena are not clear to the reader when proxies are used to “account for” a variety of situated conditions. This novel method is employed to re-present narrative data and findings from research through first person accounts that blend the voices of the participants with those of the researcher, emphasizing the connectedness, the “we” among all participants, researchers, and listeners. These re-presentations allow readers to develop more embodied understandings of both the texture and structure of each of the phenomena and illustrate the use of the composite account as a way for researchers to better understand and convey the wholeness of the experience of any phenomenon under inquiry.
Wertz, Marcia Stanley; Nosek, Marcianna; McNiesh, Susan; Marlow, Elizabeth
This paper illustrates the use of composite first person narrative interpretive methods, as described by Todres, across a range of phenomena. This methodology introduces texture into the presently understood structures of phenomena and thereby creates new understandings of the phenomenon, bringing about a form of understanding that is relationally alive that contributes to improved caring practices. The method is influenced by the work of Gendlin, Heidegger, van Manen, Gadamer, and Merleau-Ponty. The method's applicability to different research topics is demonstrated through the composite narratives of nursing students learning nursing practice in an accelerated and condensed program, obese female adolescents attempting weight control, chronically ill male parolees, and midlife women experiencing distress during menopause. Within current research, these four phenomena have been predominantly described and understood through quantified articulations that give the reader a structural understanding of the phenomena, but the more embodied or "contextual" human qualities of the phenomena are often not visible. The "what is it like" or the "unsaid" aspects of such human phenomena are not clear to the reader when proxies are used to "account for" a variety of situated conditions. This novel method is employed to re-present narrative data and findings from research through first person accounts that blend the voices of the participants with those of the researcher, emphasizing the connectedness, the "we" among all participants, researchers, and listeners. These re-presentations allow readers to develop more embodied understandings of both the texture and structure of each of the phenomena and illustrate the use of the composite account as a way for researchers to better understand and convey the wholeness of the experience of any phenomenon under inquiry.
Reese, Elaine; Myftari, Ella; McAnally, Helena M; Chen, Yan; Neha, Tia; Wang, Qi; Jack, Fiona; Robertson, Sarah-Jane
This study explored links between narrative identity, personality traits, and well-being for 263 adolescents (age 12-21) from three New Zealand cultures: Māori, Chinese, and European. Turning-point narratives were assessed for autobiographical reasoning (causal coherence), local thematic coherence, emotional expressivity, and topic. Across cultures, older adolescents with higher causal coherence reported better well-being. Younger adolescents with higher causal coherence instead reported poorer well-being. Personal development topics were positively linked to well-being for New Zealand European adolescents only, and thematic coherence was positively linked to well-being for Māori adolescents only. Negative expressivity, neuroticism, conscientiousness, and openness were also linked to well-being. Implications of these cultural similarities and differences are considered for theories of narrative identity, personality, and adolescent well-being. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Thorsen, Kirsten
The aim of the study is to explore how personal and contextual experiences throughout the life course are recollected as having influenced the development of stigma-handling strategies among people associated with disability and stigma. The article describes the development of stigma handling among ageing persons of restricted growth in order to avert negative effects, develop resilience, strengthen the self and support a positive identity. Qualitative retrospective interviews were conducted with ten persons - seven women and three men aged between 45 and 65 years - of short stature. Their narratives are analysed from a life-course perspective and the results presented under two main themes: the development of strategies during different stages of life, and the use of general non-stage-bound strategies. The study shows how stigma-handling has evolved from childhood to become, by adult years, refined, contextualised strategies demonstrating human resilience. The analysis documents the impact of human agency on personal lives and the subjects' efforts and strengths in handling adversity. The results demonstrate how the "insider perspective" reveals the individual's resources, resilience and strategies and provides an important perspective for the rehabilitation setting. Implications for Rehabilitation The study document human agency, resilience and strength in a life course perspective among people of restricted growth faced with stigmatization. The efforts and stigma handling strategies developed during the life course, such as withdrawal, humour, ignoring and positive thinking, are important tools to be recognized with relevance for other patient groups. The "insider perspective" revealing the potentialities and strength of human agency and resilience, should be further explored within the field of rehabilitation.
The aim of this study was to test the usability of selected narrativity indices identified from autobiographical accounts of important relationships in an assessment of neurotic (NPO) and borderline personality organization (BPO). Narrativity indices, both particular and generalized, were used to predict personality organization levels. Indices were derived from two separate layers of analysis: 1) lexical indices were counted with computer assistance; 2) evocative/reception indices dealing with coherence of the story were assessed using the competent judges method. It was found that the lexical narrativity index-the active "I"-was a good predictor of both BPO and NPO, while the human factor was a good predictor of BPO when low. Moreover, a generalized index was used to describe how stories are saturated with the narrativity indices of intentionality, concreteness, and active "I", but simultaneously deprived of human factor, and was found to be the best predictor of BPO. Furthermore, where the coherence of the story and of its subdimension (integration) rise, the probability of BPO diagnosis decreases. This research provides support for the thesis that surface narrativity indices may predict deeper personality structure. Its results are justified in the light of Kernberg's theory, and have the potential to become a useful tool in clinical practice as a supplementary source of information in diagnostic and psychotherapeutic processes.
Hossein abavisani; Fatemeh parchegani; Zohreh Naemi; Mahboubeh Mohammadi Mohammadabadi
Narrative style is a tool in the hands of the author in order to display his narrative content to the reader in its form , because the form can direct the content toward its main direction that means the audience perspective .In other words, narrative style is same as a foundation that gives unity and cohesion of narrative text , because it can specify the narrator relation to his/her story world and also it is the basic criteria of reader to understand, criticize and measure other narrative ...
Groven, Karen Synne; Braithwaite, Jean
Advertising for weight loss surgery (WLS) is typically but not exclusively targeted toward women. The surgery is portrayed as the most effective way to free oneself from the stigmas and health risks associated with large bodies. WLS clinics routinely feature success stories by former patients that include before and after pictures and personal narratives. Because these testimonials are cherry-picked by the clinics, naturally they do not represent the full spectrum of postsurgical patient experiences, yet they are likely to influence the decision making of prospective patients. Our findings show that these success stories do not offer adequate information to prospective patients about what to expect after the surgery. In particular, the success stories tend to speak of side-effects as self-inflicted, thus reinforcing the healthist cultural/medical message of individual responsibility that is driving the current WLS epidemic.
Nikolay I. Sobolev
Full Text Available Th e article is dedicated to one of the major problems of literature that is scientifi c description, introduction into scientifi c use and comprehension of handwritten materials of writer’s creative heritage. At the heart of the research there is a draft novel of I. S. Shmelev “Crossroads” [“Rosstani”] kept in the Research Department of Manuscripts of the Russian State Library. Th e article presents codicological description and textual analysis of the draft that brought to light two versions and two editions of the short novel, revealed their genealogy, the process of formation and development of the narration. Philological analysis of discrepancies in the editions allows us to comprehend genesis of the plot, reveal the author’s objectives in the poetics of the short novel. In the course of the comparative analysis of diff erent editions in the poetics of the short novel there were found out literary devices inherent to a Neo-Realist literary work, such as the abundance of out-of-plot elements that produce eff ect of a discrete narrative; repeating common details, the images of Russian nature, the motives of memory and leave that form a symbolic level of the short novel.
Dennis, M; Barnes, M A; Wilkinson, M; Humphreys, R P
Narratives are not only about events, but also about the emotions those events elicit. Understanding a narrative involves not just the affective valence of implied emotional states, but the formation of an explicit mental representation of those states. In turn, this representation provides a mechanism that particularizes emotion and modulates its display, which then allows emotional expression to be modified according to particular contexts. This includes understanding that a character may feel an emotion but inhibit its display or even express a deceptive emotion. We studied how 59 school-aged children with head injury and 87 normally-developing age-matched controls understand real and deceptive emotions in brief narratives. Children with head injury showed less sensitivity than controls to how emotions are expressed in narratives. While they understood the real emotions in the text, and could recall what provoked the emotion and the reason for concealing it, they were less able than controls to identify deceptive emotions. Within the head injury group, factors such as an earlier age at head injury and frontal lobe contusions were associated with poor understanding of deceptive emotions. The results are discussed in terms of the distinction between emotions as felt and emotions as a cognitive framework for understanding other people's actions and mental states. We conclude that children with head injury understand emotional communication, the spontaneous externalization of real affect, but not emotive communication, the conscious, strategic modification of affective signals to influence others through deceptive facial expressions.
Lin, Kuan-Ling Olivia
It is important to foster resilience in early childhood as this quality is, according to this author, "an individual's progressing development to adjust to life difficulties." This narrative study provides a cultural perspective by investigating a Taiwanese context and shifts the attention to preschoolers' resilience development in both…
Nikolay Ivanovich Sobolev
Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the central episodes of Ivan Shmelev's short novel The Inexhaustible Chalice (Inexaustible Cup, or Non-intoxicating Chalice. The source of this episode was a legend, recorded by a priest Yakov Brilliantov. In 1912 he published the text of the legend calling it a Story of the Miraculous Icon of the Mother of God Called the “Inexhaustible Chalice”. The legend existed in the folk tradition for a long time. The paper presents a hypothesis that Ivan Shmelev reproduced an oral version or edition of the legend in his short novel. Comparison of Shmelev's novel and the old legend reveals similarities and discrepancies of texts, analysis of which can serve as the basis for important observations on lingvopoetics of the short novel and the author’s style. Ivan Shmelev uses the legend as a source of pious history: he connects it with his main text at all narrative levels, while leaving only functional elements in the recipient text. This type of creative editing can be defined as a form of a condensed narrative. Moreover, analysis of sources leads to a conclusion about the poetics of the chronotope and the main characters of the tale.
Lien, Cynthia; Rosen, Tony; Bloemen, Elizabeth M; Abrams, Robert C; Pavlou, Maria; Lachs, Mark S
To identify patterns of personal experience or behavior in self-neglect by exploring narratives of cognitively intact older adults. Descriptive study involving semistructured interviews and unstructured narratives. A parent study of self-neglect characteristics. Cognitively intact, self-neglecting older adults referred from 11 community-based senior services agencies (N = 69). Interviews included a comprehensive psychiatric assessment using the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Axis-I and II Disorders and an unstructured interview that allowed subjects to describe important elements of their life stories. Content analysis was used to identify personal experiences and behavior patterns in each subject's narrative. Four types of traumatic personal experiences (psychologically traumatic loss, separation or abandonment (29%); violent victimization, physical trauma, or sexual abuse (19%); exposure to war or political violence (9%); prolonged mourning (7%)) and five behavior patterns (significant financial instability (23%), severe lifelong mental illness (16%), mistrust of people or paranoia (13%), distrust and avoidance of the medical establishment (13%), substance abuse or dependence (13%)) were identified in the life stories. Patterns of traumatic personal experiences and maladaptive behaviors that self-neglecters frequently report were identified. Experiences, perceptions, and behaviors developed over a lifetime may contribute to elder self-neglect. Further exploration and better understanding of these patterns may identify potential risk factors and areas for future targeted screening, intervention, and prevention. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.
Full Text Available A multitude of challenges comes into play when attempting to design (and evaluate an interactive digital storytelling experience for use by visitors in a museum. This paper reports on the evaluation of the prototype mobile-based storytelling “guides” designed, developed and deployed as part of a research project at the Acropolis Museum in Athens, Greece. Experiences designed for different visitor profiles were evaluated several times throughout the iterative design process, in a number of on-site studies, and with more than 180 museum visitors of all ages (with this paper reporting on two studies conducted with a total of 53 users visiting individually or in pairs. The evaluation methods included ethnography (i.e., observation of visitors in the Museum’s galleries, pre- and post-experience in-depth interviews and questionnaires to measure the Users’ Experience (UX, as well as data logging. The analysis of the data focused on themes representing components of the experiences, such as interactive story plot and narration, staging and way-finding in the physical space, personalization and social interaction. Our findings confirmed that understanding UX and what makes it effective or not in the rich context of a cultural setting is a complex endeavor. The paper discusses our findings and proposes relevant recommendations for the design of digital experiences for cultural, educational, and recreational purposes.
Kerstholt, José H; van der Zwaard, Fred; Bart, Hans; Cremers, Anita
Most terminally ill patients prefer to die at home rather than at an institution. However, patients are often insufficiently aware of the downsides of staying at home, which signals a need for effective decision aids. The main purpose of the present study was to compare indirect methods of value elicitation (personal narratives["stories"] in text or video) with a direct method (assessment of the subjective importance of each attribute). The authors asked 183 participants to evaluate 3 possible places to die: home, hospice, and nursing home. The participants received 1 of 3 value elicitation methods. The main dependent variable was participants' evaluations of the choice options before and after value elicitation, measured on a 100-point scale. A shift occurred between pre- and posttest, F(4, 342) = 4.11, P = 0.003, only with the indirect methods. When text and videos were used, participants became more positive about a hospice (text: 41.9 to 49.1; video: 52.9 to 60.3). In the video condition, participants also became more positive about a nursing home (from 20.9 to 24.9). Stories have more impact in shaping people's preferences than merely asking for an assessment of attribute importance. The most straightforward explanation for this effect is that stories, particularly when presented in video, provide a better image of potential consequences.
Mellis, Alexandra M; Snider, Sarah E; Bickel, Warren K
Reading experimenter-provided narratives of negative income shock has been previously demonstrated to increase impulsivity, as measured by discounting of delayed rewards. We hypothesized that writing these narratives would potentiate their effects of negative income shock on decision-making more than simply reading them. In the current study, 193 cigarette-smoking individuals from Amazon Mechanical Turk were assigned to either read an experimenter-provided narrative or self-generate a narrative describing either the negative income shock of job loss or a neutral condition of job transfer. Individuals then completed a task of delay discounting and measures of affective response to narratives, as well as rating various narrative qualities such as personal relevance and vividness. Consistent with past research, narratives of negative income shock increased delay discounting compared to control narratives. No significant differences existed in delay discounting after self-generating compared to reading experimenter-provided narratives. Positive affect was lower and negative affect was higher in response to narratives of job loss, but affect measures did not differ based on whether narratives were experimenter-provided or self-generated. All narratives were rated as equally realistic, but self-generated narratives (whether negative or neutral) were rated as more vivid and relevant than experimenter-provided narratives. These results indicate that the content of negative income shock narratives, regardless of source, consistently drives short-term choices. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Edvardsson, David; Nordvall, Karin
To illuminate meanings of being in a psycho-geriatric unit. Background. There are known risks associated with moving persons with dementia from home to an institution, but little is known about how they experience being in psycho-geriatric units. Using open-ended research interviews, six persons with mild to severe dementia were asked to narrate about their experiences in the hospital. The interviews were interpreted using a phenomenological hermeneutical method of analysis. The comprehensive understanding of being in a psycho-geriatric unit points towards an understanding of being lost in the present but confident of the past. The analysis showed that the participants appeared lost as they could not narrate where they were and why, but that they became confident when narrating about their previous life. The analysis also showed that being in the hospital meant sharing living space with strangers, invasions of private space and establishing new acquaintances. Being in the unit could also mean boredom and devaluation for participants. The interviews were interpreted in the light of narrative theory of identity: persons with dementia narrating about previous life experiences as to make claims of how to be interpreted by others; as persons instead of merely as 'demented' patients. Experiences of care narrated by persons with dementia present meaningful and useful information that can provide feedback to inform care practice. Experiences of care from persons with dementia provide meaningful information about care and the doing and being of staff. Creating time for conversations with these persons may facilitate well-being.
Anderson, Emily E; Wasson, Katherine
The stories in this volume shed light on the potential of narrative inquiry to fill gaps in knowledge, particularly given the mixed results of quantitative research on patient views of and experiences with genetic and genomic testing. Published studies investigate predictors of testing (particularly risk perceptions and worry); psychological and behavioral responses to testing; and potential impact on the health care system (e.g., when patients bring DTC genetic test results to their primary care provider). Interestingly, these themes did not dominate the narratives published in this issue. Rather, these narratives included consistent themes of expectations and looking for answers; complex emotions; areas of contradiction and conflict; and family impact. More narrative research on patient experiences with genetic testing may fill gaps in knowledge regarding how patients define the benefits of testing, changes in psychological and emotional reactions to test results over time, and the impact of testing on families.
Elliot, Michelle L
Taking inspiration from the film Wit (2001), adapted from Margaret Edson's (1999) Pulitzer Prize-winning play, this article explores the particularities of witnessing a cinematic cancer narrative juxtaposed with the author's own cancer narrative. The analysis reveals the tenuous line between death and dying, illness and wellness, life and living and the resulting identities shaped in the process of understanding both from a personal and professional lens. By framing these representations of illness experience within the narrative constructions of drama, time, metaphor and morality, the personal stories of intellectual knowledge converging with intimate and embodied knowing are revealed.
Köber, Christin; Habermas, Tilmann
Considering life stories as the most individual layer of personality (McAdams, 2013) implies that life stories, similar to personality traits, exhibit some stability throughout life. Although stability of personality traits has been extensively investigated, only little is known about the stability of life stories. We therefore tested the influence of age, of the proportion of normative age-graded life events, and of global text coherence on the stability of the most important memories and of brief entire life narratives as 2 representations of the life story. We also explored whether normative age-graded life events form more stable parts of life narratives. In a longitudinal life span study covering up to 3 measurements across 8 years and 6 age groups (N = 164) the stability of important memories and of entire life narratives was measured as the percentage of events and narrative segments which were repeated in later tellings. Stability increased between ages 8 and 24, leveling off in middle adulthood. Beyond age, stability of life narratives was also predicted by proportion of normative age-graded life events and by causal-motivational text coherence in younger participants. Memories of normative developmental and social transitional life events were more stable than other memories. Stability of segments of life narratives exceeded the stability of single most important memories. Findings are discussed in terms of cognitive, personality, and narrative psychology and point to research questions in each of these fields. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available This performance analysis traces the emergence of masculinity in the open-ended narratives of 14 men who self identify as “physically disabled.” The participants range in physical ability, age, relationship status, build, and socioeconomic status. They also range in their responses to the interaction of their ability and gender: mourning, resisting, accepting, and/or embracing their daily performances of physically disabled masculinity. Through bodies defined as the negation of ‘normal,’ they attend to and expose the nuances of the interacting cultural components of hegemonic masculinity that all human beings negotiate, interpret, create and re-create through our interactions. Their stories and insights offer opportunities for us to understand the impossibilities of ideal gender performance all humans co-imagine, reiterate, and pursue but can never realize. Keywords: Performance Analysis, Masculinity, Physical Disability, Personal Narrative
Manson, Joseph R.
institute directed by Professor Wolfgang Ernst. The story of how this particular collaboration developed is interesting because it illustrates again how important personal contacts and social interactions are in the progress of science. In 2007 I was contacted by Bodil Holst, then of the TU-Graz and now at the Technical University of Bergen in Norway, about the possibility of having one of her very bright graduate students visit Clemson for a few months as a part of his work in analyzing some He atom scattering data that they had taken on silica glass surfaces. A decade earlier Holst had been a postdoctoral research associate at the Toennies laboratory in Göttingen during several of the summers I was also there and, although we never worked directly together at that time, we had many interesting discussions about science and other subjects. The student, Wolfram Steurer, arrived in Clemson in the middle of the fall semester with his belongings in a bag that was smaller than the guitar he carried strapped over his back. He immediately created for himself a place in our department, and by the time he left three months later we had developed some rudimentary ideas of how to analyze the data he had, and we also suspected that this data might reveal some new aspects of the dynamics of glass surfaces that had not been realized before. Wolfram delved into this problem with a vengeance, and shortly afterwards we began a series of papers involving Holst, Ernst and Steurer and the Graz graduate students, Andreas Apfolter and Mattias Koch, as well as Elin Søndergård of the French CNRS laboratory located at the St Gobain Corporation's research facilities in Paris. It was this initial contact with Holst a decade earlier that eventually led to a productive period of research on glass surfaces, something that I would have never predicted beforehand, but a collaboration that shows every sign of continuing into the future to produce new and interesting results. So, this brings the history
Narrative of personal experience, as a subjective interpretation of a set of events, constitutes a particularly fertile site for the construction of identity. It enables the teller to voice and (re-)organize disruptive phenomenological experiences, socialize emotions or forge interpersonal relations. Consequently, the narrator is able to access various facets of their identity and ‘bring multiple, partial selves to life’ (Ochs and Capps 1996: 19). Informed by the methods and insights of computer- mediated discourse analysis, conversation analysis and membership categorization analysis, and positioning narrative as a situated practice within social interaction, this paper scrutinizes publicly accessible data (15 forum threads) nested within a UK-based online Alzheimer’s support group to demonstrate how Alzheimer’s patients’ family caregivers co-construct their sense of self when disclosing morally delicate aspects of their identities. The analysis demonstrates that the discursive space of the online support group encourages caregivers to disclose disruptions of predicates and activities associated with the ‘family’ membership categorization device. It also shows that the medium-afforded mode of engagement enables caregivers to gradually incorporate their unveiled aversive experiences into their autobiographical flow, with the help of other participants’ responses which normalize these category disruptions.
Cohen, Shuki J.
This study presents a novel methodology for the measurement of negativity bias using positive and negative dictionaries of emotion words applied to autobiographical narratives. At odds with the cognitive theory of mood dysregulation, previous text-analytical studies have failed to find significant correlation between emotion dictionaries and…
Bunting, Bryce; Williams, David
While past researchers suggest undergraduate peer mentors (PMs) benefit from mentoring their peers, this experience is rarely associated with transformative learning. Using narrative analysis of authentic mentoring stories, we explored how particular types of mentoring experiences contribute to transformative learning for PMs of first-year…
He, Q.; Veldkamp, B.P.; Westerhof, G.J.; Pechenizkiy, Mykola; Calders, Toon; Conati, Cristina; Ventura, Sebastian; Romero, Cristobal; Stamper, John
The present study is a trial in developing an automatic computerized coding framework with text mining techniques to identify the characteristics of redemption and contamination in life narratives written by undergraduate students. In the initial stage of text classification, the keyword-based
The reader is taken on a journey spanning some 30 years devoted to the author's involvement in practicing, teaching and studying peace education. The core concept in this journey is active "bystandership," which implies the capacity to disengage from our ethnocentric narratives and perceptions and to face the emotional challenges of…
Overrepresentation of African American students in special education has been related to the unfavorable academic outcomes and achievement gap for these students. In a search for a comprehensive account of the roots of these perpetuating concerns, narrative skills are of importance because of their relation to reading achievement and school…
Ager, Alastair; Iacovou, Melina
Recent years have seen significant growth in both the size and profile of the humanitarian sector. However, little research has focused upon the constructions of humanitarian practice negotiated by agencies and their workers that serve to sustain engagement in the face personal challenges and critique of the humanitarian enterprise. This study used the public narrative of 129 website postings by humanitarian workers deployed with the health-focused international humanitarian organization Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) to identify recurrent themes in personal, organizationally-condoned, public discourse regarding humanitarian practice. Data represented all eligible postings from a feature on the agency's UK website from May 2002 to April 2012. The text of postings was analysed with respect to emergent themes on an iterative basis. Comprehensive coding of material was achieved through a thematic structure that reflected the core domains of project details, the working environment, characteristics of beneficiaries and recurrent motivational sub-texts. Features of the co-construction of narratives include language serving to neutralize complex political contexts; the specification of barriers as substantive but surmountable; the dominance of the construct of national-international in understanding the operation of teams; intense personal identification with organization values; and the use of resilience as a framing of beneficiary adaptation and perseverance in conditions that--from an external perspective--warrant despair and withdrawal. Recurrent motivational sub-texts include 'making a difference' and contrasts with 'past professional constraints' and 'ordinary life back home.' The prominence of these sub-texts not only highlights key personal agendas but also suggests--notwithstanding policy initiatives regarding stronger contextual rooting and professionalism--continuing organizational emphasis on externality and volunteerism. Overall, postings illustrate a
Full Text Available How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N = 168 of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N = 27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30 to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memory were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories.
Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena
How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N = 168) of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N = 27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30) to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memories were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories.
Bishop, Jeffery; Sunderland, Naomi
What is it like to live with the label "Disability?" NIB editorial staff and narrative symposium editors, Jeffery Bishop and Naomi Sunderland developed a call for stories, which was sent to several list serves, shared with the 1000 Voices Project community and posted on Narrative Inquiry in Bioethics' website. The request for personal stories from people who identify with the label "disabled" asked them to: consider how the label "disability" interacts with other aspects of their life in health care settings; does the term "disability" reflect their actual embodied experiences of impairment or does it fail to do justice to their particular experience of impairment; describe the kind of experiences that are possible because of the impairment(s); discuss how the label has affected their "authentic voice"; and many other concepts about what effects the label has on their lives. These authors share deeply personal experiences that will help readers understand their world, challenges, and joys. Thirteen stories are found in the print version of the journal and an additional five supplemental stories are published online only through Project MUSE. The stories are complemented by four commentary articles by Elizabeth R. Schiltz; Lorna Hallahan; Nicole Matthews, Kathleen Ellem, and Lesley Chenoweth; and Jeffery Bishop, Rachelle Barina, and Devan Stahl. These scholars come from the disciplines of law, social work, media studies, medicine, and bioethics from Australia and the United States. Together, the symposium's storytellers and commentators offer striking and informative insights into the everydayness of living with disabilities.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: Discourse-based interventions were studied less in speech therapy. This study aimed to investigate the effects of discourse-based intervention on language disabilities in school-aged children with borderline intelligence quotient (IQ.Methods: In an experimental study, 33 students at the age of 6-13 years with borderline intelligence quotient (17 students for intervention and 16 students for control group were selected with available sampling. The intervention lasted 14 sessions (every session: 45 minutes that focused on the structure and content of discourse. Personal narrative was elicited with explanation of the same topic (go to a trip for pre- and post-test.Results: Mean scores of intelligence quotient, age and education had no difference between the two groups. The intervention caused the increase of compound sentences (p=0.038, types of cohesive conjunctions (p=0.003, and related information (p=0.008 and decrease of ungrammatical sentences (p=0.031.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that participation in the intervention program has a clinically significant effect on the participants' abilities to produce personal narrative.
Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen
One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity.
Goisser, Sabine; Kemmler, Wolfgang; Porzel, Simone; Volkert, Dorothee; Sieber, Cornel Christian; Bollheimer, Leo Cornelius; Freiberger, Ellen
One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study protocols and target populations make it impossible at the moment to extract data for a meta-analysis or give state-of-the-art recommendations based on reliable evidence. A conclusion that can be drawn from this narrative review is that more exercise programs containing strength and aerobic exercise in combination with dietary interventions including a supervised weight loss program and/or protein supplements should be conducted in order to investigate possible positive effects on sarcopenic obesity. PMID:26346071
Mulvaney, Matthew Keefe
According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…
The current policy interest in early childhood education and care is driven by an investment narrative, a story of quality and high returns emerging from a dominant neoliberal political economy. This short note expresses deep reservations about this narrative, and hints at another narrative that foregrounds democracy, experimentation and…
Berk, Marc L; Schur, Claudia L; Dunbar, Jennifer L; Bozzette, Sam; Shapiro, Martin
Data from the first national probability sample of persons with HIV, the HIV Cost of Services and Utilization Survey (HCSUS), are used to examine migration patterns among persons with HIV/AIDS in the USA. Persons with serious illness may choose to relocate to receive better care or support. This migration has implications for the distribution of resources. This study describes the frequency and reasons that persons with HIV move to different communities. An analytic file of 3014 respondents was obtained from the first national probability sample of persons with HIV/AIDS, the HCSUS. A migration section of the baseline questionnaire questioned respondents on their residential history. Persons were defined as movers if they moved across state lines or to a non-contiguous county after knowing they were HIV positive but before the HCSUS baseline interview. Forty percent of movers said that their HIV status was a very important factor in their decision to move. Although earlier studies of limited generalizability found movement among the HIV population from urban to rural counties, this study found only eight percent of HIV migration was from urban to rural counties, just slightly more than the migration from rural to urban counties. In addition, the vast majority of people who were moving were not moving to return home. Major factors in the decision to move included being near caregivers and being in a community with shared needs and interests. Significant numbers of persons also moved to obtain care from a physician knowledgeable in HIV treatment or to get away from discrimination. Financial assistance and the availability of Medicaid also played a prominent role in many decisions to move. Persons with HIV/AIDS are more likely to move than non-infected persons in the general population. Moreover, they are almost twice as likely to be moving out-of-state. Persons with HIV who move are similar to persons with HIV who do not move on most demographic characteristics
is presented to give a concrete example of this narrative, community psychological oriented intervention, a process which helps people to develop a sense of personal or cultural identity and an understanding of their doing as being in correspondence with their values and intentions. The overarching focus...
This article describes research on the narratives of social workers who help terror victims, focusing on the relationship between the helpers' families and their work. Qualitative analysis of three training groups of social workers who are responsible for helping in the event of terror attacks in different parts of Israel, and of three debriefing groups for social workers after terror attacks, reveals that the helpers' families play a role in the narratives constructed by the helpers. Two main themes were identified. The first centers on the interaction between work and the family, and shows that in the situation of a terror attack, the conflict between the two disappears and the family often serves as a support system for the helpers. The second theme refers to the family dimension alone, and focuses on the dichotomy between vitality and loss. The way that family life events affect helpers'professional intervention is described. The findings are discussed in light of Conservation of Resources Theory, the fight-flight response to threat, and the concept of the family as a source of safety and risk taking.
Roddy, Chantal; Rickard, Nikki; Tamplin, Jeanette; Baker, Felicity Anne
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) patients face unique identity challenges associated with physical limitations, higher comorbid depression, increased suicidality and reduced subjective well-being. Post-injury identity is often unaddressed in subacute rehabilitation environments where critical physical and functional rehabilitation goals are prioritized. Therapeutic songwriting has demonstrated prior efficacy in promoting healthy adjustment and as a means of expression for post-injury narratives. The current study sought to examine the identity narratives of therapeutic songwriting participants. Case-series analysis of the individual identity trajectories of eight individuals. Subacute rehabilitation facility, Victoria, Australia. Eight individuals with an SCI; 7 males and 1 female. Six-week therapeutic songwriting intervention facilitated by a music therapist to promote identity rehabilitation. Identity, subjective well-being and distress, emotional state. Three participants demonstrated positive trajectories and a further three showed negative trajectories; remaining participants were ambiguous in their response. Injury severity differentiated those with positive trajectories from those with negative trajectories, with greater injury severity apparent for those showing negative trends. Self-concept also improved more in those with positive trajectories. Core demographic variables did not however meaningfully predict the direction of change in core identity or wellbeing indices. Identity-focused songwriting holds promise as a means of promoting healthy identity reintegration. Further research on benefits for those with less severe spinal injuries is warranted.
David P. Schmitt
Full Text Available As part of the International Sexuality Description Project, 13,243 participants from 46 nations responded to self-report measures of personality and mating behavior. Several traits showed consistent links with short-term mating. Extraversion positively correlated with interest in short-term mating, unrestricted sociosexuality, having engaged in short-term mate poaching attempts, having succumbed to short-term poaching attempts of others, and lacking relationship exclusivity. Low levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness also related to short-term mating, especially with extra-pair mating. Neuroticism and openness were associated with short-term mating as well, but these links were less consistent across sex and nation. Nation-level links between personality and sexuality replicated within-region findings, such as the strong association between national extraversion and national sociosexuality. Discussion focuses on the origins of personality-sexuality links and their implications across nations.
Lysaker, Paul H; Erikson, Molly; Macapagal, Kathryn R; Tunze, Chloe; Gilmore, Emily; Ringer, Jamie M
Although negative symptoms are a barrier to recovery from schizophrenia, little is understood about the psychological processes that reinforce and sustain them. To explore this issue, this study used structural equation modeling to test whether the impact of social withdrawal and emotion recognition deficits upon negative symptoms is mediated by the richness or poverty of personal narratives. The participants were 99 adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Social cognition was assessed using the Bell-Lysaker Emotional Recognition Task; social withdrawal, using the Quality of Life Scale; narrative coherence, using the Scale To Assess Narrative Development; and negative symptoms, using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The findings reveal that although social cognition deficits and social withdrawal are significantly associated with negative symptom severity, these relationships become nonsignificant when personal narrative integrity is examined as a mediating factor. These results indicate that the development of personal narratives may be directly linked to the severity of negative symptoms; this construct may be a useful target for future interventions.
Randomly assigned 42 men and 34 women classified as having avoidant personality disorder to one of three treatment conditions or to control group. Treatment subjects displayed significantly greater improvement on self-report and behavioral measures than did controls. Inclusion of skills-training procedures did not contribute to effects of…
Hamm, Jay A; Leonhardt, Bethany L
The recovery movement has not only challenged traditional pessimism regarding schizophrenia but also presented opportunities for the possibilities for psychotherapy for people with the disorder. Though in the past psychotherapy models were often pitted against one another, recently there have been emergent reports of a range of integrative models sharing an emphasis on recovery and a number of conceptual elements. These shared elements include attention to the importance of interpersonal processes, personal narrative, and metacognition, with interest in their role in not only the disorder but also the processes by which people pursue recovery. This article explores one application of this framework in the psychotherapy of a woman with prolonged experience of schizophrenia and significant functional impairments. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Sabine Goisser,1 Wolfgang Kemmler,2 Simone Porzel,3 Dorothee Volkert,1 Cornel Christian Sieber,1,4 Leo Cornelius Bollheimer,1,4 Ellen Freiberger1 1Institute for Biomedicine of Aging (IBA, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität (FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg, Nuremberg, 2Institute of Medical Physics (IMP, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität (FAU Erlangen-Nürnberg, 3Nutricia GmbH, Danone Medical Nutrition, Erlangen, 4Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics, St John of God Hospital (Barmherzige Brüder, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: One of the many threats to independent life is the age-related loss of muscle mass and muscle function commonly referred to as sarcopenia. Another important health risk in old age leading to functional decline is obesity. Obesity prevalence in older persons is increasing, and like sarcopenia, severe obesity has been consistently associated with several negative health outcomes, disabilities, falls, and mobility limitations. Both sarcopenia and obesity pose a health risk for older persons per se, but in combination, they synergistically increase the risk for negative health outcomes and an earlier onset of disability. This combination of sarcopenia and obesity is commonly referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The present narrative review reports the current knowledge on the effects of complex interventions containing nutrition and exercise interventions in community-dwelling older persons with sarcopenic obesity. To date, several complex interventions with different outcomes have been conducted and have shown promise in counteracting either sarcopenia or obesity, but only a few studies have addressed the complex syndrome of sarcopenic obesity. Strong evidence exists on exercise interventions in sarcopenia, especially on strength training, and for obese older persons, strength exercise in combination with a dietary weight loss intervention demonstrated positive effects on muscle function and body fat. The differences in study
Manuel, Karlis R.
The purpose of this narrative study was two-fold. First, the researcher, an African American male principal in a rural, high minority, intermediate school, used to reflect on strategies implemented to enhance the learning environment that subsequently increased student achievement. Second, determined through the study was how personal leadership…
Miller, Susan A.; Vincent, Donna
This book presents strategies for teaching the personal narrative, feature article, how-to article, and persuasive letter, and for teaching fiction and reflective thinking and writing. It includes definitions, lesson plans, originals for transparencies and photocopies, and sample student writing. The first four sections are: Teaching the Personal…
Pandya, Radhika H; Shukla, Radha; Gor, Alpa P; Ganguly, Barna
The principles of bioethics have been identified as important requirements for training basic medical doctors. Till now, various modalities have been used for teaching bioethics, such as lectures, followed by a small case-based discussion, case vignettes or debates among students. For effective teaching-learning of bioethics, it is necessary to integrate theory and practice rather than merely teach theoretical constructs without helping the students translate those constructs into practice. Classroom teaching can focus on the theoretical knowledge of professional relationships, patient-doctor relationships, issues at the beginning and end of life, reproductive technologies, etc. However, a better learning environment can be created through an experiencebased approach to complement lectures and facilitate successful teaching. Engaging students in reflective dialogue with their peers would allow them to refine their ideas with respect to learning ethics. It can help in the development both of the cognitive and affective domains of the teaching of bioethics. Real-life narratives by the interns, when used as case or situation analysis models for a particular ethical issue, can enhance other students' insight and give them a moral boost. Doing this can change the classroom atmosphere, enhance motivation, improve the students' aptitude and improve their attitude towards learning bioethics. Involving the students in this manner can prove to be a sustainable way of achieving the goal of deep reflective learning of bioethics and can serve as a new technique for maintaining the interest of students as well as teachers.
Habermas, Tilmann; Diel, Verena
How can we tell from a memory report whether a memory is episodic or not? Vividness is required by many definitions, whereas detailedness, memory specificity, and narrative text type are competing definitions of episodicity used in research. We explored their correlations with vividness in personally significant autobiographical memories to provide evidence to support their relative claim to define episodic memories. In addition, we explored differences between different memory types and text types as well as between memories with different valences. We asked a lifespan sample (N = 168) of 8-, 12-, 16-, 20-, 40-, and 65-year-olds of both genders (N = 27, 29, 27, 27, 28, 30) to provide brief oral life narratives. These were segmented into thematic memory units. Detailedness of person, place, and time did not correlate with each other or either vividness, memory specificity, or narrative text type. Narrative text type, in contrast, correlated both with vividness and memory specificity, suggesting narrative text type as a good criterion of episodicity. Emotionality turned out to be an even better predictor of vividness. Also, differences between narrative, chronicle, and argument text types and between specific versus more extended and atemporal memories were explored as well as differences between positive, negative, ambivalent, neutral, contamination, and redemption memory reports. It is concluded that temporal sequentiality is a central characteristic of episodic autobiographical memories. Furthermore, it is suggested that the textual quality of memory reports should be taken more seriously, and that evaluation and interpretation are inherent aspects of personally significant memories. PMID:23966918
Social inclusion is a leading goal of policy and practice in care and support for persons with intellectual disabilities. However, its conceptualization, moral presuppositions and effects are far from clear. In answering the call for reconceptualization, the author refers to cultural-historical,
Bernardon, Stephanie; Pernice-Duca, Francesca
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) presents a number of symptoms and adjustment issues for individuals, but it is also associated with a myriad of risks for the larger family system. A systemic perspective is crucial to comprehending the development of BPD. Promoting healthy relationships with one or more supportive adult enables the child to…
Full Text Available My participation in a 12-step addiction program based on the principles and traditions of Alcoholics Anonymous (AA has been critical for my leadership development. As I worked to refrain from addictive behaviors and practiced 12-step principles, I experienced a shift from individualistic, self-centered leadership towards a servant leader orientation. I thus consider the 12-step recovery process, which commenced in 2001, a leadership formative experience (LFE as it had the greatest influence on my subsequent development. My experience of thinking about and rethinking my life in reference to leadership and followership lends itself to a personal inquiry. It draws on work on the12 steps; self-assessments and personal journal entries; and memory of life events. I aim to contribute to the leadership development literature by exploring the influence of participation in a 12-step recovery program and posing it as an LFE, subjects that have received little attention.
Previous research suggests that normative life transitions have the potential to trigger personality maturation. But what exactly happens during such a transitional stage? The present study examined personality trait changes in a sample of 910 German high school students during their transition from school to adult life. Despite the short observation period of three semiannual measurements, growth curve analyses revealed significant mean-level changes in personality traits. These changes occurred primarily in a positive direction, were strongest for the trait of conscientiousness, and most pronounced in those students who were directly confronted with this transitional experience. Bivariate growth curve models indicated that individual differences in personality change were substantially associated with changes in students' investments into achievement behavior. Supporting socioanalytic perspectives on personality development, these findings can be discussed with respect to process approaches to personality change assuming that consistent behavioral changes might lead to personality change in a bottom-up fashion.
Rossi, Gina; Debast, Inge; van Alphen, S P J
The dimensional personality disorders model in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 section III conceptually differentiates impaired personality functioning (criterion A) from the presence of pathological traits (criterion B). This study is the first to specifically address the measurement of criterion A in older adults. Moreover, the convergent/divergent validity of criterion A and criterion B will be compared in younger and older age groups. The Severity Indices of Personality Functioning - Short Form (SIPP-SF) was administered in older (N = 171) and younger adults (N = 210). The factorial structure was analyzed with exploratory structural equation modeling. Differences in convergent/divergent validity between personality functioning (SIPP-SF) and pathological traits (Personality Inventory for DSM-5; Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire) were examined across age groups. Identity Integration, Relational Capacities, Responsibility, Self-Control, and Social Concordance were corroborated as higher order domains. Although the SIPP-SF domains measured unique variation, some high correlations with pathological traits referred to overlapping constructs. Moreover, in older adults, personality functioning was more strongly related to Psychoticism, Disinhibition, Antagonism and Dissocial Behavior compared to younger adults. The SIPP-SF construct validity was demonstrated in terms of a structure of five higher order domains of personality functioning. The instrument is promising as a possible measure of impaired personality functioning in older adults. As such, it is a useful clinical tool to follow up effects of therapy on levels of personality functioning. Moreover, traits were associated with different degrees of personality functioning across age groups.
Igor I. Lunin
Full Text Available Background. Based on a long personal story of dealing with LGBTQ rights in Russia, the author reviews several transformations in the psychological approach and research to gender and sexual identity. The author describes his professional growth as a psychologist. First his interest was in child sex-role development and then transformed to prevention of sexual crimes, AIDS prevention and sexual education among adolescents. The author shows how his area of expertise in human sexuality brought him to professional ethics for psychologists. Discussion. In the second part of the article the author reviews changes in social attitudes towards same sex- relationships from their criminalization and medicalization to acceptance and respect. The author emphasizes the pioneering role of Professor Igor Kon in changes of mass attitudes towards sexuality and same sex relationships. The author sees Kon’s legacy in his statement that “As long as gays and lesbians are objects of bullying and discrimination, everybody who considers himself/herself as a thinking person must support LGBTQ people’s fight for their human rights.” At the end of this part of the article, the author describes a recent hate crime based in homophobia, and its victim, the talented St. Petersburg journalist, Dmitry Tsilikin. Tsilikin was involved in sex education in the 1990s and published a book about these issues. His murder was not considered by the court to be a hate crime against an LGBTQ person, despite enormous protest from progressive-minded people all over Russia. Conclusion. The author recommends the Russian Psychological Ethics Code as a way to help psychologists support and advocate for people regardless of sexual orientation or gender identity.
Feys, P.; Bibby, B.; Romberg, A.; Santoyo, C.; Gebara, B.; de Noordhout, B.M.; Knuts, K.; Bethoux, F.; Skjerbaek, A.; Jensen, E.; Baert, I.; Vaney, C.; de Groot, V.; Dalgas, U.
Objective To compare within-day variability of short (10 m walking test at usual and fastest speed; 10MWT) and long (2 and 6-minute walking test; 2MWT/6MWT) tests in persons with multiple sclerosis. Design Observational study. Setting MS rehabilitation and research centers in Europe and US within
Credé, Marcus; Harms, Peter; Niehorster, Sarah; Gaye-Valentine, Andrea
Researchers often use very abbreviated (e.g., 1-item, 2-item) measures of personality traits due to their convenience and ease of use as well as the belief that such measures can adequately capture an individual's personality. Using data from 2 samples (N = 437 employees, N = 355 college students), we show that this practice, particularly the use of single-item measures, can lead researchers to substantially underestimate the role that personality traits play in influencing important behaviors and thereby overestimate the role played by new constructs. That is, the use of very short measures of personality may substantially increase both the Type 1 and Type 2 error rates. We argue that even slightly longer measures can substantially increase the validity of research findings without significant inconvenience to the researcher or research participants. (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Update of the administrative procedure for delivering a personal short-term visitor dosimeter to associated members of CERN’s personnel. Associated members of the CERN personnel may request a short term visitor dosimeter if working only in Supervised Radiation Areas and for a period of less than two months in a calendar year. Such a dosimeter is delivered without the need to provide the usual regular documents: radiation passport, certificate from the home institute or medical certificate. Periodic verification will ensure that holders of these personal dosimeters do not exceed the maximum allowed personal dose for this type of dosimeter, which is the same as the limit for members of the public at 1 mSv per year. From now on, the two-month period can be spread over a calendar year, offering greater flexibility to users coming to CERN for multiple short periods. Please return unused dosimeters Persons leaving CERN for a period of more than one month should return their dosimeter to the D...
JoAnn Niehaus, Sister
"The Hope Chest," a short story by Jean Stafford, offers a challenge to the oral interpreter of literature because it demands that the performer demonstrate its complex narrative levels. There are five distinct facets in the personality of the central character, Miss Bellamy: a lonely, fearful old lady; a shrewd, hospitable mistress of…
kapitlet omhandler Narrative psykologiske teorier i et personlighedspsykologisk og socio-kulturelt perspektiv.......kapitlet omhandler Narrative psykologiske teorier i et personlighedspsykologisk og socio-kulturelt perspektiv....
Oosting, Ellen; Dronkers, Jaap; Hoogeboom, Thomas; van Meeteren, Nico; Speelman, Willem Marie
To get insight into personal meaning of a person involved in a physical therapy intervention. Mrs. A, a 76-year-old woman is referred to a physical therapist (PT) for assessment of functioning and training before total hip arthroplasty (THA). The patient, her daughter, and PT were asked to write a story about their daily life. Stories were analyzed according to the narrative scheme based on a method to find meaning in daily life, which consists of four phases: 1. Motivation; 2. Competences; 3. Performance; and 4. Mrs. A was mainly motivated by her will to do enjoyable social activities and stay independent. Although she tried her best to undertake activities (performance) that made her proud (evaluation), her pain and physical limitations were anti-competences that motivated her to attend healthcare. Although the PT seemed to be aware of personal participation goals, her main motivation was to improve and evaluate functions and activities. The daughter was motivated by good relationships and did not see herself as informal caregiver. The narrative method was a valuable tool to clarify motivations, competences, and values in the process of creating personal meaning related to functioning. This knowledge could help caregivers in applying patient-centered goal-setting and treatment on a participation level. Implications for rehabilitation Personal meaning of people's functioning within their daily context can be clarified from daily life stories. This case report demonstrates that motivations and goals may differ between patient and therapist; the PT seems to focus on improving and evaluating functions and activities, while the patient seems to focus her motivations and personal meaning on participation. This approach may help in patient-centered goal-setting at the level of activities and participation.
Sally Ann Skewes
Full Text Available Schema Therapy has shown promising results for personality disorders but there is a limited evidence base for group Schema Therapy (ST-g with mixed personality disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of ST-g in a sample of eight participants with mixed personality disorders (with a predominant diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder and high levels of comorbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, behavioural, and experiential techniques. Specific schema-based strategies were chosen for a diagnostically mixed group of personality disorder clients. Six participants attended until end of treatment and two dropped-out before mid-treatment. All outcome measures showed changes with large effect sizes in avoidant personality disorder symptom severity, depression and anxiety levels between pre-therapy and follow-up. Four participants achieved a loss of personality disorder diagnosis at the end of therapy. By follow-up, five participants had achieved a loss of diagnosis, suggesting that participants derived ongoing benefits from the group even after treatment ended. Six participants no longer met criteria for depression at the end of treatment and this was maintained for all participants at six-month follow-up. At follow-up, the majority of participants showed clinically significant change on the GSI. For the SMI maladaptive modes, the majority of participants showed improvement at follow-up. At follow-up 40% of participants showed clinically significant change on the SMI adaptive modes. Qualitative feedback indicates that the group helps to normalize participants’ psychological experiences and difficulties and promotes self-expression and self-disclosure, while reducing disinhibition. Preliminary results suggest that short-term ST-g may benefit those with mixed personality disorders, but generalizability is limited by the small sample size and lack
I denne power point gennem grundtrækkene i den narrative vending og der kommes med eksempler på narrative undervisningsformer.......I denne power point gennem grundtrækkene i den narrative vending og der kommes med eksempler på narrative undervisningsformer....
Zinken, Jörg; Blakemore, Caroline; Zinken, Katarzyna
Psychological research has emphasized the importance of narrative for a person's sense of self. Building a coherent narrative of past events is one objective of psychotherapy. However, in guided self-help therapy the patient has to develop this narrative autonomously. Identifying patients......' narrative skills in relation to psychological distress could provide useful information about their suitability for self-help. The aim of this study was to explore whether the syntactic integration of clauses into narrative in texts written by prospective psychotherapy patients was related to mild...... to moderate psychological distress. Cross-clausal syntax of texts by 97 people who had contacted a primary care mental health service was analyzed. Severity of symptoms associated with mental health difficulties was assessed by a standardized scale (Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation outcome measure...
Lars R. Bergman
Full Text Available A short overview of the person-oriented approach is given as a guide to the researcher interested in carrying out person-oriented research. Theoretical, methodological, and practical considerations of the approach are discussed. First, some historical roots are traced, followed by a description of the holisticinteractionistic research paradigm, which provided the general framework for the development of the modern person-oriented approach. The approach has both a theoretical and a methodological facet and after presenting its key theoretical tenets, an overview is given of some common person-oriented methods. Central to the person-oriented approach is a system view with its components together forming a pattern regarded as indivisible. This pattern should be understood and studied as a whole, not broken up into pieces (variables that are studied as separate entities. Hence, usually methodological tools are used by which whole patterns are analysed (e.g. cluster analysis. An empirical example is given where the pattern development of school grades is studied.
Narrative permeates health care--from patients' stories taken as medical histories to the development of health policy. The narrative approach to health care has involved the move from narratives in health care as objects of study to the lens through which health care is studied and, more recently, to narrative as a form of care. In this paper, I argue that narrative care requires a move in the field of ethics--from a position where narratives are used to inform ethical decision making to one in which narrative is the form and process of ethical decision making. In other words, I argue for a narrative ethics for narrative care. The argument is relatively straightforward. If, as I argue, humans are narrative beings who make sense of themselves, others, and the world in and through narrative, we need to see our actions as both narratively based and narratively contextual and thus understanding the nature, form, and content of the narratives of which we are a part, and the process of narrativity, provides an intersubjective basis for ethical action. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was a projective psychological test created by Harvard psychologist Henry A. Murray and his lover Christina Morgan in the 1930s. The test entered the nascent intelligence service of the United States (the OSS) during the Second World War due to its celebrated reputation for revealing the deepest aspects of an individual's unconscious. It subsequently spread as a scientifically objective research tool capable not only of dredging the unconscious depths, but also of determining the best candidate for a management position, the psychological complexes of human nature, and the unique characteristics of a culture. Two suppositions underlie the utility of the test. One is the power of narrative. The test entails a calculated abuse of the subjects tested, based on their inability to interpret their own narrative. The form of the test requires that a subject fail to decipher the coded, unconscious meaning their narrative reveals. Murray believed the interpretation of a subject's narrative and the projection contained therein depended exclusively on the psychologist. This view of interpretation stems from the seemingly more reasonable belief of nineteenth-century Romantic thinkers that a literary text serves as a proxy for an author's deepest self. The TAT also supposes that there is something beyond consciousness closely resembling a psychoanalytic unconscious, which also has clear precedents in nineteenth-century German thought. Murray's views on literary interpretation, his view of psychology as well as the continuing prevalence of the TAT, signals a nineteenth-century concept of self that insists "on relations of depth and surface, inner and outer life" (Galison 2007, 277). It is clear the hermeneutic practice of Freud's psychoanalysis, amplified in Jung, drew on literary conceptions of the unconscious wider than those of nineteenth-century psychology.
Hadeer Abo El Nagah
Full Text Available Louis Montrose's "Professing the Renaissance: the Poetics and Politics of Culture" renewed concern with the historical, social and political conditions of literary productions (1989. He suggested a platform through which autonomous aesthetics and academic issues to be understood as inextricably linked to other discourses. While autobiography is considered as a "writing back," I argue here that it is rather a strategic transitional act that connects the past with the present and remaps the future. Though a very personal opening, autobiography is seen as a documentation of public events from a personal perspective. Academic autobiographies like Arab American history professor Leila Ahmad's A Border Passage from Cairo to America; A Woman’s Journey (2012 and African American theology professor Amina Wadud’s Inside the Gender Jihad (2008 are two examples of the production of interwoven private and public histories. The personal opening in such narratives is an autonomous act that initiates cross-disciplinary dialogues that trigger empowerment and proposes future changes. In that sense, these autobiographies are far from being mere stories of the past. Conversely, they are tools of rereading one's contributions and thus repositioning the poetics and politics of culture as testimonial narratives. Employing post-colonial, Islamic feminism and new historicism, the aim of this study is to critically read the above academic/personal two autobiographies as examples of the private/ public negotiations of culture. It also aims to explore the dialogue between the literary, historical and social elements as they remap the future of women in Muslim societies and the diaspora.
Geertz, Armin W.
Denne artikel er en introduktion til et temanummer i religionslærernes tidsskrift i USA. Den er et udtræk af mit kapitel "Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Approaches and Definitions" udgivet i Religious Narrative, Cognition and Culture: Image and Word in the mind of Narrative, redigeret...
Ortet, Generós; Martínez, Tania; Mezquita, Laura; Morizot, Julien; Ibáñez, Manuel I
There are two major advantages of the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ) over other non-commercial short Five-Factor Model personality measures: widen conceptual breadth, and its use in both adolescents and adults. The aim of this study was to explore the psychometric properties of this questionnaire in an adult Spanish sample. Factor, convergent (using the NEO-PI-R), and criterion (using scales that assess happiness and alcohol consumption) validities, internal consistency as well as test-retest reliabilities of the BFPTSQ were evaluated. The sample was composed of 262 participants; a subsample of 71 individuals also answered the NEO-PI-R, and another subsample of 42 respondents filled the BFPTSQ out again a month later. The results indicated that the expected factor structure was recovered using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). The ESEM showed satisfactory fit indices, with CFI and TLI around .90, as well as RMSEA and SRMR below .06. Moreover, coefficient alphas ranged from .75 to .85 and test-retest correlations ranged from .72 to .93 (p trait scales ranged from .57 to .80 (p < .001), and 27 out of 30 correlations with the facet scales were significant (p < .05 or lower). We also found that extraversion and emotional stability were associated with subjective well-being (p < .001), and extraversion and conscientiousness were related to alcohol consumption (p < .01). This study supports the construct validity of the Spanish version of the BFPTSQ in adults.
Kajonius, Petri J.
Research is currently testing how the new maladaptive personality inventory for DSM (PID-5) and the well-established common Five-Factor Model (FFM) together can serve as an empirical and theoretical foundation for clinical psychology. The present study investigated the official short version of the PID-5 together with a common short version of…
Geerts, E; Bouhuys, N
It was hypothesized that personality factors determine the short-term outcome of depression, and that they may do this via non-verbal interpersonal interactions and via cognitive interpretations of non-verbal behaviour. Twenty-six hospitalized depressed patients entered the study. Personality
Humberto Perinelli Neto
Full Text Available This article has the objective to rethink concepts, contents and objectives of themes connected with the area of History through the articulation between the use of audiovisual languages – in case, the cinema – the role of the narrative and the construction of practices of teaching, all based on the studies of micro-history. We do not want to discuss only the educational and empirical potential of the technological resources inside the classrooms, but, specially, we want to understand the possible and real ways of transformation of the students, when they turn into subjects who creates new knowledges, by making short-length movies. This pedagogic tool and technological can help us think about the PCN's prerogatives, like, the increase in value of the place and of the daily life (of the pupils, the respect to the diversity and plurality, the role of the subjects in History. The proposal here presented is a result of a project carried out at the Fundação Educacional de Fernandópolis between 2009 and 2010, as works of conclusion of course developed by pupils of the degree course in History.
Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens
Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE
Yanos, Philip T.; Roe, David; Lysaker, Paul H.
Internalized stigma has been suggested to play a major role in negative changes in identity in severe mental illness. Evidence suggests that roughly one-third of people with severe mental illness show elevated internalized stigma and that it is linked to compromised outcomes in both subjective and objective aspects of recovery. Despite substantial evidence for the impact of internalized stigma, few efforts have been made to develop professionally-led treatment to address this issue. In this article, we discuss our development of a new, group-based approach to the treatment of internalized stigma which we have termed “narrative enhancement and cognitive therapy” (NECT). We describe the treatment approach and offer an illustration of it by way of a case vignette. PMID:21985260
Hammond, H.A.; Caskey, C.T. (Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX (United States)); Jin, L.; Zhong, Y.; Chakraborty, R. (Univ. of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX (United States))
Personal identification by using DNA typing methodologies has been an issue in the popular and scientific press for several years. The authors present a PCR-based DNA-typing method using 13 unlinked short tandem repeat (STR) loci. Validation of the loci and methodology has been performed to meet standards set by the forensic community and the accrediting organization for parentage testing. Extensive statistical analysis has addressed the issues surrounding the presentation of [open quotes]match[close quotes] statistics. The authors have found STR loci to provide a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method of DNA typing for parentage testing, forensic identification, and medical diagnostics. Valid statistical analysis is generally simpler than similar analysis of RFLP-VNTR results and provides powerful statistical evidence of the low frequency of random multilocus genotype matching. 54 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.
Feys, Peter; Bibby, Bo; Romberg, Anders; Santoyo, Carme; Gebara, Benoit; de Noordhout, Benoit Maertens; Knuts, Kathy; Bethoux, Francois; Skjerbæk, Anders; Jensen, Ellen; Baert, Ilse; Vaney, Claude; de Groot, Vincent; Dalgas, Ulrik
To compare within-day variability of short (10 m walking test at usual and fastest speed; 10MWT) and long (2 and 6-minute walking test; 2MWT/6MWT) tests in persons with multiple sclerosis. Observational study. MS rehabilitation and research centers in Europe and US within RIMS (European network for best practice and research in MS rehabilitation). Ambulatory persons with MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale 0-6.5). Subjects of different centers performed walking tests at 3 time points during a single day. 10MWT, 2MWT and 6MWT at fastest speed and 10MWT at usual speed. Ninety-five percent limits of agreement were computed using a random effects model with individual pwMS as random effect. Following this model, retest scores are with 95% certainty within these limits of baseline scores. In 102 subjects, within-day variability was constant in absolute units for the 10MWT, 2MWT and 6MWT at fastest speed (+/-0.26, 0.16 and 0.15m/s respectively, corresponding to +/-19.2m and +/-54 m for the 2MWT and 6MWT) independent on the severity of ambulatory dysfunction. This implies a greater relative variability with increasing disability level, often above 20% depending on the applied test. The relative within-day variability of the 10MWT at usual speed was +/-31% independent of ambulatory function. Absolute values of within-day variability on walking tests at fastest speed were independent of disability level and greater with short compared to long walking tests. Relative within-day variability remained overall constant when measured at usual speed. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.
This paper describes a Narrative Engagement Framework (NEF) for guiding communication-based prevention efforts. This framework suggests that personal narratives have distinctive capabilities in prevention. The paper discusses the concept of narrative, links narrative to prevention, and discusses the central role of youth in developing narrative interventions. As illustration, the authors describe how the NEF is applied in the keepin’ it REAL adolescent drug prevention curriculum, pose theoretical directions, and offer suggestions for future work in prevention communication. PMID:23980613
Narrative coaching is representative of the new wave – or third generation – of coaching practice . The theory and practice of narrative coaching takes into account the social and cultural conditions of late modern society, and must be seen as intertwined with them. Some initial conceptualizations...... of narrative coaching were developed by David Drake (2006, 2007, 2008, 2009) in the USA and Australia, by Ho Law in the UK (Law, 2007a + b; Law & Stelter, 2009) and by Reinhard Stelter (2007, 2009, 2012, in preparation; Stelter & Law, 2010) in Denmark. In the following chapter the aim is to present coaching...... as a narrative-collaborative practice, an approach that is based on phenomenology, social constructionism and narrative theory. Seeing narrative coaching as a collaborative practice also leads to reflecting on the relationship between coach and coachee(s) in a new way, where both parts contribute to the dialogue...
Social Justice and English Language Learners in the Borderland: A Personal Narrative of a Committed Principal Determined to Take the Steps Necessary for English Language Learners to Achieve and Succeed in Academic Content
Lechuga, Mary Helen
This study embraces the pedagogy that this school's educators believed in and utilized to enhance and expand the academic knowledge of those students who posses a language different from the English language. This research study, represented in a personal narrative, attempts to question the widespread thinking that places all validity on using…
The growing popularity of Facebook has prompted much interest in the concept of online self-disclosure. Prior studies have primarily examined this concept from a quantitative perspective, often focusing on how the frequency and pattern of online disclosures relate to personality typologies. This study is the first qualitative exploration of users’ perspectives on their experience of personal self-disclosure on Facebook. The aim of the study was to identify the factors that motivate participan...
Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Delgado-Gómez, David; Ruiz-Hernández, Diego; García-Vega, Juan Manuel; Berenguer, Nuria; Oquendo, Maria A; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario
To develop a brief and reliable psychometric scale to identify individuals at risk for suicidal behaviour. Case-control study. 182 individuals (61 suicide attempters, 57 psychiatric controls, and 64 psychiatrically healthy controls) aged 18 or older, admitted to the Emergency Department at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital in Madrid, Spain. All participants completed a form including their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and the Personality and Life Events scale (27 items). To assess Axis I diagnoses, all psychiatric patients (including suicide attempters) were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Descriptive statistics were computed for the socio-demographic factors. Additionally, χ(2) independence tests were applied to evaluate differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables, and the Personality and Life Events scale between groups. A stepwise linear regression with backward variable selection was conducted to build the Short Personality Life Event (S-PLE) scale. In order to evaluate the accuracy, a ROC analysis was conducted. The internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α, and the external reliability was evaluated using a test-retest procedure. The S-PLE scale, composed of just 6 items, showed good performance in discriminating between medical controls, psychiatric controls and suicide attempters in an independent sample. For instance, the S-PLE scale discriminated between past suicide and past non-suicide attempters with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 75%. The area under the ROC curve was 88%. A factor analysis extracted only one factor, revealing a single dimension of the S-PLE scale. Furthermore, the S-PLE scale provides values of internal and external reliability between poor (test-retest: 0.55) and acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.65) ranges. Administration time is about one minute. The S-PLE scale is a useful and accurate instrument for estimating the risk of suicidal behaviour in
Hansen, Per Krogh
Per Krogh Hansen brings attention to one of the most discussed narratological concepts in recent years, the ‘unreliable narrator’. In the article »The Dynamics of Unreliable Narration«, Hansen is considering to what extent the question of authorial control or intention is relevant when analysing...... and interpreting unreliable narrators. In the first part of the article, he questions this claimed essentiality of an authorial agent from three different angles: One concerning the border between diegetic and extradiegetic issues. Another with specific focus on unreliable simultaneous narration (first person......, present tense). And a third with attention paid to the role of unreliable narrators in factual narratives. In the article, he proposes a model for describing the different dynamic roles the authorial agent, as well as the empirical reader, plays in different forms of unreliable narration. Here, terms like...
Stepney, Cesalie T.; Elias, Maurice J.; Epstein, Yakov M.
The study explored whether aspects of elementary students' writing about their personal values could predict if students were considered more at risk or more resilient. Essays from 176 fifth-grade students (79.54% African American, 20.46% Hispanic) from a low-income, urban district in New Jersey were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word…
Driscoll, Mary C. [St. Bonaventure University, St Bonaventure, NY(United States)
The Project Narrative describes how the funds from the DOE grant were used to purchase equipment for the biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics departments. The Narrative also describes how the equipment is being used. There is also a list of the positive outcomes as a result of having the equipment that was purchased with the DOE grant.
Manrique Hernández, Rubén Darío; Universidad San Buenaventura; Moratto Vasquez, Nadia Semenova; Universidad CES
The Personality Belief Questionnaire- Short Form (PBQ-SF) is an assessment instrument of personality beliefs based on the cognitive theory that states that these are characterized by a specific pattern of dysfunctional thoughts. The objective of this study was to establish the psychometric properties and structural validity of the PBQ-SF questionnaire in Colombian adults from 18 to 35 years old. To carry out the above and with permission of the author the validation process was initiated foll...
Beaufort, de L.F.
In the following pages I intend to give some informations about the voyage, which my wife and I made in the Indo-Australian Archipelago from November 1909 till March 1910, as an introduction to the reports of the zoological collections made during that trip, which are published in this periodical.
Dette pilotstudies ambition er at undersøge, hvordan og hvorfor narrative elementer lejlighedsvist aktiveres af aktører i deres kontakt med bibliotekarer i folkebiblioteker. Ved hjælp af en kulturanalytisk tilgang studeres forskellige aktørers narrative udvidelser af referenceinterviewet. Teoretisk....... Pilotstudiet bekræfter de 2 indledende antagelser: 1) at nogle aktører anvender narrative udvidelser, fordi de vælger at betone den mellemmenneskelige relation mellem aktør og bibliotekar, som om det var enhver anden social relation og derved ignorerer andre, mere repræsentative dele af bibliotekarernes...... funktioner. Og 2) at nogle aktører anvender narrative udvidelser i bestræbelserne på at legitimere egne sociale positioner og identitetsdannelse gennem kritisk refleksion over bibliotekarernes og folkebibliotekets institutionelle position og magt. Gennem den narrative udvidelse formår disse aktører...
This paper is grounded in a phenomenological-interpretive exploration of how mourning is experienced and understood by the victim's nuclear family--the victims are Greek-Cypriot missing persons whose remains have been recovered, identified and properly buried, after exhumations of mass graves in the aftermath of war. Particularly, the focus is on…
Stein, Michael D; Anderson, Bradley J; Bailey, Genie L
Without aftercare treatment, the period following discharge from short-term inpatient detoxification for opioid dependence presents a high risk of relapse. Yet the role of patient preference in treatment selection is rarely discussed in the substance-abuse literature. We surveyed 485 persons initiating inpatient opioid detoxification who were predominantly male (71.3%) and had detoxed in the past (73.2%). When asked to choose the one treatment that would work best for them after discharge, 43% of participants selected medication-assisted treatment (MAT), 29% preferred residential, 12% selected drug-free counseling, 12% NA/AA meetings only, and 4% preferred no additional treatment. Residential treatment preference was significantly associated with homelessness, having been in a detox program within the past year, and having pending legal problems, indicating that there is a distinct profile of detox patients who prefer residential treatment despite its limited availability. Detox program staff should work with patients to understand reasons for treatment preferences to optimize aftercare services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Leboul, Danièle; Aubry, Régis; Peter, Jean-Michel; Royer, Victor; Richard, Jean-François; Guirimand, Frédéric
Despite recent advances in palliative medicine, sedating a terminally ill patient is regarded as an indispensable treatment to manage unbearable suffering. With the prospect of widespread use of palliative sedation, the feelings and representations of health care providers and staff (carers) regarding sedation must be carefully explored if we are to gain a better understanding of its impact and potential pitfalls. The objective of the study was to provide a comprehensive description of the opinions of carers about the use of sedation practices in palliative care units (PCU), which have become a focus of public attention following changes in legislation. Data were collected using a qualitative study involving multi-professional focus groups with health care providers and staff as well as personal narratives written by physicians and paramedical staff. A total of 35 medical and paramedical providers volunteered to participate in focus group discussions in three Palliative Care Units in two French hospitals and to write personal narratives. Health care provider and staff opinions had to do with their professional stance and competencies when using midazolam and practicing sedation in palliative care. They expressed uncertainty regarding three aspects of the comprehensive care: biomedical rigour of diagnosis and therapeutics, quality of the patient/provider relationship and care to be provided. Focusing on the sedative effect of midazolam and continuous sedation until death, the interviewed health care providers examined the basics of their professional competency as well as the key role played by the health care team in terms of providing support and minimizing workplace suffering. Nurses were subject to the greatest misgivings about their work when they were called upon to sedate patients. The uncertainty experienced by the carers with regard to the medical, psychosocial and ethical justification for sedation is a source of psychological burden and moral distress
Anderson, Claire; Kirkpatrick, Susan
Introduction Narrative interviews place the people being interviewed at the heart of a research study. They are a means of collecting people's own stories about their experiences of health and illness. Narrative interviews can help researchers to better understand people's experiences and behaviours. Narratives may come closer to representing the context and integrity of people's lives than more quantitative means of research. Methodology Researchers using narrative interview techniques do not set out with a fixed agenda, rather they tend to let the interviewee control the direction, content and pace of the interview. The paper describes the interview process and the suggested approach to analysis of narrative interviews, We draw on the example from a study that used series of narrative interviews about people's experiences of taking antidepressants. Limitations Some people may find it particularly challenging to tell their story to a researcher in this way rather than be asked a series of questions like in a television or radio interview. Narrative research like all qualitative research does not set out to be generalisable and may only involve a small set of interviews.
Full Text Available In the article on the basis of analyzing theoretical sources and practical experience some scientists’ works are disclosed, which deal with using and designing digital narratives in future Ukrainian language and literature teachers’ training, to develop a personality’s information and digital competence. It is reported that the themes, which are focused on postgraduate students’ acquainting with digital technologies of studying linguistic subjects at university, in specialized classes in secondary school, and a new type of educational institutions, should be introduced into language and methodological training. The author emphasizes on the relevance and importance of using digital narratives for democratization and humanization, the inspiration of the educational process. Narratives (stories in literary works, letters, confessions, biographies, diaries, comments, portrait sketches, pedagogical aphorisms, scripts, summaries of lessons with notes in the margins and others, biographical and pedagogical narratives provide information about the events, situations, taking into account individual reflexed experience of outstanding teachers. If students have an opportunity to develop skills of making narratives, they will gradually get communicative competences and feeling of confidence in their own ability that are necessary in the life. The works by M. Leshchenko and L. Tymchuk that are devoted to studying biography narratives are overviewed. The author suggests her own works of studying biography narratives of outstanding personalities (O. Zakharenko, I. Ziaziun, N. Voloshyna, L. Matsko and others. Digital narrative is characterized as a dynamic means of sending information messages in which a word, an image and sound are expressed in a joint digital code; as multimedia project that combines text, a picture, audio and video files in a short video clip. It is spoken in detail that digital narratives that are used or made together with students
Kastner, Rebecca M.; Sellbom, Martin; Lilienfeld, Scott O.
The Psychopathic Personality Inventory (PPI) has shown promising construct validity as a measure of psychopathy. Because of its relative efficiency, a short-form version of the PPI (PPI-SF) was developed and has proven useful in many psychopathy studies. The validity of the PPI-SF, however, has not been thoroughly examined, and no studies have…
Vyskocilova, Jana; Prasko, Jan; Novak, Tomas; Pohlova, Libuse
The treatment of personality disorder is repeatedly reported as less successful than the treatment of patients without personality disorder. Most clinicians believe that anxiety disorder in tandem with a personality disorder often leads to longer treatment, worsens the prognosis, and thus increases treatment costs. Our study was designed to compare the short-term effectiveness of therapy in patients suffering from social phobia with and without personality disorder. The specific aim of the study was to assess the efficacy of a 6 week therapeutic program designed for social phobia (SSRIs and CBT) in patients suffering from social phobia with comorbid personality disorder (17 patients) and social phobia without comorbid personality disorder (18 patients). The patients were regularly assessed in weeks 0, 2, 4 and 6 using the CGI (Clinical Global Improvement) for severity, LSAS (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale), and in self-assessments BAI (Beck Anxiety Inventory) and BDI (Beck Depression Inventory). Patients in both groups improved their scores in most of the assessment instruments used. A combination of CBT and pharmacotherapy proved to be the most effective treatment for patients suffering with social phobia with or without comorbid personality disorder. Treatment efficacy in patients with social phobia without personality disorder was significantly better than in the group with social phobia comorbid with personality disorder for CGI and specific inventory for social phobia - LSAS. The scores on the subjective depression inventory (BDI) also showed significantly greater decrease over the treatment in the group without personality disorder. The treatment effect between groups did not differ in subjective general anxiety scales BAI. Our study showed that patients suffering from social phobia and comorbid personality disorder showed a smaller decrease in specific social phobia symptomatology during treatment compared than patients with social phobia without personality
Campbell, Bruce H; Havas, Nancy; Derse, Arthur R; Holloway, Richard L
Every graduating medical student must write a personal statement for the Electronic Residency Application Service (ERAS), yet there are no widely available resources designed to aid the writing process, causing stress among applicants. The authors offered every Medical College of Wisconsin senior student in the Classes of 2014 and 2015 a voluntary self-contained two-hour Residency Application Personal Statement Writers Workshop. The session included the selection of writing prompts, speedwriting, and a peer-edit critique. Data were gathered before and after each workshop and at the time of ERAS submission. One hundred nine students elected to participate. Of the 96 participants completing a preworkshop questionnaire, only 28 (29%) were comfortable with creative and reflective writing. Fifty-four students completed a follow-up survey after submitting their ERAS application. Fifty-one (94%) found the session effective in getting their personal statement started, and 65 (70%) were surprised by the quality of their writing. Almost all could trace some of their final statement to the workshop. Forty-six (85%) found working with other students helpful, and 49 (91%) would recommend the session to future students; 47 (87%) agreed that the workshop was "fun." The full workshop will be repeated yearly. Workshops will also be offered to residents preparing fellowship applications. A shorter version (without the peer-edit critique) was used successfully with the entire Class of 2016 to help them reflect on their initial clinical encounters. The authors will seek further opportunities to enhance reflection for students, residents, and faculty with these techniques.
Sandvide, Asa; Fahlgren, Siv; Norberg, Astrid; Saveman, Britt-Inger
In order to reach a more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics in violent situations in institutional care for elderly people the aim of this study was to explore involved parties' positions, and to illuminate forces and moves related to these positions. One involved care provider's narrative was analysed using narrative analysis and positioning theory. In the narrative the involved parties' positions were fluid and often overlapping, and not exclusively as victim or perpetrator. Across the narrative the narrator altered the involved parties' positions by using available discourses. We understand that the altered positions were a salient way for the care provider to make sense of her experiences. By reading the care provider's narrative we further understand that she was much more than just a perpetrator, which was the origin for her narrative. This study led us to two assumptions important for implications in nursing practice. First, it is of significance how we position ourselves and others in narratives and conversations. Second, there is a difference between being categorised in advance and getting the opportunity to narrate one's own story.
蔡敏玲 Min-Ling Tasi
Full Text Available 本文主要目的為描述泰雅幼兒的經驗敘說特色，並試論此種敘說特色與在地文化的關係，思考泰雅幼兒敘說特色的教育涵義。作者利用兩年的時間在台灣北部一個泰雅族社區的雲村國小附幼彩虹班蒐集假日生活分享時段的經驗敘說。採詩節分析和文學文本分析的方式分析第一年的218 則和第二年的161 則文本，並統整、參照訪談文本的分析與相關文獻，建構出以下的理解：泰雅幼兒的經驗敘說，可看成在乎聽眾參與、邊說邊創的演出，具有4項特色，包括頻繁引用對話、虛實界線模糊（想像與經歷的情節交錯、將聽眾編進敘說文本）、分享者與聽眾共構敘說內容，以及經常提及自然與氣象。敘說文本的主題與特色均展現「個人在社群中定義」的文化特質。作者建議幼教現場提供幼兒經驗敘說的常設空間、接受並積極幫助幼兒體驗多元敘事風格，使幼兒敘說文本成為課程的實質基礎。 The aim of this study is to describe the characteristics of young Atayal children’s personal narratives, to attempt to discuss the relationship between such narratives and Atayal culture, and to ponder upon the educational implication of the narrative styles found. The author collected personal narratives in a kindergarten classroom situated in an Atayal village in northern Taiwan for two years. Adopting stanza analysis and literary text analysis, the author analyzed 218 narrative texts collected in the first year and 161 narrative texts collected in the second year. The result shows these children regard sharing experiences as a performance that is impromptu in nature, and carefully attend to the participation of the audience. The characteristics of these narratives include: frequent use of dialogues, integration of realistic and imaginary plots, including the audiences as characters in the narratives, co-construction of
Nunes, Andreia; Limpo, Teresa; Lima, César F; Castro, São Luís
The importance of quickly assessing personality traits in many studies prompted the development of brief scales such as the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), a measure of five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness). In the current study, we present the Portuguese version of TIPI and examine its psychometric properties, based on a sample of 333 Portuguese adults aged 18 to 65 years. The results revealed reliability coefficients similar to the original version (α = 0.39-0.72), very good 4-week test-retest reliability ( n = 81, r s > 0.71), expected factorial structure, high convergent validity with the Big-Five Inventory ( r s > 0.60), and correlations with self-esteem, affect, and aggressiveness similar to those found with standard measures of personality traits. Overall, our findings suggest that the Portuguese TIPI is a reliable and valid alternative to longer measures: it offers a promising tool for research contexts in which the available time for personality assessment is highly limited.
Nunes, Andreia; Limpo, Teresa; Lima, César F.; Castro, São Luís
The importance of quickly assessing personality traits in many studies prompted the development of brief scales such as the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), a measure of five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness). In the current study, we present the Portuguese version of TIPI and examine its psychometric properties, based on a sample of 333 Portuguese adults aged 18 to 65 years. The results revealed reliability coefficients similar to the original version (α = 0.39–0.72), very good 4-week test–retest reliability (n = 81, rs > 0.71), expected factorial structure, high convergent validity with the Big-Five Inventory (rs > 0.60), and correlations with self-esteem, affect, and aggressiveness similar to those found with standard measures of personality traits. Overall, our findings suggest that the Portuguese TIPI is a reliable and valid alternative to longer measures: it offers a promising tool for research contexts in which the available time for personality assessment is highly limited. PMID:29674989
Leising, Daniel; Sporberg, Doreen; Rehbein, Diana
We present a behavior observation study of interpersonal behavior in 96 female subjects, who had been screened for the presence of dependent, avoidant, narcissistic and histrionic personality disorder features. Each subject took part in three short role-plays, taken from assertiveness training. Afterwards, both the subject and her role-play partner judged, how assertive the subject had been. Although observation time was very short, dependent and avoidant subjects could be easily identified from their overly submissive behavior in the role-plays. Histrionic and narcissistic subjects did not show distinctive interpersonal behavior. Contrary to a common belief, higher scores on some personality disorder (PD) scales were positively related to cross-situational variability of behavior. Results are discussed with regard to their implications for clinical diagnostics, therapy and the methodology of personality disorder research in general.
Full Text Available This paper is a personal reflection on social work and what constitutes a social worker, with special reference to Sri Lanka. Drawing from global literature, it observes that the field of social work has evolved to become a package of knowledge, skills, competencies, code of ethics, and accreditation standards. Therefore, qualified social workers today possess a set of practical as well as academic competencies that is designed to address issues not only at the macro and mezzo level, but also at the individual and family levels. The paper argues that Sri Lanka has yet to adopt a multi-faceted social work approach like this, and explores the possibility of enhancing the institutional capacity of the National Institute for Social Development (the country’s only institute of higher education that offers professional social work education to deliver such approach.
Macfie, Jenny; Swan, Scott A
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) represents a severe distortion in the development of attachment, self, and emotion regulation. Study of children at high risk of developing BPD may inform precursors to BPD. In a low socioeconomic status sample of 30 children aged 4-7 whose mothers have BPD and 30 normative comparisons, representations of the caregiver-child relationship and of the self, and emotion regulation were assessed with a story-stem completion measure. In contrast to comparisons and controlling for major depressive disorder, children whose mothers have BPD told stories with the following: (a) more parent-child role reversal, more fear of abandonment, and more negative mother-child and father-child relationship expectations; (b) more incongruent and shameful representations of the self; and (c) poorer emotion regulation indicated by more confusion of boundaries between fantasy and reality and between self and fantasy, more fantasy proneness, less narrative coherence, and marginally more intrusion of traumatic themes. In the sample as a whole, (a) a maladaptive caregiver-child relationship composite was associated with maternal identity disturbance and self-harm; (b) a maladaptive self-composite was associated with maternal self-harm; and (c) a maladaptive emotion regulation composite was associated with maternal identity disturbance, negative relationships, and self-harm. Results are discussed in terms of putative precursors to BPD and preventive interventions.
Kristiansen, Claus Krogholm
The dissertation deals with narrative as a cognitive structure - as a way of handling experience in the modern world. The question is: What is man when he is not created in god's image. Some recent scandinavian novels are analysed as examples.......The dissertation deals with narrative as a cognitive structure - as a way of handling experience in the modern world. The question is: What is man when he is not created in god's image. Some recent scandinavian novels are analysed as examples....
Moritz, Steffen; Mahlke, Candelaria I; Westermann, Stefan; Ruppelt, Friederike; Lysaker, Paul H; Bock, Thomas; Andreou, Christina
Schizophrenia is a complex psychiatric disorder with unknown and presumably heterogeneous etiology. While the disorder can have various outcomes, research is predominantly "deficit-oriented" emphasizing the hardship that the disorder inflicts on sufferers as well as their families and society. Beyond symptom reduction, imparting patients with hope and meaning in life is increasingly considered an important treatment target, which may raise self-esteem, and reduce self-stigma and suicidal ideation. The present study compared a psychotherapeutic treatment aimed at improving cognitive insight, individualized metacognitive intervention (MCT+), with an active control in order to elucidate if personal meaning-making and hope can be improved in patients with psychosis across time. A total of 92 patients were randomized to either individualized metacognitive therapy (MCT+) or CogPack (neuropsychological training) and followed up for up to 6 months. The "Subjective Sense in Psychosis Questionnaire" (SUSE) was administered which covers different salutogenetic vs pathogenetic views of the disorder, valence of symptom experiences and the consequences of psychosis. Patients in the MCT+ group showed a significant positive shift in attitudes towards the consequences of their illness over time relative to patients in the active control condition. There was some evidence that MCT+ also enhanced meaning-making. The perceived negative consequences of psychosis were highly correlated with depression and low self-esteem, as well as suicidality. The study shows that a cognitive insight training can improve meaning-making in patients and help them come to terms with their diagnosis.
Thimm, Jens C.; Jordan, Stian; Bach, Bo
Background With the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), an alternative model for personality disorders based on personality dysfunction and pathological personality traits was introduced. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) is a 220-item self-report inventory designed to assess the personality traits of this model. Recently, a short 100-item version of the PID-5 (PID-5-SF) has been developed. The aim of this study was ...
历史叙述是指历史学家按照如实叙述的原则，写作历史著作的过程。无论是秉笔直书的原则，还是对史料的选择与甄别，历史叙述都是一项历史学家主观参与的实践活动。历史叙述中存在着历史学家个人的情感，反映了历史学家对历史人物的赞扬与批判，蕴含了历史学家个人的价值判断原则。历史学家在历史叙述中的主观性与个人情感，将影响主体对史料的选择，甚至影响所述史实的正误。历史学家通过历史叙述对历史人物的评价来传递个人的主观情感，进而教育与引导读者的行为。%The historical narrative is a process that the historians write their narrative historical works according the objective facts .Either the direct narrative according to the fact ,or the selection on the historical materials ,the historical narrative is a subjective activity that the historians take part in .The historian's personal emotion exists in the historical narrative ,reflects historian's praise or criticism on the history figures ,and implies their values and judgment principle .The historian's subjectivity and personal emotion in historical narrative may impact the choice of historical materials ,even affect the fact that the historians write true or false .By judging on the history figures in the historical narrative ,the historians express their individual subjective feelings ,even if guide and teach the reader's activities .
Abstrak Berprinsip pada pengembangan teknologi dan aplikasi dari sistem penjejakan posisi (tracking), maka dibuatlah sistem personal tracking dengan mentransmisikan data GPS (Global Positioning System) dengan menggunakan teknologi SMS (Short Messaging Service) pada jaringan GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) sebagai media transmisinya. Dengan sistem GPS akan diperoleh data garis lintang, serta garis bujur dari GPS receiver. Data tersebut akan diteruskan oleh mikrokontroler untuk ...
Rubén Darío Manrique Hernández
Full Text Available The Personality Belief Questionnaire- Short Form (PBQ-SF is an assessment instrument of personality beliefs based on the cognitive theory that states that these are characterized by a specific pattern of dysfunctional thoughts. The objective of this study was to establish the psychometric properties and structural validity of the PBQ-SF questionnaire in Colombian adults from 18 to 35 years old. To carry out the above and with permission of the author the validation process was initiated following a thorough and rigorous process that led to a final version of the PBQ-SF applied to 1423 persons born in Colombia and living in nine Colombian cities. Analysis of internal consistency among the items (Cronbach´s alpha, confirmatory factor analysis and calculus of goodness of fit estimators were performed. It was found that the Internal consistency of the domains varied from 0,65 for avoidant disorder up to 0,83 for paranoid disorder.
Wrzus, Cornelia; Roberts, Brent W
The current article presents a theoretical framework of the short- and long-term processes underlying personality development throughout adulthood. The newly developed TESSERA framework posits that long-term personality development occurs due to repeated short-term, situational processes. These short-term processes can be generalized as recursive sequence of Triggering situations, Expectancy, States/State expressions, and Reactions (TESSERA). Reflective and associative processes on TESSERA sequences can lead to personality development (i.e., continuity and lasting changes in explicit and implicit personality characteristics and behavioral patterns). We illustrate how the TESSERA framework facilitates a more comprehensive understanding of normative and differential personality development at various ages during the life span. The TESSERA framework extends previous theories by explicitly linking short- and long-term processes of personality development, by addressing different manifestations of personality, and by being applicable to different personality characteristics, for example, behavioral traits, motivational orientations, or life narratives.
Full Text Available Abstrak Berprinsip pada pengembangan teknologi dan aplikasi dari sistem penjejakan posisi (tracking, maka dibuatlah sistem personal tracking dengan mentransmisikan data GPS (Global Positioning System dengan menggunakan teknologi SMS (Short Messaging Service pada jaringan GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications sebagai media transmisinya. Dengan sistem GPS akan diperoleh data garis lintang, serta garis bujur dari GPS receiver. Data tersebut akan diteruskan oleh mikrokontroler untuk dikirim ke ponsel pengamat melalui komunikasi SMS. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa device personal tracking berhasil mengirimkan data berupa IMEI, Tanggal satelit, waktu satelit, koordinat longitude, koordinat latitude, dan jumlah satelit yang berhasil ditangkap oleh device ke ponsel pengamat. Dari data koordinat tersebut pengamat dapat memantau posisi device personal tracking berada dengan bantuan aplikasi pendukung yaitu Google Maps. Kata kunci: GPS, Personal Tracking, SMS, Google Maps. Abstract Base on technology and application development of tracking, personal tracking system was made by transmiting GPS (Global Positioning System data using SMS (Short Messaging Service technology with GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications network as transmitter media. BY GPS system, we can get datas such as latitude and longitude of GPS receiver. Those datas will be processed by microcontroller to be sent from GSM/GPRS module to user cellular phone through SMS communication. The test result showed that the device can be sending datas such as IMEI, UTC date, UTC time, longitude coordinate, latitude coordinate, and number sattelite which detected by device to user’s phonecell. From those coordinate, user can be monitoring the device’s position with the Google Maps application. Keywords: GPS, Personal Tracking, SMS, Google Maps.
Narrative Absorption brings together research from the social sciences and Humanities to solve a number of mysteries: Most of us will have had those moments, of being totally absorbed in a book, a movie, or computer game. Typically we do not have any idea about how we ended up in such a state. No...
examples of successful refugee resettlement and national self-assertion. Within the master narrative of Partition migration history, however, the experiences of forced movement and resettlement suffered by the ‘Untouchables' are obscured. Popular accounts of violence, forced movement and suffering...
Dwan, Toni; Ownsworth, Tamara; Donovan, Caroline; Lo, Ada Ho Yan
It is well recognized that an individual's personality characteristics influence their psychological adjustment after stroke. However, there is a lack of research on the reliability of personality inventories for stroke. This study primarily aimed to evaluate the reliability of the Neuroticism, Extroversion, Openness to Experience (NEO)-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) for assessing pre-morbid personality and personality changes after stroke. Further aims were to investigate changes in personality during the hospital-to-home transition period and examine associations between personality and mood. Forty participants with stroke (52.5% male, M age=65.55 years) were recruited at time of hospital discharge and completed the NEO-FFI, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression and Geriatric Anxiety Inventory. Significant others completed an informant version of the NEO-FFI. Stroke participants were re-assessed on the NEO-FFI at 1-month and 4-months post-discharge. Forty matched controls also completed the NEO-FFI. Internal consistency was adequate for the NEO-FFI (α=0.57-0.86), although low for agreeableness. There was fair to excellent concordance between self-rated and informant versions of the NEO-FFI (ICC=0.58-0.78). Significant positive associations were found between neuroticism and mood (r=0.50-0.68), and significant negative associations were found between extraversion and mood (r=-0.33-0.36) and agreeableness and anxiety (r=-0.43). Self-ratings of stroke participants on the NEO-FFI at discharge did not significantly differ from matched controls. Extraversion levels significantly decreased, and agreeableness levels significantly increased between discharge and 1- and 4-months post-discharge. Overall, the results support the reliability of the NEO-FFI for assessing personality characteristics in the context of stroke.
Hatavara, Mari Annukka; Mildorf, Jarmila
This article discusses the recent trends in Fictionality Studies and argues for a point of view focusing more on the narrative dimension of fictionality than on the fictive story content. With the analysis of two case studies, where a non-fictional third person narrator represents the experience...... with other minds travel between fictional and nonfictional narratives, and between stories artistically designed and those occurring in conversational or documentary environments....
By coining the term “unreliable narrator” Wayne Booth hypothesized another agent in his model besides the author, the implicit author, to explain the double coding of narratives where a distorted view of reality and the exposure of this distortion are presented simultaneously. The article deals with the applicability of the concept in visual narratives. Since unreliability is traditionally considered to be intertwined with first person narratives, it works through subjective mediators. Accord...
The past 10-15 years have seen a rapid increase in the study of narrative across all the social sciences. It is sometimes assumed that narrative has the same meaning irrespective of the context in which it is expressed. This article considers different levels of narrative analysis within health psychology. Specifically, it considers the character of health and illness narratives as a function of the personal, interpersonal, positional and societal levels of analysis. At the personal level of analysis narratives are portrayed as expressions of the lived experience of the narrator. At the interpersonal level of analysis the narrative is one that is co-created in dialogue. At the positional level of analysis the analysis considers the differences in social position between the narrator and the listener. The societal level of analysis is concerned with the socially shared stories that are characteristic of certain communities or societies. The challenge is to articulate the connections between these different levels of narrative analysis and to develop strategies to promote emancipatory narratives.
Ellis, Norman R.; Wooldridge, Peter W.
Twelve mentally retarded and 12 nonretarded adults were compared in a Brown-Peterson short-term memory task for the retention of words and pictures over intervals up to 30 seconds. The retarded subjects forgot more rapidly over the initial 10 seconds. They also retained pictures better than they did words. (Author/DB)
Beaussart, Melanie L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Kaufman, James C.
It has been argued that creativity evolved, at least in part, through sexual selection to attract mates. Recent research lends support to this view and has also demonstrated a link between certain dimensions of schizotypy, creativity, and short-term mating. The current study delves deeper into these relationships by focusing on engagement in…
universal dimensions of human life and cultural differences in a more and more mediatized global media culture. How do individuals and groups imagine each other in this new, global media culture, in what Appadurai (1996) has called a new post-national political world with an emerging diasporic public sphere......Cosmopolitan Narratives: Documentary Perspectives on Afghanistan Cosmopolitanism is a concept discussed in relation to globalization in contemporary societies by sociologists, anthropologists and media scholars (Beck 2006, Delanty 2006, Appadurai 1996). The concept indicates the dialectic between...... close others in our everyday life. But the media play an increasingly strong and important role in developing a cosmopolitan imaginary through narratives that bring us closer to the various distant, global others. Through migration those earlier distant others are also more and more mixed in our daily...
Thimm, Jens C; Jordan, Stian; Bach, Bo
With the publication of the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), an alternative model for personality disorders based on personality dysfunction and pathological personality traits was introduced. The Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) is a 220-item self-report inventory designed to assess the personality traits of this model. Recently, a short 100-item version of the PID-5 (PID-5-SF) has been developed. The aim of this study was to investigate the score reliability and structure of the Norwegian PID-5-SF. Further, criterion validity with the five factor model of personality (FFM) and pathological personality beliefs was examined. A derivation sample of university students (N = 503) completed the PID-5, the Big Five Inventory (BFI), and the Personality Beliefs Questionnaire - Short Form (PBQ-SF), whereas a replication sample of 127 students completed the PID-5-SF along with the aforementioned measures. The short PID-5 showed overall good score reliability and structural validity. The associations with FFM traits and pathological personality beliefs were conceptually coherent and similar for the two forms of the PID-5. The results suggest that the Norwegian PID-5 short form is a reliable and efficient measure of the trait criterion of the alternative model for personality disorders in DSM-5.
Marini, Andrea; Galetto, Valentina; Zampieri, Elisa; Vorano, Lorenza; Zettin, Marina; Carlomagno, Sergio
Persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI) often show impaired linguistic and/or narrative abilities. The present study aimed to document the features of narrative discourse impairment in a group of adults with TBI. 14 severe TBI non-aphasic speakers (GCS less than 8) in the phase of neurological stability and 14 neurologically intact participants…
Petersen, Bibi; Triguero-Mas, Margarita; Maier, Bernhard
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is known to be the main cause of skin cancer, the incidence of which is rising with national differences across Europe. With this observation study we aimed to determine the impact of nationality on sun behaviour and personal UVR exposure on sun and ski holidays....... 25 Danish and 20 Spanish sun-seekers were observed during a sun holiday in Spain, and 26 Danish and 27 Austrian skiers were observed during a ski holiday in Austria. The participants recorded their location and clothing in diaries. Personal time-logged UVR data were recorded as standard erythema...... doses (SEDs) by an electronic UVR dosimeter worn on the wrist. Danish sun-seekers were outdoors for significantly longer, received significant higher percentages of ambient UVR, and received greater accumulated UVR doses than Spanish sun-seekers. Danish skiers were also outdoors for significantly longer...
In this article I examine the possibilities that exist within mourning and mourning narratives for coming to terms with the pain and suffering of the oppositional Other. This implies that rather than taking official discourses as structured and predictable, research with citizens of Cyprus, who had lost loved ones through war, demonstrates…
El Aarbaoui, Tarik; Méline, Julie; Brondeel, Ruben; Chaix, Basile
Studies revealed long-term associations between noise exposure and cardiovascular health, but the underlying short-term mechanisms remain uncertain. To explore the concomitant and lagged short-term associations between personal exposure to noise and heart rate variability (HRV) in a real life setting in the Île-de-France region. The RECORD MultiSensor Study collected between July 2014 and June 2015 noise and heart rate data for 75 participants, aged 34-74 years, in their living environments for 7 days using a personal dosimeter and electrocardiography (ECG) sensor on the chest. HRV parameters and noise levels were calculated for 5-min windows. Short-term relationships between noise level and log-transformed HRV parameters were assessed using mixed effects models with a random intercept for participants and a temporal autocorrelation structure, adjusted for heart rate, physical activity (accelerometry), and short-term trends. An increase by one dB(A) of A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (Leq) was associated with a 0.97% concomitant increase of the Standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN) (95% CI: 0.92, 1.02), of 2.08% of the Low frequency band power (LF) (95% CI: 1.97, 2.18), of 1.30% of the High frequency band power (HF) (95% CI: 1.17, 1.43), and of 1.16% of the LF/HF ratio (95% CI: 1.10, 1.23). The analysis of lagged exposures to noise adjusted for the concomitant exposure illustrates the dynamic of recovery of the autonomic nervous system. Non-linear associations were documented with all HRV parameters with the exception of HF. Piecewise regression revealed that the association was almost 6 times stronger below than above 65 Leq dB(A) for the SDNN and LF/HF ratio. Personal noise exposure was found to be related to a concomitant increase of the overall HRV, with evidence of imbalance of the autonomic nervous system towards sympathetic activity, a pathway to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd
In this paper, I will tell two of my personal stories to try to explore the secret or opaque space between the original telling and retelling of stories in narrative inquiry. Based upon my difficult struggles with the two stories of tea, school, and narrative, I suggest that narrative inquiry has to be a complex loop of relationship, reflexivity,…
thought. Furthermore, it is argued that a central role in the structuring of this mental text is played by an overwhelming amount of brackets. The article suggests a categorisation of the different types of parenthetic remarks in the novel according to their function in the textual, would-be narrative...... construct, and concludes that Makanin's use of brackets in Andegraund, the most extensive use in his oeuvre so far, is crucial to the extreme processuality of the novel's text and its paradoxical, solipsistic addressivity. Udgivelsesdato: October...
Conroy, Sherrill A; Dobson, Stephen
Moods are one way of existentially reading the authenticity of people and are entwined within any narrative. Attunement between narrative and its mood is crucial for understanding the implicit message of the narrator. Sometimes, a master narrative is interrupted by counternarratives, so that narrative recognition becomes problematic. People can disguise their existential state when narrating, but the mood discloses it nonetheless. The authors explore the relationship between mood and narrative, and how the two are connected with how a person acts authentically or inauthentically. They provide selected empirical examples of narratives from medical students to support their argument. The educational relevance of their discussion comprises the final section. Educators in any educational program must first reflect on, then make explicit the manner in which narrative and mood are used to communicate knowledge.
Full Text Available Abstract Wireless personal area networks (WPANs have gained interest in the last few years, and several air interfaces have been proposed to cover WPAN applications. A multicarrier spread spectrum (MC-SS air interface specified to achieve 130 Mbps in typical WPAN channels is presented in this paper. It operates in the 5.2 GHz ISM band and achieves a spectral efficiency of 3.25 . Besides the robustness of the MC-SS approach, this air interface yields to reasonable implementation complexity. This paper focuses on the hardware design and prototype of this MC-SS air interface. The prototype includes RF, baseband, and IEEE802.15.3 compliant medium access control (MAC features. Implementation aspects are carefully analyzed for each part of the prototype, and key hardware design issues and solutions are presented. Hardware complexity and implementation loss are compared to theoretical expectations, as well as flexibility is discussed. Measurement results are provided for a real condition of operations.
Orkin, Aaron; Newbery, Sarah
To explore how birthing and maternity care are understood and valued in a rural community. Oral history research. The rural community of Marathon, Ont, with a population of approximately 3500. A purposive selection of mothers, grandmothers, nurses, physicians, and community leaders in the Marathon medical catchment area. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample, employing an oral history research methodology. Interviews were conducted non-anonymously in order to preserve the identity and personhood of participants. Interview transcripts were edited into short narratives. Oral histories offer perspectives and information not revealed in other quantitative or qualitative research methodologies. Narratives re-personalize and humanize medical research by offering researchers and practitioners the opportunity to bear witness to the personal stories affected through medical decision making. Eleven stand-alone narratives, published in this issue of Canadian Family Physician, form the project's findings. Similar to a literary text or short story, they are intended for personal reflection and interpretation by the reader. Presenting the results of these interviews as narratives requires the reader to participate in the research exercise and take part in listening to these women's voices. The project's narratives will be accessible to readers from academic and non-academic backgrounds and will interest readers in medicine and allied health professions, medical humanities, community development, gender studies, social anthropology and history, and literature. Sharing personal birthing experiences might inspire others to reevaluate and reconsider birthing practices and services in other communities. Where local maternity services are under threat, Marathon's stories might contribute to understanding the meaning and challenges of local birthing, and the implications of losing maternity services in rural Canada.
a functional framework for these concepts, but tries increasingly to endow the main idea of the cultural project with a spatially aesthetic expression - a shift towards “experience architecture.” A great number of these projects typically recycle and reinterpret narratives related to historical buildings......In this essay, I focus on the combination of programs and the architecture of cultural projects that have emerged within the last few years. These projects are characterized as “hybrid cultural projects,” because they intend to combine experience with entertainment, play, and learning. This essay...... and architectural heritage; another group tries to embed new performative technologies in expressive architectural representation. Finally, this essay provides a theoretical framework for the analysis of the political rationales of these projects and for the architectural representation bridges the gap between...
Buckley, Catherine; McCormack, Brendan; Ryan, Assumpta
To report on the development of a framework of narrative practice, in residential care settings for older people. Residential care settings for older people provide care for people who are no longer able to live in their own home. To date, the impact and structure of nursing practice on care provision in these settings has proved difficult to conceptualise within a specific nursing theory framework. A hermeneutic approach incorporating narrative methods was used. Forty-six narrative interviews with older people in residential care were secondary-analysed for key themes through a three-stage process: by the first author, four focus groups of 12 clinical nurse managers and two independent experts. Themes were also derived from a focus group of eight residents who explored person-centredness and narrative. Finally, the combined findings were used to derive a single set of themes. The secondary data analysis process led to the development of a framework of narrative practice for the care of older people in residential settings. The framework is influenced by narrative enquiry, person-centred practice and practice development. It has four pillars, prerequisites, care processes, care environment and narrative aspects of care. To operationalise the framework of narrative practice, three narrative elements, narrative knowing, narrative being and narrative doing, need to be considered. Working with the foundational pillars and the narrative elements would enable staff to 'work in a storied way' and provide person-centred outcomes and a narrative informed philosophy of care for older adults in residential care. This framework provides nurses with a template that confirms the identity of the older person taking account of their biography. The framework outlines an approach that provides staff with a template on how to provide person-centred care in a narrative way. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
SPRINGER, TAMAR; LOHR, NAOMI E.; BUCHTEL, HENRY A.; SILK, KENNETH R.
A randomized, controlled study evaluated the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy group, based on Linehan’s dialectical behavior therapy, for inpatients with personality disorders. The treatment, a problem-solving skills group focused on parasuicidality, was compared with a discussion control group. Change was assessed by self-report measures and behavioral observations on the unit. Subjects in both groups improved significantly on most change measures, although no significant between-group differences were found. However, the treatment group patients viewed the intervention as more beneficial to them in their lives outside the hospital. The usefulness of this type of group on a short-term unit is discussed. PMID:22700265
Webber, Troy A; Kiselica, Andrew M; Arango, Alejandra; Rojas, Elizabeth; Neale, Michael C; Bornovalova, Marina A
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a barrier to treatment, yet the relationship between BPD features and other psychopathology symptoms in residential addictions treatment samples is understudied. Using a sample of adults enrolled in a residential drug treatment facility measured at baseline and 2-3 month follow-up, the authors examined the prospective relationship between BPD features and five indices of psychopathology: depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism, as well as psychopathology global severity. There was no effect of time on any of the forms of psychopathology, but females reported higher levels of BPD features, anxiety symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity than males. A series of latent change score models indicated that BPD features predicted increases in all psychopathology scales at follow-up, while the reverse was not true. These results suggest that targeting BPD features in residents of drug treatment facilities may reduce the emergence of new psychopathology in the short term.
Kirkley, Catherine; Bamford, Claire; Poole, Marie; Arksey, Hilary; Hughes, Julian; Bond, John
Ensuring the development and delivery of person-centred care in services providing respite care and short breaks for people with dementia and their carers has a number of challenges for health and social service providers. This article explores the role of organisational culture in barriers and facilitators to person-centred dementia care. As part of a mixed-methods study of respite care and short breaks for people with dementia and their carers, 49 telephone semi-structured interviews, two focus groups (N= 16) and five face-to-face in-depth interviews involving front-line staff and operational and strategic managers were completed in 2006-2007. Qualitative thematic analysis of transcripts identified five themes on aspects of organisational culture that are perceived to influence person-centred care: understandings of person-centred care, attitudes to service development, service priorities, valuing staff and solution-focused approaches. Views of person-centred care expressed by participants, although generally positive, highlight a range of understandings about person-centred care. Some organisations describe their service as being person-centred without the necessary cultural shift to make this a reality. Participants highlighted resource constraints and the knowledge, attitudes and personal qualities of staff as a barrier to implementing person-centred care. Leadership style, the way that managers' support and value staff and the management of risk were considered important influences. Person-centred dementia care is strongly advocated by professional opinion leaders and is prescribed in policy documents. This analysis suggests that person-centred dementia care is not strongly embedded in the organisational cultures of all local providers of respite-care and short-break services. Provider organisations should be encouraged further to develop a shared culture at all levels of the organisation to ensure person-centred dementia care. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing
Jeppesen, Maria; Hagel, Grith; Glenthoj, Anders
Chemotherapy treatment of cancer remains a challenge due to the molecular and functional heterogeneity displayed by tumours originating from the same cell type. The pronounced heterogeneity makes it difficult for oncologists to devise an effective therapeutic strategy for the patient. One approac...... and combinations most commonly used for treatment of colorectal cancer. In summary, short-term spheroid culture of primary colorectal adenocarcinoma cells represents a promising in vitro model for use in personalized medicine....... for increasing treatment efficacy is to test the chemosensitivity of cancer cells obtained from the patient's tumour. 3D culture represents a promising method for modelling patient tumours in vitro. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate how closely short-term spheroid cultures of primary colorectal...... cancer cells resemble the original tumour. Colorectal cancer cells were isolated from human tumour tissue and cultured as spheroids. Spheroid cultures were established with a high success rate and remained viable for at least 10 days. The spheroids exhibited significant growth over a period of 7 days...
Full Text Available By coining the term “unreliable narrator” Wayne Booth hypothesized another agent in his model besides the author, the implicit author, to explain the double coding of narratives where a distorted view of reality and the exposure of this distortion are presented simultaneously. The article deals with the applicability of the concept in visual narratives. Since unreliability is traditionally considered to be intertwined with first person narratives, it works through subjective mediators. According to scholarly literature on the subject, the narrator has to be strongly characterized, or in other words, anthropomorphized. In the case of film, the main problem is that the narrator is either missing or the narration cannot be attributed entirely to them. There is a medial rupture where the apparatus mediates the story instead of a character’s oral or written discourse. The present paper focuses on some important but overlooked questions about the nature of cinematic storytelling through a re-examination of |the lying flashback in Alfred Hitchcock's Stage Fright. Can a character-narrator control the images the viewer sees? How can the filmic image still be unreliable without having an anthropomorphic narrator? How useful is the term focalization when we are dealing with embedded character-narratives in film?
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item "Short Five" (S5 by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China, and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours, there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the
Konstabel, Kenn; Lönnqvist, Jan-Erik; Leikas, Sointu; García Velázquez, Regina; Qin, Hiaying; Verkasalo, Markku; Walkowitz, Gari
The aim of this study was to construct a short, 30-item personality questionnaire that would be, in terms of content and meaning of the scores, as comparable as possible with longer, well-established inventories such as NEO PI-R and its clones. To do this, we shortened the formerly constructed 60-item “Short Five” (S5) by half so that each subscale would be represented by a single item. We compared all possibilities of selecting 30 items (preserving balanced keying within each domain of the five-factor model) in terms of correlations with well-established scales, self-peer correlations, and clarity of meaning, and selected an optimal combination for each domain. The resulting shortened questionnaire, XS5, was compared to the original S5 using data from student samples in 6 different countries (Estonia, Finland, UK, Germany, Spain, and China), and a representative Finnish sample. The correlations between XS5 domain scales and their longer counterparts from well-established scales ranged from 0.74 to 0.84; the difference from the equivalent correlations for full version of S5 or from meta-analytic short-term dependability coefficients of NEO PI-R was not large. In terms of prediction of external criteria (emotional experience and self-reported behaviours), there were no important differences between XS5, S5, and the longer well-established scales. Controlling for acquiescence did not improve the prediction of criteria, self-peer correlations, or correlations with longer scales, but it did improve internal reliability and, in some analyses, comparability of the principal component structure. XS5 can be recommended as an economic measure of the five-factor model of personality at the level of domain scales; it has reasonable psychometric properties, fair correlations with longer well-established scales, and it can predict emotional experience and self-reported behaviours no worse than S5. When subscales are essential, we would still recommend using the full version
Anmeldelse af Anne Mangen: New Narrative Pleasures? A Cognitive-Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Reading Digital Narrative Fictions.......Anmeldelse af Anne Mangen: New Narrative Pleasures? A Cognitive-Phenomenological Study of the Experience of Reading Digital Narrative Fictions....
Viljoen, Lario; Thorne, Marguerite; Thomas, Angelique; Bond, Virginia; Hoddinott, Graeme
HIV prevalence and incidence in South Africa remain high, making HIV a part of everyday life. Community narratives on HIV treatment and prevention are important and influence official and unofficial health messaging and community perceptions and understandings of HIV. We explore how contributors and the columnist of an agony aunt column position HIV relative to choices made about love, partnership, and sex over three years. We analysed all columns of an agony aunt series (Antie Mona) published between December 2012 and November 2015. The column is published in a South African, Afrikaans-language newspaper "Son", prioritising sensationalist news items. Trends were identified through narrative analysis. Data were managed in ATLAS.ti and inductive, iterative coding conducted. It was found that letters to the agony aunt rarely refer to HIV directly (less than 7%). Euphemisms such as diseases of the flesh and the great flu were more commonly used instead of HIV or AIDS. Letters addressed HIV in three ways: direct references to experiences living with HIV; direct questions about HIV prevention; and scenarios where HIV could (from a public health perspective) have been the main concern, but everyday issues took precedence. The majority of letters fell into this latter category where the writers focused on the immediate concerns of good sexual relations, problems related to love and romantic relationships, good moral behaviour of others, and issues of oppressive life conditions rather than on HIV directly. The findings illustrate that informal, public contributions to health information, such as agony aunts, are important narratives that inform popular perspectives on HIV and health. A better appreciation of this context would allow health implementers to ensure that these role players receive updated health messaging to avoid the risk of HIV-related stigma where HIV is used as a moral rod to punish perceived moral transgressions.
Armine Kotin Mortimer
Full Text Available The cloturai device of narration as salvation represents the lack of finality in three novels. In De Beauvoir's Tous les hommes sont mortels an immortal character turns his story to account, but the novel makes a mockery of the historical sense by which men define themselves. In the closing pages of Butor's La Modification , the hero plans to write a book to save himself. Through the thrice-considered portrayal of the Paris-Rome relationship, the ending shows the reader how to bring about closure, but this collective critique written by readers will always be a future book. Simon's La Bataille de Pharsale , the most radical attempt to destroy finality, is an infinite text. No new text can be written. This extreme of perversion guarantees bliss (jouissance . If the ending of De Beauvoir's novel transfers the burden of non-final world onto a new victim, Butor's non-finality lies in the deferral to a future writing, while Simon's writer is stuck in a writing loop, in which writing has become its own end and hence can have no end. The deconstructive and tragic form of contemporary novels proclaims the loss of belief in a finality inherent in the written text, to the profit of writing itself.
Breccia, Massimo; Graffigna, Guendalina; Galimberti, Sara; Iurlo, Alessandra; Pungolino, Ester; Pizzuti, Michele; Maggi, Alessandro; Falzetti, Franca; Capalbo, Silvana Franca; Intermesoli, Tamara; Maffioli, Margherita; Elena, Chiara; Melosi, Alessandro; Simonetti, Federico; Capochiani, Enrico; Seta, Roberta Della; Pacilli, Matteo; Luppi, Mario; Di Renzo, Nicola; Mastrullo, Lucia; Trabacchi, Elena; Vallisa, Daniele; Rapezzi, Davide; Orlandi, Ester Maria; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Efficace, Fabio; Alimena, Giuliana
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) drastically changed the outcome of patients diagnosed with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). Several reports indicated the advantage of continue long-term adherence associated with positive outcome. Therefore, it is important to better understand from the patient's standpoint the experience of living with the disease and the related treatment. In this study, quantitative analysis and narrative medicine were combined to get insights on this issue in a population of 257 patients with CML in chronic phase treated with TKIs (43 % men, with a median age of 58 years, 27 % aged 31-50 years), followed for a median time of 5 years. Sixty-one percent of patients enrolled were treated in first line, whereas 37 % were treated in second line. The results showed more positive perceptions and acceptance in males compared to females, without impact of disease on relationships. Level of positive acceptance was more evident in elderly compared to younger patients, with a close connection with median time from diagnosis. Overall, female patients reported negative perceptions and an impact of disease on family daily living. The majority of patients understood the importance of continue adherence to treatment, with 27 % resulting less adherent (60 % for forgetfulness), even if well informed and supported by his/her physician. Narrative medicine, in association to quantitative analysis, can help physicians to understand needs of their patients in order to improve communication.
Lorentzen, Steinar; Ruud, Torleif; Fjeldstad, Anette; Høglend, Per A
In a randomized clinical trial, short- and long-term psychodynamic group psychotherapy (STG and LTG, respectively) schedules were equally effective for the 'typical' patient during a 3-year study period. Although several studies have reported good effects for patients with personality disorders (PD) in diverse forms of psychotherapy, the significance of treatment duration is unclear. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that PD patients would improve more during and after LTG than STG. A randomized, longitudinal, prospective study contrasting the outcomes during and after short- and long-term dynamic group psychotherapies. One hundred and sixty-seven outpatients with mood disorders, anxiety disorders, or PD were randomized to STG or LTG (respectively, 20 or 80 weekly sessions of 90 min each). Outcome measures are as follows: symptoms (SCL-90-R), interpersonal problems (IIP-C), and psychosocial functioning (GAF split version: GAF-Symptom and GAF-Function). PD pathology (number of PD criteria items) was selected a priori as a putative moderator of treatment effects. Change during the 3-year study period was assessed using linear mixed models. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT 00021417. Our hypothesis was supported, as patients with PD improved significantly more regarding all outcome variables in LTG than STG. For patients without PD, the rate of change was similar across 3 years; however, the rate of change in symptoms and interpersonal problems was higher in STG during the first 6 months. The effectiveness of LTG is higher for patients with co-morbid PD. Patients without PD do not appear to experience additional gain from LTG. Clinical implications: LTG demonstrates better effectiveness than STG for patients with personality disorder co-morbidity (PD). Patients without PD do not appear to experience additional gain from attending LTG. Correct initial allocation to treatment duration may prevent disruptive breaks in relationships and lead to both
Recent work on the relation between narrative and selfhood has emphasized embodiment as an indispensable foundation for selfhood. This has occasioned an interesting debate on the relation between embodiment and narrative. In this paper, I attempt to mediate the range of conflicting intuitions......) strictly is or is not; rather, we need to see narrative as an attribute admitting of degrees. I suggest that the relation between narrative and embodiment should be seen along these lines, proposing three levels of the narrativity of embodied experiencing: 1) the unnarratable, 2) the narratable and 3...
Describes "impersonal narration," an approach that defends the concept of the cinematic narrator as a logical and pragmatic necessity. Compares this approach with existing theories of the cinematic narrator, addressing disagreements in the field of film narrative theory. (MM)
Weertman, A; ArntZ, A; Dreessen, L; van Velzen, C; Vertommen, S
This study examined the short-interval test-retest reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview (SCID-II: First, Spitzer, Gibbon, & Williams, 1995) for DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs). The SCID-II was administered to 69 in- and outpatients on two occasions separated by 1 to 6 weeks. The
Van Riet, Evelien E S; Hoes, Arno W.; Limburg, Alexander; Landman, Marcel A J; Kemperman, Hans; Rutten, Frans H.
Objectives: There is a need for a practical tool to aid general practitioners in early detection of heart failure in the elderly with shortness of breath. In this study, such a screening rule was developed based on an existing rule for detecting heart failure in older persons with a diagnosis of
Tubbs , Meghan
This thesis aims to explore autobiography as a rhetorical genre and to explore the personal narrative of Aleshia Brevard, an MTF (male to female) transsexual. The critical analysis employs a form of narrative criticism created from the work of several rhetorical critics. Narrative coherence is examined through looking at Brevardâ s arrangement of events, and narrative fidelity is examined through looking at Brevardâ s use of ultimate terms. This thesis suggests that the personal narratives ...
Eva Laass: Broken Taboos, Subjective Truths. Forms and Functions of Unreliable Narration in Contemporary American Cinema. A Contribution to Film NarratologyVolker Ferenz: Don’t believe his lies. The unreliable narrator in contemporary American cinema
Scholte, W.R.; Eurelings-Bontekoe, E.H.M.; Tiemens, B.G.; Verheul, R.; Meerman, A.; Hutschemaekers, G.J.M.
The association between level of personality organization as assessed by theory-driven profile interpretation of the MMPI (Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) Dutch Short Form and treatment outcome was investigated in a naturalistic follow-up study among 121 psychotherapy inpatients who had been treated for
Bains, Gurinder Singh; Berk, Lee S; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett; Schwab, Ernie; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Deshpande, Pooja
For older adults, the damaging effects of aging and stress can impair the ability to learn and sustain memory. Humor, with its associated mirthful laughter, can reduce stress and cortisol, a stress hormone. Chronic release of cortisol can damage hippocampus neurons, leading to impairment of learning and memory. The primary goal of this study was to determine whether watching a humorous video had an effect on short-term memory in an older population. The research team designed a randomized, controlled trial. The study took place at Loma Linda University in Loma Linda, California. The research team recruited 20 normal, healthy, older adults, 11 males and 9 females. The humor group (n = 10, mean = 69.3 ± 3.7 y) self-selected 1 of 2 humorous videos--a Red Skelton comedy or a montage of America's Funniest Home Videos--and watched it for 20 min. A control group (n = 10, mean = 68.7 ± 5.5 y) sat calmly for 20 min and were not allowed to read, sleep, or talk on a cell phone. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test was used to assess short-term memory--learning ability, delayed recall, and visual recognition. Salivary cortisol levels were measured at predetermined times. Learning ability improved by 38.5% and 24.0% in the humor and control groups, respectively (P = .014). Delayed recall improved by 43.6% and 20.3% in the humor and control groups, respectively (P =.029). Within the humor group, delayed recall (43.6%) was significant compared with learning ability (38.5%) (P = .002). At 3 predetermined time points, significant decreases in salivary cortisol were observed in the humor group (P = .047, P = .046, and P = .062, respectively). The study's findings suggest that humor can have clinical benefits and rehabilitative implications and can be implemented in programs that support whole-person wellness for older adults. Learning ability and delayed recall are important to these individuals for a better quality of life--considering mind, body, spirit, social, and economic
While there are a number of short personality trait measures that have been validated for use with adults, few are specifically validated for use with adolescents. To trust such measures, it must be demonstrated that they have adequate construct validity. According to the view of construct validity as a unifying form of validity requiring the integration of different complementary sources of information, this article reports the evaluation of content, factor, convergent, and criterion validities as well as reliability of adolescents' self-reported personality traits. Moreover, this study sought to address an inherent potential limitation of short personality trait measures, namely their limited conceptual breadth. In this study, starting with items from a known measure, after the language-level was adjusted for use with adolescents, items tapping fundamental primary traits were added to determine the impact of added conceptual breadth on the psychometric properties of the scales. The resulting new measure was named the Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ). A group of expert judges considered the items to have adequate content validity. Using data from a community sample of early adolescents, the results confirmed the factor validity of the Big Five structure in adolescence as well as its measurement invariance across genders. More important, the added items did improve the convergent and criterion validities of the scales, but did not negatively affect their reliability. This study supports the construct validity of adolescents' self-reported personality traits and points to the importance of conceptual breadth in short personality measures. © The Author(s) 2014.
Finney, Mark David
This dissertation focuses on the place of narrative in the transformational encounter that can take place between hearers of sermons and God. Chapter 1 surveys the history and development of contemporary scholarship related to narrative preaching. It argues that most homileticians consider narrative either as a way of structuring sermons, or as a…
Elson, David K.
This thesis describes new approaches to the formal modeling of narrative discourse. Although narratives of all kinds are ubiquitous in daily life, contemporary text processing techniques typically do not leverage the aspects that separate narrative from expository discourse. We describe two approaches to the problem. The first approach considers…
Vanheule, Stijn; Hauser, Stuart T
The transcripts of semistructured clinical interviews with forty psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents were subjected to narrative analysis in an effort to map the logic of their explanations as they spontaneously talked about helplessness experiences, and to determine how helplessness is embedded in broader story lines. Three types of narrative composition were discerned, and are discussed by means of excerpts from the interviews. In a first and predominant type of narrative, a disturbing confrontation with another is pivotal: the other's intentions are obscure; this frightens the narrator, who does not know what to do. Helplessness arises as a direct result of not knowing how to manage the "unbearable riddle" of the other's intentions. In the second, more marginal type of narrative, helplessness is embedded in an account of emptiness and boredom. The protagonist relates enduring experiences of emptiness due to loss and the suffering consequent on it. In the third, also more marginal type of narrative, helplessness is framed in a context of failure: the protagonist adheres to strict standards, feels he or she has fallen short, and concludes that he or she is a failure. Only the first type of narrative is significantly related to the psychiatric diagnoses of mood disorder and major depression.
Vyacheslav V. Volchik
Full Text Available This article addresses a range of questions associated with the occurrence of a new field of study – narrative economics, which is considered in the context of modern institutionalism. Pioneering works of R. Shiller, G. Akerlof and D. Snower spotlighted the importance of analyzing narratives and narrative influence when studying economic processes. In this paper, a qualitative study of narratives is seen through the prism of an answer to the question: «How do prescribed narratives influence institutions and change them? ». Narratives have much in common with institutions since very often, explicitly or implicitly, they contain value judgements about social interactions or normative aspects shaping behavioral patterns. The identification of dominating narratives enables us to understand better how institutions influence economic (social action. Repeated interactions among social actors are structured through understanding and learning the rules. Understanding of social rules comes from the language – we articulate and perceive the rules drawing on common narratives. Narratives and institutions are helpful when actors gain knowledge about various forms of social communication. Digital technologies, mass media and social networking sites facilitate the spread of narratives, values and beliefs; this process is characterized by increasing returns. Studying narratives and institutions is crucial for modern economic theory because it helps to improve qualitative and quantitative methods of analyzing empirical evidence and enables researchers to understand complex economic processes.
Díaz-Batanero, Carmen; Ramírez-López, Juan; Domínguez-Salas, Sara; Fernández-Calderón, Fermín; Lozano, Óscar M
Section III of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth edition ( DSM-5) has generated a personality paradigm consisting of 25 personality facets identified in five domains. The developed assessment instrument Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5) has showed good psychometric properties, but the potential for certain improvements still remain. In this article, a sample of 282 dual diagnosis patients is used to provide evidence of the psychometric properties of the PID-5-Short Form. The mean value of Cronbach's alpha coefficients reached .73 on the facets and .84 for domains and test-retest values ranged between .57 to .83 for facets and .70 to .87 for the domains. Confirmatory factor analyses conducted showed good fit on both models tested: the five correlated factor structure and hierarchical structure of personality traits. The WHODAS 2.0 domains of understanding and communicating, and participating in society, appear to show the strongest relationship with personality facets. In general, the PID-5-Short Form shows adequate psychometric properties for use in dual diagnosis patients.
Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Kronlid, David
and fiction. By opposing the classic anthropocentric ontological split between human (discourse) and object, fiction and Reality, OOO opens up for a new understanding of the role of narratives as independent objects on the same scale as grains of sand, universities, axolotls and planets. In short...... of speed, acceleration, the rhythm of technogenic moving and mooring, which can be translated into an understanding of our own movements and moorings through life and how we engage with new things, such as mediating new information through a certain pace, rhythm, movement, acceleration, slowing down....... This fictive/Real example of a narrative object illustrates that regardless of the metaphysical status of what/who we encounter in education and throughout life, if this experience becomes meaningful to us, we are navigating around them, towards them, and enmesh with them in the same principle ways...
Bach, Bo; Simonsen, Erik; Christoffersen, Peter
Early Maladaptive Schemas, as measured with the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ), are proposed to underlie a variety of mental health problems, in particular Personality Disorders. The latest short version of the instrument measuring all 18 schemas, the YSQ-S3, has only been examined to a limited...... for the assessment of Early Maladaptive Schemas in both clinical and research settings. Findings are discussed in relation to Personality Disorders and the Schema Therapy model. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)...
Jensen, Hans Henrik; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Lotz, Martin
The Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) has become an important and commonly used instrument to assess personality functioning. Several studies report significant changes on MCMI personality disorder scales after psychological treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate whether pre......-post-treatment changes in 39-session psychodynamic group psychotherapy as measured with the MCMI reflect real personality change or primarily reflect symptomatic state changes. Pre-post-treatment design included 236 psychotherapy outpatients. Personality changes were measured on the MCMI-II and symptomatic state changes...... on the Symptom Check List 90-R (SCL-90-R). The MCMI Schizoid, Avoidant, Self-defeating, and severe personality disorder scales revealed substantial changes, which could be predicted from changes on SCL-90-R global symptomatology (GSI) and on the SCL-90-R Depression scale. The MCMI Dependent personality score...
Smorti, Andrea; Fioretti, Chiara
This paper aims to reflect on the relation between autobiographical memory (ME) and autobiographical narrative (NA), examining studies on the effects of narrating on the narrator and showing how studying these relations can make more comprehensible both memory's and narrating's way of working. Studies that address explicitly on ME and NA are scarce and touch this issue indirectly. Authors consider different trends of studies of ME and NA: congruency vs incongruency hypotheses on retrieving, the way of organizing memories according to gist or verbatim format and their role in organizing positive and negative emotional experiences, the social roots of ME and NA, the rules of conversation based on narrating. Analysis of investigations leads the Authors to point out three basic results of their research. Firstly, NA transforms ME because it narrativizes memories according to a narrative format. This means that memories, when are narrated, are transformed in stories (verbal language) and socialised. Secondly, the narrativization process is determined by the act of telling something within a communicative situation. Thus, relational situation of narrating act, by modifying the story, modifies also memories. The Authors propose the RE.NA.ME model (RElation, NArration, MEmory) to understand and study ME and NA. Finally, this study claims that ME and NA refer to two different types of processes having a wide area of overlapping. This is due to common social, developmental and cultural roots that make NA to include part of ME (narrative of memory) and ME to include part of NA (memory of personal events that have been narrated).
Martin, Timothy J.
A major dilemma confronting religious educators in the utilization of short stories, film, and other emerging forms of narratives is the question of how to evaluate their "religiousness." This can present dilemmas in the selection, analysis, and comparison of narratives for the purposes of teaching Religious Education. This article forwards useful…
Smit, Marion; Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl
Narrative research is an appropriate method for studying the constructs and sensemaking of moral courage. Moral courage or speaking up by professionals is needed for maintaining ethical checks and balances in organizations. Personal narratives give the researcher and the researched increased
Lock, Andrew; Epston, David; Maisel, Richard; de Faria, Natasha
Foucault's analysis of unseen power as it operates in discourses that construct "practices of discipline" and "technologies of the self" has been a central conceptual resource in the development of narrative therapy. Narrative therapists take the view that ?unseen aspects of power work to construct both how a person understands their situation,…
Arslan, Seçkin; Bamyacı, Elif; Bastiaanse, Roelien
This study investigates the characteristics of narrative-speech production and the use of verbs in Turkish agrammatic speakers (n = 10) compared to non-brain-damaged controls (n = 10). To elicit narrative-speech samples, personal interviews and storytelling tasks were conducted. Turkish has a large
Full Text Available The article presents the object and results of a study which combines the psychology of religion and folkloristics in the form of a qualitative analysis of empirical ethnographic material compiled from sources in a local neo-charismatic congregation called the ‘Word of Life’. Personal narrative is discussed as a genre which represents the collective tradition of a religious community. It is a socially-learned speech act and a means of interpreting and sharing religious experience, thus constructing and confirming the faith of the community, both individually and collectively. In the neo-charismatic tradition, everyday speech draws on a literal (biblical tradition as well as on socially-shared narrative genres such as ritual testimonies, prophecies, sermons and casual, personal narratives of co-believers. The faith-creative power of these stories can be found in their performative utterances and evaluative structures as well as in non-communication.
J. Woudenberg; L. Bobbink; E. Geurts; M. Pelzer; H. Degen-Nijeboer
This book is about narrative methods and narrative research. The word narrativity derives from the Latin word narrare, which means ‘to tell’. Narratives are present everywhere. They come in the form of fairy tales, drama, drawings, art, history, biography, myths and legends. Narratives can be found
Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out of sequential images? This piece helps fill the gap by presenting a theory of Narrative Grammar. We describe the basic narrative categories and their relationship to a canonical narrative arc, followed by a discussion of complex structures that extend beyond the canonical schema. This demands that the canonical arc be reconsidered as a generative schema whereby any narrative category can be expanded into a node in a tree structure. Narrative "pacing" is interpreted as a reflection of various patterns of this embedding: conjunction, left-branching trees, center-embedded constituencies, and others. Following this, diagnostic methods are proposed for testing narrative categories and constituency. Finally, we outline the applicability of this theory beyond sequential images, such as to film and verbal discourse, and compare this theory with previous approaches to narrative and discourse. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Musacchio Adorisio, Anna Linda
This article focuses on organizational remembering in banking. To provide an alternative to the repository image of memory in organization, organizational remembering is conceptualized as narrative, where narrative represents a way to organize the selection and interpretation of the past....... The narrative perspective deals with both the experiential and contextual nature of remembering by addressing concerns raised by critiques of organizational memory studies, namely, the subjective experience of remembering and the social and historical context in which remembering takes place. Antenarrative...... the narrative perspective reveals ruptures and ambiguities that characterize organizational remembering that would remain hidden in the organizational memory studies approach....
Full Text Available In this paper, Schwartz analyses three narratives by Hungarian women writers— Alaine Polcz’s Asszony a fronton (A Wartime Memoir, Judit Kováts’s Megtagadva [‘Denied’] and Fanni Gyarmati Miklósné Radnóti’s Napló [‘Diary’]—with regard to their representation of the rapes of Hungarian women by Red Army soldiers during WWII. Schwartz examines to what degree the rapes are positioned as a “rupture” in the first person narrators’ lives, and how the three narratives offer elements of a “vocabulary of rupture” (Butalia 2000 so as to work through traumatic memory and thus come to terms with both the short-term and long-term effects of trauma and social stigmatization. Even though the narratives eschew a black-and-white portrayal of the rapists, an orientalist stereotying is nonetheless present. Schwartz concludes with Avery Gordon that these and other rape narratives can be read as part of the process of settling the ghosts of a still unresolved past violence yet beyond simple ideological binaries along the victim-perpetrator line.
Fernandes Davies, Vanessa; Mafra, Rafaella; Beltran, Alicia; Baranowski, Thomas; Lu, Amy Shirong
This article presents the results of interviews conducted with children regarding their cognitive and affective responses toward a narrative and a non-narrative cartoon. The findings will be used to further explore the role of a narrative in motivating continued active videogame play. Twenty children (8-11 years old of mixed gender) watched two cartoons (narrative and non-narrative) and were subsequently interviewed. A thematic matrix was used to analyze the interviews. The narrative cartoon (n = 11) was only slightly preferred compared with the non-narrative one (n = 9), with little difference among the participants. The theme categories identified during the analyses were plot, characters, and suggestions. The fight scenes were mentioned by the children as a likeable aspect of the narrative cartoon. In the non-narrative cartoon, the vast majority (n = 17) liked the information about physical activity that was provided. The children enjoyed the appearance and personalities of the characters in both cartoons. A discrepancy in the data about the fight scenes (narrative cartoon) and characters (both cartoons) was found among the female participants (i.e., some girls did not like the fight and thought the characters were too aggressive). However, most of the children wanted to see more action in the story, an increase in the number of fight scenes (narrative cartoon), or more information about exercise and examples of exercises they could do (non-narrative cartoon). They also suggested adding a game to the non-narrative cartoon, including more characters, and improving the animation in both cartoons. The children preferred the narrative cartoon because of the story and the fight. Some gender differences were found, which further studies should investigate.
Full Text Available Autobiographical narratives, which include autobiography, autobiographical novel, memoir, and chronicle, constitute a major genre in African francophone literature. Informed by history, they do not celebrate personal accomplishment, but rather accentuate the group experience. These self-stories rely on realistic representation in order to document events for future generations and function to correct stereotypical misconceptions—therein lies their political consciousness.
Costabile, Kristi A
The present investigation examined how three salient features of narrative thinking (situation model construction, linguistic concreteness, and perspective-taking) influenced the social inference process. Results of four experiments indicated that compared with those given other objectives, perceivers given narrative objectives were: (a) more likely to make situation rather than trait attributions for observed behaviors (Experiment 1), (b) less likely to make implicit trait inferences (Experiment 2), and (c) less likely to rely on behavior valence when making evaluative judgments (Experiment 4). Linguistic analyses indicated that narrative construction consistently entailed the creation of situation models of events and linguistic concreteness, but only situation model creation mediated the relationship between narrative and inferences. Experiment 3 confirmed the mediating role of situation models: Perceivers with narrative objectives made trait inferences only when behaviors were inconsistent with contextual information. The role of these core narrative features on social perceptions is discussed. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Yelle, Maria T; Stevens, Patricia E; Lanuza, Dorothy M
Before 2005, time accrued on the lung transplant waiting list counted towards who was next in line for a donor lung. Then in 2005 the lung allocation scoring system was implemented, which meant the higher the illness severity scores, the higher the priority on the transplant list. Little is known of the lung transplant candidates who were listed before 2005 and were caught in the transition when the lung allocation scoring system was implemented. A narrative analysis was conducted to explore the illness narratives of seven lung transplant candidates between 2006 and 2007. Arthur Kleinman's concept of illness narratives was used as a conceptual framework for this study to give voice to the illness narratives of lung transplant candidates. Results of this study illustrate that lung transplant candidates expressed a need to tell their personal story of waiting and to be heard. Recommendation from this study calls for healthcare providers to create the time to enable illness narratives of the suffering of waiting to be told. Narrative skills of listening to stories of emotional suffering would enhance how healthcare providers could attend to patients' stories and hear what is most meaningful in their lives.
Maria T. Yelle
Full Text Available Before 2005, time accrued on the lung transplant waiting list counted towards who was next in line for a donor lung. Then in 2005 the lung allocation scoring system was implemented, which meant the higher the illness severity scores, the higher the priority on the transplant list. Little is known of the lung transplant candidates who were listed before 2005 and were caught in the transition when the lung allocation scoring system was implemented. A narrative analysis was conducted to explore the illness narratives of seven lung transplant candidates between 2006 and 2007. Arthur Kleinman’s concept of illness narratives was used as a conceptual framework for this study to give voice to the illness narratives of lung transplant candidates. Results of this study illustrate that lung transplant candidates expressed a need to tell their personal story of waiting and to be heard. Recommendation from this study calls for healthcare providers to create the time to enable illness narratives of the suffering of waiting to be told. Narrative skills of listening to stories of emotional suffering would enhance how healthcare providers could attend to patients’ stories and hear what is most meaningful in their lives.
Kelly Anne Correa
Full Text Available Research on narrative persuasion has yet to investigate whether this process influences behavior. The current study explored whether: 1 a narrative could persuade participants to donate to a charity, a prosocial, behavioral decision; 2 psychophysiological metrics can delineate the differences between donation/non-donation behaviors; and 3 donation behavior can be correlated with measures of psychophysiology, self-reported reactions to the narrative, and intrinsic characteristics. Participants (n = 49 completed personality/disposition questionnaires, viewed one of two versions of a narrative while EEG and ECG were recorded, completed a questionnaire regarding their reactions to the narrative, and were given an opportunity to donate to a charity related to the themes of the narrative. Results showed that 1 34.7% of participants donated; 2 psychophysiological metrics successfully delineated between donation behaviors and the effects of narrative version; and 3 psychophysiology and reactions to the narrative were better able to explain the variance (88% and 65%, respectively in the amount donated than all 3 metrics combined as well as any metric alone. These findings demonstrate the promise of narrative persuasion for influencing prosocial, behavioral decisions. Our results also illustrate the utility of the previously stated metrics for understanding and possibly even manipulating behaviors resulting from narrative persuasion.
There is a strong tradition in psychology and philosophy, claiming that the self is a narrative construction. The paper examines this idea and concludes that the narrative self is not a viable theoretical construct, but that we should opt for an adjacent idea of a historical self. The aim is to e...
Poulsen, Jens Aage
Analyse af narrative strukturer i nordiske læremidler om historie- og nordiske læreres forståelse og brug af læremidlerne i undervisningen......Analyse af narrative strukturer i nordiske læremidler om historie- og nordiske læreres forståelse og brug af læremidlerne i undervisningen...
Aerts, Walter; Clubb, C.; Imam, S.
Narrative accounting disclosures are an integral part of the corporate financial reporting package. They are deemed to provide a view of the company “through the eyes of management”. The narratives represent management's construal of corporate events and are largely discretionary. Research in
Raises issues involved in the study and teaching of narrative, with reference to both literature and film. Considers the function of realism in narrative fiction and the teaching of theory and practice of those writers and filmmakers who have challenged the realist text by alternative strategies. (JMF)
Narratives are an integral part of human expression. In the graphic form, they range from cave paintings to Egyptian hieroglyphics, from the Bayeux Tapestry to modern day comic books (Kunzle, 1973; McCloud, 1993). Yet not much research has addressed the structure and comprehension of narrative images, for example, how do people create meaning out…
In Narrating Peoplehood amidst Diversity, 16 internationally renowned scholars reflect on the nature and history of peoplehood and discuss how narratives inform national identities, public culture and academic historiography. The book is a timely contribution to the ongoing debate on belonging...
Tamura, Eileen H.
While narrative history has been the prevailing mode in historical scholarship, its preeminence has not gone unquestioned. In the 1980s, the role of narrative in historical writing was "the subject of extraordinarily intense debate." The historical backdrop of this debate can be traced to the preceding two decades, when four groups of thinkers…
I argue for a broad education in narratives as a way to address several problems found in moral psychology and social cognition. First, an education in narratives will address a common problem of narrowness or lack of diversity, shared by virtue ethics and the simulation theory of social cognition. Secondly, it also solves the "starting…
Myszkowski, Nils; Storme, Martin; Tavani, Jean-Louis
Because of their length and objective of broad content coverage, very short scales can show limited internal consistency and structural validity. We argue that it is because their objectives may be better aligned with formative investigations than with reflective measurement methods that capitalize on content overlap. As proofs of concept of formative investigations of short scales, we investigate the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI). In Study 1, we administered the TIPI and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) to 938 adults, and fitted a formative Multiple Indicator Multiple Causes model, which consisted of the TIPI items forming 5 latent variables, which in turn predicted the 5 BFI scores. These results were replicated in Study 2, on a sample of 759 adults, with, this time, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) as the external criterion. The models fit the data adequately, and moderate to strong significant effects (.37<|β|<.69, all p<.001) of all 5 latent formative variables on their corresponding BFI and NEOPI-R scores were observed. This study presents a formative approach that we propose to be more consistent with the aims of scales with broad content and short length like the TIPI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Raj Kumar Yadav
Full Text Available Objective: To assess the efficacy of a short-term comprehensive yoga-based lifestyle intervention in reducing anxiety, improving subjective well-being and personality. Materials and Methods: The study is a part of an ongoing larger study at a tertiary care hospital. Participants (n=90 included patients with chronic diseases attending a 10-day, yoga-based lifestyle intervention program for prevention and management of chronic diseases, and healthy controls (n=45 not attending any such intervention. Primary Outcome Measures: Change in state and trait anxiety questionnaire (STAI-Y; 40 items, subjective well-being inventory (SUBI; 40 items, and neuroticism extraversion openness to experience five factor personality inventory revised (NEO-FF PI-R; 60 items at the end of intervention. Results: Following intervention, the STAI-Y scores reduced significantly (P0.01 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Similarly NEO-FF PI-R scores improved significantly (P<0.001 at Day 10 versus Day 1. Control group showed an increase in STAI-Y while SUBI and NEO-FF PI-R scores remained comparable at Day 10 versus Day 1. Conclusions: The observations suggest that a short-term, yoga-based lifestyle intervention may significantly reduce anxiety and improve subjective well-being and personality in patients with chronic diseases.
Herron, Mark A.
. The use of narratives of and by presidents in the White House can be seen as an essential part of the ceremonial role of the presidency. This use of narratives in epideictic speech has increased with modern day interests in the domestic life of the president, and the use of visual mass media......The dissertation Narrator-in-Chief: The Narrative Rhetoric of Barack Obama seeks to show how the concept of “narrative” can be used in rhetorical criticism of presidential speeches, particularly when considering the speeches and the biographical text, Dreams from My Father (1995), of Barack Obama...... as a communication platform for the president. While this has been described as a negative development (Stuckey, 1991; Salmon, 2010) this dissertation argues that narrative rhetoric should not be seen only as a negative part of political rhetoric, but also as a possibly vital way to educate the audience on issues...
Full Text Available This article devoted to short stories, written by A.M. Remizov. Selected stories are united thematically. All of them depicted terror of history. Victim of that terror is an ordinary men. Famous historic persons represented as symptoms of tragic fate of Russia. This issue contains comparison of two different editions of his book of dreams «Bedovaja dolja» («Bad fate» and «Martyn Zadeka» on the background of different art’ periods, Silver age of Russian literature and émigré literature. As Russian artist Remizov used to feel his personal fate as a part of common fate of his main land, Rus-Russia. Because of it paradoxical forms of perceptions represented as different types of understanding complicated moments of individual life and existentional moments of human beings.
Graaf, A.M.; Hoeken, J.A.L.; Sanders, J.M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.
Several models of narrative persuasion posit that a reader's phenomenological experience of a narrative plays a mediating role in the persuasive effects of the narrative. Because the narrative reading experience is multi-dimensional, this experiment investigates which dimensions of this experience -
Graaf, A. de; Hoeken, J.A.L.; Sanders, J.M.; Beentjes, J.W.J.
Several models of narrative persuasion posit that a reader's phenomenological experience of a narrative plays a mediating role in the persuasive effects of the narrative. Because the narrative reading experience is multi-dimensional, this experiment investigates which dimensions of this experience –
Caio Antônio de Medeiros Nóbrega Nunes Gomes
Full Text Available In this article, we suggest the concepts of performance (Butler, 1990 and narrative performativity (Berns, 2013 as analytical tools for reflecting upon Toda Lana Turner tem seu Johnny Stompanato, a short story by the Brazilian writer Sonia Coutinho. A double movement will guide our analysis: we present an articulation between a perspective that takes into account the gender constitution of the characters and a narratological approach towards the reflexive/metafictional form which marks the composition of the short story. By making use of an ironical, intertextual and multi-layered style of writing, Sonia Coutinho constructs a narrative that proposes different discursive agencies in relation to the many instances in which characters’ subjectivities take place. In this sense, we consider this short story as having a deep mark of what we might understand as post-modern literature, for the multiplicity of spaces, characters and times is characteristic of a collective agency between reality and fiction.
Helldén, Gustav F.; Solomon, Joan
In this paper we will examine the persistence of misconceptions. We used data from a longitudinal study of personal ideas in 24 students' thinking about ecological processes. The results show students often speaking about personal experiences dating from an early age, to which they had also referred in similar interviews conducted years before. These data are compared with results from a different study of middle school physics students' thinking about energy and steam engines. After the new learning had been successfull completed and assessed, old ideas returned. These findings are used to set up a theoretical basis for understanding the longitudinal results. Findings from memory studies are shown to explicate the long-term effects of the passage of time and prompts for the recall of scientific concepts.
is profoundly saturated by an alienness regarding the person’s own affects and responses. However, the balance of familiarity and alienness is not static, but can be cultivated through e.g. psychotherapy. Following this line of thought, I present the idea that narrativising experiences can play an important...... role in processes of appropriating such embodied self-alienness. Importantly, the notion of narrative used is that of a scalar conception of narrativity as a variable quality of experience that comes in degrees. From this perspective, narrative appropriation is a process of gradually attributing...
Petty, Julia; Jarvis, Joy; Thomas, Rebecca
Educational research uses narrative enquiry to gain and interpret people's experiences. Narrative analysis is used to organise and make sense of acquired narrative. 'Core story creation' is a way of managing raw data obtained from narrative interviews to construct stories for learning. To explain how core story creation can be used to construct stories from raw narratives obtained by interviewing parents about their neonatal experiences and then use these stories to educate learners. Core story creation involves reconfiguration of raw narratives. Reconfiguration includes listening to and rereading transcribed narratives, identifying elements of 'emplotment' and reordering these to form a constructed story. Thematic analysis is then performed on the story to draw out learning themes informed by the participants. Core story creation using emplotment is a strategy of narrative reconfiguration that produces stories which can be used to develop resources relating to person-centred education about the patient experience. Stories constructed from raw narratives in the context of constructivism can provide a medium or an 'end product' for use in learning resource development. This can then contribute to educating students or health professionals about patients' experiences. ©2018 RCN Publishing Company Ltd. All rights reserved. Not to be copied, transmitted or recorded in any way, in whole or part, without prior permission of the publishers.
Vergnes, Jean-Noel; Apelian, Nareg; Bedos, Christophe
Narrative medicine strives toward a humanized form of medicine in which empathy and the ability to listen are developed with the same emphasis as scientific rigor. We hypothesize that the adoption of narrative medicine in dentistry would be an excellent method to cultivate the philosophy behind the emerging clinical concept of patient-centered dentistry. Reading literary works, reflective writing, and creative writing would sensitize practitioners to the daily lives of people, human uniqueness, and alterity. Narrative dentistry could lead to more empathic and self-aware practices, and improve dental professionals' observational abilities by making them more perceptive and more attentive to image, metaphor, and meaning. The introduction of narrative dentistry would enrich the clinical clerkship of dentists by bringing the often-missing humanities to the dental professional, academic, and scientific environment. Copyright © 2015 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The dissertation, consisting of an introductory essay and four independent articles, provides phenomenological investigations into the relation between embodied selfhood and narrative. More precisely, it investigates this relation in regards to three specifying questions: (1) What is the relation...
This paper uses discussion of Edmund Spenser's "The Faerie Queene" to present a theoretical framework for explaining the semantics of narrative discourse. The algebraic theory of finite automata is used. (CK)
Nurses can collaborate with people to express their stories or life journey portraits through arts such as dance, painting, photography, weaving or story-telling, and to cast themselves as heroes in their own stories rather than victims of life's circumstances.
marketing strategy elaborated during the interwar years and now in full ... For a comprehensive analysis of romanzo rosa, see also Pozzato (1982) and ... position of capturing the changing social climate and women's search for ... its name into Annabella in 1938, as a consequence of the campaign against ...... Milan: Net.
Heeren, Alexandre; Ceschi, Grazia; Valentiner, David P; Dethier, Vincent; Philippot, Pierre
The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear. A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively. Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361). The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.
Differential treatment response of subtypes of patients with borderline personality organization, as assessed with theory-driven profiles of the Dutch short form of the MMPI: a naturalistic follow-up study
Eurelings-Bontekoe, E.H.M.; Peen, J.; Noteboom, A.; Alkema, M.; Dekker, J.J.M.
We investigated the validity of different subtypes of borderline personality organization (BPO) as assessed by theory-driven profiles of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Disorder (MMPI; Hathaway & McKinley, 1943) Dutch Short Form (DSFM; Eurelings-Bontekoe, Onnink, Williams, & Snellen, 2008) in
Víctor Hugo Masías
Full Text Available In this article I analyze the narrative structure of the discourse of individuals who have converted to the Pentecostal Methodist Church of Chile. I use Grounded Theory to analyze 11 conversion narratives, which were collected through a narrative-biographical interview, and with support from the graphical tool called Story-Line. The results identify two types of conversion narrative structure. The first one is understood as a personal salvation narrative, the second one is described as a spiritual renewal narrative. This allowed the construction of a conceptual model illustrating the way in which the conversion narrative of the convert is structured. The discussion is centered on comparing the findings of this study with other similar investigations; debating the similarities and differences found in conversion narratives and their differing philosophies. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1001210
Nan, Xiaoli; Dahlstrom, Michael F; Richards, Adam; Rangarajan, Sarani
This research examines the influence of evidence type (statistical, narrative, or hybrid) and narrative type (first-person or third-person) on risk perception about human papillomavirus (HPV) and behavioral intention to get the HPV vaccine. In total, 174 college students who had not received the HPV vaccine participated in a controlled experiment. Results show that the hybrid message containing both statistical and narrative descriptions of HPV resulted in greater perceived risk of getting HPV than either of the messages containing just one type of evidence--statistical or narrative. Moreover, the first-person narrative message led to greater risk perception about HPV than the third-person narrative message. Both evidence type and narrative type had an indirect effect on intention to get the HPV vaccine free of cost through HPV risk perception. Implications of the findings for vaccine risk communication are discussed.
Burkholder, Greer A; Tamhane, Ashutosh R; Appell, Lauren E; Willig, James H; Saag, Michael S; Raper, James L; Westfall, Andrew O; Mugavero, Michael J
With improved survival and aging, more persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are at risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). This retrospective longitudinal study evaluated patient characteristics associated with CRC screening in our HIV cohort. Patients were followed beginning at age 50 years during a study period from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2010 (n=265). During a median follow-up time of 1.7 years, only 30% of patients underwent CRC screening. The majority of screened patients received endoscopic screening (colonoscopy, 86%; sigmoidoscopy, 8%); among these patients, results were available for 68/75, and adenomatous polyps were found in 13%. No cases of CRC were reported. Among unscreened patients, only 23% had an external primary care provider, indicating an HIV provider was the expected source for CRC screening referral in the majority. Patients with time-varying suppressed HIV viral load were more likely to receive screening (HRadjusted=1.74; 95% CI: 1.05-2.87), independent of CD4 count. Our findings suggest HIV providers are more likely to address non-HIV-related healthcare maintenance when HIV is controlled. In addition, a significant number of neoplastic lesions are likely being missed in PLWHA who have not been screened for CRC. Provision of evidence-based preventive care in addition to HIV care is required for the aging population of PLWHA.
Skowronek, J.; Skubacz, K.; Chalupnik, S.; Kajdasz, R.; Nalepa, S.
Monitoring of workplaces in the first step of the monitoring of radiation hazard in coal mines. Decision concerning application of individual dosimetry is taken on the basis of the results of workplace monitoring. The system applies to all sources of natural radiation in coal mines. The workplace monitoring is performed at certain preselected points, usually in one air stream while miners change their position during their work. Therefore, a question arises how far one can relay on workplace monitoring when making decision on application of personal dosimetry and when evaluating individual radiation doses. The results of investigations concerning this question are presented in this paper. Results of measurements of radon daughters concentrations at workplaces obtained by ALFA-31 sampling probes and dust samplers are compared with the results of individual exposures measured by active French individual dosimeters and by passive track detectors used as individual dosimeters and for workplace monitoring by the Institute of Occupation Medicine (IOM) in Lodz. The readouts of detectors were performed by its owners: IOM Lodz, Centre de Radioprotection dans les Mines (CRPM) - France and Centre Mining Institute (CMI). The presented results have been obtained in two independent coal mines in Upper Silesia -Ziemowit and Jankowice - during 1991-1992. The results obtained by passive dosimeters (IOM track detectors) were by 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the results of measurements carried out by active dosimeters (CRPM and CMI). (author). 7 refs, 8 figs, 6 tabs
Alayrac, Jean-Baptiste; Bojanowski, Piotr; Agrawal, Nishant; Sivic, Josef; Laptev, Ivan; Lacoste-Julien, Simon
Automatic assistants could guide a person or a robot in performing new tasks, such as changing a car tire or repotting a plant. Creating such assistants, however, is non-trivial and requires understanding of visual and verbal content of a video. Towards this goal, we here address the problem of automatically learning the main steps of a task from a set of narrated instruction videos. We develop a new unsupervised learning approach that takes advantage of the complementary nature of the input video and the associated narration. The method sequentially clusters textual and visual representations of a task, where the two clustering problems are linked by joint constraints to obtain a single coherent sequence of steps in both modalities. To evaluate our method, we collect and annotate a new challenging dataset of real-world instruction videos from the Internet. The dataset contains videos for five different tasks with complex interactions between people and objects, captured in a variety of indoor and outdoor settings. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed method can automatically discover, learn and localize the main steps of a task input videos.
Nota, N M; Dekker, M J H J; Klaver, M; Wiepjes, C M; van Trotsenburg, M A; Heijboer, A C; den Heijer, M
The cause of prolactin alterations in transgender persons is often assigned to oestrogens, but the precise cause and time course during different phases of cross-sex hormone treatment (CHT) remain unclear. In this study, we prospectively examined prolactin levels in 55 female-to-males (FtMs) and 61 male-to-females (MtFs) during the first year of CHT. Because long-term prolactin data were not available in this population, we studied these levels in a retrospective population of 25 FtMs and 38 MtFs who underwent gonadectomy. FtMs were treated with testosterone and MtFs with estradiol, with or without the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (CPA) (after gonadectomy CPA is cessated). During the first year of CHT, prolactin decreased with 25% (95CI: -33%, -12%) in FtMs and increased with 193% (95CI: 156%, 219%) in MtFs. Eighteen MtFs developed hyperprolactinemia (≥0.6 IU L -1 ). In the retrospective population, post-gonadectomy levels in FtMs were lower than baseline levels (-39%; 95CI: -51%, -20%) while in MtFs post-gonadectomy levels and baseline levels were comparable (-6%; 95CI: -24%, 15%). No hyperprolactinemia was found after gonadectomy. In conclusion, in FtMs, prolactin decreased consistently during CHT and in MtFs, prolactin increased during pre-surgical CHT but normalised after gonadectomy. It is likely that CPA induces increasing prolactin levels in MtFs. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Behrns, Ingrid; Wengelin, Asa; Broberg, Malin; Hartelius, Lena
The aim of the present study was to explore how a personal narrative told by a group of eight persons with aphasia differed between written and spoken language, and to compare this with findings from 10 participants in a reference group. The stories were analysed through holistic assessments made by 60 participants without experience of aphasia…
The first aim was to facilitate growth in understanding that every person was born in the “Narrative of God” (Ps. 139) and baptised in the name of God, Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:19). Each person therefore has value in Jesus Christ. A second aim was to facilitate the developing of lay-counselling skills by ...
Full Text Available Machado showed a fascination with homeopathic medicine, an indirect form of treatment that uses agents to stimulate reactions similar to the symptoms of the condition to be cured. Several of the author’s texts show a pattern of projects realized by indirect means, by "like curing like", which suggests a homeopathic logic in Machado’s worldview. Certain narrators, such as those inMemórias póstumas de Brás Cubas, Dom Casmurro, and in short stories such as "O segredo do bonzo" and "Adão e Eva", are notable for denouncing themselves, that is, for undermining their own validity. This curious situation has implications for Machado’s overall project, which seems more interested in posing questions than providing answers. It also suggests a particular relationship with the reader, which affords as much independence as possible.
GABAS JÚNIOR Nilson
Full Text Available This paper looks at two verbal descriptions of the Pear film and characterizes them according to the analysis proposed by Downing (1980 for factors influencing lexical choice. The two descriptions, one short and one long, were told by my Karo consultant, Mário Jorge Arara, after the exhibition of the film. Generally, the present article looks at Downing's assertion that "if the description is to be brief, words of broad referential scope are likely to be chosen (.... If the speaker opts for a more detailed description, more lexemes of narrower referential scope are likely to appear" (1980:90 and sees how this assertion applies to the two narratives. Specifically, it looks at each of the versions of the story and tries to explain the mentions of the referents by either basic or non-basic level categories in terms of cognitive, textual and contextual factors.
In Hungarian variants of some fairy tale types (especially ATU 315,707, 725) the operation of a peculiar dream narrative can be observed: the characters use an embedded dream narrative to communicate information. The agent of knowledge conveys information to a mediating person and in doing so (s)he also governs that when the mediator conveys information to the actual addressee (recipient), the mediator must explain the origin of the conveyed knowledge to the recipient by referring to a fictio...
Steinhardt, Joseph; Shapiro, Michael A
Narrative messages are increasingly popular in health and risk campaigns, yet gain/loss framing effects have never been tested with such messages. Three experiments examined framing in narrative messages. Experiment 1 found that only the character's decision, not framing, influenced judgments about characters in a narrative derived from a prospect theory context. Experiment 2 found that a framing effect that occurred when presented in a decision format did not occur when the same situation was presented as a narrative. Using a different story/decision context, Experiment 3 found no significant difference in preference for surgery over radiation therapy in a narrative presentation compared to a non-narrative presentation. The results suggest that health and risk campaigns cannot assume that framing effects will be the same in narrative messages and non-narrative messages. Potential reasons for these differences and suggestions for future research are discussed. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.
Arenas F, Javier F.
All human society has depended on the energy to subsist and to evolve. Because of this, the industrial revolution can be seen as the result of an environmental crisis after the deforestation in Europe. Nevertheless,at the present time, petroleum is expending so that there have appeared alternative to maintain the energetic system that the world has being using since the XVIII century. The present text exposes arguments that have been raised so much to defend their implementation as a dedicated industry that will produce bioagrocombustibles, like those employees against it. For these expositions the author uses different perspectives, like the economic, political, legal and physical. It is a narration in first person of the Sun, as well as of the human conscience that exposes the mentioned arguments and intents a different approach, less technician, to a problematic that concerns to all the people of the planet.
Some types of first-person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological accounts and texts, such as internal monolog statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monolog in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1) the relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2) some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3) a preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monolog excerpted from James Joyce’s Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, (4) an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno) is presented using some mathematical tools
Full Text Available Some types of first person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological parliaments and texts, such as internal monologue statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monologue in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1 The relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2 Some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3 A preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monologue excerpted from James Joyce’s Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno is presented using some
Some types of first-person narrations of mental processes that constitute phenomenological accounts and texts, such as internal monolog statements, epitomize the best expressions and representations of human consciousness available and therefore may be used to model phenomenological streams of consciousness. The type of autonomous monolog in which an author or narrator declares actual mental processes in a think aloud manner seems particularly suitable for modeling streams of consciousness. A narrative method to extract and depict conscious processes, operations, contents, and states from an acceptable phenomenological text would require three subsequent steps: operational criteria for producing and/or selecting a phenomenological text, a system for detecting text items that are indicative of conscious contents and processes, and a procedure for representing such items in formal dynamic system devices such as Petri nets. The requirements and restrictions of each of these steps are presented, analyzed, and applied to phenomenological texts in the following manner: (1) the relevance of introspective language and narrative analyses to consciousness research and the idea that specific narratives are of paramount interest for such investigation is justified; (2) some of the obstacles and constraints to attain plausible consciousness inferences from narrative texts and the methodological requirements to extract and depict items relevant to consciousness contents and operations from a suitable phenomenological text are examined; (3) a preliminary exercise of the proposed method is used to analyze and chart a classical interior monolog excerpted from James Joyce's Ulysses, a masterpiece of the stream-of-consciousness literary technique and, finally, (4) an inter-subjective evaluation for inter-observer agreement of mental attributions of another phenomenological text (an excerpt from the Intimate Journal of Miguel de Unamuno) is presented using some mathematical tools.
Marin, Kelly A; Rotondo, Elena K
The longitudinal study aims to expand what is known about the costs and benefits of narrating stressful experiences by exploring changes in rumination within the narrative process and comparing it to changes in self-reflection. Rumination (e.g., brooding, self-criticism, and negative emotions) and self-reflection were measured in stress narratives of 56 college students. There were several goals: (1) examine changes in narrative rumination and narrative self-reflection over 3 days of writing, (2) examine the relations among the changes in narrative rumination variables and narrative self-reflection and (3) examine how changes in narrative rumination and narrative self-reflection relate to multiple measures of psychological functioning. Overall, individuals increased self-reflection over the 3-day writing task. Individuals who increased ruminative brooding across the 3 days of writing showed lower ego identity development (short term and long term) and self-esteem (short term), while increased self-criticism was positively correlated with identity distress (short term). Implications of the different aspects of narrative rumination, specifically in the context of stressful experiences, are discussed.
Rohenkohl, Anja C; Sommer, Rachel; Bestges, Stephanie; Kahrs, Sabine; Klingebiel, Karl-Heinz; Bullinger, Monika; Quitmann, Julia
Presently, little is known aqout the quality of life (QoL) as well as the strengths and difficulties of young people with achondroplasia. This study describes these patient-reported indicators and identifies possible correlates. At the invitation of a patient organization, a total of 89 short-statured patients aged 8 to 28 years and their parents participated in this study. QoL was assessed cross-sectionally with both generic and disease-specific instruments and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as a brief behavioral screening. In addition to descriptive analyses, patient data were compared with a reference population. Hierarchical regression analyses reflecting sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological variables were conducted to identify correlates of QoL. QoL and the strengths and difficulties of young patients with achondroplasia did not differ substantially from a healthy norm sample. However, the participants reported more behavioral problems and limitations in their physical and social QoL compared to patients with another short stature diagnosis. Strengths and difficulties, height-related beliefs, and social support correlated significantly with QoL. Adding psychological variables to the regression model increased the proportion of variance explained in QoL. Young persons with achondroplasia did not differ in their QoL and strengths and difficulties from healthy controls. Characteristics such as height appear less important for the self-perceived QoL than are strengths and difficulties and protective psychosocia~factors.
Bucher, Meredith A; Samuel, Douglas B
Although there has been widespread consensus on the use of the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of general personality functioning in personality research, there are various, diverse models of the lower order traits of the FFM domains. Given the usefulness of these finer grained traits, it is imperative to integrate facets proposed across a variety of models and eventually reach consensus on the lower level traits of the FFM. Due to its depth and coverage, the Abridged Big Five-Dimensional Circumplex (AB5C) model potentially provides a useful framework for organizing various faceted models due to its conceptual organization and inclusiveness. The only measure of this model-the IPIP-AB5C-has shown promise, but is limited by its length (i.e., 485 items). This study developed an abbreviated version of the IPIP-AB5C using an iterative process including item response theory methods. The shorter version maintained key features of the long form including a factor structure that matched the full form as well as facets that correlated in expected ways with other FFM measures. Building on this support, the short form was used to contextualize and organize the facets from 2 commonly used measures.
Full Text Available Alexandre Heeren,1,2 Grazia Ceschi,3 David P Valentiner,4 Vincent Dethier,1 Pierre Philippot11Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium; 2National Fund for Scientific Research, Brussels, Belgium; 3Department of Psychology, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Department of Psychology, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL, USABackground: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS, one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear.Methods: A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively.Results: Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86 was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516, and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361.Conclusion: The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.Keywords: social phobia, public speaking, confirmatory
Coulter, Cathy A.
The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…
Popova, Yanna B
This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones.
Yanna B. Popova
Full Text Available This paper proposes an understanding of literary narrative as a form of social cognition and situates the study of such narratives in relation to the new comprehensive approach to human cognition, enaction. The particular form of enactive cognition that narrative understanding is proposed to depend on is that of participatory sense-making, as developed in the work of Di Paolo and De Jaegher. Currently there is no consensus as to what makes a good literary narrative, how it is understood, and why it plays such an irreplaceable role in human experience. The proposal thus identifies a gap in the existing research on narrative by describing narrative as a form of intersubjective process of sense-making between two agents, a teller and a reader. It argues that making sense of narrative literature is an interactional process of co-constructing a story-world with a narrator. Such an understanding of narrative makes a decisive break with both text-centered approaches that have dominated both structuralist and early cognitivist study of narrative, as well as pragmatic communicative ones that view narrative as a form of linguistic implicature. The interactive experience that narrative affords and necessitates at the same time, I argue, serves to highlight the active yet cooperative and communal nature of human sociality, expressed in the many forms than human beings interact in, including literary ones.
Fivush, Robyn; Habermas, Tilmann; Waters, Theodore E A; Zaman, Widaad
Autobiographical memory is a uniquely human form of memory that integrates individual experiences of self with cultural frames for understanding identities and lives. In this review, we present a theoretical and empirical overview of the sociocultural development of autobiographical memory, detailing the emergence of autobiographical memory during the preschool years and the formation of a life narrative during adolescence. More specifically, we present evidence that individual differences in parental reminiscing style are related to children's developing autobiographical narratives. Parents who structure more elaborated coherent personal narratives with their young children have children who, by the end of the preschool years, provide more detailed and coherent personal narratives, and show a more differentiated and coherent sense of self. Narrative structuring of autobiographical remembering follows a protracted developmental course through adolescence, as individuals develop social cognitive skills for temporal understanding and causal reasoning that allows autobiographical memories to be integrated into an overarching life narrative that defines emerging identity. In addition, adolescents begin to use culturally available canonical biographical forms, life scripts, and master narratives to construct a life story and inform their own autobiographical narrative identity. This process continues to be socially constructed in local interactions; we present exploratory evidence that parents help adolescents structure life narratives during coconstructed reminiscing and that adolescents use parents and families as a source for their own autobiographical content and structure. Ultimately, we argue that autobiography is a critical developmental skill; narrating our personal past connects us to our selves, our families, our communities, and our cultures.
Narratives may be easy to come by, but not everything is worth narrating. What merits a narrative? Here, I follow the lead of narratologists and literary theorists, and focus on one particular proposal concerning the elements of a story that make it narrative-worthy. These elements correspond to features of the natural world addressed by the historical sciences, where narratives figure so prominently. What matters is contingency. Narratives are especially good for representing contingency and accounting for contingent outcomes. This will be squared with a common view that narratives leave no room for chance. On the contrary, I will argue, tracing one path through a maze of alternative possibilities, and alluding to those possibilities along the way, is what a narrative does particularly well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Calleja, Gordon; Digital Games Research Association (DiGRA) 2009 Conference
This paper explores the contentious notion of experiential narrative and proposes the first step in a narrative framework for game environment. It argues for a shift in emphasis from story-telling, the dominant mode of narrative in literature and cinema, to story generation. To this effect the paper forwards a perspective on experiential narrative that is grounded in the specific qualities of the game. This avoids the over-generalization that tends to accompany discussions of experiential nar...
Mohsen Mohammadi fesharaki
of them is visual function and the other is word's phonetic capacity. The advantage that a poet can take from word's sound and form of writing to increase the dramatic richness of Ghazal in the story is by no means available. Differences between narrative Ghazal and cinematic narrative 1- From the viewpoint of power of play, perhaps the major advantage the literature has over films is that a poem does not need any facilities except words to make up atmosphere and design the scene. This advantage makes poetry capable to image surreal spaces that film can not show . 2- In Ghazal, just the special signs that poet wanted is conveyed to the audience namely the author's control is more. So whenever he wants, makes the audience to focus his attention on the text or, on the contrary, divert attention away from. Similarities between narrative Ghazal and cinematic narrative 1- Sometimes, sense and experience that the sequence of short words and phrases of Ghazal suggest to audience is the same as experience the serial of film shots convey. 2- The reader of story - even a short story– has opportunity as well as possibility to read and review each part of the story he prefers , but the movie spectator does not . Considering this, Ghazal is closer to cinema than story. Because, Ghazal is a poem to be read rather than listened , and due to the brevity prevailing over the space of poetry and Ghazal's structural limitations, poet has little opportunity to convey a sense and to present an artistic experience . 3-Today poetry uses the pattern of stanza in its formal system , like plan and shot employed in cinema. This more than verse and hemistich shows temporal and spatial distances , events and sections in the vertical axis of poetry. Such a way that each stanza expresses one temporal and spatial feature of the detached narration , whereas the sections and components of ancient poetry in the lines of verses is cluttered and the process and movement of poem are
Nan, Xiaoli; Futerfas, Michelle; Ma, Zexin
In the context of public service advertisements promoting human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, the current research examines 1) the relative persuasiveness of narrative vs. non-narrative messages and 2) the influence of narrative perspective (first- vs. third-person) and modality (text-based vs. audio-based) on message effectiveness. Results of a controlled experiment (N = 121) suggested that both a non-narrative message and a first-person narrative message led to greater perceived risk of getting HPV than a third-person narrative message. There was no difference in risk perception between the non-narrative and first-person narrative conditions. These findings were confined to the text-based condition, however. When the messages were audio-based, no differential message effects were detected. The analysis also provided partial evidence for an indirect effect of narrative perspective on intentions to vaccinate against HPV through HPV risk perception. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
This talk will focus on cognitive processes between conscious and subconscious awareness in order to present a slightly different definition of narrative. Rather than simply accepting that narrative is a conscious selection of stories subject to bias, I will argue that biases are the primary structure of narrative and that their success is explained in painfully simple terms.
design ideas. The concept of engaging personas and narrative scenario explores personas in the light of what what it is to identify with and have empathy with a character. The concept of narrative scenarios views the narrative as aid for exploration of design ideas. Both concepts incorporate...... a distinktion between creating, writing and reading. Keywords: personas, scenarios, user-centered design, HCI...
Søndergaard Jakobsen, Nina; Kaufmann, Lisbeth; Hennesser, Yvonne
Using cases and empirical data from a research and development project at a Danish prevention center, this study explores whether and how the use of narrative dietary counseling can strengthen dietitians' relationships and collaboration with clients who are chronically ill. The results of the study...... dietary counseling empowered clients and improved relationship building and collaboration between client and dietitian....
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 1. Special Relativity – An Exoteric Narrative ! S R Madhu Rao. Classroom Volume 3 Issue 1 January 1998 pp 61-66. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/01/0061-0066 ...
(co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...
Hansen, Per Krogh
to the position of A. Nünning. In the final section, a four-category taxonomy for the different textual strategies that establishes unreliable narration is suggested. The headlines for the taxonomy are intranarrational unreliability, internarrational unreliability, intertextual unreliability, and extratextual...
NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited BATTLE OF NARRATIVES...from the NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL June 2012 Author: Lars Ruth Approved by: Prof. Sean F. Everton Thesis Advisor Dr. Hy...are more important than are others. For example, for some, social security and taxes are very important while gun control and LGBT are not. For
O Malley-Keighran, Mary-Pat; Coleman, Mary
Individual attitudes and more general attitudes in society can negatively influence the functioning of people with communication disorders according to the World Health Organisation's (WHO) International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) (2002). Personal narratives have been recommended as the best means to convey and understand a person's life experience and have been investigated extensively. Investigations of personal narratives of communication impairment in mass media continue to be relatively rare in the literature. Published narratives can enrich understandings of clients' experiences by elucidating available representations of lived experiences of communication impairment. To answer the following research questions: What types of personal narratives of communication impairments are currently being disseminated in Irish newspapers? How are experiences of communication impairments represented in these narratives? The study was qualitative, deploying inductive analysis and drawing on Frank's (1995) typology of illness narratives to analyse narratives that were published in two Irish national newspapers over a 12-month period. The results illustrate the under-representation of communication impairments in Irish newspapers as ten out of 51 narratives in the corpus pertained to conditions that may have associated communication impairments. None of the narratives related the lived experience of a person with communication impairment in depth. A combination of quest and chaos narrative types was identified in six out of the ten narratives. Three out of the ten narratives featured a combination of chaos and restitution narrative types. One narrative was identified as being entirely a quest narrative. Three narratives contained elements of restitution. Inductive analysis revealed six main themes in the data (two for each narrative type) with one sub-theme identified for each main theme. The six main themes are: positive stances, re
Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Jeppesen, Henrik; Kofie, Richard Y.
on the thematically and narrative linking of a set of locations within an area. A spatial narrative that describes the - largely unsuccessful - history of Danish plantations on the Gold Coast (1788-1850) is implemented through the Google Earth client. This client is seen both as a type of media in itself for ‘home......-based' exploration of sites related to the narrative and as a tool that facilitates the design of spatial narratives before implementation within portable GIS devices. The Google Earth-based visualization of the spatial narrative is created by a Python script that outputs a web-accessible KML format file. The KML...
Drukteinis, Albert M
Psychiatrists function, in part, as historians who rely on patient narratives to help them understand presenting mental disorders and explain their causes. Forensic psychiatrists have been skeptical of using narratives, raising concerns about their lack of objectivity and potential for bias. They also have criticized narratives as being more performative than scientific. Recent authors, however, have pointed out that narratives may be helpful in forming forensic opinions and supporting oral testimony, while stressing that their use must be consistent with the ethics espoused by forensic psychiatry. This article reviews the role of narratives in understanding human events and the ubiquitous presence of narratives in the judicial process. It delves into the inescapability of using explicit or implicit narratives in the course of forensic practice, as well as how they may be meaningfully incorporated into evaluations and find expression alongside scientific principles. © 2014 American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law.
What are the links between narrative theories and computing? Narrative works are countless in the digital world: narrative hypertext and hypermedia, interactive fiction, video games, blogs, location-based narrative, etc. They not only form new analytical objects for narrative theories, but also may extend existing narrative theories. One specific type of digital narratives, AI-based Interactive Digital Narrative (IDN), plays a special role in this landscape because it makes use of narrative t...
In the eighteenth century, natural histories of animals incorporated narratives about animal behaviour and narratives of discovery and experimentation. Naturalists used first-person accounts to link the stories of their scientific investigations to the stories of the animal lives they were studying. Understanding nature depended on narratives that shifted back and forth in any given text between animal and human, and between individual cases and generalizations about species. This paper explores the uses of narrative through examples from the work of René-Antoine Ferchault de Réaumur and Abraham Trembley. In all cases, narrative took the genre of natural history well beyond straightforward description and classification. Prose accounts of insect actions and mechanisms worked in tandem with visual narratives embedded in the accompanying illustrations, where artists developed strategies for representing sequences of minute changes over time. By throwing into relief the narrative sections of natural histories, the examples considered here expose the role played by these tales of encounters with the insect world in the making of natural historical knowledge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Armando F. Zubizarreta
Full Text Available Because of its autobiographical appearance, critics have paid little attention to the narrative of "Borges and I" which is so masterfully handled that its complex and transparent texture is almost invisible. A close analysis shows, however, that, in the confessional mode, the two individuals—I and Borges—are true characters involved in a narrative action that is taking place to allow the implementation of vengeance. By focusing on his victim's experience, the narrating I offers an attractive bait to his victimizer, Borges. Borges, the writer, driven by a compulsive pattern of stealing, unsuspectingly takes over the victim's grievances against him by virtue of his own writing. To unveil those basic elements of narrative at play in this short story, the participation of an active reader, as witness to the process and as recipient of the indicting text, is actually demanded. Thus, "Borges and I" may be considered a superb example of Jorge Luis Borges's art.
Engaging in self-narrative is often touted as a powerful antidote to the bad effects of illness. However, there are various examples of what may broadly be termed "aversion" to illness narrative. I group these into three kinds: aversion to certain types of illness narrative; aversion to illness narrative as a whole; and aversion to illness narrative as an essentially therapeutic endeavor. These aversions can throw into doubt the advantages claimed for the illness narrator, including the key benefits of repair to the damage illness does to identity and life-trajectory. Underlying these alleged benefits are two key presuppositions: that it is the whole of one's life that is narratively unified, and that one's identity is inextricably bound up with narrative. By letting go of these assumptions, illness narrative advocates can respond to the challenges of narrative aversions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of The Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Shugart, Helene A
In this essay, I assess the narrative of obesity as articulated in representative contemporary mainstream media fare--namely, The Oprah Winfrey Show, The Biggest Loser, and Big Medicine. I contend that the emergent narrative of obesity across these programs signals a shift from the historically received narrative in light of its intersection with the concurrent culturally resonant narratives of addiction and self-actualization. In particular, the proposed "problem" and "solution" to obesity, both historically attributed to personal responsibility, appear to be shifting in favor of cultural explanations that describe obesity as symptomatic of and secondary to broader issues related to community, emotionality, and agency. This suggests novel cultural understandings, practices, and policies regarding the mounting "obesity epidemic."
This narrative is taken from a memoir about my son, Jesse, who died at age 19 in 1995 after a liver transplant. It covers two periods-from May 5, his admission date at the hospital to wait for a transplant, until May 9, when a perforation, caused by cutting through intestinal adhesions during transplant surgery, was discovered, and from May 20 to May 22, when his condition became extremely critical. Since Jesse was largely unconscious or semi-conscious during a good part of the period this narrative covers, his personality and conscious struggles shine through less here than they do in other parts of the memoir. Here, the relative emphasis is on parents and physicians and on facing the critical illness, and possible death, of one's child in an intensive care unit, following the very intervention that was to give him a new chance at a healthy life.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the expressions used to refer to the experience of immersive in narrative games. The starting point is a review of the meanings associated with the suspension of disbelief in literature, cinema and television, challenging the myth of the naïve audience that cannot distinguish between representation and reality. Two characteristics of interactive media narratives – the possibility of agency and the disparities between hardware and software interfaces – reveal the active nature of the audience’s involvement with media representations. It is proposed that, in the case of games, this ability, which allows for simultaneous actions in the world of games and in the real world, is better described as a performance of belief.
Bo, Inger Glavind
I kapitlet gennemgås en socialkonstruktivistisk forståelse af narrativer. I kapitlet vil jeg gennemgå centrale teoretiske pointer, der samlet set er grundlæggende for en social konstruktivistisk forståelse af narrativer for herved at udfolde forståelsen af den narrative tilgang og desuden...... tydeliggøre, hvordan tilgangen er forbundet med en særlig forståelse af identitetsskabelse. Der er tale om pointer der almindeligvis forbindes med ”små fortællinger” i form af længere identitetsfortællinger og narrative interviews. Kapitlet gennemgår således centrale inspirationskilder og teoretiske pointer...
Reddy, Rajakumari P.; Hirisave, Uma
Play has been recognized as an essential component to children's healthy development. Schools of play therapy differ philosophically and technically, but they all embrace the therapeutic and developmental properties of play. This case report is an illustration of how a 6-year-old child with emotional disorder was facilitated to express concerns in child-centered play therapy. The paper discusses the therapist's narration of the child's play. PMID:24860228
This paper provides a general overview of theories and tools to model individual and collective decision-making. In particular, stress is laid on the interaction of several decision-makers. A substantial part of this paper is devoted to utility maximization and its application to collective decision-making, Game Theory. However, the pitfalls of utility maximization are thoroughly discussed, and the radically alternative approach of viewing decision-making as constructing narratives is pre...
Allen, Julia M.
Helen Forbes, in her short story "The Hunky Woman," written in 1916 for "The Masses," an eclectic Socialist magazine, undermines particular categorical propositions. By using narration with a shifting of narrative voice, Forbes calls into question the validity of the traditional teaching of argumentation. Forbes demonstrates…
De Silveira, Cybèle; Habermas, Tilmann
Adolescence is a passage from dependence to adult responsibility. Alongside identity development, social-cognitive development, and the ability to construct a life story, adolescents become increasingly aware of both their potential responsibility in an expanded sphere of life and of complex, contextual influences on their lives. This was partially tested in a cross-sectional study, both in terms of linguistic means and content expressed in life narratives. Indicators were defined for narrative agency, grading of responsibility, serendipity, and turning points, and tested for age differences in relative frequencies in 102 life narratives from age groups of 8, 12, 16, and 20 years, balanced for gender. Narrative grading of responsibility, serendipity, and turning points increased throughout adolescence. The relative frequency of narrative agency, in contrast, remained constant across age groups. Results are interpreted in the context of adolescent development of narrative identity.
Full Text Available Narrative is one of many qualitative methodologies that can be brought to bear in collecting and analysing data and reporting results, though it is not as frequently used as say in case studies. This article provides a window into its use, from the perspective of a researcher who has used it consistently over the past decade to examine early career researcher experience – doctoral students, and those who have completed their degrees and are advancing their careers. This experience has contributed to a robust understanding of the potential of narrative, as well as its limitations. This paper first lays out the broad landscape of narrative research and then makes transparent the thinking, processes and procedures involved in the ten-year narrative study including the potential for creativity that narrative invites. The goal is to engage other researchers to consider exploring the use of narrative – if it aligns with their epistemological stance.
Habermas, Tilmann; Meier, Michaela; Mukhtar, Barbara
Two studies test the assertion that anger, sadness, fear, pride, and happiness are typically narrated in different ways. Everyday events eliciting these 5 emotions were narrated by young women (Study 1) and 5- and 8-year-old girls (Study 2). Negative narratives were expected to engender more effort to process the event, be longer, more grammatically complex, more often have a complication section, and use more specific emotion labels than global evaluations. Narratives of Hogan's (2003) juncture emotions anger and fear were expected to focus more on action and to contain more core narrative sections of orientation, complication, and resolution than narratives of the outcome emotions sadness and happiness. Hypotheses were confirmed for adults except for syntactic complexity, whereas children showed only some of these differences. Hogan's theory that juncture emotions are restricted to the complication section was not confirmed. Finally, in adults, indirect speech was more frequent in anger narratives and internal monologue in fear narratives. It is concluded that different emotions should be studied in how they are narrated, and that narratives should be analyzed according to qualitatively different emotions.
Heffernan, Lee; Lewison, Mitzi
Discusses how children move from personal to social narratives in writing workshops to create stories as tools for social action, addressing inequities in their school lives. Considers how social narratives can be used as tools for constructing and analyzing shared social worlds. (SG)
Truong, Khiet Phuong; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Lamers, S.M.A.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Sools, A.
Audiovisual collections of narratives about war-traumas are rich in descriptions of personal and emotional experiences which can be expressed through verbal and nonverbal means. We complement a commonly used verbal analysis with a nonverbal one to study emotional developments in narratives. Using
Celinska, Dorota K.
This study analyzed personal and fictional narratives of culturally/ethnically diverse students with and without learning disabilities. The participants were 82 fourth to seventh graders from urban and suburban schools located in a Midwest metropolitan area. Narratives were elicited in the context of naturalistic conversation and analyzed using…
Knekt, Paul; Lindfors, Olavi; Keinänen, Matti; Heinonen, Erkki; Virtala, Esa; Härkänen, Tommi
How level of personality organization (LPO) predicts psychiatric symptoms and work ability in short- versus long-term psychotherapies is poorly known. We investigated the importance of the LPO on the benefits of short-term versus long-term psychotherapies. A cohort study based on 326 outpatients with mood or anxiety disorder was allocated to long-term (LPP) and short-term (SPP) psychodynamic psychotherapy, and solution-focused therapy (SFT). The LPO was assessed by interview at baseline and categorized into neuroses and higher level borderline. Outcome was assessed at baseline and 4-9 times during a 5-year follow-up, using self-report and interview-based measures of symptoms and work ability. For patients receiving SPP, improvement in work ability, symptom reduction, and the remission rate were more considerable in patients with neuroses than in higher level borderline patients, whereas LPP or SFT showed no notable differences in effectiveness in the two LPO groups. In patients with neuroses, improvement was more considerable in the short-term therapy groups during the first year of follow-up, and in higher level borderline patients LPP was more effective after 3 years of follow-up. The remission rate, defined as both symptom reduction and lack of auxiliary treatment, was higher in LPP than in SPP for both the LPO groups considered. In neuroses, short-term psychotherapy was associated with a more rapid reduction of symptoms and increase in work ability, whereas LPP was more effective for longer follow-ups in both LPO groups. Further large-scale studies are needed. Level of personality organization is relevant for selection between short- and long-term psychotherapies. Short-term therapy gives faster benefits for neurotic patients but not for patients with higher level borderline personality organization. Sustained remission from symptoms is more probable after long-term than short-term therapy. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.
Full Text Available This thematic issue addresses how strategic narratives affect international order. Strategic narratives are conceived of as stories with a political purpose or narratives used by political actors to affect the behavior of others. The articles in this issue address two significant areas important to the study of international relations: how strategic narratives support or undermine alliances, and how they affect norm formation and contestation. Within a post-Cold War world and in the midst of a changing media environment, strategic narratives affect how the world and its complex issues are understood. This special issue speaks to the difficulties associated with creating creative and committed international cooperation by noting how strategic narratives are working to shape the Post-Cold War international context.
Full Text Available The article presents the different types of narratives in marketing communications. Presented essence of thesignr in the narrative, the power of myth, power of archetype and consistency of monomith in marketing. It is discussed on the advertising message perceived through the prism of commercial semiotics. The strength of the narrative is presented in the context of storytelling. The paper also presents a case study of marketing communications.
Mordhorst, Mads; Schwarzkopf, Stefan
’ of the 1970s. It then compares the different conceptualisations of narrative analysis that have emerged in historical research and in management and organisational studies. Finally, this introduction points out various ways in which business history can become enriched if its practitioners become more aware......This article, and the special issue that it introduces, encourages business historians to reflect on the narrative nature of the work they produce. The articles provides an overview of how and why narratives came to occupy such a prominent status during the linguistic and narrative ‘turns...
Gibson, Barbara E; Mykitiuk, Roxanne
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and other international human rights conventions guarantee the fundamental human rights to physical, social, and psychological health. The purpose of this study was to examine whether these rights are being upheld in Canada for disabled women. An interpretive, qualitative, focus group design was employed. Participants were women 18 to 67 years of age with a self-identified physical, sensory, cognitive, and/or psychiatric impairment. Eleven focus groups were conducted with 74 disabled women from urban and rural settings in Northern Ontario, Manitoba, and Nova Scotia. The data were analyzed for themes using a flexible coding system derived from and consistent with the research objectives and the study's human rights framework. Participants described multiple intersecting factors that impeded or facilitated access to health care. Services included both generic health services and impairment-specific services. Participants experienced a number of barriers accessing professionals, support programs, and services. These are described under three broad themes: 1) Labyrinthine health service 'systems,' 2) assumptions, attitudes, and discriminatory practices, and 3) inadequate sexual health or reproductive services and supports. The results suggest that Canada falls significantly short of guaranteeing disabled women's human rights to access health care supports and services. Access barriers resulted from the inefficiencies and complexities of the multiple agencies and programs that disabled women had to navigate, difficulties accessing information on available services, and negative attitudes of some health and social service providers. Copyright © 2012 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Akohoue, Sylvie A; Wallston, Kenneth A; Schlundt, David G; Rothman, Russell L
Patients with diabetes and of lower socioeconomic status have difficulty adhering to dietary recommendations. Practical and effective tools assessing self-management behaviors are needed to help evaluate interventions tailored to the needs of individual patients or population groups. This study examined the psychometric properties of a short 11-item version of the Personal Diabetes Questionnaire scale (PDQ-11) using data from the Public-Private Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education trial. Patients (n=411) with type 2 diabetes from ten safety net primary care clinics in the Mid-Cumberland Region of Tennessee completed the PDQ-11, the Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities (SDSCA), the Perceived Diabetes Self-Management Scale (PDSMS), and the Adherence to Refills and Medications Scale (ARMS). Statistical analyses were conducted to explore the subscale structure of the PDQ-11, and the internal consistency and validity of its subscales. Exploratory factor analysis of the PDQ-11 revealed four components (Cronbach's α=0.50 to 0.81): Eating Behavior Problems; Use of Information for Dietary Decision Making; Calorie Restriction; and Activity and Exercise. Eating Behavior Problems and Use of Information for Dietary Decision Making had the strongest associations with the diet subscales of the SDSCA and were also correlated with the PDSMS and the ARMS scores (all ps<0.001). Different PDQ-11 subscales were correlated with BMI (Calorie Restriction Activity and Exercise) and blood pressure (Eating Behavior Problems). The PDQ-11 is a useful measure of dietary behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes; its use may help providers tailor individual nutrition intervention strategies to patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Loveland, Katherine A.; And Others
Sixteen subjects with autism and 16 with Down Syndrome (aged 5 to 27), matched on verbal mental age, watched a short puppet show or video skit and were then asked to tell the story to a listener and answer follow-up questions. The majority of both groups were able to produce recognizable, though primitive, narratives. The groups did not differ in…
Discusses comparative analysis of spoken and written versions of a narrative to demonstrate that features which have been identified as characterizing oral discourse are also found in written discourse and that the written short story combines syntactic complexity expected in writing with features which create involvement expected in speaking.…
Bundgaard, Peer; Østergaard, Svend
This text has two parts. In the first section we intend to define the narrative schema—the canonical plot structure—as a symbolic form in Ernst Cassirer’s sense of the term. This basically implies that the narrative schema is not an invariant higher order combinatorial form, but may itself...... be subject to variations in view of yielding specific meaning effects. This is because the production and reception of a narrative is a dynamic process where physical forces, modal forces and intentions set up a space of possibilities for the narrative trajectory. We therefore propose a determination...... of the narrative schema in terms of “force dynamics.” In the next section we proceed to an analysis of Ernst Hemingway’s A Very Short Storyin order to illustrate this point. We lay down the main elements of its remarkable, if not simply outstanding both narrative and semantic-configurational structure: its plot...
Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two different teaching methods on students' comprehension during Physical Education lesson: narration versus animation with concurrent narration, during teaching shot put event. Thirty primary school children (boys and girls volunteered to participate in this study. In experiment students listened (narration and viewed (animation with narration the presentation of two shot putting styles. A problem-solving and a retention test were used to evaluate students' comprehension. Results showed that students' comprehension was better when shot putting styles were presented through a mixed model (animation and narration group than a single (narration. The animation with concurrent narration group performed better than the narration group, in problem-solving (M = 4.91, SD = 1.36 and in retention test (M = 5.98, SD = 1.28 t(28 = 1.89 p<0.01. An instructional implication is that pictures with words is more effective way of teaching when they occur continuingly in time, than only words during Physical Education lesson.
This article is a tribute to Michael White, co-founder of narrative therapy, who passed away on 5 April 2008. Michael White and David Epston founded a substantial and ground-breaking psychological movement based on narrative therapy. Michael touched with dignity and changed for the better the lives of thousands.
Dallos, Rudi; Vetere, Arlene
This article outlines an integration of attachment theory with narrative theory and systemic theory and practice: Attachment Narrative Therapy (ANT). This integration offers a more powerful explanatory formulation of the development and maintenance of human distress in relationships, families and communities, and gives direction to psychotherapeutic intervention. © The Author(s) 2014.
Ardiansyah Rizqi Andry
Full Text Available Many personal service robot is developed to help blind people in daily life, such as room cleaning, for navigating, object finding, reading and other activities. In this context, the present work focuses the development of an image-to-speech application for the blind. The project is called Design of An Electronic Narrator on Assistant Robot for Blind People, and the final purpose is the design of an electronic narrator application on personal service robot that helps to narrate a text on a book, magazine, a sheet of paper etc to a blind person. To achieve that, a Raspberry pi board, a light sensor, OpenCV computer vision library, Tesseract OCR (Optical Character Recognition library, eSpeak Text-to-Speech Synthesizer (TTS library are integrated, which is enables the blind person to hear a narration from text on a book, magazine, a sheet etc.
Pufall-Jones, Elizabeth; Mistry, Jayanthi
In this study, we investigated how individuals from diverse backgrounds learn to navigate the many worlds in which they live and explore how variations in life experiences are associated with aspects of navigating across cultures. We conducted the study using a phenomenological approach based on retrospective personal narratives from 19 young…
This narrative review summarizes current knowledge on adolescent gambling for the period 1990-2010, assesses adolescent gambling behavior and person and environment predictors, and suggests directions for future research. The review includes 99 studies that identified their subjects as adolescents, children, youth, and students, and discusses…
Davis, J.B.; White, M.D.; van Staveren, I.
This paper offers an account of how individuals act as agents when we employ a narrative approach to explaining their personal identities. It applies Korsgaard's idea of a "reflective structure of consciousness" to provide foundations for a richer account of the individual economic agent, and uses
This paper offers an account of how individuals act as agents when we employ a narrative approach to explaining their personal identities. It applies Korsgaard's idea of a "reflective structure of consciousness" to provide foundations for a richer account of the individual economic agent, and uses
Rockenbach, Alyssa Bryant; Bachenheimer, Aaron; Conley, Abigail Holland; Grays, Shaefny
Grounded in narrative inquiry, this study explored the ways in which graduate and undergraduate students representing different worldview identities come together in dyads to share stories that reflect their existential and spiritual development. The study revealed two contrasting types of exchange: (1) deep, personal exchanges that involved a…
Abdallah, Mahmoud Mohammad Sayed
The article suggests that though narrative inquiry as a research methodology entails free conversations and personal stories, yet it should not be totally free and fictional as it has to conform to some recognized standards used for conducting educational research. Hence, a qualitative study conducted by Russ (1999) was explored as an exemplar…
Bagley, Sylvia S.
This study focuses on data collected at "Progressive Secondary School" in Southern California, a high school which uses narrative evaluations and other forms of alternative summative assessment on a school wide basis. Through a survey and personal interviews, students were asked to describe what they liked most and least about the use of…
Papathomas, Anthony; Smith, Brett; Lavallee, David
Families are considered important in the management and treatment of eating disorders. Yet, rarely has research focused on family experiences of living with an eating disorder. Addressing this gap, this study explores the experiences of an elite 21-year-old triathlete with an eating disorder in conjunction with the experiences of her parents. Family members attended interviews individually on three separate occasions over the course of a year. In line with the narrative approach adopted, whereby stories are considered the primary means to construct experience, interviews encouraged storytelling through an open-ended, participant-led structure. Narrative analysis involved repeated readings of the transcripts, sensitising towards issues of narrative content (key themes) and structure (overarching plot). Family difficulties arose when personal experiences strayed from culturally dominant narrative forms and when family members held contrasting narrative preferences. Suggestions are forwarded as to how an appreciation of eating disorder illness narratives might inform treatment and support. © The Author(s) 2015.
This paper is a personal narrative from the perspective of one teacher in Toronto who participated in the Canada-China Reciprocal Learning in Teacher Education and School Education Partnership Grant Project.I took part in a Sister School partnership between 2013 and 2017.Over the four years,I came to understand relationships in an international professional learning community.Participating in the project gave me the benefit of seeing my practice through an international lens.For my students,it offered a global citizenship experience.Although there are numerous professional development opportunities in Toronto,this partnership extends beyond a lunch and learn,or a full day professional learning.The commitment to my partners has fueled my desire to incorporate new teaching ideas and has required ongoing reflection on my own teaching practice.In this article,I will explain some of the challenges,stages of development,reciprocal learning,and implications for future international professional learning communities.
Full Text Available The art of narrative stems from the art of rhetoric and modes of persuasion and in this meaning is understood not just as a form of entertainment but also as a tool of communication. Any narrative communicates and conveys a message. Narrative is an important aspect of culture and as a ubiquitous component of human communication is conveyed by different works of art (literature, music, painting, sculpture, and illustrates events, emotions, phenomena and occurrences. Narrative as a form of communication involves its participants, a teller and a receiver of the message. The relation and the distance between the participants of the narrative communication process may have a different configuration and presents different effect of closeness and distance in narrative. In this meaning narrative is not just the art of telling stories, but it serves various functions, it communicates information, expresses emotions and personal events, transmits morals and cultural knowledge, provides entertainment and also helps in many ways to depict thoughts and feelings, along with disclosing the beauty of language. Narrative knowledge and narrative perception of social and cultural processes, is one of the most natural ways for a human being to acquire and organize their knowledge about the world. The ability to create narratives leads to a better understanding of the surrounding reality, and significantly influences the interpretation of social and cultural relationships.
Christopher Key Chapple
Full Text Available This essay explores the mechanics associated with rebirth, noting differences between Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain narratives. It examines the concept of subtle body and the liṅgam in Sāṃkhya. According to the Hindu tradition, the remains of the departed person, when cremated, merge with clouds in the upper atmosphere. As the monsoon rain clouds gather, the leftovers mingle with the clouds, returning to earth and eventually finding new life in complex biological cycles. According to Tibetan and Chinese Buddhism, the remains of a person take a ghostly form for 49 days until taking a new birth. According to Jainism, the departed soul immediately travels to the new birth realm at the moment of death. According to Jain karma theory, in the last third of one’s life, a living being makes a fateful choice that determines his or her next embodiment. The 20th century Hindu Yoga teacher Paramahamsa Yogananda, in his commentary on the Bhagavad Gita, provides an alternate description of a twofold astral and causal body. One hallmark of the Buddha and of the 24 Jain Tīrthaṅkaras was that they remembered all the lives they had lived and the lessons learned in those lives. The Buddha recalled 550 past lives and used these memories to fuel many of his lectures. Mahāvīra remembered his past lives and also the past lives of others. Patañjali’s Yoga Sūtra states that through the perfection of giving up all things, including psychological attachments, one spontaneously will remember past lives. In the Yogavāsiṣṭha, a Hindu text, Puṇya remembers the past lives of his grieving brother as well as his own prior experiences.
Troy, Lisa M; Kietzman, Kathryn G
Academic researchers and clinicians have a critical role in shaping public policies to improve the health of an aging America. Policy narratives that pair personal stories with research statistics are a powerful tool to share knowledge generated in academic and clinical settings with policymakers. Effective policy narratives rely on a trustworthy and competent narrator and a compelling story that highlights the personal impact of policies under consideration and academic research that bolsters the story. Awareness of the cultural differences in the motivations, expectations, and institutional constraints of academic researchers and clinicians as information producers and U.S. Congress and federal agencies as information users is critical to the development of policy narratives that impact policy decisions. The current article describes the development and use of policy narratives to bridge cultures and enhance evidence-based public health policies that better meet the needs of older adults. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(6), 11-17.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
This paper considers how the integral theory model of Nancy Davis and Laurie Callihan might be enacted using a different qualitative methodology, in this case the narrative methodology. The focus of narrative research is shown to be on "what meaning is being made" rather than "what is happening here" (quadrant 2 rather than…
Bavelas, J B; Coates, L; Johnson, T
A collaborative theory of narrative story-telling was tested in two experiments that examined what listeners do and their effect on the narrator. In 63 unacquainted dyads (81 women and 45 men), a narrator told his or her own close-call story. The listeners made 2 different kinds of listener responses: Generic responses included nodding and vocalizations such as "mhm." Specific responses, such as wincing or exclaiming, were tightly connected to (and served to illustrate) what the narrator was saying at the moment. In experimental conditions that distracted listeners from the narrative content, listeners made fewer responses, especially specific ones, and the narrators also told their stories significantly less well, particularly at what should have been the dramatic ending. Thus, listeners were co-narrators both through their own specific responses, which helped illustrate the story, and in their apparent effect on the narrator's performance. The results demonstrate the importance of moment-by-moment collaboration in face-to-face dialogue.
Reese, Elaine; Fivush, Robyn; Merrill, Natalie; Wang, Qi; McAnally, Helena
Adolescents' intergenerational narratives--the stories they tell about their mothers' and fathers' early experiences--are an important component of their identities (Fivush & Merrill, 2016; Merrill & Fivush, 2016). This study explored adolescents' intergenerational narratives across cultures. Adolescents aged 12 to 21 from 3 cultural…
Narrative inquiry is gaining momentum in the field of nursing. As a research approach it does not have any single heritage of methodology and its practitioners draw upon diverse sources of influence. Central to all narrative inquiry however, is attention to the potential of stories to give meaning to people's lives, and the treatment of data as stories. This is the first of two papers on the topic and addresses the theoretical influences upon a particular narrative inquiry into nursing scholars and scholarship. The second paper, Conducting a narrative analysis, describes the actual narrative analysis as it was conducted in this same study. Together, the papers provide sufficient detail for others wishing to pursue a similar approach to do so, or to develop the ideas and procedures according to their own way of thinking. Within this first theoretical paper, perspectives from Jerome Bruner (1987) and Wade Roof (1993) are outlined. These relate especially to the notion of stories as 'imaginative constructions' and as 'cultural narratives' and as such, highlight the profound importance of stories as being individually and culturally meaningful. As well, perspectives on narrative inquiry from nursing literature are highlighted. Narrative inquiry in this instance lies within the broader context of phenomenology.
Bruni, Luis Emilio; Baceviciute, Sarune; Arief, Mohammed
In this article we explore some of the methodological problems related to characterizing cognitive aspects of involvement with interactive narratives using well known EEG/ERP techniques. To exemplify this, we construct an experimental EEG-ERP set-up with an interactive narrative that considers th...
Wilson, Andrew T. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pattengale, Nicholas D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forsythe, James C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carvey, Bradley John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
In cybersecurity forensics and incident response, the story of what has happened is the most important artifact yet the one least supported by tools and techniques. Existing tools focus on gathering and manipulating low-level data to allow an analyst to investigate exactly what happened on a host system or a network. Higher-level analysis is usually left to whatever ad hoc tools and techniques an individual may have developed. We discuss visual representations of narrative in the context of cybersecurity incidents with an eye toward multi-scale illustration of actions and actors. We envision that this representation could smoothly encompass individual packets on a wire at the lowest level and nation-state-level actors at the highest. We present progress to date, discuss the impact of technical risk on this project and highlight opportunities for future work.
de Beurs, E.; Rinne, T.; van Kampen, D.; Verheul, R.; Andrea, H.
The Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) appears to be a good choice for the assessment of personality pathology. However, due to its length, administration of the instrument is rather time-consuming, hindering standard inclusion of the DABB-BQ in a battery
de Beurs, E.; Rinne, T.; van Kampen, D.; Verheul, R.; Andrea, H.
The Dimensional Assessment of Personality Pathology-Basic Questionnaire (DAPP-BQ) appears to be a good choice for the assessment of personality pathology. However, due to its length, administration of the instrument is rather time-consuming, hindering standard inclusion of the DABB-BQ in a battery
Smulders, E.; Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Groen, B.E.; Duysens, J.E.J.; Eijsbouts, A.; Laan, R.F.J.M.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the Nijmegen Falls Prevention Program (NFPP) for persons with osteoporosis and a fall history in a randomized controlled trial. Persons with osteoporosis are at risk for fall-related fractures because of decreased bone strength. A decrease in the number of
Full Text Available This article describes the methodology and the outcomes of an empirical study of conflict narratives. The narratological analysis deployed narratological categories in the structuralist tradition based on Genette and was conducted with the help of the text annotation tool CATMA. The analysis aimed at covering as many narratological phenomena as possible by establishing 14 fields of narratological phenomena that were annotated in a corpus of 39 factual narratives about situations at the workplace with and without conflicts. The evaluation of approximately 28,000 annotations brought to light a series of interrelations between narratological phenomena and the presence or absence of conflicts in the narratives. Additionally, this approach led to the identification of some oversights of narrative theory by detecting hitherto unnoticed interrelations among narratological concepts.
Köber, Christin; Habermas, Tilmann
Although parents are acknowledged to be a part of their children's personality and narrative identity and to remain important across the life span, narrative personality research has not yet explored the spontaneous presentation of parents in life stories. Therefore, this study examined longitudinally the place given to parents when crafting one's life narrative and how this changes with age. Furthermore, in contrast to prior studies, we focused on spontaneous mentions of parents. We investigated how often parents are mentioned in life narratives of six age groups spanning from age 8 to 69, how the parental relationship is evaluated, whether narrators express understanding of their parents, and whether they respond to parental values. People of all ages dedicated a substantial part of their life narratives to their parents and evaluated their relationship with them in an increasingly differentiated manner. Parents were increasingly perceived as individuals beyond their parental nurturing role. Until late in life, individuals reflect on values and opinions that were transferred to them by their parents. Parents hold a consistent place in life narratives, emphasizing their importance for narrative identity. Results are discussed in terms of lifelong child-parent relationships. Directions for future research are outlined. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Short-term group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy for young adults with personality disorders and personality disorder features: Associations with changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes and coping styles
Renner, F.; van Goor, M.; Huibers, M.J.H.; Arntz, A.; Butz, B.; Bernstein, D.
The aim of this pilot study was to document the effects of a group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention (SCBT-g; van Vreeswijk & Broersen, 2006) on global symptomatic distress in young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features. We also sought to determine the
of a strong interactive focus, it remains fundamentally rooted in a Cartesian ontology, overlooking embodied, expressive, enactive and sociocultural dimensions of social cognition. Furthermore, since mentalization theory was originally developed as a framework for understanding Borderline Personality Disorder...
Full Text Available Biographical exhibitions are a museum practice that asks for critical consideration. Grounding the argument in critical theory, social studies and museum theory, the article explores the narrative function of objects in biographical exhibitions by addressing the social significance of objects in relation to biography and their relevance when presented into an exhibition display. Central is the concept of objects as ‘biographical relics’ that are culturally fetishized in biographical narratives. This raises questions about biographical reliability and the cultural role that such objects plays in exhibition narratives as bearers of reality and as metonymical icons of the biographical subject. The article considers examples of biographical exhibitions of diverse figures such as Gregor Mendel, Madame de Pompadour and Roland Barthes, and the role that personal items, but also portraits and photographs, play in them.
Avdi, Evrinomy; Georgaca, Eugenie
This paper is a review of studies which utilise the notion of narrative to analyse psychotherapy. Its purpose is to systematically present this diverse field of research, to highlight common themes and divergences between different strands and to further the development and integration of narrative research in psychotherapy. The paper reviews studies which employ an applied textual analysis of narratives produced in the context of psychotherapy. Criteria for inclusion of studies are, firstly, the analysis of therapeutic and therapy-related texts and, secondly, the adoption of a narrative psychological perspective. The studies were examined on the basis of the notion of narrative they employ and the aspects of client narratives they focus on, and were grouped accordingly in the review. The majority of the studies reviewed assume a constructivist approach to narrative, adopt a representational view of language, focus primarily on client micro-narratives and relate to cognitive-constructivist and process-experiential psychotherapeutic approaches. A smaller group of studies assume a social constructionist approach to narrative and a functional view of language, focus on micro-narratives, highlight the interactional and wider social aspects of narrative and relate to postmodern trends in psychotherapy. The range of conceptualisations of narrative in the studies reviewed, from a representational psychological view to a constructionist social view, reflects tensions within narrative psychology itself. Moreover, two trends can be discerned in the field reviewed, narrative analysis of therapy, which draws from narrative theory and utilises the analytic approaches of narrative research to study psychotherapy, and analyses of narrative in therapy, which study client narratives using non-narrative qualitative methods. Finally, the paper highlights the need for integration of this diverse field of research and urges for the development of narrative studies of psychotherapy
Full Text Available Counter-terrorist practitioners and policy makers appear to be very interested in narrative. They often describe the worldview of violent Islamist groups and movements as the ‘jihadi narrative’, while their efforts to confront terrorist propaganda are usually labelled as ‘counter-narrative’ or ‘alternative narrative’. However, while the counter-narrative approach has gained widespread acceptance in governments, think-tanks and civil society organisations, it is built on very shaky theoretical and empirical foundations. Some valuable theoretical contributions to the study of violent extremist narrative have been made by psychologists in particular, but there is one discipline which is conspicuous by its absence from the field: literary studies. This paper makes a case for the value of studying violent extremist narratives as narratives in the literary sense. By employing the tools and techniques of literary criticism, violent extremist communication can be revealed as not only potentially persuasive, but also creative and aesthetically appealing: terrorists inspire their followers, they don’t merely persuade them. Understanding the creative sources of this inspiration is vital if counter-narrative is to succeed in presenting an alternative to the propaganda of violent extremist groups.
This article analysed the different narratives implied in Philemon by utilising the narrative therapeutic approach, as developed by Epston and White (1990). A dominant narrative (the harsh treatment of slaves in the early Christian environment) and a challenging narrative (a more humane conduct of slaves) were clearly ...
DuBois, James M
Twelve personal narratives address the challenges, benefits, and pitfalls of genetic testing. Three commentary articles explore these stories and suggest lessons that can be learned from them. The commentators come from backgrounds that include bioethics, public health, psychology, and philosophy.
Jul 1, 2017 ... conservation narratives and resource conflicts and degradation in Zambia‟s .... protection without being subject to human competition and exploitation. ..... guard was retrenched as part of the SAP process leaving the reserve ...
Full Text Available Narrative journalism is a method to craft stories worth reading about real people. In this article, we explore the ability of that communicative power to produce insights complementary to those obtainable through traditional qualitative and quantitative research methods. With examples from a study of journalistic narrative as patient involvement in professional rehabilitation, interview data transcribed as stories are analyzed for qualities of heterogeneity, sensibility, transparency, and reflexivity. Building on sociological theories of thinking with stories, writing as inquiry, and public journalism as ethnography, we suggest that narrative journalism as a common practice might unfold dimensions of subjective otherness of the self. Aspiring to unite writing in both transparently confrontational and empathetically dialogic ways, the narrative journalistic method holds a potential to expose dynamics of power within the interview.
Cort, Pia; Thomsen, Rie
on flexicurity and its implications for labour market transitions, little attention has been paid to the views and experiences of the individuals concerned. The aim of this article is to connect the grand narrative with individual narratives about labour market transitions in the Danish flexicurity system....... On the basis of narrative interviews with skilled workers, this article explores how labour market transitions are experienced by the individual and the role played by national support structures in the individual narratives. The article shows how, for the individual, a transition may prove to be a valuable...... learning experience during which radical career decisions are taken, and how support structures may work to the detriment of such learning and of the principles behind flexicurity. The article points to a reconceptualisation of transitions as important learning opportunities during which (more) adequate...
Torubarov, F.S.; Chinkina, O.V.
Analysis of the results of clinicopsychological investigation of persons developing ARS (1-3 degree of severity) as a result of the Chernobyl accident has shown that 4-6 mos. after the exposure the psychic status and mental working ability of the affected persons showed close correlation with a degree of ARS. In 12-18 mos. profession and adequate employment played a decisive role in the formation of unfavorable psychic conditions and limited working ability. Later on in 2.5-3 years after exposure a decrease in psychic working ability, the development of unfavorable psychic conditions was noted more frequently in patients with ARS of more severe types and in examinees of older age. At all stages of rehabilitation personality traits of the affected persons play an important role in the revival of working abilities
Mayer, Richard E.; Fennell, Sherry; Farmer, Lindsay; Campbell, Julie
Students received a personalized or nonpersonalized version of a narrated animation explaining how the human respiratory system works. The narration for the nonpersonalized version was in formal style, whereas the narration for the personalized version was in conversational style in which "the" was changed to "your" in 12 places. In 3 experiments,…
Smulders, Ellen; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Groen, Brenda E; Duysens, Jacques; Eijsbouts, Agnes; Laan, Roland; van Lankveld, Wim
To evaluate the efficacy of the Nijmegen Falls Prevention Program (NFPP) for persons with osteoporosis and a fall history in a randomized controlled trial. Persons with osteoporosis are at risk for fall-related fractures because of decreased bone strength. A decrease in the number of falls therefore is expected to be particularly beneficial for these persons. Randomized controlled trial. Hospital. Persons with osteoporosis and a fall history (N=96; mean ± SD age, 71.0±4.7y; 90 women). After baseline assessment, participants were randomly assigned to the exercise (n=50; participated in the NFPP for persons with osteoporosis [5.5wk]) or control group (n=46; usual care). Primary outcome measure was fall rate, measured by using monthly fall calendars for 1 year. Secondary outcomes were balance confidence (Activity-specific Balance Confidence Scale), quality of life (QOL; Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis), and activity level (LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire, pedometer), assessed posttreatment subsequent to the program and after 1 year of follow-up. The fall rate in the exercise group was 39% lower than for the control group (.72 vs 1.18 falls/person-year; risk ratio, .61; 95% confidence interval, .40-.94). Balance confidence in the exercise group increased by 13.9% (P=.001). No group differences were observed in QOL and activity levels. The NFPP for persons with osteoporosis was effective in decreasing the number of falls and improving balance confidence. Therefore, it is a valuable new tool to improve mobility and independence of persons with osteoporosis. Copyright © 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allé, Mélissa C; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Köber, Christin; Schneider, Priscille; Coutelle, Romain; Habermas, Tilmann; Danion, Jean-Marie; Berna, Fabrice
Self-narratives of patients have received increasing interest in schizophrenia since they offer unique material to study patients' subjective experience related to their illness, in particular the alteration of self that accompanies schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the life narratives and the ability to integrate and bind memories of personal events into a coherent narrative in 27 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Four aspects of life narratives were analyzed: coherence with cultural concept of biography, temporal coherence, causal-motivational coherence and thematic coherence. Results showed that in patients cultural biographical knowledge is preserved, whereas temporal coherence is partially impaired. Furthermore, causal-motivational and thematic coherence are significantly impaired: patients have difficulties explaining how events have modeled their identity, and integrating different events along thematic lines. Impairment of global causal-motivational and thematic coherence was significantly correlated with patients' executive dysfunction, suggesting that cognitive impairment observed in patients could affect their ability to construct a coherent narrative of their life by binding important events to their self. This study provides new understanding of the cognitive deficits underlying self-disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest the potential usefulness of developing new therapeutic interventions to improve autobiographical reasoning skills.
llen Cristina Ricci
Full Text Available Introduction: This paper presents a narrative review of the literature on the everyday life of people diagnosed with the schizophrenia spectrum, from their narratives about the illness experience, published as articles in indexed journals. The narrative reviews start from broad issues with data sources and selection of articles that may contain some bias, seeking to develop a contextual and theoretical theme. Objective: The main objective is to indicate how narrative studies on the everyday life and experience of schizophrenia are presented in the national and international scenario; the most relevant authors; how the everyday life concept is described; type of studies performed and the possible contributions to the health/disease/care in mental health care process. Method: We sought the breadth of the researched material, appropriation, and organization of it. We reported the findings in quantitative terms on the subject to then present an overview of the selected papers. We aimed to know those who present the everyday life experienced by people diagnosed with schizophrenia. Results: Considering the seven databases used during this review, we selected 281 papers, 90% of them were international and just under one-third (82 papers report/describe and value their narrative in the first person about the illness experience. Conclusão: We discuss the relevance and responsibility of mental health research centered on the experience, the current sciences scenario, and the dialogues with singularities, and regarding the different experiences of illness in the Brazilian sociocultural context
In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?......In this article I present a narrative theory of games, building on standard narra-tology, as a solution to the conundrum that has haunted computer game studies from the start: How to approach software that combines games and stories?...
Krenzen, Anette Elisabeth
Rapporten er en del af kandidatspeciale, der empirisk undersøger børns narrative kompetencer i skolestarten på Egumsvejens skole i Fredericia samt tilknyttede børneinstitutioner.......Rapporten er en del af kandidatspeciale, der empirisk undersøger børns narrative kompetencer i skolestarten på Egumsvejens skole i Fredericia samt tilknyttede børneinstitutioner....
mechanisms associated with storytelling .2 This is in contrast to the actual use of narrative terminology used in U.S. military lexicon, which connotes a...A spoken or written account of connected events, a Story; (2) The narrated part of literary work, as distinct from dialogue; and (3) the practice or...difficult task as emotional scenes of violence and destruction move quickly from mobile phones to the news media.5 Although application of the story form
De Haene, L.; Dalgård, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, E.
J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.......J Trauma Stress. 2013 Jun;26(3):413-7. doi: 10.1002/jts.21820. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study....
Autobiographical reasoning is the activity of creating relations between different parts of one's past, present, and future life and one's personality and development. It embeds personal memories in a culturally, temporally, causally, and thematically coherent life story. Prototypical autobiographical arguments are presented. Culture and socializing interactions shape the development of autobiographical reasoning especially in late childhood and adolescence. Situated at the intersection of cognitive and narrative development and autobiographical memory, autobiographical reasoning contributes to the development of personality and identity, is instrumental in efforts to cope with life events, and helps to create a shared history. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., A Wiley Company.
Full Text Available The research work done by the author investigates a phenomenological field—the subjective experience of chronic illness and disability—by means of a specific research instrument, the autobiographical narrative interview. It focuses on the concept of narrative identity and its empirical substrate in the scientifically generated texts. Narrative identity is regarded as a situated, pragmatic, autoepistemic and interactive activity drawing on culturally transmitted narrative conventions which is performed within the research context. We have been working with a systematic analytic approach which covers interactive and contextual aspects of the interview situation as well as rhetoric and positioning strategies in the act of telling. Other research questions concern the concept of "narrative coping" and the comparison of partner's narratives on problems of illness and disability, especially on scrutinizing aspects of identity and alterity (self and other in the texts. This work can be understood as combining aspects of the research domains of narratology, identity and coping on the background of a qualitative methodology. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0002189
Unterrainer, Human-Friedrich; Kapfhammer, Hans-Peter
The Multidimensional Inventory for Religious/Spiritual Well-Being (MI-RSWB) was successfully applied in several clinical as well as non-clinical studies. However, the original version of the scale often showed to be as too comprehensive especially for clinical surroundings. There for the aim of this study is to develop a short version of the scale comprising 12 items. Based on a sample representative of the Austrian general population (N = 1,500), a first MI-RSWB short version is developed by means of factor- and reliability analysis. Furthermore the new short version of the scale is initially validated through several indicators of mental illness. The MI-RSWB short version shows convincing psychometric properties. The total scale as well as the sub scales exhibit at least a sufficient internal consistency. A significant negative association with several indicators of psychiatric illness is also confirmed for the short version of the scale. The MI-RWSB 12 scale is especially recommended for further research focusing on the clinical relevance of religiosity and spirituality.
Niederdeppe, Jeff; Shapiro, Michael A; Kim, Hye Kyung; Bartolo, Danielle; Porticella, Norman
Narrative messages have the potential to convey causal attribution information about complex social issues. This study examined attributions about obesity, an issue characterized by interrelated biological, behavioral, and environmental causes. Participants were randomly assigned to read one of three narratives emphasizing societal causes and solutions for obesity or an unrelated story that served as the control condition. The three narratives varied in the extent to which the character in the story acknowledged personal responsibility (high, moderate, and none) for controlling her weight. Stories that featured no acknowledgment and moderate acknowledgment of personal responsibility, while emphasizing environmental causes and solutions, were successful at increasing societal cause attributions about obesity and, among conservatives, increasing support for obesity-related policies relative to the control group. The extent to which respondents were able to make connections between individual and environmental causes of obesity (complex integration) mediated the relationship between the moderate acknowledgment condition and societal cause attributions. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of this work for narrative persuasion theory and health communication campaigns.
Miller-Day, Michelle; Hecht, Michael L.; Krieger, Janice L.; Pettigrew, Jonathan; Shin, YoungJu; Graham, John
Testing narrative engagement theory, this study examines student engagement and teachers’ spontaneous narratives told in a narrative-based drug prevention curriculum. The study describes the extent to which teachers share their own narratives in a narrative-based curriculum, identifies dominant narrative elements, forms and functions, and assesses the relationships among teacher narratives, overall lesson narrative quality, and student engagement. One hundred videotaped lessons of the keepin’ it REAL drug prevention curriculum were coded and the results supported the claim that increased narrative quality of a prevention lesson would be associated with increased student engagement. The quality of narrativity, however, varied widely. Implications of these results for narrative-based prevention interventions and narrative pedagogy are discussed. PMID:26690668
Neville, Stephen; Kushner, Bernie; Adams, Jeffery
Explore the coming out narratives in a group of older gay men. A narrative gerontological approach was employed to explore the coming out narratives of older gay men. Semi-structured digitally recorded individual interviews were undertaken with 12 gay men aged between 65 and 81 years who lived in the community. Data were analysed using a narrative data analytic process. Three collective narratives related to the coming out of older gay men were identified: 'early gay experiences', 'trying not to be gay' and 'acceptance'. Older gay men come from diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. However, they all grew up in an era where same-sex attraction was a criminal offence. The path to accepting being a gay man was individualised and stressful for these participants. Consequently health and social service providers need to support the ongoing development of resilience and provide a person-centred approach to care that promotes wellbeing. © 2015 AJA Inc.
Baddeley, Jenna; Singer, Jefferson A
Grief theories have converged on the idea that the sharing of autobiographical memory narratives of loss and of the deceased person, especially within the family, is a major way to maintain and/or reconfigure a healthy sense of identity after a loss. In contrast, we examine unspoken memory-the withholding of socially sharing autobiographical memories about the loss and the departed family member-as a way to either conserve an existing narrative identity or assert a new narrative identity. Depending on its context and function, silence about memory can play either a positive or negative role in an individual griever's ongoing narrative identity, as well as in the larger family narrative in which the griever's identity is embedded.
This study has explored the related teaching of "narrative creation" and "narrative reading". For this study, I hypothesized as follows. There is "the method of narrative" in "narrative creation" and "narrative reading" as a common element. By this related teaching that used "the method of narrative" as a common element, children’s ability of "narrative creation" and "narrative reading" will increase. As a result of this study, the following conclusions were obtained. Children surely make use...
Veglia, Fabio; Di Fini, Giulia
What makes unique and unrepeatable individuals is their ability to write their own story attributing meaning, sharing it through narration, giving coherence to the information related to the interpersonal motivational systems, and creating alternative hierarchies to those biologically provided by the genetic code. Through clinical narratives and narrative literature, we can observe the recurrence of specific topics, across time and different cultures. Hence, we wondered whether there are some evolutionary suggestions that guide us in the construction of the narrative-autobiographical contents. In this article we proposed a theoretical-clinical hypothesis about the existence of a biological disposition to identify as fundamental six Life Themes (LTs) that contribute to defining the image of the self and the world: Love, Personal Value, Power, Justice, Truth, and Freedom. Besides the innumerable narratives dependent upon context, there may be many ways of telling stories that, instead, would be reported to these few essential themes. A narrative review of the literature about these concepts follows the systematic explanation of the perspective about the LTs as attractors of meaning. The manuscript considers also the process of co-construction of meanings within the interpersonal relationships and the influences of these on the narratives. In particular, we focused on the importance of episodic and autobiographical memory related to the attachment and significant figures, in the construction of the personal story and the LTs. We also explained the possible clinical implications of the theoretical hypothesis of LTs. Within clinical conversations, the LTs could be expressed rigidly or, otherwise, in a confused way. The lack of narrative integration may lead to the dominance of chaos or rigidity that generates suffering. A better comprehension of the LTs in patients’ narrations could be useful to identify a narrative profile about the areas of greatest suffering
Arrindell, WA; Akkerman, A; Bages, N; Feldman, L; Caballo, VE; Oei, TPS; Torres, B; Canalda, G; Castro, J; Montgomery, I; Davis, M; Calvo, MG; Kenardy, JA; Palenzuela, DL; Richards, JC; Leong, CC; Simon, MA; Zaldivar, F
The short(s)-EMBU (Swedish acronym for Egna Minnen Betraffande Uppfostran [My memories of upbringing]) consists of 23 items, is based on the early 81-item EMBU, and was developed out of the necessity of having a brief measure of perceived parental rearing practices when the clinical and/or research
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on Clinical Personality Accentuations in individuals with alcohol use disorder. Twenty-five males were investigated using a pre-test/post-test design with a waiting-list control group. Participants were randomly assigned either to an experimental group (n = 13 receiving 12 sessions of neurofeedback twice a week as a treatment adjunct over a period of 6 weeks, or to a control group (n = 12 receiving treatment as usual. The Inventory of Clinical Personality Accentuations and the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory were applied at pre- and post-test. The neurofeedback protocol focused on enhancement of the EEG alpha (8–12 Hz and theta (4–7 Hz and used a visual feedback paradigm. Analyses of covariance showed improvements in Avoidant Personality Accentuation within the experimental group. Our data suggest that 12 sessions of this neurofeedback intervention might be effective in reducing avoidant and stress-related personality traits in patients with alcohol use disorder.
Dalkner, Nina; Unterrainer, Human F; Wood, Guilherme; Skliris, Dimitris; Holasek, Sandra J; Gruzelier, John H; Neuper, Christa
This study evaluated the effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on Clinical Personality Accentuations in individuals with alcohol use disorder. Twenty-five males were investigated using a pre-test/post-test design with a waiting-list control group. Participants were randomly assigned either to an experimental group ( n = 13) receiving 12 sessions of neurofeedback twice a week as a treatment adjunct over a period of 6 weeks, or to a control group ( n = 12) receiving treatment as usual. The Inventory of Clinical Personality Accentuations and the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory were applied at pre- and post-test. The neurofeedback protocol focused on enhancement of the EEG alpha (8-12 Hz) and theta (4-7 Hz) and used a visual feedback paradigm. Analyses of covariance showed improvements in Avoidant Personality Accentuation within the experimental group. Our data suggest that 12 sessions of this neurofeedback intervention might be effective in reducing avoidant and stress-related personality traits in patients with alcohol use disorder.
O'Brien, Mary R; Clark, David
Stories about illness have proven invaluable in helping health professionals understand illness experiences. Such narratives have traditionally been solicited by researchers through interviews and the collection of personal writings, including diaries. These approaches are, however, researcher driven; the impetus for the creation of the story comes from the researcher and not the narrator. In recent years there has been exponential growth in illness narratives created by individuals, of their own volition, and made available for others to read in print or as Internet accounts. We sought to determine whether it was possible to identify such material for use as research data to explore the subject of living with the terminal illness amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease--the contention being that these accounts are narrator driven and therefore focus on issues of greatest importance to the affected person. We encountered and sought to overcome a number of methodological and ethical challenges, which is our focus here.
Lysaker, Paul H; Wickett, Amanda M; Wilke, Neil; Lysaker, John
It is widely known that people with schizophrenia have difficulty telling a coherent story of their lives and that this is linked to impoverished function. But what specifically has gone wrong in the narratives in schizophrenia? Is it the case that some elements of narrative remain intact in schizophrenia while others are uniquely affected? To address these questions, we qualitatively analyze the personal narratives of three persons with schizophrenia, which have emerged in psychotherapy. Based on this analysis we suggest that narratives in schizophrenia uniquely fail to situate agency within the narrator resulting in a story that is missing an agent-protagonist. While the narratives we present contain coherent accounts of how others are connected to one another, they fail to evolve into a story about the self as an agent that others could associate with the narrator. We speculate that this may reflect neuro-cognitively based difficulties maintaining the internal dialogue that propels agency as well as fears that any emergent subjectivity may be appropriated or objectified by others. Implications for psychotherapy are discussed.
Manners, Ian James; Murray, Philomena
the construction and application of an analytical framework drawing on different theoretical perspectives. This framework is then applied to six European integration narratives to demonstrate the value of a narrative approach. The article concludes that narrative analysis provides a means of understanding both EU......, the Nobel Prize and the search for a ‘new narrative for Europe’ demonstrate that the processes of European integration are always narrated as sense-making activities – stories people tell to make sense of their reality. This article argues in favour of a narrative approach to European integration through...
Haase, Niels; Betsch, Cornelia; Renkewitz, Frank
Immunization rates are below the Global Immunization Vision and Strategy established by the World Health Organization. One reason for this are anti-vaccination activists, who use the Internet to disseminate their agenda, frequently by publishing narrative reports about alleged vaccine adverse events. In health communication, the use of narrative information has been shown to be effectively persuasive. Furthermore, persuasion research indicates that the credibility of an information source may serve as a cue to discount or augment the communicated message. Thus, the present study investigated the effect of source credibility on the biasing effect of narrative information regarding the perception of vaccination risks. 265 participants were provided with statistical information (20%) regarding the occurrence of vaccine adverse events after vaccination against a fictitious disease. This was followed by 20 personalized narratives from an online forum on vaccination experiences. The authors varied the relative frequency of narratives reporting vaccine adverse events (35% vs. 85%), narrative source credibility (anti-vaccination website vs. neutral health forum), and the credibility of the statistical information (reliable data vs. unreliable data vs. control) in a between-subjects design. Results showed a stable narrative bias on risk perception that was not affected by credibility cues. However, narratives from an anti-vaccination website generally led to lower perceptions of vaccination risks.
Narratives are being increasingly used in nursing and action research. In this participatory action research study, nurse leaders of an acute care of the older person unit collectively, critically and creatively reflected on lived experiences in order to explore the concept of person-centred leadership within their own practice. This paper…
Full Text Available Lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in males for decades, has recently become one of commonest causes for women too. As women delay the start of their family, the co-existence of cancer and pregnancy is increasingly observed. Nevertheless, lung cancer during pregnancy remains a rather uncommon condition with less than 70 cases published in recent years. Non-small cell lung carcinoma is the commonest type accounting for about 85% of all cases. Overall survival rates are low. Chemotherapy and/or targeted treatment have been used with poor outcomes. The disease has been also found to affect the products of conception with no short- or long-term consequences for the neonate. This article is referring to a narrative review of lung cancers diagnosed in pregnant women around the world.
Gustafsson, S.; Wilhelmson, K.; Eklund, K.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the outcomes of the Elderly Persons in the Risk Zone study, which was designed to evaluate whether it is possible to delay deterioration if a health-promoting intervention is made when an older adult (>= 80) is at risk of becoming frail and whether a multiprofessional group...
provide a coherent interpretation that fits selected events into the plot of the overall narrative.33 2. Narrative and Personal Identity The concept of...situation, like ordering food at a restaurant . The transaction goes smoothly because both the waiter and the customer know their part in the script...Identity is not some inner essence but rather an ongoing story that emerges in and through the selection and emplotment of experience. Individuals
Spawforth, Callum; Millard, David
Interactive Digital Storytelling (IDS) is an increasingly popular field, with a number of novel systems emerging in the last few years. However, these systems have typically focused on narratives involving only a single person. In contrast, multiplayer video games are a common and popular form of entertainment. In this paper we ask whether the way in which these works might inspire a new generation of multi-player narratives. In particular we look at the multiplayer video game "Dark Souls" an...
and Movements,‖ The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 619, no. 1 (2008): 78–96. 6 communication through storytelling is...Fisher claims that humans communicate through storytelling , and that they make sense of their experiences through personal narratives. Fisher‘s claim...EQUIPMENT LIST ACCORDING TO PRIMARY FUNCTION OF SHOOT, MOVE, COMMUNICATE , AND SURVIVE ACCORDING TO FIELD MANUAL 7-21.13, THE SOLDIER’S GUIDE
Full Text Available In this paper we analyse the narrative control mechanisms which generate coherence in the elaboration of personal stories presented by professional individuals working under flexible employment conditions. We also examine how these personal stories function to articulate constructions of self in relation to attributes demanded by the conditions associated with patterns of flexible working. A discourse analysis of 32 job interviews with male and female young adult professionals in flexible employment in Chile was undertaken. One of the main aspects of the narratives is a general tendency to present oneself as a successful and enterprising individual. However, the coherence of the image constructed in the account tends to show certain fissures that may refute that constitution. When the narrator realizes the latter, he/she quickly tries to repair the account in order to maintain this coherence. Focusing our attention on this narrative coherence mechanism, and drawing on BAKHTIN's dialogical theory and discursive psychology, we demonstrate how these self narrative constructions involve certain control practices that connect the different forms people use to refer to themselves with the governmental strategies of contemporary societies. Through this analysis we intend to contribute to current discussions of how to empirically deal with the complex relation observed among narrative, identity and social organization. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0902292
Brandon Richard Ro
Full Text Available This study a identifies how people describe, characterize, and communicate in written form Extraordinary Architectural Experiences (EAE, and b expands the traditional qualitative approach to architectural phenomenology by demonstrating a quantitative method to analyze written narratives. Specifically, this study reports on the content analysis of 718 personal accounts of EAEs. Using a deductive, ‘theory-driven’ approach, these narratives were read, coded, and statistically analyzed to identify storyline structure, convincing power, and the relationship between subjective and objective experiential qualities used in the story-telling process. Statistical intercoder agreement tests were conducted to verify the reliability of the interpretations to approach the hard problem of “extraordinary aesthetics” in architecture empirically. The results of this study confirm the aesthetic nature of EAE narratives (and of told experiences by showing their higher dependence on external objective content (e.g., a building’s features and location rather than its internal subjective counterpart (e.g., emotions and sensations, which makes them more outwardly focused. The strong interrelationships and intercoder agreement between the thematic realms provide a unique aesthetic construct revealing EAE narratives as memorable, embodied, emotional events mapped by the externally focused content of place, social setting, time, and building features. A majority of EAE narratives were found to possess plot-structure along with significant relationships to objective-subjective content that further grounded their storylines. This study concludes that content analysis provides not only a valid method to understand written narratives about extraordinary architectural experiences quantitatively, but also a view as to how to map the unique nature of aesthetic phenomenology empirically.
Bond, Jennifer Lauren
Purpose: This work investigated the narratives of development extensionists in relation to natural resource conflict, in order to understand the competing discourses surrounding the wicked problems of natural resource management in Laikipia County, Kenya. Methodology: Q methodology was used...... to elicit the conflict narratives present among extension professionals. A concourse of 221 statements were devised from interviews and group discussions with key informants and a final sample of 49 statements was used for the sorting. Thirteen Q-sorts were undertaken with among rural extension...... professionals from government, non-government, faith-based and private organizations. Findings: Four factors were elicited from the data, labelled—A: ‘Improved Leadership’; B: ‘Resource-centred conflict’; C: ‘Improved Governance’; and D: ‘Improved Management’. Practical Implications: Narratives of neo...
Conlan, Owen; Staikopoulos, Athanasios; Hampson, Cormac; Lawless, Séamus; O'keeffe, Ian
This article describes the narrative approach to personalisation. This novel approach to the generation of personalised adaptive hypermedia experiences employs runtime reconciliation between a personalisation strategy and a number of contextual models (e.g. user and domain). The approach also advocates the late binding of suitable content and services to the generated personalised pathway resulting in an interactive composition that comprises services as well as content. This article provides a detailed definition of the narrative approach to personalisation and showcases the approach through the examination of two use-cases: the personalised digital educational games developed by the ELEKTRA and 80Days projects; and the personalised learning activities realised as part of the AMAS project. These use-cases highlight the general applicability of the narrative approach and how it has been applied to create a diverse range of real-world systems.
Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch
Full Text Available The goal of this article is to introduce activity systems as a methodological tool in narrative inquiry to gain a holistic understanding of socially shared experiences from an examination of documents. The research question was how can qualitative researchers use activity systems as a tool for engaging in narrative inquiry of socially shared experiences to uncover new meanings by constructing a story? In this article, we share a sample analysis of our experience relying on documents and media as a form of narrative to begin to understand the socially shared human activity associated with net neutrality and its potential impact on U.S. residents. We end this article with reflections of lessons learned from our activity systems guided story construction process.
Alex P. Schmid
Full Text Available In this Research Paper, Research Fellow Dr. Alex Schmid dissects the nature of Al Qaeda’s propaganda strategy by looking how it incorporates in its ideological narrative Islam’s sacred texts and traditions and how it manages to link these to widespread contemporary grievances in the Muslim world. Al Qaeda’s survival is tied to the credibility of its narrative “story” rather than the physical survival of its leadership. The Research Paper discusses mainly American and British efforts to challenge the integrative (hence: “single” narrative of Al Qaeda. Current counter-narratives often fall short of reaching objectives due to a lack of credibility – a result of the gap between official Western declaratory policies and actual policies on the ground. Efforts to sell “hearts and minds” products often floundered on policies that lack legitimacy or stood in stark contrast to professed values like adherence to human rights standards, thereby creating perceptions of double standards and hypocrisy. While Al Qaeda’s policies exhibit similar, and in some areas even greater, discrepancies between what is being said and what is being done, these have not been fully exploited. Following the discussion of governmental efforts to counter Al Qaeda’s narrative, findings and suggestions from academia, think tanks, religious scholars and others trying to counter Al Qaeda’s narrative are presented. While it is generally true that counter-narrative work is still in its infancy, the survey of various proposals and programs makes clear that important building blocks for a more creative effort of countering the ideological attraction of Al Qaeda exist. One of the problems with counter-narratives is their defensive and reactive nature and their focus on packaging messages. This paper emphasises the importance of crafting and spreading an alternative narrative. While counter-narratives have to aim at discrediting the exclusive narrative of Al Qaeda
Dalkner, Nina; Unterrainer, Human F.; Wood, Guilherme; Skliris, Dimitris; Holasek, Sandra J.; Gruzelier, John H.; Neuper, Christa
This study evaluated the effects of alpha/theta neurofeedback on Clinical Personality Accentuations in individuals with alcohol use disorder. Twenty-five males were investigated using a pre-test/post-test design with a waiting-list control group. Participants were randomly assigned either to an experimental group (n = 13) receiving 12 sessions of neurofeedback twice a week as a treatment adjunct over a period of 6 weeks, or to a control group (n = 12) receiving treatment as usual. The Invento...
McLean, Kate C; Lilgendahl, Jennifer P; Fordham, Chelsea; Alpert, Elizabeth; Marsden, Emma; Szymanowski, Kathryn; McAdams, Dan P
The great majority of research on identity and personality development has focused on individual processes of development, to the relative neglect of the cultural context of development. We employ a recently articulated framework for the examination of identity development in context, centered on the construct of master narratives, or culturally shared stories. Across four studies, we asked emerging and midlife adults (N = 512) to narrate personal experiences of deviations from these master narratives. Across three quantitative studies, we show that (a) those who elaborated their deviation experiences were more likely to be in structurally marginalized positions in society (e.g., ethnic or sexual minorities); (b) those who elaborated an empowering alternative to the master narrative were more likely to be engaged in identity processes; and (c) master narratives maintain their rigidity by the frequency of their use. In study 4, using qualitative analyses, we illustrate the rigidity of master narratives, as well as the degree to which they take shape in social and group experiences. These studies emphasize the importance of cultural context in considering personality and identity development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Narrative pedagogy is an approach to midwifery education which can promote strategies for teaching and learning which effectively prepare graduates for the complex nature of midwifery practice. Knowledge and skills are fundamental to midwifery practice, but knowing about how to use them is the art of practice. Teaching and learning midwifery skills and competencies is straight forward in comparison to teaching and learning about the art of midwifery, yet both are essential for safe practice. Narrative pedagogy may be one way that enhances undergraduate midwifery students' learning about the art of practice.
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN ... This paper argues that the Setswana storytelling session is a highly participatory event. The paper ... Keywords: performance, storytelling, narrator, audience, narrative, Setswana ...
Deconstruction of conservative cinematic narratives on women's identity: an urging ... of regular but infamous dictates of culture and gender themes in film narratives. ... film criticism, women filmmakers, manipulation, Stereotype, deconstruction ...
Azmitia, Margarita; Ittel, Angela; Radmacher, Kimberley
Gender and self-esteem provide lenses through which early and late adolescents construct their narratives of ideal and actual friendships. These narratives provide a unique window into the dynamics of adolescents' friendships during school transitions.
Lammers, J.; Proulx, T.
Two experiments show that writing chronological autobiographical narratives increases political conservatism, defined as an ideology of resistance to social change. When writing chronological autobiographical narratives, we hypothesized that people would re-experience the events of their life in a
Vogel, T; Leprêtre, P-M; Brechat, P-H; Lonsdorfer, E; Benetos, A; Kaltenbach, G; Lonsdorfer, J
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of a short-term Intermittent Work Exercise Program (IWEP) among healthy elderly subjects. This longitudinal prospective study took place at the Strasbourg University Hospital geriatric department. One hundred and fifty older volunteers, previously determined as being free from cardiac and pulmonary disease, were separated into two age groups: the "young senior" (60.2 ± 3.1 yr) and the "older senior" groups (70.8 ± 5.2 yr). These groups were then subdivided by gender into the "young female senior", "young male senior" "older female senior" and "older male senior" groups. Before and after the IWEP, all subjects were asked to perform an incremental cycle exercise to obtain their first ventilatory threshold (VT1), maximal tolerated power (MTP), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and maximal minute ventilation (MMV). The IWEP consisted of a 30-min cycling exercise which took place twice a week, and was divided into six 5-min stages consisting of 4 min at VT1 intensity and 1 min at 90% MTP. An assessment was made of the effects of the IWEP on maximal cardio-respiratory function (MTP, VO2peak, MMV) and endurance parameters (VT1, heart rate [HR] measured at pretraining VT1 and lactate concentrations at pre-training MTP). This short-term training program resulted in a significant increase of MTP (from 13.2% to 20.6%), VO2peak (from 8.9% to 16.6%) and MMV (from 11.1% to 21.8%) in all groups (pseniors" were not significantly different (p>0.05) from the "young seniors" pre-training values for the same parameters. The most striking finding in this study is that after only 9 weeks, our short-term "individually-tailored" IWEP significantly improved both maximal cardio-respiratory function and endurance parameters in healthy, previously untrained seniors.
Kim, Young-Suk Grace
Purpose: The primary aim of the present study was to examine whether different ways of presenting narrative stimuli (i.e., live narrative stimuli versus audio-recorded narrative stimuli) influence children's performances on narrative comprehension and oral-retell quality. Method: Children in kindergarten (n = 54), second grade (n = 74), and fourth…
Mages, Wendy K.
This article proposes a cognitive theory of how drama affects two aspects of language development: narrative comprehension and narrative production. It is a theoretical model that explicitly posits the role of the imagination in drama's potential to enhance the development of both narrative comprehension and narrative production. (Contains 2…
Angus, Lynne E; Boritz, Tali; Bryntwick, Emily; Carpenter, Naomi; Macaulay, Christianne; Khattra, Jasmine
Recent studies suggest that it is not simply the expression of emotion or emotional arousal in session that is important, but rather it is the reflective processing of emergent, adaptive emotions, arising in the context of personal storytelling and/or Emotion-Focused Therapy (EFT) interventions, that is associated with change. To enhance narrative-emotion integration specifically in EFT, Angus and Greenberg originally identified a set of eight clinically derived narrative-emotion integration markers were originally identified for the implementation of process-guiding therapeutic responses. Further evaluation and testing by the Angus Narrative-Emotion Marker Lab resulted in the identification of 10 empirically validated Narrative-Emotion Process (N-EP) markers that are included in the Narrative-Emotion Process Coding System Version 2.0 (NEPCS 2.0). Based on empirical research findings, individual markers are clustered into Problem (e.g., stuckness in repetitive story patterns, over-controlled or dysregulated emotion, lack of reflectivity), Transition (e.g., reflective, access to adaptive emotions and new emotional plotlines, heightened narrative and emotion integration), and Change (e.g., new story outcomes and self-narrative discovery, and co-construction and re-conceptualization) subgroups. To date, research using the NEPCS 2.0 has investigated the proportion and pattern of narrative-emotion markers in Emotion-Focused, Client-Centered, and Cognitive Therapy for Major Depression, Motivational Interviewing plus Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder, and EFT for Complex Trauma. Results have consistently identified significantly higher proportions of N-EP Transition and Change markers, and productive shifts, in mid- and late phase sessions, for clients who achieved recovery by treatment termination. Recovery is consistently associated with client storytelling that is emotionally engaged, reflective, and evidencing new story outcomes and self-narrative
Mohsen Mohammadi fesharaki
structure, he doesnât have to notice all capacities of the word. One of them is visual function and the other is word's phonetic capacity. The advantage that a poet can take from word's sound and form of writing to increase the dramatic richness of Ghazal in the story is by no means available. Â Differences between narrative Ghazal and cinematic narrative Â 1- From the viewpoint of power of play, perhaps the major advantage the literature has over films is that a poem does not need any facilities except words to make up atmosphere and design the scene. This advantage makes poetry capable to image surreal spaces that film can not show . Â 2- In Ghazal, just the special signs that poet wanted is conveyed to the audience namely the author's control is more. So whenever he wants, makes the audience to focus his attention on the text or, on the contrary, divert attention away from. Â Similarities between narrative Ghazal and cinematic narrative Â 1- Sometimes, sense and experience that the sequence of short words and phrases of Ghazal suggest to audience is the same as experience the serial of film shots convey. Â 2- The reader of story - even a short storyâ has opportunity as well as possibility to read and review each part of the story he prefers , but the movie spectator does not . Considering this, Ghazal is closer to cinema than story. Because, Ghazal is a poem to be read rather than listened , and due to the brevity prevailing over the space of poetry and Ghazal's structural limitations, poet has little opportunity to convey a sense and to present an artistic experience . Â 3-Today poetry uses the pattern of stanza in its formal system , like plan and shot employed in cinema. This more than verse and hemistich shows temporal and spatial distances , events and sections in the vertical axis of poetry. Such a way that each stanza expresses one temporal and spatial feature of the detached narration , whereas the sections and
Recognizing clinical medicine as a narrative undertaking fortified by learnable skills in understanding stories has helped doctors and teachers to face otherwise vexing problems in medical practice and education in the areas of professionalism, medical interviewing, reflective practice, patient-centered care, and self-awareness. The emerging practices of narrative medicine give clinicians fresh methods with which to make contact with patients and to come to understand their points of view. This essay provides a brief review of narrative theory regarding the structure of stories, suggesting that clinical texts contain and can reveal information in excess of their plots. Through close reading of the form and content of two clinical texts—an excerpt from a medical chart and a portion of an audio-taped interview with a medical student—and a reflection on a short section of a modernist novel, the author suggests ways to expand conventional medical routines of recognizing the meanings of patients' situations. The contributions of close reading and reflective writing to clinical practice may occur by increasing the capacities to perceive and then to represent the perceived, thereby making available to a writer that which otherwise might remain out of awareness. A clinical case is given to exemplify the consequences in practices of adopting the methods of narrative medicine. A metaphor of the activated cellular membrane is proposed as a figure for the effective clinician/patient contact. PMID:22373630
Arthur W. Frank
Full Text Available Narrative analysis is presented as continuous with personal storytelling in the work of remoralizing what Weber identified as disenchanted modernity. Critics of contemporary storytelling seem to misunderstand what kind of authenticity of self is expressed in stories. Against those whom Charles Taylor calls “knockers” of the idea of personal authenticity, this article affirms authenticity, but in terms that are dialogical: authenticity is created in the process of storytelling, it is not a precondition of the telling, and authenticity remains in process. This authenticity is shown to have an affinity with democratic politics, in contrast to the neo-liberal affinity of the knocker position.
Kalish, Yuval; Luria, Gil
Research into leadership emergence typically focuses on the attributes of the emergent leader. By considering also the attributes of perceivers and the passage of time, we develop a more complete theory of leadership emergence in short-lived groups. Using expectation states theory as an overarching theoretical framework, and integrating it with the surface- and deep-level diversity literature and with theories of self-serving biases, we examine the predictors of leadership emergence in short timeframes. We conduct a field study in a military assessment boot camp (a pilot study, n = 60; and a main study, n = 89). We use cross-sectional and longitudinal exponential random graph models to analyze data on participants' abilities and on their perceptions of who, in their respective groups, were "leaders." We find that the criteria by which people perceive leadership in others change over time, from easily noticeable attributes to covert leadership-relevant attributes, and that people also rely on leadership-relevant attributes that they possess at high levels to inform their perceptions of leadership in others. The integration of expectation states theory, attribute salience over time and theories of self-serving bias is needed for a full understanding of leadership emergence in groups, because perceivers' own abilities are instrumental in shaping their perceptions of emergent leadership over time. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Fivush, Robyn; Bohanek, Jennifer G.; Zaman, Widaad; Grapin, Sally
In this study, the authors examined gender differences in narratives of positive and negative life experiences during middle adolescence, a critical period for the development of identity and a life narrative (Habermas & Bluck, 2000; McAdams, 2001). Examining a wider variety of narrative meaning-making devices than previous research, they found…
Nafziger, Jacinta; DeKruyf, Lorraine
This article introduces narrative counseling concepts and techniques for professional school counselors. The authors provide a case study of narrative school counseling with an elementary student struggling with selective mutism. Examples also demonstrate how a narrative approach could be used at elementary, middle, and high school levels within…
In this paper, I give an account of the ways in which narratives and identities change over space and time. I give an account of a mobile and changing human subject, one who does not simply express or represent her- or himself through narrative, but is constructed and reconstructed through narrative. I draw on Paul Ricoeur's concepts of "narrative…
available to him, but it is interrupted by yet another unforeseen event: an earthquake which buries him alive in the sotterraneo where he lives. The story, and with it, the manuscript Tommaso has been composing, ends with the death of the narrator: a triple ending, where writing, narration and narrato coincide. The narrator is ...
Full Text Available The use of Evidence Based Medicine (EBM has progressively lead doctors to focus their practice on the disease and not on the patient anymore. They consider a sick body or a sick part rather than a sick person. Such an attitude results in a progressive process of alienation or “unauthentic experience”. On the contrary the Medical Humanities represents a strong reaction to this state of things, and for Medicine a chance to embrace again its humanistic “vocation”. Narrative Based Medicine (NBM places at the center of the clinical practice the communicative and relational dimension. This study deepen the application of NBM to the scope of neonatal care. As a result of our work, we have identified in the NBM applied to the neonatal area a fundamental characteristic, the Neonatal Triangle (doctors, patient, parents, and a triple functionality (diagnostic, ethical and educational placed in three different ideal chronological moments (before, during and after. We explore the close connection between these functions and the clinical work and how the NBM model, through these same functions, enhance the opportunity of care and relationship. The main assumption is obviously the Doctors ability to build a shared narrative relation with the Parents of the little Patients, that in the technical terms of the Narrative Based Medicine is called co-construction of the illness history. We can remark that with the NBM we understand (the narrative frame, build (the therapeutic alliance and share (decisions.
Vladimir D. Denisov
Full Text Available The article presents the characteristics of personal names from four Gogol’s stories of the series “Mirgorod” (1835. It is based on the interpretation of common Slavic Christian names in their Ukrainian and Russian versions according to the word books and a list of “names given at the time of baptism” contained in the “Book of sundries” by young Gogol. The research leads to the conclusion that a system of male and female names in each story reflects the views of the author on the nature and types of his heroes, on their society and era, as well as on their relationship with biblical, ancient and medieval times, with nature around them. Giving a name to his character, the author took into account the phonetic and semantic structure of the anthroponym, its direct and connotative meanings (as well as contradictions between them, its semantic ties, popularity, belonging to a specific social category and/or a personality type, a historical or mythological character.
Principles of a mobile gps-enabled gis acting as a tourist information system are discussed and exemplified with special focus on the narrative aspects of tourist guidance. Flexible adaptation to user movements is accomplished by providing information about objects that the user passes as well...
This essay reconsiders the importance of performativity to scholarship on life writing by exploring the potential of Eve Sedgwick's concept of the periper-formative utterance for reading queer life narratives. Taking the documentary Tarnation (2003) as an example, I argue that a range of life
The book welcomes proposals for chapter contributions on a wide array of topics related to the narratological notion of counter-narratives. By way of example, the topic has hitherto been treated by disciplines and subjects such as literature studies, organization studies, corporate communication...
Rowlinson, Michael; Casey, Andrea; Hansen, Per H.
Organizations remember through narratives and storytelling. The articles in this Special Issue explore the interface between organization studies, memory studies, and historiography. They focus on the practices for organizational remembering. Taken together, the articles explore the similarities...... and differences between ethnographic and historical methods for studying memory in organizations, which represents a contribution to the historic turn in organization studies....
The conception of the good life in theoretical texts and adult learners' written narratives depicts well-being in terms of aesthetic experiences, values, existential experiences, autonomy, and significant others. Future prospects for adult education as legislative practice, as therapy and as commitment are derived from the discussion. (SK)
Daugbjerg, Peer Schrøder
The neoliberal restructuring of the welfare state has changed the conditions for teacher practice. Teachers’ narratives have been collected in the western part of Denmark. They give insight in teacher practice and how teachers’ conditions for working have changed. 3 themes are discussed to illust...
Guillemin, Marilys; Gillam, Lynn
Clinical care is laden with emotions, from the perspectives of both clinicians and patients. It is important that emotions are addressed in health professions curricula to ensure that clinicians are humane healers as well as technical experts. Emotions have a valuable and generative role in health professional ethics education.The authors have previously described a narrative ethics pedagogy, the aim of which is to develop ethical mindfulness. Ethical mindfulness is a state of being that acknowledges everyday ethics and ethically important moments as significant in clinical care, with the aim of enabling ethical clinical practice. Using a sample narrative, the authors extend this concept to examine five features of ethical mindfulness as they relate to emotions: (1) being sensitized to emotions in everyday practice, (2) acknowledging and understanding the ways in which emotions are significant in practice, (3) being able to articulate the emotions at play during ethically important moments, (4) being reflexive and acknowledging both the generative aspects and the limitations of emotions, and (5) being courageous.The process of writing and engaging with narratives can lead to ethical mindfulness, including the capacity to understand and work with emotions. Strategies for productively incorporating emotions in narrative ethics teaching are described. This can be a challenging domain within medical education for both educators and health care students and thus needs to be addressed sensitively and responsibly. The potential benefit of educating health professionals in a way which addresses emotionality in an ethical framework makes the challenges worthwhile.
Bodei, Chiara; Buchholtz, Mikael; Degano, Pierpablo
We perform a systematic expansion of protocol narrations into terms of a process algebra in order to make precise some of the detailed checks that need to be made in a protocol. We then apply static analysis technology to develop an automatic validation procedure for protocols. Finally, we...
Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth
Den følgende tekst består af to dele. Begge dele omhandler workshoppen The Making of London Narratives, der var et undervisningsforløb for 52 studerende fra Arkitektskolen Aarhus og School of Architecture and the Visual Arts University of East London. I den første del perspektiveres workshoppens...
Waldomiro José da Silva Filho
Full Text Available Este texto investiga algumas dificuldades que o Externalismo Semântico apresenta para a idéia de “autoconhecimento” e “autoridade da primeira pessoa”. Defendo que essas dificuldades nascem, principalmente, do fato de que os argumentos externalistas, frequentemente, recorrem a experimentos mentais construídos na perspectiva de um narrador onisciente. Creio que “autoconhecimento” e “autoridade da primeira pessoa” devem ser pensados não do ponto de vista da epistemologia, mas das nossas capacidades práticas ordinárias de avaliarmos, ponderarmos, criticarmos, julgarmos nossos pensamentos, atitudes e ações, principalmente quando queremos dar uma prova, planejar algo, conversar com outras pessoas, justificar, explicar, enfim, quando queremos oferecer razões.This text investigates some difficulties that Semantic Externalism presents for the idea of “self-knowledge” and “first person authority”. I would like to defend that those difficulties originate mainly from the fact that externalist arguments often fall back on mental experiments construed in the perspective of an omniscient narrator. I believe that “self-knowledge” and “first person authority” should be thought of not from the viewpoint of epistemology, but our normal practical capacities to evaluate, ponder, criticize, judge our thoughts, attitudes and actions, especially when we want to give proof, plan something, talk with other people, justify, explain, in short, when we want to offer reasons.
Short-term intensive psychodynamic group therapy versus cognitive-behavioral group therapy in day treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Suszek, Hubert; Holas, Paweł; Wyrzykowski, Tomasz; Lorentzen, Steinar; Kokoszka, Andrzej
Psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral group therapies are frequently applied in day hospitals for the treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive or personality disorders in Poland and other Eastern European countries. Yet there is not enough evidence as to their effectiveness in this environment; this study addresses this gap. The aim of the study is to determine the effectiveness of these two kinds of day treatment care consisting of intensive, short-term group psychodynamic and cognitive-behavioral therapy, for patients with anxiety disorders and/or comorbid depressive or personality disorders. Our objectives are to: 1) show the effectiveness of each treatment in a day-care setting relative to the wait-list control group; 2) demonstrate the relative short- and long-term effectiveness of the two active treatments; 3) carry out a preliminary examination of the predictors and moderators of treatment response; 4) carry out a preliminary examination of the mediators of therapeutic change; and 5) compare the impact of both methods of treatment on the outcome of the measures used in this study. In this randomized controlled trial, a total of 199 patients with anxiety disorders and comorbid depressive and/or personality disorders will be assigned to one of three conditions: 1) psychodynamic group therapy; 2) cognitive-behavioral group therapy; or 3) wait-list control group. The therapy will last 12 weeks. Both treatments will be manualized (the manuals will address comorbidity). Primary outcome measures will include self-reported symptoms of anxiety, observer-rated symptoms of anxiety, global improvement, and recovery rate. Secondary outcome measures will include the number of pathological personality traits, depression, self-esteem, defense mechanisms, beliefs about self and others, interpersonal problems, object relations, parental bonding, meta-cognition, and quality of life. Measures will be taken at baseline, post-treatment, and at six months following
Benish-Weisman, Maya; Wu, Lisa M; Weinberger-Litman, Sarah L; Redd, William H; Duhamel, Katherine N; Rini, Christine
Survivors of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) have experienced a life threatening and potentially traumatic illness and treatment that make them vulnerable to long lasting negative psychological outcomes, including anxiety and depression. Nevertheless, studies show that overcoming cancer and its treatment can present an opportunity for personal growth and psychological health (reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression and high levels of emotional well-being) through resilience. However, research has not yet clarified what differentiates HSCT survivors who experience psychological growth from those who do not. By analyzing recovery narratives, we examined whether HSCT survivors' interpretation of their experiences helps explain differences in their post-treatment psychological health. Guided by narrative psychology theory, we analyzed the narratives of 23 HSCT survivors writing about their experience of cancer treatment. Psychological health was measured by: (1) emotional well-being subscale part of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Bone Marrow Transplant (FACT-BMT), (2) depression, and (3) anxiety subscales of the Brief Symptom Inventory. Findings revealed a positive relation between psychological health and a greater number of redemption episodes (going from an emotionally negative life event to an emotionally positive one) as well as fewer negative emotional expressions. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE RESULTS: Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed, showing how narratives can inform interventions to assist cancer survivors with their psychological recovery.
The author proposes a new model for the assessment of decision-making capacity based on the principles of narrative medicine. The narrative method proposed by the author addresses the hidden power realtionships implicit in the current model of capacity assessment. Sample cases are reviewed using the traditional model in comparison with the narrative model. Narrative medicine provides an effective model for the assessment of decision-making capacity. Deficiencies in the traditional model capacity assessment can be effectively addressed using narrative strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Musacchio Adorisio, Anna Linda
In this paper I will discuss the possibility offered by the “linguistic turn” for narrative research in the realm of financial communication. I will propose three categories by which a narrative interpretive approach can be applied to financial communication: narrative-as-artifacts, narrative......-as-practice and narrative-as-method. Such a constitutive communication approach challenges a mechanistic and functionalist view of communication as a tool to represent social realities in favor of an interpretive view that could remain sensitive to the production and reproduction of meaning by the actors involved....
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a serious social issue which affects the medium- and long-term health outcomes of many individuals worldwide. The cost of IPV on the physical and psychological well-being of individuals, in addition to its wider economic costs in responding to abused persons, is significant. Presently, there is a lack of understanding about the nature of female-initiated IPV and how men account for their experiences of it. This study examined male victims' life stories of their IPV experiences from their intimate partners. Using the biographical narrative interpretive method, three cases were analyzed from a social constructionist perspective to examine what narrative strategies men used to account for their experiences of being abused by their female partners. Three dominant narrative strategies were used by respondents: the fatherhood narrative, the good husband narrative, and the abuse narrative. The abuse narrative had a unique narrative form, which reflected respondents' disassociation between their identities as men and also as abused persons. Dominant conflicting discourses of masculinity and intimate partner abuse disadvantaged men in identifying IPV and secondly in responding appropriately. This study found that men prefer to use dominant discursive identities as legitimate means from which to disclose IPV experiences. The findings from this study illustrate that broad questioning by professionals regarding fatherhood may be most helpful in promoting disclosures of IPV if this is suspected. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available The Road Accident Fund Amendment Act 19 of 2005 came into effect on 1 August 2008. This Act limits the Road Accident Fund’s liability for compensation in respect of claims for non-pecuniary loss to instances where a “serious injury” has been sustained. A medical practitioner has to determine whether or not the claimant has suffered a serious injury by undertaking an assessment prescribed in the Regulations to the Act. The practitioner has to complete a RAF 4 report. In doing so the practitioner must assess the injury in terms of the American Medical Association’s Guides to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment (6th ed. If the injury is considered to have resulted in less than 30 per cent of the whole person impairment the medical practitioner should apply the narrative test. The article focuses on the narrative test but also discusses reasons why the regulations do not fulfil the requirements of the Act; reasons why the Guides is not adequate to the task; the impact of the circumstances of an injured person on disability; problems with the existing wording of the narrative test; shortcomings on the RAf 4 form; the administrative process as well as the appeal tribunals.
Daubin, Cédric; Chevalier, Stéphanie; Séguin, Amélie; Gaillard, Cathy; Valette, Xavier; Prévost, Fabrice; Terzi, Nicolas; Ramakers, Michel; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien; Charbonneau, Pierre
The purpose of this study was to identify predictors of 3-month mortality in critically ill older persons under medical care and to assess the clinical impact of an ICU stay on physical and cognitive dependence and subjective health status in survivors. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study including all older persons 75 years and older consecutively admitted into ICU during a one-year period, except those admitted after cardiac arrest, All patients were followed for 3 months or until death. Comorbidities were assessed using the Charlson index and physical dependence was evaluated using the Katz index of Activity of Daily Living (ADL). Cognitive dependence was determined by a score based on the individual components of the Lawton index of Daily Living and subjective health status was evaluated using the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) score. One hundred patients were included in the analysis. The mean age was 79.3 ± 3.4 years. The median Charlson index was 6 [IQR, 4 to 7] and the mean ADL and cognitive scores were 5.4 ± 1.1 and 1.2 ± 1.4, respectively, corresponding to a population with a high level of comorbidities but low physical and cognitive dependence. Mortality was 61/100 (61%) at 3 months. In multivariate analysis only comorbidities assessed by the Charlson index [Adjusted Odds Ratio, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2-2.2; p physical (p = 0.04), and cognitive (p = 0.62) dependence in survivors had changed very little at 3 months. In addition, the mean NHP score was 213.1 ± 132.8 at 3 months, suggesting an acceptable perception of their quality of life. In a selected population of non surgical patients 75 years and older, admission into the ICU is associated with a 3-month survival rate of 38% with little impact on physical and cognitive dependence and subjective health status. Nevertheless, a high comorbidity level (ie, Charlson index), multi-organ failure, and the need for extra-renal support at the early phase of intensive care could be considered as
Full Text Available Sport is often considered a masculine area of social life, and few sports are more commonly associated with traditional norms of masculinity than ice hockey. Ice hockey is played with a great level of intensity and body contact. This is true for both men and women’s hockey. However, men’s ice hockey in particular has been subjected to criticism for its excessive violence. Sport has also been analyzed as an arena where boys and men learn masculine values, relations, and rituals, and is often linked to orthodox masculinity in particular. Tolerance for gender diversity and diverse forms of masculinity has generally increased during the last 30 years. However, orthodox masculinity seems to maintain a dominate position in sports, particularly in hyper-masculine sports such as ice hockey. In this article, narratives of masculinity and violence in professional ice hockey are a central focus. Through a narrative analysis of the biographies of two former National Hockey League (NHL players, Bob Probert and Derek Boogaard, this article explores how narratives of masculinity and violence among hockey players have been described and how these narratives tell stories of the interplay between masculinity and violence in modern sport. The analysis illustrates how the narratives of the lives and careers of these athletes provide insight into the many personal risks and implications athletes in highly masculine sporting environments face. The analysis also illustrates how the common acceptance (and sometimes encouragement of player violence and ‘violence against the self’ in ice hockey has led to many broken bodies, lives, and careers among professional male athletes.
Rubin, Lawrence C.
Utilizing Joseph Campbell's concept of the hero's adventure, this article provides a technique through which clients can story their lives and challenges as an unfolding personal myth or epic adventure. The use of personal narrative and storytelling has found efficacy in the counseling field and, as such, forms a useful foundation for clinical…
Fleischmann, Amos; Fleischmann, Rafael Haim
In this article we explore the impact of a diagnosis of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on coping among diagnosed adults. We use grounded theory to examine 71 biographical narratives, self-published on the Internet by adults with ADHD. The findings illuminate a three-stage temporal continuum. During the first stage, the narrators suffered from lack of self-confidence accompanied by functional difficulties, stress, and guilt feelings. During the second stage, which began after the diagnosis, they began to believe in their ability to lead meaningful and more manageable lives. During the third stage, an additional effect of the diagnosis emerged: the narrators' realization or belief that ADHD might affect them for the better. Some narrators stated that their traits as persons with ADHD helped them to cope better than others unaffected by this syndrome. Consequently, those who have an ADHD diagnosis seem able to defeat unnecessary negative emotions and self-blame.
Ruud A. Jongedijk
Full Text Available Narrative exposure therapy (NET is a recently developed, short-term treatment for patients with a posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD as a result of multiple trauma. NET can be applied very successfully in patients with complex trauma complaints (Jongedijk, 2014; Schauer, Neuner, & Elbert, 2011.An important feature of NET is that trauma processing is never an isolated event but is always embedded in the context of a traumatic event and in the life history as a whole. At the start, the lifeline is laid. The lifeline is made up of a rope, with flowers (happy events, stones (traumatic events, sometimes candles (grief, or recently also sticks for aggressive acts (NET for offenders; see Stenmark, Cuneyt Guzey, Elbert, & Holen, 2014. These symbols are laid down along the rope, in chronological order. Subsequently, in the subsequent therapy sessions the lifeline is processed in chronological order, giving attention to all the important events a person has experienced in his or her life, both the adverse as well as the pleasurable ones. The narration ends with a written testimony.To date, there is good evidence NET is effective in the treatment of PTSD patients, with support from 18 RCTs (N=950. For culturally diverse populations, NET is recommended as the most evidence-based trauma treatment, besides culturally adapted CBT. NET has been investigated in different populations in Africa, Europe, and Asia. In Asia, research has been carried out in Sri Lanka as well as in China. In China, NET was conducted and investigated with survivors of the Sichuan earthquake (Zang, Hunt, & Cox, 2013, 2014. NET is understandable, even appealing and also supportive for patients with multiple trauma. In this presentation, the treatment principles and the practice of NET will be explained.
Uddholm, Mats; Nilsson, Bo
involving music therapists or music educators, such as: with clients, students, children, elder people; among nurses, deacons, social workers, preschools teachers or care assistants. The field of Music and Health is not necessarily about illness or care, but can as well be understood as an aspect of quality......Narratives about music and health Dr Bo Nilsson, Kristianstad University, Sweden Dr Mats Uddholm, University College Nordjylland, Denmark Music is used in many professional contexts that are not associated with music therapy or music education in a traditional sense. How do professionals...... in different contexts use music and how do they describe their thoughts about music in their professional work? Those are the main questions in our study focusing on narratives about music and health in professional relations. In a pilot study six strategically chosen participants from Sweden and Denmark...
Bailey, P H
Many nurse-researchers using qualitative strategies have been concerned with assuring quality in their work. The early literature reveals that the concepts of validity and reliability, as understood from the positivist perspective, are somehow inappropriate and inadequate when applied to interpretive research. More recent literature suggests that because of the positivist and interpretive paradigms are epistemologically divergent, the transfer of quality criteria from one perspective to the other is not automatic or even reasonable. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to clarify what the terms quality, trustworthiness, credibility, authenticity, and goodness mean in qualitative research findings. The process of assuring quality, validation, in qualitative research will be discussed within the context of the interpretive method, narrative analysis. A brief review of quality in narrative analysis nursing research will also be presented.
Nobaew, Banphot; Ryberg, Thomas
on the micro story level of storytelling structure (Begin-Middle-End). This paper describes the framework for a games writer in MMORPGs as a non-linear narrative, in which a gameplayer takes the role of a digital story writer in a magic cycle. It proposes an extended storytelling framework to a games writer....... The framework is developed based on 3 prior theoretical notions: the Story structure, Dramatic structure (Freytag's Pyramid), and Hero’s Journey model (Campbell). The story structure is founded by Aristotle in his Poetics (c. 335 BC), but is now considered the basis of digital narrative. Hero’s Journey model......-story and develops further to the multi-plot point structure. To analyze the gameplay data in this study, the emotional experience and learning content are considered for the plot investigation. This study is sets out to examine the assumption that, when players play games in a semiotic domain of visual grammar...
Nielsen, Jakob Isak
section unearths what characterizes the literature on camera movement. The second section of the dissertation delineates the history of camera movement itself within narrative cinema. Several organizational principles subtending the on-screen effect of camera movement are revealed in section two...... but they are not organized into a coherent framework. This is the task that section three meets in proposing a functional taxonomy for camera movement in narrative cinema. Two presumptions subtend the taxonomy: That camera movement actively contributes to the way in which we understand the sound and images on the screen......, commentative or valuative manner. 4) Focalization: associating the movement of the camera with the viewpoints of characters or entities in the story world. 5) Reflexive: inviting spectators to engage with the artifice of camera movement. 6) Abstract: visualizing abstract ideas and concepts. In order...
Principles of a mobile gps-enabled gis acting as a tourist information system are discussed and exemplified with special focus on the narrative aspects of tourist guidance. Flexible adaptation to user movements is accomplished by providing information about objects that the user passes as well......-study of H.C. Andersen's residences in Copenhagen...
Ambler, Tim; Neely, Andrew
Companies are being pressed to be more transparent in their annual reporting and, at the same time,interest is moving from the formal accounts to the narrative sections, partly in response to the increasing importance of the intangible assets not on the balance sheet. The paper sets out the changes in UK requirements, ummarised in a Framework provided by the Worshipful Company of Marketors, and company practice. The two weakest areas in relation to the Accounting Standards B...
Jacobus J. (Jakkie Strachan
Full Text Available As an Afrikaner man doing research on ubuntu, what are the possibilities for meaningful research? In this article, some aspects of the difficulties and possibilities that may be encountered in such a research programme will be explored. Within a postmodern worldview, and framed within postfoundational practical theology, social-constructionism, a narrative hermeneutic metaphor and autoethnography will be used as tools to explore some difficulties and possibilities of such a research undertaking.
Karlsson, Eva; Sävenstedt, Stefan; Axelsson, Karin; Zingmark, Karin
To explore how people with Alzheimer's disease present their life story. Life story work is a key concept in a person-centred care. An important aspect in understanding the subjective experience and supporting the identity of people with dementia is to listen to their life stories. A narrative design with interviews was used. Nine participants with Alzheimer's disease were encouraged to tell about their lives from childhood, adult life, to present life and about their thoughts on the future. The interviews were conducted between September 2010-March 2011 in the participants' homes, with their spouses present and were analysed with a method for analysis of narratives. Contentment, Connectedness, Self-reliance and Personal growth were identified as core dimensions in the participants' life stories and shown like threads throughout life, from childhood, adult life to present life. All participants expressed an overall contentment with life, and connectedness was related to their relation with significant persons and to be included in the local community. Self-reliance was expressed as a strong confidence in the own ability and an overall curiosity throughout life as a sustained quest for personal growth. It is important for healthcare professionals, who work with people with dementia, to understand that people with Alzheimer's disease can maintain an overall trusting and hopeful approach to life. It is also important to use life story work to enhance feelings of being connected to the world and thereby support their identity and sense of self. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Janssen, Eva; van Osch, Liesbeth; de Vries, Hein; Lechner, Lilian
Evidence is accumulating for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours, but best practices for influencing these feelings are limited. The aim of this experimental study was to compare the effects of narrative and non-narrative risk communication about sunbed use on ease of imagination and feelings of cancer risk. A total of 233 female sunbed users in the general Dutch population were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a narrative message (i.e., personal testimonial), a non-narrative cognitive message (i.e., factual risk information using cognitive-laden words), or a non-narrative affective message (i.e., factual risk information using affective-laden words). Ease of imagination and feelings of risk were assessed directly after the risk information was given (T1). Three weeks after the baseline session, feelings of risk were measured again (T2). The results revealed that sunbed users who were exposed to narrative risk information could better imagine themselves developing skin cancer and reported higher feelings of skin cancer risk at T1. Moreover, ease of imagination mediated the effects of message type on feelings of risk at T1 and T2. The findings provide support for the effects of narrative risk communication in influencing feelings of cancer risk through ease of imagination. Cancer prevention programmes may therefore benefit from including narrative risk information. Future research is important to investigate other mechanisms of narrative information and their most effective content and format. What is already known on this subject? Evidence is growing for the importance of feelings of risk in explaining cancer preventive behaviours. Narratives have increasingly been considered as an effective format for persuasive risk messages and studies have shown narrative risk communication to be effective in influencing cognitive risk beliefs. What does this study add? Increasing understanding of how feelings of cancer
This paper aims to tackle the subtle relation between autobiographical narratives and identity construction, from a non essentialist conception of identity. In a perspective that articulates philosophy of language, psychoanalysis, semiotics and literary critique, we posit the concept of biographical space as an analytical instrument to make a critical update of the reconfiguration of identities and subjectivities in contemporary culture, marked by the predominance of the biographical, the private and a kind of "public intimacy". This look is more symptomatic than descriptive: it intends to account for the rise of auto/biographical narratives and life-stories, from canonic genres to their multiple derivations in the media, social networks and the most diverse artistic practices, a phenomenon that seems to reaffirm the notion of narrative identities by Ricoeur. Our analysis here, from an ethic, aesthetic and political point of view, will focus on two visual arts experiences that have recently taken place for the first time in Buenos Aires: Christian Boltanski's and Tracey Emin's, solo exhibitions, each of them with a different biographical approach.
Full Text Available In this article, I look back in an art/research experiment of convening an exhibition of women artists and inviting them to a round-table discussion in the context of a sociological conference. The artists who took part in this event had been previously interviewed for a feminist research project, entitled "In the Fold Between Life and Art, a Genealogy of Women Artists". The conference exhibition gave the artists the opportunity to appear to an academic audience and present their work while the round-table discussion created a forum for a narrative event where all women were invited to recount stories of becoming an artist. In looking at this event I want to explore questions around the possibilities and limitations of narratives in microsociological inquiries. In following trails of ARENDT's theorisation of stories, I explore connections and tensions between social, political and cultural entanglements in narrative research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1501193
Dunlop, William L; Tracy, Jessica L
The present research examined whether the production of a narrative containing self-redemption (wherein the narrator describes a positive personality change following a negative experience) predicts positive behavioral change. In Study 1, we compared the narratives of alcoholics who had maintained their sobriety for over 4 years with those of alcoholics who had been sober 6 months or less. When describing their last drink, the former were significantly more likely to produce a narrative containing self-redemption than the latter. In Study 2, we examined the relation between the profession of self-redemption and behavioral change using a longitudinal design, by following the newly sober alcoholics from Study 1 over time. Although indistinguishable at initial assessment, newly sober alcoholics whose narratives included self-redemption were substantially more likely to maintain sobriety in the following months, compared to newly sober alcoholics who produced nonredemptive narratives; 83% of the redemptive group maintained sobriety between assessments, compared to 44% of nonredemptive participants. Redemptive participants in Study 2 also demonstrated improved health relative to the nonredemptive group. In both studies, the effects of self-redemption on sobriety and health held after controlling for relevant personality traits, alcohol dependence, recovery program involvement, initial physical and mental health, and additional narrative themes. Collectively, these results suggest that the production of a self-redemptive narrative may stimulate prolonged behavioral change and thus indicate a potentially modifiable psychological process that exhibits a major influence on recovery from addiction. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Full Text Available This essay argues for narrative competence as an underlying skill neglected in educational policy makers’ calls for enhanced literacy through improved reading, writing, numeracy and working with digital technology. This argument is presented in three parts. First, a genealogy of the narrative is presented by looking at understandings of narratives with respect to changes in technology and socio-cultural relations. Three technological forms of the narrative are examined: the oral, written and image based narrative. Second, revisiting Bernstein, narrative competency is connected to pedagogic practice. The focus is upon code recognition and the rhythm of narrative in a classroom context. Third, a proposal is made to develop narrative competence as a research programme capable of exploring literacy in an age of open learning. The core assertion of this essay is that when narrative is understood in a multi-directional, multi-voiced and multi-punctual sense, opportunities are created for a pedagogic practice that is in tune with the demands placed upon youth and their relationship to changing technologies. This makes the exploration of connections between narrative competence, pedagogic practice and technology the central focus of this essay.
Shaffer, Victoria A; Scherer, Laura D; Focella, Elizabeth S; Hinnant, Amanda; Len-Ríos, María E; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J
Health journalists frequently use narratives to bring news stories to life, with little understanding about how this influences the health behavior of readers. This study was designed to examine the effect of a New York Times health news article about a person who developed a life-threatening illness after using ibuprofen on readers' future use of ibuprofen. We recruited an Internet sample (N = 405) to participate in a longitudinal study examining ibuprofen use before, immediately following, and two weeks after reading the story. Ibuprofen use two-weeks after reading the heath news article was significantly lower than baseline use. Furthermore, intentions to use ibuprofen were also significantly reduced suggesting that the observed behavior change may persist beyond the two-week period studied. Health journalists should be cautious in their use of stories about health outcomes, particularly when those stories deviate from data about objective risks.
Zweers, Alexander Frederik
I have attempted in this study to analyze the narrative structure of L. N. Tolstoj's trilogy Childhood, Boyhood and Youtlr, in which a first-person technique is used and the narrator relates his autobiography from the age of ten to that of sixteen. The special feature of this story is the fact that
Lieshout , Marc ,
Part 1: Invited Keynote Papers; International audience; This chapter discusses the value of personal data from two complementary perspectives: the value of personal data for firms and the value of personal data for individuals. The chapter starts with a short introduction into the rise of personal data markets – markets basically driven by the economic exploitation of personal data. Then the chapter discusses how firms asses the value of personal data. This can be done from different angles, ...
Full Text Available This article is a proposal of identity research through its process and narrative character. As a starting point I present a definition of identity understood as the whole life process of finding identification. Next I present my own model of auto/biography-narrative research inspired by hermeneutic and phenomenological traditions of thinking about experiencing reality. I treat auto/biography-narrative research as a means of exploratory conduct, based on the narrator’s biography data, also considering the researcher’s autobiographical thought. In the final part of the article I focus on showing the narrative structure of identity and autobiography. I emphasise this relation in definitions qualifying autobiography as written life narration and identity as a narration of autobiography.
Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume
Narratives of being ‘a good teacher’: everyday life, morality and teachers’ narratives in a Kenyan village This paper explores how Kenyan school teachers narrate and practise professional work in their everyday lives in an educational context shaped by global and local narratives of education...... or her ideas about the world, which is used to organise experiences (Høyen, 2016). The study also draws on everyday life learning (Schütz, 1973; Heller, 1984) and the social anthropology of morality (Kleinman, 1992) to explore how teachers’ narrative learning comprises processes that are not only...... in western Kenya provided a framework for observing how teachers’ narratives as professionals became mediated through sociocultural forces and everyday life in school, at home and during their spare time. Empirically, the study explores four school teachers and their unique and diverse understandings of what...
Kurby, Christopher A; Asiala, Lillian K E; Mills, Steven R
The perception of event structure in continuous activity is important for everyday comprehension. Although the segmentation of experience into events is a normal concomitant of perceptual processing, previous research has shown age differences in the ability to perceive structure in naturalistic activity, such as a movie of someone washing a car. However, past research has also shown that older adults have a preserved ability to comprehend events in narrative text, which suggests that narrative may improve the event processing of older adults. This study tested whether there are age differences in event segmentation at the intersection of continuous activity and narrative: narrative film. Younger and older adults watched and segmented a narrative film, The Red Balloon, into coarse and fine events. Changes in situational features, such as changes in characters, goals, and objects predicted segmentation. Analyses revealed little age-difference in segmentation behavior. This suggests the possibility that narrative structure supports event understanding for older adults.
schema within continental semiotics, and through an interpretation of Heider & Simmel’s study on apparent behavior it establishes the cognitive import of the narrative schema and its origin in visual perception; finally it gives examples of the meaning organizing import of the narrative schema.......This paper aims at establishing the origin of the narrative schema in the perception of intentional movements. The distinction between mechanical and intentional movements is vital for human beings, and the narrative schema, which is underpinned by this distinction, is therefore a basic cognitive...... principle of intelligibility. This is the reason why the narrative schema is by no means confined to the domain of the literary work of art. It is rather a major principle for the combination of partial significations in many other domains. The paper explores the role traditionally assigned to the narrative...
van der Leeuw, Renée M.; Overeem, Karlijn; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Heineman, Maas Jan; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.
Physicians involved in residency training often receive feedback from residents on their teaching. Research shows that learners value narrative feedback, but knowledge of the frequency and determinants of narrative feedback in teaching performance evaluation is lacking. This study aims to
Marta Magdalena Boczkowska
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine narratives of the personal religious, spiritual and mystical experiences of adult Poles (N = 74 and their impact on narrative identity. The method for collecting qualitative data about individual understandings and spiritual, religious and mystical experiences was the narrative interview, developed on the basis of the Life Story Interview. During the analysis, the following key topics were identified: awareness of the presence/protection of God, a peak experience, the awareness of oneness with nature and the world, and a sense of closeness/contact with a person who has died. This study provides specific information on the spiritual, religious and mystical experiences of the investigated group of Poles.
In the context of Alberta public education, teachers should not expect discrimination on the basis of gender identity. However, in practice, exclusionary behaviours towards people whose gender identity is different than the sex they were assigned at birth are frequent and may encompass any and all connected to the school environment including…
Narrative embedding is a common narrative structural device. Genette (1980, 1988) distinguished among various diegetic levels to explain the discrete narrative levels in embedded narratives and he defined metalepsis as the deliberate disturbing or breaking of narrative boundaries. Metalepsis, described by Malina (2002) as a mutinous narrative…
Caine, Vera; Estefan, Andrew; Clandinin, D. Jean
In the 25 years since narrative inquiry emerged as a social science research methodology, it has been rapidly taken up in the social sciences. In what is sometimes called a "narrative revolution," researchers with diverse understandings have co-opted the concept of narrative inquiry and used narrative inquiry or narrative research to…
principle of intelligibility. This is the reason why the narrative schema is by no means confined to the domain of the literary work of art. It is rather a major principle for the combination of partial significations in many other domains. The paper explores the role traditionally assigned to the narrative...... schema within continental semiotics, and through an interpretation of Heider & Simmel’s study on apparent behavior it establishes the cognitive import of the narrative schema and its origin in visual perception; finally it gives examples of the meaning organizing import of the narrative schema....
Full Text Available In recent history, the novel has been thought of and defined primarily as a long prose narrative. However, this has not been the case historically, as the original meaning of "novel" was for "a piece of news" or "a short story or novella." Returning to this original definition, I propose a new way of viewing the work known contemporarily as the novel as a collection, or sequence, of united short stories rather than a single indivisible work, with the component short stories or novellas comprising the sequence renamed as "novels." A brief examination of several classic works traditionally considered novels serves to illustrate how this change in definition will affect reading.
The purpose of this study is to assess issues that arise in the context of epistemological claims in narrative educational research by means of narrative analysis and epistemological evaluation. The research questions which guided the study were: 1) To what extent is epistemology considered by narrative educational researchers?; 2) What issues do…
Lim, T.; Louchart, S.; Suttie, N.; Baalsrud Hauge, J.; Stanescu, I.A.; Ortiz, I.M.; Moreno-Ger, P.; Bellotti, F.; Brandao Carvalho, M.; Earp, J.; Ott, M.; Arnab, S.; Berta, R.; Göbel, S.; Wiemeyer, J.
Narratives are used to construct and deconstruct the time and space of events. In games, as in real life, narratives add layers of meaning and engage players by enhancing or clarifying content. From an educational perspective, narratives are a semiotic conduit for evoking critical thinking skills
Coulter, Cathy A.; Smith, Mary Lee
Narrative research has become part of the landscape of education inquiry, yet its theory and practice are still debated and evolving. This article addresses the construction of narratives using literary elements common to nonfiction and fiction writings. The authors discuss these elements and use four narratives to illustrate them. They address…
Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.; Iglesias, Aquiles
Forty-six Spanish-speaking children ages four, six, or eight years viewed a short silent film and told what happened in the film. The stories of older children included more narrative actions, more mental state/goal causes, more three-clause causal sequences, and a lower proportion of unrelated statements than those of younger children.…
Montgomery, James W.; Polunenko, Anzhela; Marinellie, Sally A.
The role of phonological short-term memory (PSTM), attentional resource capacity/allocation, and processing speed on children's spoken narrative comprehension was investigated. Sixty-seven children (6-11 years) completed a digit span task (PSTM), concurrent verbal processing and storage (CPS) task (resource capacity/allocation), auditory-visual…
Sencindiver, Susan Yi
narratives. Enlisting Joseph Conrad’s short story, “The Secret Sharer,” among others, as both a paradigmatic yet self-conscious example, I examine the intersecting hotbed of these two strange bedfellows, motherhood and homosexuality, as well as the significance of gender in the male doppelgänger imaginary....
Lu, Amy Shirong
Blogs, or websites containing online personal journals, are a form of popular personal communication with immense potential for health promotion. Narratives are stories with a beginning, middle, and end that provide information about the characters and plot. Source similarity refers to the degree to which the message source and each recipient are alike with respect to certain attributes. Narratives and source similarity have seldom been examined in tandem as strategies for health persuasion. Personal health blogs provide a suitable platform for such an investigation. This study examined the persuasive effects of message type and source similarity on participants' intentions to adopt a specific health behavior (running for exercise). A total of 150 participants were randomly assigned to conditions (n=25 per condition) in a completely crossed, 2 (message type: narrative and nonnarrative) × 3 (source similarity: no similarity, non-health-related similarity, and health-related similarity) between-subjects experiment. First, in an online questionnaire, participants provided personal information in 42 categories and rated the relatedness of each category to running and then completed pretest measures of the dependent variables. Based on their responses, 150 personal health blogs were created. Two weeks later, the initial participants read the blog created with their personal characteristics and completed a questionnaire online. The source similarity effect was stronger in nonnarrative than narrative blogs. When the blogs were nonnarrative, those with health-related similarities were more persuasive than those with non-health-related similarities. Narrative blogs generated more positive thoughts and stronger blogger identification than nonnarrative blogs. Health-related source similarity is key for persuasive health communication, especially when the messages are nonnarrative.
Eduardo Salvador Vila Merino
Full Text Available With this article we investigate through a narrative inquiry into the links between parenting, and life experience, education and professional practice. The study involved 24 collaborators, whose status as parents and educators has allowed us to biographical approach to the links between the two facets of their lives. In the studywe have assumed a unique perspective and opinion of the experience of parenthood, read in conjunction withmale socialization processes, and embedded in professional development of each employee. The work resulted in each case the collection and analysis of data through personal accounts, with the approach we were looking for new ways to address parenting and its influence on educational craft itself. In this article, apart from general considerations derived from the analysis of the 24 stories, 4 cases recovered from their singularities to try to show each employee’s subjective sense and understanding of social and relational scenarios in which these subjectivities are going setting, here by trying to expand personal conceptions, political and social justice is the education profession, placed in relation to male gender identity. Fromthe analysis of the stories related conclusions emerge formative potential of narrative, the implications of parenthood in personal and professional life and your relationships, look changes that have occurred from there and the importance of reflecting on these issues from alternative male models to the hegemonic.We finished the job pointing out possible future research and action in the light of the stories.
Lathrop, Anthony; VandeVusse, Leona
(1) To broadly explore the experiences of women who chose to continue pregnancies affected by lethal fetal diagnoses and (2) to develop knowledge useful to nurses and other healthcare professionals who provide perinatal hospice (PH) care. Qualitative descriptive study using narrative analysis. Fifteen women who learned during their pregnancies of a lethal fetal diagnosis and chose to continue the affected pregnancies. Participants' stories of their PH experiences were recorded in face-to-face interviews. A qualitative approach using narrative analysis was used to identify themes and develop suggestions for care. The element of time was prevalent in mothers' stories. Some aspects of mothers' experiences continued, particularly feelings of love and connection to their babies. Mothers also reported evolving changes in their thoughts and feelings. Personal changes such as increased compassion, faith, and strength were frequently mentioned. Mothers described transient phases of highs and lows. Drawing personal meanings or life lessons was the main way mothers connected their experiences to their present lives. Mothers' descriptions of their experiences can enhance nurses' understanding of perinatal loss. Established care practices, such as birth planning and creating mementoes, were supported. Nurses can help mothers experiencing loss by elucidating and reflecting their personal meanings.
Hart, Curtis W
Creative nonfiction and the illness narrative are recently identified approaches to literary expression. They are particularly well suited to the genre of memoir where psychological issues such as mourning and attachment and loss may be explored. The recent memoirs of Sue Erikson Bloland and Honor Moore fulfill the description of creative nonfiction. They offer their readers an opportunity to explore with them the theological and existential issues of revelation, reconciliation, and forgiveness. This paper was first presented for the Working Group on Psychoanalysis and the Arts of the Richardson Research Seminar in the History of Psychiatry at Weill Cornell Medical College.
Lee, Victoria S P; Simpson, Jane; Froggatt, Katherine
Moving into residential care has been argued to be a significant life transition for older people, often resulting in stress and anxiety. This research aimed to explore qualitatively older people's experiences of this transition, including how relocation is reflected upon and incorporated into their personal narratives. Eight older adults (65-97 years) living in a residential facility for between three and 12 months participated in interviews focussed on their experiences of relocating to a residential care home. Narrative analysis revealed that rather than depicting time bound stages of transition, participants' experiences reflected key plots of 'control', 'power', 'identity' and 'uncertainty' interwoven throughout their narratives. Participants experienced some difficulties in incorporating this transition into their life stories. Furthermore, participants discussed not feeling confident in their decision to move, living in constant fear of losing their memory, and limited expectations for their future. Professionals should move away from considering transition as a stage-based process ending in acceptance, instead focussing on how residents perceive relocation in relation to previous life experiences, unspoken fears evoked by moving and how the environment and relationships with staff may be altered to assist residents in maintaining their identity and sense of control.
Arslan, Seçkin; Bamyacı, Elif; Bastiaanse, Roelien
This study investigates the characteristics of narrative-speech production and the use of verbs in Turkish agrammatic speakers (n = 10) compared to non-brain-damaged controls (n = 10). To elicit narrative-speech samples, personal interviews and storytelling tasks were conducted. Turkish has a large and regular verb inflection paradigm where verbs are inflected for evidentiality (i.e. direct versus indirect evidence available to the speaker). Particularly, we explored the general characteristics of the speech samples (e.g. utterance length) and the uses of lexical, finite and non-finite verbs and direct and indirect evidentials. The results show that speech rate is slow, verbs per utterance are lower than normal and the verb diversity is reduced in the agrammatic speakers. Verb inflection is relatively intact; however, a trade-off pattern between inflection for direct evidentials and verb diversity is found. The implications of the data are discussed in connection with narrative-speech production studies on other languages.
This paper is a narrative of my personal experiences of conducting action research in Kenyan primary schools. It highlights the opportunities, successes, challenges and dilemmas I encountered during the process: from the school hunting period, to the carrying out of the actual research in two schools, with four teachers. This study reveals that…
F.M.G. de Jong (Franciska); K.P. Truong (Khiet); G.J. Westerhof (Gerben); S.M.A. Lamers (Sanne); A. Sools (Anneke)
textabstractAudiovisual collections of narratives about war-traumas are rich in descriptions of personal and emotional experiences which can be expressed through verbal and nonverbal means. We complement a commonly used verbal analysis with a nonverbal one to study emotional developments in
This narrative inquiry explored how transgender college students construct, experience, and make meaning of gender. Gender is not constructed or understood in isolation; it is therefore essential to consider how personal cognition intersects with and is influenced by an internal sense of self and relationships with others when exploring how…
Narrative inquiry is an innovative means of encouraging students to internalize concepts, reflect on experiences or create applications for theoretical ideas. The use of first-person creative writing in a second-year cultural geography course prompted initial scepticism from students but eventually highlighted their constructivist engagement with…
Tait, Glendon R.; Hodges, Brian D.
For patients at the end of life, it is crucial to address the psychological, existential, and spiritual distress of patients. Medical education research suggests trainees feel unprepared to provide the whole person, humanistic care held as the ideal. This study used an empirically based narrative intervention, the dignity interview, as an…
empire: ordinary soldiers, sailors, workers, market women, fishmongers, and people of all trades ... However, despite appearing 'as one', their personalities were different and .... become if Bortolo, the indefatigable story-teller, did not try to prevent the ... things prompt Bortolo's narrations, and in this story he explains to Siora.
This article provides a narrative response to a precariousness labour situation. The question it attempts to answer is: how does one cope with the precariousness and injustices of contemporary employment without becoming pessimistic or hopeless? The piece, based on the author's personal experience, argues that we can tell and write our career…
Jia, Fanli; Soucie, Kendall; Alisat, Susan; Pratt, Michael
In this longitudinal study, we examined the relationship between the trajectory of generative concern measured at ages 23, 26 and 32 and environmental narrative identity at age 32. Canadian participants completed a questionnaire on generative concern at ages 23, 26 and 32 and were then interviewed about their personal experiences with the…
Circles Disturbed brings together important thinkers in mathematics, history, and philosophy to explore the relationship between mathematics and narrative. The book's title recalls the last words of the great Greek mathematician Archimedes before he was slain by a Roman soldier--"Don't disturb my circles"--words that seem to refer to two radically different concerns: that of the practical person living in the concrete world of reality, and that of the theoretician lost in a world of abstraction. Stories and theorems are, in a sense, the natural languages of these two worlds--stories represent
Killian, K D
This study explores the process by which interracial spouses construct narratives about their racial histories, identities, and experiences in their relationship together. Ten black-white couples were interviewed individually and conjointly. The results reflected interracial spouses' experience of their life together, their perception of others' perceptions of them, and their unique processes of negotiating racial, gender, and class differences. Black spouses, compared with white spouses, demonstrated a greater awareness of and sensitivity to social resistance to interracial couples, and black spouses' familial and personal histories were sometimes relegated to silence in the couple relationship. I discuss recommendations for marriage and family therapists working with interracial spouses.
After severe illness, there are stories: narrative strands to suture discontinuities of identities, practices, and lives. But within these narratives of illness and recovery, the body's discontinuities stand apart, striking in the materiality of change, in the tangible multiplicity of bodies - healthy, ill, recovering, recovered - that a person can call one's own. Based on longitudinal research interviews with Israeli women who identified as recovered from long-term eating disorders (fieldwork conducted in 2005-2006 and in 2011), this paper explores how these bodily discontinuities are expressed, drawing particular attention to the narrative role of embodied memory in linking past and present-tense bodies and selves. Embodied memory, as narrated by the participants, is deeply, sometimes surprisingly, embedded in lived experience, imbuing recovered bodies with moments of sensory continuity, the past coming into presence through forms of sensation and perception learned at the height of disorder. Examining narrative moments of sensory remembrance, this paper analyses how participants narrate embodied memory as a mode of reflection, self-protection, and dynamic integration, wherein the experience of disorder informs practices of recovery, and the body becomes a site for the reconciliation of past and present.
S. van Tilborg
Full Text Available The passion narrative of Jesus as told by Matthew is a verbal enunciation which finds its place next to other passion narratives in which the narrator lets the protagonist use the words of the '1' person of Psalm 22 and in which the narrator describes internal and external conflicts with the words of the Psalm. Against the background of the Greek Septuagint and the Aramaic text in the Targum, parallel to what the hymnist of Qumran tries to do and the narrator of the story about Aseneth, based on the narrative as we find it in Mark, Matthew took Psalm 22 as anchor for his story. What is described in the Psalm, happens in the life and death of Jesus. To approach Jesus' passion more closely, Matthew used poetic language: words on words on words. The passion and death of Jesus has thus become literature, an ambiguous attempt to express the impossible. The question, 'how can one maintain today compassion against the forces of violence?', is the concern of the article.
Comparcini, Dania; Simonetti, Valentina; Lupo, Roberto; Cicolini, Giancarlo
This narrative review aimed to synthetize the results of the main studies analysing nurses' experience of stalking in different clinical settings. We searched the electronic databases MEDLINE (through PubMed), CINAHL (through EBSCOhost) and the search engine "Google Scholar". Searches were limited to articles published in English and Italian, and published between 1999 and 2013. Stalking refers to a behavioural pattern characterized by persistent unwanted communications and contacts imposed to another person, which, consequently suffer from distress, fear, and anxiety. Several studies explored the risk of stalking in healthcare system, especially in doctors and psychiatrists. Some authors analysed nurses' experience of stalking with particular attention to mental health professionals as a group category with an increased risk of stalking by patients. Results of some studies carried out in different clinical settings (medical and surgical areas, and other healthcare settings) also revealed, even if in a minority, the presence of this phenomenon, showing the presence of staking's behaviours by patients and healthcare colleagues too. However, more researches with large sample size are needed to better understand the phenomenon of stalking in nurses working in different clinical areas.
Newton, Jennifer M
Effective facilitation has been identified in the literature as one of three elements, along with context and evidence, that have a dynamic and coexisting relationship to enable the successful uptake of evidence into practice. This paper presents an overview of the concept of facilitation within the context of practice development, ahead of a personal and professional reflective account of a 'developing facilitator'. In the summer of 2001, the author was instrumental in organising the first Practice Development School in Melbourne. Thrown in at the deep end, she found herself co-facilitating with an experienced practice developer from the United Kingdom. Having never facilitated in the arena of an action learning group, nor worked in the field of practice development, there was initially a sense of impending overload and drowning in the new knowledge and skills that needed to be acquired. Drawing upon the work of narrative inquiry the author shares her experiences in the anticipation that in telling her story it will assist others in their journey of becoming a facilitator.
Full Text Available Introduction and Aim. Further gains in the prevention of drug abuse disorders require in-depth and holistic understanding of the risk factors of addiction from different perspectives. Lay persons and experts have different concepts of risk which could complement each other. The purpose of this study was to elaborate drug abuse risk factors through the story of individuals who had become drug dependent. Design and Methods. In this qualitative research, 33 individuals attending treatment centres for drug abuse were interviewed about the story of their addiction in Kerman, Iran. Interview questions were around the story of the participants. Results. All participants were male and in the age range of 18–40 years. Narrative analysis identified five themes as the main risk factors: family factors, peer pressure, the effect of gateway drugs (especially waterpipe, individual characteristics, and the community factors. More emphasis was placed upon the role of family factors, peer influence, and gateway effect. Discussion and Conclusion. This study elicited information from drug dependent subjects regarding the risk factors of drug abuse. According to drug dependent individuals’ views, more attention should be devoted to family and peer influences by policy makers, in developing culture-based preventive strategies.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore what is performed in students’ and teachers’ actions in physical education practice in terms of “didactic irritations,” through an analysis of YouTube clips from 285 PE lessons from 27 different countries. Didactic irritations are occurrences that Rønholt describes as those demanding “didactic, pedagogical reflections and discussions, which in turn could lead to alternative thinking and understanding about teaching and learning.” Drawing on Barad’s ideas of performativity to challenge our habitual anthropocentric analytical gaze when looking at educational visual data, and using narrative construction, we also aim to give meaning to actions, relations, and experiences of the participants in the YouTube clips. To do this, we present juxtaposing narratives from teachers and students in terms of three “didactic irritations”: (a stories from a track, (b, stories from a game, and (c, stories from a bench. The stories re-present events-of-moving in the data offering insights into embodied experiences in PE practice, making students’ as well as teachers’ actions in PE practice understandable.
Full Text Available This article is a more general "companion" to the subsequent, Brian ROBERTS (2011 "Interpreting Photographic Portraits: Autobiography, Time Perspectives and Two School Photographs". The article seeks to add to the growing awareness of the importance of visual materials and methods in qualitative social research and to give an introduction to the "photographic self image"—self-portraits and portraits. It focuses on time and memory, including the experiential associations (in consciousness and the senses that the self engenders, thus linking the "visual" (photographic and "auto/biographical". The article attempts to "map" a field—the use of portraiture within social science—drawing on narrative and biographical research, on one side, and photographic portraiture, on the other. In supporting the use of photography in qualitative research it points to the need for researchers to have a greater knowledge of photographic (and art criticism and cognisance of photographic practices. The article does not intend to give a definitive account of photographic portraiture or prescribe in detail how it may be used within social science. It is an initial overview of the development and issues within the area of photographic portraiture and an exploration of relevant methodological issues when images of individuals are employed within social science—so that "portraiture" is better understood and developed within biographical and narrative research. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs110263
Alghamdi, Mohammed; Hunt, Nigel; Thomas, Shirley
Firefighters are exposed to many traumatic events. The psychological costs of this exposure increase the risk of Post-Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD), depression and anxiety. This study examined the effectiveness of Narrative Exposure Therapy (NET) as a short-term treatment for reducing PTSD symptoms among Saudi firefighters. A randomized waiting-list control study was conducted with 34 traumatized firefighters were randomly allocated to NET or Waiting-list Control (WLC). The NET group received four therapy sessions of 60-90 min over a three-week period; those in the WLC condition received the same sessions after a three-week waiting period. Participants in both groups were assessed at baseline, immediately post-intervention and at 3 and 6 month follow ups. NET led to significant reductions in PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression compared with WLC. After the WLC group received treatment, it showed the same improvements as the NET group. This occurred immediately post-treatment in both groups, but was not sustained at 3 and 6 month follow ups. Coping strategies and social support led to significant changes only in follow up times. NET was effective in reducing PTSD symptoms in traumatised Saudi firefighters. This finding could be helpful in the management of PTSD among people who work as first responders such as firefighters, police officers and emergency medical personal, as well as security officers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Girvin, June; Jackson, Debra; Hutchinson, Marie
To investigate the current public understanding and perceptions of nursing. In recent years, attention to large scale health-care failures has focused considerable concern upon nursing standards. To avoid short-term solutions, and the temptation to see individual failures as representative of the wider profession, it is important to understand contemporary public perceptions of nursing. A systematic review and narrative synthesis of peer reviewed papers from January 2010 to September 2015. Four main themes were identified: (1) media portrayal of nursing as a troubled profession; (2) entertainment value in demeaning nursing; (3) role incongruity - nursing trusted but not respected; and (4) nursing roles remain poorly understood. Although there is evidence of strong public trust, this does not generally appear to be born out of an understanding of nursing work and impact; rather it appears to stem from the respect held for the traditional, more sentimental stereotypes of selfless, hardworking young females. A long-term, strategic solution is required that focuses on public engagement and interaction with the profession in a context wider than personal health/ill-health, and that goes beyond the marketing campaigns seen in the past to address recruitment crises. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Wilkins, James M
Dementia is a common neurodegenerative process that can significantly impair decision-making capacity as the disease progresses. When a person is found to lack capacity to make a decision, a surrogate decision-maker is generally sought to aid in decision-making. Typical bases for surrogate decision-making include the substituted judgment standard and the best interest standard. Given the heterogeneous and progressive course of dementia, however, these standards for surrogate decision-making are often insufficient in providing guidance for the decision-making for a person with dementia, escalating the likelihood of conflict in these decisions. In this article, the narrative interest standard is presented as a novel and more appropriate approach to surrogate decision-making for people with dementia. Through case presentation and ethical analysis, the standard mechanisms for surrogate decision-making for people with dementia are reviewed and critiqued. The narrative interest standard is then introduced and discussed as a dementia-specific model for surrogate decision-making. Through incorporation of elements of a best interest standard in focusing on the current benefit-burden ratio and elements of narrative to provide context, history, and flexibility for values and preferences that may change over time, the narrative interest standard allows for elaboration of an enriched context for surrogate decision-making for people with dementia. More importantly, however, a narrative approach encourages the direct contribution from people with dementia in authoring the story of what matters to them in their lives.
Mannon, Bethany Ober
The field of narrative medicine holds that personal narratives about illness have the potential to give illness meaning and to create order out of disparate facets of experience, thereby aiding a patient's treatment and resisting universalizing medical discourse. Two narratives of bipolar disorder, Kay Redfield Jamison's prose memoir An Unquiet Mind (1995) and Ellen Forney's graphic memoir Marbles (2012) challenge these ideas. These writers demonstrate that one result of bipolar disorder is a rupture to their sense of identity, making straightforward and verbal forms of narrative impossible. During periods of relative mood stability, reliable memories of mania or depression are equally impossible. As a result, these memoirists seek to develop sources of self-knowledge other than memory and introspection, long the foundations of personal narrative. Finally, An Unquiet Mind and Marbles return attention to questions of selfhood at a time when scholarship on memoir rejects interpretations of life stories as clear and reliable expressions of identity.
Firstly, we analyse the design of this sociolinguistics unit within the framework of theories of narrative and multicultural education. Secondly, we analyse three language biographies produced by students in this course in terms of student learning, identity issues and sociolinguistic themes. The narratives provided an ...