WorldWideScience

Sample records for short oral communications

  1. [Oral communication: short history and some rules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panini, Roberta; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2015-01-01

    The verbal communication represents the first human communication, that even more used and one most immediate. History and the development of communication is divided into historical periods, is complex and is bound to the period contingencies and to the social reference community. The oral communication is never isolated but is always taken by the not verbal one, including the silences, the position and the spaces (c.d. proxemics). The good communicator stimulates the cooperation through the conversation rule respect (qualities, amounts, way and relation) and reduces the possible asymmetry between broadcaster and receiver fitting its code to that of the interlocutor.

  2. Treatment of oral dysplasia with 5% imiquimod cream: short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, R; Ansell, M; Laverick, S

    2016-11-01

    We report what we think is the first treatment of oral dysplasia with 5% imiquimod cream. A 60-year-old man presented with varying degrees of dysplasia on the soft palate. A cover plate was fabricated and the patient was prescribed 5% imiquimod cream, a topical imunomodulator, for six weeks. The lesion improved and histological examination of an incisional biopsy found no features of dysplasia. This case highlights the efficacy of imiquimod cream in the treatment of dysplasia, and the need for development of a preparation suitable for the oral mucosa. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  5. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  7. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  8. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (2011) found dose dependent inhibition of oral isolates of S. mutans by methanol extract of Croton gibsonianus Nimm. Grah leaves. In our study, dose dependent inhibition of cariogenic isolates was observed. CONCLUSION. In this study, we reported anticariogenic activity of leaf extract of L. speciosa. The leaf extract was.

  9. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  10. Short communications published online in the British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery during 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, S; Southorn, B; Rosenbaum, G; Aldridge, T; Brennan, P A

    2012-09-01

    The British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (BJOMS) publishes many types of papers including original articles, review articles, and short communications. Many of the latter are isolated case reports of rare or interesting diseases or of difficult or unexpected complications. While case reports are sometimes considered to be of little educational or clinical value, and as such do little to advance medical knowledge, they do have an important role, and many trainees begin their publishing careers writing such papers. There is increasing pressure for space in paper medical journals and, for this reason, some journals either limit or do not publish short publications in print copy but instead put them online. Using established criteria, we previously evaluated all 142 short communications published in the BJOMS during 2008-2009 and found that 48% of them had little or no educational value. As a result, the editorial board of BJOMS took the decision to publish most short communications online only. We have now analysed 48 short communications that were published online only during 2010-2011. Most (80%) were single case reports that covered virtually the whole remit of the specialty, and over half (56%) were published by authors based in the UK. While many of these papers did not add important new information to existing knowledge, these types of article are clearly of value both for trainees and for experienced surgeons. We think that these should continue to be supported as, in addition to their educational value, they are an excellent way for trainees to start to write. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. TOWARDS AN UNDERSTANDING OF THE BENEFITS OF SHORT STORIES IN ORAL COMMUNICATION COURSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Sevilla Morales

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: El presente artículo explora la relación existente entre la lectura de historias cortas y el impulso de la enseñanza centrada en el estudiante, la autoconfianza y las actitudes positivas hacia la lectura, en los cursos de comunicación oral dentro del contexto de inglés como lengua extranjera (EFL. Para ello, participaron veintidós estudiantes del Centro de Formación Profesional de Ciudad Quesada, Costa Rica, del Instituto Nacional de Aprendizaje (INA en un proyecto de lectura, en el cual las actividades comunicativas se realizaron alrededor del contenido de las historias y su conexión con las experiencias de vida de los participantes. El estudio adoptó un paradigma de investigación cuantitativa donde se combinaron varios instrumentos para la recolección, el reporte y el análisis de los resultados. Los hallazgos muestran el progreso logrado por los participantes, en términos de sus opiniones, actitudes y hábitos con respecto a la lectura en general y a la lectura de historias cortas, luego de participar en el proyecto. Los autores concluyen que existe una relación entre la lectura de historias cortas en EFL y el desarrollo de los tres componentes estudiados. Todo ello ocurre mientras se da un paso hacia el logro de las competencias culturales que la sociedad multicultural y multilingüe demanda.

  12. Communication among Oral Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolenbrander, Paul E.; Andersen, Roxanna N.; Blehert, David S.; Egland, Paul G.; Foster, Jamie S.; Palmer, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Human oral bacteria interact with their environment by attaching to surfaces and establishing mixed-species communities. As each bacterial cell attaches, it forms a new surface to which other cells can adhere. Adherence and community development are spatiotemporal; such order requires communication. The discovery of soluble signals, such as autoinducer-2, that may be exchanged within multispecies communities to convey information between organisms has emerged as a new research direction. Direct-contact signals, such as adhesins and receptors, that elicit changes in gene expression after cell-cell contact and biofilm growth are also an active research area. Considering that the majority of oral bacteria are organized in dense three-dimensional biofilms on teeth, confocal microscopy and fluorescently labeled probes provide valuable approaches for investigating the architecture of these organized communities in situ. Oral biofilms are readily accessible to microbiologists and are excellent model systems for studies of microbial communication. One attractive model system is a saliva-coated flowcell with oral bacterial biofilms growing on saliva as the sole nutrient source; an intergeneric mutualism is discussed. Several oral bacterial species are amenable to genetic manipulation for molecular characterization of communication both among bacteria and between bacteria and the host. A successful search for genes critical for mixed-species community organization will be accomplished only when it is conducted with mixed-species communities. PMID:12209001

  13. SHORT COMMUNICATION POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF K+ IONS USING A K+-SELECTIVE. ELECTRODE WITH MACROCYCLIC LIQUID MEMBRANE. Cezar Spinu*, Marian Isvoranu, Maria Pleniceanu and Cristian Tigae. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza 13, Craiova, Romania. (Received ...

  14. Short communication: Distribution of Porphyromonas gulae fimA genotypes in oral specimens from dogs with mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Mitsuyuki; Nomura, Ryota; Kato, Yukio; Murakami, Masaru; Kondo, Chihiro; Takahashi, Soraaki; Yamasaki, Yoshie; Matsumoto-Nakano, Michiyo; Arai, Nobuaki; Yasuda, Hidemi; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Asai, Fumitoshi

    2015-10-01

    Porphyromonas gulae, a suspected pathogen for periodontal disease in dogs, possesses approximately 41-kDa fimbriae (FimA) that are encoded by the fimA gene. In the present study, the association of fimA genotypes with mitral regurgitation (MR) was investigated. Twenty-five dogs diagnosed with MR (age range 6-13 years old, average 10.8 years) and 32 healthy dogs (8-15 years old, average 10.8 years) were selected at the participating clinics in a consecutive manner during the same time period. Oral swab specimens were collected from the dogs and bacterial DNA was extracted, then polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed using primers specific for each fimA genotype, with the dominant genotype determined. The rate for genotype C dominant specimens was 48.0% in the MR group, which was significantly higher than that in the control group (18.8%) (P <0.05). These results suggest that P. gulae fimA genotype C is associated with MR. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Oral Communication across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    2011-01-01

    Proficiency in oral communication is necessary in school and in society. To do well in the different curriculum areas, pupils must speak with clarity and understanding. For example, in a discussion group in the social studies involving the topic "the pros and cons of raising taxes," pupils need to express knowledgeable ideas with appropriate voice…

  16. 31 CFR 103.83 - Oral communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oral communications. 103.83 Section... AND REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Administrative Rulings § 103.83 Oral communications... response to oral requests. Oral opinions or advice by Treasury, the Customs Service, the Internal Revenue...

  17. Oral Communicative Competence of Primary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, Isabel Cantón; Barrioluengo, Elena Pérez

    2017-01-01

    Oral communicative competence enables speakers of a language to interact effectively with each other. Oral communicative competence includes a wide semantic field since the oral expression is a way of expression for the thought and it provides feedback and develops by means of the linguistic function (Vygotsky, 1992; Piaget, 1983a, 1983b; Pinker,…

  18. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  19. A Qualitative Exploration of Oral Communication Apprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Marann; Flood, Barbara; Shanahan, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has identified communication apprehension (CA), or fear of communicating, as a major factor which inhibits an individual's willingness to communicate and his/her capability to develop effective communication skills. While many prior studies have measured oral communication apprehension of students, there has been little qualitative…

  20. The New Orality: Oral Characteristics of Computer-Mediated Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Sharmila Pixy; Montgomery, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    Considers the characteristics of orality and literacy developed in the work of scholars such as Walter Ong to consider computer-mediated communication (CMC) as the potential site of a "new orality" which is neither purely oral or literate. Notes that the medium of CMC is writing, which has traditionally represented the…

  1. Oral Communication Apprehension among International Doctoral Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Fatemeh; Puteh, Marlia

    2018-01-01

    Communication apprehension has been identified as a major factor which inhibits an individual's willingness to communicate and his/her ability to develop effective communication skills. While many prior studies have investigated oral communication apprehension among undergraduate students, there has been little research exploring this phenomenon…

  2. SHORT COMMUNICATION CARCINOGENIC POTENCY OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    humans comes primarily from occupational studies of workers following inhalation ... Rats given 50 or 150 mg/kg per day of benzo(a)pyrene orally for four days showed ... exposed by inhalation to 7.7 mg/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene dust for 2 h/day, five days .... and the toxic effects of different compounds in a mixture are additive.

  3. Short Communication: Gender Bias and Stigmatization against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Gender Bias and Stigmatization against Women Living with ... In Ethiopia, HIV/AIDS is highly stigmatized due to the fact that sexual ... bias, socio-economic situations and traditional beliefs contribute, individually and in ...

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    1976). Among raptors there are those species where only the female incubates, those where the male may also incubate for short to longer periods, and those in which females and males equally share the incubation (Newton 1979). It is well known that both sexes incubate the clutch in vultures, both in the wild (Mundy et al.

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS Record of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    50. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND. REPORTS. Record of Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus from Mukundara Hills Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan,. India. Sailaja Nayak1*, Sunny Shah2 and Jimmy Borah2 .... Prey status and abundance in Mukundara Hills Tiger. Reserve. Technical Report, WWF-India. Rao, J.P. ...

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATION High prevalence of Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    Volume 20, Number 1, January 2018. 1. SHORT COMMUNICATION ... This study was designed to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among HIV infected populations. ... The prevalence of P. falciparum was high among HIV seropositive individuals in the Lake Victoria Zone, which calls for additional ...

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: naeimi@kashanu.ac.ir. SHORT COMMUNICATION. CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF. SOME NEW SCHIFF BASES. Hossein Naeimi* and Zahra Sadat Nazifi. Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan,. Kashan, 87317 ...

  8. Relationship between candidate communication ability and oral certification examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunz, Mary E; Bashook, Philip G

    2008-12-01

    Structured case-based oral examinations are widely used in medical certifying examinations in the USA. These orals assess the candidate's decision-making skills using real or realistic patient cases. Frequently mentioned but not empirically evaluated is the potential bias introduced by the candidate's communication ability. This study aimed to assess the relationship between candidate communication ability and medical certification oral examination scores. Non-doctor communication observers rated a random sample of 90 candidates on communication ability during a medical oral certification examination. The multi-facet Rasch model was used to analyse the communication survey and the oral examination data. The multi-facet model accounts for observer and examiner severity bias. anova was used to measure differences in communication ability between passing and failing candidates and candidates grouped by level of communication ability. Pearson's correlations were used to compare candidate communication ability and oral certification examination performance. Candidate separation reliability values for the communication survey and the oral examination were 0.85 and 0.97, respectively, suggesting accurate candidate measurement. The correlation between communication scores and oral examination scores was 0.10. No significant difference was found between passing and failing candidates for measured communication ability. When candidates were grouped by high, moderate and low communication ability, there was no significant difference in their oral certification examination performance. Candidates' communication ability has little relationship to candidate performance on high-stakes, case-based oral examinations. Examiners for this certifying examination focused on assessing candidate decision-making ability and were not influenced by candidate communication ability.

  9. Short distance line of sight laser communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudassar, A.A.; Hussain, H.; Jamil-ur-Rehman

    1998-01-01

    Communication methods based on lasers as carrier are well known. In our work we have made a two way laser based communication system for short range (<2 Km) line of sight communication. A small piece of plane mirror (100% reflector) was mounted on the centre of a speaker cone. The speaker was positioned close to the opening of laser such that He-Ne laser beam (10 mW) after reflection from the mirror is directed towards the receiver. There is a pre-amplifier and an amplifier between a microphone and the speaker. When the diagram of the speaker vibrates, it positionally modulates the laser beam. On the receiving end, there is a photo diode, a pre-amplifier, an amplifier and a head phone. So the man on the receiving end can decode the sound signal. On each stage there is a transmitter and a receiver assembled close to each other. So the two way communication is possible in the range 20 to 20 Khz. (author)

  10. The Oral Communication Competence Dilemma: Are We Communicating Competently about Speech Communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleuriet, Cathy A.

    1997-01-01

    Questions survey results which find oral communication education alive and well in higher education. Argues that those outside the discipline need to be educated about the nature of speech communication education and that a concerted effort must be made by faculty and administrators to reinforce the academic credibility of the discipline. (PA)

  11. Specific Oral Communication Skills Desired in New Accountancy Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, F. Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    International research findings and anecdotal evidence alike suggest that new accountancy graduates often begin their careers with inadequate oral communication skills. However, there is a lack of well-grounded empirical data concerning precisely what accountancy employers mean by "oral communication" and what specific skills they value…

  12. Short Communications A description of gametogenesis in the panga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-09-25

    Sep 25, 1996 ... Short Communications. A description of ... In this communication, descriptions ... Each fish sampled was sexed using visual criteria (Table I) and gonadal ..... dilated portions owing to different degrees of inflation caused. R.

  13. Activity Detection for Information Access to Oral Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ries, Klaus; Waibel, Alex

    2001-01-01

    .... Traditional information retrieval techniques use a histogram of keywords as the document representation but oral communication may offer additional indices such as the time and place of the rejoinder and the attendance...

  14. Using Oral Exams to Assess Communication Skills in Business Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke-Smalley, Lisa A.

    2014-01-01

    Business, like many other fields in higher education, continues to rely largely on conventional testing methods for assessing student learning. In the current article, another evaluation approach--the oral exam--is examined as a means for building and evaluating the professional communication and oral dialogue skills needed and utilized by…

  15. NEEDS ANALYSIS OF ENGLISH LITERATURE STUDENTS IN ENGLISH ORAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angga Maulana

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify factual information about the needs of students of English Literature in the activities and supporting factors of oral communication by using English, whether linguistic and non-linguistic, and analyzing the difficulties of the situation of oral communication of English Literature students using English. This research uses descriptive method. Data collection is done through two stages: the questionnaire and the interview, followed by the review of someliteratures. The results of this study indicate that in general the students of English Literature feel that participating in a formal discussion is more important than the informal. While in terms of ability in the oral communication activity, generally students mastered informal communication activities. In terms of linguistic factors, the choice of vocabularies, and good and correct sentences are considered very important, although they only feel quite capable in it. It is also found that talking with self-confidence, having proper English pronunciation and mastering the topic of conversation become the important non-linguistic factors. The same thing does not happen on loudness and facial mimic. In general, students feel it is not important enough to master. Regarding situations that facilitate students in oral communication in English, they generally feel that well preparation, self-confidence, and mastery over vocabulary and what is being discussed becomes an easier factor. Different things revealed by most students about the difficult vocabulary and the lack of preparation in oral communication. It is difficult. As for things that require improvement, students generally feel that the confidence and the amount of vocabulary that is mastered should be improved in order to improve the quality of oral communication in English.

  16. Short communication Sperm DNA damage in relation to lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leyland Fraser

    Short communication. Sperm DNA ... (Received 21 January 2017; Accepted 28 February2017; First published online 8 March 2017) ... This study investigated the relationships between lipid peroxidation (LPO) and sperm DNA damage.

  17. Short communications Goose barnacles on seals and a penguin at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communications Goose barnacles on seals and a penguin at Gough Island. ... to the pelage of two of the 12 elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) inspected and one ... We also recorded a goose barnacle attached to a Northern rockhopper ...

  18. Short Communications Strength Properties and Groups of Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communications Strength Properties and Groups of Major Commercial Timbers Grown in Kenya. ... The strength groups developed revealed that most species in Kenya are suitable for heavy engineering works and building construction. ... strength properties, commercial timber, physical and mechanical properties

  19. Innovative Training of Oral Communication: Berlin Kompass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihkala-Posti, Laura

    2014-01-01

    In a classical instructed language classroom setting, the practicing of communication situations is too often limited to producing isolated phrases and sentences without actually testing their relevance for the intended action. An example is describing and finding a route. In this paper, results of the early pilots with a collaborative virtual…

  20. Theories in Developing Oral Communication for Specific Learner Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi, Marham Jupri

    2016-01-01

    The current article presents some key theories most relevant to the development of oral communication skills in an Indonesian senior high school. Critical analysis on the learners' background is employed to figure out their strengths and weaknesses. The brief overview of the learning context and learners' characteristic are used to identify which…

  1. [Oral communication, for the spread and transfer of knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloni, Pascale; Berger, Valérie; Peoc'h, Nadia

    2013-12-01

    The continuous improvement of the quality of care in the personalised management of each patient requires practitioners to consciously use the best current data resulting from clinical research. The oral communication of the results of research work is one of the methods of optimising the scientific, pedagogical and social value of nursing and allied healthcare research.

  2. Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2012-01-01

    Rusman, E., & Stoyanov, S. (2011, 18 May). Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication. Presentation about the CEFcult project (www.cefcult.eu) at the workshop ‘Crossing borders’ organised by the Talenacademie, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University in the

  3. Integrate oral communication with technical writing: Towards a rationale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, T.

    1981-01-01

    Integrating oral communication and technical writing instruction, to give students the opportunity to learn and practice interpersonal skills, is proposed. By linking speech and writing the importance of small-group interaction in developing transferrable ideas is acknowledged. Three reasons for integration are examined: workday activities, application of role-taking to writing, and conflict resolution. Four advantages of integration are stated.

  4. Selling Your Design: Oral Communication Pedagogy in Design Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Janne; O'Brien, David

    2005-01-01

    Good design skills are the main focus of assessment practices in design education and are evaluated primarily by drawings and models. In some settings, design studio pedagogy tends to reflect only these content-oriented assessment priorities, with minimal attention paid to the development of oral communication skills. Yet, in many professional…

  5. A View of Oral Communication Activities in Food Science from the Perspective of a Communication Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrchota, Denise Ann

    2015-01-01

    Food science researchers have pronounced the Institute of Food Technologists Success Skills to be the most important competency mastered by graduates entering the work force. Much of the content and outcomes of the Success Skills pertains to oral communication skills of public speaking and interpersonal and group communication. This qualitative…

  6. Learners' Willingness to Communicate in Face-to-Face versus Oral Computer-Mediated Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanguas, Íñigo; Flores, Alayne

    2014-01-01

    The present study had two main goals: to explore performance differences in a task-based environment between face-to-face (FTF) and oral computer-mediated communication (OCMC) groups, and to investigate the relationship between trait-like willingness to communicate (WTC) and performance in the FTF and OCMC groups. Students from two intact…

  7. Communication with diode laser: short distance line of sight communication using fiber optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirza, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to carry audio signal from transmitting station to a short distance receiving station along line of sight and also communication through fiber optics is performed, using diode laser light as carrier. In this project optical communication system, modulation techniques, basics of laser and causes of using diode laser are discussed briefly. Transmitter circuit and receiver circuit are fully described. Communication was performed using pulse width modulation technique. Optical fiber communication have many advantages over other type of conventional communication techniques. This report contains the description of optical fiber communication and compared with other communication systems. (author)

  8. Short-term effect of two education methods on oral health among hearing impairment children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Pouradeli

    2016-12-01

    CONCLUSION: Both video and dental model effectively improve the oral health of children with HI in short term. Continuous school-based oral health education programs, particularly for HI children, need to be considered.

  9. The Cultivation of Cross-Cultural Communication Competence in Oral English Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the main problems and difficulties in current college English oral English teaching practice, illustrates the relationship between oral English teaching and cross-cultural communication competence. On the one hand, cross-cultural communication plays an essential role in oral English teaching; besides, oral English teaching…

  10. Orality and literacy, formality and informality in email communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pérez Sabater

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to the linguistic characteristics of computer-mediated communication (CMC have highlighted the frequent oral traits involved in electronic mail along with features of written language. But email is today a new communication exchange medium in social, professional and academic settings, frequently used as a substitute for the traditional formal letter. The oral characterizations and linguistic formality involved in this use of emails are still in need of research. This paper explores the formal and informal features in emails based on a corpus of messages exchanged by academic institutions, and studies the similarities and differences on the basis of their mode of communication (one-to-one or one-to-many and the sender’s mother tongue (native or nonnative. The language samples collected were systematically analyzed for formality of greetings and farewells, use of contractions, politeness indicators and non-standard linguistic features. The findings provide new insights into traits of orality and formality in email communication and demonstrate the emergence of a new style in writing for even the most important, confidential and formal purposes which seems to be forming a new sub-genre of letter-writing.

  11. Critical Concerns for Oral Communication Education in the United States and the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard

    2011-01-01

    An examination of oral communication education in the United States (U.S.) and United Kingdom (U.K.) identified four critical concerns: (1) Today's college students are not getting adequate oral communication education; (2) Oral communication education is being relegated to a "module" in another discipline-specific course; (3) When an…

  12. Short communication. Enhancement of the immune responses to vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease in mice by oral administration of Quillaja saponaria-A and extracts of Cochinchina momordica seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. W. Xiao

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of extracts from Cochinchina momordica seed (ECMS or Quillaja saponaria-A (Quil-A on the immune responses in mice immunized with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV-serotype O vaccine. Forty-two imprinting control region (ICR mice were randomly divided into seven groups of 6 animals in each group, and a dose of 400 μg of Quil-A or ECMS was orally administered for 1,, 2 or 3 days. After that, the animals were subcutaneously immunized twice with FMD vaccine at 3-week intervals and blood samples were collected 2-weeks after boosting for measurement of FMDV-specific IgG and its subclasses. Spleens were collected for lymphocytes proliferation assay. Results indicated that serum FMDV-specific IgG and the IgG subclass responses were significantly enhanced in mice orally administered ECMS or Quil-A when compared with the control group (p<0.05. Lymphocytes proliferation response to FMD vaccine was significantly enhanced by ECMS compared with the control (p<0.05. This study illustrates that ECMS induced immunomodulatory effects and performed better than Quil-A.

  13. Willingness to Communicate Orally: The Case of Iranian EFL Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Elaheh; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2017-12-01

    This study sets out to develop a questionnaire on willingness to communicate (WTC) orally specific to English as a Foreign Language setting. It also aims to investigate the effect of three independent variables of interlocutor, age and gender on the same construct of WTC orally. Exploratory factor analysis resulted in three dimensions to WTC, namely WTC with teacher, with classmate, and stranger. Also Cronbach's alpha of .86 indicated a high internal consistency. Mixed between-within subjects analysis of variance was used to assess the impact of interlocutors, age and gender on participants' WTC across the three WTC subscale scores. The results showed no interaction effect between any of pairs of variables but the main effect of interlocutor on WTC orally. The results are discussed in the context of language teaching and some pedagogical implications are suggested.

  14. Oral Communication in ESL Through Improvisations, Playwriting And Rehearsals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamkaur Gill

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of drama strategies which focus more on meaning than on form can provide an impetus for ESL learners to be more confident about speaking, thereby increasing the quantity of their spoken English. This paper discusses existing research and the author’s own experiences in an attempt to highlight the positive effects of improvisations, playwriting and rehearsals on the oral output of learners in relation to communicative English.

  15. Short Communication: Significance for pasture production in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Significance for pasture production in the southern Cape coastal region of naturalized rhizobia nodulating the strain specific Medicago ... The significance of naturalized strains of M. polymorpha in the production of medic pastures in some soils of the southern Cape coastal region is discussed.

  16. Short Communication Relationships between the water solubility of ...

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    132. Short Communication. Relationships between the water solubility of roughage dry matter and certain chemical characteristics. J.W. Cilliers- and H.J. Cilliers. North West Agricultural Development lnstitute, Private. Bag X804, Potchefstroom, 2520 Republic of South Africa. Received 17 May 1995; accepted 8 August 1995.

  17. Short Communication: Nutrition Knowledge and Beliefs of Pregnant ...

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    Short Communication: Nutrition Knowledge and Beliefs of Pregnant Women in Aboh-Mbaise Local Government Area (LGA) of Imo State. ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... On ways of improving the condition/nutrition knowledge of pregnant mothers, the respondents accepted the building of more health

  18. Short Communication: Prevalence of hypertension and variation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Prevalence of hypertension and variation of blood pressure with age among adolescents in Chetla, India. I Saha, B Paul, A Dasgupta. Abstract. This community-based cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of hypertension and variation of blood pressure with age among ...

  19. short communication the effect of ocimum sanctum and ledum

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    SHORT COMMUNICATION. THE EFFECT OF OCIMUM SANCTUM AND LEDUM PALUSTRE ON SERUM URIC. ACID LEVEL IN PATIENTS ... It is a metabolic disorder characterized by abnormally high levels of uric acid in the blood. The pain and swelling due to gout can be sudden and may appear and disappear over ...

  20. Short communication: Effective population size and inbreeding rate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communication: Effective population size and inbreeding rate of indigenous Nguni cattle under in situ conservation in the low-input communal production ... as not at risk of extinction, while the individual enterprises were classified as being endangered-maintained without the exchange of germ plasm among them.

  1. Naumoff short-rib polydactyly syndrome compounded with Mohr oral-facial-digital syndrome

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    Young, L.W.; Wilhelm, L.L. [Loma Linda Univ., CA (United States). Medical Center; Zuppan, C.W. [Div. of Pediatric Pathology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, CA (United States); Clark, R. [Div. of Medical Genetics, Loma Linda University Medical Center, CA (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A stillborn baby boy had findings of severe constitutional dwarfism with short limbs, short ribs, and polydactyly that were consistent with Naumoff (type III) short-rib polydactyly syndrome. He also had additional congenital anomalies, including cleft palate, notching of the upper lip, small tongue with accessory sublingual tissue. These oral and pharyngeal anomalies were consistent with Mohr (type II) oral-facial-digital syndrome. We suggest the stillborn infant represented a compound of Naumoff short-rib polydactyly syndrome (SRPS-III) and Mohr oral-facial-digital syndrome (OFDS-II). (orig.)

  2. Relationship of candidate communication and organization skills to oral certification examination scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, James E; Smith, Everett V

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the relationship between candidate's proficiency in communication/organization and ability measures derived from judges' oral examination ratings on a medical specialty certification examination. Judges who rated candidates on the oral examination also provided a separate rating for candidates' communication/organization skills. ANOVA was used to examine differences among levels of communication/organizational skills with respect to candidates' ability measures on the oral examination. There was a statistically significant increase in oral examination measures for candidates with higher levels of communication/organization skills. This supports the hypothesis that candidates who were more proficient in organizing and presenting their responses were more likely to have better performance on the oral examination. Given communication and oral examination ratings were provided by the same judges, future research should investigate whether these preliminary findings generalize to situations in which communication ratings are obtained from independent ratings during and outside the oral examination.

  3. Maximising Asian ESL Learners’ Communicative Oral English via Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamkaur Gill

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes that activities based on a variety of drama-based techniques could be valuable in giving Asian ESL learners opportunities to use communicative spoken English confidently and without restraint during their time in English-language-speaking countries. These learners often get anxious when in situations where they are required to speak in English. Fears about making errors related to grammar, fluency and clarity that might cause them to be embarrassed stand in the way of unencumbered speech output. In addition, cultural issues linked to voice-projection and body language can hinder oral interaction in English and hamper their motivation to speak. They are, therefore, deprived of much-needed speaking practice. I find that drama lets my students speak communicatively, free of the dread of constant correction, in a relaxed and enjoyable learner-centred environment that appears to help diminish their anxiety and inhibitions. As a result, their motivation to speak increases, leading to extended speech production. Keywords: ESL, Asian students’ traits, communicative oral English, drama variations

  4. The Importance of Oral Communication Skills and a Graduate Course to Help Improve These Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Garth L.

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the importance of oral communication and many of its fundamental underlying principles. Emphasis is placed on oral presentations, particularly those used in science and engineering. Following this, the author provides a brief outline of an elective graduate level oral communications course that was developed and utilized to…

  5. 14 CFR Appendix 1 to Part 11 - Oral Communications With the Public During Rulemaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oral Communications With the Public During... the substance of a proposed rule is significantly changed as a result of such an oral communication... TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURAL RULES GENERAL RULEMAKING PROCEDURES Pt. 11, App. 1 Appendix 1 to Part 11—Oral...

  6. Oral Communication and Technical Writing: A Reconsideration of Writing in a Multicultural Era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibangu, Sylvain K.

    2009-01-01

    This article investigates the status of orality in the history of technical communication. The article calls for orality as an integral part and driving force of technical writing. The article brings to light the misconceptions that have led to a diminished role of oral communication in technical writing. The article shows the implications of oral…

  7. Peripheral facial palsy: Speech, communication and oral motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movérare, T; Lohmander, A; Hultcrantz, M; Sjögreen, L

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of acquired unilateral peripheral facial palsy on speech, communication and oral functions and to study the relationship between the degree of facial palsy and articulation, saliva control, eating ability and lip force. In this descriptive study, 27 patients (15 men and 12 women, mean age 48years) with unilateral peripheral facial palsy were included if they were graded under 70 on the Sunnybrook Facial Grading System. The assessment was carried out in connection with customary visits to the ENT Clinic and comprised lip force, articulation and intelligibility, together with perceived ability to communicate and ability to eat and control saliva conducted through self-response questionnaires. The patients with unilateral facial palsy had significantly lower lip force, poorer articulation and ability to eat and control saliva compared with reference data in healthy populations. The degree of facial palsy correlated significantly with lip force but not with articulation, intelligibility, perceived communication ability or reported ability to eat and control saliva. Acquired peripheral facial palsy may affect communication and the ability to eat and control saliva. Physicians should be aware that there is no direct correlation between the degree of facial palsy and the possible effect on communication, eating ability and saliva control. Physicians are therefore recommended to ask specific questions relating to problems with these functions during customary medical visits and offer possible intervention by a speech-language pathologist or a physiotherapist. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring oral literacy in communication with hospice caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg-Lyles, Elaine; Goldsmith, Joy; Oliver, Debra Parker; Demiris, George; Kruse, Robin L; Van Stee, Stephanie

    2013-11-01

    Low oral literacy has been identified as a barrier to pain management for informal caregivers who receive verbal instructions on pain medication and pain protocols. To examine recorded communication between hospice staff and informal caregivers and explore caregiver experiences. Using transcripts of interactions (n = 47), oral literacy features were analyzed by examining the generalized language complexity using the Flesch-Kincaid grading scale and the dialogue interactivity defined by talking turns and interaction time. Means for longitudinal follow-up measures on caregiver anxiety, quality of life, perception of pain management, knowledge and comfort providing pain medication, and satisfaction were examined to explore their relationship to oral literacy. Communication between team members and caregivers averaged a fourth-grade level on the Flesch-Kincaid scale, indicating that communication was easy to understand. Reading ease was associated (r = 0.67, P < 0.05) with caregiver understanding of and comfort with pain management. Perceived barriers to caregiver pain management were lower when sessions had increased use of passive sentences (r = 0.61, P < 0.01), suggesting that passive voice was not an accurate indicator of language complexity. Caregiver understanding and comfort with administering pain medications (r = -0.82, P < 0.01) and caregiver quality of life (r = -0.49, P < 0.05) were negatively correlated with dialogue pace. As the grade level of talk with caregivers and hospice teams increased, associated caregiver anxiety increased. Caregivers with higher anxiety also experienced greater difficulty in understanding pain medication and its management. Specific adjustments that hospice teams can make to improve caregiver experiences are identified. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The True Story of Oral Communication Education in Alabama: A Case of Academic Discrimination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Written communication and oral communication are inextricably linked as essential life skills and as desirable educational outcomes. However, there is a clear disconnect between what Alabama colleges expect of their graduates and what they are providing them in terms of oral communication education. The steps taken to develop the general studies…

  10. Challenges in oral communication for internationally educated nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lum, Lillie; Dowedoff, Penny; Bradley, Pat; Kerekes, Julie; Valeo, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Achieving English language proficiency, while key to successful adaptation to a new country for internationally educated nurses (IENs), has presented more difficulties for them and for educators than previously recognized. Professional communication within a culturally diverse client population and maintaining collaborative relationships between nurses and other team members were perceived as new challenges for IENs. Learning an additional language is a long-term, multistage process that must also incorporate social and cultural aspects of the local society and the profession. This article provides a descriptive review of current research literature pertaining to English language challenges, with a focus on oral language, experienced by IENs. Educational strategies for teaching technical language skills as well as the socio-pragmatics of professional communication within nursing programs are emphasized. Bridging education programs must not only develop students'academic language proficiency but also their ability to enter the workforce with the kind of communication skills that are increasingly highlighted by employers as essential attributes. The results of this review are intended to facilitate a clearer understanding of the English language and communication challenges experienced by IENs and identify the implications for designing effective educational programs. © The Author(s) 2014.

  11. Short dental implants in patients with oral lichen planus: a long-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitua, E; Piñas, L; Escuer-Artero, V; Fernández, R S; Alkhraisat, M H

    2018-04-01

    Oral lichen planus is associated with the Koebner phenomenon, and trauma may exacerbate oral lesions. Short dental implants, as alternatives to bony augmentation, would reduce the number of interventions and their morbidity. However, we know of no studies that have analysed the long-term outcomes of short implants in patients with oral lichen planus. We have therefore designed a retrospective study of such patients treated with short implants (≤8.5mm long), with survival of implants as the main outcome. The secondary outcomes were marginal bone loss and the development of complications. We calculated the implants' survival and compared the outcomes statistically between erosive and reticular oral lichen planus. Sixty-six short implants were placed in 23 patients with a mean (SD) age of 58 (7) years. The mean (SD) peri-implant bone loss was 0.96 (0.89) mm mesially and 0.99 (1.1) mm distally. Sixty-five of the 66 implants survived with a mean (SD) follow-up of 68 (32) months, and there were no significant differences between erosive and reticular disease. Stable long-term outcomes can be expected for short implants placed in patients with oral lichen planus, and graftless rehabilitation of missing teeth could be possible in these patients if short implants were used. Copyright © 2018 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Optical soliton communication using ultra-short pulses

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    Sadegh Amiri, Iraj

    2015-01-01

    This brief analyzes the characteristics of a microring resonator (MRR) to perform communication using ultra-short soliton pulses. The raising of nonlinear refractive indices, coupling coefficients and radius of the single microring resonator leads to decrease in input power and round trips wherein the bifurcation occurs. As a result, bifurcation or chaos behaviors are seen at lower input power of 44 W, where the nonlinear refractive index is n2=3.2×10−20 m2/W. Using a decimal convertor system, these ultra-short signals can be converted into quantum information. Results show that multi solitons with FWHM and FSR of 10 pm and 600 pm can be generated respectively. The multi optical soliton with FWHM and FSR of 325 pm and 880 nm can be incorporated with a time division multiple access (TDMA) system wherein the transportation of quantum information is performed.

  13. Embedded Information Literacy in the Basic Oral Communication Course: From Conception through Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kari D.; Pier, Penni M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the process of embedding information literacy into a basic oral communication course. Discussion includes student performance as an impetus for change, collaborative course design between the oral communication teaching team and instructional librarians, and assessment initiatives. Suggestions for future collaborative work…

  14. English Oral Communication Needs of Bhutanese Students: As Perceived by the Teachers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singay

    2018-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the oral communication needs in English from the perspective of students and teachers to improve students' oral communication ability. A questionnaire was administered to 45 participants consisted of 36 students and 9 teachers. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like mean and standard…

  15. Student and Teacher Perceptions of Teacher Oral Communication Behavior in Algebra and Geometry Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assuah, Charles K.

    2010-01-01

    Oral communication in mathematics classroom plays an essential role in the mathematics learning process, because it allows students to share ideas, refine their thoughts, reflect on their methods, and clarify their understanding (NCTM, 2000). Knowledge about teacher oral communication behaviors allows researchers and policy makers to identify and…

  16. The Effect of Problem Based Learning on Undergraduate Oral Communication Competency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandeville, David S.; Ho, Tiffanie K.; Valdez, Lindy A.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to ascertain the effect of Problem Based Learning (PBL) on student oral communication competency gains. Methods: Eighty students from two consecutive undergraduate Kinesiology courses (Spring semesters, 2014-15) formed into 29 small groups and were studied. Oral communication competency was assessed using a…

  17. Evaluation of Student Reflection as a Route to Improve Oral Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineart, Kenneth P.; Cooper, Matthew E.

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the use of guided self-reflection and peer feedback activities to improve student oral communication in a large ChE class (n ~ 100) setting. Student performance tracked throughout an experimental semester indicated both reflection activities accelerated improvement in oral communication over control; student perception of the…

  18. Comparing Discussion and Lecture Pedagogy When Teaching Oral Communication in Business Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yao

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, oral communication skills are increasingly important for business graduates who will start their careers. Therefore, the purpose of this research is to discover the best method to help business students enhance their oral communication skills during their college years. This research also helps professors to make their…

  19. Short Communication Short Communication

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    RAGHAVENDRA

    INTRODUCTION. Animal production has been considered as the m ..... However, it is also found in Asia and South. America and can cause serious losses in a range of species and ... camels in Mali, consider this to be a serious concern for.

  20. Short Communication Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    INTRODUCTION. The word Helminth ... mostly present in the human intestines either in la or small intestine and ... medicine use vario. Official International Journal of Wollega University, Ethiopia ..... 10th Edn. Mcgraw Hill Medical. Publishing ...

  1. Short Communication Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Gupta, B.D., Suri, O.P., Dhar, K.L., Sharma, D., Gupta,. V., Satti, N.K. (2011). A unique immuno-stimulant steroidal sapogenin acid from the roots of Asparagus racemosus. Steroids 76: 358-364. Ojha, R., Sahu, A.N., Muruganandam, A.V., Singh, G.K.,. Krishnamurthy, S. (2010). Asparagus recemosus enhances memory and ...

  2. Polytechnic Students? Perceptions of Youtube Usage in the English Oral Communication Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Gunadevi K. Jeevi Subramaniam; Fathimah Pathma Abdullah; Raja Nor Safinas Raja Harun

    2013-01-01

    A new creative classroom technique to promote learning environment in English oral communication lesson is important. Integrating and adopting multimedia and web technologies can motivate and engage the new generation learners. YouTube usage in the English oral communication classroom is one of the strategies which will have more flexible, effective instructional materials to the learners in making the students involve in active communication. The inclusion of multimedia technologies into the...

  3. High Oral Communication Apprehensives: How Can Students be Helped to Reduce Their Fear of Public Speaking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Shanahan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The literature has identified oral communication as a skill that employers desire of their workforce. Even though accounting and business education programmes place considerable emphasis on the advancement of communication competencies among students, not all students appear to benefit from communication skills development. This may arise from of a fear of communicating with others, commonly known as oral communication apprehension, a factor which inhibits an individual’s willingness to communicate in one or a number of contexts - one to one conversations, communicating in groups, at meetings and making a presentation in public – and which may inhibit development of effective communication skills. Prior studies have measured oral communication apprehension of students in different disciplines, and there has been some qualitative exploration of the phenomenon. This paper reports on study conducted in the School of Accounting and Finance, DIT. Levels of apprehension were measured for 368 students. The views of a number of students were received and analysed and compared to their oral communication apprehension scores. Some students who indicated that they found presenting extremely difficult were identified, and their views are reported. Their perspectives and fears demonstrate ‘the pain’ that many suffer when called on to present. The study concludes with a recommendation on a possible oral communications approach which could be adopted to help students to overcome fear of presenting in public

  4. Learner Perceptions of Asynchronous Oral Computer-mediated Communication: Proficiency and Second Langauge Selves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Gleason

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study addresses the perceptions of international teaching assistants regarding the role of language learning tasks using Wimba Voice (WV in aiding the improvement of their second language (L2 oral skills. It specifically examines how this asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC technology can foster the development of these learners’ L2 selves. According to Dörnyei (2009, the more clearly learners can envision their future L2 selves, the more motivated they will be to achieve their L2 goals. With increased planning of oral production, access to instructor and peer feedback, and additional opportunities for self-reflection, asynchronous CMC technologies have been found to enable L2 learners to express their thoughts at their own pace and feel more relaxed and confident than in more threatening face-to-face situations (Sun, 2009. The findings suggest that learners have a variety of opinions regarding the role of asynchronous WV tasks in motivating them to develop their L2 oral proficiency. Also, many may prefer oral CMC environments that facilitate interaction and meaning negotiation. Results were inconclusive concerning the effect of WV-based tasks on students' perceptions of their future L2 selves; however, this may have been due to the short time frame in which these activities were employed. Résumé Nous étudions ici les perceptions d’un groupe d’assistants internationaux sur le rôle des tâches d’apprentissage linguistique à l’aide de Wimba Voice (WV. Le projet avait pour but d’améliorer les compétences orales des participants dans leur langue seconde. La présente étude examine en particulier la voie par laquelle cette technologie de la communication asynchrone par ordinateur peut favoriser l’évolution de la langue seconde des apprenants. Selon Dörnyei (2009, plus les apprenants peuvent envisager clairement un futur emploi de leur langue seconde, plus ils seront motivés à atteindre

  5. Oral hygiene compliance in orthodontic patients: a randomized controlled study on the effects of a post-treatment communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzani, Mauro; Ragazzini, Giulia; Delucchi, Alessia; Mutinelli, Sabrina; Barreca, Carlo; Rinchuse, Daniel J; Servetto, Roberto; Piras, Vincenzo

    2016-12-01

    Several studies have recently demonstrated that a post-treatment communication to explain the importance of an oral hygiene can improve the orthodontic patients' compliance over a period of 66 days. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of a structured follow-up communication after orthodontic appliance application on oral hygiene compliance after 30-40 days. Eighty-four orthodontic participants enrolled from patients who were beginning fixed orthodontic treatment at the Orthodontic Department, Gaslini Hospital, Genova, between July and October 2014 were randomly assigned to one of three trial arms. Before the bonding, all patients underwent a session of oral hygiene aimed at obtaining an plaque index of "zero." At the following orthodontic appointment, the plaque index was calculated for each patient in order to assess oral hygiene compliance. The first group served as control and did not receive any post-procedure communication, the second group received a structured text message giving reassurance, and the third group received a structured telephone call. Participants were blinded to group assignment and were not made aware that the text message or the telephone call was part of the study. (The research protocol was approved by the Italian Comitato Etico Regionale della Liguria-sezione 3^ c/o IRCCS-Istituto G. Gaslini 845/2014, and it is not registered in the trial's register.) RESULTS: Thirty patients were randomly assigned to the control group, 28 participants to the text message group, and 26 to the telephone group. Participants who received a post-treatment communication reported higher level of oral hygiene compliance than participants in the control group. The plaque index was 0.3 (interquartile range (Iqr), 0.60) and 0.75 (Iqr, 1.30), respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.0205). A follow-up procedure after orthodontic treatment may be an effective tool to increase oral hygiene compliance also over a short period.

  6. Teaching Oral Communication in Undergraduate Science: Are We Doing Enough and Doing it Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Communication skills and insights form an important basis for employability and participation in society. Universities aim to produce graduates with effective communication skills. Effective oral communication is critical for the advancement and sharing of scientific knowledge. There is increasing recognition within tertiary institutions of the…

  7. Research and Practice Communications Between Oral Health Providers and Prenatal Health Providers: A Bibliometric Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skvoretz, John; Dyer, Karen; Daley, Ellen; Debate, Rita; Vamos, Cheryl; Kline, Nolan; Thompson, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Objectives We aimed to examine scholarly collaboration between oral health and prenatal providers. Oral disease is a silent epidemic with significant public health implications for pregnant women. Evidence linking poor oral health during pregnancy to adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes requires oral health and prenatal providers to communicate on the prevention, treatment and co-management matters pertaining to oral health issues among their pregnant patients. The need for inter-professional collaboration is highlighted by guidelines co-endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Dental Association, stressing the importance of oral health care during pregnancy. Methods To assess if interdisciplinary communication occurs between oral health and prenatal disciplines, we conducted a network analysis of research on pregnancy-related periodontal disease. Results Social Network analysis allowed us to identify communication patterns between communities of oral health and prenatal professionals via scientific journals. Analysis of networks of citations linking journals in different fields reveals a core-periphery pattern dominated by oral health journals with some participation from medicine journals. However, an analysis of dyadic ties of citation reveals statistically significant "inbreeding" tendencies in the citation patterns: both medical and oral health journals tend to cite their own kind at greater-than-chance levels. Conclusions Despite evidence suggesting that professional collaboration benefits patients' overall health, findings from this research imply that little collaboration occurs between these two professional groups. More collaboration may be useful in addressing women's oral-systemic health concerns that result in adverse pregnancy outcomes.

  8. Phonological awareness and short-term memory in hearing and deaf individuals of different communication backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Daniel; Crain, Kelly; LaSasso, Carol; Eden, Guinevere F

    2008-12-01

    Previous work in deaf populations on phonological coding and working memory, two skills thought to play an important role in the acquisition of written language skills, have focused primarily on signers or did not clearly identify the subjects' native language and communication mode. In the present study, we examined the effect of sensory experience, early language experience, and communication mode on the phonological awareness skills and serial recall of linguistic items in deaf and hearing individuals of different communicative and linguistic backgrounds: hearing nonsigning controls, hearing users of ASL, deaf users of ASL, deaf oral users of English, and deaf users of cued speech. Since many current measures of phonological awareness skills are inappropriate for deaf populations on account of the verbal demands in the stimuli or response, we devised a nonverbal phonological measure that addresses this limitation. The Phoneme Detection Test revealed that deaf cuers and oral users, but not deaf signers, performed as well as their hearing peers when detecting phonemes not transparent in the orthography. The second focus of the study examined short-term memory skills and found that in response to the traditional digit span as well as an experimental visual version, digit-span performance was similar across the three deaf groups, yet deaf subjects' retrieval was lower than that of hearing subjects. Our results support the claim (Bavelier et al., 2006) that lexical items processed in the visual-spatial modality are not as well retained as information processed in the auditory channel. Together these findings show that the relationship between working memory, phonological coding, and reading may not be as tightly interwoven in deaf students as would have been predicted from work conducted in hearing students.

  9. Health literacy in the "oral exchange": an important element of patient-provider communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouri, Sarah S; Rudd, Rima E

    2015-05-01

    Oral communication between health care providers and patients--the "oral exchange"--greatly impacts patient health outcomes; however, only recently have health literacy inquiries been incorporated into this field. This review examines the intersection between oral and aural literacy and the oral exchange. A systematic literature search was carried out. Papers published in English since 2003 that specifically examine oral/aural literacy and oral patient-provider communication were included. The search yielded 999 articles, 12 of which were included in this review. Three tools have been developed to measure either patient or provider oral/aural literacy. There is a discrepancy between patient and provider oral/aural literacy levels, and high literacy demand is associated with reduced patient learning. Low patient oral/aural literacy is associated with poor health outcomes. Two interventions have been developed to reduce literacy demand. This review demonstrates the critical role of oral and aural literacy in the oral exchange, the importance of reducing literacy demand, and the need for future research in this field. Recommendations include the use of plain language and teach-back by providers, as well as incorporation of awareness of oral and aural literacy into community programs and health care provider education and training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing Dental Hygienists' Communication Techniques for Use with Low Oral Health Literacy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Priscilla; Acharya, Amit; Schwei, Kelsey; VanWormer, Jeffrey; Skrzypcak, Kaitlyn

    2016-06-01

    This primary aim of this study was to assess communication techniques used with low oral health literacy patients by dental hygienists in rural Wisconsin dental clinics. A secondary aim was to determine the utility of the survey instrument used in this study. A mixed methods study consisting of a cross-sectional survey, immediately followed by focus groups, was conducted among dental hygienists in the Marshfield Clinic (Wisconsin) service area. The survey quantified the routine use of 18 communication techniques previously shown to be effective with low oral health literacy patients. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between routine use of each communication technique and several indicator variables, including geographic practice region, oral health literacy familiarity, communication skills training and demographic indicators. Qualitative analyses included code mapping to the 18 communication techniques identified in the survey, and generating new codes based on discussion content. On average, the 38 study participants routinely used 6.3 communication techniques. Dental hygienists who used an oral health literacy assessment tool reported using significantly more communication techniques compared to those who did not use an oral health literacy assessment tool. Focus group results differed from survey responses as few dental hygienists stated familiarity with the term "oral health literacy." Motivational interviewing techniques and using an integrated electronic medical-dental record were additional communication techniques identified as useful with low oral health literacy patients. Dental hygienists in this study routinely used approximately one-third of the communication techniques recommended for low oral health literacy patients supporting the need for training on this topic. Based on focus group results, the survey used in this study warrants modification and psychometric testing prior to further use. Copyright © 2016 The American Dental

  11. Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication: An introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusman, Ellen; Stoyanov, Slavi

    2012-01-01

    Rusman, E., & Stoyanov, S. (2011). Online Assessment of Oral Proficiency for Intercultural Professional Communication: An introduction. Presentation about the CEFcult project (www.cefcult.eu) as an introduction to various personal interviews held with stakeholders, Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open

  12. Exploring the Oral Communication Strategies Used by Turkish EFL Learners: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Yusuf; Mutlu, Gülçin; Sisman, Yavuz Selim

    2018-01-01

    This study set out with a threefold purpose: to examine (1) the oral communication strategies (CSs) employed by tertiary-level Turkish EFL learners, (2) the use of CSs based on exposure to English through audio-visual tools, university subject domain and gender differences, (3) the correlation between use of CSs and oral proficiency scores. To…

  13. Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) in L2 Oral Proficiency Development: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huifen

    2015-01-01

    The ever growing interest in the development of foreign or second (L2) oral proficiency in a computer-mediated communication (CMC) classroom has resulted in a large body of studies looking at both the direct and indirect effects of CMC interventions on the acquisition of oral competences. The present study employed a quantitative meta-analytic…

  14. A Managerial Perspective: Oral Communication Competency Is Most Important for Business Students in the Workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Jeanne D.; Icenogle, Marjorie L.; Weldy, Teresa G.

    1997-01-01

    Presents results from two studies surveying managers, finding that the top three competencies considered when hiring college graduates for entry-level positions are oral communications, problem solving, and self-motivation; and the oral skills most important for entry-level graduates are following instructions, listening, conversing, and giving…

  15. Student Experience of Oral Communication Assessment Tasks Online from a Multi-Disciplinary Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBain, Bonnie; Drew, Antony; James, Carole; Phelan, Liam; Harris, Keith M; Archer, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the experiences of tertiary students learning oral presentation skills in a range of online and blended learning contexts across diverse disciplines. Design/methodology/approach: The research was designed as a "federation" of trials of diverse online oral communications assessment tasks…

  16. Junior Officer Oral Communication in the Navy and Marine Corps

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Long, John

    2004-01-01

    Communication is an essential skill for every military officer. Their jobs are accomplished through communication as they motivate soldiers and sailors, who in turn physically accomplish the diverse missions of the military...

  17. DEVELOPING ORAL COMMUNICATION SKILLS IN THE TEFL CLASSROOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela STĂNESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the main principles governing the development of speaking skills in learners of English at all levels, through the optic of the Communicative Approach. Dwelling on the importance of teacher and student attitudes towards classroom communication, of ensuring an adequate class atmosphere and context for mea ningful communication, the present author goes on to discuss the most relevant and productive fluency-building activities and techniques meant to train students for meaningful self-expression and communication.

  18. Web-Based Virtual Environments for Facilitating Assessment of L2 Oral Communication Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockey, Gary J.; Gu, Lin; Keehner, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of stakeholders argue for the use of second language (L2) speaking assessments that measure the ability to orally communicate in real time. A Web-based virtual environment (VE) that allows live voice communication among individuals may have potential for aiding in delivering such assessments. While off-the-shelf voice…

  19. General Education Oral Communication Assessment and Student Preferences for Learning: E-Textbook versus Paper Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Karen Kangas; Davidson, Marlina M.

    2013-01-01

    As part of a yearly university mandated assessment of a large basic communication course that fulfills the oral communication general education requirement, this study examined student preferences for textbooks, reading, and learning. Specifically, basic course students ("N"=321) at a large state university in the Midwest were asked to…

  20. An Alternating Treatment Comparison of Oral and Total Communication Training Programs with Echolalic Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Richardo D.; Sulzer-Azaroff, Beth

    1983-01-01

    Comparison of the relative effectiveness of oral and total communication training models for teaching expressive labeling skills to three echolalic autistic children (six-nine years old) demonstrated that total communication was the most successful approach with each of the Ss. (Author/CL)

  1. The effect of video-assisted oral feedback versus oral feedback on surgical communicative competences in undergraduate training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruesseler, M; Sterz, J; Bender, B; Hoefer, S; Walcher, F

    2017-08-01

    Feedback can significantly improve future performance. Reviewing one's performance by video is discussed as useful adjunct to debriefing, particularly for non-technical skills. Communicative competencies are an essential part of daily clinical practice; thus should be taught and assessed during undergraduate training. The aim of this study was to compare the educational value of video-assisted feedback versus oral feedback in communicative competencies in the surgical context. Fourth-year medical students completed a 210-min training unit of 'taking patient's history and obtaining informed consents prior to surgery' using role plays. Oral feedback was received directly thereafter using agenda-led, outcome-based guidelines (ALOBA). In the study group, the role plays were video-taped and reviewed thereafter. Afterwards, students completed two OSCE stations, where they were assessed regarding their communicative competencies and the content of the clinical scenario. One-hundred students (49 receiving video-assisted feedback, 51 oral) participated in the study. Those receiving video-assisted feedback performed significantly better in overall score in both OSCE stations (p feedback offered a significant educational benefit over oral feedback alone during a simulated patient encounter in a surgical context.

  2. Correlation between plaque control and gingival health using short and extended oral hygiene intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De David, S C; Mário, T G; De Freitas, G C; Kantorski, K Z; Wikesjö, U M E; Moreira, Carlos Heitor Cunha

    2018-02-15

    To evaluate the correlation between dental plaque formation and gingival health in subjects performing high oral hygiene standards over short or extended intervals. Fifty-two non-dental students volunteered for this study. The subjects, trained to perform high oral hygiene standards, were randomized to perform oral hygiene at 12-, 24-, 48-, or 72-h interval over 30 days. The plaque index (PlI) and the gingival index (GI) were evaluated at baseline, 15, and 30 days. For the statistical analysis, oral hygiene intervals were collapsed into daily (12 and 24 h; G12/24) and extended (48 and 72 h; G48/72) intervals. Summary statistics (mean ± SD) and Spearman correlations between the PlI and the GI at baseline, 15, and 30 days were estimated. At baseline, correlation coefficients between PlI and GI were positive for both groups (r = 0.29 and r = 0.25). At day 15 and 30, correlation was maintained with similar baseline values for the G48/72 group. GI levels did not increase despite an increase in PlI for the G12/24 group, and the correlation was lower than that observed at baseline (r = 0.13 vs. r = 0.29). In subjects with high oral hygiene standards, the oral hygiene frequency governs the correlation between dental plaque formation and gingival health. Subjects performing high oral hygiene standards at daily intervals will maintain gingival health in difference to subjects using extended hygiene intervals. Subjects performing high oral hygiene standards at daily intervals will maintain gingival health in difference to subjects using extended hygiene intervals.

  3. Zygomatic bone graft for oral-antral communication closure and implant placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel; García, Berta; Gomez, Dolores; Balaguer, José

    2007-01-01

    The roots of molar and premolar maxillary teeth are often very close to the floor of the maxillary sinus. As a result, extraction of these teeth can leave an oral-antral communication or lead to a fistula that requires treatment. A woman with an oral-antral communication secondary to extraction of a maxillary molar is presented. The communication was closed by means of a bone graft harvested from the wall of the sinus (zygomatic bone). After 3 months, 2 dental implants were placed, one in the pterygoid area and the other with parasinusal angulation. Rehabilitation followed in the form of a screw-retained, fixed prosthesis 3 months after implant placement. There have been no complications after 1 year of follow-up. This surgical technique allowed closure of an oral-antral communication produced by molar extraction through placement of a zygomatic bone graft and subsequent placement of 2 dental implants.

  4. Assessment of Oral Communication Competencies at Johnson & Wales University. A Pilot Program Assessing Culinary Arts and Pastry Arts Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Joanne Marciano

    The Oral Communication Competencies Assessment Project was designed to determine student communication competency across the curriculum, transferring skills taught in the communication skills class to authentic classroom performances. The 505 students who were required to make oral presentations across the curriculum during the first term of the…

  5. Analysing ESL Students’ Perceptions towards Oral Communication for Social and Occupational Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzilah Md Husain

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental principles of public speaking and appropriate organisational structure of ideas for occupational and social communication are vital aspects for undergraduates as a pathway to overcome employers’ grievances on graduates’ lack of communication skills (Malaysia Education Blueprint, 2015. This study was undertaken to explore the perceptions of a group of ten students at a tertiary institution in Malaysia to see how they utlise the theories and practice of effective communication skills beyond their course entitled “Oral Communication for Social and Occupational Purposes”. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the participants. The study found that these students gained knowledge about effective communication for social and occupational purposes. The findings also indicate that students have benefitted in relation to communication in a formal way especially to higher authorities, and sharpening their communication and presentation skills. However, there were shortcomings that need to be addressed, particularly related to methods of teaching Oral Communication for Social and Occupational Purposes, time constraint in preparing for the tutorial sessions and producing a good quality video. Keywords: Social and Occupational, Communication, Oral skills, Theories and Practice

  6. [Effect of short-acting combined oral contraceptives on bleeding after induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X F; Zhong, M; Liu, J

    2017-11-07

    Objective: To explore the effect of short-acting combined oral contraceptives on vaginal bleeding after induced abortion. Methods: A total of 726 patients, who had took induced abortion from July 2016 to September 2016 in obstetrics and gynecology outpatient department of Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, were included and divided into the observation group and the control group according to whether they took short-acting combined oral contraceptives after induced abortion, with 312 cases, 414 cases respectively.The vaginal bleeding days, amounts of bleeding, the endometrial thickness 3 weeks later, and whether the patient had menstrual recovery on time were observed and analyzed. Results: The observation group had less bleeding days and amount of bleeding, compared with the control group.69.87% (218/312) patients of the observation group had more than 8mm of endometrial thickness on postoperative day 21, while 61.11% (253/414) of the observation group did, the difference was statistically significant ( P =0.034).90.06% (281/312) patients of the observation group had menstrual recovery on time, while 82.61% (342/414) of the observation group did, the difference was statistically significant ( P =0.004). Conclusion: Short-acting combined oral contraceptives after induced abortion can significantly shorten the vaginal bleeding days, reduce the amount of bleeding, promote endometrial repair and menstrual recovery.There fore, it has important clinical significance and application value.

  7. [Oral communication between colleagues in geriatric care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maury-Zing, Céline

    2014-01-01

    Transmitting information orally between colleagues in gerontology care units. While the only certified method of transmitting nursing information is in writing, the oral tradition remains firmly rooted in the practice of health care providers. Professionals caring for elderly patients need to exchange information--whether it be considered important or trivial-, anywhere and at any time. In this article, professionals describe how they were able to identify which configurations of players and teams enable information to flow and benefit the care of elderly patients.

  8. Perspectives on Oral Communication Skills for Engineers in Engineering Profession of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayatullah Kakepoto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Communication plays paramount role for engineers to perform workplace jobs effectively in this modern age of industrialization. The purpose of this research paper was to determine importance of oral communication for engineers at workplace. Thirty engineers from 2 engineering organizations participated in this study. Purposive sampling method was used for data collection since respondents were drawn on specific criteria of engineers with minimum 5 years work experience. Quantitative survey based on questionnaire survey was used for data collection purpose. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 15.0. The results of the study indicated that oral communication skills such as oral presentation, participation in meetings, conversation, discussion, and negotiation skill play significant role for engineers at workplace. Thus, quantitative data analysis results indicate that oral communication skills play significant role for engineers to perform workplace jobs efficiently in this competitive work environment of organizations. However, the results of this study are consistent with other literature review findings on importance of oral communication skills for engineers at workplace.

  9. Harnessing Technology to Assess Oral Communication in Business English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Tal; Gertler, Hedy

    2015-01-01

    Assessing oral skills in relatively large Business English classes seems a most formidable task for any teacher. How does one make sure to get multiple and valid assessments of each student? This action research paper provides supporting evidence for the correlation between the use of technology and students' engagement. This was achieved by…

  10. Communicating in designing an oral repository for rural African villages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Reitmaier, T

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe designing an asynchronous, oral repository and sharing system that we intend to suit the needs and practices of rural residents in South Africa. We aim to enable users without access to personal computers to record, store, and share...

  11. Oral hygiene compliance in orthodontic patients: a randomized controlled study on the effects of a post-treatment communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Cozzani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have recently demonstrated that a post-treatment communication to explain the importance of an oral hygiene can improve the orthodontic patients’ compliance over a period of 66 days. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the effects of a structured follow-up communication after orthodontic appliance application on oral hygiene compliance after 30–40 days. Methods Eighty-four orthodontic participants enrolled from patients who were beginning fixed orthodontic treatment at the Orthodontic Department, Gaslini Hospital, Genova, between July and October 2014 were randomly assigned to one of three trial arms. Before the bonding, all patients underwent a session of oral hygiene aimed at obtaining an plaque index of “zero.” At the following orthodontic appointment, the plaque index was calculated for each patient in order to assess oral hygiene compliance. The first group served as control and did not receive any post-procedure communication, the second group received a structured text message giving reassurance, and the third group received a structured telephone call. Participants were blinded to group assignment and were not made aware that the text message or the telephone call was part of the study. (The research protocol was approved by the Italian Comitato Etico Regionale della Liguria-sezione 3^ c/o IRCCS-Istituto G. Gaslini 845/2014, and it is not registered in the trial’s register. Results Thirty patients were randomly assigned to the control group, 28 participants to the text message group, and 26 to the telephone group. Participants who received a post-treatment communication reported higher level of oral hygiene compliance than participants in the control group. The plaque index was 0.3 (interquartile range (Iqr, 0.60 and 0.75 (Iqr, 1.30, respectively, with a significant difference (P = 0.0205. Conclusions A follow-up procedure after orthodontic treatment may be an effective tool to

  12. Short communication. A spontaneous mutant of L-202 rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Yzaguire, A.; Padrones, T.

    2009-07-01

    A new spontaneous phenotype of the rice cultivar L-202 was found. Mendelian analysis indicates that it is a monogenic, recessive mutant. Its distinguishing features are: dark blue-green colour, short and narrow leaves, high tillering and relatively short height. The objectives of this study were: to characterize it, to determine if it is heritable and if so, its genetic basis. Its distinguishing features are: dark blue-green colour, short and narrow leaves, high tillering and relatively short height. Selfing the new phenotype resulted in a uniform progeny, with the traits of the parent plant (wild type). Crossing the new phenotype with the normal L-202 cultivar resulted in a uniform F1 hybrid generation, with the wild type. The F2 generation showed a mendelian segregation which did not depart significantly from three normal plants : one new phenotype. It is concluded that it is a monogenic, recessive mutant. (Author) 3 refs.

  13. short communication determination of trace amounts of zinc by flame

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Zinc ions were separated by solid phase extraction onto modified natural ... short analysis time, high enrichment factor, low cost and consumption of organic ... Up to now, several kinds of sorbents, such as thiol cotton [18], activated carbon [19],.

  14. Revision to dedicated short range communication roadside equipment specification - RSU 4.1.Bench Test Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-28

    The document describes the overall process for evaluating Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) Roadside Units (RSU) against USDOT RSU Specification 4.1 in preparation for field evaluation. The Test Cases contained in this document only evaluate...

  15. A Short History of Designing for Communication on the Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilesen, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Web design is important for how we communicate on the internet, and it also has an influence on computer interface design in general. Taking a very literal view of the theme of ‘designing for communication’, this chapter examines the development of web design as a prerequisite for understanding...

  16. Perspectives on Oral Communication Skills for Engineers in Engineering Profession of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Inayatullah Kakepoto; Noor Abidah Mohd Omar; Yusuf Boon; S M Zafar Iqbal

    2012-01-01

    Communication plays paramount role for engineers to perform workplace jobs effectively in this modern age of industrialization. The purpose of this research paper was to determine importance of oral communication for engineers at workplace. Thirty engineers from 2 engineering organizations participated in this study. Purposive sampling method was used for data collection since respondents were drawn on specific criteria of engineers with minimum 5 years work experience. Quantitative survey ba...

  17. Patients' Perspectives of Oral Healthcare Providers' Communication: Considering the Impact of Message Source and Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fico, Ashley E; Lagoe, Carolyn

    2018-08-01

    This study explores patients' perceptions of positive and negative communication experiences with dentists and dental hygienists using a sample of 267 individuals who reported having a general dental provider. Patients' oral health literacy, dental mistrust, use of dental health services, anxiety, and provider satisfaction are examined on the basis of reported communication experiences in the dental context. When comparing participants who had or had not experienced positive communication with a dentist, individuals with positive experiences demonstrated significantly higher levels of oral health literacy and provider satisfaction, as well as lower levels of dental mistrust. Participants who had experienced negative communication with a dentist reported significantly higher levels of anxiety and dental mistrust, as well as greater likelihood of ever leaving a dental practice, as compared to those without negative communication experiences. By contrast, positive and negative communication experiences with hygienists had limited impact on patient outcomes. Information derived from this investigation can be used by dental providers to guide communicative actions with patients, as well as by scholars to enhance existing theoretical explanations of the function of communication in dentistry.

  18. High-Capacity Short-Range Optical Communication Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatarczak, Anna

    Over the last decade, we have observed a tremendous spread of end-user mobile devices. The user base of a mobile application can grow or shrink by millions per day. This situation creates a pressing need for highly scalable server infrastructure; a need nowadays satisfied through cloud computing...... offered by data centers. As the popularity of cloud computing soars, the demand for high-speed, short-range data center links grows. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL) and multimode fibers (MMF) prove especially well-suited for such scenarios. VCSELs have high modulation bandwidths......, we achieve 10 Gbps over 400 m and then conrm the approach in an optimized system at 25 Gbps over 300 m. The techniques described in this thesis leverage additional degrees of freedom to better utilize the available resources of short-range links. The proposed schemes enable higher speeds and longer...

  19. A Comparison of Case Study and Traditional Teaching Methods for Improvement of Oral Communication and Critical-Thinking Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Lynnette; Vance, Diane E.; Smith, Michelle L. DePoy

    2010-01-01

    This study compares a traditional paper presentation approach and a case study method for the development and improvement of oral communication skills and critical-thinking skills in a class of junior forensic science majors. A rubric for rating performance in these skills was designed on the basis of the oral communication competencies developed…

  20. Gender Differences in the Relationship between Oral Communicative Competence and Peer Rejection: An Explorative Study in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Wilt, Femke; van Kruistum, Claudia; van der Veen, Chiel; van Oers, Bert

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the relationship between oral communicative competence and peer rejection in early childhood education. It was hypothesized that children with poorer oral communicative competence would be rejected by their peers more frequently and that the strength of this relationship would differ for boys and…

  1. "Lights, Camera, Action!" Video Technology and Students' Perceptions of Oral Communication in Accounting Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Craig; Dickfos, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of an authentic assessment item on three dimensions of oral communication in accounting education: skills, self-efficacy, and relevance. An explanatory mixed methods design is used to explore students' perceptions of their development. The results indicate that an elevator pitch assessment has a positive impact on…

  2. Goofy Guide Game: Affordances and Constraints for Engagement and Oral Communication in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enticknap-Seppänen, Kaisa

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates tourism undergraduates' perceptions of learning engagement and oral communication in English through their experiences of testing a pilot purpose-designed educational digital game. Reflecting the implementation of digitalization strategy in universities of applied sciences in Finland, it examines whether single instances of…

  3. Communication about Contraception and Knowledge of Oral Contraceptives amongst Norwegian High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thomas; Skjeldestad, Finn Egil

    2003-01-01

    Examines communication about contraception and specific knowledge of oral contraceptives (OCs) in a sample of Norwegian high school students. More females than males discussed contraception at least monthly. Discussions were predominantly held with peers and not adults. Females were far more knowledgeable about OCs than males. The most significant…

  4. Promoting science communication skills in the form of oral presentation through pictorial analogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, A. R.; Fauziah, A. N. M.

    2018-04-01

    Prospective biology teachers are demanded to have skills in communicating science in the form of oral presentation when someday they teach. However, over-expectation towards biological concept comprehension has led them to lower their participation in class. In such a case, rote learning is standing still to support biological content knowledge delivery in university level and thus impoverish the potential of them due to its excessive practice. This study then comes to explore the significant improvement over the use of pictorial analogy to promote university students’ skills in science oral communication towards the nervous system topic. Case study has been a design for the study. It involved two group of different students who participate in natural setting of human anatomy and physiology course. The data was gathered by observation and analyzed in descriptive manner. Quantitative and qualitative data are mixed up altogether to describe the reality behind learning process. The result showed that although both high and low achieving students are successful to communicate science concepts through pictorial analogy they are different in the way they accomodate what they want to explain. High achieving students outperform low achieving students in all aspects of oral presentation. They also employ more complex sources to draw the target concepts. To sum up, pictorial analogy can be used as a tool for students to do science communication skill in the form of oral presentation.

  5. Learning Activities and Discourses in Mathematics Teachers' Synchronous Oral Communication Online

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erixon, Eva-Lena

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the provision of online professional development (OPD) for teachers. This case study contributes to the field of research on professional development in the context of activities and discourses relating to mathematics teachers' synchronous oral communication online. The purpose of this article is to explore the…

  6. Developing Oral and Written Communication Skills in Undergraduate Computer Science and Information Systems Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortsarts, Yana; Fischbach, Adam; Rufinus, Jeff; Utell, Janine M.; Yoon, Suk-Chung

    2010-01-01

    Developing and applying oral and written communication skills in the undergraduate computer science and computer information systems curriculum--one of the ABET accreditation requirements - is a very challenging and, at the same time, a rewarding task that provides various opportunities to enrich the undergraduate computer science and computer…

  7. Influence of Effective Communication by Surgery Students on Their Oral Examination Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland-Morin, Pamela A.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Clinical surgery faculty (n=78) evaluated videotaped simulated surgery student oral examinations. Results showed that regardless of the content of students' responses, evaluators were strongly influenced by how well students communicated. Evaluators preferred a moderate response rate and direct eye contact over a slower response rate and indirect…

  8. Systems and methods for short range RF communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, John Anderson Fergus (Inventor); Tomlinson, Harold Woodruff (Inventor); Sexton, Daniel White (Inventor); Hershey, John Erik (Inventor); DeCristofaro, Richard Anthony (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A method transmitting a message over at least one of a plurality of channels of a communications network is provided. The method comprises the steps of detecting a presence of jamming pulses in the at least one of the plurality of channels. The characteristics of the jamming pulses in the at least one of the plurality of channels is determined wherein the determined characteristics define at least interstices between the jamming pulses. The message is transmitted over the at least one of the plurality of channels wherein the message is transmitted within the interstices of the jamming pulse determined from the step of determining characteristics of the jamming pulses.

  9. Role of information and communication technology in promoting oral health at residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo, Bola; Durey, Angela; Slack-Smith, Linda M

    2017-07-01

    Information and communication technology (ICT) can provide knowledge and clinical support to those working in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). This paper aims to: (1) review literature on ICT targeted at residents, staff and external providers in RACFs including general practitioners, dental and allied health professionals on improving residents' oral health; (2) identify barriers and enablers to using ICT in promoting oral health at RACFs; and (3) investigate evidence of effectiveness of these approaches in promoting oral health. Findings from this narrative literature review indicate that ICT is not widely used in RACFs, with barriers to usage identified as limited training for staff, difficulties accessing the Internet, limited computer literacy particularly in older staff, cost and competing work demands. Residents also faced barriers including impaired cognitive and psychosocial functioning, limited computer literacy and Internet use. Findings suggest that more education and training in ICT to upskill staff and residents is needed to effectively promote oral health through this medium.

  10. THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH ORAL COMMUNICATION IN THE APPLICATION OF CURRICULUM 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syenja Aradhanawaty

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was meant to (1 understand the teachers’ and students’ perceptions, (2 describe the teachers and students difficulties, and (3 investigate the classroom management and interactions. The subjects, decided purposefully, were three English teachers and approximately 120 students. The data were gathered through classroom observation and in depth interview and analysed by using the interactive model of qualitative data analysis based on Miles and Huberman (1994. The research findings show that both teachers and students positively perceive the development of oral communication through Scientific Approach to teaching and its integrated skills lesson along with the language elements. The teachers find it difficult to develop English oral communication in two features, i.e. overcrowded classroom and students’ lack of active vocabulary. The students, on the other hand, find it hard to learn English oral communication in three characteristics, i.e. psychological-based problem, language use-based problem, and environmental-based problem. The classroom management and interaction support the students’ improvement in their speaking ability under communicative task and activity. The study recommended for further close inquiry into the functions of skill getting and skill using activity and their contributions to increase communicative language acquisition.

  11. Short range RF communication for jet engine control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Daniel White (Inventor); Hershey, John Erik (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A method transmitting a message over at least one of a plurality of radio frequency (RF) channels of an RF communications network is provided. The method comprises the steps of detecting a presence of jamming pulses in the at least one of the plurality of RF channels. The characteristics of the jamming pulses in the at least one of the plurality of RF channels is determined wherein the determined characteristics define at least interstices between the jamming pulses. The message is transmitted over the at least one of the plurality of RF channels wherein the message is transmitted within the interstices of the jamming pulse determined from the step of determining characteristics of the jamming pulses.

  12. Oral Communication Development in Severe to Profound Hearing Impaired Children After Receiving Aural Habilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soleimani Farin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Communication, cognition, language, and speech are interrelated and develop together. It should come as no surprise to us that the key to intervention with deaf children is to establish, as early as possible, a functional communication system for the child and the parents. Early intervention programs need to be multidisciplinary, technologically sound and most important, it should take cognizance of the specific context (community, country in which the child and family function. The main aim of this study was to obtain oral communication development regarding current status of the intervention (aural habilitation and speech therapyfor children with severe to profound hearing impairment in Iran. A prospective longitudinal study was undertaken on a consecutive group of children with severe to profound deafness. Nine severe to profound hearing-impaired children out of the primer 42 cases, who were detected below two years old, had been selected in the previous study to receive aural habilitation. The average of their speech intelligibility scores was near 70% at age 6, which was accounted as poor oral communication and only two of them were able to communicate by spoken language. An integrated intervention services continued again for one year and their oral communication skill was assessed by their speech intelligibility. The intelligibility test of children was recorded on audio-tape, when they read 10 questions such as where is your home. This can be answered only in one word. Each tape was presented to10 normal hearing listeners, and their task was to write down, the answers in Persian orthography. At the beginning (at age 6 the average speech intelligibility score of these children was 72% and only two of them had score of 90% and 100%. At age 7, all of the severe groups were over 90%, and only two profound ones achieved the score of 48% and 62%. All of severe groups develop oral communication, but profound ones had a semi-intelligible speech

  13. Encouraging the development of children's oral communicative competences through play

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castrillón Olga Lucía

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available When children start to learn a foreign language they already have some communicative competence in their mother tongue. Thus a classroom research project was carried out in order to study the development of children¿s competence in communicating in other languages. The main theme explored was if it was possible to help kids acquire and develop their competence in the new code through the use of play activities. The concepts related to competences, play and some children's characteristics when learning a second language will be presented in this article. Also, the results of the implementation of play activities in the classroom as well as some pedagogical implications will be analyzed as a means to promote improvement in the foreign language teaching-learning process. Key words: English-Primary School, Children Second Language Acquisition, Learning Ability in Children-Research, Educational Games-Teaching-Research Inglés-Escuela Primaria, Adquisición de Segundo Lenguaje en Niños, Aptitud de Aprendizaje en niños-Investigación, Cuando los niños empiezan el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera ya poseen alguna competencia comunicativa en su lengua materna. De lo que se trata, por tanto en este proyecto de investigación en el aula es de promover esta competencia para comunicarse en otras lenguas. El propósito fundamental de esta investigación fue explorar si era posible ayudar a los estudiantes a adquirir y desarrollar su competencia en este nuevo código, mediante la implementación de actividades lúdicas. En este artículo se presentaran los conceptos de competencias, lúdica y algunas de las características de los niños en el aprendizaje de una segunda lengua. También se presentaran los resultados que surgieron a partir de la implementación de las actividades lúdicas y se mencionaran algunas implicaciones pedagógicas que promueven el mejoramiento del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera.

  14. Nurse Practitioners' Use of Communication Techniques: Results of a Maryland Oral Health Literacy Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Laura W; Horowitz, Alice M; Radice, Sarah D; Wang, Min Q; Kleinman, Dushanka V

    2016-01-01

    We examined nurse practitioners' use and opinions of recommended communication techniques for the promotion of oral health as part of a Maryland state-wide oral health literacy assessment. Use of recommended health-literate and patient-centered communication techniques have demonstrated improved health outcomes. A 27-item self-report survey, containing 17 communication technique items, across 5 domains, was mailed to 1,410 licensed nurse practitioners (NPs) in Maryland in 2010. Use of communication techniques and opinions about their effectiveness were analyzed using descriptive statistics. General linear models explored provider and practice characteristics to predict differences in the total number and the mean number of communication techniques routinely used in a week. More than 80% of NPs (N = 194) routinely used 3 of the 7 basic communication techniques: simple language, limiting teaching to 2-3 concepts, and speaking slowly. More than 75% of respondents believed that 6 of the 7 basic communication techniques are effective. Sociodemographic provider characteristics and practice characteristics were not significant predictors of the mean number or the total number of communication techniques routinely used by NPs in a week. Potential predictors for using more of the 7 basic communication techniques, demonstrating significance in one general linear model each, were: assessing the office for user-friendliness and ever taking a communication course in addition to nursing school. NPs in Maryland self-reported routinely using some recommended health-literate communication techniques, with belief in their effectiveness. Our findings suggest that NPs who had assessed the office for patient-friendliness or who had taken a communication course beyond their initial education may be predictors for using more of the 7 basic communication techniques. These self-reported findings should be validated with observational studies. Graduate and continuing education for NPs

  15. The Role of Songs in First-Graders’ Oral Communication Development in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivon Aleida Castro Huertas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We report on an action research project aimed at developing oral communication in first-graders, using songs as a strategy for young learners to use and enjoy English. It was developed at a Colombian public school over three months. The teacher-researchers attempted to encourage students using simple and amusing songs to help them learn new vocabulary in English and develop oral skills from the very moment they began their literacy process. In this article, we attempt to share our findings obtained from data collected through direct observation, field notes, video recordings, and interviews that show the process followed by very young learners to acquire vocabulary by singing.

  16. Assessment of Oral Communication: A Major Review of the Historical Development and Trends in the Movement from 1975 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morreale, Sherwyn; Backlund, Philip; Hay, Ellen; Moore, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive review of the assessment of oral communication in the communication discipline is both descriptive and empirical in nature. First, some background on the topic of communication assessment is provided. Following the descriptive background, we present an empirical analysis of academic papers, research studies, and books about…

  17. The Effect of Communication Strategy Training on the Development of EFL Learners' Strategic Competence and Oral Communicative Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabab'ah, Ghaleb

    2016-06-01

    This study examines the effect of communication strategy instruction on EFL students' oral communicative ability and their strategic competence. In a 14-week English as a Foreign Language (EFL) course (English Use II) based on Communicative Language Teaching approach, 80 learners were divided into two groups. The strategy training group ([Formula: see text]) received CS training based on a training program designed for the purpose of the present research, whereas the control group ([Formula: see text]) received only the normal communicative course using Click On 3, with no explicit focus on CSs. The communication strategies targeted in the training program included circumlocution (paraphrase), appeal for help, asking for repetition, clarification request, confirmation request, self-repair, and guessing. Pre- and post-test procedures were used to find out the effect of strategy training on language proficiency and CS use. The effect of the training was assessed by three types of data collection: the participants' pre- and post-IELTS speaking test scores, transcription data from the speaking IELTS test, and 'Click On' Exit Test scores. The findings revealed that participants in the strategy training group significantly outperformed the control group in their IELTS speaking test scores. The results of the post-test transcription data also confirmed that the participants in the strategy training group used more CSs, which could be attributed to the CS training program. The findings of the present research have implications for language teachers, and syllabus designers.

  18. Judges' perception of candidates' organization and communication, in relation to oral certification examination ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, James E; Myford, Carol M

    2009-11-01

    To determine (1) whether judges differed in the levels of severity they exercised when rating candidates' performance in an oral certification exam, (2) to what extent candidates' clinical competence ratings were related to their organization/communication ratings, and (3) to what extent clinical competence ratings could predict organization/communication ratings. Six hundred eighty-four physicians participated in a medical specialty board's 2002 oral examination. Ninety-nine senior members of the medical specialty served as judges, rating candidates' performances. Candidates' clinical competence ratings were analyzed using multifaceted Rasch measurement to investigate judge severity. A Pearson correlation was calculated to examine the relationship between ratings of clinical competence and organization/communication. Logistic regression was used to determine to what extent clinical competence ratings predicted organization/communication ratings. There were about three statistically distinct strata of judge severity; judges were not interchangeable. There was a moderately strong relationship between the two sets of candidate ratings. Higher clinical competence ratings were associated with an organization/communication rating of acceptable, whereas lower clinical competence ratings were associated with an organization/communication rating of unacceptable. The judges' clinical competence ratings correctly predicted 61.9% of the acceptable and 88.3% of the unacceptable organization/communication ratings. Overall, the clinical competence ratings correctly predicted 80% of the organization/communication ratings. The close association between the two sets of ratings was possibly due to a "halo" effect. Several explanations for this relationship were explored, and the authors considered the implications for their understanding of how judges carry out this complex rating task.

  19. [The evaluation of nursing graduates' scientific reasoning and oral and written communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demandes, Ingrid; Latrach, Cecilia A; Febre, Naldy Pamela; Muñoz, Claudia; Torres, Pamela; Retamal, Jessica

    2012-08-01

    This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in Santiago de Chile, with the objective to evaluate the scientific reasoning and the oral and written communication of nursing graduates. The sample consisted of 37 nursing graduates who participated in the three stages of the study: I) creation and validation of the instrument; II) training the faculty participating in the study to apply the instrument uniformly; and III) application of the instrument and data analysis. The data show different percentages regarding this competency, with the predominance of scientific reasoning (83.16%), followed by oral and written communication (78.37%). In conclusion, this study demonstrates the value for nursing schools to implement a formal evaluation that allows for determining the profile of nursing graduates, guaranteeing the quality of their training and education.

  20. The educational inclusion of the students with upsets of the oral communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merling Murguia Moré

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The educational inclusion imposes challenges to the National System of Education, to optimize the attention to the students with upsets of the oral communication. Is the objective of the article to share the design of an investigation that assists to the scientific problem how to contribute to the improvement of the educational inclusion of the students with upsets of the oral communication? The employment of the investigation-action-participativa it drives to the execution of the objective related with the construction of a pedagogic model for the improvement of this process. The results of the investigation will constitute a necessary contribution to the educational inclusion in the National System of Education

  1. Oral Genres in the Classroom: A Pedagogical Proposal Beyond Private Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Orality is forgotten by the school as a legitimate form of language and work strategy with the language. Still predominate in school practices related to writing, a reminiscence of the pedagogical tradition that spread, among others, the false idea that, because most of them are related to daily practices and reflect the ability to speak, we have acquired from an early age, oral genres don’t need to be studied. It is observed that, when teachers work with these genres, they do not focus their evaluation on characteristics of the orality in the texts produced. The direction is only for exhibition content, without take into account the linguistic and contextual adjustments that the speaker should do, according to the formality of situation inherent to that act of communication. In many cases, when students speak in class, they are not encouraged to reflect on that linguistic usage, need that demonstrates the inconsistency of the work done by many teachers. It is clear, however, that it is up to school provide tools to speakers to fulfill the oral communicative demands of day-to-day, especially in formal contexts, that go beyond the limits of private communication (chat, exchange ideas, explanation to the neighboring colleague. Oral competence of use of the Portuguese should be developed from the period of literacy, when children need to distinguish between what they already know and use in terms of language and the systematization of linguistic work that the school should provide. From this perspective, opinion debate, as a legitimate social practice, embodied in actual use situations of language, permeated by discursive formulations of all sorts and raises the collective production of oral texts, is a genre that promotes the teaching and learning of orality in formal mode. Privileges also argumentative skills in the discursive perspective, because mobilizes development structures of arguments related to the form of construction of sentences

  2. Implementation multi representation and oral communication skills in Department of Physics Education on Elementary Physics II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumawati, Intan; Marwoto, Putut; Linuwih, Suharto

    2015-09-01

    The ability of multi representation has been widely studied, but there has been no implementation through a model of learning. This study aimed to determine the ability of the students multi representation, relationships multi representation capabilities and oral communication skills, as well as the application of the relations between the two capabilities through learning model Presentatif Based on Multi representation (PBM) in solving optical geometric (Elementary Physics II). A concurrent mixed methods research methods with qualitative-quantitative weights. Means of collecting data in the form of the pre-test and post-test with essay form, observation sheets oral communication skills, and assessment of learning by observation sheet PBM-learning models all have a high degree of respectively validity category is 3.91; 4.22; 4.13; 3.88. Test reliability with Alpha Cronbach technique, reliability coefficient of 0.494. The students are department of Physics Education Unnes as a research subject. Sequence multi representation tendency of students from high to low in sequence, representation of M, D, G, V; whereas the order of accuracy, the group representation V, D, G, M. Relationship multi representation ability and oral communication skills, comparable/proportional. Implementation conjunction generate grounded theory. This study should be applied to the physics of matter, or any other university for comparison.

  3. Implementation multi representation and oral communication skills in Department of Physics Education on Elementary Physics II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusumawati, Intan, E-mail: intankusumawati10@gmail.com [High School in Teaching and Education (STKIP) Singkawang Jl. STKIP–Ex. Naram, district. North Singkawang, Singkawang-79251 West Borneo (Indonesia); Marwoto, Putut, E-mail: pmarwoto@yahoo.com; Linuwih, Suharto, E-mail: suhartolinuwih@gmail.com [Department of Physics Education, State University of Semarang (Unnes) Campus Unnes Bendan Ngisor, Semarang 50233 Central Java (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    The ability of multi representation has been widely studied, but there has been no implementation through a model of learning. This study aimed to determine the ability of the students multi representation, relationships multi representation capabilities and oral communication skills, as well as the application of the relations between the two capabilities through learning model Presentatif Based on Multi representation (PBM) in solving optical geometric (Elementary Physics II). A concurrent mixed methods research methods with qualitative–quantitative weights. Means of collecting data in the form of the pre-test and post-test with essay form, observation sheets oral communication skills, and assessment of learning by observation sheet PBM–learning models all have a high degree of respectively validity category is 3.91; 4.22; 4.13; 3.88. Test reliability with Alpha Cronbach technique, reliability coefficient of 0.494. The students are department of Physics Education Unnes as a research subject. Sequence multi representation tendency of students from high to low in sequence, representation of M, D, G, V; whereas the order of accuracy, the group representation V, D, G, M. Relationship multi representation ability and oral communication skills, comparable/proportional. Implementation conjunction generate grounded theory. This study should be applied to the physics of matter, or any other university for comparison.

  4. Implementation multi representation and oral communication skills in Department of Physics Education on Elementary Physics II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumawati, Intan; Marwoto, Putut; Linuwih, Suharto

    2015-01-01

    The ability of multi representation has been widely studied, but there has been no implementation through a model of learning. This study aimed to determine the ability of the students multi representation, relationships multi representation capabilities and oral communication skills, as well as the application of the relations between the two capabilities through learning model Presentatif Based on Multi representation (PBM) in solving optical geometric (Elementary Physics II). A concurrent mixed methods research methods with qualitative–quantitative weights. Means of collecting data in the form of the pre-test and post-test with essay form, observation sheets oral communication skills, and assessment of learning by observation sheet PBM–learning models all have a high degree of respectively validity category is 3.91; 4.22; 4.13; 3.88. Test reliability with Alpha Cronbach technique, reliability coefficient of 0.494. The students are department of Physics Education Unnes as a research subject. Sequence multi representation tendency of students from high to low in sequence, representation of M, D, G, V; whereas the order of accuracy, the group representation V, D, G, M. Relationship multi representation ability and oral communication skills, comparable/proportional. Implementation conjunction generate grounded theory. This study should be applied to the physics of matter, or any other university for comparison

  5. Short communication: study on veterinarian communication skills preferred and perceived by dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolla, M; Zecconi, A

    2015-04-01

    Effective communication in dairy farms improves management and herd health, and it is also pivotal for public health in a "from farm to fork" perspective. This paper reports the results of a descriptive study on dairy farmers' perception of veterinarian and other consultants' communication skills. Perceived communication skills showed to be significantly lower than desired ones for all the professional figures considered. Despite these unsatisfactory results, veterinarian were the most appreciated and skilled consultants. The observed farmers' dissatisfaction increases farmers' difficulties in identifying proper targets and proper consultant. An increase in the skill of veterinarian to deliver effective and tailored messages could help to overcome the problem. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Short-term impact of oral hygiene training package to Anganwadi workers on improving oral hygiene of preschool children in North Indian City

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Globally, dental caries is categorized in the list of public health problems in preschool children. In India, lack of availability and affordability of oral health enhances the cost of treatment and care. Empowering community workers like anganwadi workers (AWWs) in oral health, and providing basic oral health awareness to the mothers through them can be feasible model. So, the present study was conducted to evaluate the short-term impact of Oral Hygiene Training Package (OHTP) to AWWs on improving oral hygiene of preschool children. Methods This before and after comparison field trial was done in Anganwadi centres (AWCs) of Chandigarh city, India. 534 children aged 36-72 months attending 21 AWCs were examined before and after imparting trainings to AWWs. OHTP was administered to AWWs, which consisted of power-point presentation and demonstrated the skills like proper brushing technique, plaque disclosure, flossing technique, gum massaging etc. The AWWs later imparted training to mothers in their respective AWCs. Post intervention data was collected after three months. Outcome measures were improvement in oral health status (plaque, debris, gingival health), oral habits (brushing, rinsing) and decrease in caries activity (Snyder test). Results Prevalence of dental caries was found to be 48.3%. Only 4.1% of the population reported brushing twice which increased significantly to 9.9% post-intervention (p = 0.000). There was a significant decrease in debris (78.3% to 54.1%), and stage-1 plaque (75.5 to 66.5%) in the oral cavity. Caries activity by Snyder’s test decreased from 48.2% to 31.2% (p = 0.01) post-intervention. Conclusions Controlled trials of using AWWs to improve oral hygiene appear to be justified. Trial registration CTRI/2012/07/002786 PMID:24279468

  7. Effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the oral microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderling, Eva; ElSalhy, Mohamed; Honkala, Eino; Fontana, Margherita; Flannagan, Susan; Eckert, George; Kokaras, Alexis; Paster, Bruce; Tolvanen, Mimmi; Honkala, Sisko

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of short-term xylitol gum chewing on the salivary microbiota of children. The study was a randomised, controlled, double-blind trial. Healthy children used xylitol chewing gum (xylitol group, n = 35) or sorbitol chewing gum (control group, n = 38) for 5 weeks. The daily dose of xylitol/sorbitol was approximately 6 g/day. At baseline and at the end of the test period, unstimulated and paraffin-stimulated saliva were collected. The microbial composition of the saliva was assessed using human oral microbe identification microarray (HOMIM). Mutans streptococci (MS) were plate cultured. As judged by HOMIM results, no xylitol-induced changes in the salivary microbiota took place in the xylitol group. In the control group, Veillonella atypica showed a significant decrease (p = 0.0001). The xylitol gum chewing decreased viable counts of MS in both stimulated (p = 0.006) and unstimulated (p = 0.002) saliva, but similar effects were also seen in the control group. The use of xylitol gum decreased MS, in general, but did not change the salivary microbial composition. Short-term consumption of xylitol had no impact on the composition of the salivary microbiota, but resulted in a decrease in the levels of MS.

  8. Recall effect of short message service (SMS) as a complementary marketing communications instrument

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, J.P.M.; Wetzels, M.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    A quasi-experimental study was designed to investigate the recall effect of Short Message Service (SMS) as a complementary marketing communications instrument. An experimental group (EG) was formed, consisting of people who had called an SMS number mentioned in a car brand campaign. A control group

  9. Short Communication Estimation of size at first maturity in two South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication Estimation of size at first maturity in two South African coral species. ... African Journal of Marine Science ... PH Montoya-Maya, AHH Macdonald, MH Schleyer ... to differentiate juveniles from adult sizes of corals, an important factor for assessing the condition of scleractinian communities in reefs. Here ...

  10. Status of the dedicated short-range communications technology and applications : report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report responds to a Congressional request for an assessment of the 5.9 Gigahertz (GHz) Dedicated Short Range : Communications (DSRC) in accordance with the requirements provided by Congress in the Moving Ahead for Progress in the : 21st Century...

  11. Short Communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NaOH treatment. P.H. Henning* and D.G. Steyn. Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute, Private Bag X2,. Irene, 1675 Republic of South Africa. Different portions (stalks, cobs, plant leaves, and cob leaves) from mature dry maize plants remaining after grain harvest were collected on two occasions, 8 weeks apart.

  12. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-08-23

    Aug 23, 2011 ... Through a grant administered by the World Health Organization (WHO) and funded by the Bill and. Melinda Gates Foundation to support the development of regional Child Strategies in resource-constrained settings, staff of www.pactr.org developed the Africa-region Child Strategy. Since www.pactr.org ...

  13. Short communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At 18:30 (dusk) on 20 September 2007, six African Sheath-tailed Bats. Coleura afra which weigh between 10 and 12 g (Dunlop 1997) were observed leaving their day roost located under the roof of the residential house of the research station. (NB: the bats were identified from digital pictures and videos using the Kingdon ...

  14. Short Communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This method of amnion formation has been reported in only a few bat species,. e.g. the phyllostomatids and desmodontids. Both these groups have been considered exceptional among bats in exhibiting completely interstitial implantation (Hamlett 1935; Wimsatt. 1954). In members of both these groups amniogenesis by.

  15. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carelm

    The drying rate and chemical composition of lucerne hay that was field dried (sun ... dried in a forced air bulk drier (FABD) were compared during summer (which is .... Wooden slats were installed inside the FABD at the same height from the ...

  16. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-05-29

    May 29, 2017 ... The mean WB123 antibody titers were higher among ICT positives, but not significantly different .... populations that have not been treated, such as in children born .... Michael E. The effect of single dose ivermectin alone or in.

  17. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    12 août 2015 ... dissection et respect des nerfs laryngés inférieurs et supéro- externes ainsi que des glandes parathyroïdes, hémostase, fermeture sur drains de Redon). La conscience a été conservée durant toute l'intervention pendant laquelle des questions ont été posées régulièrement au/à la patient(e). Une dysphonie ...

  18. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Personal

    east of the rift valley, which have pink faces and a blue nasal spot and not given ... these trees approximate the true pattern of ... as shaggy reddish (red-brown) with gray white ... of other tough savannah fruits, seeds, and berries. (Bonadio ... deciduous savanna-woodland of North West .... Smithsonian Institution, Washington.

  19. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-06-09

    Jun 9, 2015 ... Our study aimed at assessing if parasites resistance profile has been affected by the implementation of the new treatment policies. Before the policy change, several studies have reported a high level of mutants Pfcrt T76 allele up to 65% in the country [10]. This study shows a decrease of this mutation five ...

  20. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-02-01

    Feb 1, 2017 ... which no bacterial cause had been found by culture or by molecular biology. Isolation of ... Germany for sequencing. Analysis with the Blast .... Alain Farra was the principal investigator, working from levies on sites, cultivation ...

  1. Short communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    suggested that they were casualties of low-level flight over smooth, glassy ... moon. Flamingoes sometimes descend from height by zig-zagging down at high .... Although the large quantity of dead animals seen on the first occasion was not.

  2. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-09-28

    Sep 28, 2011 ... assessed the participation of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) based in sub-Saharan Africa on pandemic influenza preparedness and response. ..... b Includes 9 trainees from Southern Sudan that were trained in the Kenya program c All FELTP trainees were in either first or ...

  3. Short Communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassin's Hawk Eagle Spizaetus africanus is a little-known forest-dependent species that occurs mainly in West and Central Africa (Brown et al. 1982). The species was considered a Guineo-Congolian near endemic whose eastern-most distribution was the forests of western Uganda, but some recent reports suggest that it ...

  4. Short Communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    frugivorous bird guilds foraging at fleshy fruiting trees have been carried out in African forests (e.g., Kirika et al. 2008). Such information would significantly improve our understanding of the role of avian frugivory in seed dispersal for African tree species. We present observations on fruit-eating bird species at Amani Nature ...

  5. short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Schalk Cloete

    Based on these preliminary results, alternative strategies for the genetic ... Ostrich leather competes in the exotic leather market, and is marketed as a luxury product (Cooper,. 2001 ..... Cloete, S.W.P., Van Schalkwyk, S.J. & Brand, Z., 1998.

  6. Short communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-08-09

    Aug 9, 1988 ... metodos de trabajo con el zooplancton marino, (ed.) Boltovsky, D. INIDEP Mar del Plata, Argentina. KUO. C.M., NASH, C.E. & SHEHADEH, Z.H. 1974. A ... The state of the gonads of the striped mullet (MugU cephalus) and the sharpnose mullet (Mugi/ saliens) leaving estuaries to spawn and their reaction to ...

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-10-04

    Oct 4, 2011 ... pneumonia, respectively (P=0.0085). Cefepime is less active against ESBL producing organisms; ... Key words: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, cefepime, susceptibility, Tanzania. Third generation ... and neutropenic fever and equal to ceftriaxone in severe community acquired pneumonia; it is ...

  8. Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Fehrmann-Cartes, K.; Íiguez-González, G.

    2015-01-01

    with soybean (SO) and hydrogenated vegetable (HVO) oils on chemical and FA composition of milk and cheese and sensory characteristics of cheese. Nine multiparous Holstein cows averaging 169 ± 24. d in milk at the beginning of the study were used in a replicated (n = 3) 3 × 3 Latin square design that included 3...... periods of 21. d. All cows received a basal diet formulated with a 56:44 forage:concentrate ratio. Dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet (control; no fat supplement), and the basal diet supplemented with SO (unrefined oil; 500. g/d per cow) and HVO (manufactured from palm oil; 500. g/d per cow...

  9. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    SNP was screened by comparing sequences of PCR products, and the ... A sharp rise in plasma PRL level may induce incubation behaviour and thus terminate ... Therefore, PRL exhibits similar changing profiles in the reproduction cycle and.

  10. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-09-17

    Sep 17, 2013 ... in which green fluorescent protein (gfp) and HIV-1 Subtype C gag genes were cloned ... The his-tag did not affect the expression of the two ... as GFP and HIV-1 Gag without much metabolic burden to the bacterial growth [5,6].

  11. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Keywords: Backcross, breeding system, introgression, genetic markers ... missing marker data using an iterative allelic peeling algorithm. ... K=2 foundation populations were calculated, with membership coefficients summing to 1 across the ...

  12. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-13

    Mar 13, 2015 ... Its incidence is estimated at 1 in 3000 to 1 in 10 000 pregnancies. Several reproductive ... patients are requested to come for a thorough baseline clinical ... fibroadenomas, lactating adenomas and mastitis accounting for the.

  13. Short communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Basic identification of the races of the Crested Guineafowl is based on the following criteria: colour of the throat and neck, and the presence or not of a broad band of .... Occasional inland records have been mainly of small numbers on the Rift. Valley lakes, but with up to 30 together at Ferguson's Gulf, Lake Turkana, and up ...

  14. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lincoln User

    Peer-reviewed paper: 10th World Conference on Animal Production. 219. Improving the quality of wool through the use of gene markers. T.O. Itenge. 1# .... International Wool Textile Organisation (IWTO) standards. Measurements included ...

  15. Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskarsson, A.; Yagdiran, Y.; Nazemi, S.

    2017-01-01

    Mastitis is the most common disease in dairy herds worldwide and is often caused by Staphylococcus aureus. Little is known about the effect of mastitis on transporters in the mammary gland and the effect on transporter-mediated secretion of drugs into milk. We studied gene expressions of ATP-bind...

  16. Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, S. Y.; Pastor, J. J.; Quintela, J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhea episodes in dairy calves involve profound alterations in the mechanism controlling gut barrier function that ultimately compromise intestinal permeability to macromolecules, including pathogenic bacteria. Intestinal dysfunction models suggest that a key element of intestinal adaptation d...

  17. Short communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ettema, Jehan Frans; Østergaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    In a recent data study using 2.4 million lactations of 1.5 million cows, it was reported that gestation of a female calf in the first parity increases cumulative milk production by approximately 445 kg over the first 2 lactations. The reported effect in this study is large and remarkable because ...

  18. Short Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papakonstantinou, Athanasios; Bogetoft, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we use simulations to numerically evaluate the Hybrid DEA - Second Score Auction. In a procurement setting, the winner of the Hybrid auction by design receives payment at the most equal to the Second Score auction. It is therefore superior to the traditional Second Score scheme from...

  19. Short Communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1993-03-26

    Mar 26, 1993 ... tics displayed by a population in each habitat. In addition a translocation experiment was perfonncd to determine whe- ther wave action was responsible for the observed variation in spine length between sea urchins of different habitats. Three populations inhabiting contrasting habitats within the intertidal ...

  20. Short communications

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    wall of the small building on the left, the fence on the right was used by the male for perching before approaching the nest; b) sealed entrance slit of the nest in a hollow brick stone, the female's bill tip can be seen; c) the male waiting to approach the nest, car- rying a slant-faced grasshopper. (Acridinae); d) the male clings to.

  1. Short Communication

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    2014-02-16

    Feb 16, 2014 ... ISSN: 2226-7522(Print) and 2305-3327 (Online). Science, Technology and Arts Research Journal. Sci. Technol. Arts Res. J., Jan-March 2014, 3(1): 132-135. Journal Homepage: http://www.starjournal.org/. Antibacterial Activity of Three Parmotrema Species from Western Ghats of. Karnataka against Clinical ...

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    mass spectrometry (EIMS) was successfully analyzed by the calculated AM1 electronic charges of atoms. It has been found that the method presents a good reliability. The electronic charges of atoms become a valuable instrument for understanding the fragmentation processes of organic compounds in MS. This study is the ...

  3. Short communication

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    ebutamanya

    2015-06-25

    Jun 25, 2015 ... Abstract. Viral hepatitis during pregnancy is associated with high risk of maternal complications and has become a leading cause of fetal death. So the main objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C viral infections among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic in Bahir.

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    2014-03-17

    Mar 17, 2014 ... alcohol soluble extractive value and moisture content and which was found to be 4.31, 2.8,. 0.4 and 10.4% /5gm of the sample powder respectively with light .... Table 1: Properties and percentage yield of the extracts obtained ...

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    2014-12-20

    Dec 20, 2014 ... treatment of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease and others. In the ... 2008; Lu et al., 2011). Tea (Camellia sinensis L., family Theaceae) is one of ... non-fermented and the beneficial effects of green tea are.

  6. Short communication

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    raoul

    2011-03-14

    Mar 14, 2011 ... Zipporah Gatheru8, Patrick Wamae Maranga9, Alassane Dicko10, Adegoke Gbadegesin Falade11, Angeline Yvette Crescence Boula12, Stephanus. Benjamin Kuit13, Olumuyiwa O Odusanya14, Papa Salif Sow15, Nuruddin Lakhani16, Evans Mwila Mpabalwani17, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum18,.

  7. Short Communication

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    hp

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... ingredient, asarone which is found in three isomeric forms viz. alpha, beta and gamma asarone and posses- .... ecological regions of India, which cover three states: Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan (Deshwal et al., 2005). The level ... Chauhan NS (1999). Acorus calamus, In Medicinal and Aromatic Plants.

  8. Short Communication

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    Mike MacNeil

    Mapping QTL for fatty acid composition that segregates between the Japanese. Black ... Japanese Black and Limousin cattle breeds and affect relative amounts of .... dissolved, except for insoluble collagen that appeared as a white powder in.

  9. Short communication

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    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, Einar; Toro-Mujica, Paula; Enriquez-Hidalgo, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    We used a multivariate chemometric approach to differentiate or associate retail bovine milks with different fat contents and non-dairy beverages, using fatty acid profiles and statistical analysis. We collected samples of bovine milk (whole, semi-skim, and skim; n = 62) and non-dairy beverages (...

  10. Short communication

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    abp

    15 mai 2013 ... cardiovasculaire, 55% étaient hypertendus, alors que 6,4% avaient des troubles cognitifs. Les sujets âgés en hémodialyse chronique représentent une population de patients fragiles. Ils nécessitent une surveillance particulière et régulière afin de prévenir certaines complications propres au sujet âgé et ...

  11. SHORT COMMUNICATION

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    a

    β-Dicarbonyl derivative constitute an important class of compounds, which serve as a precursor [19] of various pharmaceutically useful heterocyclic compounds, and complexes [20,. 21]. β-Dicarbonyl compounds are very important chemotherapeutic agents [22]. During recent years a number of quinolones with substitution ...

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    abp

    22 oct. 2013 ... Notre objectif est d'évaluer l'indice de masse corporelle (IMC) pour estimer les ... which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the .... Prs Annick Robinson, Olivat Rakoto Alson et.

  13. short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DEVELOPMENT OF EFFICIENT SOLAR HEATERS FOR STORAGE INSECT ... Then adzuki bean seed, infested with Callosobruchus maculatus, was heat treated ... on refinement of the technology for solar radiation absorption materials were.

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    The relationships between S. mansoni, hookworm and S. mansoni + hookworm with P. falciparum were investigated by fitting logistic regression model taking P. falciparum as response variable. Furthermore, co-infections analysis was investigated by fitting multinomial logistic regression model where all combination of ...

  15. Short Communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1987-11-24

    Nov 24, 1987 ... inhalent depression bears little relation to the size 9f the resident worm ... of A. Joveni are variable and are a function of the tidal phase, substratum ... levels, extending down to low water of spring tide (Day. 1981). In most ...

  16. Short communication

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    abp

    2014-05-03

    May 3, 2014 ... ... of migrating West African tribes, particularly Hausa-Fulani, and Bagara in the large migrations ... Cameroon, Benin, Bantu and Senegal haplotypes rather than Saudi-. Asian haplotype. .... Physical Anthropology. 1988; 76(2): ...

  17. Short communication

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    abp

    1 févr. 2017 ... Délai moyen d'installation: 8,5 ±2,2mn. Quantité moyenne ... We conducted a prospective and descriptive study on epidural analgesia (EA) at the Sylvanus Olympio University Hospital Center in Lomé from. February to June ... Key words: Epidural analgesia, obstetrics, University Hospital, Togo. Introduction.

  18. Short communication

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    abp

    2017-09-13

    Sep 13, 2017 ... malaria were seen while 429,000 deaths had occurred [1, 2]. African regions still continue to bear the brunt of global burden of malaria due to a combination of factors like high vector population, favorable weather for transmission throughout the year and more number of infection by plasmodium falciparum ...

  19. Short communication

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    abp

    26 janv. 2015 ... récoltées d'abord au moment de l'inclusion à l'étude (Temps 0 : T0) et puis après 12 mois (Temps 12 : T12) ... Pour chaque participant à l'étude, un examen physique a été fait, suivi d'une prise de sang ... stadification pour l'infection à VIH a, quant à elle, été faite suivant la définition du stade clinique du VIH ...

  20. Short Communication

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    protein whereas HB-1533 the least. High thousand kernel .... Kernel protein content was determined ... methods. The Additive main effects and multiplicative interaction (AMMI) analysis ... principal component analysis (Zobel et al., 1988).

  1. Short communication

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    Human01

    concentrations (0.5; 1.0 and 1.5%) of Funginil (Trichoderma harzianum formulation) against Botrytis gladiolorum .... places of India viz., in and around Delhi, Ghazia- bad (Uttar ..... fungi are assumed as an antibiosis, mycopara- sitism and ...

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    Nuclear independent chemical shifts (NICS) calculations were carried out to determine the aromatic character. KEY WORDS: DFT calculations, Electronic effects, Singlet-triplet energies, Carbene, Five-membered, NICS. INTRODUCTION ... These divalent structures have been described in terms of the Huckel 4n+2 rule [5-8].

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sgopalakrishnan

    2012-08-21

    Aug 21, 2012 ... Potability of drinking water from various sources at the campus of International Crops Research. Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), Patancheru, Andhra Pradesh, India had been assessed for. 17 years (1994 to 2010). All four sources of drinking water at ICRISAT, including Manjeera water.

  4. Short Communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amounts of carbohydrates (McDonald, Edwards & Green- halgh, 1973; Morrison, 1950 and Van der Merwe, 1970) and by a slower and more uniform rate of ammonia-N release into the ruminal fluid (Owens, Lusby, Mizwicki & Forero,. 1980) which will also reduce the susceptibility of animals to. NH3 poisoning. Preliminary ...

  5. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antibacterial Potential of Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) Juice Against Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and. Streptococcus mutans. Vivek MN, Manasa M, Pallavi S, Sachidananda Swamy HC and Prashith Kekuda TR*. P. G. Department of Studies and Research in Microbiology, Sahyadri Science ...

  6. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-10-25

    Oct 25, 2011 ... Korea) rapid kits on mothers´ serum samples. For all HIV positive women, CD4 cell counts were measured in the referral laboratory. The method used a flow cytometer for measuring the percentage of CD4 T cells; an automated blood cell counter helped to measure the total number of lymphocytes. Results ...

  7. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-03-12

    Mar 12, 2015 ... 1Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and .... increases, as in diabetes mellitus and in metabolic acidosis during .... Matthew CA, Frank P, Hurst, Kevin C, Abbott MD, Robert M.

  8. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bacteria which comprised of 4 isolates of. Streptococcus ... extract of A. occidentale leaf than ethyl acetate. Petroleum ether and ... cashew apple can be utilized in the development of .... Antibacterial resistance pattern of aerobic bacteria ...

  9. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... &Corresponding author: Khadija Said, Ifakara Health Institute, P O Box 74 Bagamoyo, United Republic of Tanzania. Key words: HIV ... their records missed demographic information such as gender, age .... Electronic medical.

  10. Short Communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    C.R. & PEEK. J.M. 1974. A technique for analysis of utilization-availability data. 1. Wildt. Mgml 38: 541-545. SANTINI, L. 1980. The habits and influence on the environment of the Old World porcupine Hystrix crislata L. in the north- ernmost part of its range. Proceedings: Ninth Vertebrate Pest. Conference; March 1980, Fresno ...

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    Absorption of arsenic in inhaled air borne particles is highly dependent on the ... study. Arsenic is found in the earth crust and the activities of underground mining involving ... electrons within the coil to flow in the closed annular paths. .... Cameron, N.; Fitzgerald, M.; Li, H.; Robin, J.; Yskollari, M.; Dodova, E. Measurement of.

  12. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-05-08

    May 8, 2015 ... Abstract. We explored the differences in the perceived HRQoL between children with asthma from Moroccan and Dutch descent and their parents. In total. 33 children (aged 6-18 years) from Moroccan (16) and Dutch descent (17) and their parents participated. All children were currently under treatment in a ...

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    2008-10-31

    2Depatrment of Chemistry, School of Sciences, Azad University, Khorasan Branch, Mashad,. Iran. (Received October 31, 2008; revised April 19, 2009). ABSTRACT. Keggin type of heteropolyacids as green reusable and efficient catalyst was used in the synthesis of benzoyl hydrazones from reaction of benzoic acid ...

  14. Short communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in evidence, but playback of a recording of their call from the eGuide to Birds of. East Africa (2014) immediately resulted in one bird emerging from cover and close photographs were obtained. The record was submitted to eBird in November 2017 and to the East African Rarities Committee (EARC) in February 2017.

  15. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    raoul

    2011-10-25

    Oct 25, 2011 ... Regardless of cost, such results are conclusive and may be ... A threshold of ≤ 1.8 log10 was considered as undetectable ... eligibility to more effective antiretroviral regimen especially at high levels of CD4 cell count. Our key ...

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... caused by morphologically indistinguishable subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei. The two forms are West African sleeping sickness, caused by. T. brucei gambiense and East African sleeping sickness, caused by T. brucei rhodesiense. In Tanzania HAT is one of the major public health problems and was ...

  17. Short Communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    densities, diet composition, seed predation by captive rodents and published .... Although small, this was a suituble sample size, since the percenwge of prey ... in the wild after 4 days, and rodent feeding preference for Acacia seeds. (Kelnck ef at. ..... rodents. birds and ants: the relationship of seed auributes and seed usc.

  18. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pranisha

    2014-12-11

    Dec 11, 2014 ... eliminate a contributory factor to PSE meat in South Africa. Transport over long distances to ... Keywords: MH gene, halothane gene, PSE meat, ryanodine receptor, seed stock herds ..... In vitro PNMR studies on biopsy skeletal ...

  19. Short communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-11-11

    Nov 11, 1996 ... upper head shields smooth instead of ribbed; first two. SupfJoculars instead ... accurate, although 14, not 12, longitudinal dorsal scale rows arc present (scales ... mented, creating impression of small scale separating nasals.

  20. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1995-09-29

    Sep 29, 1995 ... During September 1993, afler the St Lucia estuary had been closed to the sea for about nine months, two samples of live plankton were collected at the mouth inside the closed estuary. Fish eggs from these samples were hatched and identified by the characteristics of the eggs and early larvae. Pomadasys ...

  1. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p4208528

    Abstract. Hulless barley contains more digestible nutrients than do whole barleys due to a lower content of indigestible fibre, but also contains a higher concentration of β-glucans. The chemical composition and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of five cultivars (3, 7, 12, 15 and KC-31) of hulless barley were determined ...

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    2014-03-21

    Mar 21, 2014 ... Comparative Study on Antimicrobial Activity of Vitex negundo var. negundo and Vitex negundo ... (Nguyen-Pouplin et al., 2007), anthelmintic (Merekar et al., 2011), wound ..... Efficacy of garlic extract and mancozeb against ...

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    method. Powder X-ray diffraction, chemical analysis, infrared spectroscopy, low ... reflectance absorption spectroscopy were used to characterize the prepared ... Nanomaterials have some wonderful properties, showing specially optical, ...

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    abp

    2014-05-03

    May 3, 2014 ... Eastern Mediterranean Region resources, the Catalogue for Transmission Genetics in Arabs and papers and documents published in Sudan that included data on the prevalence of sickle cell anaemia and trait. Rates of SCA and trait varied in different areas in Sudan with the highest rates reported from ...

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    Prof. Ogunji

    2014-01-12

    Jan 12, 2014 ... Surveys of North central Nigeria conducted between 1989-1990, ... In the southern guinea/derived savannah regions, prevalences .... differences may be attributed to differences in geographic regions and the sensitivity of the ...

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    pond was drained and left empty for two weeks to dry and then lime was added .... using inoculating wire loop and cultured on Blood and MacConkey agar and ... and temperate zones causing Ichthyophthiriasis or 'white spot disease' (Scholz,.

  7. Promoting English oral communication and higher-order thinking in Taiwanese ESL students through the use of knowledge visualization techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Huei; Liao, Hung-Chang

    2014-06-01

    The study examined whether the students using concept mapping in a Freshman English course would improve English oral communication proficiency, higher-order thinking, and perception of abilities. A quasi-experimental design, lasting for 12 weeks, was administered to an experimental group (21 students) and a control group (20 students). The experimental group had significantly better performance on all measures. Concept mapping was effective in improving college students' English oral communication, higher-order thinking, and perception of abilities development.

  8. Research and Teaching: Think before (and after) You Speak: Practice and Self-Reflection Bolster Oral Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Eleanor; Bravo, Adriana; Porzecanski, Ana Luz; Burks, Romi L.; Linder, Joshua; Langen, Tom; Fernandez, Denny; Ruby, Douglas; Bynum, Nora

    2016-01-01

    In this study, conservation biology faculty and practitioners from across the United States designed classroom exercises and teaching interventions intended to bolster oral communication skills. Through repeated oral presentation assignments integrated into course requirements, the authors examined individual student learning gains via…

  9. Strategic communications in oral health: influencing public and professional opinions and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Margo; Fulwood, Charles

    2002-01-01

    In the spring of 2000, US Surgeon General Dr. David Satcher convened a meeting of national experts to recommend strategies to promote equity in children's oral health status and access to dental care. The meeting was planned by a diverse group of health professionals, researchers, educators, and national organizations and by several federal agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Center on Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Health Resources and Services Administration, and the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health. This paper was commissioned by the meeting planners to introduce basic principles of social marketing and strategic communications. Many participants were academic researchers, practicing pediatric dentists and pediatricians, dental educators, policy analysts, and industry representatives, and most had no previous experience with public education or communications campaigns. Other participants were communications professionals, journalists, and community organizers without previous experience in oral health care or financing issues. Thus, the paper also served to introduce and illustrate basic ideas about oral health and general health, racial and ethnic disparities in health, and access to care. Through their interactions, the participants developed a series of recommendations to increase public awareness, build public support, improve media coverage, improve care coordination, expand the workforce, and focus the attention of national, state, and local policymakers on legislative and financing initiatives to expand access to dental care. Future coalitions of health professionals working with the policy, research, advocacy, and business communities may find this paper useful in implementing the action steps identified by the Surgeon General's report, "Oral Health in America."

  10. Oral Lichen Planus and Features in the Short Chain Fatty Acid Pattern Produced by Colonic Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umida A. Shukurova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the content of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs in feces of patients with different clinical forms of oral lichen planus (OLP. Materials and Methods: The study included 139 patients with different clinical forms of OLP in the acute stage. The diagnosis of OLP was performed according to both clinical and histopathological criteria. Patients were distributed in four groups according to the clinical form of OLP. Group 1 included 36 patients with the reticular form of OLP; Group 2 included 34 patients with the exudative-hyperemic form of OLP; Group 3 included 27 patients with the erosive-ulcerative form of OLP; Group 4 included 42 patients with the bullous form of OLP. The four groups to be compared were randomized by sex and age. The control group consisted of 40 healthy, age-matched, randomly selected persons without clinical and instrumental signs of OLP and other diseases of the oral cavity. The concentration of SCFAs in feces was evaluated by gas-liquid chromatography. The profiles (specific concentration of C2, C3, and C4 acids, the ratio of iso-acids to straight-chain acids (iso-Cn/Cn and iso-C5/C5 were also calculated. Results: Three types of SCFA changes reflecting the activity of certain groups of microorganisms were found. For all types of the SCFA disorders, we found a marked increase in the iso-C5/C5 ratio. The severity of dysbiosis increased with the severity of clinical forms of OLP. Changes in the qualitative and quantitative contents of SCFAs reflect the disturbances in gut microbiocenosis in LPO patients, which may be one cause for aggravation of the pathological process.

  11. Autoradiographic demonstration of unscheduled DNA synthesis in oral tissues treated with chemical carcinogens in short-term organ culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, F.; Umemura, S.; Ishikawa, T.; Takayama, S.

    1981-01-01

    A system in which oral tissues of inbred F344 adult rats and Syrian golden hamster embryos were used in combination with autoradiography was developed for measurement of unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS). For this, oral mucosa, submandibular gland, tooth germ and mandible in short-term organ cultures were treated with 4-nitroquinoline l-oxide or N-methyl-N-nitrosourea plus (methyl- 3 H)thymidine. Significant numbers of silver grains, indicating UDS, were detected over the nuclei of cells of all these tissues except rat salivary gland after treatment with carcinogens. This autoradiographic method is suitable for detection of UDS in oral tissues in conditions mimicking those in vivo. Results obtained in this study indicated a potential use of this system for studies on the mechanism of carcinogenesis at a cellular level comparable to in vivo carcinogenesis studies on oral tissues. (author)

  12. The association of patients' oral health literacy and dental school communication tools: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Amy; Yue, Olivia; Atchison, Kathryn A; Richards, Jessica K; Holtzman, Jennifer S

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess adult patients' ability to read and understand two communication tools at the University of California, Los Angeles, School of Dentistry: the dental school clinic website and a patient education brochure pertaining to sedation in children that was written by dental school personnel. A convenience sample of 100 adults seeking treatment at the school's general dental clinic during 2012-13 completed a health literacy screening instrument. They were then asked to read clinic educational and informational materials and complete a survey. Analyses were conducted to determine the association between the subjects' oral health literacy and sociodemographics and their ability to locate and interpret information in written oral health information materials. SMOG and Flesch-Kincade formulas were used to assess the readability level of the electronic and written communication tools. The results demonstrated an association between these adults' oral health literacy and their dental knowledge and ability to navigate health information website resources and understand health education materials. Health literacy was not associated with age or gender, but was associated with education and race/ethnicity. The SMOG Readability Index determined that the website and the sedation form were written at a ninth grade reading level. These results suggest that dental schools and other health care organizations should incorporate a health-literate approach for their digital and written materials to enhance patients' ability to navigate and understand health information, regardless of their health literacy.

  13. Oral communication in individuals with hearing impairment – considerations regarding attentional, cognitive and social resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike eLemke

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, audiology research has focused primarily on hearing and related disorders. In recent years, however, growing interest and insight has developed into the interaction of hearing and cognition. This applies to a person’s listening and speech comprehension ability and the neural realization thereof. The present perspective extends this view to oral communication, when two or more people interact in social context. Specifically, the impact of hearing impairment and cognitive changes with age is discussed.In focus are executive functions, a group of top-down processes that guide attention, thought and action according to goals and intentions. The strategic allocation of the limited cognitive processing capacity among concurrent tasks is often effortful, especially under adverse communication conditions and in old age. Working memory, a sub-function extensively discussed in cognitive hearing science, is here put into the context of other executive and cognitive functions required for oral communication and speech comprehension. Finally, taking an ecological view on hearing impairment, activity limitations and participation restrictions are discussed regarding their psycho-social impact and third-party disability.

  14. Long-term improvements in oral communication skills and quality of peer relations in children with cochlear implants: parental testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bat-Chava, Y; Martin, D; Imperatore, L

    2014-11-01

    Few research studies have examined longitudinal improvements in oral communication skills and quality of peer relationships of children with implants. Moreover, although the emerging literature suggests that improvement in social functioning follows improvement in oral communication, it is still unknown what factors enhance or impede the relations between these constructs. Based on parent interviews, the current study examined the long-term improvements in speech and oral language skills and relationships with hearing peers in 19 implanted children. Results demonstrate that on average, children continue to improve in oral communication skills and quality of peer relationships even years after implantation, especially those with initial poorer skills. While oral communication ability and quality of peer relationships are strongly associated at each time point, gains in these two variables are associated only for some of the children. Other factors, including self-confidence and peer acceptance, seem to moderate this relationship. Qualitative data are presented to illustrate these relations among variables and to assist in theory building. The results highlight the need for more specific examination of various developmental periods in combination with the progress of oral communication and peer relationships among children with implants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. STORYTELLING AS A COMMUNICATIVE ACT / LA NARRACIÓN ORAL COMO ACTO DE COMUNICACIÓN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nela Barba Téllez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material presented discloses a topic of great value and current importance in the context of Pedagogy and Educative Psychology: the storytelling for children. It is intended for those teachers, who before the imminence and fast pace of daily life, are aware of the value of the communication, participation and conversation as resources that enhance the imagination. The purpose of this material is to stimulate the reflection and creativity of teachers to enable the development of storytelling skill in groups of boys and girls, based on the communicative approach, through which is acknowledged that in the storytelling, as a communicative act, the communicative elements that are involved in communication are present. They are essentially a code, a message, a channel, a transmitter, a receiver and the communicative situation. RESUMEN: El material que se presenta se adentra en un tema de gran valor y actualidad en el contexto actual de la Pedagogía y la Psicología Educativa: la narración (oral para/con niñas y niños. Va dirigido a aquellos maestros que ante la inmediatez y el ritmo acelerado de la vida cotidiana, toman conciencia del valor de la comunicación, la participación y el diálogo, como recursos que potencian la dinámica de la narración oral. La intención es despertar la reflexividad y la creatividad de los maestros para favorecer el desarrollo de la narración en grupos de niñas y niños, desde la óptica del enfoque comunicativo, donde se reconoce que en la narración oral como acto de comunicación están presentes los elementos que intervienen en el acto comunicativo. Estos son esencialmente un código, un mensaje, un canal; un emisor, un interlocutor y la situación comunicativa.

  16. Short-range wireless communication fundamentals of RF system design and application

    CERN Document Server

    Bensky, Alan

    2004-01-01

    The Complete "Tool Kit” for the Hottest Area in RF/Wireless Design!Short-range wireless-communications over distances of less than 100 meters-is the most rapidly growing segment of RF/wireless engineering. Alan Bensky is an internationally recognized expert in short-range wireless, and this new edition of his bestselling book is completely revised to cover the latest developments in this fast moving field.You'll find coverage of such cutting-edge topics as: architectural trends in RF/wireless integrated circuits compatibility and conflict issues between differen

  17. Relational teaching: A way to foster EFL learners’ intercultural communicative competence through literary short stories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Gómez Rodríguez

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reports an action research study in an advanced EFL class of the language program at a public University in Bogotá, Colombia in 2011. The study suggests that the inclusion of authentic multicultural short stories of the U.S. in the EFL context fosters learners’ critical intercultural communicative competence (ICC through the implementation of the Relational Teaching approach. The collected data showed how learners developed critical intercultural skills through commonalities (a concept proposed by Relational Teaching when they read literary short stories. Findings show that applying new teaching approaches and literature in EFL might contribute to create critical intercultural awareness.

  18. Short Communicat Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    biodiversity hotspots (also one among hotspots of biodiversity) of the world. W encompass a wide range of forest types tropical wet evergreen forests to grasslan rich flora and fauna evident from the several species of flowering plants, butte birds, mammals, fishes and amphibians. Western Ghats are known to be a varietal.

  19. Short Communicat Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    soil fertility and land use management practices. Household questionnaire was used as tool for data ... nd use changes and its associate management have significant refore, there is an imperative need to develop sustainable soil ..... household trash to crop land is commo improve soil fertility as manuring. In the area, this is ...

  20. Short Communicat Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    rehabilitation in Ethiopia: a reassessment AFTES Working paper No. 17. World Bank, Washington DC. Charman, P.E.V. and Murphy, B.W. (2000). Soils: Their properties and Management. Oxford University press,. Melbourne, Australia. Devis, J., Freitans, F. (1984). Physical and chemical methods of soil and water analysis, ...

  1. Information and communication technology use among Victorian and South Australian oral health professions students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariño, Rodrigo; Habibi, Elmira; Morgan, Michael; Au-Yeung, Winnie

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine and analyze the use of information and communication technology (ICT) by oral health professions students in Victoria and South Australia. Data were collected during the 2009 and 2010 academic years via electronic survey. Out of 1,138 students studying in Adelaide and Victorian dental schools, 740 students participated, for an overall response rate of 65 percent. The majority were dental students (n=609) with 131 seeking a Bachelor of Oral Health (B.O.H.) degree. The majority were female (62.0 percent), had home Internet access (91.7 percent), and no barriers to accessing the Internet (87.2 percent). Among those who mentioned barriers, difficult access and cost were the most common. The Internet was accessed at least once a week by the majority for general purposes (93.5 percent) and for study purposes (84.2 percent). Nonetheless, thirty-nine students (5.3 percent) were non-frequent ICT users. The probability of an oral health professions student being in the non-ICT users group was explored utilizing a logistic regression analysis. The final model contained three predictors: location of school, ethnic background, and place of Internet use (χ(2) [3]=117.7; pstudents from an Asian background were three times more likely to be non-users (OR=3.06; 95 percent CI 1.16 to 8.08). Those who had access to the Internet at home (OR=0.02; 95 percent CI 0.01 to 0.05) were less likely to be a non-user. These results represent a preliminary evaluation of ICT use among oral health professions students in Australia. It seems that a digital divide exists among these students. The information can be utilized in planning dental education programs and incorporating the use of ICT suitable for oral health professions students and in the design and implementation of employment recruitment and retention programs.

  2. Cellular Controlled Short-Range Communication for Cooperative P2P Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitzek, Frank H. P.; Katz, Marcos; Zhang, Qi

    2009-01-01

    -range communication network among cooperating mobile and wireless devices. The role of the mobile device will change, from being an agnostic entity in respect to the surrounding world to a cognitive device. This cognitive device is capable of being aware of the neighboring devices as well as on the possibility......This article advocates a novel communication architecture and associated collaborative framework for future wireless communication systems. In contrast to the dominating cellular architecture and the upcoming peer-to-peer architecture, the new approach envisions a cellular controlled short...... to establish cooperation with them. The novel architecture together with several possible cooperative strategies will bring clear benefits for the network and service providers, mobile device manufacturers and also end users....

  3. Preparation a l'Autonomie en Expression Orale. (Preparation for Autonomy in Oral Communication). Melanges Pedagogiques, 1972.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulanger, C.

    This article deals with the issue of gaining proficiency in oral expression in a second language. A functional approach to teaching oral proficiency is outlined, an approach which focuses on the audience as a determining factor in the speaker's linguistic output. Claims in the article are based on an experiment in the teaching of oral proficiency…

  4. Oral health promotion reduces plaque and gingival bleeding in the short term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausen, Hannu

    2005-01-01

    . Allocation concealment was clearly described in two trials only, but blind outcome assessment was described in most of the trials and so were dropout rates. Other problems included a lack of controls, use of single blinding and relatively short follow-up. Positive effects on plaque and/or bleeding outcomes were seen in eight studies with no difference in five studies, of which only two employed a control group. Nevertheless, for the two trials that compared various approaches, reductions in plaque and gingival bleeding were generally observed in all groups over the trial period. None of the studies produced a negative effect. Although all the studies evaluated educational interventions, there was no clear indication that any particular type or style of educational approach was more effective than any other. Reductions in plaque and gingival bleeding were seen in the short term in the majority of studies reviewed. The clinical and public health significance of these changes is, however, questionable. Future studies should use longer follow-up periods to assess whether short-term beneficial changes are sustained. Other forms of oral health promotion require better quality evaluation if they are to be used to improve periodontal health.

  5. Utilizing Context in Location-Aware Short-Range Wireless Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa A. Korhonen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss how a short-range wireless communication service implemented for modern mobile communication devices can provide additional value for both the consumer and the service/product provider. When used as an information search tool, such systems allow services and products being promoted at the location they are available. For the customer, it may provide a “digitally augmented vision”, an enhanced view to the current environment. With data filtering and search rules, this may provide a self-manageable context, where the user's own personal environment and preferences to the features available in the current surroundings cooperate with a direct connection to the web-based social media. A preliminary design for such service is provided. The conclusion is that the method can generate additional revenue to the company and please the customers' buying process. In addition to the marketing, the principles described here are also applicable to other forms of human interaction.

  6. Neural processing of short-term recurrence in songbird vocal communication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriël J L Beckers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many situations involving animal communication are dominated by recurring, stereotyped signals. How do receivers optimally distinguish between frequently recurring signals and novel ones? Cortical auditory systems are known to be pre-attentively sensitive to short-term delivery statistics of artificial stimuli, but it is unknown if this phenomenon extends to the level of behaviorally relevant delivery patterns, such as those used during communication. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded and analyzed complete auditory scenes of spontaneously communicating zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata pairs over a week-long period, and show that they can produce tens of thousands of short-range contact calls per day. Individual calls recur at time scales (median interval 1.5 s matching those at which mammalian sensory systems are sensitive to recent stimulus history. Next, we presented to anesthetized birds sequences of frequently recurring calls interspersed with rare ones, and recorded, in parallel, action and local field potential responses in the medio-caudal auditory forebrain at 32 unique sites. Variation in call recurrence rate over natural ranges leads to widespread and significant modulation in strength of neural responses. Such modulation is highly call-specific in secondary auditory areas, but not in the main thalamo-recipient, primary auditory area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results support the hypothesis that pre-attentive neural sensitivity to short-term stimulus recurrence is involved in the analysis of auditory scenes at the level of delivery patterns of meaningful sounds. This may enable birds to efficiently and automatically distinguish frequently recurring vocalizations from other events in their auditory scene.

  7. Performance analysis of dedicated short range communications technology and overview of the practicability for developing countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Bassoo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vehicular communication is a widely researched field and aims at developing technologies that may complement systems such as the advanced driver assistance systems. It is therefore important to analyse and infer on the performance of vehicular technologies for different driving and on-road criteria. This study considers the dedicated short range communications technology and more precisely the IEEE 802.11p standard for a performance and practicability analysis. There is also the proposal of a new classification scheme for typical driving conditions, which includes the main categories of Emergency and Safety scenarios while sub-classifications of Critical and Preventive Safety also exist. The scheme is used to build up scenarios as well as related equations relevant to developing countries for practical network simulation. The results obtained indicate that the relative speed of nodes is a determining factor in the overall performance and effectiveness of wireless vehicular communication systems. Moreover, delay values of low order were observed while an effective communication range of about 800 m was calculated for highway scenarios. The research thus indicates suitability of the system for an active use in collision avoidance even though independent factors such as climatic conditions and driver behaviour may affect its effectiveness in critical situations.

  8. Short Communication Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    principal tuberculosis control strategy, focusing prima on detection and effective treatment of infectious cas. (Raviglione and Uplekar, 2006). After a decade implementation DOTS strategy, the new STOP. Strategy and the Global Plan to Stop TB (2006 were launched in 2006 to address important challeng that included the ...

  9. On-chip patch antenna on InP substrate for short-range wireless communication at 140 GHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Yunfeng; Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the design of an on-chip patch antenna on indium phosphide (InP) substrate for short-range wireless communication at 140 GHz. The antenna shows a simulated gain of 5.3 dBi with 23% bandwidth at 140 GHz and it can be used for either direct chip-to-chip communication or chip...

  10. Clinical assessment of early language development: a simplified short form of the Mandarin communicative development inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soli, Sigfrid D; Zheng, Yun; Meng, Zhaoli; Li, Gang

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a practical mean for clinical evaluation of early pediatric language development by establishing developmental trajectories for receptive and expressive vocabulary growth in children between 6 and 32 months of age using a simple, time-efficient assessment tool. Simplified short form versions of the Words and Gestures and Words and Sentences vocabulary inventories in the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventory [1] were developed and used to assess early language development in developmentally normal children from 6 to 32 months of age during routine health checks. Developmental trajectories characterizing the rate of receptive and expressive vocabulary growth between 6 and 32 months of age are reported. These trajectories allow the equivalent age corresponding to a score to be determined after a brief structured interview with the child's parents that can be conducted in a busy clinical setting. The simplified short forms of the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventories can serve as a clinically useful tool to assess early child language development, providing a practical mean of objectively assessing early language development following early interventions to treat young children with hearing impairment as well as speech and language delays. Objective evidence of language development is essential for achievement of effective (re)habilitation outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of Synchronous and Asynchronous Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Oral Conversations on English Language Learners' Discourse Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbuSeileek, Ali Farhan; Qatawneh, Khaleel

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of synchronous and asynchronous computer mediated communication (CMC) oral discussions on question types and strategies used by English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners. The participants were randomly assigned to two treatment conditions/groups; the first group used synchronous CMC, while the second…

  12. Attitudes toward Learning Oral Communication Skills Online: The Importance of Intrinsic Interest and Student-Instructor Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M.; Phelan, Liam; McBain, Bonnie; Archer, Jennifer; Drew, Antony J.; James, Carole

    2016-01-01

    This study examined and compared attitudes of both students and instructors, motivated by an interest in improving the development and delivery of online oral communication learning (OOCL). Few studies have compared student and instructor attitudes toward learning technologies, and no known studies have conducted item response theory (IRT)…

  13. Oral communication and auditory skills of hearing impaired children and adolescents and the speech therapy rehabilitation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela da Silva Bicas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: to analyze auditory and oral communication behaviors in a group of children and adolescents, users of cochlear implants and to establish a relationship with factors that interfere with aural rehabilitation. Methods: participants were 13 children or adolescents with profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Standardized procedures were applied to check: the auditory and oral communication behaviors of participants and their relationships with the child's age at diagnosis period; the interval between diagnosis and intervention, adaptation onset of the cochlear implant; the hearing age and aural rehabilitation period. Results: statistically significant data were found to correlate the interval between diagnosis and intervention with the scores in the evaluation procedures of oral communication. Conclusion: there was a significant impact on the development of oral communication when the period elapsed between the diagnosis and intervention was analyzed, in such way that the faster the intervention time, the better the results. It was also evident that the earlier the beginning of the use of cochlear implants, the greater the hearing age, and the longer the rehabilitation period, the better the scores in the procedures that evaluated auditory and verbal development.

  14. Selections from the ABC 2015 Annual Conference, Seattle, Washington: Pitching Fish and Innovative Oral and Written Business Communication Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    This article, the first of a two-part series, presents teaching 10 innovations from the 2015 Association for Business Communication's 80th annual conference. The creative new assignments offered here include building listening skills by journaling, oral interpretation, positive message framing, storytelling, delivering bad news, persuasive…

  15. Assertiveness, Self-Esteem and Academic Performance in Speech and Oral Communication of Filipino Junior Secondary Teacher Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Elma S. Pagaduan-Apostol

    2017-01-01

    This study explored the influence of assertiveness and self - esteem on the final grade in English III, Speech and Oral Communication, among the Bachelor of Secondary Education juniors at the Nueva Vizcaya State University, Bambang campus , Philippines. The d escriptive method was employed. A ssertiveness and self - esteem tests were answered by the respondents and their grades in English III were taken from...

  16. Competencies Needed in Oral Communication in English among Thai Undergraduate Public Relations Students: A Substantial Gap between Expectations and Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattanapichet, Fasawang; Chinokul, Sumalee

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the competencies needed for oral communication in English among Thai undergraduate public relations students for handling public relations job interviews and performing entry-level public relations work. To identify these competencies, the study identified and involved all of the stakeholders in the data reliability…

  17. Speech Disfluencies and Mispronunciations in English Oral Communication among Malaysian Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Yong Enxhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The common perception of Malaysians is that they are unable to speak fluently and communicate effectively in the English language as most Malaysians do not speak English as their first language. In a country that is full of diversity in terms of race and culture, it is only natural for Malaysians to be influenced by their first language when using English as their second language. This, however, creates a problem for undergraduates who are looking for job opportunities in both local and international companies because a potential employee’s ability to communicate smoothly in English is an important criteria used by employers. This study intends to shed light on the occurrence of speech disfluencies and mispronunciations among undergraduates of a Malaysian university as well as to provide an explanation for those mispronunciations by comparing the phonetic system of the English language with the Malay and Mandarin language. With the results of this study, it is hoped that actions and measures can be taken by the academic authorities and other relevant parties to gradually improve the oral proficiency skills of undergraduates and help them to be more marketable in the future.

  18. Quality of referral of short children to the paediatric endocrinologist and impact of a fax communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiniara, Lyne; Perry, Rebecca J; Van Vliet, Guy; Huot, Céline; Deal, Cheri

    2013-12-01

    In 2001, a chart review of children referred to the authors' endocrine clinic because of short stature revealed that many were referred with insufficient baseline data, had normal height velocity and were within genetic target height. Therefore, a two-way fax communication system was implemented between referring physicians and the authors' service before the first visit. Aspects that were assessed included whether this system increased the information accompanying the patient at referral, resulted in children with nonpathological shortness not being seen in the clinic, and was used differently by paediatricians and general practitioners. Between January and December 2006, 138 referrals for short stature, diagnosed with familial short stature, constitutional delay or idiopathic short stature, were audited (69 with and 69 without previous fax communication). Data collected included source of referral, clinical information provided, available growth measurements, and results from laboratory and imaging studies. Fax communication resulted in growth curves being provided more often (95.6% of cases versus 40.5% of cases without fax communication [Pshort stature being given to 31 children based on the growth curve, laboratory and imaging results, without the children being seen in the endocrine clinic. Fax communication was also used more frequently by paediatricians (84%) than by general practitioners (15%). The fax communication system resulted in a more complete evaluation of referred patients by their physicians and reduced the number of unnecessary visits to the authors' specialty clinic while promoting medical education.

  19. CMOS Receiver Front-ends for Gigabit Short-Range Optical Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Aznar, Francisco; Calvo Lopez, Belén

    2013-01-01

    This book describes optical receiver solutions integrated in standard CMOS technology, attaining high-speed short-range transmission within cost-effective constraints.  These techniques support short reach applications, such as local area networks, fiber-to-the-home and multimedia systems in cars and homes. The authors show how to implement the optical front-end in the same technology as the subsequent digital circuitry, leading to integration of the entire receiver system in the same chip.  The presentation focuses on CMOS receiver design targeting gigabit transmission along a low-cost, standardized plastic optical fiber up to 50m in length.  This book includes a detailed study of CMOS optical receiver design – from building blocks to the system level. Reviews optical communications, including long-haul transmission systems and emerging applications focused on short-range; Explains necessary fundamentals, such as characteristics of a data signal, system requirements affecting receiver design and key par...

  20. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  1. EFFECTS OF SHORT-TERM USE OF XYLITOL CHEWING GUM AND MOLTITOL ORAL SPRAY ON SALIVARY STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS AND ORAL PLAQUE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrakul, Kemthong; Srisatjaluk, Ratchapin; Vongsawan, Kutkao; Teerawongpairoj, Chayanid; Choongphong, Nachata; Panich, Tathata; Kaewvimonrat, Pravee

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term effects of xylitol chewing gum and maltitol spray on the concentration of salivary mutans streptococci (MS) and on the plaque index. Eighty-one second, third and fourth year dental and dental assistant students with a salivary MS concentration > 103 CFU/ml cultured on mitis salivarius bacitracin (MSB) agar were included in the study. The age range of subjects was 18-23 years. The participants were divided into 3 groups: control, xylitol chewing gum and maltitol spray groups. Each subject brushed their teeth with fluoridated toothpaste (1,000 ppm). Each subject in the xylitol chewing gum group was told to chew 2 pieces, 6 times a day (total xylitol dose=7.3 g/day) for 4 weeks. Each subject in the maltitol spray group was told to spray one puff twice daily (morning and evening) for 4 weeks. A dental examination and saliva samples to determine the salivary MS concentration were collected at baseline and at 2 and 4 weeks after experiment initiation. The nonparametric Mann–Whitney U test was used to analyze differences among groups. The mean ages in the control, xylitol chewing gum and maltitol spray groups were 22±1, 20±1 and 20±1 years, respectively. The mean MS concentrations at the beginning of the study and after 2 weeks in the control, and xylitol chewing gum and moltitol oral spray groups were not significantly different from each other. There was a significantly lower MS concentration in the moltitol oral spray group than in the control group by 4 weeks (p=0.045) but no significant difference between the control group and the xylitol gum group by 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in the mean plaque index at baseline among the control group, the xylitol chewing gum group and the moltitol oral spray group. The plaque index was significantly lower in the xylitol chewing gum group than the control group (p=0.003) at 2 weeks but not 4 weeks. There was no significant difference in the mean

  2. High-precision GNSS ocean positioning with BeiDou short-message communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bofeng; Zhang, Zhiteng; Zang, Nan; Wang, Siyao

    2018-04-01

    The current popular GNSS RTK technique would be not applicable on ocean due to the limited communication access for transmitting differential corrections. A new technique is proposed for high-precision ocean RTK, referred to as ORTK, where the corrections are transmitted by employing the function of BeiDou satellite short-message communication (SMC). To overcome the limitation of narrow bandwidth of BeiDou SMC, a new strategy of simplifying and encoding corrections is proposed instead of standard differential corrections, which reduces the single-epoch corrections from more than 1000 to less than 300 bytes. To solve the problems of correction delays, cycle slips, blunders and abnormal epochs over ultra-long baseline ORTK, a series of powerful algorithms were designed at the user-end software for achieving the stable and precise kinematic solutions on far ocean applications. The results from two long baselines of 240 and 420 km and real ocean experiments reveal that the kinematic solutions with horizontal accuracy of 5 cm and vertical accuracy of better than 15 cm are achievable by convergence time of 3-10 min. Compared to commercial ocean PPP with satellite telecommunication, ORTK is of much cheaper expense, higher accuracy and shorter convergence. It will be very prospective in many location-based ocean services.

  3. Demonstration of micro-projection enabled short-range communication system for 5G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hsi-Hsir; Tsai, Cheng-Yu

    2016-06-13

    A liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) based polarization modulated image (PMI) system architecture using red-, green- and blue-based light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which offers simultaneous micro-projection and high-speed data transmission at nearly a gigabit, serving as an alternative short-range communication (SRC) approach for personal communication device (PCD) application in 5G, is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In order to make the proposed system architecture transparent to the future possible wireless data modulation format, baseband modulation schemes such as multilevel pulse amplitude modulation (M-PAM), M-ary phase shift keying modulation (M-PSK) and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) which can be further employed by more advanced multicarrier modulation schemes (such as DMT, OFDM and CAP) were used to investigate the highest possible data transmission rate of the proposed system architecture. The results demonstrated that an aggregative data transmission rate of 892 Mb/s and 900 Mb/s at a BER of 10^(-3) can be achieved by using 16-QAM baseband modulation scheme when data transmission were performed with and without micro-projection simultaneously.

  4. Short term serum pharmacokinetics of diammine silver fluoride after oral application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Elsa; Zegarra, Graciela; Chirinos, Edgar; Castillo, Jorge L; Taves, Donald R; Watson, Gene E; Dills, Russell; Mancl, Lloyd L; Milgrom, Peter

    2012-12-31

    There is growing interest in the use of diammine silver fluoride (DSF) as a topical agent to treat dentin hypersensitivity and dental caries as gauged by increasing published research from many parts of the world. While DSF has been available in various formulations for many years, most of its pharmacokinetic aspects within the therapeutic concentration range have never been fully characterized. This preliminary study determined the applied doses (3 teeth treated), maximum serum concentrations, and time to maximum serum concentration for fluoride and silver in 6 adults over 4 h. Fluoride was determined using the indirect diffusion method with a fluoride selective electrode, and silver was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The mean amount of DSF solution applied to the 3 teeth was 7.57 mg (6.04 μL). Over the 4 hour observation period, the mean maximum serum concentrations were 1.86 μmol/L for fluoride and 206 nmol/L for silver. These maximums were reached 3.0 h and 2.5 h for fluoride and silver, respectively. Fluoride exposure was below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) oral reference dose. Silver exposure exceeded the EPA oral reference dose for cumulative daily exposure over a lifetime, but for occasional use was well below concentrations associated with toxicity. This preliminary study suggests that serum concentrations of fluoride and silver after topical application of DSF should pose little toxicity risk when used in adults. NCT01664871.

  5. Recovery of dynamic balance after general anesthesia with sevoflurane in short-duration oral surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Toshiaki; Miyamoto, Eriko; Takuma, Shigeru; Shibuya, Makiko; Kurozumi, Akihiro; Kimura, Yukifumi; Kamekura, Nobuhito; Fukushima, Kazuaki

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of dynamic balance, involving adjustment of the center of gravity, is essential for safe discharge on foot after ambulatory anesthesia. The purpose of this study was to assess the recovery of dynamic balance after general anesthesia with sevoflurane, using two computerized dynamic posturographies. Nine hospitalized patients undergoing oral surgery of less than 2 h duration under general anesthesia (air-oxygensevoflurane) were studied. A dynamic balance test, assessing the ability of postural control against unpredictable perturbation stimuli (Stability System; Biodex Medical), a walking analysis test using sheets with foot pressure sensors (Walk Way-MG1000; Anima), and two simple psychomotor function tests were performed before anesthesia (baseline), and 150 and 210 min after the emergence from anesthesia. Only the double-stance phase in the walking analysis test showed a significant difference between baseline and results at 150 min. None of the other variables showed any differences among results at baseline and at 150 and 210 min. The recovery times for dynamic balance and psychomotor function seem to be within 150 min after emergence from general anesthesia with sevoflurane in patients undergoing oral surgery of less than 2-h duration.

  6. Incidence of Mast Cells in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Short Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are regarded as complex and multifunctional cells, playing a significant role in immunopathology and a substantial role in tumor angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a complex process that is tightly regulated by various growth factors in which mast cells act directly by releasing angiogenic factors and henceforth promoting tumor growth and metastasis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in comparison with normal mucosa. A total of 40 cases (20 OSCC and 20 normal mucosa were stained with 1% toluidine blue and the quantitative analysis was done by using light microscope under 400x magnification. A significant increase in the mast cell count was observed in the sections of OSCC when compared to normal mucosa suggesting their contributing role in tumor growth and progression.

  7. Short term serum pharmacokinetics of diammine silver fluoride after oral application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasquez Elsa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing interest in the use of diammine silver fluoride (DSF as a topical agent to treat dentin hypersensitivity and dental caries as gauged by increasing published research from many parts of the world. While DSF has been available in various formulations for many years, most of its pharmacokinetic aspects within the therapeutic concentration range have never been fully characterized. Methods This preliminary study determined the applied doses (3 teeth treated, maximum serum concentrations, and time to maximum serum concentration for fluoride and silver in 6 adults over 4 h. Fluoride was determined using the indirect diffusion method with a fluoride selective electrode, and silver was determined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The mean amount of DSF solution applied to the 3 teeth was 7.57 mg (6.04 μL. Results Over the 4 hour observation period, the mean maximum serum concentrations were 1.86 μmol/L for fluoride and 206 nmol/L for silver. These maximums were reached 3.0 h and 2.5 h for fluoride and silver, respectively. Conclusions Fluoride exposure was below the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA oral reference dose. Silver exposure exceeded the EPA oral reference dose for cumulative daily exposure over a lifetime, but for occasional use was well below concentrations associated with toxicity. This preliminary study suggests that serum concentrations of fluoride and silver after topical application of DSF should pose little toxicity risk when used in adults. Clinical trials registration NCT01664871.

  8. Integrating Oral Health with Non-Communicable Diseases as an Essential Component of General Health: WHO's Strategic Orientation for the African Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenne, Benoit

    2015-05-01

    In the context of the emerging recognition of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), it has never been more timely to explore the World Health Organization (WHO) strategic orientations on oral health in the WHO African region and to raise awareness of a turning point in the search for better oral health for everyone. The global initiative against NCDs provides a unique opportunity for the oral health community to develop innovative policies for better recognition of oral health, as well as to directly contribute to the fight against NCDs and their risk factors. The WHO African region has led the way in developing the first regional oral health strategy for the prevention and control of oral diseases integrated with NCDs. The support of the international oral health community in this endeavor is urgently needed for making a success story of this initiative of integrating oral health into NCDs.

  9. Flexible multimode polymer waveguides for high-speed short-reach communication links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamiedakis, N.; Shi, F.; Chu, D.; Penty, R. V.; White, I. H.

    2018-02-01

    Multimode polymer waveguides have attracted great interest for use in high-speed short-reach communication links as they can be cost-effectively integrated onto standard PCBs using conventional methods of the electronics industry and provide low loss (30 GHz×m) interconnection. The formation of such waveguides on flexible substrates can further provide flexible low-weight low-thickness interconnects and offer additional freedom in the implementation of high-speed short-reach optical links. These attributes make these flexible waveguides particularly attractive for use in low-cost detachable chip-to-chip links and in environments where weight and shape conformity become important, such as in cars and aircraft. However, the highly-multimoded nature of these waveguides raises important questions about their performance under severe flex due to mode loss and mode coupling. In this work therefore, we investigate the loss, crosstalk and bandwidth performance of such waveguides under out-of plane bending and in-plane twisting under different launch conditions and carry out data transmission tests at 40 Gb/s on a 1 m long spiral flexible waveguide under flexure. Excellent optical transmission characteristics are obtained while robust loss, crosstalk and bandwidth performance are demonstrated under flexure. Error-free (BER<10-12) 40 Gb/s data transmission is achieved over the 1 m long spiral waveguide for a 180° bend with a 4 mm radius. The obtained results demonstrate the excellent optical and mechanical properties of this technology and highlight its potential for use in real-world systems.

  10. SURVEY OF SHORT-TERM ORAL CORTICOSTEROID ADMINISTRATION BY ORTHOPAEDIC PHYSICIANS IN COLLEGE AND HIGH SCHOOL ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert W. Pearsall IV

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of oral corticosteroid (OCS drugs is advocated because of their potent anti-inflammatory effects. They also possess many potential adverse effects. No study has assessed physician prescribing practices of OCS therapy in high school (HS or college (COL athletes. This paper reports the prescribing patterns of sports medicine physicians who used short-term OCS therapy and to describe associated complications in HS and COL athletes within a 24- month period. An internet link to a descriptive epidemiology survey was included in an e-mail to all members of the Arthroscopy Association of North America and the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine. Descriptive statistics and correlation analysis were used to examine responses. Total response rate was 32% (615/1,928. Sixty-six percent of the physicians indicated prescribing OCS to both groups of athletes, while 29% reported prescribing OCS to COL athletes and 5% to HS athletes for musculoskeletal injuries. Physicians who prescribed multiple OCS regimens to the same athlete within the same season (P = 0.01 and physicians who prescribed OCS to the skeletally immature athlete (P = 0.009 reported more complications than other physicians. Among the 412 physicians who did not prescribe OCS in the treatment of athletic induced musculoskeletal injury, 251 (61% cited a risk of developing medical complications as the primary reason for avoiding use. The reported number of medical complications was low with no cases of avascular necrosis reported for the 2-year recall period. Orthopaedic surgeons who treated athletic induced musculoskeletal injuries with a short-term course of oral corticosteroids reported that high school and college athletes benefited with few medical complications

  11. Short-term consumption of oral omega-3 and dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangari, Haleh; Eftekhari, Mohammad Hossein; Sardari, Sara; Hashemi, Hassan; Salamzadeh, Jamshid; Ghassemi-Broumand, Mohammad; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2013-11-01

    To assess the effect of oral omega-3 fatty acids on tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer's score, and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) through a double-blind clinical trial. Randomized, double-blind clinical trial. Sixty-four patients with dry eye symptoms between the ages of 45 and 90 years were randomized into 2 groups: 33 persons in the treatment group and 31 persons in the placebo group. The treatment group received 2 capsules of omega-3 (each containing 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid [EPA] and 120 mg docosahexaenoic acid [DHA]) daily for 30 days, and the placebo group received 2 medium-chain triglyceride oil capsules daily for 1 month. The outcomes were measured 1 month after the intervention. The primary outcome measure was an increase from baseline in TBUT at day 30. Secondary outcome measures were a decrease from baseline in the OSDI score and an increase in the Schirmer's score at day 30. In the placebo group, before the intervention, the mean TBUT, OSDI, and Schirmer's scores were 4.5 ± 2.1 seconds, 36.4 ± 13.8, and 6.0 ± 2.6 mm, respectively, and 1 month later were 4.7 ± 2.6 seconds, 37.6 ± 13.5, and 6.2 ± 2.5 mm, respectively. In the treatment group, these values were 3.9 ± 1.7 seconds, 38.7 ± 16.5, and 5.8 ± 2.5 mm before the intervention and 5.67 ± 2.6 seconds, 29.3 ± 15.9, and 6.8 ± 2.8 mm after the intervention, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that improvements in TBUT, OSDI, and Schirmer's scores were significantly better in the treatment group than in the placebo group. The changes in the treatment and placebo groups were 71% and 3.3% for TBUT (P dry eye symptoms, and 22.3% and 5.1% for Schirmer's score (P=0.033), respectively. This study demonstrated that oral consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (180 mg EPA and 120 mg DHA twice daily for 30 days) is associated with a decrease in the rate of tear evaporation, an improvement in dry eye symptoms, and an increase in tear secretion. Copyright © 2013 American

  12. Terapia nutricional oral em pacientes com Síndrome do Intestino Curto Oral dietetic therapy in patients with Short Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Barbosa NONINO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome do Intestino Curto representa um dos quadros mais sérios e graves de má-absorção e a terapêutica dietética destes pacientes é um desafio importante a ser enfrentado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever a terapia dietética via oral e a sua participação em evitar a desnutrição protéico-energética em portadores de Síndrome do Intestino Curto seguidos na Unidade Metabólica da Divisão de Nutrologia do Departamento de Clínica Médica da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. Foram acompanhados 12 pacientes, 7 homens e 5 mulheres, idade de 55 ± 10 anos, por um período de 24 meses. Eles receberam, concomitantemente à nutrição parenteral central ou periférica, dieta via oral fracionada em 7 a 8 refeições/dia, em intervalos regulares e constantes, com pequeno volume por refeição, hipogordurosa e restrita em açúcares simples e fibras insolúveis. As refeições eram isoenergéticas, isoprotéicas, sendo oferecidas em média 35 kcal/kg/dia e 1,5 g de proteína/kg/dia. Inicialmente eram oferecidos 25 a 50% do planejado e a variação de alimentos era restrita a 1 ou 2 alimentos. Com aceitação progressiva a oferta total de nutrientes era alcançada em 40 a 50 dias. Os resultados mostraram que 59% dos pacientes seguiram as orientações em relação ao consumo energético e 100% apresentaram ingestão protéica em quantidade adequada. Ao final do estudo cerca de 50% dos pacientes apresentaram índice de massa corporal dentro da faixa de normalidade e 92%, valores normais nos níveis de albumina sérica. Considerando o déficit absortivo destes pacientes, o esquema proposto mostrou-se positivo no tratamento da Síndrome do Intestino Curto.The Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS is one of the most serious and dangerous causes of malabsorption and the dietetic therapy is an important challenge to be faced. This study describes the oral dietetic therapy for all patients with Short Bowel

  13. Monolithically integrated quantum dot optical modulator with Semiconductor optical amplifier for short-range optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Akahane, Kouichi; Umezawa, Toshimasa; Kawanishi, Tetsuya

    2015-04-01

    A monolithically integrated quantum dot (QD) optical gain modulator (OGM) with a QD semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was successfully developed. Broadband QD optical gain material was used to achieve Gbps-order high-speed optical data transmission, and an optical gain change as high as approximately 6-7 dB was obtained with a low OGM voltage of 2.0 V. Loss of optical power due to insertion of the device was also effectively compensated for by the SOA section. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the QD-OGM/SOA device helped achieve 6.0-Gbps error-free optical data transmission over a 2.0-km-long photonic crystal fiber. We also successfully demonstrated generation of Gbps-order, high-speed, and error-free optical signals in the >5.5-THz broadband optical frequency bandwidth larger than the C-band. These results suggest that the developed monolithically integrated QD-OGM/SOA device will be an advantageous and compact means of increasing the usable optical frequency channels for short-reach communications.

  14. Short communication: Multi-scale topographic anisotropy patterns on a Barrier Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houser, Chris; Bishop, Michael; Wernette, Phil

    2017-11-01

    Barrier islands exhibit a range of landforms that reflect the complex and varied combination of coastal and aeolian processes realized over the evolution of the island. A detailed analysis of the topography can be used to describe the evolution of a barrier island and provide insight on how it may be affected by a change in sea level, storm activity and wind exposure patterns. Topographic anisotropy, or the directional dependence of relief of landforms, can be used to determine the relative importance of different processes to island evolution at a range of scales. This short communication describes the use of scale-dependent topographic anisotropy to characterize the structure of Santa Rosa Island in northwest Florida. Scale-dependent topographic relief and asymmetry were assessed from a LiDAR-derived DEM from May 2004, a few months before the island experienced widespread erosion and overwash during Hurricane Ivan. This application demonstrates how anisotropy can be used to identify unique scale-dependent structures that can be used to interpret the evolution of this barrier island. Results of this preliminary study further highlight the potential of using topographic anisotropy to controls on barrier island response and recovery to storms as well as island resiliency with sea level rise and storm activity.

  15. The Oral Paradigm and Snapchat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Soffer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this short essay, I argue that the ephemeral nature of emerging instant-messaging applications, such as Snapchat, applies an oral paradigm. While online discourse of computer-mediated communication shares many qualities with oral communication, the case of ephemeral applications is unique, as the oral features are already integrated in the application technology design and as orality is often implemented on highly visual products. Snapchat applies technology that fades visual contents as if they were spoken words fading in the air after utterance. Moreover, Snapchat’s promise to delete all messages from its database after they are viewed echoes a key characteristic of primary oral culture: that is, the inability (and in our case, the obligation not to store knowledge. In this, Snapchat demonstrates counter-logic to the contemporary grammar of new media, which is based on information aggregation.

  16. The dose effects of short-term dronabinol (oral THC) maintenance in daily cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandrey, Ryan; Stitzer, Maxine L; Mintzer, Miriam Z; Huestis, Marilyn A; Murray, Jeannie A; Lee, Dayong

    2013-02-01

    Prior studies have separately examined the effects of dronabinol (oral THC) on cannabis withdrawal, cognitive performance, and the acute effects of smoked cannabis. A single study examining these clinically relevant domains would benefit the continued evaluation of dronabinol as a potential medication for the treatment of cannabis use disorders. Thirteen daily cannabis smokers completed a within-subject crossover study and received 0, 30, 60 and 120mg dronabinol per day for 5 consecutive days. Vital signs and subjective ratings of cannabis withdrawal, craving and sleep were obtained daily; outcomes under active dose conditions were compared to those obtained under placebo dosing. On the 5th day of medication maintenance, participants completed a comprehensive cognitive performance battery and then smoked five puffs of cannabis for subjective effects evaluation. Each dronabinol maintenance period occurred in a counterbalanced order and was separated by 9 days of ad libitum cannabis use. Dronabinol dose-dependently attenuated cannabis withdrawal and resulted in few adverse side effects or decrements in cognitive performance. Surprisingly, dronabinol did not alter the subjective effects of smoked cannabis, but cannabis-induced increases in heart rate were attenuated by the 60 and 120mg doses. Dronabinol's ability to dose-dependently suppress cannabis withdrawal may be therapeutically beneficial to individuals trying to stop cannabis use. The absence of gross cognitive impairment or side effects in this study supports safety of doses up to 120mg/day. Continued evaluation of dronabinol in targeted clinical studies of cannabis treatment, using an expanded range of doses, is warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Short-term changes in chewing efficiency and subjective evaluation in normal dentate subjects after insertion of oral appliances with an occlusal flat table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satokawa, Y; Minami, I; Wakabayashi, N

    2018-02-01

    Oral appliances with an occlusal flat table are used as treatment dentures. However, the short-term effect of insertion of such oral appliances on chewing has not been reported. This study aimed to determine whether experimental and continuous insertion of oral appliances with an occlusal flat table has an effect on chewing efficiency and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP) in healthy participants. Ten participants each in the oral-appliance and control (no oral-appliance insertion) groups attended six data collection sessions for 5 consecutive days. Participants answered the OHIP questionnaire and underwent the chewing efficiency test. For each parameter, intergroup differences were investigated in terms of change from baseline to immediately after oral-appliance insertion (0 hour; P appliance insertion (P appliance insertion (P = .477 and .275, respectively). Differences between the two groups in the degree of change in other parameters were not significant. Insertion of oral appliances caused a decrease in chewing efficiency and an increase in OHIP scores. Continuous insertion improved functional limitation and physical pain within 96 hours. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Utilisation of symmetrical components in a communication-based protection for loop MV feeders with variable short-circuit power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Bak, Claus Leth; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2018-01-01

    -circuit power is presented. It relies on utilisation of symmetrical components of the short-circuit currents and on communication between the protection relays. The proposed method addresses the Single Phase to Ground (SPG) faults occurring in directly grounded distribution networks, with focus on closed......Variability of the available short-circuit power also implies variation of the fault level, which can potentially cause several protection problems in the electric networks. In this paper, a novel protection method that is insensitive to the fault level changes caused by variable short......-loop Medium Voltage (MV) feeders. Case studies are presented, which demonstrate that the proposed protection scheme is capable of effectively detecting the SPG faults in closed-loop feeders with variable short-circuit power....

  19. Identifying Strategies that Facilitate EFL Learners' Oral Communication: A Classroom Study Using Multiple Data Collection Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakatani, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    This article considers whether the use of specific communication strategies can improve learners' English proficiency in communicative tasks. Japanese college students (n= 62) participated in a 12-week course of English lessons using a communicative approach with strategy training. To investigate the influence of specific strategy use, their…

  20. How Cultural Differences Affect Written and Oral Communication: The Case of Peer Response Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gayle L.

    1997-01-01

    Peer response groups contribute to students' effectiveness as writers in any field, but cultural differences in communication affect interactions within the group. Culture-based dimensions on which communication may differ include individualism/collectivism, power distance, concept of "face," and communication style. Recommendations are…

  1. Multiple Intelligences (MI of Associate in Hotel and Restaurant Management Students & Its Implication to the Teaching of Oral Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juvy G. Mojares

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A number of educators argue that MI helps students build positive attitudes toward learning in English class. A study says that “Students who are using their areas of strength to learn feel more competent and confident and enjoy the challenge of acquiring new information”. This study sought to find out the MI of selected Associate in Hotel and Restaurant Management (AHRMstudents. It also delved on the implication of MI to the teaching of the subject. The research design used was basically a descriptive method employing an adopted MI survey form administered to Oral Communication students. There were five sections of second year AHRM students. Out of 196 students, 111 were selected to answer the survey questions by the use of the combination of stratified random sampling and the Slovin’s formula. Results showed that the top three intelligences the respondents have based on their scores are intrapersonal, followed by bodily/kinesthetic and logical/mathematical intelligences; least of the intelligences are verbal/linguistic and visual/spatial.This implied that teaching of Oral Communication should nurture the intrapersonal intelligence and more importantly should enhance and develop the verbal strength of the AHRM students. Teaching should focus more on improving communication skills with others, and not just within themselves.

  2. Short-Term Interferential Transabdominal Electrical Stimulation Did Not Change Oral-Rectal Transit Time in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andre Y F; Sourial, Magdy; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2018-03-02

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) using interferential current (IFC) is a new therapeutic treatment for constipation. Clinical studies show that TES-IFC for 3-6 months improves colonic transit, but it is not clear if short-term stimulation affects transit or the effect requires longer to develop. The aim of this study was to determine if TES-IFC for only four days affects oral-rectal transit time in healthy pigs. Twenty-two 4-5-week old large white female piglets had transit studies during week 4 and week 5 by placing a capsule containing 18 radiopaque plastic markers in the esophagus under anesthetic followed by x-rays at 6, 30, 54, and 78 hours. Animals were randomly assigned to active or control groups. The active group received TES for 30 min daily for four days. Interferential current was applied through four electrodes (4 × 4 cm), with two para-spinal just below the last rib and two on the belly at the same level. Stimulation was at 4000 Hz and 4080-4160 Hz with currents crossing through the abdominal cavity. Whole bowel transit times ranged from 7.7 to 72.2 hours, stomach transit from transit time from 5 to 53 hours. Transit times were the same for the control (median 28.4 hours) and TES-IFC (23.0 hours) groups in the prestimulation and stimulation weeks (control 23.0, TES-IFC 19.8 hours) with no change within or between groups. Four days of half-hour TES-IFC daily in healthy 5-week-old piglets did not change oral-rectal transit time. © 2018 International Neuromodulation Society.

  3. A tale too long for a tail too short? : identification of characteristics in pigs related to tail biting and other oral manipulations directed at conspecifics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ursinus, W.W.

    2014-01-01

    Ursinus, W.W. (2014). A tale too long for a tail too short? Identification of

    characteristics in pigs related to tail biting and other oral manipulations directed

    at conspecifics. PhD thesis, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.

    Tail biting in pigs, i.e. the chewing on and

  4. The Effect of an Integrated Course Cluster Learning Community on the Oral and Written Communication Skills and Technical Content Knowledge of Upper-Level College of Agriculture Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Cynthia; Miller, Greg; Polito, Thomas A.; Gibson, Lance

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to determine if upper-level college students who participated in AgPAQ, an integrated course cluster learning community, would demonstrate enhanced learning in the areas of oral communication, written communication, and agronomic/economic technical content knowledge. The population (N = 182)…

  5. Evaluating the short-term effects of a communication skills program for preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Young-Mee; Lee, Young Hee

    2014-09-01

    Regardless of the growing importance of communication skills as a core clinical competence, few studies have determined the effects of communication skills courses in undergraduate medical curricula in Asian medical schools. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a communication skills program for preclinical medical students. A communication skills course was provided to 111 second-year medical students in a medical college in Korea. Students' self-assessed competency of communication skills was evaluated by a questionnaire survey. To examine the improvement in observed communication skills, the students' encounters with standardized patients (SPs) were assessed at the first session and at the final course assessment. A structured checklist, consisting of 25 communication skills items, was used for the assessment. Students' self-assessed competency of communication skills increased significantly after completion of the course (pcommunication skills scores also improved significantly at the end of the course; the mean scores of the first SPs encounters was 49.6 (standard deviation [SD], 11.1), and those of cases A and B at the final assessment were 61.5 (SD, 8.4) and 69.6 (SD, 7.8), respectively (F61=269.54, pcommunication skills course was beneficial in developing and improving communication skills competency in preclinical medical students. Further studies should be followed to examine whether the acquisition of communication skills during preclinical studies can be sustained into clerkship and actual practice.

  6. [Effect of doctor-patient communication education on oral clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Tang, Yu; He, Yan; Zhu, Ya-qin

    2012-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of doctor-patient communication education on dental clinical practice. The process of 61 dental interns' clinical practice was divided into two stages. The dental interns were taught with traditional teaching method in the first stage. Doctor-patient communication and communication skill training were added to the second stage. Scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior was used to evaluate the dental interns' behavior by themselves after two stages. The SEGUE frame work was used to evaluate the dental interns' behavior by teachers after two stages. All statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0 software package. The result of scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior was analyzed using Fisher exact test or Chi-square test. The score of the SEGUE frame work was analyzed using Student's t test. The result of Scale of medical student's doctor-patient communication behavior showed only 37.71% of dental interns could establish good doctor-patient relationship in the first stage. After doctor-patient communication and communication skill training, the percentage became 75.4%. The result of the SEGUE frame work showed the score was raised from 16.066±3.308 to 21.867±2.456, and a significant difference was found between the two stages. Doctor-Patient communication education can improve dental interns' communication skills and help to establish a good doctor-patient relationship.

  7. Stewards of the Word: Employing Oral Examinations in Required Theology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, Joan Frances; Robinson, Kirk

    2015-01-01

    College graduates are falling short in oral communication skills, yet these skills are important for employment and for effective civic engagement. Catholic colleges and universities are well suited to revive sustained attention to the development and assessment of oral communication skills in today's higher education context. We can do this by…

  8. Oral health-related concerns, behavior, and communication with health care providers of patients with breast cancer: impact of different treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taichman, L Susan; Van Poznak, Catherine H; Inglehart, Marita R

    2018-01-01

    The objectives are to compare responses of breast cancer (BCa) treatment groups (chemotherapy, tamoxifen, and aromatase inhibitors (AIs) to each other and a control regarding (a) subjective oral health, (b) oral health-related behaviors, (c) oral health-related concerns, and (d) communication with health care providers. Survey data were collected from 140 postmenopausal BCa patients and 41 healthy postmenopausal control respondents. BCa patients reported on average more frequent mouth sores/mucositis (5-point scale with 1 = never: 1.63 vs. 1.14; p oral health than patients on tamoxifen/AI (93% vs. 55%/56%; p oral health-related effects of cancer treatment than by dentists. Oncologists/nurses were more likely to communicate about oral health-related treatment effects with patients undergoing chemotherapy than patients on tamoxifen or AIs. Few BCa patients perceived dentists as knowledgeable about cancer treatment-related oral concerns and trusted them less than oncologists. BCa treatments impact oral health. Low percentages of BCa patients had received specific information about impacts of BCa treatments on oral health from their dentists. © 2018 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Short communication: Determination of Salmonella clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) diversity on dairy farms in Wisconsin and Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehnes, C A; Rehberger, T G; Barrangou, R; Smith, A H

    2014-10-01

    Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica is a foodborne pathogen able to cause disease in both humans and animals. Diverse serovars of this pathogen exist, some of which are host specific, causing a range of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic infection through morbidity and mortality. According to a 2007 survey by the USDA National Animal Health Monitoring System, fecal shedding of Salmonella from healthy cows occurs on 39.7% of dairy farms in the United States. Certain serovars are frequently isolated from dairy farms and the majority of isolates from the National Animal Health Monitoring System study were represented by 5 serovars; however, genotypic diversity was not examined. The objective of this study was to determine the diversity of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) loci in Salmonella collected from 8 dairy farms with a previous history of salmonellosis. None of the cows or calves sampled on 2 of the 8 dairy farms were shedding Salmonella, although Salmonella was detected in a cow bedding sample on 1 of these farms. Salmonella populations were discrete on each farm, according to CRISPR typing, with the exception of an Anatum var. 15+ type on farms 5 and 6 and the Montevideo type on farms 1 and 2. One to 4 distinct CRISPR genotypes were identified per farm. The CRISPR typing differed within serovars, as Montevideo, Anatum var. 15+, and Muenster serovars had no overlap of spacer content, even on the same farm, reflecting between- and within-serovar genetic diversity. The dynamic nature of Salmonella populations was shown in a farm that was sampled longitudinally over 13.5 mo. Changes in serovar from 3,19:-:z27 to Montevideo was observed between the first sampling time and 8 mo later, with concomitant change in CRISPR alleles. The results indicate that Salmonella strains present in smaller dairy herds (<500 head) are specific to that farm and new Salmonella strains may emerge over time. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science

  10. Analysing ESL Students’ Perceptions towards Oral Communication for Social and Occupational Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzilah Md Husain; Malini Ganapathy; Akmar Mohamad

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental principles of public speaking and appropriate organisational structure of ideas for occupational and social communication are vital aspects for undergraduates as a pathway to overcome employers’ grievances on graduates’ lack of communication skills (Malaysia Education Blueprint, 2015). This study was undertaken to explore the perceptions of a group of ten students at a tertiary institution in Malaysia to see how they utlise the theories and practice of effective communication skil...

  11. COTS low-cost 622-Mb/s free-space laser communications link for short-distance commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Kenneth A.

    2000-05-01

    The results from a low cost 622 Mb/s, free-space laser communication link operating at 850 nm for short distance commercial applications is presented. The test results demonstrate the use of a free-space laser communications transceiver for building to building applications such as LAN, WAN and ATM operations, etc. This illustrates the potential for wide-use commercial computer network applications. The transceiver is constructed of commercial off-the-shelf materials for the development of a low-cost laser communications data link. The test system configuration utilizes standard Personal Computers with network cards and signal conversion cards for the copper to optical medical conversion. These tests precede the development of an increased data rate device operating at 2.5 Gb/s.

  12. Short Paper: Towards Data-similarity-based Clustering for Inter-vehicle Communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietzel, Stefan; Balanici, Mihail; Kargl, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Many applications of inter-vehicle communication networks (IVC) rely on multi-hop dissemination of information using vehicle-to-vehicle communication. An example are traffic information systems, which aim to provide up-to-date information about traffic jams to drivers. Due to the large amount of

  13. Analysing ESL Students' Perceptions towards Oral Communication for Social and Occupational Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Fauzilah Md; Ganapathy, Malini; Mohamed, Akmar

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental principles of public speaking and appropriate organisational structure of ideas for occupational and social communication are vital aspects for undergraduates as a pathway to overcome employers' grievances on graduates' lack of communication skills (Malaysia Education Blueprint, 2015). This study was undertaken to explore the…

  14. Pilot study to train dentists to communicate about oral cancer: the impact on dentists' self-reported behaviour, confidence and beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awojobi, O; Newton, J T; Scott, S E

    2016-01-22

    To evaluate the effect of a brief, focused training session on the use of an oral cancer communication guide on dentists' intentions, self-efficacy and beliefs with regards to communicating about oral cancer with patients. Pre-post intervention study. The training session took place in a lecture theatre at King's College London. Dentists working in various settings were trained on the use of the oral cancer communication guide via a structured session that included an update on oral cancer, modelling the use of the guide in practice, and role playing. Dentists (n = 39) completed questionnaires pre-training, immediately post-training (n = 31) and after 2 weeks (n = 23). Questionnaires assessed current practice, self-efficacy and barriers to discussing oral cancer. A significantly higher proportion of dentists reported that they informed patients that they were being screened for oral cancer post-training (44%) than pre-training (16%). Significantly fewer perceived barriers and higher self-efficacy to discuss oral cancer were also reported. Training dentists in the use of the guide showed positive impact by reducing perceived barriers and increasing self-efficacy.

  15. Composite three-layer closure of oral antral communication with 10 months follow-up-a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Robert J; Nikoyan, Levon; Dym, Harry

    2014-02-01

    We propose a 3-layer composite closure technique for an oral antral communication (OAC) while avoiding secondary donor site morbidity. A patient had developed a 1-cm OAC after extraction of right maxillary first molar. The patient subsequently developed acute maxillary sinusitis. The patient was taken to the operating room, and a Caldwell-Luc procedure was performed. The bony window from the Caldwell-Luc was "press fit" over the bony OAC defect. Soft tissue closure was then achieved with a buccal fat pad flap and a buccal mucosal advancement flap. The patient was examined on postoperative day 5 and 1, 2, 3, 6, and 10 months postoperatively. The acute sinusitis had resolved. The soft tissue closure was successful. The bone graft remained intact, prevented sinus pneumatization, and restored continuity to the floor of the maxillary sinus. The presented technique for 3-layer closure of OACs allows for the stability of a double-layer closure of OAC with the added benefit of bone grafting from single operative site, achieving stable oral antral closure, bone grafting, and the avoidance of secondary donor site morbidity. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The Relationship between Language Learners’ Willingness to Communicate and Their Oral Language Proficiency with Regard to Gender Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Valadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Willingness to communicate (WTC, which is defined as the intention to communicate given a choice, continues to establish itself as a determining construct in bringing about success or failure in  learning a second language (Dӧrnyei, 2005, Peng & Woodrow, 2010. The majority of studies done on the issue are oriented towards ESL contexts leaving us with a gap in English as a foreign language (EFL context literature. The paucity of studies in EFL contexts caused us to investigate whether WTC and language learners’ oral proficiency were related in an Iranian context. To this end, 70 male and female intermediate language learners learning English at a private institute were chosen as the participants of the study. The WTC questionnaire was given to the participants and a standard speaking test was administered. Also, individual semi-structured interviews with some of the participants were used to obtain supportive data. The results of correlational analyses revealed that there was a strong relationship between learners’ WTC and their oral proficiency with no significant gender difference. The possible reasons for the correlation are discussed with regard to different motivational, contextual, and attitudinal factors.

  17. Refining Pragmatically-Appropriate Oral Communication via Computer-Simulated Conversations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydorenko, Tetyana; Daurio, Phoebe; Thorne, Steven L.

    2018-01-01

    To address the problem of limited opportunities for practicing second language speaking in interaction, especially delicate interactions requiring pragmatic competence, we describe computer simulations designed for the oral practice of extended pragmatic routines and report on the affordances of such simulations for learning pragmatically…

  18. Examining English Language Teachers' TPACK in Oral Communication Skills Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debbagh, Mohammed; Jones, W. Monty

    2018-01-01

    This case study utilized the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) theoretical framework (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) as a lens to examine the instructional strategies of four English as a second language (ESL) teachers and their rationales for incorporating technology into their instructional practices in teaching oral communication…

  19. Saudi EFL Preparatory Year Students' Perception about Corrective Feedback in Oral Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhaysony, Maha

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to investigate the attitudes of Saudi EFL students towards corrective feedback (henceforth CF) on classroom oral errors. The subjects were 3200 (1223 male and 1977 female) students enrolled in an intensive English language programme in the preparatory year at the University of Ha'il. A questionnaire was the main instrument. This…

  20. Short communication: Modulation of the small intestinal microbial community composition over short-term or long-term administration with Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiong; Pan, Mingfang; Huang, Renhui; Tian, Ximei; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua; Wan, Cuixiang

    2016-09-01

    The small intestinal (SI) microbiota has an essential role in the maintenance of human health. However, data about the indigenous bacteria in SI as affected by probiotics are limited. In our study, the short-term and long-term effects of a probiotic candidate, Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY2013, on the SI microbiota of C57BL/6J mice were investigated by the Illumina HiSeq (Novogene Bioinformatics Technology Co., Ltd., Tianjin, China) platform targeting the V4 region of the 16S rDNA. A total of 858,011 sequences in 15 samples were read. The α diversity analysis revealed that oral administration with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk led to a significant increase in the richness and diversity of the SI bacterial community. Principal coordinate analysis and unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic means analysis showed a clear alteration in the SI microbiota composition after 3 wk of L. plantarum ZDY2013 treatment, although these changes were not found 6 wk after ceasing L. plantarum ZDY2013 administration. Species annotation showed that the dominant phyla in SI microbiota were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. Interestingly, operational taxonomic unit cluster analysis showed that administration with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk significantly increased the abundance of Proteobacteria, but decreased that of Bacteroidetes. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 18 bacterial taxa (e.g., Ruminococcus spp. and Clostridium spp.) that overgrew in the SI microbiota of the mice administered with L. plantarum ZDY2013 for 3 wk, and most of them belonged to the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. However, only one bacterial taxon (e.g., Nocardioides spp.) was over-represented in the SI microbiota of mice 6 wk after L. plantarum ZDY2013 administration. Overall, this study shows that oral administration with probiotic results in an important but transient alteration in the microbiota of SI. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy

  1. Short-term improvement in oral self-care of adolescents with social-cognitive theory-guided intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall-Scullin, Emma P

    2015-12-01

    Cluster randomised controlled trial. Clusters of adolescents (classrooms of 15- to 16-year-olds) in each school were allocated either into a control group or into an intervention group. The interventions consisted of peer cooperation (peer support) and peer interactive learning (observational learning) facilitated through feedback from a dentist (professional support). Three intervention sessions with preselected pairs of adolescents were delivered in the first three weeks. Gender, family socio-economic status (baseline) and different social-cognitive domain variables (baseline, six, and 12 months) were assessed using a questionnaire. Dental plaque levels were the primary outcome measure and they were measured at baseline, after the intervention measured only in the social-cognitive theory-guided group, at six and 12 months. At the six-month follow-up there was a statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 19.4) and the control group (35.1 ± 20.0). At the 12-month follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in means ± SD between the social-cognitive intervention group (27.4 ± 18.5) and the control group (31.9 ± 17.8). Variations in dental plaque levels at different time periods were explained by the following predictors: family's socio-economic status, social-cognitive domain variables, group affiliation and baseline plaque levels. Social-cognitive theory-guided interventions improved oral self-care of adolescents in the short term. This improvement lasted only for five months after the intervention was discontinued.

  2. Aspects of oral communication in patients with Parkinson's disease submitted to Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Aline Nunes da; Beber, Bárbara Costa; Olchik, Maira Rozenfeld; Chaves, Márcia Lorena Fagundes; Rieder, Carlos Roberto de Mello; Dornelles, Sílvia

    2016-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) has been satisfactorily used to control the cardinal motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD), but little is known about its impact on communication. This study aimed to characterize the aspects of cognition, language, speech, voice, and self-perception in two patients with PD, pre- and post- DBS implant surgery. The patients were assessed using a cognitive screening test, a brief language evaluation, a self-declared protocol, and an analysis of the aspects of voice and speech, which was conducted by a specialized Speech-language Therapist who was blinded for the study. At the pre-surgery assessment, Case I showed impairment regarding the aspects of cognition, language and voice, whereas Case II showed impairment only with respect to the voice aspect. The post-surgery evaluation of the cases showed an opposite pattern of the effect of DBS after analysis of the communication data: Case I, who presented greater impairment before the surgery, showed improvement in some aspects; Case II, who presented lower communicative impairment before the surgery, showed worsening in other aspects. This study shows that DBS may influence different communication aspects both positively and negatively. Factors associated with the different effects caused by DBS on the communication of patients with PD need to be further investigated.

  3. Oral motor functions, speech and communication before a definitive diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Tanja; Korpijaakko-Huuhka, Anna-Maija; Ruottinen, Hanna; Puhto, Riitta; Hollo, Kirsi; Ylinen, Aarne; Palmio, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the cranial nerve symptoms, speech disorders and communicative effectiveness of Finnish patients with diagnosed or possible amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at their first assessment by a speech-language pathologist. The group studied consisted of 30 participants who had clinical signs of bulbar deterioration at the beginning of the study. They underwent a thorough clinical speech and communication examination. The cranial nerve symptoms and ability to communicate were compared in 14 participants with probable or definitive ALS and in 16 participants with suspected or possible ALS. The initial type of ALS was also assessed. More deterioration in soft palate function was found in participants with possible ALS than with diagnosed ALS. Likewise, a slower speech rate combined with more severe dysarthria was observed in possible ALS. In both groups, there was some deterioration in communicative effectiveness. In the possible ALS group the diagnostic delay was longer and speech therapy intervention actualized later. The participants with ALS showed multidimensional decline in communication at their first visit to the speech-language pathologist, but impairments and activity limitations were more severe in suspected or possible ALS. The majority of persons with bulbar-onset ALS in this study were in the latter diagnostic group. This suggests that they are more susceptible to delayed diagnosis and delayed speech therapy assessment. It is important to start speech therapy intervention during the diagnostic processes particularly if the person already shows bulbar symptoms. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Short message service (SMS) texting as a method of communication during on call: prevalence and experience of medical staff in a large acute NHS Trust in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matharu, J; Hale, B; Ammar, M; Brennan, P A

    2016-10-01

    With the widespread use of smartphones, text messaging has become an accepted form of communication for both social and professional use in medicine. To our knowledge no published studies have assessed the prevalence and use of short message service (SMS) texting by doctors on call. We have used an online questionnaire to seek information from doctors in a large NHS Trust in the UK about their use of texting while on call, what they use it for, and whether they send images relevant to patients' care. We received 302 responses (43% response rate), of whom 166 (55%) used SMS while on call. There was a significant association between SMS and age group (p=0.005), with the 20-30-year-old group using it much more than the other age groups. Doctors in the surgical specialties used it significantly less than those in other speciality groups (pcall was deemed to be safe and reliable (pcommunication to use when on call. Copyright © 2016 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluate, assess, treat: development and evaluation of the EAT framework to increase effective communication regarding sensitive oral-systemic health issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, R D; Cragun, D; Gallentine, A A; Severson, H H; Shaw, T; Cantwell, C; Christiansen, S; Koerber, A; Hendricson, W; Tomar, S L; McCormack Brown, K; Tedesco, L A

    2012-11-01

    Oral healthcare providers are likely to encounter a number of sensitive oral/systemic health issues whilst interacting with patients. The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate a framework aimed at oral healthcare providers to engage in active secondary prevention of eating disorders (i.e. early detection of oral manifestations of disordered eating behaviours, patient approach and communication, patient-specific oral treatment, and referral to care) for patients presenting with signs of disordered eating behaviours. The EAT Framework was developed based on the Brief Motivational Interviewing (B-MI) conceptual framework and comprises three continuous steps: Evaluating, Assessing, and Treating. Using a group-randomized control design, 11 dental hygiene (DH) and seven dental (D) classes from eight institutions were randomized to either the intervention or control conditions. Both groups completed pre- and post-intervention assessments. Hierarchical linear models were conducted to measure the effects of the intervention whilst controlling for baseline levels. Statistically significant improvements from pre- to post-intervention were observed in the Intervention group compared with the Control group on knowledge of eating disorders and oral findings, skills-based knowledge, and self-efficacy (all P oral/systemic health issues. Because the EAT Framework was developed by translating B-MI principles and procedures, the framework can be easily adopted as a non-confrontational method for patient communication. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. Nitrate and the origin of saliva influence composition and short chain fatty acid production of oral microcosms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, J.E.; Buijs, M.J.; Brandt, B.W.; Keijser, B.J.F.; Crielaard, W.; Zaura, E.

    2016-01-01

    Nitrate is emerging as a possible health benefactor. Especially the microbial conversion of nitrate to nitrite in the oral cavity and the subsequent conversion to nitric oxide in the stomach are of interest in this regard. Yet, how nitrate influences the composition and biochemistry of the oral

  7. Addressing the "other" health literacy competencies--knowledge, dispositions, and oral/aural communication: development of TALKDOC, an intervention assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helitzer, Deborah; Hollis, Christine; Sanders, Margaret; Roybal, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Most health literacy assessments evaluate literacy skills including reading, writing; numeracy and interpretation of tables, graphs, diagrams and charts. Some assess understanding of health systems, and the ability to adequately apply one's skills to specific health-related tasks or demands in health situations. However, to achieve functional health literacy, the ability to "obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions," other health literacy dimensions should be assessed: a person's knowledge and attitudes about a health issue affects his or her ability to and interest in participating in his or her own care. In patient care settings, the abilities to listen, ask questions and check one's understanding are crucial to making appropriate decisions and carrying out instructions. Although literacy is a skill associated with educational attainment and therefore difficult to change in a short time, health education interventions can address health literacy domains such as knowledge, attitudes and oral communication skills. For this reason, an instrument that can assess these constructs is a valuable part of a health educator's toolbox. The authors describe the development and process and outcomes of testing a novel instrument targeted to assess HPV and cervical cancer health literacy competencies, TALKDOC, including its validation with the Health Activities Literacy Scale.

  8. Influence of Speech Anxiety on Oral Communication Skills among ESL/EFL Learners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Muhammad Khan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The realization of speech anxiety among ESL/EFL learners is important. Once understood, these feelings of fear or nervousness may be relieved and the desired objectives of learning the target language may be achieved.  The study has attempted to measure the level of anxiety among ESL/EFL learners at HITEC University, Taxila, Pakistan. The current research has arrived at the conclusion that the target population is highly anxious in situation where they are required to speak English. The findings show that sources such as pedagogical, psychological, socio-economic, linguistic and cultural generate anxiety among the EFL learners. The study has suggested variety of strategies to treat anxiety in the academic context. It was found that communicative approach in classroom may be helpful in minimizing the negative impact of anxiety among language learners. Keywords:  speech anxiety, communicative approach, communication apprehension, FLA

  9. An International Short Course for Training Professionals as Effective Science Communicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarathchandra, Dilshani; Maredia, Karim M.

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have recognized a need for educational programs that prepare scientists, Extension practitioners, and other stakeholders to communicate science effectively. Such programs have the potential to increase public awareness and aid policy development. Having recognized this need, faculty at Michigan State University (MSU) developed an…

  10. From molecular insights and chemical technologies to communications and expert systems: A few short thermodynamic stories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frenkel, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This Hugh M. Huffman Memorial Award Lecture illustrates the power of phenomenological and statistical thermodynamics and the unique role of thermochemical data by a variety of studies in very diverse scientific and industrial fields ranging from conformational analysis to optimization of high-tech space and mass-scale chemical technologies and from data communications to data expert systems for chemical process design

  11. Non-chemical and non-contact cell-to-cell communication: a short review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Scholkmann, F.; Fels, D.; Cifra, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 6 (2013), s. 586-593 ISSN 1943-8141 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-29294S Institutional support: RVO:67985882 Keywords : Cell-to-cell communication * physical signaling Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2013

  12. Characteristics of III-nitride based laser diode employed for short range underwater wireless optical communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bin; Liu, Zhe; Yang, Jie; Feng, Liangsen; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Junxi; Li, Jinmin

    2018-03-01

    An off-the-shelf green laser diode (LD) was measured to investigate its temperature dependent characteristics. Performance of the device was severely restricted by rising temperature in terms of increasing threshold current and decreasing modulation bandwidth. The observation reveals that dynamic characteristics of the LD is sensitive to temperature. Influence of light attenuation on the modulation bandwidth of the green LD was also studied. The impact of light attenuation on the modulation bandwidth of the LD in short and low turbid water channel was not obvious while slight difference in modulation bandwidth under same injection level was observed between water channel and free space even at short range.

  13. THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE STORYTELLING ART: THE SOCIOLOGICAL NATURE AND THE AESTHETIC COMMUNICATION IN THE BRAZILIAN CONTEMPORARY SHORT STORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Adriana Dias Kraemer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents reflections about studies of real texts belonging to the genre Brazilian contemporary short stories in its sociological and aesthetic nature. To unveil the path of research, we analyzed the production process of literary texts, focusing on the short story. We assessed predominant aspects of the creative context, the thematic approach, the compositional construction, and style of this genre. Under a materialist and dialectics view, we believe that the discursive genre short story constitutes, according to Bakhtin, a historical and real activity of reading and writing; with relatively stable characteristics, it is linked to a typical state of social communication; with its thematic, stylistic, and compositional traits related to individual statements, linked to human activity. The literary aspects of this genre, under the perspective of Applied Linguistics and Dialogic Discourse Analysis, reveal the various movements in the dynamics of verbal interaction. Therefore, when we reflect on the contemporary Brazilian short story, we may measure the importance of its recognition for reading as construction of meanings. This is a theoretical research, with qualitative analysis of data generation, explanatory purposes and dialectical approach method.

  14. Japanese University Students' Willingness to Communicate in English: The Serendipitous Effect of Oral Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Rieko; Matsumoto, Kahoko; Poole, Gregory; Matsuoka, Misato

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the ways in which college students in Japan overcame sensitivity to external evaluation and increased their willingness to communicate in English. It is not uncommon for university students in Japan, who are otherwise proficient speakers of English and motivated to learn, fail to exhibit English competency in real communication…

  15. Challenges Experienced by Japanese Students with Oral Communication Skills in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagi, Miho; Baker, Amanda A.

    2016-01-01

    Due to ever-increasing demands to acquire effective communicative abilities in the English language, increasing numbers of international students choose to study in Western tertiary institutions; however, they frequently encounter difficulties in performing satisfactorily in English. This study aims to identify specific challenges that Japanese…

  16. Validation of Linguistic and Communicative Oral Language Tests for Spanish-English Bilingual Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer, Robert L.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The development, administration, and scoring of a communicative test and its validation with tests of linguistic and sociolinguistic competence in English and Spanish are reported. Correlation with measures of home language use and school achievement are also presented, and issues of test validation for bilingual programs are discussed. (MSE)

  17. The Effects of Communicative Grammar Teaching on Students' Achievement of Grammatical Knowledge and Oral Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pham Vu Phi; The Binh, Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    So far the students of Le Hong Phong Junior High School have been taught grammar with GTM (Grammar-Translation Method), which just prepares learners for conventional grammar-paper tests. Despite their considerable knowledge of grammar, the students fail to use the language they have learnt to communicate in real-life situations. The purpose of…

  18. Using Webquests for Oral Communication in English as a Foreign Language for Tourism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborda, Jesus Garcia

    2009-01-01

    A long-standing debate in native and foreign language learning revolves around the use of computers to promote genuine social and professional communication. Webquests are a very common way of using Web resources to research a variety of topics, and if appropriately used can trigger the situations necessary to develop both written and oral…

  19. TOEFL iBT Speaking Test Scores as Indicators of Oral Communicative Language Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman, Brent; Powers, Donald; Stone, Elizabeth; Mollaun, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Scores assigned by trained raters and by an automated scoring system (SpeechRater[TM]) on the speaking section of the TOEFL iBT[TM] were validated against a communicative competence criterion. Specifically, a sample of 555 undergraduate students listened to speech samples from 184 examinees who took the Test of English as a Foreign Language…

  20. Formative assessment to develop oral communication competency using YouTube: self- and peer assessment in engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Sasha; Stirling, David; Ros, Montserrat

    2018-07-01

    Obtaining oral communication competency is an important skill for engineering students to prepare them for interacting and working in any professional setting. For engineers, it is also important to be able to present technical information to non-technical audiences. To ensure oral competency, a non-graded formative assessment approach using video with self- and peer assessment was introduced into a final-year engineering thesis course. A low workload approach was used due to growing student numbers and higher pressures on academic staff. A quasi-experimental design was used to investigate the differences between traditional delivery, self-assessment and combined self-assessment with peer feedback. The study found that the formative models were seen by students to help develop their presentation skills. However, the results showed no significant improvement compared to the traditional method. This could be due to previous presentation practice within the degree or more probable, the lack of incentive for weaker students to engage and improve due to the ungraded nature of the activity.

  1. Utilisation de la visioconférence dans un programme de FLE : tâches communicatives et interactions orales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gaveau

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Le projet FR 2003 est un cours expérimental de Français Langue Étrangère (FLE qui conjugue un mode apprentissage présentiel intensif au Centre de Linguistique Appliquée à Besançon puis distant à l'université Sophia à Tokyo au Japon via une plate-forme de téléformation. Cette dernière phase qui avait pour but de prolonger l'apprentissage du français et l'expérience de l'environnement francophone du groupe d'apprenants japonais a donné lieu à une série d'activités orales (jeux de rôle, interviews, débats, travaux et présentations de projets à travers l'utilisation régulière d'une station de visioconférence connectée à Internet. Les échanges entre apprenants et enseignants à l'intérieur de ces environnements numériques ont été enregistrés et font apparaître la visioconférence comme un outil privilégié pour le développement de tâches communicatives et interactives orales en FLE.

  2. Data transmission techniques for short-range optical fiber and wireless communication links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Tien Thang

    The research work described in this thesis is devoted to experimental investigation of techniques for cost-effective high-speed optical communications supporting both wired and wireless services. The main contributions of this thesis have expanded the state-of-the-art in two main areas: high......-speed optical/wireless integration and advanced modulation formats for intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) optical systems. Regarding optical/wireless integration, this thesis focuses on integration of broadband ultra-wide band (UWB) and 60-GHz band wireless systems into optical fiber access...... networks to distribute wireless services in personal area networks (PANs). Photonic technologies to generate and distribute gigabit UWB and 60-GHz-band signals are proposed and demonstrated. Two novel methods are proposed and demonstrated to optically generate Federal Communications Commission (FCC...

  3. Short communication: final year students' deficits in physical examination skills performance in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krautter, Markus; Diefenbacher, Katja; Koehl-Hackert, Nadja; Buss, Beate; Nagelmann, Lars; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The physical examination of patients is an important diagnostic competence, but little is known about the examination skills of final-year medical students. To investigate physical examination skills of final-year medical students. In a cross-sectional study, 40 final-year students were asked to perform a detailed physical examination on standardized patients. Their performances were video-recorded and rated by independent video assessors. Video ratings showed a mean success rate of 40.1 % (SD 8.2). As regards accompanying doctor-patient communication, final-year students achieved a mean of no more than 36.7 % (SD 8.9) in the appropriate use of the corresponding communication items. Our study revealed severe deficits among final-year medical students in performing a detailed physical examination on a standardized patient. Thus, physical examination skills training should aim to improve these deficits while also paying attention to communicative aspects. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  4. EFL Oral Communication Teaching Practices: A Close Look at University Teachers and A2 Students' Perspectives in Thailand and a Critical Eye from Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, David Allen; Sinwongsuwat, Kemtong; Radic-Bojanic, Biljana

    2015-01-01

    This paper aimed to reexamine current EFL oral communication teaching practices from the perspectives of teachers and A2 students at two universities, namely Prince of Songkla University (PSU), Thailand and University of Novi Sad (UNS), Serbia. The main objectives were: (1) to analyze current practices from the perspectives of teachers and…

  5. The effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge: An intervention study in early childhood education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, C.; de Mey, J.R.P.B.; van Kruistum, C.J.; van Oers, B.

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of productive classroom talk and metacommunication on the development of young children's oral communicative competence and subject matter knowledge. This study can be characterized as a quasi-experimental study with a

  6. An observational study of cross-cultural communication in short-term, diverse professional learning groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, Leslie; Hogg, Peter; Higgins, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the evaluation of a European funded 3-week summer school which took place in 2013 involving 60 staff and students from five universities. The evaluation looked at one group in detail using a qualitative approach to consider whether students and teachers can work together in multicultural groups in order to achieve their goal. Method: One group was observed during 2 two-hour sessions of group activity; at the beginning and end of the summer school task. Video data was analysed using the Rapport Management framework, a model of cross-cultural communication, to determine what motivated this group's interactions. Results: As the group's deadline became imminent ‘face-threatening acts’ (FTAs) were more apparent. These were tolerated in this group because of the development of a strong social bond. There was inequity in participation with members of the group falling into either high- or low-involvement categories. This was also well-tolerated but meant some students may not have gained as much from the experience. The group lacked guidance on managing group dynamics. Conclusion: Cultural differences in communication were not the main threat to multi-cultural working groups. Potential problems can arise from failing to provide the group with a framework for project and team management. An emphasis on ground rules and the allocation of formal roles is important as is the encouragement of socialisation which supports the group during challenging times

  7. Toward Massive, Ultrareliable, and Low-Latency Wireless Communication With Short Packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durisi, Giuseppe; Koch, Tobias; Popovski, Petar

    2016-01-01

    Most of the recent advances in the design of high-speed wireless systems are based on information-theoretic principles that demonstrate how to efficiently transmit long data packets. However, the upcoming wireless systems, notably the fifth-generation (5G) system, will need to support novel traffic...... that should be received with low latency and ultrahigh reliability. Current wireless systems are not designed to support short-packet transmissions. For example, the design of current systems relies on the assumption that the metadata (control information) is of negligible size compared to the actual...

  8. Short communication: cheminformatics analysis to identify predictors of antiviral drug penetration into the female genital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Corbin G; Sedykh, Alexander; Nicol, Melanie R; Muratov, Eugene; Fourches, Denis; Tropsha, Alexander; Kashuba, Angela D M

    2014-11-01

    The exposure of oral antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in the female genital tract (FGT) is variable and almost unpredictable. Identifying an efficient method to find compounds with high tissue penetration would streamline the development of regimens for both HIV preexposure prophylaxis and viral reservoir targeting. Here we describe the cheminformatics investigation of diverse drugs with known FGT penetration using cluster analysis and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) modeling. A literature search over the 1950-2012 period identified 58 compounds (including 21 ARVs and representing 13 drug classes) associated with their actual concentration data for cervical or vaginal tissue, or cervicovaginal fluid. Cluster analysis revealed significant trends in the penetrative ability for certain chemotypes. QSAR models to predict genital tract concentrations normalized to blood plasma concentrations were developed with two machine learning techniques utilizing drugs' molecular descriptors and pharmacokinetic parameters as inputs. The QSAR model with the highest predictive accuracy had R(2)test=0.47. High volume of distribution, high MRP1 substrate probability, and low MRP4 substrate probability were associated with FGT concentrations ≥1.5-fold plasma concentrations. However, due to the limited FGT data available, prediction performances of all models were low. Despite this limitation, we were able to support our findings by correctly predicting the penetration class of rilpivirine and dolutegravir. With more data to enrich the models, we believe these methods could potentially enhance the current approach of clinical testing.

  9. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in a pubescent boy of short stature was improved with an orthodontic mandibular advancement oral appliance: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shin; Otake, Hironao; Tsuiki, Satoru; Miyao, Etsuko; Noda, Akiko

    2015-01-15

    We report a 16-year-old pubescent pediatric patient with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and short stature whose apnea hypopnea index (AHI) was significantly reduced following the use of an orthodontic oral appliance that advances the mandible ventrally. The mandible was advanced 64% of the maximal mandibular protrusive position with use of the appliance over a 3-year period. The patient's AHI without the appliance in place decreased from 101.6/h at baseline to 11/h after treatment. Moreover, the patient's height increased 14 cm during treatment, resulting in height close to the average height for his age. Cephalometric analysis revealed an improvement in his retrognathic mandible and proclination of the upper front teeth. In conclusion, an orthodontic mandibular advancement oral appliance played an important role not only in improving the patient's OSAS but also in normalizing his physical growth during puberty. © 2015 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  10. Can short-term oral fine motor training affect precision of task performance and induce cortical plasticity of the jaw muscles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Zhang; Kumar, Abhishek; Kothari, Mohit

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to test the hypothesis that short-term oral sensorimotor training of the jaw muscles would increase the precision of task performance and induce neuroplastic changes in the corticomotor pathways, related to the masseter muscle. Fifteen healthy volunteers performed six series with ten...... trials of an oral sensorimotor task. The task was to manipulate and position a spherical chocolate candy in between the anterior teeth and split it into two equal halves. The precision of the task performance was evaluated by comparing the ratio between the two split halves. A series of "hold......-and-split" tasks was also performed before and after the training. The hold force and split force along with the electromyographic (EMG) activity of jaw muscles were recorded. Motor-evoked potentials and cortical motor maps of the right masseter muscle were evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation...

  11. Pattern of online communication in teaching a blended oral surgery course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marei, H F; Al-Khalifa, K S

    2016-11-01

    To explore the factors that might affect the patterns of interaction amongst dental students that can be found in asynchronous online discussion fora. It is a qualitative study that involved the participation of 71 dental students (42 male and 29 female) who belong to one academic year. Students were participated in asynchronous online discussion fora as a part of a blended oral surgery course that involved both face-to-face lecture and an online learning environment using the Blackboard learning management system. Qualitative analysis of students' pattern of discussion was performed using Transcript Analysis Tool. The total number of postings was 410. Sixty-seven of 71 students participated in the discussion by writing posts, whereas all of the students had accessed all of the postings. A positive correlation between imposing vertical questions and the number of non-referential and referential statements was observed. Regarding horizontal questions, a positive correlation was observed with the number of referential statements, whilst there was a negative correlation with the number of non-referential statements. Asynchronous online discussion fora that are integrated as a part of a whole pedagogical practice may provide an opportunity for promoting learning, especially when consideration is given to the structure of problems, timely feedback by tutors and supportive strategies within the discussion threads. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Linguistic Features of Persuasive Communication: The Case of DRTV Short Form Spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smiljana Komar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Direct response television commercials (DRTV exhibit a very specific style of speech and delivery whose main function is to boost the product’s value and sales. This paper presents the findings of the structural and the linguistic analyses of three English DRTV short form spots as seen on Highstreet TV. The emphasis is on the verbal strategies used by advertisers to get the consumers’ attention, develop their interest and desire to own the product and to convince them to purchase it. These strategies include different lexical, syntactic and prosodic features. The structural analysis focuses mainly on non-verbal strategies of broadcasting advertisements whose purpose is to inspire interest and credibility in potential consumers.

  13. Telling a Story from Watching a Movie Potentially Improving Students’ Oral Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Agustina

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Watching a movie in a class has not always been really appreciated by administrators in education since they considered it as something used by teachers when teachers do not have anything better to do. But watching a movie in an appropriate way can be really useful for students since: a. students would learn English in a natural way and associating vocabulary to a context, as presenting vocabulary within a context is important. b. movies are a tool for communication; it is motivated than just doing exercises in students notebooks, c. students are motivated to express ideas and therefore they would feel important as being involve in class, d. moviesoffer a visual context aids, besides verbal language, there is also color, movement, and sound, the class would be livelier. Movie-viewing experiences and it also creates more student-teacher and student-student discussions.

  14. TELLING A STORY FROM WATCHING A MOVIE POTENTIALLY IMPROVING STUDENTS’ ORAL COMMUNICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Agustina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Watching a movie in a class has not always been really appreciated by administrators in education since they considered it as something used by teachers when teachers do not have anything better to do. But watching a movie in an appropriate way can be really useful for students since: a. students would learn English in a natural way and associating vocabulary to a context, as presenting vocabulary within a context is important. b. movies are a tool for communication; it is motivated than just doing exercises in students notebooks, c. students are motivated to express ideas and therefore they would feel important as being involve in class, d. moviesoffer a visual context aids, besides verbal language, there is also color, movement, and sound, the class would be livelier. Movie-viewing experiences and it also creates more student-teacher and student-student discussions

  15. "You have no good blood in your body". Oral communication in sixteenth-century physicians' medical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    In his personal notebooks, the little known Bohemian physician Georg Handsch (1529-c. 1578) recorded, among other things, hundreds of vernacular phrases and expressions he and other physicians used in their oral interaction with patients and families. Based primarily on this extraordinary source, this paper traces the terms, concepts and images to which sixteenth-century physicians resorted when they explained the nature of a patient's disease and justified their treatment. At the bedside and in the consultation room, Handsch and his fellow physicians attributed most diseases to a local accumulation of impure, putrid or otherwise pathological humours. The latter were commonly said to result, in turn, from an insufficient concoction and assimilation of food and drink in the stomach and the liver or from an obstruction of the humoral flow inside the body and across its borders. By contrast, other notions and explanatory models, which had a prominent place in contemporary learned medical writing, hardly played a role at all in the physicians' oral communication. Specific disease terms were rarely used, a mere imbalance of the four natural humours in the body was almost never inculpated, and the patient's personal life-style and other non-naturals did not attract much attention either. These striking differences between the ways in which physicians explained the patients' diseases in their daily practice and the explanatory models we find in contemporary textbooks, are attributed, above all, to the physicians' precarious situation in the early modern medical marketplace. Since dissatisfied patients were quick to turn to another healer, physicians had to explain the disease and justify their treatment in a manner that was comprehensible to ordinary lay people and in line with their expectations and beliefs, which, at the time, revolved almost entirely around notions of impurity and evacuation.

  16. Efficacy and short-term outcomes of preoperative chemoradiotherapy with intermittent oral tegafur-uracil plus leucovorin in Japanese rectal cancer patients: a single center experience retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Ryosuke; Inoue, Yuji; Ohki, Takeshi; Kaneko, Yuka; Maeda, Fumi; Yamamoto, Masakazu

    2017-05-31

    Various types of preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) have been established for rectal cancer; thus, Physicians will need to refine the selection of appropriate preoperative CRT for different patients since there are various treatment regimens. Oral tegafur-uracil (UFT) plus leucovorin (LV) is commonly used to treat rectal cancer in Japan. Oral chemotherapy offers patients many potential advantages. Since 2008, we have been performing preoperative CRT with intermittent oral UFT plus LV in locally advanced rectal cancer patients to prevent postoperative local recurrence. Here, in a retrospective analysis, we evaluated the efficacy and short-term outcomes of preoperative CRT with intermittent oral UFT plus LV. We analyzed data from 62 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, including 31 patients who underwent preoperative CRT between 2009 and 2013 (the CRT group) and 31 patients who were treated with surgery alone between 2001 and 2008 (the non-CRT group). Clinicopathologically, both groups included patients with rectal cancer at clinical tumor stages III-IV or clinical node stages 0-III. In the CRT group, curative operations were performed ≥8 weeks after CRT. Patients were concomitantly treated with 2 cycles of oral UFT (300 mg/m 2 /day, days 1-14 and 29-42) plus LV (75 mg/day, days 1-14 and 29-42) and 45 Gy of radiotherapy. Chemotherapy was repeated every 28 days, followed by a 2-week break. The completion rate of CRT was high at 94% (n = 29/31). The downstaging rate of CRT was 61% (n = 19/31). The pathological complete response rate was 6.5% (n = 2/31). Significant differences were observed in the 3-year local recurrence rate between the two groups (P rectal cancer. A further investigation of a diversification of preoperative CRT for Japanese rectal cancer patients is required.

  17. Exposure caused by wireless technologies used for short-range indoor communication in homes and offices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, G.; Lager, D.; Preiner, P.; Ueberbacher, R.; Cecil, S.

    2007-01-01

    In order to estimate typical radio frequency exposures from indoor used wireless communication technologies applied in homes and offices, WLAN, Bluetooth and Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications systems, as well as baby surveillance devices and wireless headphones for indoor usage, have been investigated by measurements and numerical computations. Based on optimised measurement methods, field distributions and resulting exposure were assessed on selected products and real exposure scenarios. Additionally, generic scenarios have been investigated on the basis of numerical computations. The obtained results demonstrate that under usual conditions the resulting spatially (over body dimensions) averaged and 6-min time-averaged exposure for persons in the radio frequency fields of the considered applications is below ∼0.1% of the reference level for power density according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines published in 1998. Spatial and temporal peak values can be considerably higher by 2-3 orders of magnitude. In case of some transmitting devices operated in close proximity to the body (e.g. WLAN transmitters), local exposure can reach the same order of magnitude as the basic restriction; however, none of the devices considered in this study exceeded the limits according to the ICNIRP guidelines. (authors)

  18. Short-term Music Training Enhances Complex, Distributed Neural Communication during Music and Linguistic Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpentier, Sarah M; Moreno, Sylvain; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2016-10-01

    Musical training is frequently associated with benefits to linguistic abilities, and recent focus has been placed on possible benefits of bilingualism to lifelong executive functions; however, the neural mechanisms for such effects are unclear. The aim of this study was to gain better understanding of the whole-brain functional effects of music and second-language training that could support such previously observed cognitive transfer effects. We conducted a 28-day longitudinal study of monolingual English-speaking 4- to 6-year-old children randomly selected to receive daily music or French language training, excluding weekends. Children completed passive EEG music note and French vowel auditory oddball detection tasks before and after training. Brain signal complexity was measured on source waveforms at multiple temporal scales as an index of neural information processing and network communication load. Comparing pretraining with posttraining, musical training was associated with increased EEG complexity at coarse temporal scales during the music and French vowel tasks in widely distributed cortical regions. Conversely, very minimal decreases in complexity at fine scales and trends toward coarse-scale increases were displayed after French training during the tasks. Spectral analysis failed to distinguish between training types and found overall theta (3.5-7.5 Hz) power increases after all training forms, with spatially fewer decreases in power at higher frequencies (>10 Hz). These findings demonstrate that musical training increased diversity of brain network states to support domain-specific music skill acquisition and music-to-language transfer effects.

  19. Exposure caused by wireless technologies used for short-range indoor communication in homes and offices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, G; Lager, D; Preiner, P; Uberbacher, R; Cecil, S

    2007-01-01

    In order to estimate typical radio frequency exposures from indoor used wireless communication technologies applied in homes and offices, WLAN, Bluetooth and Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications systems, as well as baby surveillance devices and wireless headphones for indoor usage, have been investigated by measurements and numerical computations. Based on optimised measurement methods, field distributions and resulting exposure were assessed on selected products and real exposure scenarios. Additionally, generic scenarios have been investigated on the basis of numerical computations. The obtained results demonstrate that under usual conditions the resulting spatially (over body dimensions) averaged and 6-min time-averaged exposure for persons in the radio frequency fields of the considered applications is below approximately 0.1% of the reference level for power density according to the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines published in 1998. Spatial and temporal peak values can be considerably higher by 2-3 orders of magnitude. In case of some transmitting devices operated in close proximity to the body (e.g. WLAN transmitters), local exposure can reach the same order of magnitude as the basic restriction; however, none of the devices considered in this study exceeded the limits according to the ICNIRP guidelines.

  20. Short communication: Feed sorting of dairy heifers is influenced by method of dietary transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Vogel, J P; DeVries, T J

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the effect of exposing heifers to individual feed components on the extent and pattern of feed sorting upon transition to a novel ration. Holstein heifers (394 ± 62 d old, weighing 409.8 ± 37.3 kg; mean ± SD), consuming a familiar mixed silage-based ration [55% corn silage and 45% haylage, dry matter (DM) basis], were transitioned to a novel total mixed ration [TMR; 41.6% haylage, 36.5% corn silage, 14.6% high-moisture corn, and 7.3% protein supplement, DM basis] by 1 of 2 treatments: direct transition to novel TMR (DIR; n = 5) or exposure to novel TMR components individually before receiving novel TMR (COM; n = 6). During the baseline period (d 1 to 4), all heifers were offered the familiar silage-based ration. During transition (d 5 to 12), DIR heifers received the novel TMR, whereas COM heifers received the novel TMR components offered separately, in amounts according to TMR composition (target 15% orts). After transition (d 13 to 20), all heifers received the novel TMR. Feed intake and feeding time were determined daily and fresh feed and individual orts were sampled every 2d for particle size analysis and neutral detergent fiber content. The particle size separator consisted of 3 screens (18, 9, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting activity for each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. We detected no effect of treatment on dry matter intake or feeding time. After transition to the novel TMR, COM heifers sorted to a greater extent than did DIR heifers, sorting against long particles (95.4 vs. 98.9%) and for short particles (101.7 vs. 100.6%). Differences in sorting patterns resulted in COM heifers tending to have lower neutral detergent fiber intake as a percentage of predicted intake (98.9 vs. 100.5%). The results of this study suggest that the degree of feed sorting may be influenced by method of transition to a novel

  1. Short communication. Harvest time in hedgerow Arbequina olive orchards in areas with early frosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gracia, P.; Sanchez-Gimeno, A. C.; Benito, M.; Oria, R.; Lasa, J. M.

    2012-11-01

    The shortening of harvest time attained in hedgerow olive (Olea europaea L.) orchards represents an advantage for the adoption of this cropping system in areas that are prone to suffer frost during the harvest period. To establish an optimal harvesting window, we carried out a study of the fruit ripening process on a hedgerow orchard of Arbequina olive trees, located in Zaragoza (Spain). From 2007 to 2009, oil accumulation on the fruit (% of dry weight) and oil yield (grams of oil per 100 fruits) were monitored, from early September to late November. Over the three years both variables peaked around November 15th, indicating that Arbequina reached full ripening earlier than has been reported previously for this variety. In two of the three seasons the orchard suffered several frosts during November. Long term climatic data from this area indicated that the risk of early frosts (< -2 degree centigrade) increases as November progresses with a high risk after November 20{sup t}h. In conclusion, the optimal harvesting period for Arbequina in this area should not extend beyond November 20{sup t}h. A rapid harvesting before this date is advisable to avoid the risk of damage caused by early frost in Zaragoza. Hedgerow planting provides an additional advantage in frost-prone areas, because mechanization of operations permits a short harvest period, easier to fit into the optimal harvesting window. (Author) 20 refs.

  2. Short communication: effect of homogenization on heat inactivation of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, P; Kiesner, C; Walte, H-G C

    2014-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) can be present in cow milk and low numbers may survive high-temperature, short-time (HTST) pasteurization. Although HTST treatment leads to inactivation of at least 5 log10 cycles, it might become necessary to enhance the efficacy of HTST by additional treatments such as homogenization if the debate about the role of MAP in Crohn's disease of humans concludes that MAP is a zoonotic agent. This study aimed to determine whether disrupting the clumps of MAP in milk by homogenization during the heat treatment process would enhance the inactivation of MAP. We used HTST pasteurization in a continuous-flow pilot-plant pasteurizer and evaluated the effect of upstream, downstream, and in-hold homogenization on inactivation of MAP. Reduction of MAP at 72°C with a holding time of 28s was between 3.7 and 6.9 log10 cycles, with an overall mean of 5.5 log10 cycles. None of the 3 homogenization modes applied showed a statistically significant additional effect on the inactivation of MAP during HTST treatment. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A UHF RFID system with on-chip-antenna tag for short range communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Qi; Zhang Chun; Zhao Xijin; Wang Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    A UHF RF identification system based on the 0.18 μm CMOS process has been developed for short range and harsh size requirement applications, which is composed of a fully integrated tag and a special reader. The whole tag chip with the antenna takes up an area of 0.36 mm 2 , which is smaller than other reported tags with an on-chip antenna (OCA) using the standard CMOS process. A self-defined protocol is proposed to reduce the power consumption, and minimize the size of the tag. The specialized SOC reader system consists of the RF transceiver, digital baseband, MCU and host interface. Its power consumption is about 500 mW. Measurement results show that the system's reading range is 2 mm with 20 dBm reader output power. With an inductive antenna printed on a paper substrate around the OCA tag, the reading range can be extended from several centimeters to meters, depending on the shape and size of the inductive antenna. (paper)

  4. Measurement of endogenous allergens in genetically modified soybeans--short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladics, Gregory S; Budziszewski, Gregory J; Herman, Rod A; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Joshi, Saurabh; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A; McClain, Scott; Ward, Jason M

    2014-10-01

    The measurement of endogenous allergens is required by the European Commission (EC) as part of the compositional analysis for GM products from host plants that are common causes of food allergy, such as soybean (EC Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). In each case, the EC Implementing Regulation indicates that analysis be conducted on identified allergens as specified in the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) consensus documents on compositional considerations for new plant varieties. This communication discusses the methods available to measure endogenous allergens as well as the endogenous soybean allergens that should be analyzed. It is suggested herein that in conjunction with the 2012 OECD consensus document on soybean, any list of soybean allergens should be based on clinically relevant data among publicly available allergen databases and peer-reviewed scientific publications, and the ability to measure the identified allergen. Based on a detailed analysis of the scientific literature, the following key points are recommended: (1) the acceptance of serum-free, quantitative analytical method data as an alternative to traditional IgE reactivity qualitative or semi-quantitative data for evaluation of endogenous soybean allergen content; (2) eight of the 15 potential allergens listed in the OECD soybean consensus document (Gly m 3, Gly m 4, Gly m Bd28K, Gly m Bd30K, Gly m 5, Gly m 6, Gly m 8, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor) have both appropriate supporting clinical data and sufficient sequence information to be evaluated in comparative endogenous soybean allergen studies; and (3) the remaining seven proteins (Gly m 1, Gly m 2, unknown 50kDa protein, unknown 39kDa protein, P-22-25, lipoxygenase and lectin) lack sufficient data for clear classification as confirmed allergens and/or available sequence information and should not be currently included in the measurement of endogenous soybean allergens in the compositional analysis for the EU

  5. Short communication: Pseudomonas azotoformans causes gray discoloration in HTST fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanowski, Rachel L; Reichler, Samuel J; Kent, David J; Martin, Nicole H; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Pseudomonas species are well recognized as dairy product spoilage organisms, particularly due to their ability to grow at refrigeration temperatures. Although Pseudomonas-related spoilage usually manifests itself in flavor, odor, and texture defects, which are typically due to production of bacterial enzymes, Pseudomonas is also reported to cause color defects. Because of consumer complaints, a commercial dairy company shipped 4 samples of high temperature, short time (HTST)-pasteurized milk with distinctly gray colors to our laboratory. Bacterial isolates from all 4 samples were identified as Pseudomonas azotoformans. All isolates shared the same partial 16S rDNA sequence and showed black pigmentation on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. Inoculation of one pigment-producing P. azotoformans isolate into HTST-pasteurized fluid milk led to development of gray milk after 14 d of storage at 6°C, but only in containers that had half of the total volume filled with milk (∼500 mL of milk in ∼1,000-mL bottles). We conclusively demonstrate that Pseudomonas can cause a color defect in fluid milk that manifests in gray discoloration, adding to the palette of color defects known to be caused by Pseudomonas. This information is of considerable interest to the dairy industry, because dairy processors and others may not typically associate black or gray colors in fluid milk with the presence of microbial contaminants but rather with product tampering (e.g., addition of ink) or other inadvertent chemical contamination. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Short communication: Proteins from circulating exosomes represent metabolic state in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crookenden, M A; Walker, C G; Peiris, H; Koh, Y; Heiser, A; Loor, J J; Moyes, K M; Murray, A; Dukkipati, V S R; Kay, J K; Meier, S; Roche, J R; Mitchell, M D

    2016-09-01

    Biomarkers that identify prepathological disease could enhance preventive management, improve animal health and productivity, and reduce costs. Circulating extracellular vesicles, particularly exosomes, are considered to be long-distance, intercellular communication systems in human medicine. Exosomes provide tissue-specific messages of functional state and can alter the cellular activity of recipient tissues through their protein and microRNA content. We hypothesized that exosomes circulating in the blood of cows during early lactation would contain proteins representative of the metabolic state of important tissues, such as liver, which play integral roles in regulating the physiology of cows postpartum. From a total of 150 cows of known metabolic phenotype, 10 cows were selected with high (n=5; high risk) and low (n=5; low risk) concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and liver triacylglycerol during wk 1 and 2 after calving. Exosomes were extracted from blood on the day of calving (d 0) and postcalving at wk 1 and wk 4, and their protein composition was determined by mass spectroscopy. Extracellular vesicle protein concentration and the number of exosome vesicles were not affected by risk category; however, the exosome protein cargo differed between the groups, with proteins at each time point identified as being unique to the high- and low-risk groups. The proteins α-2 macroglobulin, fibrinogen, and oncoprotein-induced transcript 3 were unique to the high-risk cows on d 0 and have been associated with metabolic syndrome and liver function in humans. Their presence may indicate a more severe inflammatory state and a greater degree of liver dysfunction in the high-risk cows than in the low-risk cows, consistent with the high-risk cows' greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate and liver triacylglycerol concentrations. The commonly shared proteins and those unique to the low-risk category indicate a role for exosomes in immune function. The data

  7. Short communication: immediate and deferred milk production responses to concentrate supplements in cows grazing fresh pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Kay, J K; Rius, A G; Grala, T M; Sheahan, A J; White, H M; Phyn, C V C

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the increase in milk production from supplementation that occurred after supplementation ceased. This portion of the total response (i.e., the deferred response), although accepted, is generally not accounted for in short-term component research projects, but it is important in determining the economic impact of supplementary feeding. Fifty-nine multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were offered a generous allowance of spring pasture [>45 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day) and were supplemented with 0, 3, or 6 kg (DM)/d of pelleted concentrate (half of the allowance at each milking event) in a complete randomized design. Treatments were imposed for the first 12 wk of lactation. Treatments were balanced for cow age (5.4 ± 1.68 yr), calving date (July 27 ± 26.0 d), and genetic merit for milk component yield. During the period of supplementation, milk yield and the yield of milk components increased (1.19 kg of milk, 0.032 kg of fat, 0.048 kg of protein, and 0.058 kg of lactose/kg of concentrate DM consumed), but neither body condition score nor body weight was affected. After concentrate supplementation ceased and cows returned to a common diet of fresh pasture, milk and milk component yields remained greater for 3 wk in the cows previously supplemented. During this 3-wk period, cows that previously received 3 and 6 kg of concentrate DM per day produced an additional 2.3 and 4.5 kg of milk/d, 0.10 and 0.14 kg of fat/d, 0.10 and 0.14 kg of protein/d, and 0.10 and 0.19 kg of lactose/d, respectively, relative to unsupplemented cows. This is equivalent to an additional 0.19 kg of milk, 0.006 kg of fat, 0.006 kg of protein, and 0.008 kg of lactose per 1 kg of concentrate DM previously consumed, which would not be accounted for in the immediate response. As a result of this deferred response to supplements, the total milk production benefit to concentrate supplements is between 7% (lactose yield) and 32% (fat yield) greater

  8. A critical ethnography of communication processes involving the management of oral chemotherapeutic agents by patients with a primary diagnosis of colorectal cancer: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Porter, Sam; Manias, Elizabeth

    2015-04-01

    To describe the protocol used to examine the processes of communication between health professionals, patients and informal carers during the management of oral chemotherapeutic medicines to identify factors that promote or inhibit medicine concordance. Ideally communication practices about oral medicines should incorporate shared decision-making, two-way dialogue and an equality of role between practitioner and patient. While there is evidence that healthcare professionals are adopting these concordant elements in general practice there are still some patients who have a passive role during consultations. Considering oral chemotherapeutic medications, there is a paucity of research about communication practices which is surprising given the high risk of toxicity associated with chemotherapy. A critical ethnographic design will be used, incorporating non-participant observations, individual semi-structured and focus-group interviews as several collecting methods. Observations will be carried out on the interactions between healthcare professionals (physicians, nurses and pharmacists) and patients in the outpatient departments where prescriptions are explained and supplied and on follow-up consultations where treatment regimens are monitored. Interviews will be conducted with patients and their informal carers. Focus-groups will be carried out with healthcare professionals at the conclusion of the study. These several will be analysed using thematic analysis. This research is funded by the Department for Employment and Learning in Northern Ireland (Awarded February 2012). Dissemination of these findings will contribute to the understanding of issues involved when communicating with people about oral chemotherapy. It is anticipated that findings will inform education, practice and policy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Short-term oral nutritional intervention with protein and vitamin D decreases falls in malnourished older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neelemaat, Floor; Lips, Paul; Bosmans, Judith E; Thijs, Abel; Seidell, Jaap C; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, Marian A E

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of a short-term nutritional intervention with protein and vitamin D on falls in malnourished older adults. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: From hospital admission until 3 months after discharge. PARTICIPANTS: Malnourished older adults (≥ 60) newly

  10. Effects of Dental Rehabilitation under General Anesthesia on Children’s Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Using Proxy Short Versions of OHRQoL Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad D. Baghdadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the impact of comprehensive dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL in children using short form versions of the Parental-Caregivers Perceptions questionnaire (P-CPQ and Family Impact Scale (FIS. Design. A pretest/posttest study involved parents whose children (N = 67 were affected with severe childhood caries and completed comprehensive dental treatment under GA. All parents completed the short form versions of the P-CPQ and FIS at baseline and 4–8 weeks following the dental treatment. To examine test-retest reliability, a convenience sample of 38 parents repeated the pretreatment questionnaires 1-2 weeks after they completed them at baseline. Statistical tests including the Kruskal-Wallis test, Cronbach’s alpha, and paired t-test were used to examine cross-sectional construct validity, internal consistency, and responsiveness of the instruments, respectively. Results. Cross-sectional construct validity and internal consistency were acceptable. Test-retest reliability was excellent. Large decreases in posttreatment scores were observed along with moderate to large effect sizes. Conclusions. Dental treatment under GA is associated with considerable improvement in OHRQoL of children and their families, as demonstrated by short form versions of the P-CPQ and FIS completed by the children’s parents.

  11. Short and long term modulation of tissue minerals concentrations following oral administration of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed oil to laboratory rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Irum; Qureshi, Irfan Zia

    2018-01-15

    Nigella sativa, or commonly called black cumin is a small herb of family Ranunculaceae is a well-known medicinal plant but its effects on tissue mineral concentrations of animal bodies is unknown. To study the effect of oral administration of fixed oil of black cumin seeds on tissues mineral content using laboratory rats as experimental model. Experimental animals were exposed to two oral doses of seed oil (60 and 120 ml kg -1 body weight). Short- and long term experiments lasted 24 h and 60 days respectively, with three replicates each. Oil extracted from black cumin seeds was subjected to GC-MS to identify chemical components. Following the wet digestion in nitric acid, samples of whole blood and organs of rats were subjected to atomic absorption spectrophotometry for determination of elements concentrations. Data were compared statistically at p < .05. Compared to control, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn showed decrease, whereas Co, Na, Mg and K demonstrated increase, but Ca showed both increase and decrease in most of the tissues upon short term exposure to low and high doses of black cumin oil. During long term exposure, Cr, Fe, Mn, Cu exhibited decrease; Co, Na, Mg and Ca concentrations demonstrated an upregulation, whereas Ni and Zn showed increase and decrease in most of the tissues. Comparison of short term with long term experiments at low dose revealed increases in Fe, Zn, Cu, Mg, K and Ca, a decrease in Cr, Mn, Ni and Cu in most tissues, but both increase and decrease in Na. At high dose, an increase occurred in Fe, Ni, Zn, K, Ca, Mg, a decrease in Cr, while both increase and decrease in Cu, Co and Na concentrations. Our study demonstrates that oral administration of black cumin seeds oil to laboratory rats significantly alters tissue trace elements and electrolytes concentrations. The study appears beneficial but indicates modulatory role of black cumin oil as regards mineral metabolism with far reaching implications in health and disease. Copyright © 2017

  12. Patients' oral hydration levels and incidence of immediate to short-term mild side-effects in contrast agent enhanced MRI diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, Leon; Fallahi, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Gadolinium-based contrast agents for radiodiagnostic purposes can lead to side effects, including nephrotoxicity in patients with renal insufficiency. This study evaluated whether the occurrence of mild side effects from gadolinium-based contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) correlates to patients' oral hydration levels. Methods: Oral fluid intake levels 24 h pre- and 24 h post-MRI, as well as incidence of mild side-effects experienced 30 min and 24 h post-MRI were recorded by using a patient self-reporting questionnaire. Results: A total of 174 patients, 29 controls, 98 administered Prohance and 47 receiving Dotarem, were enrolled. Overall, the most frequently reported side-effect was headache; nausea only occurred in patients receiving contrast agent. One or more side-effects experienced 24 h following the MRI scan were reported by 10% (controls), 24% (Prohance) and 22% (Dotarem) of patients, respectively. Multivariate ordinal regression analysis showed that only male gender (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11–0.53) was statistically significantly associated with a decreased incidence of side-effects 30 min after MRI. At 24-h post MRI, a lack of contrast agent (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.09–1.74) and male gender (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.19–1.09) were associated with fewer side-effects. Conclusions: The level oral fluid intake before and after undergoing gadolinium-based contrast-enhanced MRI does not appear to markedly affect the incidence of common undesirable mild symptoms experienced shortly after the procedure. Confounding differences between patients in reporting side-effects may contribute to these findings. - Highlights: • We assess the incidence of patient-reported side-effects after contrast-enhanced MRI. • We examine the potential impact of oral hydration levels on side-effects. • Patient reported side-effects are high compared to those reported by clinicians. • Female gender and contrast agent itself are associated with increased side

  13. Short Communication: Effects of temperature on growth, pigment composition and protein content of an Antarctic Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RANJANA TRIPATHI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tripathi R, Dhuldhaj UP, Singh S. 2012. Short Communication: Effects of temperature on growth, pigment composition and protein content of an Antarctic Cyanobacterium Nostoc commune. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 134-137. Effect of temperature variation on biomass accumulation, pigment composition and protein content were studied for the cyanobacterium Nostoc commune, isolated from Antarctica. Results confirmed the psychrotrophic behavior (optimum growth temperature 25◦C of the cyanobacterium. Low temperature increased the duration of lag phase and exponential growth phase. Maximum increase in biomass was recorded on 24th day at 25◦C and on 12th day at 50C. The downshift from 25 to 5◦C had almost negligible effect on chl a content. Maximal protein content was recorded for cultures growing at 50C on 12th day. The carotenoids/chl a ratio was maximum (2.48 at 50C on 9th day. It remained almost constant for cultures growing at 5 and 350C. There was an induction in protein synthesis following downshift in temperature from 25 to 5◦C.

  14. Short Communication Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    Berg, 1997) and the disappearance of the species (American Bird. Conservation, 2008). ... where new ecological niches are created such as the wetlands and species richness is ... of field guide (Borrow & Demey, 2004). The duration of ...

  15. Short Communication Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    As information requirements become more complex, users have adapted computer in almost all their daily endeavors. This has made a lot of users to be online and perform most of their businesses online. The basic data security utility applications that are provided by most operating systems and other application software ...

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thus, the determination of oxalic acid in biological samples such as tea is significant. At present the methods for the determination of oxalic acid include chemical luminescence [2], fluorimetry [3,4], and permanganimetric titration. [5]. These methods have different extent of defects, such as instrumental operation complexity,.

  17. SHORT COMMUNICATION POLYMETHYLHYDROSILOXANE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Various methods have been employed for this chemical ... All chemicals were obtained from commercial sources and were used without further purification unless ..... alkenes and alkynes using (EtO)2Si(Me)H as a stoichiometric reductant.

  18. Research Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-10-01

    Oct 1, 2016 ... Context and setting. Cuban medical internationalism[1] is a strategy aimed at providing medical personnel to under-resourced countries. To address the severe shortage of medical doctors in rural South Africa (SA), our government forged an intergovernmental agreement to train rural and disadvantaged ...

  19. Short Communications/ Kort Mededelings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of storage temperatures (O°Cor room temperature) and effect of temperature prior to ... Scheme may be used for electrometric iodine determinations as a ... Keywords: Milk iodine, dairy cows, milk recording scheme, preservatives,storage.

  20. SHORT COMMUNICATION SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The white single crystals of compound (2) obtained by slow evaporation of a solution of ... C5 were refined with common isotropic displacement parameters for the H ... proposed mechanism for the reaction between 1,2-diphenylethanone with ...

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION CATALYTIC KINETIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IV) catalyzes the discoloring reaction of DBS-arsenazo oxidized by potassium bromate, a new catalytic kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace titanium (IV) was developed. The linear range of the determination of ...

  2. SHORT COMMUNICATION KINETIC SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    deviation of the method was from 1.34% to 1.78% for 11 replicate determinations. ... A sample solution was prepared by adding a suitable amount of the standard .... Under the optimum conditions, the effect of the amount of 0.2, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8,.

  3. Short Communication Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    Plants have long since been deemed a valuable source of natural products for maintaining human health. The use of plant extracts and phytochemicals, both with known antimicrobial properties, can be of great significance to therapeutic treatments (Nagesh &. Shanthamma, 2009).The study was carried out to determine the.

  4. Short message service prompted mouth self-examination in oral cancer patients as an alternative to frequent hospital-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaishampayan, Sagar; Malik, Akshat; Pawar, Prashant; Arya, Kavi; Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are amongst commonest cancer in the Indian sub-continent. After treatment, these patients require frequent followup to look for recurrences/second primary. Mouth Self Examination (MSE) has a great potential in all levels of prevention of oral cancer. However, the compliance to self-examination has been reported as poor. Mobile phone is a cheap and effective way to reach out to people. Short Message Service (SMS) is extremely popular can be a very effective motivational and interactive tool in health care setting. We aimed to identify in adequately treated OSCC patients, the influence of health provider initiated SMS on the compliance to the MSE and to establish the efficacy of MSE by comparing patients' MSE interpretation via replies to the SMS with that of the experts' opinion on clinical examination status during follow up. We conclude that MSE can be very useful in adequately treated OSCC patients for evaluating disease status. All treated OSCC patients must be adequately educated for MSE as an integral part of treatment & follow-up protocol by the health provider facility. Health provider generated SMS reminders do improve motivation and compliance towards MSE but don't seem to reduce dropouts in follow up for large and diverse population like that in India.

  5. Killed Whole-Cell Oral Cholera Vaccine Induces CCL20 Secretion by Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells in the Presence of the Short-Chain Fatty Acid, Butyrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Ri Sim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, such as acetate, butyrate, and propionate, modulate immune responses in the gut. However, the effect of SCFAs on mucosal vaccine-induced immune cell migration is poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether SCFAs modulate chemokine expression induced by the killed whole-cell oral cholera vaccine, Shanchol™, in human intestinal epithelial cells. Shanchol™ induced expression of CCL2, CCL5, CCL20, and CXCL10 at the mRNA level, but not at the protein level. Interestingly, CCL20 secretion was substantially increased by co-stimulation with Shanchol™ and butyrate, while neither acetate nor propionate showed such effect. Enhanced CCL20 secretion was associated with GPR109A activation, and histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibition. In addition, co-treatment with Shanchol™ and butyrate synergistically increased the secretion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP. Moreover, CCL20 secretion was decreased by inhibiting the extracellular ATP receptor P2X7. However, neither inflammasomes nor caspases were involved in CCL20 production. The culture supernatant of cells treated with Shanchol™ and butyrate augmented human immature dendritic cell migration. Collectively, these results suggest that butyrate enhances Shanchol™-induced CCL20 production in human intestinal epithelial cells via HDAC inhibition and ATP-P2X7 signaling by activating GPR109A. These effects potentially enhance the mucosal immune responses in the gut induced by this oral cholera vaccine.

  6. Short message service prompted mouth self-examination in oral cancer patients as an alternative to frequent hospital-based surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Vaishampayan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC are amongst commonest cancer in the Indian sub-continent. After treatment, these patients require frequent followup to look for recurrences/second primary. Mouth Self Examination (MSE has a great potential in all levels of prevention of oral cancer. However, the compliance to self-examination has been reported as poor. Mobile phone is a cheap and effective way to reach out to people. Short Message Service (SMS is extremely popular can be a very effective motivational and interactive tool in health care setting. Methodology: We aimed to identify in adequately treated OSCC patients, the influence of health provider initiated SMS on the compliance to the MSE and to establish the efficacy of MSE by comparing patients' MSE interpretation via replies to the SMS with that of the experts' opinion on clinical examination status during follow up. Conclusion: We conclude that MSE can be very useful in adequately treated OSCC patients for evaluating disease status. All treated OSCC patients must be adequately educated for MSE as an integral part of treatment & follow-up protocol by the health provider facility. Health provider generated SMS reminders do improve motivation and compliance towards MSE but don't seem to reduce dropouts in follow up for large and diverse population like that in India.

  7. Error statistics during the propagation of short optical pulses in a high-speed fibreoptic communication line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, E G

    2008-01-01

    Simple analytic expressions are derived to approximate the bit error rate for data transmission through fibreoptic communication lines. The propagation of optical pulses is directly numerically simulated. Analytic estimates are in good agreement with numerical calculations. (fibreoptic communication)

  8. S-aryl-L-cysteine sulphoxides and related organosulphur compounds alter oral biofilm development and AI-2-based cell-cell communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, S H; Samarian, D; Jadhav, A P; Rickard, A H; Musah, R A; Cady, N C

    2014-11-01

    To design and synthesize a library of structurally related, small molecules related to homologues of compounds produced by the plant Petiveria alliacea and determine their ability to interfere with AI-2 cell-cell communication and biofilm formation by oral bacteria. Many human diseases are associated with persistent bacterial biofilms. Oral biofilms (dental plaque) are problematic as they are often associated with tooth decay, periodontal disease and systemic disorders such as heart disease and diabetes. Using a microplate-based approach, a bio-inspired small molecule library was screened for anti-biofilm activity against the oral species Streptococcus mutans UA159, Streptococcus sanguis 10556 and Actinomyces oris MG1. To complement the static screen, a flow-based BioFlux microfluidic system screen was also performed under conditions representative of the human oral cavity. Several compounds were found to display biofilm inhibitory activity in all three of the oral bacteria tested. These compounds were also shown to inhibit bioluminescence by Vibrio harveyi and were thus inferred to be quorum sensing (QS) inhibitors. Due to the structural similarity of these compounds to each other, and to key molecules in AI-2 biosynthetic pathways, we propose that these molecules potentially reduce biofilm formation via antagonism of QS or QS-related pathways. This study highlights the potential for a non-antimicrobial-based strategy, focused on AI-2 cell-cell signalling, to control the development of dental plaque. Considering that many bacterial species use AI-2 cell-cell signalling, as well as the increased concern of the use of antimicrobials in healthcare products, such an anti-biofilm approach could also be used to control biofilms in environments beyond the human oral cavity. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Swab2know: An HIV-Testing Strategy Using Oral Fluid Samples and Online Communication of Test Results for Men Who Have Sex With Men in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platteau, Tom; Fransen, Katrien; Apers, Ludwig; Kenyon, Chris; Albers, Laura; Vermoesen, Tine; Loos, Jasna; Florence, Eric

    2015-09-01

    As HIV remains a public health concern, increased testing among those at risk for HIV acquisition is important. Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the most important group for targeted HIV testing in Europe. Several new strategies have been developed and implemented to increase HIV-testing uptake in this group, among them the Swab2know project. In this project, we aim to assess the acceptability and feasibility of outreach and online HIV testing using oral fluid samples as well as Web-based delivery of test results. Sample collection happened between December 2012 and April 2014 via outreach and online sampling among MSM. Test results were communicated through a secured website. HIV tests were executed in the laboratory. Each reactive sample needed to be confirmed using state-of-the-art confirmation procedures on a blood sample. Close follow-up of participants who did not pick up their results, and those with reactive results, was included in the protocol. Participants were asked to provide feedback on the methodology using a short survey. During 17 months, 1071 tests were conducted on samples collected from 898 men. Over half of the samples (553/1071, 51.63%) were collected during 23 outreach sessions. During an 8-month period, 430 samples out of 1071 (40.15%) were collected from online sampling. Additionally, 88 samples out of 1071 (8.22%) were collected by two partner organizations during face-to-face consultations with MSM and male sex workers. Results of 983 out of 1071 tests (91.78%) had been collected from the website. The pickup rate was higher among participants who ordered their kit online (421/430, 97.9%) compared to those participating during outreach activities (559/641, 87.2%; Ponline participants were more likely to have never been tested before (17.3% vs 10.0%; P=.001) and reported more sexual partners in the 6 months prior to participation in the project (mean 7.18 vs 3.23; Ponline counseling tool), and in studying the cost effectiveness of the

  10. Antihypertensive Properties of a Pea Protein Hydrolysate during Short- and Long-Term Oral Administration to Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girgih, Abraham T; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Onuh, John O; Malomo, Sunday A; Aluko, Rotimi E

    2016-05-01

    This study investigated short-term (24 h) and long-term (5 wk) systolic blood pressure (SBP)-lowering effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) of a 5 kDa membrane pea protein hydrolysate permeate (PPH-5) produced through thermoase hydrolysis of pea protein isolate (PPI). Amino acid analysis showed that the PPH-5 had lower contents of sulfur-containing amino acids than the PPI. Size-exclusion chromatography indicated mainly low molecular weight (pea products decreased in the 4th and 5th wk, though SBP values of the treated rats were still lower than the untreated control. We conclude that the antihypertensive potency of PPH-5 may have been due to the presence of easily absorbed hydrophilic peptides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. Population pharmacokinetic model of THC integrates oral, intravenous, and pulmonary dosing and characterizes short- and long-term pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuberger, Jules A A C; Guan, Zheng; Oyetayo, Olubukayo-Opeyemi; Klumpers, Linda; Morrison, Paul D; Beumer, Tim L; van Gerven, Joop M A; Cohen, Adam F; Freijer, Jan

    2015-02-01

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannobinol (THC), the main psychoactive compound of Cannabis, is known to have a long terminal half-life. However, this characteristic is often ignored in pharmacokinetic (PK) studies of THC, which may affect the accuracy of predictions in different pharmacologic areas. For therapeutic use for example, it is important to accurately describe the terminal phase of THC to describe accumulation of the drug. In early clinical research, the THC challenge test can be optimized through more accurate predictions of the dosing sequence and the wash-out between occasions in a crossover setting, which is mainly determined by the terminal half-life of the compound. The purpose of this study is to better quantify the long-term pharmacokinetics of THC. A population-based PK model for THC was developed describing the profile up to 48 h after an oral, intravenous, and pulmonary dose of THC in humans. In contrast to earlier models, the current model integrates all three major administration routes and covers the long terminal phase of THC. Results show that THC has a fast initial and intermediate half-life, while the apparent terminal half-life is long (21.5 h), with a clearance of 38.8 L/h. Because the current model characterizes the long-term pharmacokinetics, it can be used to assess the accumulation of THC in a multiple-dose setting and to forecast concentration profiles of the drug under many different dosing regimens or administration routes. Additionally, this model could provide helpful insights into the THC challenge test used for the development of (novel) compounds targeting the cannabinoid system for different therapeutic applications and could improve decision making in future clinical trials.

  12. Short-term response of bone turnover to low-dose oral contraceptives in exercising women with hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vescovi, Jason D; VanHeest, Jaci L; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2008-02-01

    We examined the response of bone turnover markers and indices of energy status after 2 weeks of oral contraceptive (OC) therapy in premenopausal women with exercise-associated menstrual disturbances (EAMD). Six women with EAMD received one 28-day cycle of a triphasic OC containing 180-250 mcg norgestimate/25 mcg ethinyl estradiol (EAMD+OC) and six were controls (EAMD controls). Bone turnover markers amino-terminal propeptide of Type I procollagen and serum carboxy-terminal telopeptides of Type I collagen (PINP and SCTX-I) were assessed at baseline and after 2 weeks of OC therapy (EAMD+OC) or after a 30-day monitoring period (EAMD controls). Total triiodothyronine, resting energy expenditure (REE) and dietary intake were assessed as secondary end points. The absolute and percent changes from baseline in the primary and secondary outcomes were evaluated using an analysis of covariance, adjusting for baseline values of the corresponding outcome. Compared to EAMD controls, a significant change from baseline was observed in the EAMD+OC group for PINP (mean+/-SEM, 9.9+/-6.1 vs. -33.9+/-9.0 mcg/L; p=.005) and SCTX-I (-0.02+/-0.11 vs. -0.25+/-0.07 ng/mL; p=.017), but not osteoprotegerin (-0.53+/-0.22 vs. 0.20+/-0.44 pmol/L; p=.429) after 2 weeks (14.7+/-0.3 days) of OC therapy. Total triiodothyronine levels were elevated in the EAMD+OC group after therapy compared with EAMD controls (19.7+/-4.1 vs. -8.4+/-4.9 ng/dL; p=.002); however, no differences between groups were observed for the changes in REE or dietary intake. Our data demonstrate that 2 weeks of low-dose OC therapy rapidly reduced markers of bone resorption and formation, without any significant impact on energy status in women with EAMD.

  13. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  14. Muntlig kommunikation under en lektion om energikällor i årskurs 5 Oral Communication during a Lesson on Energy Sources in Grade 5

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitta Norberg Brorsson

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are alarming signals of a decreasing interest in science among students and, according to research, one reason for this development is, the exclusion of the students’ experiences and thoughts in the teaching process.  This article presents a study of oral communication patterns during a lesson on energy sources in year five in a Swedish primary school. The teaching sequence is analysed with both quantitative and qualitative methods to make evident the use of time, question – answer patterns, roles, and genres. The teacher creates a dialogue, using both everyday and academic language to explain complicated concepts, and allowing plenty of time for the students’ contributions. The students are also given opportunities to internalise the scientific language by means of demanding roles and genres. By including writing elements this wholly oral lesson would have provided even greater learning opportunities.

  15. Short communication: Influence of labeling on Australian and Chinese consumers' liking of milk with short (pasteurized) and long (UHT) shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, D G; Bolhuis, D P; Hu, X; Keast, R S J

    2016-03-01

    Sixty percent of milk consumed in China has a long shelf life (UHT), presumably because milk with a short shelf life (pasteurized) is comparatively expensive. This in contrast to Australia, where 10% of consumed milk is UHT and the price between UHT and pasteurized milk is equivalent. Whether UHT is actually more liked than pasteurized milk by Chinese consumers is unknown. However, the potential positive halo around the expensive pasteurized milk might result in Chinese consumers liking milk more when it is labeled as "short shelf-life milk." To test these hypotheses, Chinese (n=48, 20 males, 28 females, 23 ± 7.2 yr) and Australian (n=93, 11 males, 82 females, 24 ± 5.6 yr) consumers tasted and rated (9-point hedonic scale), in a randomized order, 3 × 30-mL samples of UHT milk (labeled as "long shelf-life milk," "short shelf-life milk," or "milk") and 3 × 30-mL samples of pasteurized milk (also labeled as "long shelf-life milk," "short shelf-life milk," or "milk"). Australian participants' liking of milk was not influenced by labeling. Regardless of what the label stated, they always preferred the taste of pasteurized milk over the taste of UHT milk. This was different for Chinese participants, who preferred the taste of UHT milk over the taste of pasteurized milk, but in general had a higher liking for any milk that was labeled "short shelf-life milk." Both Australian and Chinese were more positive about pasteurized than UHT milk. In conclusion, Chinese, but not Australian, consumers' liking of milk was guided by the positive expectations of pasteurized milk and the negative expectations of UHT milk. Further research is needed to investigate if the present findings can be extrapolated to a larger and more varied group of Chinese and Australian consumers. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m after oral administration of SnCl2. Concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, M.C.; Parab, P.B.; Samuel, A.M.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1979-01-01

    In vivo labeling of red blood cells with Tc-99m was possible after prior oral administration of SnCl 2 , both in rats and human volunteers. Absorption of oral SnCl 2 was low but sufficient for more than 95% labeling efficiency. Prior i.v. administration of stannous chloride is known to induce in vivo labeling of red blood cells with pertechnetate. We have observed that such labeling is possible even after oral administration of stannous chloide. Nearly 95% of the circulating radioactivity and 93.7% of the administered radioactivity was in RBCs 30 min after i.v. injection of /sup 99m/TcO 4 - in rats that were fed 5 mg of stannous chloride (3.13 mg Sn 2+ ion) 2 hr before injection. Red blood cells from four human volunteers could bind pertechnetate, both in vitro and in vivo, after oral administration of 100 mg of SnCl 2 . We have obtained a blood-pool image of the human heart by labeling the RBCs in vivo by this method. We have also studied various parameters affecting the in vivo binding of RBCs with Tc-99m - such as the amount of orally administered SnCl 2 , the time of injection of radionuclide after oral SnCl 2 , and the optimum time for the imaging

  17. The use of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in some secondary school students at Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India: A short term prospective pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byalakere R Chandrashekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Study design : It was a short term prospective pilot study on a group of 116 secondary school students. Objectives: To assess the feasibility of using the services of school teachers to promote oral hygiene in secondary school students and compare the effectiveness of dental health education (DHE offered by school teachers on a fortnightly basis with what is offered by dental professionals at three- monthly intervals. Materials and Methods: Six secondary schools were randomly selected. The base-line Oral Hygiene Index simplified (OHI-S and Plaque index (PI scores for all the students were recorded. The teachers were trained on dental health facts. The six schools were divided into three groups of two schools with different intervention techniques: Group 1- Schools given no health education, Group 2 - Schools given health education by their school teachers on a fortnightly basis together with simple screening for deposits of gross calculus , Group 3 - Schools which were given health education by dental professionals at intervals of three months without any screening. Grade nine students were selected for pre and post intervention evaluation. The second examination was done six months following the intervention to find out the OHI-S and Plaque index scores. The examination was done by three trained and calibrated dentists. Data analysis was done with SPSS 16 with relevant statistical tests. Results: The mean OHI-S and PI scores were significantly less in group 2 and there was a statistically significant difference between the baseline OHI - S, PI score and the scores after six months in all the three groups. Conclusion: The concept of utilizing the teachers for frequent DHE and screening for any gross deposits of food debris and calculus is feasible. Also frequent DHE by teachers was more effective than the infrequent DHE by the professionals.

  18. 'You find yourself.' Perceptions of nursing students from non-English speaking backgrounds of the effect of an intensive language support program on their oral clinical communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, Fran; San Miguel, Caroline; Brown, Di; Kilstoff, Kathleen

    2006-10-01

    Nurses of ethnically diverse backgrounds are essential in providing multicultural populations in western societies with culturally and linguistically competent health care. However, many nurses from non-English speaking backgrounds (NESB) are at high risk of failure in university programs particularly during clinical placements. Few studies investigate the clinical experiences of students from NESB and strategies to support their learning. This study describes perceptions of fifteen undergraduate nursing students from NESB about their first clinical placement in an Australian university program and the effect of a language support program on their oral clinical communication skills. Three categories arose: *Wanting to belong but feeling excluded; *Wanting to learn how to...; and *You find yourself. While many students find clinical placement challenging, it appeared difficult for students in this study as language and cultural adjustments required some modification of their usual ways of thinking and communicating, often without coping strategies available to other students.

  19. Starting from Scratch and Getting Somewhere: Assessment of Oral Communication Proficiency in General Education across Lower and Upper Division Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzino, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Communication departments are expected to conduct program level assessment, as well as assessment of communication in general education. Although the expectation for data-driven student learning assessment is growing, relatively few examples exist for doing so effectively. This article serves as a model to help faculty conduct effective assessment…

  20. Prevalence of oral lesions and chronic non-communicable diseases in a sample of Chilean institutionalized versus non-institutionalized elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla P. Lozano

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Chile is experiencing a process of demographic aging with an increase in the number of elderly people, a percentage of which resides in Long-term Establishments for the Elderly (LEE. However, there is little information on the reality of the elderly in these long-term care facilities, so this study was conducted to compare the epidemiological profile of the prevalent oral pathologies as well as chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs, of institutionalized versus noninstitutionalized elderly subjects. Seventy-six institutionalized and forty-three non-institutionalized subjects were examined intraorally, and their clinical health record, gender and age were obtained, according inclusion/exclusion criteria. The results indicate that female gender is the most common, with an average age of 78.5 year, with those 80 years old and above comprising the predominant group. The most prevalent oral lesions within the institutionalized group were denture stomatitis and irritative hyperplasia, while in the noninstitutionalized these two lesions were found less frequently. As for the presence of xerostomia, there was no difference between the groups. The most common condition in both groups was total maxillary and mandibular edentulous, with the latter variable present more frequently in the institutionalized group (p0.05, and depression was the most prevalent NCD in the non-institutionalized group (p<0.05. This study provides valuable information on the epidemiology of elderly´s oral lesions and NCDs to inform the decision-making process of public health policies.

  1. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor and D. Barney

    2010-01-01

    CMS Centres, Outreach and the 7 TeV Media Event The new CMS Communications group is now established and is addressing three areas that are critical to CMS as it enters the physics operations phase: - Communications Infrastructure, including almost 50 CMS Centres Worldwide, videoconferencing systems, and CERN meeting rooms - Information systems, including the internal and external Web sites as well as the document preparation and management systems - Outreach and Education activities, including working with print, radio and TV media, visits to CMS, and exhibitions. The group has been active in many areas, with the highest priority being accorded to needs of CMS operations and preparations for the major media event planned for 7 TeV collisions. Unfortunately the CMS Centre@CERN suffered a major setback when, on 21st December, a cooling water pipe froze and burst on the floor above the CMS Centre main room. Water poured through the ceiling, flooding the floor and soaking some of the consoles, before e...

  2. COMMUNICATIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Petrilli

    2013-01-01

    The organisation of the Open Days at the end of September was the single biggest effort of the CMS Communications Group this year. We would like to thank all volunteers for their hard work to show our Point 5 facilities and explain science and technology to the general public. During two days more than 5,000 people visited the CMS detector underground and profited from the surface activities, which included an exhibition on CMS, a workshop on superconductivity, and an activity for our younger visitors involving wooden Kapla blocks. The Communications Group took advantage of the preparations to produce new CMS posters that can be reused at other venues. Event display images have been produced not just for this occasion but also for other exhibits, education purposes, publications etc. During the Open Days, Gilles Jobin, 2012 winner of CERN Collide@CERN prize, performed his Quantum show in Point 5, with the light installation of German artist Julius von Bismarck. Image 3: CERN Open Days at CMS wel...

  3. Gliadin-Specific T-Cells Mobilized in the Peripheral Blood of Coeliac Patients by Short Oral Gluten Challenge: Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Picascia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is a common lifelong food intolerance triggered by dietary gluten affecting 1% of the general population. Gliadin-specific T-cell lines and T-cell clones obtained from intestinal biopsies have provided great support in the investigation of immuno-pathogenesis of CD. In the early 2000 a new in vivo, less invasive, approach was established aimed to evaluate the adaptive gliadin-specific T-cell response in peripheral blood of celiac patients on a gluten free diet. In fact, it has been demonstrated that three days of ingestion of wheat-containing food induces the mobilization of memory T lymphocytes reactive against gliadin from gut-associated lymphoid tissue into peripheral blood of CD patients. Such antigen-specific T-cells releasing interferon-γ can be transiently detected by using the enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT assays or by flow cytometry tetramer technology. This paper discusses the suitability of this in vivo tool to investigate the repertoire of gluten pathogenic peptides, to support CD diagnosis, and to assess the efficacy of novel therapeutic strategies. A systematic review of all potential applications of short oral gluten challenge is provided.

  4. Zur linguistischen Beschreibung kommunikativer Einheiten in gesprochener Sprache (On the Linguistic Description of Communicative Units in Oral Language)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Rainer

    1973-01-01

    Slightly revised version of a lecture ( Zur grammatischen Beschreibung kommunikativer Elemente in Sprechakten'' Y On Grammatical Description of Communicative Elements in Speech''I) presented in Saarbrucken, West Germany, November 10, 1972. (DD)

  5. 16 CFR 1025.68 - Prohibited communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... not served on all parties; or (ii) Any oral communication concerning a matter in adjudication which is... oral or written ex parte communication relative to the merits of any proceedings under these Rules is a...) Prohibited oral ex parte communication. (i) If a prohibited oral ex parte communication is made to a decision...

  6. Descriptive analysis of context evaluation instrument for technical oral presentation skills evaluation: A case study in English technical communication course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdullah-Adnan; Asmawi, Adelina; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Mustafa, Zainol bin

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports a pilot study of Context Evaluation using a self-developed questionnaire distributed among engineering undergraduates at a university under study. The study aims to validate the self-developed questionnaires used in the Context evaluation, a component in the CIPP Model. The Context evaluation assesses background information for needs, assets, problems and opportunities relevant to beneficiaries of the study in a defined environment. Through the questionnaire, background information for the assessment of needs, assets and problems related to the engineering undergraduates' perceptions on the teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills was collected and analysed. The questionnaire was developed using 5-points Likert scale to measure the constructs under study. They were distributed to 100 respondents with 79 returned. The respondents consisted of engineering undergraduates studied at various faculties at one technical university in Malaysia. The descriptive analysis of data for each item which makes up the construct for Context evaluation is found to be high. This implied that engineering undergraduates showed high interest in teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills, thus their needs are met. Also, they agreed that assets and facilities are conducive to their learning. In conclusion, the context evaluation involving needs and assets factors are both considerably important; their needs are met and the assets and facilities do support their technical oral presentation skills learning experience.

  7. Scientific communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Kobylarek

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article tackles the problem of models of communication in science. The formal division of communication processes into oral and written does not resolve the problem of attitude. The author defines successful communication as a win-win game, based on the respect and equality of the partners, regardless of their position in the world of science. The core characteristics of the process of scientific communication are indicated , such as openness, fairness, support, and creation. The task of creating the right atmosphere for science communication belongs to moderators, who should not allow privilege and differentiation of position to affect scientific communication processes.

  8. Short-course oral co-trimoxazole versus intramuscular benzathine benzylpenicillin for impetigo in a highly endemic region: an open-label, randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Asha C; Tong, Steven Y C; Andrews, Ross M; O'Meara, Irene M; McDonald, Malcolm I; Chatfield, Mark D; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2014-12-13

    Impetigo affects more than 110 million children worldwide at any one time. The major burden of disease is in developing and tropical settings where topical antibiotics are impractical and lead to rapid emergence of antimicrobial resistance. Few trials of systemic antibiotics are available to guide management of extensive impetigo. As such, we aimed to compare short-course oral co-trimoxazole with standard treatment with intramuscular benzathine benzylpenicillin in children with impetigo in a highly endemic setting. In this randomised, controlled, non-inferiority trial, Indigenous Australian children aged 3 months to 13 years with purulent or crusted non-bullous impetigo were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to receive benzathine benzylpenicillin (weight-banded injection), twice-daily co-trimoxazole for 3 days (4 mg/kg plus 20 mg/kg per dose), or once-daily co-trimoxazole for 5 days (8 mg/kg plus 40 mg/kg per dose). At every visit, participants were randomised in blocks of six and 12, stratified by disease severity. Randomisation was done by research nurses and codes were in sealed, sequentially numbered, opaque envelopes. Independent reviewers masked to treatment allocation compared digital images of sores from days 0 and 7. The primary outcome was treatment success at day 7 in a modified intention-to-treat analysis. This trial is registered with the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, number ACTRN12609000858291. Between Nov 26, 2009, and Nov 20, 2012, 508 patients were randomly assigned to receive benzathine benzylpenicillin (n=165 [156 analysed]), twice-daily co-trimoxazole for 3 days (n=175 [173 analysed]), or once-daily co-trimoxazole for 5 days (n=168 [161 analysed]). Treatment was successful in 133 (85%) children who received benzathine benzylpenicillin and 283 (85%) who received pooled co-trimoxazole (absolute difference 0·5%; 95% CI -6·2 to 7·3), showing non-inferiority of co-trimoxazole (10% margin). Results for twice-daily co-trimoxazole for 3

  9. Short-term study of the uptake of PrPSc by the Peyer’s patches in hamsters after oral exposure to scrapie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergström, Ann-Louise; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2006-01-01

    The disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) has been detected in the ileal Peyer's patches of lambs as early as one week after oral exposure to scrapie. In hamsters, the earliest reported time of PrPSc detection in the Peyer's patches after oral exposure to scrapie is 69 days post-infection. To ......The disease-associated prion protein (PrPSc) has been detected in the ileal Peyer's patches of lambs as early as one week after oral exposure to scrapie. In hamsters, the earliest reported time of PrPSc detection in the Peyer's patches after oral exposure to scrapie is 69 days post...

  10. Communication outcomes for groups of children using cochlear implants enrolled in auditory-verbal, aural-oral, and bilingual-bicultural early intervention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettman, Shani; Wall, Elizabeth; Constantinescu, Gabriella; Dowell, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The relative impact of early intervention approach on speech perception and language skills was examined in these 3 well-matched groups of children using cochlear implants. Eight children from an auditory verbal intervention program were identified. From a pediatric database, researchers blind to the outcome data, identified 23 children from auditory oral programs and 8 children from bilingual-bicultural programs with the same inclusion criteria and equivalent demographic factors. All child participants were male, had congenital profound hearing loss (pure tone average >80 dBHL), no additional disabilities, were within the normal IQ range, were monolingual English speakers, had no unusual findings on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, and received hearing aids and cochlear implants at a similar age and before 4 years of age. Open-set speech perception (consonant-nucleus-consonant [CNC] words and Bamford-Kowal-Bench [BKB] sentences) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) were administered. The mean age at cochlear implant was 1.7 years (range, 0.8-3.9; SD, 0.7), mean test age was 5.4 years (range, 2.5-10.1; SD, 1.7), and mean device experience was 3.7 years (range, 0.7-7.9; SD, 1.8). Results indicate mean CNC scores of 60%, 43%, and 24% and BKB scores of 77%, 77%, and 56% for the auditory-verbal (AV), aural-oral (AO), and bilingual-bicultural (BB) groups, respectively. The mean PPVT delay was 13, 19, and 26 months for AV, AO, and BB groups, respectively. Despite equivalent child demographic characteristics at the outset of this study, by 3 years postimplant, there were significant differences in AV, AO, and BB groups. Results support consistent emphasis on oral/aural input to achieve optimum spoken communication outcomes for children using cochlear implants.

  11. 49 CFR 511.78 - Prohibited communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... than a decisionmaker which is not served on all parties, (ii) Any oral communication other than a...) Prohibited ex parte communications. Any oral or written ex parte communication relative to the merits of a... circumstances shall be forwarded with the communication. (2) Prohibited oral ex parte communication. (i) If a...

  12. Health Literacy Approaches to Improving Communication between Dental Hygienists and Patients for HPV-Related Oral Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Erika L; Daley, Ellen M; Vamos, Cheryl A; Horowitz, Alice M; Catalanotto, Frank A; DeBate, Rita D; Merrell, Laura K; Griner, Stacey B; Vazquez-Otero, Coralia; Kline, Nolan S

    2017-08-01

    Purpose: Human Papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as a causal agent for oropharyngeal cancers, suggesting a new role for dental hygienists in HPV-related cancer prevention strategies. Health literacy assessment is an approach that can be used to understand providers' informational assets and needs for educating and discussing HPV prevention with patients. This study aimed to understand dental hygienists' level of health literacy regarding HPV-related oropharyngeal cancers. Methods: Four focus group sessions with dental hygienists (n=48) were conducted at a national conference. The constant comparison method, with a priori codes for health literacy competencies (i.e., access/understand/appraise/apply), was utilized for this qualitative study. Results: Participants mentioned a variety of modes (e.g., magazines, journals) for accessing HPV-information; however, descriptions of understanding HPV and its relationship to oropharyngeal cancer varied. Participants considered patients' personal characteristics, the dental practice environment, and professional factors to appraise HPV-related information. Additionally, participants self-described themselves as being "prevention specialists." These factors influenced how dental hygienists applied primary and secondary prevention of HPV-related care issues with their patients (e.g., education and oral-cancer screenings). Conclusions: Dental hygienists recognized the importance of HPV and oropharyngeal cancer prevention efforts, including oral-cancer screenings and promotion of the HPV vaccine. The study findings identified opportunities for intervention focusing on primary prevention. Copyright © 2017 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  13. A COMUNICAÇÃO ORAL NAS AULAS DE MATEMÁTICA NOS ANOS INICIAIS DO ENSINO FUNDAMENTAL. ORAL COMMUNICATION IN MATHEMATICS LESSONS FOR THE INITIAL YEARS OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacarato, Adair Mendes

    2012-05-01

    importance of the oral communication in maths lessons. The present article aims to discuss the constitution of a learning environment which allows oral communication in maths lessons as a way to develop students’ argumentation skills and help the conceptual construction movement. Vygotsky’s and Bakhtin’s premises are the starting point for the construction of a theoretical framework which supports the communication and meaning processes in the classroom. Such premises guide the analysis of two classroom episodes with students from the initial years of public elementary school in the state of São Paulo. These episodes made it possible to clearly observe how verbal interactions and the pedagogical mediation allow argumentation modes and the circulation of mathematical meanings.

  14. The Effect of Using a Program Based on Cooperative Learning Strategy on Developing some Oral Communication Skills of Students, at English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuheer, Khaled Mohsen Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of study is to investigate the effective of using a cooperative learning strategy STAD-based program on developing some oral communication skills of second level students, English Department, Faculty of Education, Sana'a University. Based on literature review, related studies and a panel of jury members' point of view, a list of 5 oral…

  15. Aligning HIV/AIDS communication with the oral tradition of Africans: a theory-based content analysis of songs' potential in prevention efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekalu, Mesfin Awoke; Eggermont, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Despite a growing recognition of songs as a useful HIV/AIDS campaign strategy, little research has investigated their potential and/or actual impact. In this study, through a theory-based content analysis, we have assessed the prevention domains covered and the health-relevant constructs promoted by 23 AIDS songs widely used to aid prevention efforts in Ethiopia. To identify the health-relevant constructs and reveal their potential to facilitate or inhibit positive changes, the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) has been used. The findings revealed that the songs cover most of the prevention domains that constitute the current agenda of behavior change communication in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, although all the EPPM variables have been found in almost every song, there were significantly more efficacy messages than threat messages. This suggests that although the songs may lead to positive changes in HIV/AIDS-related outcomes among audiences who have already perceived the threat posed by HIV/AIDS, they are less likely to motivate and thereby generate responses from audiences who have less or no threat perceptions. It is argued that given their potential as a culturally appropriate strategy in Sub-Saharan Africa where oral channels of communication play significant roles, songs could be harnessed for better outcomes through a theory-based design.

  16. Monovalent type-1 oral poliovirus vaccine given at short intervals in Pakistan: a randomised controlled, four-arm, open-label, non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Fatima; Quadri, Farheen; Mach, Ondrej; Ahmed, Imran; Bhatti, Zaid; Khan, Asia; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Durry, Elias; Salama, Maha; Oberste, Steven M; Weldon, William C; Sutter, Roland W; Zaidi, Anita K M

    2015-08-01

    Supplementary immunisation activities with oral poliovirus vaccines (OPVs) are usually separated by 4 week intervals; however, shorter intervals have been used in security-compromised areas and for rapid outbreak responses. We assessed the immunogenicity of monovalent type-1 oral poliovirus vaccine (mOPV1) given at shorter than usual intervals in Karachi, Pakistan. This was a multicentre, randomised, controlled, four-arm, open-label, non-inferiority trial done at five primary health-care centres in low-income communities in and around Karachi, Pakistan. Eligible participants were healthy newborn babies with a birthweight of at least 2·5 kg, for whom informed consent was provided by their parent or guardian, and lived less than 30 km from the study clinic. After receiving a birth dose of trivalent OPV, we enrolled and randomly assigned newborn babies (1:1:1:1) to receive two doses of mOPV1 with an interval of 1 week (mOPV1-1 week), 2 weeks (mOPV1-2 weeks), or 4 weeks (mOPV1-4 weeks) between doses, or two doses of bivalent OPV (bOPV) with an interval of 4 weeks between doses (bOPV-4 weeks). We gave the first study dose of OPV at age 6 weeks. We did the randomisation with a centrally generated, computerised allocation sequence with blocks of 16; participants' families and study physicians could not feasibly be masked to the allocations. Trial participants were excluded from local supplementary immunisation activities during the study period. The primary outcome was non-inferiority (within a 20% margin) between groups in seroconversion to type-1 poliovirus. The primary and safety analyses were done in the per-protocol population of infants who received all three doses of vaccine. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01586572, and is closed to new participants. Between March 1, 2012, and May 31, 2013, we enrolled 1009 newborn babies, and randomly assigned 829 (82%) to treatment. 554 (67%) of the 829 babies were included in the per

  17. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-07-20

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic feedback mechanism, a communications module, a flexible pressure sensor, and a battery. The communications module includes a wireless communications module for wireless communications, a wired interface for wired communications, a microcontroller, and a battery charge controller. The flexible pressure sensor can be actuated by an individual\\'s toe, for example, and communication between two communications nodes can be achieved using coded signals sent by individuals using a combination of long and short presses on the pressure sensor. In response to the presses, wireless communications modules can transmit and receive coded signals based on the presses.

  18. The Role of Songs in First-Graders' Oral Communication Development in English (El papel de las canciones en el desarrollo de la comunicación oral en inglés de niños de primero de primaria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Huertas, Ivon Aleida; Navarro Parra, Lina Jazmín

    2014-01-01

    We report on an action research project aimed at developing oral communication in first-graders, using songs as a strategy for young learners to use and enjoy English. It was developed at a Colombian public school over three months. The teacher-researchers attempted to encourage students using simple and amusing songs to help them learn new…

  19. Short communication: East-West European farm investment behaviour - The role of financial constraints and public support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imre Fertő

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The article investigated farm investment behaviour among East (Hungarian and Slovenian and West (French European Union farms using individual farm accountancy panel data for the 2003-2008 period. Despite differences in farm structures, except for the presence of capital market imperfections evidenced in the East, farms’ investment behaviour was not substantially different. Farm gross investment was positively associated with real sales’ growth. In addition, it was positively associated with public investment subsidies which can mitigate capital market imperfections in the short-term. On the long run, the farm’s ability to successfully compete in the output market by selling produce and securing a sufficient cash flow for investment is crucial.

  20. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor.Cromolyn oral inhalation helps to prevent asthma attacks (sudden episodes of shortness of breath, wheezing, and coughing) but will not stop an asthma attack that has already started. Your doctor will prescribe ...

  1. Short communication: risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization among HIV patients at hospital admission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Linda K; Win, Mar Kyaw; Veeraraghavan, Meyyur A; Wong, Chia Siong; Chow, Angela L; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2013-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a nosocomial pathogen that has become increasingly prominent in hospitals and the community. HIV-positive patients may be one of the most MRSA-susceptible populations because of their immunocompromised status. At the Communicable Disease Centre, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Singapore, we implemented a universal MRSA screening program and performed a case-control study to identify risk factors for MRSA colonization among 294 HIV patients at admission from January 2009 to January 2010. Among 54 HIV-positive patients who were MRSA positive at hospital admission, 16 (29.6%) were positive at the nares/axilla/groin (NAG; one combined swab), 14 (25.9%) were NAG and perianal positive, 3 (5.6%) were NAG and throat positive, 10 (18.5%) were NAG, perianal, and throat positive, 6 (11.1%) were throat positive, and 5 (9.3%) were perianal positive. Upon multivariate analysis, we found that age [odds ratio (OR)=1.04, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01-1.07, p=0.006] and CD4 count hospital admission.

  2. Oral Microbiology and Immunology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlén, Gunnar; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Olsen, Ingar

    , dental assistants and trainees may find it a useful source of reference. The contents are based on general microbiology and immunology. Oral microbiology is given particular attention, with examples relevant to oral infectious diseases. Each chapter opens with a relatively short pre-reading section...

  3. Short communication: grazing pattern of dairy cows that were selected for divergent residual feed intake as calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Waghorn, G C; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; Romera, A J; Macdonald, K A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and assess differences in the grazing pattern of 2 groups of mature dairy cows selected as calves for divergent residual feed intake (RFI). Sixteen Holstein-Friesian cows (471±31kg of body weight, 100 d in milk), comprising 8 cows selected as calves (6-8 mo old) for low (most efficient: CSCLowRFI) and 8 cows selected as calves for high (least efficient: CSCHighRFI) RFI, were used for the purpose of this study. Cows (n=16) were managed as a single group, and strip-grazed (24-h pasture allocation at 0800h) a perennial ryegrass sward for 31 d, with measurements taken during the last 21 d. All cows were equipped with motion sensors for the duration of the study, and jaw movements were measured for three 24-h periods during 3 random nonconsecutive days. Measurements included number of steps and jaw movements during grazing and rumination, plus fecal particle size distribution. Jaw movements were analyzed to identify bites, mastication (oral processing of ingesta) during grazing bouts, chewing during rumination, and to calculate grazing and rumination times for 24-h periods. Grazing and walking behavior were also analyzed in relation to the first meal of the day after the new pasture was allocated. Measured variables were subjected to multivariate analysis. Cows selected for low RFI as calves appeared to (a) prioritize grazing and rumination over idling; (b) take fewer steps, but with a higher proportion of grazing steps at the expense of nongrazing steps; and (c) increase the duration of the first meal and commenced their second meal earlier than CSCHighRFI. The CSCLowRFI had fewer jaw movements during eating (39,820 vs. 45,118 for CSCLowRFI and CSCHighRFI, respectively), more intense rumination (i.e., 5 more chews per bolus), and their feces had 30% less large particles than CSCHighRFI. These results suggest that CSCLowRFI concentrate their grazing activity to the time when fresh pasture is allocated, and graze more efficiently

  4. 12 CFR 908.24 - Ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... communications. (a) Definition.(1) Ex parte communication means any material oral or written communication... oral, a memorandum stating the substance of the communication) to be placed on the record of the... days of receipt of service of the ex parte communication or the written record of an oral communication...

  5. Short communication: β-Lactam resistance and vancomycin heteroresistance in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Priscila Luiza; Pinheiro, Luiza; Martins, Lisiane de Almeida; Brito, Maria Aparecida Vasconcelos Paiva; Ribeiro de Souza da Cunha, Maria de Lourdes

    2017-08-01

    The use of antimicrobial agents has led to the emergence of resistant bacterial strains over a relatively short period. Furthermore, Staphylococcus spp. can produce β-lactamase, which explains the survival of these strains in a focus of infection despite the use of a β-lactam antibiotic. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from bovine subclinical mastitis to oxacillin and vancomycin (by minimum inhibitory concentration) and to detect vancomycin heteroresistance by a screening method. We also evaluated β-lactamase production and resistance due to hyperproduction of this enzyme and investigated the mecA and mecC genes and performed staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing. For this purpose, 181 Staphylococcus spp. isolated from mastitis subclinical bovine were analyzed. Using the phenotypic method, 33 (18.2%) of Staphylococcus spp. were resistant to oxacillin. In contrast, all isolates were susceptible to vancomycin, and heteroresistance was detected by the screening method in 13 isolates. Production of β-lactamase was observed in 174 (96%) of the Staphylococcus spp. isolates. The mecA gene was detected in 8 isolates, all of them belonging to the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing revealed the presence of type I and type IV isolates. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and reliability of the explicit professional oral communication observation tool to quantify the use of non-technical skills in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Peter F; van Noord, Inge; de Bruijne, Martine; Knol, Dirk L; Wagner, Cordula; van Dyck, Cathy

    2013-07-01

    A lack of non-technical skills is increasingly recognised as an important underlying cause of adverse events in healthcare. The nature and number of things professionals communicate to each other can be perceived as a product of their use of non-technical skills. This paper describes the development and reliability of an instrument to measure and quantify the use of non-technical skills by direct observations of explicit professional oral communication (EPOC) in the clinical situation. In an iterative process we translated, tested and refined an existing checklist from the aviation industry, called self, human interaction, aircraft, procedures and environment, in the context of healthcare, notably emergency departments (ED) and intensive care units (ICU). The EPOC comprises six dimensions: assertiveness, working with others; task-oriented leadership; people-oriented leadership; situational awareness; planning and anticipation. Each dimension is specified into several concrete items reflecting verbal behaviours. The EPOC was evaluated in four ED and six ICU. In the ED and ICU, respectively, 378 and 1144 individual and 51 and 68 contemporaneous observations of individual staff members were conducted. All EPOC dimensions occur frequently, apart from assertiveness, which was hardly observed. Intraclass correlations for the overall EPOC score ranged between 0.85 and 0.91 and for underlying EPOC dimensions between 0.53 and 0.95. The EPOC is a new instrument for evaluating the use of non-technical skills in healthcare, which is reliable in two highly different settings. By quantifying professional behaviour the instrument facilitates measurement of behavioural change over time. The results suggest that EPOC can also be translated to other settings.

  7. 12 CFR 207.3 - CRA communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... communication. A CRA communication is any of the following— (1) Any written or oral comment or testimony... contacts with a Federal banking agency. An oral or written communication with a Federal banking agency is... communication; (ii) More than 3 years before the parties entered into the agreement, in the case of any oral...

  8. 12 CFR 346.3 - CRA communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... communication. A CRA communication is any of the following— (1) Any written or oral comment or testimony... contacts with a Federal banking agency. An oral or written communication with a Federal banking agency is... communication; (ii) More than 3 years before the parties entered into the agreement, in the case of any oral...

  9. Short Communication. Recruitment and early growth of Pinus pinaster seedlings over five years after a wildfire in NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Calvo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The main aim of this study was to analyse the post-fire recruitment and growth of Pinus pinaster seedlings during the first five years after wildfire and also to analyse the effects of climatic conditions on the survival of P. pinaster seedlingsArea of study: The study area was located in a P. pinaster stand in León province (NW Spain burned in 1998.Material and Methods: Three sites in the burned area were selected. In each site three permanent transects of 20m x 1m were placed. In each transect, twenty 1m2 sampling units were marked and the number and height of each pine seedlings was recorded at 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 months and 2, 3, 4 and 5 years after the wildfire. The soil of study area is Cambisol.Mean results: Mean Pinus regeneration densities varied between 33.2 seedlings/m2 after 7 months and 6 seedlings/m2 five years after wildfire. In this P. pinaster stand, maximum mortality appeared during the summer months in the first year of regeneration. There was a significant increase in seedling height associated with a decrease in density.Research highlights: The post-fire recruitment is considered enough to ensure good natural Pinus pinaster forest regeneration. In the short term post-fire management strategy in this type of forest could be the remaining branches with cones of burned trees that allow the dissemination of the seeds during the first few years after fire and ensure natural regeneration.Keywords: Fire effects; natural regeneration; León province (NW Spain; seedlings density; growth and survival.

  10. What Keeps Passion Alive? Sexual Satisfaction Is Associated With Sexual Communication, Mood Setting, Sexual Variety, Oral Sex, Orgasm, and Sex Frequency in a National U.S. Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, David A; Lever, Janet; Gillespie, Brian Joseph; Garcia, Justin R

    2017-02-01

    Passion and sexual satisfaction typically diminish in longer-term relationships, but this decline is not inevitable. We identified the attitudes and behaviors that most strongly differentiated sexually satisfied from dissatisfied men and women who had been together for at least three years (N = 38,747). Data were collected in 2006 from cohabiting and married men (M) and women (W) via an online survey on a major national U.S. news Web site. The vast majority of these participants reported being satisfied with their sex lives during their first six months together (83% W; 83% M). Satisfaction with their current sex lives was more variable, with approximately half of participants reporting overall satisfaction (55% W; 43% M) and the rest feeling neutral (18% W; 16% M) or dissatisfied (27% W; 41% M). More than one in three respondents (38% W; 32% M) claimed their sex lives were as passionate now as in the beginning. Sexual satisfaction and maintenance of passion were higher among people who had sex most frequently, received more oral sex, had more consistent orgasms, and incorporated more variety of sexual acts, mood setting, and sexual communication. We discuss implications of these findings for research and for helping people revitalize their sex lives.

  11. Short-term assessment of left ventricular function, coronary hemodynamics, and catecholamine balance in severe congestive heart failure after a single oral dose of milrinone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Piscione; B.E. Jaski; P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractSystemic and coronary hemodynamics were measured before and every 10 min after oral milrinone (10 mg) administration for 50 min, together with the drug plasma level in 14 patients with congestive heart failure. Left ventricular pressure (tip manometry), volume (angiography), and derived

  12. Communication in the Disciplines: Interpersonal Communication in Dietetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrchota, Denise

    2011-01-01

    This study proposes to expand the scope of oral communication across the curriculum research by exploring oral genres in a dietetics curriculum from the perspective of the dietetics faculty. The goals of this qualitative study, couched within the communication in the disciplines framework, are to identify the oral genres integral to the study and…

  13. 5 CFR 2414.8 - Reporting of prohibited communications; penalties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... prohibited oral ex parte communication is attempted to be made, shall refuse to listen to the communication... substance of the communication, if it was oral; (3) all written responses to the prohibited communication; and (4) memoranda stating the substance of all oral responses to the prohibited communication. The...

  14. Design and analysis of InN - In0.25Ga0.75N single quantum well laser for short distance communication wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polash, Md. Mobarak Hossain; Alam, M. Shah; Biswas, Saumya

    2018-03-01

    A single quantum well semiconductor laser based on wurtzite-nitride is designed and analyzed for short distance communication wavelength (at around 1300 nm). The laser structure has 12 Å well layer of InN, 15 Å barrier layer of In0.25Ga0.75N, and 54 Å separate confinement heterostructure layer of GaN. To calculate the electronic characteristics of the structure, a self-consistent method is used where Hamiltonian with effective mass approximation is solved for conduction band while six-bands Hamiltonian matrix with k · p formalism including the polarization effect, valence-band mixing effect, and strain effect is solved for valence band. The interband optical transition elements, optical gain, differential gain, radiative current density, spontaneous emission rate, and threshold characteristics have been calculated. The wave function overlap integral is found to be 45.93% for TE-polarized structure. Also, the spontaneous emission rate is found to be 6.57 × 1027 s - 1 cm - 3 eV - 1 at 1288.21 nm with the carrier density of 5 × 1019 cm - 3. Furthermore, the radiative current density and the radiative recombination rate are found to be 121.92 A cm - 2 and 6.35 × 1027 s - 1 cm - 3, respectively, while the TE-polarized optical gain of the structure is 3872.1 cm - 1 at 1301.7 nm.

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION TRANSESTERIFICATION OF WASTE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    1College of Chemical Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao. 266042, China ... was an efficient catalyst for the reaction under the optimum conditions: n(oil):n(methanol) 1:12, waste oil 15.0 g, ionic liquid 2.0 g ... In order to reduce the production costs and to make it competitive with petroleum ...

  16. Short communications: Abyssinian Scimitarbill Rhinopomastus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scopus: Journal of East African Ornithology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 34 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  17. SHORT COMMUNICATION SQUALENE AND AMENTOFLAVONE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    against Leishmania donovani and Trypanosoma cruzi [4]. In addition, strong fungitoxic activity ... leaves of A. laciniatum. Except for the study of the essential oil of this plant [5], which showed activity against strain of ... Squalene is the main constituent of shark liver oil, yeast and many vegetable oils [12] and it has also been ...

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    campbell

    Possible sighting of the Indian subspecies of the Egyptian. Vulture Neophron percnopterus ginginianus in Africa. Ivaylo Angelov. 1*. , Bruktawit Abdu. 2. , Nikolay Terziev. 3. , Samson Zelleke. 4. 1 “Balgarka” 29-A-18, Sliven 8800, Bulgaria. 2 Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society. ... Tunisia, which Egyptian Vultures.

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION SYNTHESIS OF CYCLOBUTANE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    raw material and potassium permanganate as oxidant. ... odorant and disinfectant in the cleaning industry and as metal flotation agent in mineral industry. ... water, the usage of phase-transfer catalysts may be useful to the reaction. So we ...

  20. SHORT COMMUNICATION GREEN CHEMISTRY VOLUMETRIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ... part of pharmaceutical chemistry, cosmetics, drug formulations, soaps, ... apparatus is safe for both the liquid state and precipitation titrations and even heating of ... The cost incurred with use of 50 mL burette, for a class of 40 students for the ...

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION DETERMINATION OF CYPERMETHRIN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Spectra-physics SP8810 HPLC, equipped with UV detector; N-1NW revolving evaporator (Tokyo Physics and Chemistry Company, Japan); high-speed homogenizer (German. IKA Company); HY-4 timing multi-oscillator (JiangSu JinSheng Apparatus Factory); T500 electronic balance (ChangShu Testing Apparatus Factory); ...

  2. SHORT COMMUNICATION IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    This study evaluated the levels of cadmium, lead, copper and zinc in the ... analysis showed significant correlation (p < 0.01) between the metal levels in .... Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (UNICAM, UK) using air-acetylene flame. .... exceeded the 20 mg/kg recommended by Food Stuff, Cosmetics and Disinfectant Act.

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATION VOLATILE CONSTITUENTS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    B. S. Chandravanshi

    spectra or Wiley library [18, 19]. Gas chromatography using flame ionization detection (GC–. FID) analysis was carried out under the same experimental conditions with the same column as described for the GC–MS. The relative percentage of the identified compounds was computed from the GC peak area without applying ...

  4. SHORT COMMUNICATION ACETYLATION AND OXYGENATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    mild conditions and in processes that are environmentally benign. Selective oxidation of alcohols and aromatic amines with aqueous hydrogen peroxide under mild conditions has attracted both considerable intellectual interest and potential utility. To date a variety of oxidation methods (stoichiometric and catalytic) have ...

  5. SHORT COMMUNICATION SYNTHESIS AND CRYSTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    2012 Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... 2Department of Chemistry, School of Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad,. P.O. Box ... There are diverse hydrogen bonding interactions such as O—H···N and O—H···O contacts, which.

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATION SYNTHESIS AND PRELIMINARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    2006 Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... 1Department of Chemistry, School of Pure & Applied Sciences, The University of the South. Pacific, Post ... bonding and stereochemistry [1-3], whereas their semicarbazones analogs received much less.

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION INTERMEDIATE OBTAINED FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Printed in Ethiopia. © 2014 Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... 2Departments of Chemistry, Osmania University, Hyderabad-500007, India. 3Departments of Chemistry ... is composed primarily of water-aniline hydrogen bond [9]. Literature survey ...

  8. Short Communications/Kort mededelings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    habits. Beef cattle, unlike sheep, do not have a recovery phase during the annual reproductive cycle. Poor feeding conditions accentuate these problems. Early mating, on the ... kept in mind when economic overwintering programmes are formulated. .... The effects of age at first calving on the productive and reproductive ...

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATION TERPENOIDS OF BOSWELLIA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CH3CO. Glc. 1'. 2'. 3'. 4'. 5'. 6'. 36.2. 24.8. 75.6. 44.0. 50.4. 18.3. 34.0. 41.9. 58.0. 35.0. 205.3. 132.7. 165.5. 44.3. 30.7. 26.6. 34.4. 56.5. 40.0. 43.0. 26.9. 36.9. 24.1. 182.1. 16.0. 17.2. 20.3. 68.8. 16.9. 28.8. 169.8. 20.5. 37.1. 27.7. 70.1. 43.0. 48.0. 20.0. 33.5. 39.4. 47.9. 36.9. 72.1. 122.5. 141.4. 42.1. 29.5. 25.5. 33.8. 55.7. 38.0.

  10. Intentionally Short Range Communications (ISRC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-05-01

    molecular oxygen in the atmosphere at 60 GHz (figure 9 LIppolito, 1981]). The MMW range is similar to that of the UV links. 3.3.1 Variable Range Similar to...option also requires that the signal be strong enough to overcome the noise from the solar and background sources, although the molecular oxygen and... emisions . Lasing will occur only within the cavity when the alignment is correct and not lasing othem ise. Such a cavity is dcteclable only when an observer

  11. SHORT COMMUNICATION TRITERPENE COMPOUNDS FROM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Grison, P.L.; McKey, M.H.; Jaco, M.G.; Jean-Marie, B. Phytochemistry 2002, 61, 61. 3. Sergio, R.P.S.; Hee, B.C.; Young, G.S.; Thawatchai, S.; Vichai, R.; Norman, R.F.; Geoffrey,. A.C.; John, M.P.; Duglas, A.K. Planta Med. 2002, 68, 186. 4. Hong, J.Z.; Pamela, A.T.; Zeynep, A.; Ghee, T.T.; Yoko, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Masaya, N.;.

  12. SHORT COMMUNICATION PHYSICOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    living on parts of plants, which honey bees collect, transform and combine with ... Honey has numerous uses and functional applications worldwide such as in food .... Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 2012, 26(1). 131 concentration of mineral salts, organic ...

  13. The Malaria Problem: short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ebikeme

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is the world's most prevalent infectious disease, a major cause of mortality, and a barrier to social and economic development and growth in many countries throughout the world. Antimalarials represent an important part of strategy to curbing this debilitating disease. The spread of drug resistance is becoming increasingly important. To date, parasite resistance to all but one case of antimalarials exists in most endemic countries. Meaning, new drug to combat the disease are a priority.

  14. SHORT COMMUNICATION CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF THE FRUITS ... alkaloids, phenols, steroids, flavonoids, saponins and terpenoids while tannin ..... Harveer, K.; Jasmeen, S. Synthesis, characterization and radical scavenging ...

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION SYNTHESIS AND ANTIBACTERIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    chloroform: methanol: DMF (100+10+05 v/v) as developing solvents and ... mol) was taken as the starting material in a mixture of HCl (8 mL) and water (6 ... Compound 1 (0.002 mol) was dissolved in glacial acetic acid (20 mL) and ..... Suresha, G.P; Prakasha, K.C.; Shivkumara, K.N; Kapfeo W.; Gowda,D.C. Int. J. Peptide.

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION SYNTHESIS AND CRYSTAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The title compound 1-[2-(3-ethyl-2,2-dimethylcyclobutyl)acetyl]-3-phenylthiourea has been synthesized and ... residue was added dropwise to the mixture of KSCN (3.0 g, 0.030 mol) and acetonitrile (30. mL). .... 111. Note. Elements of symmetry transformation: a 1-x, -y, 1-z;b intermolecular hydrogen bond; c intramolecular.

  17. SHORT COMMUNICATION PHYSICOCHEMICAL ATTRIBUTES OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    161.29-244.97 mg KOH/g oil) suggest their usefulness in the industry ... peroxide value and iodine value (Wijs' method) were according to AOAC [15]. The ... petroleum, a natural gas, to be in shorter supply [24] and the much stable position of the ...

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION SYNTHESIS AND ANTI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THIADIAZOL DERIVATIVES OF MEFENAMIC ACID ... acid derivatives were synthesized and confirmed by spectroscopic data. ... evaluations indicate that these new compounds showed potent anti-inflammatory activities compare to .... intermediate compound (A) ,this intermediate has a good characteristics like carbonyl.

  19. SHORT COMMUNICATION POLYPROPYLENE BASED ANION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Guangxi University, ... and distilled water in order to remove organic and inorganic contaminants [6], and .... The method was applied to enrichment and determination of indium in different.

  20. The Teacher’s Role in Supporting the ZPD in Students’ English Oral Communication Skills based on the PYP Language Scope and Sequence of Grade EY 3A: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Imelda Kurniasari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available With many international schools implementing bilingual systems in their teaching learning activities, different students who come from different family backgrounds may apply bilingual communication, both at school and at home. For the classroom teacher, one approach to support students’ oral communication skills is through supporting the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD. In order to make the ZPD happen in the classroom, particularly in the students’ speaking skills, the classroom teacher needs to apply some strategies. The research was descriptive qualitative and the tools used to collect data in the study were in the form of observations, interviews and field notes. The results of the research indicate there are six strategies that the classroom teacher used to support the ZPD. Besides that, there were five aspects that the classroom teacher did to support the students’ oral communication skills and based on the PYP Language Scope and Sequence, the students demonstrated various common trends in their oral communication skills.  BAHASA INDONESIA ABSTRAK: Dengan banyaknya sekolah Internasional yang menerapkan sistem dwibahasa dalam aktivitas belajar mengajar, peserta didik yang berasal dari latar belakang keluarga yang berbeda berkomunikasi menggunakan dua bahasa, baik di sekolah maupun di rumah. Bagi guru kelas, pendekatan yang bisa digunakan untuk mendukung keterampilan berkomunikasi lisan siswa adalah dengan mendukung Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD. Agar ZPD dapat berjalan di kelas, terutama di keterampilan berbicara siswa, guru kelas perlu menerapkan beberapa strategi. Penelitian ini adalah deskriptif kualitatif dan alat yang digunakan untuk mengumpulkan data dalam penelitian ini dalam bentuk observasi, wawancara dan catatan lapangan. Hasil penelitian mengindikasikan ada enam strategi yang  diterapkan guru kelas untuk mendukung Zone of Proximal Development. Di samping itu, ada lima aspek yang dilakukan guru kelas untuk mendukung

  1. Availability and night-time use of electronic entertainment and communication devices are associated with short sleep duration and obesity among Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, H; Fung, C; Kuhle, S; Veugelers, P J

    2013-02-01

    What is already known about this subject Short sleep duration is a risk factor for obesity. Television (TV) in the bedroom has been shown to be associated with excess body weight in children. Children increasingly use other electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) such as video games, computers, and smart phones. What this study adds Access to and night-time use of EECDs are associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels. Our findings reinforce existing recommendations pertaining to TV and Internet access by the American Academy of Pediatrics and suggest to have these expanded to restricted availability of video games and smart phones in children's bedrooms. While the prevalence of childhood obesity and access to and use of electronic entertainment and communication devices (EECDs) have increased in the past decades, no earlier study has examined their interrelationship. To examine whether night-time access to and use of EECDs are associated with sleep duration, body weights, diet quality, and physical activity of Canadian children. A representative sample of 3398 grade 5 children in Alberta, Canada, was surveyed. The survey included questions on children's lifestyles and health behaviours, the Harvard Youth/Adolescent Food Frequency questionnaire, a validated questionnaire on physical activity, and measurements of heights and weights. Random effect models were used to assess the associations of night-time access to and use of EECDs with sleep, diet quality, physical activity, and body weights. Sixty-four percent of parents reported that their child had access to one or more EECDs in their bedroom. Access to and night-time use of EECDs were associated with shortened sleep duration, excess body weight, poorer diet quality, and lower physical activity levels in a statistically significant manner. Limiting the availability of EECDs in children's bedrooms and discouraging their

  2. Effects of short-course oral corticosteroid therapy in early dengue infection in Vietnamese patients: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Dong T H; Ngoc, Tran V; Tien, Nguyen T H; Kieu, Nguyen T T; Thuy, Truong T T; Thanh, Lai T C; Tam, Cao T; Truong, Nguyen T; Dung, Nguyen T; Qui, Phan T; Hien, Tran T; Farrar, Jeremy J; Simmons, Cameron P; Wolbers, Marcel; Wills, Bridget A

    2012-11-01

    Patients with dengue can experience a variety of serious complications including hypovolemic shock, thrombocytopenia, and bleeding. These problems occur as plasma viremia is resolving and are thought to be immunologically mediated. Early corticosteroid therapy may prevent the development of such complications but could also prolong viral clearance. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, blinded trial of low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) or high-dose (2 mg/kg) oral prednisolone therapy for 3 days in Vietnamese patients aged 5-20 years admitted with dengue and fever for ≤72 hours, aiming to assess potential harms from steroid use during the viremic phase. Intention-to-treat analysis was performed using linear trend tests with a range of clinical and virological endpoints specified in advance. In addition to recognized complications of dengue, we focused on the are under the curve for serial plasma viremia measurements and the number of days after enrollment to negative viremia and dengue nonstructural protein 1 status. Between August 2009 and January 2011, 225 participants were randomized to 1 of the 3 treatment arms. Baseline characteristics were similar across the groups. All patients recovered fully and adverse events were infrequent. Aside from a trend toward hyperglycemia in the steroid recipients, we found no association between treatment allocation and any of the predefined clinical, hematological, or virological endpoints. Use of oral prednisolone during the early acute phase of dengue infection was not associated with prolongation of viremia or other adverse effects. Although not powered to assess efficacy, we found no reduction in the development of shock or other recognized complications of dengue virus infection in this study.

  3. Oral Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cancer can form in any part of the mouth. Most oral cancers begin in the flat cells that cover the ... your mouth, tongue, and lips. Anyone can get oral cancer, but the risk is higher if you are ...

  4. Communication Choices to Engage Participation of Rural Indonesian Craftspeople in Development Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Zulaikha , Ellya; Brereton , Margot

    2013-01-01

    Part 1: Long and Short Papers; International audience; In participatory design projects, maintaining effective communication between facilitator and participant is essential. This paper describes the consideration given to the choice of communication modes to engage participation of rural Indonesian craftspeople over the course of a significant 3 year project that aims to grow their self-determination, design and business skill. We demonstrate the variety and subtlety of oral and written form...

  5. Telomere length is short in PCOS and oral contraceptive does not affect the telomerase activity in granulosa cells of patients with PCOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Deng, Bingbing; Ouyang, Nengyong; Yuan, Ping; Zheng, Lingyan; Wang, Wenjun

    2017-07-01

    Our study aimed to investigate the association of telomerase activity (TA) and telomere length (TL) in granulosa cells (GCs) with IVF outcomes of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients, and the effects of oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment on these two parameters. One hundred sixty-three infertile women were enrolled and divided into a PCOS group (n = 65) and a non-PCOS group (n = 98). The PCOS group was further divided into an OCP pretreatment group (n = 35) and a non-OCP pretreatment group (n = 30), a TA PCOS group and 1.118 in non-PCOS group (P = 0.005). The patients with TL ≥1 accounted for 36.9% in PCOS group and 54.1% in non-PCOS group (P = 0.032). The average duration of infertility for PCOS patients was 5 years in TA PCOS patients. Shorter TL was found in PCOS patients. The TA levels did not change significantly in PCOS patients. PCOS patients with a lower TA level and shorter telomeres had an earlier onset of infertility symptoms. No predictive value was found for TA and TL in terms of embryo quality or IVF outcomes in PCOS patients, and no effect OCP pretreatment was observed on either TA and TL.

  6. 12 CFR 509.9 - Ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... communications. (a) Definition—(1) Ex parte communication means any material oral or written communication... shall cause all such written communications (or, if the communication is oral, a memorandum stating the... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 509.9 Section 509.9...

  7. 12 CFR 1780.8 - Ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... communications. (a) Definition. (1) Ex parte communication means any material oral or written communication... section, that person shall cause all such written communications (or, if the communication is oral, a... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 1780.8 Section 1780.8...

  8. [Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodinamic (PK/PD) evaluation of a short course of oral administration of metronidazole for the management of infections caused by Bacteroides fragilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-León, Felipe; von Plessing-Rossel, Carlos; Villa-Zapata, Lorenzo; Fernández-Rocca, Pola; Sanhueza-Sanhueza, Cindy; Bello-Toledo, Helia; Mella-Montecinos, Sergio

    2015-04-01

    Metronidazole is the antibiotic of choice for the management of infections caused by anaerobes. Its administration requires multiple daily doses causing increased medication errors. Due to its high post-antibiotic effect and rapid concentration-dependent bactericidal activity, administration of this antibiotic in an extended dosing interval would achieve PK/PD parameters effectively. To assess the probability of achieving effective PK/PD relationship with the administration of 1,000 mg every 24 hours of metronidazole for Bacteroides fragilis infections. A clinical trial was conducted in a group of volunteers who received a single oral dose of 500 or 1,000 mg of metronidazole. Determinations of values of Cmax, t max, and AUCC0-24 h. determined using the trapezoidal method, were obtained for a Markov simulation that would allow for determining the likelihood of achieving a AUC0-24 h/MIC ratio above 70 for infections caused by susceptible B. fragilis. Cmax (24,03 ± 6,89 mg/L) and t max (1,20 ± 0.80 hrs) and the value of AUC0-24 h (241.91 ± 48.14 mg * h/L) were determined. The probability of obtaining a AUC0-24 h/MIC ratio greater than 70 was greater than 99%. From a pharmacokinetic perspective, with the administration of a daily dose of 1,000 mg of metronidazole, it is possible to achieve a therapeutic goal of AUC0-24 h/MIC ratio above 70 for the treatment of anaerobic infections.

  9. Short bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, L.G.J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)

  10. 49 CFR 825.40 - Ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... the proceeding; Ex parte communication means an oral or written communication not on the public record...: (1) All such written communications; (2) Memoranda stating the substance of all such oral communication; and (3) All written responses, and memoranda stating the substance of all oral responses, to...

  11. Halitosis: An oral microbial faction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv Saini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Halitosis is a widespread condition and believed to affect one-quarter of the population around the world; also, most people have this condition from time to time. Breath malodour may be an important factor in social communication, and therefore may be the origin of concern not only for a possible health condition but also for frequent psychological alterations, leading to social and personal isolation. The most conspicuous malodorous compounds are termed volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs, with hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan, and dimethyl sulphide accounting for roughly 90% of the VSCs. A number of oral bacteria, especially Gram-negative anaerobic species found in the subgingival plaque, produce a diverse array of malodorous compounds as byproducts of their metabolism, including VSCs and short-chain organic acids. Assessment and management of halitosis is of paramount importance in enhancing the overall health; moreover, dentists play a significant role in combating halitosis by reducing the oral microbial stack. Thus, the aim of the present review was to describe the aetiological factors, assessment tools, and therapeutic approaches related to halitosis.

  12. IDEA: Stimulating Oral Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Jacob J.

    1995-01-01

    Presents daily activities that facilitate complete sentence response, promote oral production, and aid the learning of vocabulary in foreign-language classes. Because speech is the primary form of communication in the foreign-language classroom, it is important to stimulate students to converse as soon as possible. (Author/CK)

  13. Oral Insulin - Fact or Fiction?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    attempts have explored the following options, either singly, or together: • Protecting ... derivative of insulin has been seen to maintain its biological activity and also have .... that in the short future any oral preparation that can achieve consistent ...

  14. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  15. Intravenous versus oral etoposide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Abir Salwa; Grönberg, Malin; Langer, Seppo W.

    2018-01-01

    High-grade gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs, G3) are aggressive cancers of the digestive system with poor prognosis and survival. Platinum-based chemotherapy (cisplatin/carboplatin + etoposide) is considered the first-line palliative treatment. Etoposide is frequently...... administered intravenously; however, oral etoposide may be used as an alternative. Concerns for oral etoposide include decreased bioavailability, inter- and intra-patient variability and patient compliance. We aimed to evaluate possible differences in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS......) in patients treated with oral etoposide compared to etoposide given as infusion. Patients (n = 236) from the Nordic NEC study were divided into three groups receiving etoposide as a long infusion (24 h, n = 170), short infusion (≤ 5 h, n = 33) or oral etoposide (n = 33) according to hospital tradition. PFS...

  16. Oral cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer - mouth; Mouth cancer; Head and neck cancer; Squamous cell cancer - mouth; Malignant neoplasm - oral ... National Cancer Institute. PDQ lip and oral cavity cancer ... September 25, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/head-and-neck/hp/lip- ...

  17. Oral Ketamine

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral Ketamine: A Four-years Experience in ... Key words: Oral Ketamine, Premedication and Oncology. .... form of a letter published in 19835. .... Acta. Anaesthesiol Scandinavica, 1998; 42: 750-758. 4. Murray P. Substitution of another opioid ...

  18. Core Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Greg; Ross, J. D.; Mulder, David

    2011-01-01

    The website--it is where people go to find out anything and everything about a school, college, or university. In the relatively short life of the Internet, institutional websites have moved from the periphery to center stage and become strategically integral communications and marketing tools. As the flow of information accelerates and new…

  19. Astronomy Courses which Emphasize Communication Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinerstein, H. L.

    1998-12-01

    The ability to communicate effectively, both in oral and written form, is crucial for success in almost any career path. Furthermore, being able to effectively communicate information requires a high level of conceptual mastery of the material. For these reasons, I have incorporated practice in communication into courses at a variety of levels, ranging from non-science-major undergraduate courses to graduate courses. I briefly describe the content of these courses, particularly the communication-related component. The first, Ast 309N, ``Astronomy Bizarre: Stars and Stellar Evolution," is an elective which follows one semester of general introductory astronomy for non-majors. Instead of homework problems, the students complete a sequence of writing assignments of graduated complexity, beginning with simple tasks such as writing abstracts and critiques of assigned readings, and moving on to writing term papers which require literature research and a short science fiction story incorporating accurate depictions of relativistic effects. In Ast 175/275, a ``Journal Club" course for upper-division astronomy majors, students read articles in the professional literature and give short oral presentations to the rest of the class. To build up their understanding of a topic, we work through the ``paper trail" of key papers on topics with exciting recent developments, such as extrasolar planets, gravitational lenses, or gamma-ray bursts. Finally, in a seminar course for first-semester astronomy graduate students (Ast 185C) that broadly addresses professional development issues, I include a practice AAS oral session, with the students giving 5-minute presentations on a journal paper of their choice. This seminar course also examines career paths and employment trends, the peer review process for papers and proposals, professional norms and ethics, and other topics. Syllabi for these and other courses I teach regularly can be found from my home page (http://www.as.utexas.edu/astronomy/people/dinerstein).

  20. Quantitative analysis of formal caregivers' use of communication strategies while assisting individuals with moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease during oral care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rozanne; Rochon, Elizabeth; Mihailidis, Alex; Leonard, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional observational study examined formal caregivers' use of task-focused and social communication strategies while assisting individuals with moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease residing in a long-term care facility during a basic activity of daily living: toothbrushing. Thirteen formal caregiver-resident dyads were observed during a total of 78 separate toothbrushing sessions. All caregiver utterances occurring during the task were transcribed and coded for type of communication strategy utilizing a multidimensional observational coding scheme, which was developed a priori. Overall, the majority of residents, irrespective of disease severity, successfully completed toothbrushing with the support of caregiver assistance. Caregivers assisting residents with moderate and severe AD were found to use a variety of communication strategies, with task-focused strategies accounting for the majority of use. For the most part, the communicative strategies employed did not differ across disease severity. However, some differences were identified including the use of one proposition, paraphrased repetition, using the resident's name, and provision of full assistance, with these strategies being used more often when assisting individuals with severe AD. This study adds to the emerging literature supporting the use of specific communication strategies while assisting residents with AD during the completion of daily tasks. From reviewing this study, readers will be able to identify a variety of communication strategies, both task-focused and relational, that formal caregivers utilize while assisting residents with moderate and severe Alzheimer's disease (AD) during a basic activity of daily living. Furthermore, the reader will be able to distinguish between communication strategies that are optimal when assisting individuals with moderate AD as compared to assisting individuals with severe AD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 12 CFR 747.9 - Ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... means any material oral or written communication relevant to the merits of an adjudicatory proceeding... communications (or, if the communication is oral, a memorandum stating the substance of the communication) to be... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 747.9 Section 747.9...

  2. 12 CFR 308.9 - Ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Definition—(1) Ex parte communication means any material oral or written communication relevant to the merits... this section, that person shall cause all such written communications (or, if the communication is oral... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 308.9 Section 308.9...

  3. 12 CFR 19.9 - Ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... parte communication means any material oral or written communication relevant to the merits of an... communication is oral, a memorandum stating the substance of the communication) to be placed on the record of... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 19.9 Section 19.9...

  4. Wireless communication technology NFC

    OpenAIRE

    MÁROVÁ, Kateřina

    2014-01-01

    Aim of this bachelor thesis is to handle the issue of new wireless communication technology NFC (Near Field Communication) including a comparison of advantages and disadvantages of NFC with other wireless technologies (Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, etc.). NFC is a technology for wireless communications between different electronic devices, one of which is typically a mobile phone. Near Field Communication allows wireless communication at very short distance by approaching or enclosing two devices and can...

  5. Digital Clinical Communication for Families and Caregivers of Children or Young People With Short- or Long-Term Conditions: Rapid Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armoiry, Xavier; Sturt, Jackie; Phelps, Emma Elizabeth; Walker, Clare-Louise; Court, Rachel; Taggart, Frances; Sutcliffe, Paul; Griffiths, Frances; Atherton, Helen

    2018-01-05

    The communication relationship between parents of children or young people with health conditions and health professionals is an important part of treatment, but it is unclear how far the use of digital clinical communication tools may affect this relationship. The objective of our study was to describe, assess the feasibility of, and explore the impact of digital clinical communication between families or caregivers and health professionals. We searched the literature using 5 electronic databases. We considered all types of study design published in the English language from January 2009 to August 2015. The population of interest included families and caregivers of children and young people aged less than 26 years with any type of health condition. The intervention was any technology permitting 2-way communication. We included 31 articles. The main designs were randomized controlled trials (RCTs; n=10), cross-sectional studies (n=9), pre- and postintervention uncontrolled (pre/post) studies (n=7), and qualitative interview studies (n=2); 6 had mixed-methods designs. In the majority of cases, we considered the quality rating to be fair. Many different types of health condition were represented. A breadth of digital communication tools were included: videoconferencing or videoconsultation (n=14), and Web messaging or emails (n=12). Health care professionals were mainly therapists or cognitive behavioral therapists (n=10), physicians (n=8), and nurses (n=6). Studies were very heterogeneous in terms of outcomes. Interventions were mainly evaluated using satisfaction or acceptance, or outcomes relating to feasibility. Clinical outcomes were rarely used. The RCTs showed that digital clinical communication had no impact in comparison with standard care. Uncontrolled pre/post studies showed good rates of satisfaction or acceptance. Some economic studies suggested that digital clinical communication may save costs. This rapid review showed an emerging body of literature on

  6. Selections from the ABC 2013 Annual Convention, New Orleans, Louisiana: A Gumbo of Favorite Assignments: Global, Communicating Complex Information, Short-Message Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalen, D. Joel

    2014-01-01

    This article, the first of a two-part series, catalogs teaching innovations presented at the 2013 Association for Business Communication (ABC) Annual Convention, New Orleans. They were presented during the My Favorite Assignment session. The 11 Favorite Assignments featured here offer the reader a variety of learning experiences including…

  7. Short or Long End of the Lever? Associations between Provider Communication of the "Asthma-Action Plan" and Outpatient Revisits for Pediatric Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, Pavani; Mehta, Renuka; Rethemeyer, R Karl; Ferrang, Carole; Dennis, Clifton; Redd, Vickie

    2015-10-01

    At the Children's Hospital of Georgia (CHOG), we found that outpatient revisits for pediatric asthma were significantly above national norms. According to the NIH, costly hospital revisits for asthma can be prevented through guidelines-based self-management of asthma, central to which, is the use of a written Asthma-Action Plan (AAP). The asthma services literature has emphasized the role of the healthcare provider in promoting asthma self-management using the AAP, to prevent hospital revisits. On the other hand, the asthma policy literature has emphasized the need for community-based interventions to promote asthma self-management. A gap remains in understanding the extent of leverage that healthcare providers may have in preventing hospital revisits for asthma, through effective communication of AAP in the outpatient setting. Our study sought to address this gap. We conducted a 6-month intervention to implement "patient-and-family-centered communication of the AAP" in CHOG outpatient clinics, based on the "change-management" theoretical framework. Provider communication of AAP was assessed through a survey of "Parent Understanding of the Child's AAP." A quasi-experimental approach was used to measure outpatient revisits for pediatric asthma, pre- and post-intervention. Survey results showed that provider communication of the AAP was unanimously perceived highly positively by parents of pediatric asthma patients, across various metrics of patient-centered care. However, there were no statistically significant differences in outpatient "revisit behavior" for pediatric asthma between pre- and post-intervention periods after controlling for several demographic variables. Additionally, revisits remained significantly above national norms. Results suggest limited potential of "effective provider communication of AAP," in reducing outpatient revisits for pediatric asthma; and indicate need for broader community-based interventions to address patient life variables

  8. Oral Communication Skills Assessment in a Synchronous Hybrid MBA Programme: Does Attending Face-to-Face Matter for US and International Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butz, Nikolaus T.; Askim-Lovseth, Mary K.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to communicate effectively is an essential skill for graduates of Masters of Business Administration (MBA) programmes; however, as synchronous hybrid learning becomes more common, business schools may find it challenging to assess students' proficiency in this core area. An additional layer of complexity is added by the burgeoning…

  9. Preparing Students for the 21st Century: Exploring the Effect of Afterschool Participation on Students' Collaboration Skills, Oral Communication Skills, and Self-Efficacy. CRESST Report 777

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Denise; Leon, Seth; Hodson, Cheri; La Torre, Deborah; Obregon, Nora; Rivera, Gwendelyn

    2010-01-01

    This study addressed key questions about LA's BEST afterschool students' self-efficacy, collaboration, and communication skills. We compared student perceptions of their own 21st century skills to external outcome measures including the California Standardized Test (CST), attendance, and teacher ratings. We found a substantial relationship…

  10. Development and reliability of the explicit professional oral communication observation tool to quantify the use of non-technical skills in healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, P.F.; van Noord, I.; de Bruijne, M.C.; Knol, D.L.; Wagner, C.; van Dyck, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background A lack of non-technical skills is increasingly recognised as an important underlying cause of adverse events in healthcare. The nature and number of things professionals communicate to each other can be perceived as a product of their use of non-technical skills. This paper describes the

  11. Development and reliability of the explicit professional oral communication observation tool to quantify the use of non-technical skills in healthcare.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, P.F.; Noord, I. van; Bruijne, M. de; Knol, D.L.; Wagner, C.; Dyck, C. van

    2013-01-01

    Background: A lack of non-technical skills is increasingly recognised as an important underlying cause of adverse events in healthcare. The nature and number of things professionals communicate to each other can be perceived as a product of their use of non-technical skills. This paper describes the

  12. Short communication : Supplementation of fructo-oligosaccharides does not improve insulin sensitivity in heavy veal calves fed different sources of carbohydrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, A. J.; Gilbert, M. S.; Gerrits, W. J. J.; Vonk, R. J.

    Heavy veal calves (4–6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  13. USING CONTENT-BASED INSTRUCTION TO CREATE A SAMPLE LESSON FOR THE ENGLISH COURSE ORAL COMMUNICATION I AT THE UNIVERSITY OF COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Alberto Navas Brenes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available El principal objetivo de este artículo es presentar una lección, la cual incorpora materiales auténticos, para el curso de inglés LM-1230 Comunicación Oral I con base en los principios pedagógicos de la metodología de aprendizaje basada en contenidos (Content-Based Instruction. Esta lección ayudará a docentes principiantes quienes eventualmente impartirán cursos originados de la metodología de aprendizaje basada en contenidos a un nivel intermedio de inglés. La población meta de esta lección consiste en estudiantes del primer curso oral de segundo año de la Carrera de Inglés en la Escuela de Lenguas Modernas de la Universidad de Costa Rica. A través de este curso, el estudiantado cubre dos temas principales: salud y problemas ambientales.

  14. Utilization of symmetrical components in a communication-assisted protection scheme for radial MV feeders with variable or reduced short-circuit currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Bak, Claus Leth; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    because the fault current is significantly lower in the islanded mode compared to the grid-connected mode and consequently a single set of settings for the OC relays is not sufficient. This paper propose a communication-assisted protection scheme that is able to operate correctly in a radial Medium...... over positive-sequence current, while the relays placed downstream the fault detect a zero magnitude for their corresponding ratios. Protection relays calculate the magnitude of the proposed ratio and then exchange the obtained value with the adjacent upstream relays using communication. Therefore......, each relay would have access to its own ratio and to the ratio provided by the adjacent relay. Finally, the relay with the highest calculated magnitude of the ratio of zero-sequence to positive-sequence current will trip, thus clearing the fault. The new protection scheme is implemented in a test...

  15. Short or Long End of the Lever? Associations between Provider Communication of the “Asthma-Action Plan” and Outpatient Revisits for Pediatric Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangachari, Pavani; Mehta, Renuka; Rethemeyer, R. Karl; Ferrang, Carole; Dennis, Clifton; Redd, Vickie

    2017-01-01

    Background At the Children’s Hospital of Georgia (CHOG), we found that outpatient revisits for pediatric asthma were significantly above national norms. According to the NIH, costly hospital revisits for asthma can be prevented through guidelines-based self-management of asthma, central to which, is the use of a written Asthma-Action Plan (AAP). Purpose The asthma services literature has emphasized the role of the healthcare provider in promoting asthma self-management using the AAP, to prevent hospital revisits. On the other hand, the asthma policy literature has emphasized the need for community-based interventions to promote asthma self-management. A gap remains in understanding the extent of leverage that healthcare providers may have in preventing hospital revisits for asthma, through effective communication of AAP in the outpatient setting. Our study sought to address this gap. Methods We conducted a 6-month intervention to implement “patient-and-family-centered communication of the AAP” in CHOG outpatient clinics, based on the “change-management” theoretical framework. Provider communication of AAP was assessed through a survey of “Parent Understanding of the Child’s AAP.” A quasi-experimental approach was used to measure outpatient revisits for pediatric asthma, pre- and post-intervention. Results Survey results showed that provider communication of the AAP was unanimously perceived highly positively by parents of pediatric asthma patients, across various metrics of patient-centered care. However, there were no statistically significant differences in outpatient “revisit behavior” for pediatric asthma between pre- and post-intervention periods after controlling for several demographic variables. Additionally, revisits remained significantly above national norms. Conclusions Results suggest limited potential of “effective provider communication of AAP,” in reducing outpatient revisits for pediatric asthma; and indicate need for

  16. Brief communication: sliding displacement of amnion and chorion following controlled laser wounding suggests a mechanism for short-term sealing of ruptured membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzad, F; Dickinson, M R; Charlton, A; Aplin, J D

    1994-10-01

    The Erbium-YAG laser was used to produce narrow wounds of defined depth in term amniochorion. The charring effect of the laser meant that sites could be readily localized in histological sections. During brief post-wounding incubations, sliding displacement of the amnion relative to the chorion occurred through the plane of the spongy layer. This suggests a possible short-term mechanism whereby a spontaneous rupture could be sealed in vivo.

  17. Transcending the Versification of Oraliture: Song-Text as Oral Performance among the Ilaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Akingbe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oraliture is a terminology that is often employed in the description of the various genres of oral literature such as proverbs, legends, short stories, traditional songs and rhymes, song-poems, historical narratives traditional symbols, images, oral performance, myths and other traditional stylistic devices. All these devices constitute vibrant appurtenances of oral narrative performance in Africa. Oral narrative performance is invariably situated within the domain of social communication, which brings together the raconteur/performer and the audience towards the realisation of communal entertainment. While the narrator/performer, plays the leading role in an oral performance, the audience’s involvement and participation is realised through song, verbal/choral responses, gestures and, or instrumental/musical accompaniment. This oral practice usually take place at one time or the other in various African communities during the festival, ritual/religious procession which ranges from story- telling, recitation of poems, song text and dancing. This paper is essentially concerned with the illustration of the use of song- text, as oral performance among the Ilaje, a burgeoning coastal subethnic group, of the Yoruba race in the South Western Nigeria. The paper will further examine how patriotism, history, death and anti-social behaviours are evaluated through the use of songs among the Ilaje.

  18. When the facts are just not enough: credibly communicating about risk is riskier when emotions run high and time is short.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Barbara J

    2011-07-15

    When discussing risk with people, commonly subject matter experts believe that conveying the facts will be enough to allow people to assess a risk and respond rationally to that risk. Because of this expectation, experts often become exasperated by the seemingly illogical way people assess personal risk and choose to manage that risk. In crisis situations when the risk information is less defined and choices must be made within impossible time constraints, the thought processes may be even more susceptible to faulty heuristics. Understanding the perception of risk is essential to understanding why the public becomes more or less upset by events. This article explores the psychological underpinnings of risk assessment within emotionally laden events and the risk communication practices that may facilitate subject matter experts to provide the facts in a manner so they can be more certain those facts are being heard. Source credibility is foundational to risk communication practices. The public meeting is one example in which these best practices can be exercised. Risks are risky because risk perceptions differ and the psychosocial environment in which risk is discussed complicates making risk decisions. Experts who want to influence the actions of the public related to a threat or risk should understand that decisions often involve emotional as well as logical components. The media and other social entities will also influence the risk context. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention's crisis and emergency-risk communication (CERC) principles are intended to increase credibility and recognize emotional components of an event. During a risk event, CERC works to calm emotions and increase trust which can help people apply the expertise being offered by response officials. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. When the facts are just not enough: Credibly communicating about risk is riskier when emotions run high and time is short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    When discussing risk with people, commonly subject matter experts believe that conveying the facts will be enough to allow people to assess a risk and respond rationally to that risk. Because of this expectation, experts often become exasperated by the seemingly illogical way people assess personal risk and choose to manage that risk. In crisis situations when the risk information is less defined and choices must be made within impossible time constraints, the thought processes may be even more susceptible to faulty heuristics. Understanding the perception of risk is essential to understanding why the public becomes more or less upset by events. This article explores the psychological underpinnings of risk assessment within emotionally laden events and the risk communication practices that may facilitate subject matter experts to provide the facts in a manner so they can be more certain those facts are being heard. Source credibility is foundational to risk communication practices. The public meeting is one example in which these best practices can be exercised. Risks are risky because risk perceptions differ and the psychosocial environment in which risk is discussed complicates making risk decisions. Experts who want to influence the actions of the public related to a threat or risk should understand that decisions often involve emotional as well as logical components. The media and other social entities will also influence the risk context. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention's crisis and emergency-risk communication (CERC) principles are intended to increase credibility and recognize emotional components of an event. During a risk event, CERC works to calm emotions and increase trust which can help people apply the expertise being offered by response officials.

  20. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl; Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom

    The aim of the study was to explore how adults with schizo- phrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  1. Oral Hygiene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villadsen, Dorte Buxbom; Sørensen, Marie Toftdahl

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore how adults with schizophrenia describe their lived experiences with oral hygiene. 23 adults with schizophrenia were interviewed within a period of four months in late 2015. Transcriptions of the interviews were analysed using the Reflective Lifeworld Research ph...... health care professionals and adults with schizophrenia in order to improve oral health, well-being and recovery....

  2. Short communication: Effect of inhibition of fatty acid synthase on triglyceride accumulation and effect on lipid metabolism genes in goat mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J J; Luo, J; Sun, Y T; Shi, H B; Li, J; Wu, M; Yu, K; Haile, A B; Loor, J J

    2015-05-01

    The role of fatty acid synthase (FASN) on de novo fatty acid synthesis has been well established. In monogastrics, unlike acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, FASN is primarily controlled at the transcriptional level. However, no data exist on ruminant mammary cells evaluating effects of FASN knockdown on mRNA expression of lipogenic genes. Inhibition of FASN in mammary cells by C75-mediated interference, a synthetic inhibitor of FASN activity, and short hairpin RNA-mediated interference markedly reduced cellular triglyceride content at least in part by decreasing the expression of genes related to triglyceride synthesis (GPAT, AGPAT6, and DGAT2) and enhancing the expression of lipolysis-related genes (ATGL and HSL). Consistent with the markedly lower expression of genes related to lipid droplet formation and secretion (TIP47, ADFP, BTN1A1, and XDH), cellular lipid droplets also were reduced sharply after incubation with C75 or adenovirus-short-hairpin-RNA. The results underscored the essential role of FASN in the overall process of milk-fat formation in goat mammary epithelial cells. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 12 CFR 263.9 - Ex parte communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (a) Definition—(1) Ex parte communication means any material oral or written communication relevant... oral, a memorandum stating the substance of the communication) to be placed on the record of the... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ex parte communications. 263.9 Section 263.9...

  4. Short communication: The role of autoinducer 2 (AI-2) on antibiotic resistance regulation in an Escherichia coli strain isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Ting; Yu, Lumin; Shang, Fei; Li, Wenchang; Zhang, Ming; Ni, Jingtian; Chen, Xiaolin

    2016-06-01

    Extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-positive Escherichia coli is a major etiological organism responsible for bovine mastitis. The autoinducer 2 (AI-2) quorum sensing system is widely present in many species of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria and has been proposed to be involved in interspecies communication. In E. coli model strains, the functional mechanisms of AI-2 have been well studied; however, in clinical antibiotic-resistant E. coli strains, whether AI-2 affects the expression of antibiotic resistance genes has not been reported. In this study, we report that exogenous AI-2 increased the antibiotic resistance of a clinical E. coli strain isolated from a dairy cow with mastitis by upregulating the expression of TEM-type enzyme in an LsrR (LuxS regulated repressor)-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. AGU Cinema: Festival of short science films at Fall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harned, Douglas A.

    2012-11-01

    New technologies have revolutionized the use of video as a means of science communication and have made it easier to create, distribute, and view. With video having become omnipresent in our culture, it sometime supplements or even replaces writing in many science and education applications. An inaugural science film festival sponsored by AGU at the 2012 Fall Meeting in San Francisco, Calif., in December will showcase short videos—30 minutes or less in length—developed to disseminate scientific results to various audiences and to enhance learning in the classroom. AGU Cinema will feature professionally produced, big budget films alongside low-budget videos aimed at niche audiences and made by amateurs. The latter category includes videos made by governmental agency scientists, educators, communications specialists within scientific organizations, and Fall Meeting oral and poster presenters.

  6. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  7. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  8. Intercultural Communication: A Key Element in Global Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, Nelda; Wells, Barron

    1997-01-01

    Cultural factors in global communication include differences in customs, space, dress, religion, class, work ethic, privacy, and other areas. Language differences in oral, written, and nonverbal communication as well as semantics also complicate intercultural communication. (SK)

  9. Oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, S J

    1990-01-01

    In the U.S. oral cancer accounts for 2.1% of all cancers and 1% of cancer deaths. Two to three times as many males as females are affected. Blacks have more intra-oral cancer than whites, and their incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent years. The etiologic process very likely involves several factors. The major etiologic agents are tobacco (all types) and alcoholic beverages. Herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, and Candida have been implicated. Host factors include poor state of dentition, nutritional aberrations, cirrhosis of liver, lichen planus, and immunologic impairmant. Cellular changes include amplification of some oncogenes, alterations in antigen expression, production of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, and disturbance of keratin and involucrin production. Experimentally, cancer is readily produced on the hamster cheek pouch and rat oral mucosa. Unlike oral cancer in humans, most experimental lesions are exophytic, and they rarely metastasize.

  10. Oral sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-05

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association urges HIV prevention specialists to regard male-to-male oral-genital sex as a low-risk activity and concentrate instead on the danger of unprotected anal intercourse. According to the association, the confusion and mixed messages surrounding oral sex are harming efforts to encourage gay men to make rational choices about truly risky behavior. The recommendations appear in the association's position paper issued March 19, 1996.

  11. Oral Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decrease the risk of oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer. Oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer are diseases in ... and treatment of oral cavity, pharyngeal, and laryngeal cancer: Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancer Prevention Lip and Oral ...

  12. Komunikacija v zdravstveni negi: Communication in nursing care:

    OpenAIRE

    Filipič, Ida

    1998-01-01

    The article deals with communication as a constituent part of nursing care. Itsummarises basic communication elements and findings about communication. The emphasis is on oral communication and body language. Knowing the characteristics of communication and taking them into consideration, a nuse can establish more genuine contacts with patients. As an example a preoperation plan of nursing care is described which includes communication activities.

  13. Short communication: Associations between feed push-up frequency, feeding and lying behavior, and milk yield and composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2017-03-01

    Feeding management factors have great potential to influence activity patterns and feeding behavior of dairy cows, which may have implications for performance. The objectives of this study were to assess the effects of feed push-up frequency on the behavioral patterns of dairy cows, and to determine associations between behavior and milk yield and composition. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n = 28, parity = 1.9 ± 1.1; mean ± SD) were housed in tiestalls, milked twice per day, and offered ad libitum access to water and a total mixed ration (containing, on a dry matter basis: 25% corn silage, 25% grass/alfalfa haylage, 30% high-moisture corn, and 20% protein/mineral supplement), provided twice per day. Cows were divided into 2 groups of 14 (balanced by days in milk, milk production, and parity) and individually exposed to each of 2 treatments in a crossover design with 21-d periods; treatment 1 had infrequent feed push-up (3×/d), whereas treatment 2 had frequent feed push-up (5×/d). During the last 7 d of each period, dry matter intake and milk production were recorded and lying behavior was monitored using electronic data loggers. During the last 2 d of each period, milk samples were collected for analysis of protein and fat content and feed samples of fresh feed and orts were collected for particle size analysis. The particle size separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Feed push-up frequency had no effect on lying time [11.4 ± 0.37 h/d; mean ± standard error (SE)], milk production (40.2 ± 1.28 kg/d) and composition (milk protein: 3.30 ± 0.048%; milk fat: 3.81 ± 0.077%), or feed sorting. Cows sorted against long particles (78.0 ± 2.2%) and for short (102.6 ± 0.6%) and fine (108.4 ± 0.9%) particles. Milk fat content decreased by 0

  14. Short communication. Effect of forage source (grazing vs. silage) on conjugated linoleic acid content in milk fat of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from Galicia (NW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Fernandez, A. I.; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, A.; Vazquez-Yanez, O. P.; Fernandez-Casado, J. A.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different feeding proportions of forage ?grazing vs. silage? on milk fatty acids (FA) profile and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of autumn calving Holstein-Friesian cows (n = 61) at CIAM (Galicia, NW Spain). Three treatments (S, 100% silage; G/S, 50% grazing + 50% silage; G, 100% grazing) were set and milk FA profile of dairy cows was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The G group showed a decrease in short (p < 0.05) and medium chain FA (p < 0.001), with an increase in long chain FA (p < 0.001) in comparison to the G/S and S groups, which showed the lowest levels (p < 0.001) of mono- and polyunsaturated FA. The CLA content in milk fat increased (p < 0.001) linearly in relation to the increased proportion of fresh grass in the diet of dairy cows from 0.49 and 0.82 to 1.14 g/100 g FA for the treatments S, G/S and G, respectively. During spring and summer, the levels of CLA were three times higher (p < 0.001, +0.76 g/100 g FA) in milk from dairy cows at the G group than in cows at the S group and twice higher (p < 0.001, +0.40 g/100 g FA) than in cows at the G/S group. High proportion of grass in the diet of cows increased CLA content, with the highest levels of unsaturated FA and the lowest levels of saturated FA, increasing the added value of milk on grazing systems using available farm resources. (Author) 20 refs.

  15. Short communication: Pilot study on hormonal, metabolic, and behavioral stress response to treatment of claw horn lesions in acutely lame dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janßen, S; Wunderlich, C; Heppelmann, M; Palme, R; Starke, A; Kehler, W; Steiner, A; Rizk, A; Meyer, U; Daenicke, S; Rehage, J

    2016-09-01

    Short-term effects of therapeutic claw trimming in acutely lame cows (n=21) with nonadvanced claw horn lesions on the endocrine, metabolic, and behavioral stress responses were investigated in comparison to regular claw trimming in nonlame control cows (n=21). Controls were matched to lame cows by parity and stage of lactation. Lame cows suffering from typical sole ulcers or white line disease were blinded and randomly assigned to 2 treatments, receiving 15 min before interventions either ketoprofen (n=11; 3mg/kg of BW intramuscularly; Romefen, Merial, Lyon, France) or placebo (n=10; saline in equivalent amount and route of administration). All cows underwent functional claw trimming in lateral recumbency on a surgical tipping table, and claw horn lesions in lame cows were conventionally treated (removal of loose horn, block on opposing claw, bandaging of affected claw). Blood samples collected 15 min before, at the end, and 24h after claw trimming were analyzed for concentrations of cortisol, fatty acids, lactate, and glucose, and fecal samples (collected before treatment and after 24 h) for cortisol metabolites. Behavioral stress responses during functional and therapeutic claw trimming were recorded. Concentrations of blood cortisol, fatty acids, glucose, and fecal cortisol metabolites were higher in lame than in nonlame cows after treatment. During claw treatment, more leg movements were recorded for lame cows than nonlame cows. Pre-emptive administration of ketoprofen had no obvious effects on stress responses to therapeutic claw trimming. Treatments of claw horn lesions caused a significant stress and pain reaction in acutely lame cows, demonstrating the necessity of adequate pain management protocols for such interventions. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Feasibility of using global system for mobile communication (GSM)-based tracking for vaccinators to improve oral poliomyelitis vaccine campaign coverage in rural Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandir, Subhash; Dharma, Vijay Kumar; Siddiqi, Danya Arif; Khan, Aamir Javed

    2017-09-05

    Despite multiple rounds of immunization campaigns, it has not been possible to achieve optimum immunization coverage for poliovirus in Pakistan. Supplementary activities to improve coverage of immunization, such as door-to-door campaigns are constrained by several factors including inaccurate hand-drawn maps and a lack of means to objectively monitor field teams in real time, resulting in suboptimal vaccine coverage during campaigns. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) - based tracking of mobile subscriber identity modules (SIMs) of vaccinators provides a low-cost solution to identify missed areas and ensure effective immunization coverage. We conducted a pilot study to investigate the feasibility of using GSM technology to track vaccinators through observing indicators including acceptability, ease of implementation, costs and scalability as well as the likelihood of ownership by District Health Officials. The real-time location of the field teams was displayed on a GSM tracking web dashboard accessible by supervisors and managers for effective monitoring of workforce attendance including 'time in-time out', and discerning if all target areas - specifically remote and high-risk locations - had been reached. Direct access to this information by supervisors eliminated the possibility of data fudging and inaccurate reporting by workers regarding their mobility. The tracking cost per vaccinator was USD 0.26/month. Our study shows that GSM-based tracking is potentially a cost-efficient approach, results in better monitoring and accountability, is scalable and provides the potential for improved geographic coverage of health services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Oral and dental health and oral and dental support of home patients--role of dental hygienist in the home service nursing station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kimura, M; Tamura, N; Hirata, S; Yabunaka, T; Kamimura, Y

    1999-12-01

    Home patients have few chances for going out, so communication with their family means a lot. Talking and eating are particular pleasures. Therefore, oral and dental health and oral and dental support are very important for home patients. A dental hygienist from our clinic visits and offers oral and dental health (oral care) and oral and dental support (oral rehabilitation) to home patients as part of a care plan with home care nurses. Moreover, as general conditions are closely related with oral function, maintaining oral and dental health and regular oral and dental support are very important in order to improve the quality of life (QOL) of home patients.

  18. Diabetes mellitus and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević N.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common non-communicable chronic diseases, which is the combined action of genetic factors, environmental factors and lifestyle. Specific conditions occur in the oral cavity in the course of diabetes that cause changes in all oral tissues with different symptoms and signs. Increased salivary glucose level is followed by increased accumulation of dental plaque and decreased resistance to noxious agents. The most common oral manifestations in diabetic patients include higher prevalence of periodontal desease, burning mouth syndrome, disruption in salivary flow, opportunistic infections, higher prevalence of denture stomatitis, oral lichen planus, fissured tongue, angular cheilitis etc. Dental interventions in patients with well-controlled diabetes are not different from those applied to nondiabetic patients. Regular monitoring of these patients is required because of the complications that can occur.

  19. Ionosphere and Radio Communication

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The upperionosphere is used for radio communication and navigationas it reflects long, medium, as well as short radio waves. Sincesolar radiation is the main cause of the existence of ionosphere,any variation in the radiations can affect the entireradio communication system. This article attempts to brieflyintroduce the ...

  20. Intracultural Communication: Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Marquita L.

    The 63 books and journal articles listed in this bibliography address the problem of intracultural communication. A short introduction to the bibliography defines intracultural communication as the creation and sharing of meaning among citizens of the same geo-political system who come from various tributary cultures (groups distinguishable from…