WorldWideScience

Sample records for short living waste

  1. Aube storage centre for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. Annual report 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-06-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2009 activity report of the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety and radiation protection, events or incidents, environmental monitoring, wastes management, public information, opinion of the Health and safety Committee (CHSCT)

  2. Aube storage center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. Annual report 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-06-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2008 activity report of the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety and radiation protection, events or incidents, environmental monitoring, wastes management, public information

  3. Aube storage center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-06-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2010 activity report of the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety and radiation protection, events or incidents, environmental monitoring, wastes management, public information, recommendations of the Health and safety Committee (CHSCT)

  4. Place of the final disposal of short lived dismantling waste; Plats foer slutfoervaring av kortlivat rivningsavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-01-15

    This report deals with the short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste, which will mainly arise from the dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants, but also the dismantling of other nuclear facilities. For these installations to be dismantled, there must be the capacity to receive and dispose of dismantling waste. SKB plans to expand the existing final repository for short-lived radioactive waste (SFR) in Forsmark for this purpose. The legislation requires alternatives to the chosen location. The alternate location for the disposal of decommissioning waste SKB has chosen to compare with is a location in the Simpevarp area outside Oskarshamn. There are currently Oskarshamn nuclear power plant and SKB between stock 'CLAB'. The choice of Simpevarp as alternative location is based on that it's one of the places in the country where data on the bedrock is available to an extent that allows an assessment of the prospects for long-term security, such an assessment is actually showing good potential, and that the location provide realistic opportunities to put into practice the disposal of decommissioning waste. At a comparison between the disposal of short-lived decommissioning waste in an extension of SFR with the option to build a separate repository for short-lived decommissioning waste in Simpevarp, the conclusion is that both options offer potentially good prospects for long-term security. The differences still indicated speaks to the Forsmark advantage. Similar conclusions were obtained when comparing the factors of environment, health and social aspects.

  5. Studies concerning the conditions for underground storage of short-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, T.; Jacobsson, A.; Linder, P.; Holmberg, K.E.

    1978-08-01

    Studies concerning the conditions for underground storage of short-lived radioactive wastes at different places are reported. Thus a literature study of the different factors affecting the radionuclide migration in the ground is reported as well as experiments, in which the distribution constant for radionuclide migration have been determined. Furthermore measuring methods for the determination of different migration parameters are described. (E.R.)

  6. Last developments in the Belgian disposal programme for low and intermediate short-lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyazis, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    After an historical reminder of the several phases of the Belgian program for the disposal of low and medium level short-lived waste since the creation of ONDRAF/NIRAS and the bad results obtained in the 90's by using a pure technical approach, the presentation will explain the main lines of the new methodology developed, as a consequence of the government decision of 16 January 1998 in ONDRAF/NIRAS to improve local acceptance for the disposal project. The way local partnerships were created with four nuclear municipalities under the form of a non-profit organization with a clear mission, the functioning, on a voluntary base, of the different partnerships during four to six years and the concrete results obtained until now using this very innovative method will be addressed. The last developments of the Belgian program for the disposal of low and medium level and short-lived waste will be presented, including the recent and very important decision of the Belgian government of 23 June 2006 to dispose of the low and medium active short-lived waste in a surface disposal installation on the territory of the municipality Dessel. (author)

  7. Context of the long-term management of low-level short-lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, E.

    2004-01-01

    Until the international moratorium of 1983, Belgium relied on sea disposal for its low-level waste. Since then, ONDRAF/NIRAS, the Belgian radioactive waste management agency, has launched studies to look for land-based solutions. These studies, which are still going on, have gone through various phases. The sometimes harsh reactions in public opinion and the recommendations of independent experts, however, progressively led ONDRAF/NIRAS to question its work methodology. On 16 January 1998 was a milestone in Belgian's nuclear waste management. On that day, the Belgian federal government opted for a final, or potentially final, solution for the long-term management of short-lived, low-level radioactive waste, a solution that also had to be progressive, flexible, and reversible. At the same time, the government entrusted new missions to ONDRAF/NIRAS in particular that of developing methods to enable the integration of final repository project proposals at a local level and restricted the number of potential sites for final disposal to the four existing nuclear sites in Belgium and to possibly interested local districts. The government's decision of 16 January 1998 forced ONDRAF/NIRAS to change its strategy. The agency set up a new work programme and worked out an innovative methodology. This new methodology aims to generate, at the level of the interested towns and villages, draft projects for a final repository supported by a wide public consensus. (author)

  8. The partnership experience on the disposal of low- and intermediate-level short-lived waste in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preter, P. de; Cool, W.; Hooft, E.; Waffelaert, A.; Blommaert, J.; Draulans, J.

    2008-01-01

    With the governmental decision of January 16, 1998, the long-term storage option for the low- and intermediate-level short-lived waste (category A waste) was abandoned and ONDRAF/NIRAS was given the mission to further examine the options of deep and surface disposal, in order to prepare a federal decision on the technical option to be developed. ONDRAF/NIRAS was also asked to develop the methods and structures of interaction with the local stakeholders, and to limit its siting activities to nuclear and candidate municipalities. This brought ONDRAF/NIRAS to the concept of local partnerships with interested municipalities, and during the pre-project phase 1998-2006 partnerships were created with the municipalities of Dessel (STOLA-Dessel, 1999), Mol (MONA, 2000) and Fleurus-Farciennes (PaLoFF, 2003). On 23 June, 2006 the Belgian Government decided that category A waste will be disposed of in a near-surface repository on the territory of the Dessel municipality. This decision implies that ONDRAF/NIRAS, in further interaction with the local stakeholders, can start the preparation of a licence application. This decision was the endpoint of the pre-project phase (1998-2006) and was based on the final reports of the partnerships of Dessel (STOLA-Dessel, now STORA) and Mol (MONA), approved by their municipality councils, and on ONDRAF/NIRAS final report, confirming the feasibility of the proposed disposal systems. As the municipality council of Fleurus did not approve the final report of the partnership PaLoFF, ONDRAF/NIRAS did not submit this report to the responsible minister. The preceding positive local decision in both Dessel (May 2005) and Mol (July 2005), and both on the partnership and municipality council level, to accept, under certain conditions, a disposal facility on their territory was the result of a 6 years long process of discussions within the partnership of all aspects of the disposal system and its integration in the municipality. During these

  9. The low to intermediate activity and short living waste storage facility. For a controlled management of radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte. Pour une gestion controlee des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Sited at about 50 km of Troyes (France), the Aube facility started in 1992 and has taken over the Manche facility for the surface storage of low to intermediate and short living radioactive wastes. The Aube facility (named CSFMA) is the answer to the safe management of these wastes at the industrial scale and for 50 years onward. This brochure presents the facility specifications, the wastes stored at the center, the surface storage concept, the processing and conditioning of waste packages, and the environmental monitoring performed in the vicinity of the site. (J.S.)

  10. Surface disposal of low-level and medium-level short-lived waste. How safe is the disposal facility in Dessel in the long term?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    A disposal facility for the disposal of low-level and medium-level short-lived waste is planned to be built on a site located in the community of Dessel (Belgium). The facility will consist of 34 modules, corresponding to a storage volume capacity of approximately 70,000 m3. The disposal concept includes waste containers that are encapsulated in a concrete box which is filled with mortar. Approximately 900 of these blocks, or monoliths, fit inside each module. The article discusses the Research and Development programme that has been conducted at the Belgian Nuclear Research Center SCK-CEN in conjunction with the development of this facility. Main emphasis is on the models that have been developed for predicting the long-term containment of the disposal facility.

  11. Alternate form and placement of short lived reactor waste and associated fuel hardware for decommissioning of EBR-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planchon, H.P.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.

    1995-12-01

    Upon the termination of EBR-II operation in 1994, the mission has progressed to decommissioning and waste cleanup of the facility. The simplest method to achieve this goal is to bury the raw fuel and activated steel in an approved burial ground or deep geologic repository. While this might be simple, it could be very expensive, consume much needed burial space for other materials, and leave large amounts of fissile easily available to future generations. Also, as with any operation, an associated risk to personnel and the public from the buried waste exists. To try and reduce these costs and risks, alternatives to burial are sought. One alternative explored here for EBR-II is to condition the fuel and store the fission products and steel either permanently or temporarily in the sealed primary boundary of the decommissioned reactor. The first problem is to identify which subassemblies are going to be conditioned and their current composition and decay time. The next problem is to identify the conditioning process and determine the composition and form of the waste streams. The volume, mass, heat, and curie load of the waste streams needs to be determined so a waste-assembly can be designed. The reactor vessel and internals need to be analyzed to determine if they can handle these loads. If permanent storage is the goal, then mechanisms for placing the waste-assembly in the reactor vessel and sealing the vessel are needed. If temporary storage is the goal, then mechanisms for waste-assembly placement and retrieval are needed. This paper answers the technical questions of volume, mass, heat, and curie loads while just addressing the other questions found in a safety analysis. The final conclusion will compare estimated risks from the burial option and this option.

  12. Public participation in decision-making processes: ONDRAF/NIRAS' approach to the disposal of low-level and short-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, E.

    2000-01-01

    January 16, 1998, is a milestone in the nuclear waste management in Belgium. On that day, the Belgian government effectively opted for a definitive or potentially definitive solution for the Iona term management of low-level, short-lived radioactive waste. The government also wanted this solution to be implemented in a progressive, flexible, and reversible manner. it was thereby definitively abandoning the prolonged interim storage option, in favour of either surface disposal or deep geological disposal. At the same time, the government entrusted new missions to ONDRAFINIRAS, aimed at enabling it to make, around 2001-2002, the necessary technical and economic choice between surface disposal and deep geological disposal. ONDRAFNIRAS had to develop, in particular, methods, including the management and dialogue strictures, necessary to integrate a repository project at the local level. Furthermore, it had to restrict from then on its investigations to the four already existing nuclear zones in Belgium namely those of Doel, Fleurus, Mol-Dessel, and Tihange, and to the local towns or villages having shown an interest in a preliminary field study. Early in 1998, ONDRAFNIRAS set up a new work programme and developed an entirely new work methodology. As we understood that the best way to take involved into account the interests of all parties, is to involve them in the decision making on the project, we developed the idea of the local partnerships. Any party that could be directly affected by a collective decision, must have a say in it. Another innovative aspect of this new methodology is that of integration: an integration at the local level which is meant to enable the development of draft repository projects creating new perspectives for the regions concerned. Extending over four to five years, ONDRAFINIRAS's new work programme assumes the active participation of all the interested local representatives. Because it has understood that any party that could be directly

  13. Short lived radionuclides in therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    A brief article examines some of the arguments for using shorter lived radionuclides in therapy. Shorter lived radionuclides would 1) reduce over-saturation of the target lesions and consequently reduce irradiation of other parts of the body, 2) reduce the DNA repair capacity of the target cells, 3) reduce the 'escape' of the radionuclide from the major therapeutic locale, 4) reduce the portion of the patient's life span during which the patient is receiving radiotherapy and 5) be useful in evaluating the radiation effects of fractionated radiotherapy. (U.K.)

  14. Information report on the nuclear safety and radiation protection of the Aube center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes storage - 2011. Annual report in the framework of article 21 of the Act on nuclear transparency and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-06-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2011 activity report of the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety and radiation protection, events or incidents, environmental monitoring, wastes management, public information, recommendations of the Health and safety Committee (CHSCT)

  15. SHORT COMMUNICATION TRANSESTERIFICATION OF WASTE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    provided for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste oils. KEY WORDS: Biodiesel, Ionic liquid, Waste oil, Catalysis. INTRODUCTION. Biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester, FAME), which is prepared from vegetable oil and animal fat through the transesterification of triglyceride with methanol, has been attracted considerable.

  16. Black carbon, a short lived climate forcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuddenham, M.; Roussel, I.

    2013-01-01

    Black carbon, an indicator of urban pollution health effects, is at the heart of adaptation issues as benefits of its control can be felt both at the scale of climate phenomenon and air quality. This element has to do with several notions whose definitions need to be stated again. It sets urban policies at the crossing of climate, air pollution, population health and sustainable development stakes. The CITEPA has made available Mark Tuddenham's literature monitoring concerning black carbon, and, more widely, SLFC (Short lived climate forcers). (authors)

  17. Transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahams, K.

    1992-10-01

    Nuclear waste disposal in geologically stable repositories is considered to be safe and effective, and the assumptions, which lead to very long term predictions seem to be satisfied. As possibilities to perturb repositories, can never be entirely excluded, it could be an attractive option to reduce the toxicity of waste by supplementing the uranium-plutonium cycle with minor actinide burning cycles. In this option the amount of mining waste is limited at the same time because uranium is used economically. If requests for reduction of long-lived actinide waste would result in much higher costs for nuclear energy, the innovative thorium-uranium cycle might become competitive. It is of vital interest that efforts are now being internationalized in networks to make proper use of experience from past civil and military programs. Visions for almost pollution-free energy production could arise if well prepared minds are concentrated on this issue. (author). 5 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  18. Radiopharmaceuticals and other compounds labelled with short-lived radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals and Other Compounds Labelled with Short-Lived Radionuclides covers through both review and contributed articles the potential applications and developments in labeling with short-lived radionuclides whose use is restricted to institutions with accelerators. The book discusses the current and potential use of generator-produced radionuclides as well as other short-lived radionuclides, and the problems of quality control of such labeled compounds. The book is useful to nuclear medicine physicians.

  19. Ethical aspects of long-lived waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCombie, C.

    1996-01-01

    Independent of the long debate on the use of nuclear power, waste management specialists have a clear, unassailable set of environmental goals aimed at protecting the public and workers from any unjustifiable exposure to radiation. It is recognized that releases to the environment must be minimized, operational doses from waste handling kept low, and storage facilities constructed and operated with very high levels of safety. A philosophy of how to make best use of the available resources is embedded into the established principles of the ICRP, requiring justification of practices, limitation of doses and optimization. The situation is different when we consider the particular case of disposal of long-lived radioactive waste. Properly designed and sited repositories will present only low levels of risk - but these risks are predicted to peak only after many thousands of years. It is obvious, therefore, that this disposal involves the present and immediately following generations investing resources into the protection of far-future individuals. Attention has focused upon this intergeneration issue in recent years, leading to intensified debate on all ethical aspects of waste disposal. In this paper, I will try to provide a short overview of recent relevant work, to indicate the ethical principles agreed upon and to highlight the currently most controversial issues. (author)

  20. Short-lived isomers in 94Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsekhanovich, I.; Dare, J. A.; Smith, A. G.; Varley, B. J.; Simpson, G. S.; Urban, W.; Soldner, T.; Jolie, J.; Linnemann, A.; Orlandi, R.; Smith, J. F.; Scherillo, A.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Zlomaniec, A.; Dorvaux, O.; Gall, B. J. P.; Roux, B.

    2008-01-01

    The medium-spin structure of the neutron-rich, odd-odd nucleus 94 Rb was studied by means of γ-ray spectroscopy. Excited levels were populated in the neutron-induced fission of 235 U and in the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf and 248 Cm. Two isomeric states were found at 1485.2 and 2074.8 keV with half-lives of 18 and 107 ns, respectively. The probable structures of the two isomers involve the fully aligned, proton-neutron configurations [π(g 9/2 ) x ν(g 7/2 )] 8 + and [π(g 9/2 ) x ν(h 11/2 )] 10 - , respectively. These new data give information on the single-particle energies in the region

  1. Vehicle emissions of short-lived and long-lived climate forcers: trends and tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Morgan R; Klemun, Magdalena M; Kim, Hyung Chul; Wallington, Timothy J; Winkler, Sandra L; Tamor, Michael A; Trancik, Jessika E

    2017-08-24

    Evaluating technology options to mitigate the climate impacts of road transportation can be challenging, particularly when they involve a tradeoff between long-lived emissions (e.g., carbon dioxide) and short-lived emissions (e.g., methane or black carbon). Here we present trends in short- and long-lived emissions for light- and heavy-duty transport globally and in the U.S., EU, and China over the period 2000-2030, and we discuss past and future changes to vehicle technologies to reduce these emissions. We model the tradeoffs between short- and long-lived emission reductions across a range of technology options, life cycle emission intensities, and equivalency metrics. While short-lived vehicle emissions have decreased globally over the past two decades, significant reductions in CO 2 will be required by mid-century to meet climate change mitigation targets. This is true regardless of the time horizon used to compare long- and short-lived emissions. The short-lived emission intensities of some low-CO 2 technologies are higher than others, and thus their suitability for meeting climate targets depends sensitively on the evaluation time horizon. Other technologies offer low intensities of both short-lived emissions and CO 2 .

  2. Short-lived radionuclide production activities in continental Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helus, F.

    1985-01-01

    This paper summarizes the information about the production of short-lived radionuclides on medical cyclotrons in the European area. The author focuses on the production of some specific radionuclides that are made for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for medical, diagnostic, and tracer studies. The author has chosen to comment on those few short-lived radionuclides that are currently in demand on a regular basis, e.g., 123 I and 81 Rb and the neutron-deficient positron-emitting radionuclides 11 C, 13 N, and 15 O. The isotope-production data and rates mentioned are based on information requested from more than 50 European cyclotron laboratories

  3. PNGMDR - Characterisation of intermediate-level long-lived wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    This document presents the status of the characterization of intermediate-level long-lived wastes which are warehoused on exploited EDF sites or which will be produced during the deconstruction of first-generation reactors. It addresses aspects related to characterisation and packaging of wastes produced before 2015. More specifically, it addresses aspects related to contamination and to activation. Contamination is assessed by measurements whereas activation assessment is based on numerical simulations associated with measurements performed during parcel production. After having mentioned the concerned reactors, the document presents the methodology adopted for these assessments, and reports the progress status of the characterization process for these intermediate-level long-lived wastes

  4. Measurement of short-lived particles at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxon, D.H.

    1987-04-01

    The contribution of PETRA to the measurement of short-lived particles is reviewed with discussion of the detectors and analysis techniques. New results are presented on lifetimes of identified particles and the systematics of b-life measurement outlined. The first application of vertex-tagging to flavour separation is described. (author)

  5. Applications of nuclear data on short-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudstam, G.; Aagaard, P.; Aleklett, K.; Lund, E.

    1981-01-01

    The study of short-lived fission products gives information about the nuclear structure on the neutron-rich side of stability. The data are also of interest for various applications both to basic science and to nuclear technology. Some of these applications, taken up by the OSIRIS group at Studsvik, are described in the present contribution. (orig.)

  6. Fast Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Short-Lived Radicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Hansen, Karina Benthin

    1976-01-01

    We report the first application of pulsed resonance Raman spectroscopy to the study of short-lived free radicals produced by pulse radiolysis. A single pulse from a flash-lamp pumped tunable dye laser is used to excite the resonance Raman spectrum of the p-terphenyl anion radical with an initial...

  7. Mass Measurement of Very Short Half-Lived Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    Duma, M; Iacob, V E; Thibault, C

    2002-01-01

    The MISTRAL (Mass measurements at ISolde with a Transmission RAdiofrequency spectrometer on-Line) experiment exploits a rapid measurement technique to make accurate mass determinations of very short-lived nuclei. The physics goals are to elucidate new nuclear structure effects and constrain nuclear mass models in regions of interest to nuclear astrophysics.\\\\ \\\\The spectrometer, installed in May 97, performed as promised in the proposal with mass resolution exceeding 100,000. In its first experiment in July 1998, neutron-rich Na isotopes having half-lives as short as 31 ms were measured. A second experiment in November 1998 enabled us to improve the measurement precision of the isotopes $^{26-30}$Na to about 20 keV. The measurement program continues as experiment IS 373.

  8. HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation Live 27928, Test 27929

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-17

    HMPT: Hazardous Waste Transportation (Live 27928, suggested one time and associated Test 27929, required initially and every 36 months) addresses the Department of Transportation (DOT) function-specific training requirements of the hazardous materials packagings and transportation (HMPT) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) lab-wide training. This course addresses the requirements of the DOT that are unique to hazardous waste shipments. Appendix B provides the Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) reference material needed for this course.

  9. A Short History of Waste Management at the Hanford Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gephart, Roy E.

    2010-01-01

    The world's first full-scale nuclear reactors and chemical reprocessing plants built at the Hanford Site in the desert of eastern Washington State produced two-thirds of the plutonium generated in the United States for nuclear weapons. Operating these facilities also created large volumes of radioactive and chemical waste, some of which was released into the environment exposing people who lived downwind and downstream. Hanford now contains the largest accumulation of nuclear waste in the Western Hemisphere. Hanford's last reactor shut down in 1987 followed by closure of the last reprocessing plant in 1990. Today, Hanford's only mission is cleanup. Most onsite radioactive waste and nuclear material lingers inside underground tanks or storage facilities. About half of the chemical waste remains in tanks while the rest persists in the soil, groundwater, and burial grounds. Six million dollars each day, or nearly two billion dollars each year, are spent on waste management and cleanup activities. There is significant uncertainty in how long cleanup will take, how much it will cost, and what risks will remain for future generations. This paper summarizes portions of the waste management history of the Hanford Site published in the book 'Hanford: A Conversation about Nuclear Waste and Cleanup.'

  10. Near-term climate mitigation by short-lived forcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Steven J.; Mizrahi, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Emissions reductions focused on anthropogenic climate-forcing agents with relatively short atmospheric lifetimes, such as methane (CH4) and black carbon, have been suggested as a strategy to reduce the rate of climate change over the next several decades. We find that reductions of methane and black carbon would likely have only a modest impact on near-term global climate warming. Even with maximally feasible reductions phased in from 2015 to 2035, global mean temperatures in 2050 would be reduced by 0.16 °C, with a range of 0.04–0.35 °C because of uncertainties in carbonaceous aerosol emissions and aerosol forcing per unit of emissions. The high end of this range is only possible if total historical aerosol forcing is relatively small. More realistic emission reductions would likely provide an even smaller climate benefit. We find that the climate benefit from reductions in short-lived forcing agents are smaller than previously estimated. These near-term climate benefits of targeted reductions in short-lived forcers are not substantially different in magnitude from the benefits from a comprehensive climate policy. PMID:23940357

  11. Detection of short-lived electrogenerated species by Raman microspectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis; Hapiot; Servagent-Noinville

    2000-05-15

    Raman microprobe spectrometry has been applied to the characterization of unstable species generated electrochemically at a microelectrode (radius in the 10 microm range). The ability of the spectroelectrochemical method to detect short-lived intermediates is directly related to its capability to probe small volumes. Raman microprobe spectrometry is appropriate for electrochemical applications because it allows the analysis of approximately 1 microm3 of solution. In spectroelectrochemical experiments, such a volume corresponds to a reaction layer of 1 microm thickness. Potentially, this technique can allow the observation of species with lifetimes of the order of 1 ms. To enhance the capabilities of this spectroscopic technique, we utilized it in combination with steady-state voltammetry at a microelectrode, to increase the concentration of unstable intermediates near the electrode surface. To determine the detection limit of this combined technique, we varied the base concentration as a means for varying the lifetime the radical cation electrogenerated from 9,10-dichloroanthracene. Well-resolved resonance Raman spectra were obtained for this radical cation when the lifetime was > or = 0.1 ms. This short time resolution achieved with micro-Raman spectroelectrochemistry makes this technique a powerful tool for the characterization of short-lived intermediates that are generated electrochemically in solution.

  12. Organic synthesis with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pike, V.W.

    1988-01-01

    Chemistry with short-lived positron-emitting radioisotopes of the non-metals, principally 11 C, 13 N and 18 F, has burgeoned over the last decade. This has been almost entirely because of the emergence of positron emission tomography (PET) as a powerful non-invasive technique for investigating pathophysiology in living man. PET is essentially an external technique for the rapid serial reconstruction of the spatial distribution of any positron-emitting radioisotope that has been administered in vivo. Such a distribution is primarily governed by the chemical form in which the positron-emitting radioisotope is incorporated, and importantly for clinical research, is often perturbed by physical, biological or clinical factors. Judicious choice of the chemical form enables specific biological information to be obtained. For example, the labelling of glucose with a positron-emitting radioisotope could be expected to provide a radiopharmaceutical for the study of glucose utilisation in both health and disease. (author)

  13. Short-lived radiopharmaceuticals for the diagnosis of ocular melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, S.; Lambrecht, R.; Atkins, H.L.; Wolf, A.P.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental procedure has been established to evaluate radiopharmaceuticals for the specific purpose of melanoma detection by scintiscanning. By using the Greene melanoma in the hamster several labeled compounds were compared. Specifically the tumor uptake along with detailed analyses of uptake by various parts of the eye and body were determined in a hamster model. Of those short-lived radionuclides investigated 203 Pb-tris was the most promising as a non-invasive localizing agent for ocular melanoma and it should prove effective for ocular scintigraphy. (U.S.)

  14. Development plan. High activity-long living wastes project. Abstract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    This brochure presents the actions that the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) has to implement in the framework of the project of high activity-long living (HALL) radioactive wastes (HAVL project) conformably to the requirements of the program defined in the law from June 28, 2006 (law no 2006-739). This law precises the three, complementary, research paths to explore for the management of this type of wastes: separation and transmutation of long-living radioactive elements, reversible disposal in deep geologic underground, and long duration storage. The ANDRA's action concerns the geologic disposal aspect. The following points are presented: the HALL wastes and their containers, the reversible disposal procedure, the HAVL project: financing of researches, storage concepts, development plan of the project (dynamics, information and dialogue approach, input data, main steps, schedule); the nine programs of the HAVL project (laboratory experiments and demonstration tests, surface survey, scientific program, simulation program, surface engineering studies and technological tests, information and communication program, program of environment and facilities surface observation and monitoring, waste packages management, monitoring and transport program, disposal program); the five transverse technical and scientific activities (safety, reversibility, cost, health and occupational safety, impact study). (J.S.)

  15. Measurements of beta-decay half-lives of short-lived nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, T.; Tsurita, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Iida, T.; Takahashi, A.; Kasugai, Y.; Ikeda, Y.

    1997-03-01

    The {beta}-decay half-lives of short-lived nuclei produced by 14 MeV neutron bombardments were measured with Ge detectors, a High-rate spectroscopy amplifier (EG and G ORTEC model 973) and a Spectrum multi-scaler (Laboratory equipment corporation SMS-48) in the multi-scaling mode. The adequate corrections for pile-up and dead-time losses were made by applying source and pulser methods. The half-lives of {sup 53}V, {sup 53g}Fe, {sup 89m}Y and {sup 162}Tb were determined with uncertainties of 0.13-0.65%. It has been shown that previous values shorter than 10 min were systematically longer than the present ones. (author)

  16. The high level and long lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the main conclusions of 15 years of researches managed by the CEA. This report is the preliminary version of the 2005 final report. It presents the main conclusions of the actions on the axis 1 and 3 of the law of the 30 December 1991. The synthesis report on the axis 1 concerns results obtained on the long lived radionuclides separation and transmutation in high level and long lived radioactive wastes. the synthesis report on the axis 3 presents results obtained by the processes of conditioning and of ground and underground long term storage. (A.L.B.)

  17. Electron scattering off short-lived radioactive nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Emoto, T.; Furukawa, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We have established a novel method which make electron scattering off short-lived radioactive nuclei come into being. This novel method was named SCRIT (Self-Confining RI ion Target). It was based on the well known "ion trapping" phenomenon in electron storage rings. Stable nucleus, 133 Cs, was used as target nucleus in the R&D experiment. The luminosity of interaction between stored electrons and Cs ions was about 1.02(0.06) × 10 26 cm -2 s -1 at beam current around 80 mA. The angular distribution of elastically scattered electrons from trapped Cs ions was measured. And an online luminosity monitor was used to monitor the change of luminosity during the experiment. (author)

  18. Nondispersive x-ray diagnostics of short lived plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    In this NATO Advanced Study Institute, we have discussed in detail the diagnosis of many pulse power machine properties, including their electrical behavior, grounding and shielding, and related data acquisition techniques. The purpose for many of these machines is to create high temperature/high density plasmas and, therefore, the subsequent behavior of these plasmas is of critical concern. The energy density of these plasmas is such that they will naturally radiate in the x-ray regime and thus the diagnosis of their x-ray emission is a crucial measurement of the entire system performance. In this lecture, I describe the general techniques used to perform nondispersive x-ray diagnostics of these short lived plasmas

  19. Final Report - Improving Data for Short Lived Actinides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, J. T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wu, C. Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-03-06

    This document constitutes the final report for the “Improving Nuclear Data for Short Lived Actinides” research project. During this project 29 papers were published (or are about to be) in peer reviewed journals and conference proceedings which document the research and results extensively. The publications are listed below. Numerous invited and contributed talks were given at national and international nuclear physics meetings. The data collected during this project has in large part made it into the relevant databases for use by the customers. Numerous undergraduate, graduate and post-doctoral researchers were trained in the area of nuclear physics from over 12 different institutions and multiple countries during this research effort. That is reflected in the names and affiliations of the co-authors in the journal articles listed below.

  20. Explorations into Data Assimilation of Short-lived Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, R. C.

    2016-12-01

    Until recently data assimilation of atmospheric constituents has focused on features that are at synoptic or larger spatial scales and used constituents that are conserved on time scales of days (e.g. aerosol) to weeks (CO). The chemical lifetime of NO2 in the boundary layer is of order 5 hours. This fact demands we take a different approach to thinking about the information in an NO2 assimilation and results in distinctly different aspects of an assimilation that are sensitive to NO2 than, for example, in a CO assimilation. Here we discuss aspects of assimilation of short-lived gases. Two data sources are likely to become widely available: geostationary satellites and dense surface networks. Imaging these data sources exist, we describe the potential for constraints on emissions at the scale of 10 km and also examine the potential for constraints on meteorological fields including PBL winds, soil moisture and PBL height.

  1. Kinetic aspects of the syntheses using short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laangstroem, B.; Obenius, U.; Sjoeberg, S.; Bergson, G.

    1981-01-01

    In syntheses using short-lived radionuclides, such as 11 C, the reaction conditions are usually such that the concentrations of the reactants, except for the labelled reactant, can be considered constant during the reaction. Two kinetic models have been investigated - irreversible and reversible bimolecular elementary reactions. The influence of the rate constants, of the equilibrium constants, and of the ratio between the starting reactants on the yield of the labelled product has been studied. The results show that, even in cases with unfavourable equilibrium constants, high yields of the labelled products can be obtained if the rate constant for the forward reaction is large. In addition, the specific activity of the labelled product as a function of time has been studied for the irreversible bimolecular case. (author)

  2. Emission channeling lattice location experiments with short-lived isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Wahl, U; Ronning, C R

    2007-01-01

    Emission channeling with position-sensitive detectors is a well-established technique at ISOLDE for studying the lattice location of radioactive impurities implanted into single crystals. In the case of electron emitting isotopes, however, due to count rate and noise-related limitations of the detection systems, the technique was restricted to isotopes with half lives above 6 h and electron energies above 40 keV. Recently, major technical developments have been realized and new equipment has been acquired which has allowed these limitations to be overcome and made feasible electron emission channeling experiments with short-lived isotopes and at low electron energies.\\\\ As first application, making use of two new on-line emission channeling setups at ISOLDE, we propose to investigate the lattice location of the transition metals Ni (2.5 h) and Co (1.6 h) in semiconductors, in particular in ZnO and GaN, by means of on-line $\\beta^{-}$-emission channeling experiments. In addition, we would like to study the lat...

  3. Production of medical short-lived radionuclides in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiebe, L.I.

    1985-01-01

    The production of radionuclides for medical and biomedical research in Canada has been reviewed with respect to the national geographic and demographic characteristics which influence their use. The types of facilities available for the production of short-lived radionuclides have been summarized, and a tabulation of the radionuclides that are produced has been presented. In broad terms production facilities can be classified as belonging to one of two groups, nuclear reactor or charged-particle accelerators. The charged-particle accelerators produce the more neutron-deficient and (because of the resultant decay properties) the more useful radionuclides for medical application. The nuclear reactor facilities for radionuclide production range in size and capacity from the high-flux research reactors of AECL to the six SLOWPOKE reactors, five of which are located on university campuses across the country. The McMaster University reactor is used to produce curie quantities of fluorine-18 weekly. Millicurie amounts of a large number of radionuclides, most of which have half-lives ranging from 2 to 50 hr, are produced in the low-flux reactors, in support of basic medical research

  4. Transport of short lived radioactive contaminants with prologed half-lives of daughters through river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, S.M.; Prohl, G.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main pathways for transporting contaminants to other parts in the environment, are rivers. This work is devoted for deriving and assessment the concentration of soluble radio contaminants along a river at any time after discharge, including the short-lived radionuclides in comparison with the discharge time interval, and prolonged half-life of the produced daughter nuclei. The assumed boundary conditions and deduced formulas can be applied either in case of accidental release or discharge under authority control. The formulas determining the produced daughter nuclei concentration require inequality of the parent and daughter nuclei half-lives. Because of the regional variation of river morphology, the assumed constancy of the flow velocity and dispersion coefficient requires dividing the river path into zones of similar hydrologic characteristics

  5. Women waste pickers: living conditions, work, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Alexa Pupiara Flores; Beck, Carmem Lúcia Colomé; Fernandes, Marcelo Nunes da Silva; Freitas, Natiellen Quatrin; Prestes, Francine Cassol; Tonel, Juliana Zancan

    2016-09-29

    To know the elements of work, health, and living conditions of women who pick recyclable waste and are members of a waste cooperative in a town of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. This is a qualitative, exploratory and descriptive study with seven subjects. Data were collected through participative observation, semi structured interview, and a focus group from July to August of 2013. The data were subjected to content analysis. The following thematic categories emerged: Women's work, informality and precariousness; Experiences of job satisfaction; and Working conditions and health: experiences with accidents, illness and health services. It was concluded that the women who collect recyclable material are exposed to precarious work conditions and potential health risks, such as work overload, accidents, illness, and social insecurity, and that nurses are responsible for promoting actions that ensure the health and inclusion of these workers.

  6. Changing-Look AGNs or Short-Lived Radio Sources?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wołowska, Aleksandra [Toruń Centre for Astronomy, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Informatics, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Toruń (Poland); Kunert-Bajraszewska, Magdalena; Mooley, Kunal [Centre for Astrophysical Surveys, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Hallinan, Gregg, E-mail: ola@astro.umk.pl [Cahill Center for Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA (United States)

    2017-11-17

    The evolution of extragalactic radio sources has been a fundamental problem in the study of active galactic nuclei for many years. A standard evolutionary model has been created based on observations of a wide range of radio sources. In the general scenario of the evolution, the younger and smaller Gigahertz-Peaked Spectrum (GPS) and Compact Steep Spectrum (CSS) sources become large-scale FRI and FRII objects. However, a growing number of observations of low power radio sources suggests that the model cannot explain all their properties and there are still some aspects of the evolutionary path that remain unclear. There are indications, that some sources may be short-lived objects on timescales of 10{sup 4}–10{sup 5} years. Those objects represent a new population of active galaxies. Here, we present the discovery of several radio transient sources on timescales of 5–20 yrs, largely associated with renewed AGN (Active Galactic Nucleus) activity. These changing-look AGNs possibly represent behavior typical for many active galaxies.

  7. Prestudy of final disposal of long-lived low and intermediate level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiborgh, M. [ed.] [Kemakta Konsult AB., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-01-01

    The repository for long-lived low and intermediate level waste, SFL 3-5, is foreseen to be located adjacent to the deep repository for spent encapsulated fuel, SFL 2. The SFL 3-5 repository comprises of three repository parts which will be used for the different categories of waste. In this report the work performed within a pre-study of the SFL 3-5 repository concept is summarised. The aim was to make a first preliminary and simplified assessment of the near-field as a barrier to radionuclide dispersion. A major task has been to compile information on the waste foreseen to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The waste comprises of; low and intermediate level waste from Studsvik, operational waste from the central interim storage for spent fuel, CLAB, and the encapsulation plant, decommissioning waste from these facilities, and core components and internal parts from the reactors. The total waste volume has been estimated to about 25000 m{sup 3}. The total activity content at repository closure is estimated to be about 1 {center_dot}10{sup 17} Bq in SFL 3-5. At repository closure the short-lived radionuclides, for example Co-60 and Fe-55, have decayed considerably and the activity is dominated by nickel isotopes in the metallic waste from the reactors, to be disposed of in SFL 5. However, other radionuclides may be more or equally important from a safety point of view, e.g cesium-isotopes and actinides which are found in largest amounts in the SFL 3 waste. A first evaluation of the long term performance or the SFL 3-5 repository has been made. A systematic methodology for scenario formulation was tested. The near-field release of contaminants was calculated for a selected number of radionuclides and chemo-toxic elements. The radionuclide release calculations revealed that Cs-137 and Ni-63 would dominate the annual release from all repository parts during the first 1000 years after repository closure and that Ni-59 would dominate at longer times.

  8. Geochemical behavior of long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gera, F.

    1975-07-01

    The hazard potential associated with the heavy elements present in high-level radioactive waste decreases greatly in the first few tens of thousands of years of decay; however, further reduction in the hazard potential becomes extremely slow after about 100,000 years. In the time period between 100,000 and 5 million years the hazard potential of high-level waste is reduced by a factor of between 10 and 20. Current evidence seems to indicate that if radioactive waste containment were to fail after a period of 100,000 years or more, some environmental contamination would result; however, the contamination levels would be low. The radiological risk would not be significantly different from that now existing in various localities as a result of the accumulation of natural radioactive elements. With the partial exception of radium, which is concentrated in the fruit of specific perennial plants, the long-lived alpha-emitters are characterized by very low biologic availability in terrestrial ecosystems. The biologic availability may be somewhat higher in aquatic ecosystems due to the significant reconcentration factors in particular organisms. Data concerning the levels of activity in foods grown on radioactive soils seem to confirm the low biologic availability of the natural radioactive elements. Surveys of uranium mill tailings indicate little dispersal of the radioactive elements into the environment; even though untreated tailings piles would appear to be particularly vulnerable to resuspension of dust particles by wind. (U.S.)

  9. Progress in long-lived radioactive waste management and disposal at the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Matthews, M.L.; Eriksson, L.G.

    2001-01-01

    The Salado Formation is buried more than 350 m beneath the sands and cacti of the Chihuahuan Desert and hosts the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) deep geological repository at a depth of approximately 650 m. Since the WIPP repository is at least 10 years ahead of any other repository development for long-lived radioactive waste, other radioactive waste management organizations and institutions could benefit both scientifically and politically from sharing the lessons learned at WIPP. Benefits would include using existing expertise and facilities to cost-effectively address and solve program-specific issues and to train staff. The characteristics of the WIPP repository and infrastructure are described in this paper. (author)

  10. High-power proton linac for transmuting the long-lived fission products in nuclear waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    High power proton linacs are being considered at Los Alamos as drivers for high-flux spallation neutron sources that can be used to transmute the troublesome long-lived fission products in defense nuclear waste. The transmutation scheme being studied provides a high flux (> 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}{minus}s) of thermal neutrons, which efficiently converts fission products to stable or short-lived isotopes. A medium-energy proton linac with an average beam power of about 110 MW can burn the accumulated Tc99 and I129 inventory at the DOE's Hanford Site within 30 years. Preliminary concepts for this machine are described. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. In vitro and ex vivo storage phosphor imaging of short-living radioisotopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knol, Remco J. J.; de Bruin, Kora; de Jong, Jan; van Eck-Smit, Berthe L. F.; Booij, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Storage phosphor imaging may be of value for biodistribution studies of short-living radiotracers in small animals. Efficiency, sensitivity and resolution of imaging plates for short-living radioisotopes vary considerably but linear response to many radioisotopes was shown previously. However, these

  12. Separation of actinides and long-lived fission products from high-level radioactive wastes (a review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolarik, Z.

    1991-11-01

    The management of high-level radioactive wastes is facilitated, if long-lived and radiotoxic actinides and fission products are separated before the final disposal. Especially important is the separation of americium, curium, plutonium, neptunium, strontium, cesium and technetium. The separated nuclides can be deposited separately from the bulk of the high-level waste, but their transmutation to short-lived nuclides is a muchmore favourable option. This report reviews the chemistry of the separation of actinides and fission products from radioactive wastes. The composition, nature and conditioning of the wastes are described. The main attention is paid to the solvent extraction chemistry of the elements and to the application of solvent extraction in unit operations of potential partitioning processes. Also reviewed is the behaviour of the elements in the ion exchange chromatography, precipitation, electrolysis from aqueous solutions and melts, and the distribution between molten salts and metals. Flowsheets of selected partitioning processes are shown and general aspects of the waste partitioning are shortly discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Neutron-induced capture cross sections of short-lived actinides with the surrogate reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunsing F.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of neutron-capture cross sections of short-lived nuclei is opening the way to understand and clarify the properties of many nuclei of interest for nuclear structure physics, nuclear astrophysics and particularly for transmutation of nuclear wastes. The surrogate approach is well-recognized as a potentially very useful method to extract neutron cross sections for low-energy compound-nuclear reactions and to overcome the difficulties related to the target radioactivity. In this work we will assess where we stand on these neutron-capture cross section measurements and how we can achieve the short-lived Minor Actinides nuclei involved in the nuclear fuel cycle. The CENBG collaboration applied the surrogate method to determine the neutron-capture cross section of 233Pa (T1/2 = 27 d. The 233Pa (n,γ cross section is then deduced from the measured gamma decay probability of 234Pa compound nucleus formed via the surrogate 232Th(3He,p reaction channel. The obtained cross section data, covering the neutron energy range 0.1 to 1 MeV, have been compared with the predictions of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model. The importance of establishing benchmarks is stressed for the minor actinides region. However, the lack of desired targets led us to propose recently the 174Yb (3He,pγ reaction as a surrogate reaction for the (n,γ predetermined benchmark cross section of 175Lu. An overview of the experimental setup combining gamma ray detectors such as Ge and C6D6 in coincidence with light charged particles ΔE-E Telescopes will be presented and preliminary results will be discussed.

  14. Short-lived Now-extinct Nuclides Present in the Early Solar System

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Short-lived Now-extinct Nuclides Present in the Early Solar System. Radio- Half-life Daughter Reference Initial Ratio Nuclide (Ma) Nuclide Nuclide [w.r.t. Ref.

  15. Historical review of short-lived isotope applications in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Production of short-lived isotopes, nitrogen 13, fluorine 18 and carbon 11 with a small Van de Graaff accelerator. Applications of these isotopes in uptake and photosynthetic translocation studies in plants, and fluorine tracing in dental studies

  16. Plate waste of adults in the United States measured in free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Brian E; Apolzan, John W; Qi, Danyi; Allen, H Raymond; Martin, Corby K

    2018-01-01

    We analyze food-item level data collected from 50 adults from the United States using the Remote Food Photography Method® to provide the first estimates of plate waste gathered from adults across multiple consecutive meals and days in free-living conditions, and during laboratory-based meals with fixed food items and quantities. We find average plate waste in free-living conditions is 5.6 grams (7.7 kcals) per item and that 3.3% of all food selected is returned as plate waste, where the percent waste figure is substantially lower than previously published plate waste estimates gathered primarily from dine-out settings in the United States such as buffets and institutional settings with limited-choice meals (e.g., school cafeterias). Plate waste from the same participants during the laboratory-based meals is significantly higher with an average of 203.2 grams of solid plate waste per meal (531.3 kcals) or 39.1% of the food provided, which is similar to the plate waste percentages found reported in some school cafeteria settings. The amount of plate waste generated in free-living conditions is significantly positively associated with portion size selected for an item. In a multivariate analysis that controls for macronutrient profile, items selected from the vegetables, fats/oils/dressings, and grains categories are associated with significantly greater amounts of plate waste per item. We find no significant associations between free-living plate waste and gender, age, race or body mass index but find that women leave more plate waste in the lab meal where portion sizes are pre-determined by the researcher and similar for all respondents. We discuss possible implications of these findings for programs focused on reducing plate waste and food waste among consumers.

  17. Plate waste of adults in the United States measured in free-living conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian E Roe

    Full Text Available We analyze food-item level data collected from 50 adults from the United States using the Remote Food Photography Method® to provide the first estimates of plate waste gathered from adults across multiple consecutive meals and days in free-living conditions, and during laboratory-based meals with fixed food items and quantities. We find average plate waste in free-living conditions is 5.6 grams (7.7 kcals per item and that 3.3% of all food selected is returned as plate waste, where the percent waste figure is substantially lower than previously published plate waste estimates gathered primarily from dine-out settings in the United States such as buffets and institutional settings with limited-choice meals (e.g., school cafeterias. Plate waste from the same participants during the laboratory-based meals is significantly higher with an average of 203.2 grams of solid plate waste per meal (531.3 kcals or 39.1% of the food provided, which is similar to the plate waste percentages found reported in some school cafeteria settings. The amount of plate waste generated in free-living conditions is significantly positively associated with portion size selected for an item. In a multivariate analysis that controls for macronutrient profile, items selected from the vegetables, fats/oils/dressings, and grains categories are associated with significantly greater amounts of plate waste per item. We find no significant associations between free-living plate waste and gender, age, race or body mass index but find that women leave more plate waste in the lab meal where portion sizes are pre-determined by the researcher and similar for all respondents. We discuss possible implications of these findings for programs focused on reducing plate waste and food waste among consumers.

  18. Disentangling the effects of CO2 and short-lived climate forcer mitigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogelj, J.; Schaeffer, M.; Meinshausen, M.; Shindell, D.T.; Hare, W.; Klimont, Z.; Velders, G.J.M.; Amann, M.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic global warming is driven by emissions of a wide variety of radiative forcers ranging from very short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), like black carbon, to very long-lived, like CO2. These species are often released from common sources and are therefore intricately linked. However, for

  19. Characterisation of long-lived low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the Nordic Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broden, K.; Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K.; Carlsson, T.; Viitanen, P.; Walderhaug, T.; Sneve, M.; Hornkjoel, S.; Backe, S.

    1997-11-01

    The present report is final report from a study on characterisation of radioactive waters in the Nordic countries. The study has mainly been focused on long-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Methods to measure or estimate the activity content and the general composition are discussed. Recommendations are given regarding characterisation of waste under treatment and characterisation of already produced waste packages. (au)

  20. Characterisation of long-lived low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in the Nordic Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broden, K. [Studsvik RadWaste AB, (El Salvador); Carugati, S.; Brodersen, K. [Forskningscenter Risoe, (Denmark); Carlsson, T.; Viitanen, P. [VVT, (Finland); Walderhaug, T. [Icelandic Radiation Protection Institute (Iceland); Sneve, M.; Hornkjoel, S. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (Norway); Backe, S. [Institute for Energy Technology (Norway)

    1997-11-01

    The present report is final report from a study on characterisation of radioactive waters in the Nordic countries. The study has mainly been focused on long-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste. Methods to measure or estimate the activity content and the general composition are discussed. Recommendations are given regarding characterisation of waste under treatment and characterisation of already produced waste packages. (au).

  1. Response of Arctic Temperature to Changes in Emissions of Short-Lived Climate Forcers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, M.; Berntsen, T.; von Salzen, K.; Flanner, M.; Langner, J.; Victor, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    There is growing scientific and political interest in the impacts of climate change and anthropogenic emissions on the Arctic. Over recent decades temperatures in the Arctic have increased twice the global rate, largely due to ice albedo and temperature feedbacks. While deep cuts in global CO2 emissions are required to slow this warming, there is also growing interest in the potential for reducing short lived climate forcers (SLCFs). Politically, action on SLCFs may be particularly promising because the benefits of mitigation appear promptly and there are large co-benefits in terms of improved air quality. This study is the first to systematically quantify the Arctic climate impact of regional SLCF emissions, taking into account BC, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), volatile hydrocarbons (VOC), organic carbon (OC) and tropospheric ozone, their transport processes and transformations in the atmosphere. Using several chemical transport models we perform detailed radiative forcing calculations from emissions of these species. Geographically we separate emissions into seven source regions that correspond with the national groupings of the Arctic Council, the leading body organizing international policy in the region (the United States, Canada, the Nordic countries, the rest of Europe, Russia, East and South Asia, and the rest of the world). We look at six main sectors known to account for [nearly all] of these emissions: households (domestic), energy/industry/waste, transport, agricultural fires, grass/forest fires, and gas flaring. We find that the largest Arctic warming source is from emissions within the Asian nations. However, the Arctic is most sensitive, per unit mass emitted, to SLCFs emissions from a small number of activities within the Arctic nations themselves. A stringent, but technically feasible SLCFs mitigation scenario, phased in from 2015 through 2030, can cut warming by 0.2 K in 2050.

  2. Main ecopathology syndromes of children living in the area of nuclear waste tailings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saatova G. M.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available the clinical forms of ecopathology and clinical and epidemiological features of congenital and acquired diseases of children living in the area of nuclear waste tailings (city Mailu-Suu Kyrgyz Republic are studied in this article. The authors figured out that 52.6% of children living in stressful environmental conditions had a high medical and social risk of chronic disease.

  3. Radon and its short-lived decay nuclides in the living environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Siro

    1988-01-01

    The problem about radon and its shortlived decay nuclides in the living environment has been frequently closed-up. The problem is focused on the exposure of human being due to radon and its progeny. This paper reports the reason to the occurrence of the problem. Radon source as well as its pathway into our rooms are outlined here. The behavior of radon and its progeny indoors is also shown in this paper in comparison with outdoor situation and from the persons' activity's point of view. (author)

  4. Long lived nuclear waste transmutation: context and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prunier, C.; Pacton, L.

    1994-01-01

    After a recall of the actual strategy, in France, for the radioactive wastes, we give an overview of the programs CAPRA and SPIN (Separation-Incineration) for separate the minors actinides (Am,Np,..) and then to reduce the radiological risk create by these products by incineration in a LMFBR. 13 figs, 1 annexe

  5. Intrinsically secure fast reactors for long-lived waste free and proliferation resistant nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slessarev, Igor

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides description of a nuclear reactor concept aimed towards a radical safety enhancement, an increased proliferation resistance, as well as a realisation of a 'long-lived waste free' NP development. It emphasizes the achievement of considerable reduction ('by design') of residual actinides in the waste streams and of the most hazardous long-lived fission products. It allows to implement only small volume of repositories for the radioactive waste (mostly fission products) and to postpone the technically arduous problems of a large scale disposal of the long-lived wastes until the next millennium, i.e. up to the exhaustion of the fertile natural resources and/or the emergence of more effective technologies of nuclide separation/transmutation. A thorough incineration/transmutation of the wastes (residual actinides in the mixture with lanthanides as well as of the most hazardous fission products) under reactor neutron flux is proposed for their mass reduction. A gradual growth of NP park is necessary for increasing the NP park capacity for waste irradiation. This 'constraint' is not really limiting because it coincides with the permanently growing demands in energy production. The potential of long-lived waste reduction depends on the total fertile fuel resources and on NP growth rate. It was shown that the accumulated actinide long-lived radioactive masses will be reduced significantly: by factor in the range of 10 4 -10 8 in magnitude (compared with LWR once-through cycle) and by 10 2 -10 6 (compared with the ordinary fast reactor park). Thus, the total long-lived waste toxicity pollution source might be comparable with the 'burnt away' toxicity of the natural fertile feed stream. This is quite realistic taking into account the large fertile fuel (U/Th) world-wide resources which provide the NP growth for a sustained time. Along side with the radical intrinsic safety improvement, a further enhancement of core physics ('neutronics') is one of the

  6. Synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals containing short-lived radionuclides. Progress report, March 1, 1985-February 26, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1985-09-01

    Methods for the rapid introduction of short-lived radionuclides into agents for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine are reported. Methods to synthesize radioiodinated fatty acids, lipids, and amphetamine derivatives are described. New routes for the introduction of bromine-77, chlorine-34m, and carbon-11 into agents of interest are elaborated. 46 refs

  7. Synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals containing short-lived radionuclides. Comprehensive report, March 1, 1980-February 26, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1985-09-01

    New methods for the rapid introduction of short-lived radionuclides into agents for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine are reported. Among the new syntheses reported are those for 123 I-labeled fatty acids and steroids, for 11 C-labeled alcohols, for 13 N-labeled amines, and for 15 O-labeled alcohols. 33 refs

  8. Applications of short-lived isotopes in agricultural research in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCallum, G.J.; More, R.D.; McNaughton, G.S.; Minchin, P.E.H.; Presland, M.R.; Stout, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The use of the short-lived isotopes 11 C and 13 N in agricultural research studies in New Zealand is reviewed. The methods employed to produce these radioisotopes using a 3 MV Van de Graaff accelerator are given. Experiments on transport processes and the uptake of nutrient by plants, and the study of soil processes are described. (Auth.)

  9. Developing role of short-lived radionuclides in nuclear medical practice. DOE symposium series; 56

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paras, P.; Thiessen, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose was to define the developing role and state-of-the-art development of short-lived radionuclides (SLR's) in current nuclear medical practice. Special emphasis was placed on radionuclides with general-purpose labeling capabilities. The need for high-purity labeling-grade iodine-123 was emphasized in the program. Papers have been separately abstracted for the data base

  10. Development of the k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis for short-lived radionuclides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dung, H.M.; Blaauw, M.; Beasley, D.; Freitas, M.D.C.

    2011-01-01

    The k0-based cyclic neutron activation analysis (k0-CNAA) technique has been studied to explore the applicability at the Portuguese research reactor (RPI). In particular, for the determination of elements which form short-lived radionuclides, particularly fluorine (20F, 11.16 s half-life) and

  11. Analysing environmental and fishing effects on a short-lived species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-lived species are extremely dependent on the seasonal and interannual variability of environmental conditions, and determining their stock status is often difficult. This study investigates the effects of environmental variability and fishing pressure on the stock of octopus Octopus vulgaris in Senegalese waters over a ...

  12. Studies on short-lived fission products at the Mainz TRIGA reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trautmann, N.

    1974-01-01

    Neutron-rich nuclei of medium mass number are produced by thermal-neutron-induced fission of heavy elements, e.g., 235 U, 239 Pu, and 249 Cf. Pulse irradiations lead to an enhancement of the ratio of short-lived activities to the accompanying longer-lived components. One approach for investigating the properties of short-lived nuclei consists in a combination of rapid chemical separations with higher-resolution gamma spectroscopy. This is demonstrated by the isolation of neutron-rich isotopes of niobium by sorption on glass and of ruthenium by solvent extraction. Other rapid separation procedures from aqueous solutions are briefly summarized and a few examples for their application in nuclear fission- and delayed neutron studies are given. Some experiments with an on-line mass separator of the ISOLDE-type, using chemical targets, are described. (U.S.)

  13. Use of short-lived radionuclides in the agricultural and environmental sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohn, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to their well-known uses in physiology, biochemistry, and medicine, short-lived radioisotopes have played an important part in promoting the authors knowledge of the agricultural and environmental sciences. Numerous investigators have found that the scientific rewards justify the additional demands associated with use of short-lived radioisotopes when novel or uniquely precise results can be achieved. This is best exemplified by examining the use of 13 N. Nitrogen-13 is the longest lived radioisotope of this very important element. The 10-min half-life of 13 N has required that the agricultural or environmental test model be brought to the laboratory where the isotope is made, but this has been done successfully in numerous instances. One major incentive for this research has probably been the fact that there is no analog of the very useful 14 C tracer to study nitrogen chemistry and biology

  14. Evaluating the climate and air quality impacts of short-lived pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohl, A.; Aamaas, B.; Amann, M.; Baker, L. H.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T. K.; Boucher, O.; Cherian, R.; Collins, W.; Daskalakis, N.; Dusinska, M.; Eckhardt, S.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.; Harju, M.; Heyes, C.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Hao, J.; Im, U.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Law, K. S.; Lund, M. T.; Maas, R.; MacIntosh, C. R.; Myhre, G.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Olivié, D.; Quaas, J.; Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Rumbold, S. T.; Samset, B. H.; Schulz, M.; Seland, Ø.; Shine, K. P.; Skeie, R. B.; Wang, S.; Yttri, K. E.; Zhu, T.

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents a summary of the work done within the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme project ECLIPSE (Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants). ECLIPSE had a unique systematic concept for designing a realistic and effective mitigation scenario for short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs; methane, aerosols and ozone, and their precursor species) and quantifying its climate and air quality impacts, and this paper presents the results in the context of this overarching strategy. The first step in ECLIPSE was to create a new emission inventory based on current legislation (CLE) for the recent past and until 2050. Substantial progress compared to previous work was made by including previously unaccounted types of sources such as flaring of gas associated with oil production, and wick lamps. These emission data were used for present-day reference simulations with four advanced Earth system models (ESMs) and six chemistry transport models (CTMs). The model simulations were compared with a variety of ground-based and satellite observational data sets from Asia, Europe and the Arctic. It was found that the models still underestimate the measured seasonality of aerosols in the Arctic but to a lesser extent than in previous studies. Problems likely related to the emissions were identified for northern Russia and India, in particular. To estimate the climate impacts of SLCPs, ECLIPSE followed two paths of research: the first path calculated radiative forcing (RF) values for a large matrix of SLCP species emissions, for different seasons and regions independently. Based on these RF calculations, the Global Temperature change Potential metric for a time horizon of 20 years (GTP20) was calculated for each SLCP emission type. This climate metric was then used in an integrated assessment model to identify all emission mitigation measures with a beneficial air quality and short-term (20-year) climate impact. These measures together

  15. Corrections for the combined effects of decay and dead time in live-timed counting of short-lived radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzgerald, R.

    2016-01-01

    Studies and calibrations of short-lived radionuclides, for example 15 O, are of particular interest in nuclear medicine. Yet counting experiments on such species are vulnerable to an error due to the combined effect of decay and dead time. Separate decay corrections and dead-time corrections do not account for this issue. Usually counting data are decay-corrected to the start time of the count period, or else instead of correcting the count rate, the mid-time of the measurement is used as the reference time. Correction factors are derived for both those methods, considering both extending and non-extending dead time. Series approximations are derived here and the accuracy of those approximations are discussed. - Highlights: • Derived combined effects of decay and dead time. • Derived for counting systems with extending or non-extending dead times. • Derived series expansions for both midpoint and decay-to-start-time methods. • Useful for counting experiments with short-lived radionuclides. • Examples given for 15 O, used in PET scanning.

  16. Behaviour of radon and its short- and long-lived daughters in LNG liquification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonter, Mark

    2017-01-01

    The new export trade in Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG, essentially cryogenic liquid methane) requires consideration of the deportment of radon and short- and long-lived daughters in the LNG refrigeration trains. This is because natural gas does not contain some levels of radon, and any collection or trapping of radon and/or its decay daughters in-plant can have implications for dose control for maintenance workers; in addition, any disposal of radioactively contaminated material would need to follow regulatory controls. The export of LNG out of Australian ports is on a massive scale: tens of millions of tonnes per year, tapping conventional and coal seam gas from hundreds of wells, and delivered under very high pressure (several tens of atmospheres, or Bars) from collection nodes via long pipelines to the LNG refrigeration plants. This even quite low concentrations of radon in the wellhead gas can amount to quite high total activities upon aggregation. Where does the radon go in the plant? Where do the short-lived radon daughters (Po-218, Pb-214, Bi-214, Po-214) go? Where do the long-lived radon decay products (Pb-210, Bi-210, Po-210) go? What are the specific capture points? How will the short- and long-lived decay products behave over time? What equilibrium activity might these radionuclides reach? What radiation control demands might they impose?

  17. Long-lived radionuclides in low-level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.E.; Coe, L.J.

    1983-01-01

    In July 1982, the Low-Level Waste Licensing Branch of the NRC, anticipating the impact of the proposed Part 61 to 10 CFR, funded a two-year project by SAI to study the radionuclide contents of LWR generated in low-level waste. The objectives of the study are: (1) to analyze, using verified techniques, 150 archived samples for specified beta- and x-ray-emitting nuclides that had not previously been analyzed; (2) to analyze twenty new samples obtained from operating plants for all relevant nuclides and compare them to previous data to ascertain trends; (3) to develop empirical scaling factors through the use of which concentrations of hard-to-analyze nuclides can be estimated from analyses of the gamma-ray emitting nuclides. The new samples are analyzed and the results are summarized and interpreted. Over fifty archived samples have also been analyzed. We discuss scaling factor development. Factors are presented that relate 63 Ni and 59 Ni to 60 Co for PWRs and to 58 Co for BWRs, 90 Sr to 137 Cs for BWRs and 241 Pu, 239 Pu, 241 Am, and 244 Cm to 144 Ce for all LWRs. 8 figures, 3 tables

  18. Dicer Regulates the Balance of Short-Lived Effector and Long-Lived Memory CD8 T Cell Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Florian M.; Yuzefpolskiy, Yevgeniy; Sarkar, Surojit; Kalia, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs constitute a major post-transcriptional mechanism for controlling protein expression, and are emerging as key regulators during T cell development and function. Recent reports of augmented CD8 T cell activation and effector differentiation, and aberrant migratory properties upon ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in naïve cells have established a regulatory role of miRNAs during priming. Whether miRNAs continue to exert similar functions or are dispensable during later stages of CD8 T cell expansion and memory differentiation remains unclear. Here, we report a critical role of Dicer/miRNAs in regulating the balance of long-lived memory and short-lived terminal effector fates during the post-priming stages when CD8 T cells undergo clonal expansion to generate a large cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) pool and subsequently differentiate into a quiescent memory state. Conditional ablation of Dicer/miRNAs in early effector CD8 T cells following optimal activation and expression of granzyme B, using unique dicerfl/fl gzmb-cre mice, led to a strikingly diminished peak effector size relative to wild-type antigen-specific cells in the same infectious milieu. Diminished expansion of Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells was associated with lack of sustained antigen-driven proliferation and reduced accumulation of short-lived effector cells. Additionally, Dicer-ablated CD8 T cells exhibited more pronounced contraction after pathogen clearance and comprised a significantly smaller proportion of the memory pool, despite significantly higher proportions of CD127Hi memory precursors at the effector peak. Combined with previous reports of dynamic changes in miRNA expression as CD8 T cells differentiate from naïve to effector and memory states, these findings support distinct stage-specific roles of miRNA-dependent gene regulation during CD8 T cell differentiation. PMID:27627450

  19. Properties of short-living ball lightning produced in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, A. I.; Stepanov, S. I.

    2008-06-01

    An experimental setup for highly reproducible generation of artificial ball lightnings is implemented. Thousands of floating glowing plasmoids 12-20 cm in diameter are produced. Research facilities for studying the plasmoids are developed. It is found that short-lived ball lightnings live for about 1 s and carry an electric charge. The lightnings are shown to have a complex structure: a central kernel containing a rich variety of hydrated ions and aerosol of decay products is surrounded by a thin negatively charged shell.

  20. Experience in presenting short courses in waste management technologies for secondary science and mathematics teachers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, W.J.; Smith, T.H.; Garcia, M.M.; Ferguson, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) are developing educational programs that will help avert projected shortages in scientific and engineering manpower. One approach to this end is to help teachers become better prepared to teach topics that enthuse more students. INEL developed and offered a Short Course in Waste Management Technologies for Secondary Science and Mathematics Teachers. Short Course has two purposes: (1) to provide secondary-level science and mathematics teachers with training and information that will be useful to them in the classroom, and (2) to provide information on a topic of widespread interest in today's society, i.e., the management of hazardous and radioactive wastes and the restoration and preservation of the environment. This paper describes the development of the Short Course and summarizes some of the lessons learned in the preparation and presentation of such courses. 2 refs., 2 tabs

  1. Determination of short-lived trace elements in environmental samples by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardani, S.; Sihombing, E.; Hamzah, A.; Rochidi; Hery, P.S.; Hartaman, S.; Iman, J.

    1998-01-01

    Concentration of a short-lived trace elements in environmental samples were determined by neutron activation analysis, a counting loss often occur due to the high counting rate. A Pile-Up Rejecter (PUR) electric circuit was installed in counting a short-lived trace elements by a γ-ray spectrometer in order to correct a counting loss. The samples were irradiated for 30∼60 seconds at neutron flux of 3.5 x 10 12 n.cm -2 .s -1 , then the samples cooled for 120 second and counted for 180 second using this system. The nuclides concentration in the varieties environmental samples have a difference analysis result, was more accurate and precise, which the measured result would be 30 % more higher by PUR system than the result would be counted using a conventional γ-ray spectrometry method

  2. Theoretical calculation of decay data of short-lived nuclides for JNDC FP decay data file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tadashi

    1983-08-01

    It is one of unique features of the JNDC FP Decay Data File that theoretical values of E-bar sub(β) and E-bar sub(γ), average beta- and gamma-ray energies, are fully adopted for short-lived nuclides. Here, details of the theoretical estimation method of E-bar sub(β) and E-bar sub(γ) based on 'gross theory' of beta-decay are described and the numerical tables of the estimated decay data for short-lived nuclides are presented. Further, discussion is made for justification of adoption of the theoretical values instead of values derived from decay schemes from the viewpoint of the energy profile of the beta-strength function. (author)

  3. Neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei via the surrogate reaction method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassan-Got L.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of neutron-induced cross sections of short-lived nuclei is extremely difficult due to the radioactivity of the samples. The surrogate reaction method is an indirect way of determining cross sections for nuclear reactions that proceed through a compound nucleus. This method presents the advantage that the target material can be stable or less radioactive than the material required for a neutron-induced measurement. We have successfully used the surrogate reaction method to extract neutron-induced fission cross sections of various short-lived actinides. In this work, we investigate whether this technique can be used to determine neutron-induced capture cross sections in the rare-earth region.

  4. Validation of Six Short and Ultra-short Screening Instruments for Depression for People Living with HIV in Ontario

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Stephanie KY; Boyle, Eleanor; Burchell, Ann

    2015-01-01

    standard measured by Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (the “M.I.N.I.”). Results Overall, the three instruments identified depression with excellent accuracy and validity (area under the curve [AUC]>0.9) and good reliability (Kappa statistics: 0.71–0.79; Cronbach’s alpha: 0.87–0.93). We did......Objective Major depression affects up to half of people living with HIV. However, among HIV-positive patients, depression goes unrecognized 60–70% of the time in non-psychiatric settings. We sought to evaluate three screening instruments and their short forms to facilitate the recognition...... of current depression in HIV-positive patients attending HIV specialty care clinics in Ontario. Methods A multi-centre validation study was conducted in Ontario to examine the validity and accuracy of three instruments (the Center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale [CESD20], the Kessler Psychological...

  5. Management of long-lived radioactive waste: stakes and ASN actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dandrieux, G.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the length of time it takes to decay, long-lived radioactive waste will remain a hazard on a timescale beyond the length of a human life, and even of several generations. In the case of this waste, long-term management solutions must be implemented to protect human health and the environment without requiring human intervention. In accordance with requirements under the Law, ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive waste) is carrying out research on disposal solutions in deep or subsurface geological formations. Nonetheless, until such repositories become available, ASN (authority for nuclear safety) has a duty to ensure safety at current and future interim storage facilities, as well as the safety of operations to retrieve and package this type of waste. To this end, ASN acts on several levels: it is involved in drawing up regulations and reference texts, at national and international level, it examines safety analysis reports related to radioactive waste management at basic nuclear installations, by means of inspections that it performs at every step in radioactive waste management. In its capacity as joint coordinator of the national plan for the management of nuclear waste and materials (PNGMDR) working group, ASN also plays a very active role in drawing up the provisions of the PNGMDR aimed at improving and optimising radioactive waste management. (author)

  6. A dead-time correction method for short-lived radioisotopes using measured peak areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, G.

    1984-01-01

    A computer based method has been developed for the correction of counting losses due to ADC dead-time and pulse pile-up in gamma-ray spectrometry. The method is designed specifically for neutron activation analysis and can handle a mixture of short-lived radionuclides, where the dead-time decreases substantially during the measurement period. Once the system is calibrated, the only input values needed to correct a spectrum are the measured peak areas and the counting time. (orig.)

  7. Review of short-lived radionuclide activities in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodd, V.J.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of the accelerator-produced short-lived radionuclides which are used in radiopharmaceuticals available commercially in the US and of the accelerator facilities devoted primarily to their production. Reactions for the efficient production of 67 Ga, 81 Rb → /sup 81m/Kr, 111 In, 201 Tl, and 123 I are given. Methods for the production of higher purity 123 I are suggested

  8. Gas chemical investigation of hafnium and zirconium complexes with hexafluoroacetylacetone using preseparated short-lived radioisotopes

    OpenAIRE

    Düllmann, Ch. E.; Gregorich, K. E.; Pang, G. K.; Dragojevic, I.; Eichler, Robert; Folden III, C.M.; Garcia, M. A.; Gates, J. M.; Hoffman, D.C.; Nelson, S. L.; Sudowe, Ralf; Nitsche, Heino

    2017-01-01

    Volatile metal complexes of the group 4 elements Zr and Hf with hexafluoroacetylacetonate (hfa) have been studied using short-lived radioisotopes of the metals. The new technique of physical preseparation has been employed where reaction products from heavy-ion induced fusion reactions are isolated in a physical recoil separator - the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator in our work - and made available for chemistry experiments. Formation and decomposition of M(hfa)4 (M=Zr, Hf) has been observed an...

  9. Continuous administration of short-lived isotopes for evaluating dynamic parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selikson, M.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper it is shown that continuous but varying infusions (specifically, exponential infusions) of a short-lived radionuclide can be used to evaluate a wide range of dynamic parameters. The detector response to exponential infusions is derived. An example of an inert diffusible substrate for evaluating regional flow and a glucose model for evaluating regional metabolic rate are both worked out. The advantages of using exponential infusion methods are discussed

  10. Miss Piggy, a californium-252 fission fragment source as a generator of short-lived radionuclides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Düllmann, Ch. E.; Eichler, B.; Eichler, R.; Gäggeler, H. W.; Jost, D. T.; Kindler, U.; Piguet, D.; Soverna, S.; Thörle, P.; Trautmann, N.; Türler, A.

    2003-10-01

    Carrier-free short-lived nuclides are employed in many different fields of modern nuclear chemistry. The two main production strategies are either thermal neutron-induced fission of 235U or 239Pu at nuclear reactors or spallation neutron sources or charged particle-induced nuclear reactions at accelerator facilities. An alternative method is to use a spontaneously fissioning nuclide. A facility applying this technique ("Miss Piggy") was built at the University of Berne (Switzerland). Californium-252 ( 252Cf), which has a 3% fission branch and a half-life of 2.645 a, is used for the production of short-lived fission products that are stopped in an adjacent recoil chamber. Short-lived nuclides are transported out of the recoil chamber using the well-known gas-jet technique. Over 100 nuclides have been identified so far and used in different applications. Since such a device does not require any large facility and is easy to operate it serves well the needs of typical university laboratories.

  11. 12 Living with Waste: Major Sources of Worries and Concerns about ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    Living with Waste: Major Sources of Worries and Concerns about Landfills in Lagos. Metropolis, Nigeria. Olorunfemi, Felix B*. Abstract. There is widespread public perception that landfills represent unacceptable risks to human health and environment. However, while there is an extensive literature on the impact of landfills ...

  12. External effect of natural events on depth long-lived radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaliberda, I.V.; Levin, A.G.; Murlis, D.V.; Smetnik, A.A.; Tsypin, S.G.; Sharafutdinov, R.B.

    2003-01-01

    Effect of different native events on depth long-lived high-level radioactive waste disposals is reviewed. Possible effects of cosmogenic events, glaciation, climatic change are described. Data on safety of engineering constructions created by mankind before are presented [ru

  13. Impact of long-lived radionuclides on waste classification for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maninger, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    A major goal for commercial applications of fusion reactors is to minimize radioactive wastes and to dispose of them by near-surface burial. There currently are no regulations specifically applicable to fusion wastes but those in force for fission wastes furnish a framework for expected fusion regulations. This paper recommends that all nuclides with half-lives greater than five years be assigned concentration limits as done in 10CFR61 for fission wastes. The paper gives approximate limits for all the significant long half-life sources of gamma radiation in the currently known periodic table. In the absence of working fusion reactors, computer models must be used to estimate the expected actual concentrations of radioactive nuclides. These estimates are needed to guide design parameters to achieve minimum radioactivity in fusion reactors. It is believed that the computer models and nuclear reaction libraries must be much more comprehensive than ordinarily used today to do activation calculations

  14. Increased deaths from gastric cancer in communities living close to waste landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Ciaula, Agostino

    2016-01-01

    Municipal waste landfills (MWLs) have been linked with some malignancies, but data about gastric cancer (GC) are still uncertain. Number of deaths from GC, death rates, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated considering all residents in the 258 towns in the Apulia Region (4,099,547 subjects, years 2006-2009), living within 3 km from each of the 16 regional MWLs (n = 716,404) or in control areas (n = 3,383,143). Males living close to MWLs showed a higher death rate for GC, a twofold higher mean number of GC deaths and higher adjusted ORs of GC, compared with controls areas. In a large population and over a wide time period, an increased risk of death from GC has been shown in males living in communities close to MWLs. Primary prevention policies acting through more sustainable waste management might probably partially reduce deaths from GC in areas with MWLs.

  15. Extraction of long-lived radionuclides from caustic Hanford tank waste supernatants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mertz, C.J.; Vojta, Y. [and others

    1995-07-01

    A series of polymer-based extraction systems, based on the use of polyethylene glycols (PEGs) or polypropylene glycols (PPGs), was demonstrated to be capable of selective extraction and recovery of long-lived radionuclides, such as {sup 99}Tc and {sup 129}I, from Hanford SY-101 tank waste, neutralized current acid waste, and single-shell tank waste simulants. During the extraction process, anionic species like TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and I{sup {minus}} are selectively transferred to the less dense PEG-rich aqueous phase. The partition coefficients for a wide range of inorganic cations and anions, such as sodium, potassium, aluminum, nitrate, nitrite, and carbonate, are all less than one. The partition coefficients for pertechnetate ranged from 12 to 50, depending on the choice of waste simulant and temperature. The partition coefficient for iodide was about 5, while that of iodate was about 0.25. Irradiation of the PEG phase with gamma-ray doses up to 20 Mrad had no detectable effect on the partition coefficients. The most selective extraction systems examined were those based on PPGs, which exhibited separation factors in excess of 3000 between TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}/NO{sub 2}{sub {minus}}. An advantage of the PPG-based system is minimization of secondary waste production. These studies also highlighted the need for exercising great care in extrapolating the partitioning behavior with tank waste simulants to actual tank waste.

  16. Effect of short-term natural weathering on MSWI and wood waste bottom ash leaching behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gori, M; Bergfeldt, B; Pfrang-Stotz, G; Reichelt, J; Sirini, P

    2011-05-15

    Short term natural weathering was applied on municipal solid waste (MSW) and wood waste incinerator bottom ash (BA). The materials were analysed at different steps of treatment and characterized for chemical and mineralogical composition. Both short and long term leaching behaviour of main elements and heavy metals were investigated as well. Lead, zinc and copper were the main heavy metals to be released. After 12 weeks of treatment the concentration of leached zinc decreased. Lead concentration was not found to be influenced by pH and decreased only for the biomass samples. Weathering did not have beneficial effects on copper leaching, which was well described by complexation processes with DOC. The findings from the experimental campaign indicated that weathering reactions improved the mineral stability of the analysed materials but, in contrast with previous works, the treatment was not sufficient to guarantee pH stability and to comply with leaching law limits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Development plan. High activity-long living wastes project. Abstract; Plan de developpement. Projet HAVL. Resume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This brochure presents the actions that the ANDRA (the French national agency of radioactive wastes) has to implement in the framework of the project of high activity-long living (HALL) radioactive wastes (HAVL project) conformably to the requirements of the program defined in the law from June 28, 2006 (law no 2006-739). This law precises the three, complementary, research paths to explore for the management of this type of wastes: separation and transmutation of long-living radioactive elements, reversible disposal in deep geologic underground, and long duration storage. The ANDRA's action concerns the geologic disposal aspect. The following points are presented: the HALL wastes and their containers, the reversible disposal procedure, the HAVL project: financing of researches, storage concepts, development plan of the project (dynamics, information and dialogue approach, input data, main steps, schedule); the nine programs of the HAVL project (laboratory experiments and demonstration tests, surface survey, scientific program, simulation program, surface engineering studies and technological tests, information and communication program, program of environment and facilities surface observation and monitoring, waste packages management, monitoring and transport program, disposal program); the five transverse technical and scientific activities (safety, reversibility, cost, health and occupational safety, impact study). (J.S.)

  18. Dealing with uncertainty: Response-resilient climate change mitigation polices for long-lived and short-lived climate pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, R.; Boneham, J.; Hepburn, C.; Allen, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change solutions are subject to many inherent uncertainties. One of the most important is the uncertainty over the magnitude of the physical response of the climate system to external forcing. The risk of extremely large responses to forcing, so called "fat-tail" outcomes, cannot be ruled out from the latest science and offer profound challenges when creating policies that aim to meet a specific target of global temperature change. This study offers examples of how mitigation policies can be made resilient to this uncertainty in the physical climate response via indexing policies against an attributable anthropogenic warming index (the magnitude of the observed global mean warming that is can be traced to human activities), the AWI, instead of against time directly. We show that indexing policy measures that influence the total stock of carbon in the atmosphere (such as the fraction of extracted carbon sequestered) against the AWI can largely eliminate the risk of missing the specified warming goal due to unexpectedly large climate responses as well as the risk of costly over-mitigation if the physical response turned out to be lower than expected. We offer further examples of how this methodology can be expanded to include short-lived climate pollutants as well as long-lived carbon dioxide. Indexing policies against the AWI can have important consequences for the actions of governments acting to design national climate mitigation policies as well as private sector investors looking to incentivise the transition to a climate-stable economy. We conclude with some thoughts on how these indexes can help focus attention on the long-term perspective that is consistent with the conclusions of the latest climate science on what is required to ultimately stabilise the global climate system.

  19. Radiotracer diffusion in semiconductors and metallic compounds using short-lived isotopes

    CERN Multimedia

    Deicher, M; Kronenberg, J; Wagner, F E

    The transport of atoms in solids is of central importance for solid state physics, chemistry, metallurgy, and material sciences. Since the mobility of atoms in solids contributes to many physical phenomena the study of diffusion processes is of fundamental interest for solid state physics. Diffusion processes were frequently investigated using radioactive isotopes (radiotracers). The application of short-lived isotopes delivered at ISOLDE extends substantially the possibilities of investigating diffusion processes in solids. In particular, a new experimental set-up to be installed at ISOLDE in this year will enable the use of radioactive isotopes with half-lives down to minutes. Alternatively, in special cases diffusion processes can be investigated with help of hyperfine techniques on an atomic scale, like by perturbed $\\gamma \\gamma$-angular correlation (PAC). Here, the motion of the atom of interest becomes visible directly via characteristic changes in the measured PAC spectra.

  20. Establishing appropriate measures for monitoring aging in birds: comparing short and long lived species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottinger, M.A.; Reed, E.; Wu, J.; Thompson, N.; French, J.B.

    2003-01-01

    In order to reveal patterns of reproductive aging in birds we focus on a short lived species, the Japanese quail and the American kestrel, which has a life span of medium length. Quail have been studied extensively in the laboratory as models for understanding avian endocrinology and behavior, and as a subject for toxicological research and testing. In the lab, Japanese quail show age-related deterioration in endocrine, behavioral, and sensory system responses; the American kestrel is relatively long lived and shows moderate evidence of senescence in the oldest birds. Using data collected from captive kestrels at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, a database was designed to document selected parameters over the life cycle of the kestrels. Life table data collated from many species indicate that longer lived species of birds show senescence in survival ability but this pattern has not been established for reproductive function. We suggest that useful comparisons among species can be made by identifying stages in reproductive life history, organized on a relative time scale. Preliminary data from quail and kestrels, admittedly only two species, do not yet indicate a pattern of greater reproductive senescence in longer-lived birds.

  1. Applications of short-lived activation products in neutron activation analysis of bio-environmental specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This report discusses the advantages and disadvantages, special techniques, and actual and potential applications of neutron activation analysis (NAA) utilizing short-lived neutron-induced products, with special reference to the analysis of samples of biological and environmental origin. Attention is devoted mainly to products having half-lives in roughly the range of 10 milliseconds to 60 seconds, but with some discussion of the usefulness of even shorter-lived species, and ones with half-lives as long as a few minutes. Important aspects of the analytical methodology include sample preparation, irradiation/transfer systems, activity measurements, data processing and analytical quality assurance. It is concluded that several trace elements can be determined in bio-environmental samples (as well as in samples of industrial, geochemical and other origin). In particular, this method provides analytical possibilities for several elements (e.g. B, F, Li and V) that are difficult to determine in some matrices at trace levels by any other technique. These conclusions are illustrated in an annex by results of calculations in which the applicability of the techniques to the analysis of several biological and environmental reference materials is evaluated by means of an advance computer prediction program. The report concludes with an annotated bibliography of relevant publications (including abstracts, where available) taken from the INIS database. (author)

  2. Short-lived cyclotron-produced radioisotopes: Medi-Physics, Inc.'s commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    Medi-Physics, Inc., is a major US supplier of short-lived cyclotron-produced radioisotopes for radiopharmaceuticals, as well as routinely producing and distributing the greatest number of 123 I radiopharmaceuticals. The present commercial production capacity for 123 I is more than ten times the theoretical need for existing procedures and is more than adequate for the research and development of new radiopharmaceuticals. However, production capacity is only one component of many that are required to supply a radioisotope for human use. These components are summarized in this paper

  3. [Hyperfine structure and isotope shift measurements of short lived elements by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, H.A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine nuclear moments and charge distributions of short-lived isotopes produced both on-line and off-line to a nuclear facility. These measurements give detailed information on the nuclear force and are used to test current nuclear models. The small amounts of nuclei which can be produced off stability constitute the challenge in these experiments. Presently mainly neutron-rich isotopes are being studied by three ultrasensitive high-resolution laser techniques. These are collinear fast ion-beam laser spectroscopy, stored-ion laser spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. 5 figs

  4. Direct mass measurements of short-lived proton-rich nuclides at CSRe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, X.L.; Tu, X.L.; Du, C.M.; Geng, P.; Jin, S.L.; Liu, L.X.; Tang, S.W.; Wang, S.T; Xu, X.; Ye, R.P.; Zang, Y.D. [IMPCAS (China); GUCAS (China); Wang, M.; Zhang, Y.H.; Xu, H.S.; Sun, Z.Y.; Huang, W.X.; Hu, Z.G.; Liu, Y.; Mei, B.; Mao, R.S.; Ma, X.W.; Wang, J.S; Xiao, G.Q.; Xia, J.W; Yang, J.C.; Yuan, Y.J.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhao, T.C.; Zhang, X.Y.; Zhou, X.H; Zhan, W.L [IMPCAS (China); Litvinov, Yu.A. [IMPCAS (China); MPIK (Germany); GSI (Germany); Audi, G. [CSNSM-IN2P3-CNRS, Universite de Paris Sud (France); Blaum, K. [MPIK (Germany); Suzuki, H. [Univ. of Tsukuba (Japan); Shuai, P. [USTC (China); Sun, Y. [IMPCAS (China); SJTU (China); Yamaguchi, T. [Saitama Univ. (Japan); Yamaguchi, Y. [RIKEN (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    Masses of A=2Z-1 proton-rich nuclides were measured with the experimental cooler storage ring CSRe in Lanzhou by employing the isochronous mass spectrometry (IMS) method. The short-lived proton-rich nuclides were produced via {sup 78}Kr projectile fragmentation, separated in the radioactive beam line RIBLL2 and then stored in CSRe. A typical mass resolving power of R=m/{Delta}m{approx}1.7.10{sup 5} was achieved. After the improvement of the stability of CSRe dipole magnet power supplies, a new measurement with {sup 58}Ni projectile fragments was carried out. The data analysis methods for both experiments are presented.

  5. A calibration technique for gas-flow ionization chambers with short half-lived rare gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Oishi, T.; Honda, T.; Torii, T.

    1996-01-01

    A calibration technique for gas-flow ionization chambers was studied for implementation of reliable radioactive gas monitoring. Three radioactive gases with short half-lives of 133 Xe, 135 Xe and 41 Ar were prepared by activating stable isotopes and used for the calibration. On the basis of activity determination by the DLPC method, a gas-flow ionization chamber used as a secondary standard was precisely calibrated in terms of ionization efficiency for each radionuclide. The influence of impurities in the 133 Xe gas on calibration of gas monitoring instruments is also discussed. This technique is considered to make the easy and reliable calibration of gas monitoring instruments possible. (orig.)

  6. NMR detection of short-lived β-emitter 12N implanted in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, T.; Mihara, M.; Shimaya, J.; Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ohno, J.; Tanaka, M.; Yamaoka, S.; Watanabe, K.; Iwakiri, S.; Yanagihara, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Du, H.; Onishi, K.; Kambayashi, S.; Minamisono, T.; Nishimura, D.; Izumikawa, T.; Ozawa, A.; Ishibashi, Y.; Kitagawa, A.; Sato, S.; Torikoshi, M.; Momota, S.

    2017-11-01

    The beta-detected nuclear magnetic resonance ( β-NMR) in liquid H2O has been observed for the first time using a short-lived β-ray emitter 12N ( I π = 1+, T 1/2=11 ms). A nuclear spin polarized 12N beam with an energy of about 20 MeV/nucleon was implanted into an enclosed water sample. About 50 % of implanted 12N ions maintained nuclear polarization and exhibited a β-NMR spectrum. The chemical shift of 12N in H2O relative to 12N in Pt was deduced to be -(3.6±0.5) × 102 ppm.

  7. Beam-on imaging of short-lived positron emitters during proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, H. J. T.; Diblen, F.; Brzezinski, K. W.; Brandenburg, S.; Dendooven, P.

    2017-06-01

    In vivo dose delivery verification in proton therapy can be performed by positron emission tomography (PET) of the positron-emitting nuclei produced by the proton beam in the patient. A PET scanner installed in the treatment position of a proton therapy facility that takes data with the beam on will see very short-lived nuclides as well as longer-lived nuclides. The most important short-lived nuclide for proton therapy is 12N (Dendooven et al 2015 Phys. Med. Biol. 60 8923-47), which has a half-life of 11 ms. The results of a proof-of-principle experiment of beam-on PET imaging of short-lived 12N nuclei are presented. The Philips Digital Photon Counting Module TEK PET system was used, which is based on LYSO scintillators mounted on digital SiPM photosensors. A 90 MeV proton beam from the cyclotron at KVI-CART was used to investigate the energy and time spectra of PET coincidences during beam-on. Events coinciding with proton bunches, such as prompt gamma rays, were removed from the data via an anti-coincidence filter with the cyclotron RF. The resulting energy spectrum allowed good identification of the 511 keV PET counts during beam-on. A method was developed to subtract the long-lived background from the 12N image by introducing a beam-off period into the cyclotron beam time structure. We measured 2D images and 1D profiles of the 12N distribution. A range shift of 5 mm was measured as 6  ±  3 mm using the 12N profile. A larger, more efficient, PET system with a higher data throughput capability will allow beam-on 12N PET imaging of single spots in the distal layer of an irradiation with an increased signal-to-background ratio and thus better accuracy. A simulation shows that a large dual panel scanner, which images a single spot directly after it is delivered, can measure a 5 mm range shift with millimeter accuracy: 5.5  ±  1.1 mm for 1  ×  108 protons and 5.2  ±  0.5 mm for 5  ×  108 protons. This makes

  8. Cost benefit analysis, sustainability and long-lived radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine how far the sustainability concept and the technique of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) can be applied to the problem of radioactive waste management. The paper begins with a slightly altered definition of the problem to the one carried in the Nea's background document (Nea 1994). A preliminary attempt is then be made to ascribe burdens to the various phases of long-lived radioactive waste management. The appropriateness of CBA and the sustainability concept for making decisions about long-term waste management policy is then discussed. The author ends with some conclusions about the appropriateness of systematic assessment approaches in the political process of constructing social consent for technological decisions. (O.L.). 12 refs., 1 tab

  9. Search for short-lived particles produced on nuclei with a heavy liquid mini bubble chamber

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this experiment is to search for short-lived particles produced in hadronic interactions on nuclei with our high resolution heavy liquid mini bubble chamber BIBC, aiming to establish the cross-section for associated production in hadron-nucleus collisions, its $A$-dependence and an approximate value of the lifetime. The chamber will be operated at a bubble density of 290 bubbles/cm and with an apparent bubble size of 30 $\\mu$m in real space. In test runs at CERN we measured detection efficiencies which, together with simulations of $D\\bar{D}$ production and decay, lead to a sensitivity of 0.25 events/($\\mu$b/N) per day if the lifetime is of the order of $5\\times10^{-13}$s. A null result after 10 days running time would set an upper limit on the production cross section to $3 \\mu$b. \\\\ \\\\ In order to measure the momenta of charged decay products of short-lived particles, the bubble chamber will be placed 1.80 m upstream of the streamer chamber of the NA5 experiment (MPI). The geometrical acceptance ...

  10. Production of exotic, short lived carbon isotopes in ISOL-type facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Franberg, Hanna; Köster, Ulli; Ammann, Markus

    2008-01-01

    The beam intensities of short-lived carbon isotopes at Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) facilities have been limited in the past for technical reasons. The production of radioactive ion beams of carbon isotopes is currently of high interest for fundamental nuclear physics research. To produce radioactive ions a target station consisting of a target in a container connected to an ion source via a transfer line is commonly used. The target is heated to vaporize the product for transport. Carbon in elementary form is a very reactive element and react strongly with hot metal surfaces. Due to the strong chemisorption interaction, in the target and ion source unit, the atoms undergo significant retention on their way from the target to the ion source. Due to this the short lived isotopes decays and are lost leading to low ion yields. A first approach to tackle these limitations consists of incorporating the carbon atoms into less reactive molecules and to use materials for the target housing and the transfer line ...

  11. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Menon

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  12. Short-lived pollutants in the Arctic: their climate impact and possible mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Surabi; Quinn, P.K.; Bates, T.S.; Baum, E.; Doubleday, N.; Fiore, A.M.; Flanner, M.; Fridlind, A.; Garrett, T.J.; Koch, D.; Menon, S.; Shindell, D.; Stohl, A.; Warren, S.G.

    2007-09-24

    Several short-lived pollutants known to impact Arctic climate may be contributing to the accelerated rates of warming observed in this region relative to the global annually averaged temperature increase. Here, we present a summary of the short-lived pollutants that impact Arctic climate including methane, tropospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. For each pollutant, we provide a description of the major sources and the mechanism of forcing. We also provide the first seasonally averaged forcing and corresponding temperature response estimates focused specifically on the Arctic. The calculations indicate that the forcings due to black carbon, methane, and tropospheric ozone lead to a positive surface temperature response indicating the need to reduce emissions of these species within and outside the Arctic. Additional aerosol species may also lead to surface warming if the aerosol is coincident with thin, low lying clouds. We suggest strategies for reducing the warming based on current knowledge and discuss directions for future research to address the large remaining uncertainties.

  13. Antigen modulation of the immune response. III. Evaluation of the hypothetical short-lived memory cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldbush, T.L.; Lande, I.; Bryan, B.; O'Neill, E.

    1974-01-01

    The putative short-lived memory cells, whose existence has been suggested by the results of secondary adoptive transfer experiments, were investigated. On the basis of the following evidences we have concluded that the short-lived memory cell is probably an artifact of the adoptive transfer technique: when immune thoracic duct lymphocytes, known to consist predominantly of long-lived memory cells, were transferred to irradiated recipients and challenged at various times after transfer, approximately 80 to 90 percent of the initial response was absent by Day 14 challenge; preirradiating adoptive recipients with increasing dose of x-irradiation tended to lengthen the observed half life of memory cells; single or multiple treatments of immune donors with 0.3 mg Vinblastin before transfer resulted in neither a depression of the initial secondary response nor an alteration in the rate of decline of the memory potential; reconstitution of irradiated hosts with normal spleen cells one day before transfer of memory cells and challenge resulted in inhibition of the adoptive secondary response; and the transfer of memory cells to antigen free intermediate hosts, in which they were allowed to reside for one day or fourteen days before transfer to irradiated recipients, resulted in only a slight decline in their capacity to respond. We propose that the rapid decline of memory potential in adoptive recipients challenged at various times after transfer is due to modulating effects by the hosts as it recovers from irradiation. These effects may be the result of cell crowding or the loss of irradiation-produced stimulatory factors. The relevance of these findings to adoptive transfer systems in general and the secondary response of intact animals is discussed

  14. Seeds of alpine plants are short lived: implications for long-term conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondoni, Andrea; Probert, Robin J; Rossi, Graziano; Vegini, Emanuele; Hay, Fiona R

    2011-01-01

    Alpine plants are considered one of the groups of species most sensitive to the direct and indirect threats to ecosystems caused by land use and climate change. Collecting and banking seeds of plant species is recognized as an effective tool for providing propagating material to re-establish wild plant populations and for habitat repair. However, seeds from cold wet environments have been shown to be relatively short lived in storage, and therefore successful long-term seed conservation for alpine plants may be difficult. Here, the life spans of 69 seed lots representing 63 related species from alpine and lowland locations from northern Italy are compared. Seeds were placed into experimental storage at 45 °C and 60 % relative humidity (RH) and regularly sampled for germination. The time taken in storage for viability to fall to 50 % (p(50)) was determined using probit analysis and used as a measure of relative seed longevity between seed lots. Across species, p(50) at 45 °C and 60 % RH varied from 4·7 to 95·5 d. Seed lots from alpine populations/species had significantly lower p(50) values compared with those from lowland populations/species; the lowland seed lots showed a slower rate of loss of germinability, higher initial seed viability, or both. Seeds were progressively longer lived with increased temperature and decreased rainfall at the collecting site. Seeds of alpine plants are short lived in storage compared with those from lowland populations/related taxa. The lower resistance to ageing in seeds of alpine plants may arise from low selection pressure for seed resistance to ageing and/or damage incurred during seed development due to the cool wet conditions of the alpine climate. Long-term seed conservation of several alpine species using conventional seed banking methods will be problematic.

  15. Muscle senescence in short-lived wild mammals, the soricine shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, Allyson G; Lawler, John M; Campbell, Kevin L; Horning, Markus

    2009-06-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H(0): shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n=17) and second-year (n=17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: approximately 50%; B. brevicauda: approximately 60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris ( approximately 50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Muscle Senescence in Short-Lived Wild Mammals, the Soricine Shrews Blarina brevicauda and Sorex palustris

    Science.gov (United States)

    HINDLE, ALLYSON G.; LAWLER, JOHN M.; CAMPBELL, KEVIN L.; HORNING, MARKUS

    2015-01-01

    Red-toothed (soricine) shrews are consummate predators exhibiting the highest energy turnovers and shortest life spans (ca. 18 months) of any mammal, yet virtually nothing is known regarding their physiological aging. We assessed the emerging pattern of skeletal muscle senescence (contractile/connective tissue components) in sympatric species, the semi-aquatic water shrew (WS), Sorex palustris, and the terrestrial short-tailed shrew (STS), Blarina brevicauda, to determine if muscle aging occurs in wild, short-lived mammals (H0: shrews do not survive to an age where senescence occurs), and if so, whether these alterations are species-specific. Gracilis muscles were collected from first-year (n = 17) and second-year (n = 17) field-caught shrews. Consistent with typical mammalian aging, collagen content (% area) increased with age in both species (S. palustris: ~50%; B. brevicauda: ~60%). Muscle was dominated by stiffer Type I collagen, and the ratio of collagen Type I:Type III more than doubled with age. The area ratio of muscle:collagen decreased with age in both species, but was considerably lower in adult STS, suggesting species-specificity of senescence. Extracellular space was age-elevated in B. brevicauda, but was preserved in S. palustris (~50 vs. 10% elevation). Though juvenile interspecific comparisons revealed no significance, adult WS myocytes had 68% larger cross-sectional area and occurred at 28% lower fibers/area than those of adult STS. We demonstrate that age-related muscle senescence does occur in wild-caught, short-lived mammals, and we therefore reject this classic aging theory tenet. Our findings moreover illustrate that differential age adjustments in contractile/connective tissue components of muscle occur in the two species of wild-caught shrews. PMID:19296507

  17. RADIO CONSTRAINTS ON LONG-LIVED MAGNETAR REMNANTS IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, W.; Özel, F. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Metzger, B. D. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-11-10

    The merger of a neutron star (NS) binary may result in the formation of a rapidly spinning magnetar. The magnetar can potentially survive for seconds or longer as a supramassive NS before collapsing to a black hole if, indeed, it collapses at all. During this process, a fraction of the magnetar’s rotational energy of ∼10{sup 53} erg is transferred via magnetic spin-down to the surrounding ejecta. The resulting interaction between the ejecta and the surrounding circumburst medium powers a year-long or greater synchrotron radio transient. We present a search for radio emission with the Very Large Array following nine short-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at rest-frame times of ≈1.3–7.6 yr after the bursts, focusing on those events that exhibit early-time excess X-ray emission that may signify the presence of magnetars. We place upper limits of ≲18–32 μ Jy on the 6.0 GHz radio emission, corresponding to spectral luminosities of ≲(0.05–8.3) × 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}. Comparing these limits to the predicted radio emission from a long-lived remnant and incorporating measurements of the circumburst densities from broadband modeling of short GRB afterglows, we rule out a stable magnetar with an energy of 10{sup 53} erg for half of the events in our sample. A supramassive remnant that injects a lower rotational energy of 10{sup 52} erg is ruled out for a single event, GRB 050724A. This study represents the deepest and most extensive search for long-term radio emission following short GRBs to date, and thus the most stringent limits placed on the physical properties of magnetars associated with short GRBs from radio observations.

  18. Short-lived Isotopes from a Close-by AGB Star Triggering the Protosolar Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallino, R.; Busso, M.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Straniero, O.

    The presence of short-lived isotopes in the early solar system, in particular 26Al, 41Ca, 60Fe, and 107Pd, point to a close-by and fresh nucleosynthesis source, possibly triggering the collapse of the protosolar nebula. We present the results of nucleosynthesis calculations based on an AGB polluting hypothesis. A general concordance of the predicted yields of the above radioactivities relative to 26Al can be obtained in the case of an intermediate mass AGB star with hot bottom burning in the envelope (thus producing 26Al), and mixing through a series of third dredge-up episodes a fraction of the C-rich and s-processed material from the He intershell with the extended envelope. Polution of the protosolar nebula with freshly synthesized material may derive from the efficient winds of the AGB star. In AGB stars, the s-process nucleosynthesis occurs both during the maximum phase of every thermal runaway, driven by the partial activation of the 22Ne(alpha,n)25Mg reaction, and in the interpulse phase, where the 13C nuclei are fully consumed in radiative conditions by the activation of the 13C(alpha,n)16O reaction. We have used different prescriptions for the amount of the 13C nuclei present in the intershell. A minimum amount of 13C is naturally expected in the ashes of H-shell burning. Possible formation of an extra "13C-pocket" derives from the injection of a small amount of protons from the envelope into the 12C-rich intershell during any third dredge-up episode, when the H-shell is inactivated. Prediction for other short-lived, 36Cl, 135Cs, and 205Pb, are given. General consequences for the pollution of the protosolar nebula with newly synthesized stable isotopes from the AGB winds are outlined. The origin of other detected short-lived nuclei, in particular 53Mn, 129I, and 182Hf, which cannot come from an AGB source, is analysed. The alternative trigger hypothesis by a close-by Supernova is discussed.

  19. COMPAS: a European project on the ''comparison of alternative waste management strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes''. Scope, working methods and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutton, L.M.C.; Hillis, Z.K.; Roehlig, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents the content and major findings of a project on the ''COMParison of Alternative waste management Strategies for long-lived radioactive wastes'' (COMPAS) carried out within the 5 th framework programme of the European commission. Under the leadership of NNC (UK), the project was carried out by individuals representing waste management organisations from 15 European countries. After having compiled information on the nature and amount of long-lived radioactive waste to be managed, issues influencing the selection of waste management strategies and options, presently adopted national strategies as well as options for the future were addressed. Conclusions concerning key issues for the success or otherwise of strategies and management solutions were drawn. (orig.)

  20. Contribution of very short-lived substances to stratospheric bromine loading: uncertainties and constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Aschmann

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Very short-lived substances (VSLS still represent a major factor of uncertainty in the quantification of stratospheric bromine loading. One of the major obstacles for short-lived source gases in contributing to the stratosphere is generally thought to be loss of inorganic bromine (Bry in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL due to dehydration. We use sensitivity calculations with a three-dimensional chemistry transport model comprising a consistent parametrization of convective transport and a comprehensive chemistry scheme to investigate the associated processes. The model considers the two most important bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3 and dibromomethane (CH2Br2. The organic bromine source gases as well as the resulting profile of inorganic bromine in the model are consistent with available observations. In contrast to its organic precursors, Bry is assumed to have a significant sorption capacity regarding sedimenting liquid or frozen particles thus the fraction of intact source gases during their ascent through the TTL is a critical factor. We find that source gas injection is the dominant pathway into the stratosphere, about 50% of CHBr3 and 94% of CH2Br2 is able to overcome the cold point tropopause at approximately 17 km altitude, modulated by the interannual variability of the vertical transport efficiency. In fact, our sensitivity calculations indicate that the extent of source gas injection of CHBr3 is highly sensitive to the strength of convection and large-scale ascent; in contrast, modifying the photolysis or the destruction via OH yields a significantly smaller response. In principle, the same applies as well to CH2Br2, though it is considerably less responsive due to its longer lifetime. The next important aspect we identified is that the partitioning of available Bry from short-lived sources is clearly

  1. Synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals containing short-lived radionuclides: Progress report, March 1, 1987-February 28, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabalka, G.W.

    1987-09-01

    The objective is the creation of new methods for introducing short-lived isotopes into agents for use in diagnostic nuclear medicine. Focus is on the design of new molecular architecture as opposed to the application of known reactions to the synthesis of specific radiopharmaceuticals. The new technology is utilized in nuclear medicine research at the University of Tennessee Medical Imaging Center and in collaboration with colleagues at other DOE facilities. The program provides training for students in the scientific aspects of nuclear medicine. The academic nature of the program facilitates collaborative interactions with other DOE nuclear medicine programs and helps to insure the continued availability of skilled scientists dedicated to the advancement of nuclear medicine. 70 refs., 9 figs

  2. Production, study and use of short-lived nuclides in pure and applied nuclear research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoernstad, T.

    1986-01-01

    The thesis which is based on 17 published papers, reports on the on-line performance of the fast radiochemical separation system SISAK, technical devlopment in the preparation of sources for beta-particles and neutrons, and on important SISAK system improvements concerning liquid hold-up time. It further reports on the development of new production targets at ISOLDE for 600 MeV proton and 910 MeV 3 He-particle irradiations, on tests with a heavy ion beam of 1 GeV 12 C-particles, and on the present availability of mass-separated beams of the halogen elements through new ion source development. Some results from nuclear spectroscopic studies of nuclides in selected mass regions when using such new or improved techniques are given. Examples of techniques for practical application of short-lived nuclides in radiochemical analysis and for radiochemical production for medical purposes are presented

  3. Behaviour of short-lived iodines in operating UO2 fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsett, J.J.; Hastings, I.J.; Hunt, C.E.L.

    1984-11-01

    Sweep gas experiments have been done to determine the behaviour of short-lived fission products within operating UO 2 fuel elements at linear powers of 45, 54, and 60 KW/m, and to burnups of 70, 80, and 50 MWh/kgU respectively. Although radioiodine transport was not observed directly during normal operation, equilibrium gap inventories for I-131 were deduced from the shutdown decay behaviour of the fission gases. These inventories were a strong function of fuel power and ranged from 10 GBq (0.27 Ci) to 100 GBq (2.7 Ci) over the range tested. We conclude that the iodine inventory was adsorbed onto the fuel and/or sheath surfaces with a volatile fraction of less than 10 -2 and a charcoal-filter-penetrating fraction of less than 2x10 -4

  4. Short-lived radionuclide production capability at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mausner, L.F.; Richards, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Brookhaven National Linac Isotope Producer is the first facility to demonstrate the capability of a large linear accelerator for efficient and economical production of difficult-to-make, medically useful radionuclides. The linac provides a beam of 200-MeV protons at an integrated beam current of up to 60 μA. The 200-MeV proton energy is very suitable for isotope production because the spallation process can create radionuclides unavailable at lower energy accelerators or reactors. Several medically important short-lived radionuclides are presently being prepared for on-site and off-site collaborative research programs. These are iodine-123, iron-52, manganese-52m, ruthenium-97, and the rubidium-81-krypton-81m system. The production parameters for these are summarized

  5. NMR detection of short-lived β-emitter {sup 12}N implanted in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, T., E-mail: sugihara@vg.phys.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp; Mihara, M.; Shimaya, J.; Matsuta, K.; Fukuda, M.; Ohno, J.; Tanaka, M.; Yamaoka, S.; Watanabe, K.; Iwakiri, S.; Yanagihara, R.; Tanaka, Y.; Du, H.; Onishi, K.; Kambayashi, S.; Minamisono, T. [Osaka University, Department of Physics (Japan); Nishimura, D. [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Physics (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [Niigata University, Radioisotope Center (Japan); Ozawa, A. [University of Tsukuba, Department of Physics (Japan); Ishibashi, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science (Japan); and others

    2017-11-15

    The beta-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (β-NMR) in liquid H{sub 2}O has been observed for the first time using a short-lived β-ray emitter {sup 12}N (I{sup π} = 1{sup +},T{sub 1/2}=11 ms). A nuclear spin polarized {sup 12}N beam with an energy of about 20 MeV/nucleon was implanted into an enclosed water sample. About 50 % of implanted {sup 12}N ions maintained nuclear polarization and exhibited a β-NMR spectrum. The chemical shift of {sup 12}N in H{sub 2}O relative to {sup 12}N in Pt was deduced to be −(3.6±0.5) × 10{sup 2} ppm.

  6. On-line perturbed angular correlation studies with the short lived $^{127} Cs$ probe

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, J G; Melo, A A; Soares, J C; Haas, H

    1999-01-01

    On-line Perturbed Angular Correlation (PAC) experiments were performed on the 66.0 keV excited state of 127 Cs, using the gamma(114.7 keV)-eL (66.0 keV) cascade from the decay of the short-lived 127 Ba (T1/2=13 min) isotope produced at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The PAC experiments were performed with an optimized g-e spectrometer coupled to the ISOLDE beam line, which allowed simultaneous implantation and measurement. The optimization of the experiment is described and the first results on metallic foils and single crystals of Al, Be, Ga, Zn, and Ni are presented and discussed. The derived nuclear moments of the 66.0 keV excited state of 127 Cs are |miu| = 2.9(2) miuN and |Q| = 0.58(12)b. Applications of this new PAC isotope are outlined.

  7. Short-lived climate pollutant mitigation and the Sustainable Development Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Andy; Amann, Markus; Borgford-Parnell, Nathan; Leonard, Sunday; Kuylenstierna, Johan; Shindell, Drew

    2017-12-01

    The post-2015 development agenda is dominated by a set of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) that arose from the 2012 Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. The 17 goals and 169 targets address diverse and intersecting aspects of human and environmental needs and challenges. Achieving the SDGs by 2030 requires implementing coordinated and concerted strategies and actions that minimize potential trade-offs and conflicts and maximize synergies to contribute to multiple SDGs. Measures to mitigate emissions of short-lived climate pollutants are an example of actions that contribute to multiple outcomes relevant to development. This Perspective highlights the interlinkages between these pollutants and the SDGs, and shows that implementing emissions reduction measures can contribute to achieving many of the SDGs.

  8. CARIBIC observations of short-lived halocarbons and carbonyl sulphide over Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leedham, E.; Wisher, A.; Oram, D.; Baker, A. K.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    The CARIBIC project (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com) aims to investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of a wide-range of compounds, including those of marine origin/influence, via ~monthly flights to collect in situ data and whole air samples aboard a commercial Lufthansa aircraft. CARIBIC measures up to an altitude of 12 km, allowing the influence of marine compounds on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS) to be explored. In particular, CARIBIC is a useful tool for exploring the impact of very short lived halocarbons (e.g. CH2Br2, CHBr3), whose impact on stratospheric ozone is dependent on convective uplift to the UTLS, a process which is not yet fully quantified. As part of the suite of CARIBIC measurements, whole air samples are analysed at the University of East Anglia (UEA) via gas chromatography mass spectrometry for carbonyl sulphide (OCS) and up to 40 halocarbons (accounting for virtually 100% of organic chlorine, bromine and iodine in the UTLS). Here we present an overview of short-lived halocarbons and OCS measured by CARIBIC. We focus on two regions of particular interest. (1) measurements made in 2012 over the tropical west Pacific to link with UEA measurements made during the SHIVA campaign. (2) measurements made during a collection of flights over India in 2008. Flights over India investigated the impact of monsoon circulation on the distribution of these compounds; for example, elevated concentrations of OCS were seen in CARIBIC samples taken over India during the summer monsoon (July - September). These flights, along with a wider range of flights over Asia (from Frankfurt to Guangzhou, Manila, Bangkok and Kuala Lumpur) can provide unique information on the influence of tropical convection and monsoon circulation on halocarbon and OCS transport within this region.

  9. A growing threat to the ozone layer from short-lived anthropogenic chlorocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, David E.; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Laube, Johannes C.; Gooch, Lauren J.; Humphrey, Stephen; Sturges, William T.; Leedham-Elvidge, Emma; Forster, Grant L.; Harris, Neil R. P.; Mead, Mohammed Iqbal; Abu Samah, Azizan; Moi Phang, Siew; Ou-Yang, Chang-Feng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Wang, Jia-Lin; Baker, Angela K.; Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.; Sherry, David

    2017-10-01

    Large and effective reductions in emissions of long-lived ozone-depleting substance (ODS) are being achieved through the Montreal Protocol, the effectiveness of which can be seen in the declining atmospheric abundances of many ODSs. An important remaining uncertainty concerns the role of very short-lived substances (VSLSs) which, owing to their relatively short atmospheric lifetimes (less than 6 months), are not regulated under the Montreal Protocol. Recent studies have found an unexplained increase in the global tropospheric abundance of one VSLS, dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), which has increased by around 60 % over the past decade. Here we report dramatic enhancements of several chlorine-containing VSLSs (Cl-VSLSs), including CH2Cl2 and CH2ClCH2Cl (1,2-dichloroethane), observed in surface and upper-tropospheric air in East and South East Asia. Surface observations were, on occasion, an order of magnitude higher than previously reported in the marine boundary layer, whilst upper-tropospheric data were up to 3 times higher than expected. In addition, we provide further evidence of an atmospheric transport mechanism whereby substantial amounts of industrial pollution from East Asia, including these chlorinated VSLSs, can rapidly, and regularly, be transported to tropical regions of the western Pacific and subsequently uplifted to the tropical upper troposphere. This latter region is a major provider of air entering the stratosphere, and so this mechanism, in conjunction with increasing emissions of Cl-VSLSs from East Asia, could potentially slow the expected recovery of stratospheric ozone.

  10. Power-density spectrum of non-stationary short-lived light curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidorzi, Cristiano

    2011-08-01

    The power-density spectrum of a light curve is often calculated as the average of a number of spectra derived on individual time intervals the light curve is divided into. This procedure implicitly assumes that each time interval is a different sample function of the same stochastic ergodic process. While this assumption can be applied to many astrophysical sources, there remains a class of transient, highly non-stationary and short-lived events, such as gamma-ray bursts, for which this approach is often inadequate. The power spectrum statistics of a constant signal affected by statistical (Poisson) noise are known to be a χ22 in the Leahy normalization. However, this is no more the case when a non-stationary signal is also present. As a consequence, the uncertainties on the power spectrum cannot be calculated on the basis of the χ22 properties, as assumed by tools such as XRONOS POWSPEC. We generalize the result in the case of a non-stationary signal affected by uncorrelated white noise and show that the new distribution is a non-central χ22(λ), whose non-central value λ is the power spectrum of the deterministic function describing the non-stationary signal. Finally, we test these results in the case of synthetic curves of gamma-ray bursts. We end up with a new formula for calculating the power spectrum uncertainties. This is crucial in the case of non-stationary short-lived processes affected by uncorrelated statistical noise, for which ensemble averaging does not make any physical sense.

  11. Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelstein, S.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Office of Sponsored Programs

    1995-02-01

    The Harvard-MIT Research Program in Short-lived Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-lived radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors` 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy.

  12. Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.

    1995-02-01

    The Harvard-MIT Research Program in Short-lived Radiopharmaceuticals was established in 1977 to foster interaction among groups working in radiopharmaceutical chemistry at Harvard Medical School, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the Massachusetts General Hospital. To this was added a group at The Childrens Hospital. From these collaborations and building upon the special strengths of the participating individuals, laboratories and institutions, it was hoped that original approaches would be found for the design of new, clinically useful, radiolabeled compounds. The original thrust of this proposal included: (a) examination of the coordination chemistry of technetium as a basis for rational radiopharmaceutical design, (b) development of an ultrashort-lived radionuclide generator for the diagnosis of congenital heart disease in newborns, (c) synthesis of receptor-site-directed halopharmaceuticals, (d) improved facile labeling of complex molecules with positron-emitting radionuclides. The authors' 1986 proposal was oriented toward organs and disease, emphasizing radiolabeled agents that delineate specific functions and the distribution of receptors in brain, heart, and tumors. In 1989, they further refined their purposes and focused on two major aims: (a) synthesis and utilization of neutral technetium and rhenium complexes of high specific activity, and (b) development of new approaches to the radiolabeling of proteins, peptides, immunoglobulins, and their fragments. In 1992, the authors amended this proposal to concentrate their efforts on biologically active peptides and proteins for targeted radiodiagnosis and therapy

  13. Determination of nuclear spins of short-lived isotopes by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchinger, F.; Dabkiewicz, P.; Kremmling, H.; Kuehl, T.; Mueller, A.C.; Schuessler, H.A.

    1980-01-01

    The spins of several nuclear ground and isomeric states have been measured for a number of mercury isotopes. The fluorescent light from the 6s6p 3 P 1 state is observed at 2537 Angstroem after excitation with the frequency doubled output of a pulsed dye laser. Four different laser induced fluorescence techniques were tested for their applicability: double resonance, Hanle effect, time delayed integral Hanle beats, and time resolved quantum beats. The sensitivity and selectivity of these models are compared with emphasis on the determination of spins of nuclei far from beta-stability, where short half lives and low production yields restrict the number of available atoms. The experiments were carried out on-line with the ISOLDE isotope separator at CERN at densities as low as 10 6 atoms/cm 3 . Results for the very neutron deficient high spin mercury isomers with half lives of several seconds, but also for the ground states of the abundant low spin stable mercury isotopes, are given as examples. The test measurements determined the nuclear spins of the odd sup(185m-191m)Hg isomers to be I = 13/2. (orig.)

  14. Short Term Donor Outcomes After Hepatectomy in Living Donor Liver Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dar, F. S.; Zia, H.; Bhatti, A. B. H.; Kazmi, R.; Rana, A.; Nazer, R.; Khan, E. U. D.; Khan, N. A.; Salih, M.; Shah, N. H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the outcome of living-donor liver transplant (LDLT) donors from the first liver transplant program in Pakistan. Study Design: Cohort study. Place and Duration of Study: Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, from April 2012 to August 2014. Methodology: A total of 100 live donors who underwent hepatectomy were included. Demographics, etiologies, graft characteristics and operative variables were retrospectively assessed. Outcome was assessed based on morbidity and mortality. Results: Median donor age was 28 (17 - 45) years and median body mass index (BMI) was 24 kg/m2 (15 - 36). Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. Hepatitis B and C were the most common underlying etiologies and accounted for 79/100 (79%) of LDLT's. Overall, 93/100 (93%) donors donated a right lobe graft. Median estimated graft weight to recipient body weight (GW/BW) ratio was 1.03 (0.78 - 2). Standard arterial anatomy was present in 56% donors. The 90-day morbidity was 13/100 (13%) and overall morbidity was 17/100 (17%). Bile leak was encountered in 3 (3%) patients. There was no donor mortality. Conclusion: Acceptable short-term donor outcomes were achieved in an LDLT program in Pakistan with careful donor selection and planning. (author)

  15. THE DEAD-LIVING-MOTHER: MARIE BONAPARTE'S INTERPRETATION OF EDGAR ALLAN POE'S SHORT STORIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaid, Francisco Pizarro

    2016-06-01

    Princess Marie Bonaparte is an important figure in the history of psychoanalysis, remembered for her crucial role in arranging Freud's escape to safety in London from Nazi Vienna, in 1938. This paper connects us to Bonaparte's work on Poe's short stories. Founded on concepts of Freudian theory and an exhaustive review of the biographical facts, Marie Bonaparte concluded that the works of Edgar Allan Poe drew their most powerful inspirational force from the psychological consequences of the early death of the poet's mother. In Bonaparte's approach, which was powerfully influenced by her recognition of the impact of the death of her own mother when she was born-an understanding she gained in her analysis with Freud-the thesis of the dead-living-mother achieved the status of a paradigmatic key to analyze and understand Poe's literary legacy. This paper explores the background and support of this hypothesis and reviews Bonaparte's interpretation of Poe's most notable short stories, in which extraordinary female figures feature in the narrative.

  16. Compensated living kidney donation in Iran: donor's attitude and short-term follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidary Rouchi, Alireza; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Zamyadi, Mahnaz

    2009-01-01

    Living unrelated kidney donation has a high rate in Iran, where a unique organ procurement model is running. We evaluated feelings and attitude of these donors after kidney donation. A questionnaire was sent to 25 kidney transplantation centers in Iran. It was designed to assess kidney allograft donors in terms of their reason for donation, their feeling after donation, and their attitude on keeping in touch with the recipients. Of 721 donors recorded in the national registry during the study period, we collected data of 600 living donors and their answers to the questionnaire. Of 600 donors, 495 (82.5%) were men and 568 (94.8%) were unrelated to the recipients. Motivation for donation was stated to be purely financial by 224 respondents (37.3%) and purely altruistic by 11 (1.9%). Their feelings before discharge were complete satisfaction in 519 (86.5%), relative satisfaction in 69 (11.5%), regret in 9 (1.5%), and indifference in 3 (0.5%). Willingness to get informed of the transplant outcome and make connection with the recipient following transplantation was chosen by 457 (76.2%) and 400 (66.7%) donors, respectively. We found that satisfaction of donors shortly after donation, on the one hand, and no reportedly serious complications in long-term follow-up of donors, on the other hand, may give the impression that the Iranian model may solve the problem of increasing demand for kidney allograft. Nevertheless, every country should build its own standards for living unrelated kidney donation consistent with its capacities and resources.

  17. Parallel evolution of genes controlling mitonuclear balance in short-lived annual fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahm, Arne; Bens, Martin; Platzer, Matthias; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2017-06-01

    The current molecular understanding of the aging process derives almost exclusively from the study of random or targeted single-gene mutations in highly inbred laboratory species, mostly invertebrates. Little information is available as to the genetic mechanisms responsible for natural lifespan variation and the evolution of lifespan, especially in vertebrates. Here, we investigated the pattern of positive selection in annual (i.e., short-lived) and nonannual (i.e., longer-lived) African killifishes to identify a genomic substrate for evolution of annual life history (and reduced lifespan). We identified genes under positive selection in all steps of mitochondrial biogenesis: mitochondrial (mt) DNA replication, transcription from mt promoters, processing and stabilization of mt RNAs, mt translation, assembly of respiratory chain complexes, and electron transport chain. Signs of paralleled evolution (i.e., evolution in more than one branch of Nothobranchius phylogeny) are observed in four out of five steps. Moreover, some genes under positive selection in Nothobranchius are under positive selection also in long-lived mammals such as bats and mole-rats. Complexes of the respiratory chain are formed in a coordinates multistep process where nuclearly and mitochondrially encoded components are assembled and inserted into the inner mitochondrial membrane. The coordination of this process is named mitonuclear balance, and experimental manipulations of mitonuclear balance can increase longevity of laboratory species. Our data strongly indicate that these genes are also casually linked to evolution lifespan in vertebrates. © 2017 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry M. Cuttler

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting “radiation-sensitive individuals.” Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; the other exposed 8 groups to different lung burdens of plutonium. Reexamination indicated that normalized lifespans increased more for short-lived dogs than for average dogs, when radiation was moderately above background. This was apparent by interpolating between the lifespans of nonirradiated dogs and exposed dogs. The optimum lifespan increase appeared at 50 mGy/y. The threshold for harm (decreased lifespan was 700 mGy/y for 50% mortality dogs and 1100 mGy/y for short-lived dogs. For inhaled α-emitting particulates, longevity was remarkably increased for short-lived dogs below the threshold for harm. Short-lived dogs seem more radiosensitive than average dogs and they benefit more from low radiation. If dogs model humans, this evidence would support a change to radiation protection policy. Maintaining exposures “as low as reasonably achievable” (ALARA appears questionable.

  19. Comparative evaluation of short-term leach tests for heavy metal release from mineral processing waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abed, S. R.; Hageman, P.L.; Jegadeesan, G.; Madhavan, N.; Allen, D.

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation of metal leaching using a single leach test such as the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) is often questionable. The pH, redox potential (Eh), particle size and contact time are critical variables in controlling metal stability, not accounted for in the TCLP. This paper compares the leaching behavior of metals in mineral processing waste via short-term extraction tests such as TCLP, Field Leach Test (FLT) used by USGS and deionized water extraction tests. Variation in the extracted amounts was attributed to the use of different particle sizes, extraction fluid and contact time. In the controlled pH experiments, maximum metal extraction was obtained at acidic pH for cationic heavy metals such as Cu, Pb and Zn, while desorption of Se from the waste resulted in high extract concentrations in the alkaline region. Precipitation of iron, caused by a pH increase, probably resulted in co-precipitation and immobilization of Cu, Pb and Zn in the alkaline pH region. A sequential extraction procedure was performed on the original waste and the solid residue from the Eh-pH experiments to determine the chemical speciation and distribution of the heavy metals. In the as-received waste, Cu existed predominantly in water soluble or sulfidic phases, with no binding to carbonates or iron oxides. Similar characteristics were observed for Pb and Zn, while Se existed mostly associated with iron oxides or sulfides. Adsorption/co-precipitation of Cu, Se and Pb on precipitated iron hydroxides was observed in the experimental solid residues, resulting in metal immobilization above pH 7.

  20. Metrics for comparing climate impacts of short- and long-lived climate forcing agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuglestvedt, J.; Berntsen, T.

    2013-12-01

    Human activities emit a wide variety of gases and aerosols, with different characteristics that influence both air quality and climate. The emissions affect climate both directly and indirectly and operate on both short and long timescales. Tools that allow these emissions to be placed on a common scale in terms of climate impact, i.e. metrics, have a number of applications (e.g. agreements and emission trading schemes, when considering potential trade-offs between changes in emissions). The Kyoto Protocol compares greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions using the Global Warming Potential (GWP) over a 100 year time-horizon. The IPCC First Assessment Report states the GWP was presented to illustrate the difficulties in comparing GHGs. There have been many critiques of the GWP and several alternative emission metrics have been proposed, but there has been little focus on understanding the linkages between, and interpretations of, different emission metrics. Furthermore, the capability to compare components with very different lifetimes and temporal behaviour needs consideration. The temperature based metrics (e.g. the Global Temperature change Potential (GTP)) require a model for the temperature response, and additional uncertainty is thus introduced. Short-lived forcers may also give more spatially heterogeneous responses, and the possibilities to capture these spatial variations by using other indicators than global mean RF or temperature change in metrics will be discussed. The ultimate choice of emission metric(s) and time-horizon(s) should, however, depend on the objectives of climate policy. Alternatives to the current 'multi-gas and single-basket' approach will also be explored and discussed (e.g. how a two-target approach may be implemented using a two-basket approach). One example is measures to reduce near-term rate of warming and long-term stabilization which can be implemented through two separate targets and two baskets with separate set of metrics for each

  1. Harvard--MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, September 1, 1977--April 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.

    1978-05-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: chemistry studies designed to achieve a more complete understanding of the fundamental chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future radiopharmaceuticals incorporating the radionuclide /sup 99m/Tc; the development of new radiopharmaceuticals intended to improve image quality and lower radiation doses by the use of short-lived radionuclides and disease-specific agents; the development of short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides which offer advantages in transverse section imaging of regional physiological processes; and studies of the toxic effects of particulate radiation

  2. Incorporation of short-lived (10)Be in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion from the allende meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeegan; Chaussidon; Robert

    2000-08-25

    Enrichments in boron-10/boron-11 in a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion from the Allende carbonaceous chondrite are correlated with beryllium/boron in a manner indicative of the in situ decay of short-lived beryllium-10. Because this radionuclide is produced only by nuclear spallation reactions, its existence in early solar system materials attests to intense irradiation processes in the solar nebula. The particle fluence inferred from the initial beryllium-10/beryllium-9 is sufficient to produce other short-lived nuclides, calcium-41 and manganese-53, found in meteorites, but the high canonical abundance of aluminum-26 may still require seeding of the solar system by radioactive stellar debris.

  3. Technologies for destruction of long-lived radionuclides in high-level nuclear waste: Overview and requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, E.D.

    1993-01-01

    This paper, and this topical session on Nuclear Waste Minimization, Management and Remediation, focuses on two nuclear systems, and their associated technologies, that have the potential to address concerns surrounding long-lived radionuclides in high-level waste. Both systems offer technology applicable to HLW from present light-water reactors (LWR). Additionally these systems represent advanced nuclear power concepts that have important features associated with integrated management of wastes, long-term fuel supplies, and enhanced safety. The first system is the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept. This system incorporates a metal-fueled fast reactor coupled with chemical separations based on pyroprocessing to produce power while simultaneously burning long-lived actinide waste. IFR applications include burning of actinides from current LWR spent fuel and energy production in a breeder environment. The second concept, Accelerator Transmutation of Waste (ATW), is based upon an accelerator-induced intense source of thermal neutrons and is aimed at destruction of long-lived actinides and fission products. This concept can be applied to long-lived radionuclides in spent fuel HLW as well as a future fission power source built around use of natural thorium or uranium as fuels coupled with concurrent waste destruction

  4. Concentration Limits in the Cement Based Swiss Repository for Long-lived, Intermediate-level Radioactive Wastes (LMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berner, Urs

    1999-12-01

    The Swiss repository concept for long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (LMA), in Swiss terminology) foresees cylindrical concrete silos surrounded by a ring of granulated bentonite to deposit the waste. As one of the possible options and similar to the repository for high level wastes, the silos will be located in a deep crystalline host rock. Solidified with concrete in steel drums, the waste is stacked into a silo and the silo is then backfilled with a porous mortar. To characterize the release of radionuclides from the repository, the safety assessment considers first the dissolution into the pore water of the concrete, and then diffusion through the outer bentonite ring into the deep crystalline groundwater. For 19 safety relevant radionuclides (isotopes of U, Th, Pa, Np, Pu, Am, Ni, Zr, Mo, Nb, Se, Sr, Ra, Tc, Sn, I, C, Cs, Cl) the report recommends maximum elemental concentrations to be expected in the cement pore water of the particularly considered repository. These limits will form the parameter base for subsequent release model chains. Concentration limits in a geochemical environment are usually obtained from thermodynamic equilibrium calculations performed with geochemical speciation codes. However, earlier studies revealed that this procedure does not always lead to reliable results. Main reasons for this are the complexity of the systems considered, as well as the lacking completeness of, and the uncertainty associated with the thermodynamic data. To improve the recommended maximum concentrations for a distinct repository design, this work includes additional design- and system-dependent criteria. The following processes, inventories and properties are considered in particular: a) recent experimental investigations, particularly from cement systems, b) thermodynamic model calculations when reliable data are available, c) total inventories of radionuclides, d) sorption- and co-precipitation processes, e) dilution with stable isotopes, f

  5. Comparing the climate effect of emissions of short- and long-lived climate agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Keith P; Berntsen, Terje K; Fuglestvedt, Jan S; Skeie, Ragnhild Bieltvedt; Stuber, Nicola

    2007-07-15

    Multi-gas climate agreements require a metric by which emissions of gases with different lifetimes and radiative properties can be placed on a common scale. The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change uses the global warming potential (GWP) as such a metric. The GWP has attracted particular criticism as being inappropriate in the context of climate policy which seeks to restrict warming below a given target, because it gives equal weight to emissions irrespective of the target and the proximity to the target. The use of an alternative metric, the time-dependent global temperature change potential (GTP), is examined for its suitability and the prospects for it including very short-lived species. It retains the transparency and relative ease of use, which are attractive features of the GWP, but explicitly includes a dependence on the target of climate policy. The weighting of emissions using the GTP is found to be significantly dependent on the scenarios of future emissions and the sensitivity of the climate system. This may indicate that the use of any GTP-based weighting in future policymaking would necessitate regular revisions, as the global-mean temperature moves towards a specified target.

  6. Emission channeling with short-lived isotopes lattice location of impurities in semiconductors and oxides

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to perform emission channeling lattice location experiments in a number of semiconductor and oxide systems of technological relevance: \\\\- The lattice location of the transition metal probes $^{56}$Mn ($\\textit{t}_{1/2}$=2.6 h), $^{59}$Fe (45 d), $^{61}$Co (1.6 h) and $^{65}$Ni (2.5 h) is to be investigated in materials of interest as dilute magnetic semiconductors, such as GaMnAs, GaMnN, GaFeN, AlGaN, SiC, and in a number of oxides that are candidates for “single ion ferromagnetism”, in particular SrTiO$_3$ and LiNbO$_3$.\\\\- The topic of $\\textit{p}$-type doping of nitride semiconductors shall be addressed by studying the lattice sites of the acceptor dopants Mg and Be in GaN and AlN using the short-lived probes $^{27}$Mg (9.5 min) and $^{11}$Be (13.8 s). The aim is to reach a lattice location precision around 0.05 Å in order to provide critical tests for recent theoretical models which e.g. have predicted displacements of the Mg atom from the ideal substitutional Ga and Al sites of the order...

  7. Age-dependent decline in fin regenerative capacity in the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Sebastian; Hartmann, Nils; Hoppe, Beate; Englert, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The potential to regenerate declines with age in a wide range of organisms. A popular model system to study the mechanisms of regeneration is the fin of teleost fish, which has the ability to fully regrow upon amputation. Here, we used the short-lived killifish Nothobranchius furzeri to analyse the impact of aging on fin regeneration in more detail. We observed that young fish were able to nearly completely (98%) regenerate their amputated caudal fins within 4 weeks, whereas middle-aged fish reached 78%, old fish 57% and very old fish 46% of their original fin size. The difference in growth rate between young and old fish was already significant at 3 days post amputation (dpa) and increased with time. We therefore hypothesized that early events are crucial for the age-related differences in regenerative capacity. Indeed, we could observe a higher percentage of proliferating cells in early regenerating fin tissue of young fish compared with aged fish and larger fractions of apoptotic cells in aged fish. Furthermore, young fish showed peak upregulation of several genes involved in fgf and wnt/β-catenin signalling at an earlier time point than old fish. Our findings suggest that regenerative processes are initiated earlier and that regeneration overall is more efficient in younger fish. PMID:26121607

  8. A quantitative genetic signature of senescence in a short-lived perennial plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Benoit; Marrot, Pascal; Pannell, John R

    2014-03-31

    The evolution of senescence (the physiological decline of organisms with age) poses an apparent paradox because it represents a failure of natural selection to increase the survival and reproductive performance of organisms. The paradox can be resolved if natural selection becomes less effective with age, because the death of postreproductive individuals should have diminished effects on Darwinian fitness [1, 2]. A substantial body of empirical work is consistent with this prediction for animals, which transmit their genes to progeny via an immortal germline. However, such evidence is still lacking in plants, which lack a germline and whose reproduction is diffuse and modular across the soma. Here, we provide experimental evidence for a genetic basis of senescence in the short-lived perennial plant Silene latifolia. Our pedigree-based analysis revealed a marked increase with age in the additive genetic variance of traits closely associated with fitness. This result thus extends to plants the quantitative genetic support for the evolutionary theory of senescence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of a resonant laser ionization gas cell for high-energy, short-lived nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, T., E-mail: tetsu@riken.jp [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Wada, M. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tomita, H.; Sakamoto, C.; Takatsuka, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Furukawa, T. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 116-8551 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Iimura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Tokaimura 319-1100 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ito, Y. [Department of Physics, Tsukuba University, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kubo, T.; Matsuo, Y. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Mita, H. [Department of Physics, Tsukuba University, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Naimi, S. [RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nakamura, S. [Department of Physics, Tsukuba University, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Noto, T. [Faculty of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Schury, P. [Department of Physics, Tsukuba University, Tsukuba 305-8577 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Shinozuka, T. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); and others

    2013-01-15

    A new laser ion source configuration based on resonant photoionization in a gas cell has been developed at RIBF RIKEN. This system is intended for the future PArasitic RI-beam production by Laser Ion-Source (PALIS) project which will be installed at RIKEN’s fragment separator, BigRIPS. A novel implementation of differential pumping, in combination with a sextupole ion beam guide (SPIG), has been developed. A few small scroll pumps create a pressure difference from 1000 hPa–10{sup −3} Pa within a geometry drastically miniaturized compared to conventional systems. This system can utilize a large exit hole for fast evacuation times, minimizing the decay loss for short-lived nuclei during extraction from a buffer gas cell, while sufficient gas cell pressure is maintained for stopping high energy RI-beams. In spite of the motion in a dense pressure gradient, the photo-ionized ions inside the gas cell are ejected with an assisting force gas jet and successfully transported to a high-vacuum region via SPIG followed by a quadrupole mass separator. Observed behaviors agree with the results of gas flow and Monte Carlo simulations.

  10. Sizes and shapes of short-lived nuclei via laser spectroscopy. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, D.A.

    1985-10-01

    This project, a collaboration involving Iowa State University, Argonne National Lab., and the University of Minnesota, was aimed at the determination of properties of short-lived nuclei through their atomic hyperfine structure and optical isotope shifts. The basic approach was to use a cryogenic He-jet system to thermalize, neutralize, and transport radioactive nuclei produced online into a region suitable for laser spectroscopy. The photon burst method was then used for high sensitivity with the resulting continuous atomic beam. The experiment was located on beamline of the ANL superconducting heavy-ion accelerator. The He-jet system developed would reliably transport approx.10 2 nuclei into phase space useful for high resolution laser spectroscopy. The laser system developed could accurately and reproducibly sweep small frequency ranges for periods greater than or equal to1 day and sensitivity limits less than or equal to1 atom/s were achieved. However the nuclei were not transported as free atoms precluding nuclear determinations. Attempts to obtain free atoms by eliminating turbulence and contamination were not successful. Some of the high sensitivity spectroscopy techniques developed in this work are now being applied in a search for nuclear relics of the Big Bang and in studies of the photon statistics of light scattered by a single atom. 3 refs., 4 figs

  11. Seasonal assemblages and short-lived blooms in coastal north-west Atlantic Ocean bacterioplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Swais, Heba; Dunn, Katherine A; Bielawski, Joseph P; Li, William K W; Walsh, David A

    2015-10-01

    Temperate oceans are inhabited by diverse and temporally dynamic bacterioplankton communities. However, the role of the environment, resources and phytoplankton dynamics in shaping marine bacterioplankton communities at different time scales remains poorly constrained. Here, we combined time series observations (time scales of weeks to years) with molecular analysis of formalin-fixed samples from a coastal inlet of the north-west Atlantic Ocean to show that a combination of temperature, nitrate, small phytoplankton and Synechococcus abundances are best predictors for annual bacterioplankton community variability, explaining 38% of the variation. Using Bayesian mixed modelling, we identified assemblages of co-occurring bacteria associated with different seasonal periods, including the spring bloom (e.g. Polaribacter, Ulvibacter, Alteromonadales and ARCTIC96B-16) and the autumn bloom (e.g. OM42, OM25, OM38 and Arctic96A-1 clades of Alphaproteobacteria, and SAR86, OM60 and SAR92 clades of Gammaproteobacteria). Community variability over spring bloom development was best explained by silicate (32%)--an indication of rapid succession of bacterial taxa in response to diatom biomass--while nanophytoplankton as well as picophytoplankton abundance explained community variability (16-27%) over the transition into and out of the autumn bloom. Moreover, the seasonal structure was punctuated with short-lived blooms of rare bacteria including the KSA-1 clade of Sphingobacteria related to aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The trade-off between short- and long-lived greenhouse gases under uncertainty and learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, H. Asbjoern; Brekke, Kjell Arne; Lystad, Terje; Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2001-07-01

    To find an optimal climate policy we must balance abatement of different greenhouse gases. There is substantial uncertainty about future damages from climate change, but we will learn more over the next few decades. Gases vary in terms of how long they remain in the atmosphere, which means that equivalent pulse emissions have very different climate impacts. Such differences between gases are important in consideration of uncertainty and learning about future damages, but they are disregarded by the conventional concept of Global Warming Potential We have developed a numerical model to analyze how uncertainty and learning affect optimal emissions of both CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. In the model, emissions of these greenhouse gases lead to global temperature increases and production losses. New information about the severity of the climate problem arrives either in 2010 or in 2020. We find that uncertainty causes increased optimal abatement of both gases, compared to the certainty case. This effect amounts to 0.08 {sup o}C less expected temperature increase by year 2200. Learning leads to less abatement for both gases since expected future marginal damages from emissions are reduced. This effect is less pronounced for the short-lived CH{sub 4}. (author)

  13. Impact on short-lived climate forcers increases projected warming due to deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C E; Monks, S A; Spracklen, D V; Arnold, S R; Forster, P M; Rap, A; Äijälä, M; Artaxo, P; Carslaw, K S; Chipperfield, M P; Ehn, M; Gilardoni, S; Heikkinen, L; Kulmala, M; Petäjä, T; Reddington, C L S; Rizzo, L V; Swietlicki, E; Vignati, E; Wilson, C

    2018-01-11

    The climate impact of deforestation depends on the relative strength of several biogeochemical and biogeophysical effects. In addition to affecting the exchange of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and moisture with the atmosphere and surface albedo, vegetation emits biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) that alter the formation of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs), which include aerosol, ozone and methane. Here we show that a scenario of complete global deforestation results in a net positive radiative forcing (RF; 0.12 W m -2 ) from SLCFs, with the negative RF from decreases in ozone and methane concentrations partially offsetting the positive aerosol RF. Combining RFs due to CO 2 , surface albedo and SLCFs suggests that global deforestation could cause 0.8 K warming after 100 years, with SLCFs contributing 8% of the effect. However, deforestation as projected by the RCP8.5 scenario leads to zero net RF from SLCF, primarily due to nonlinearities in the aerosol indirect effect.

  14. The trade-off between short- and long-lived greenhouse gases under uncertainty and learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaheim, H. Asbjoern; Brekke, Kjell Arne; Lystad, Terje; Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2001-01-01

    To find an optimal climate policy we must balance abatement of different greenhouse gases. There is substantial uncertainty about future damages from climate change, but we will learn more over the next few decades. Gases vary in terms of how long they remain in the atmosphere, which means that equivalent pulse emissions have very different climate impacts. Such differences between gases are important in consideration of uncertainty and learning about future damages, but they are disregarded by the conventional concept of Global Warming Potential We have developed a numerical model to analyze how uncertainty and learning affect optimal emissions of both CO 2 and CH 4 . In the model, emissions of these greenhouse gases lead to global temperature increases and production losses. New information about the severity of the climate problem arrives either in 2010 or in 2020. We find that uncertainty causes increased optimal abatement of both gases, compared to the certainty case. This effect amounts to 0.08 o C less expected temperature increase by year 2200. Learning leads to less abatement for both gases since expected future marginal damages from emissions are reduced. This effect is less pronounced for the short-lived CH 4 . (author)

  15. Determination of copper in biological materials by neutron activation analysis using short-lived 66Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dybczynski, R.; Danko, B.; Kaczorowski, J.

    1989-01-01

    A method for determination of copper traces in biological materials based on neutron activation employing 65 Cu(n, γ) 66 Cu reaction and preconcentration by extraction chromatography has been devised. The 200-500 mg samples after wet digestion and evaporation were dissolved in glycine solution and after pH adjusting to ca. 4.4 were passed through the column with Lix 64N on Bio Beads SM-1 for isolation of copper traces from the matrix elements. Other cations were selectively eluted with 0.1 mol x 1 -1 (glycine-HNO 3 ) buffer, 1 mol x 1 -1 in NH 4 NO 3 (pH = 3.6). The resin bed with quantitatively retained copper was sealed in the PE bag and irradiated together with Cu standards in EWA reactor using pneumatic tube facility. The activity of the short-lived 66 Cu was measured in samples and standard by gamma-ray spectrometry with Ge(Li) detector. Good accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of the following certified reference materials: NBS 1571 Orchad leaves, IAEA H-4 Animal muscle, IAEA V-8 Rye flour, IAEA A-11 milk powder. The detection limit amounted to 0.34 mg/kg, for the sample weight of 500 mg. (author)

  16. Quantitative cerebral blood flow patterns with the short lived isotope 195m Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, P.; Nickel, O.

    1984-01-01

    A previously reported theory for quantitative cerebral blood flow measurements using intravenously injected nondiffusible radiotracers has been applied on patients after stroke and on volunteers undergoing a mental stimulation exercise. Quantitative measurements of cerebral blood flow patterns (in ml/min/100g) not only in p.a. but also in lateral views of the brain are possible by using of the short-lived (30 sec) isotope Au 195m. The energy spectrum of the eluate of the generator shows two strong photon peaks, one at 68 keV and a second at 262 keV. The 68 keV peak is suitable for perfusion studies in lateral views of the hemispheres, no 'look through' effect is seen. The 262 keV peak is good for studies in p.a. positions. The studies last less than 1 minute and can be repeated after 3 minutes. Parametric images for quantitative regional cerebral blood flow can be generated. The area of occluded vessels in the case of stroke can be made visible. Quantitative activation patterns of cerebral blood flow during mental stimulation can be generated. After optical stimulation a clear increase of blood flow was seen in the visual cortex. The results prove that not only with freely diffusible (like Xenon) but also with nondiffusible indicators like 195m Au it is possible to measure quantitatively cerebral blood flow patterns. Au 195m is very advantageous for quantitative clinical investigations of cerebrovascular disease. (Author)

  17. Short-Lived Buildings in China: Impacts on Water, Energy, and Carbon Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wenjia; Wan, Liyang; Jiang, Yongkai; Wang, Can; Lin, Lishen

    2015-12-15

    This paper has changed the vague understanding that "the short-lived buildings have huge environmental footprints (EF)" into a concrete one. By estimating the annual floor space of buildings demolished and calibrating the average building lifetime in China, this paper compared the EF under various assumptive extended buildings' lifetime scenarios based on time-series environmental-extended input-output model. Results show that if the average buildings' lifetime in China can be extended from the current 23.2 years to their designed life expectancy, 50 years, in 2011, China can reduce 5.8 Gt of water withdrawal, 127.1 Mtce of energy consumption, and 426.0 Mt of carbon emissions, each of which is equivalent to the corresponding annual EF of Belgium, Mexico, and Italy. These findings will urge China to extend the lifetime of existing and new buildings, in order to reduce the EF from further urbanization. This paper also verifies that the lifetime of a product or the replacement rate of a sector is a very important factor that influences the cumulative EF. When making policies to reduce the EF, adjusting people's behaviors to extend the lifetime of products or reduce the replacement rate of sectors may be a very simple and cost-effective option.

  18. "Short Courses Shouldn't Be Short-Lived!" Enhancing Longer-Term Impact of Short English as a Foreign Language INSET Initiatives in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunmei; He, Chuanjun

    2015-01-01

    Short in-service teacher development (INSET) programmes have been globally used as a form of teacher development, but their impact has been under question. This study sought to examine teacher participants' perceptions of short INSET programmes to come up with better solutions to enhancing their effect on teachers' professional learning. A…

  19. A Proposal for Assessing Study Quality: Biomonitoring, Environmental Epidemiology, and Short-Lived Chemicals (BEES-C) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    The quality of exposure assessment is a major determinant of the overall quality of any environmental epidemiology study. The use of biomonitoring as a tool for assessing exposure to ubiquitous chemicals with short physiologic half-lives began relatively recently. These chemicals...

  20. Non-destructive investigation of technical plants and processes and natural processes by short-lived radionuclides (radiotracer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jentsch, Thorsten; Zeuner, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Short lived open radionuclides are very suitable to investigate transport and mixing processes. They do not pollute the product. After decay of the radionuclide, the product can be used without any restrictions. Examples are showed for technical processes investigation by aid of radiotracer. (orig.)

  1. Effects of polyamine levels on the degradation of short-lived and long-lived proteins in cultured L-132 human lung cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Corella, D; Guillén, M; Hernández, J M; Hernández-Yago, J

    1998-01-01

    Biogenic polyamines have important regulatory functions in various biological processes and it has also been suggested that they could modulate intracellular protein degradation. For an overall assessment of the role of polyamines in this process, we have investigated the effect that the decrease in intracellular polyamine levels caused by inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis brings about on the degradation of the pools of short- and long-lived proteins in cultured L-132 human lung cells. Tre...

  2. ICRP PUBLICATION 122: radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W; Larsson, C-M; McKenney, C; Minon, J-P; Mobbs, S; Schneider, T; Umeki, H; Hilden, W; Pescatore, C; Vesterlind, M

    2013-06-01

    This report updates and consolidates previous recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) related to solid waste disposal (ICRP, 1985, 1997b, 1998). The recommendations given apply specifically to geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. The report explains how the ICRP system of radiological protection described in Publication 103 (ICRP, 2007) can be applied in the context of the geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste. Although the report is written as a standalone document, previous ICRP recommendations not dealt with in depth in the report are still valid. The 2007 ICRP system of radiological protection evolves from the previous process-based protection approach relying on the distinction between practices and interventions by moving to an approach based on the distinction between three types of exposure situation: planned, emergency and existing. The Recommendations maintains the Commission's three fundamental principles of radiological protection namely: justification, optimisation of protection and the application of dose limits. They also maintain the current individual dose limits for effective dose and equivalent dose from all regulated sources in planned exposure situations. They re-enforce the principle of optimisation of radiological protection, which applies in a similar way to all exposure situations, subject to restrictions on individual doses: constraints for planned exposure situations, and reference levels for emergency and existing exposure situations. The Recommendations also include an approach for developing a framework to demonstrate radiological protection of the environment. This report describes the different stages in the life time of a geological disposal facility, and addresses the application of relevant radiological protection principles for each stage depending on the various exposure situations that can be encountered. In particular, the crucial factor that

  3. Short-lived nuclei in the early Solar System: Possible AGB sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wasserburg, G.J.; Busso, M.; Gallino, R.; Nollett, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    The abundances of short-lived radionuclides in the early Solar System (ESS) are reviewed, as well as the methodology used in determining them. These results are compared with the inventory estimated for a uniform galactic production model. It is shown that, to within a factor of two, the observed abundances of 238 U, 235 U, 232 Th, 244 Pu, 182 Hf, 146 Sm, and 53 Mn are roughly compatible with long-term galactic nucleosynthesis. 129 I is an exception, with an ESS inventory much lower than expected from uniform production. The isotopes 107 Pd, 60 Fe, 41 Ca, 36 Cl, 26 Al, and 10 Be require late addition to the protosolar nebula. 10 Be is the product of energetic particle irradiation of the Solar System as most probably is 36 Cl. Both of these nuclei appear to be present when 26 Al is absent. A late injection by a supernova (SN) cannot be responsible for most of the short-lived nuclei without excessively producing 53 Mn; it can however be the source of 53 Mn itself and possibly of 60 Fe. If a late SN injection is responsible for these two nuclei, then there remains the problem of the origin of 107 Pd and several other isotopes. Emphasis is given to an AGB star as a source of many of the nuclei, including 60 Fe; this possibility is explored with a new generation of stellar models. It is shown that if the dilution factor (i.e. the ratio of the contaminating mass to the solar parental cloud mass) is f 0 ∼4x10 -3 , a reasonable representation for many nuclei is obtained; this requires that ( 60 Fe/ 56 Fe) ESS ∼10 -7 to 2x10 -6 . The nuclei produced by an AGB source do not include 53 Mn, 10 Be or 36 Cl if it is very abundant. The role of irradiation is discussed with regard to 26 Al, 36 Cl and 41 Ca, and the estimates of bulk solar abundances of these isotopes are commented on. The conflict between various scenarios is emphasized as well as the current absence of an astrophysically plausible global interpretation for all the existing data. Examination of abundances for

  4. Microspheres labelled with short-lived isotopes: Development and application for tumors treatment (Experimental study)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdovsky, B.Y.; Rosiev, R.A.; Goncharova, A.Y.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Petriev, V.M.; Grigoriev, A.N.; Schischkanov, N.G.

    1997-01-01

    Analysis of the conducted studies strongly suggests the possibility of usage of the domestic protein microspheres as a vehicle for radionuclide. The neutron-activating method of RPP production enables to utilize a broad spectrum of short-living isotopes that can be delivered into the target organ and anchored there for a long time. Good treatment results were obtained in case of the experimentally induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats after intraarticular loading of 165 Dy-hMSA. Mathematical calculations show that homogeneous distribution of RPP in human articulation cavity with the square of 100 cm 2 can be achieved when the quantity of administered particles exceeds 3000. On the example of 165 Dy-hMSA energy characteristic distribution we demonstrated that the absorbed dose for damaged cells at 2mm distance from the radioactive source is 7 times less than the one for a sphere of 2mm diameter. Analysis of dosimetric data in case of intratumoral loading of 165 Dy-hMSA also point out the necessity of the absorbed dose calculation methods taking into account the distance from the source and possible heterogeneity of RPP distribution inside the tumor to be employed. The prolonged RPP detention in the target causing no essential morphological and functional changes was achieved by embolization on the level of septal and interlobular arteries and of efferent arterioles in the animal's renal. The uniformity of microsphere distribution in the organ and their accumulation in tumors depends on the number of particles being administered. Investigations carried out suggest the efficacy of radionuclide therapy application for treatment of oncological and heavy somatic diseases. They also indicate the necessity of further investigations aimed to optimize the usage of microspheres as a radionuclide carrier usage and to work out the criteria of dosimetric planning

  5. Microspheres labelled with short-lived isotopes: Development and application for tumors treatment (Experimental study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdovsky, B.Y.; Rosiev, R.A.; Goncharova, A.Y.; Skvortsov, V.G.; Petriev, V.M.; Grigoriev, A.N.; Schischkanov, N.G. [Medical Radiological Research Centre RAMS, Kaluga Region, (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    Analysis of the conducted studies strongly suggests the possibility of usage of the domestic protein microspheres as a vehicle for radionuclide. The neutron-activating method of RPP production enables to utilize a broad spectrum of short-living isotopes that can be delivered into the target organ and anchored there for a long time. Good treatment results were obtained in case of the experimentally induced rheumatoid arthritis in rats after intraarticular loading of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA. Mathematical calculations show that homogeneous distribution of RPP in human articulation cavity with the square of 100 cm{sup 2} can be achieved when the quantity of administered particles exceeds 3000. On the example of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA energy characteristic distribution we demonstrated that the absorbed dose for damaged cells at 2mm distance from the radioactive source is 7 times less than the one for a sphere of 2mm diameter. Analysis of dosimetric data in case of intratumoral loading of {sup 165}Dy-hMSA also point out the necessity of the absorbed dose calculation methods taking into account the distance from the source and possible heterogeneity of RPP distribution inside the tumor to be employed. The prolonged RPP detention in the target causing no essential morphological and functional changes was achieved by embolization on the level of septal and interlobular arteries and of efferent arterioles in the animal`s renal. The uniformity of microsphere distribution in the organ and their accumulation in tumors depends on the number of particles being administered. Investigations carried out suggest the efficacy of radionuclide therapy application for treatment of oncological and heavy somatic diseases. They also indicate the necessity of further investigations aimed to optimize the usage of microspheres as a radionuclide carrier usage and to work out the criteria of dosimetric planning 25 refs.

  6. Convective Transport of Very-short-lived Bromocarbons to the Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qing; Atlas, Elliot Leonard; Blake, Donald Ray; Dorf, Marcel; Pfeilsticker, Klaus August; Schauffler, Sue Myhre

    2014-01-01

    We use the NASA GEOS Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM) to quantify the contribution of two most important brominated very short-lived substances (VSLS), bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), to stratospheric bromine and its sensitivity to convection strength. Model simulations suggest that the most active transport of VSLS from the marine boundary layer through the tropopause occurs over the tropical Indian Ocean, the Western Pacific warm pool, and off the Pacific coast of Mexico. Together, convective lofting of CHBr3 and CH2Br2 and their degradation products supplies 8 ppt total bromine to the base of the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL, 150 hPa), similar to the amount of VSLS organic bromine available in the marine boundary layer (7.8-8.4 ppt) in the above active convective lofting regions. Of the total 8 ppt VSLS-originated bromine that enters the base of TTL at 150 hPa, half is in the form of source gas injection (SGI) and half as product gas injection (PGI). Only a small portion (Br2, together, contribute 7.7 pptv to the present-day inorganic bromine in the stratosphere. However, varying model deep convection strength between maximum and minimum convection conditions can introduce a 2.6 pptv uncertainty in the contribution of VSLS to inorganic bromine in the stratosphere (BryVSLS). Contrary to the conventional wisdom, minimum convection condition leads to a larger BryVSLS as the reduced scavenging in soluble product gases, thus a significant increase in PGI (2-3 ppt), greatly exceeds the relative minor decrease in SGI (a few 10ths ppt.

  7. The Preparation and Use of Short Half-Lived Radioactive Noble Gases in Nuclear Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, J. Robert

    1990-01-01

    Radioisotopes of noble gases have been widely used for biomedical studies for many years, in particular for lung function studies and for studies of patients with coronary artery disease. ^{rm 79m}Kr (T_{1over2 } = 50s) emits 130 keV gamma rays in 27% of its disintegrations, ^{rm 127m }Xe (T_{1over2} = 69.2s) emits a 172.5 keV gamma ray in 38% of its disintegrations and a 124.8 keV gamma ray in 69% of its disintegrations and ^{19} Ne (T_{1over2} = 17.1s) decays 99.1% by positron emission. The energy of the ^{rm 79m}Kr gamma ray and of the more abundant ^{ rm 127m}Xe 124.8 keV gamma ray is sufficiently close to the 140.5 keV gamma energy of ^ {rm 99m}Tc to provide images of similar quality using present equipment. Neon-19 offers potential for ventilation studies and regional blood flow measurements using positron emission tomography (PET). The increasing number of small medical cyclotrons provides the alternative of utilizing very short half-lived radioactive noble gases such as ^{rm 79m }Kr, ^{rm 127m} Xe, and ^{19}Ne. A procedure has been developed for preparing these radionuclides by bombarding aqueous solutions of alkali metal halides with 14 MeV protons, using a helium sweep gas to remove the products as they are produced. A target design, production rates, methods of quality control, delivery and use of the ^{rm 79m}Kr and ^{rm 127m}Xe are given. A new method for preparing ^ {19}Ne is presented.

  8. Emission location dependent ozone depletion potentials for very short-lived halogenated species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Pisso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We present trajectory-based estimates of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODPs for very short-lived halogenated source gases as a function of surface emission location. The ODPs are determined by the fraction of source gas and its degradation products which reach the stratosphere, depending primarily on tropospheric transport and chemistry, and the effect of the resulting reactive halogen in the stratosphere, which is determined by stratospheric transport and chemistry, in particular by stratospheric residence time. Reflecting the different timescales and physico-chemical processes in the troposphere and stratosphere, the estimates are based on calculation of separate ensembles of trajectories for the troposphere and stratosphere. A methodology is described by which information from the two ensembles can be combined to give the ODPs.

    The ODP estimates for a species with a fixed 20 d lifetime, representing a compound like n-propyl bromide, are presented as an example. The estimated ODPs show strong geographical and seasonal variation, particularly within the tropics. The values of the ODPs are sensitive to the inclusion of a convective parametrization in the trajectory calculations, but the relative spatial and seasonal variation is not. The results imply that ODPs are largest for emissions from south and south-east Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and from the western Pacific during Northern Hemisphere winter. Large ODPs are also estimated for emissions throughout the tropics with non-negligible values also extending into northern mid-latitudes, particularly in the summer. These first estimates, whilst made under some simplifying assumptions, show larger ODPs for certain emission regions, particularly south Asia in NH summer, than have typically been reported by previous studies which used emissions distributed evenly over land surfaces.

  9. Regional scale temperature and circulation impacts of short-lived climate pollutants reductions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudar, T.; Kushner, P. J.; Fyfe, J. C.; von Salzen, K.; Shrestha, R.

    2017-12-01

    The role of anthropogenic aerosols on climate is still not clearly understood. Aerosol forcing is spatially heterogeneous and their emissions are controlled by regional economic and regulatory factors. For example, it is known that black carbon is responsible for a global net warming but its regional impacts are less understood. We evaluate the regional climate impacts of anthropogenic aerosol emission changes over the recent past and near future. Specifically, we report on numerical experiments using aerosol emissions from the Evaluating the Climate and Air Quality Impacts of Short-Lived Pollutants (ECLIPSE, Stohl et al., 2015) project. These scenarios are alternative mitigation pathways for black carbon and organic aerosol over the period from 1990 to 2050. With these scenarios, we carried out three sets of simulation using the second generation Canadian Earth System Model (CanESM2): 1) A current legislation emission (CLE) scenario for black carbon and organic aerosols; 2) A mitigation (MIT) scenario for black carbon and organic aerosols, and; 3) A black carbon only mitigation scenario (MIT-BC). Five simulations were carried out for each scenario and the response analyzed in the context of a large fifty-member initial condition ensemble of simulations using historical anthropogenic aerosol forcings to 2005 as well as those forcing from the RCP8.5 scenario to 2020. Our main finding is a significant springtime cooling over the Northern midlatitudes that attributable to black carbon. Other cooling signals attributable to black carbon reductions are found in the boreal summer over Southern Europe as well as over the Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes and tropical troposphere in boreal summer and fall. All of these cooling signals are to some degree offset by simultaneous reductions in organic aerosols. As a check on the robustness, we will also report on results of five-member draws from the large ensemble over periods of comparably strong radiative forcing changes, to

  10. Geological repository layout for radioactive high level long lived waste in argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussen, JL

    2006-01-01

    In the framework of the 1991 French radioactive waste act, ANDRA has studied the feasibility of a geological repository in the argillite layer of the Bure site for high level long lived waste. This presentation is focussed on the underground facilities which constitute the specific component of this project. The preliminary underground layout which has been elaborated is based on four categories of data: - the waste characteristics and inventory; - the geological properties of the host argillite; - the long term performance objectives of the repository; - the specifications in terms of operation and reversibility. The underground facilities consist of two types of works: the access works (shafts and drifts) and the disposal cells. The function of the access works is to permit the implementation of two concurrent activities: the nuclear operations (transfer and emplacement of the disposal packages into the disposal cells) and the construction of the next disposal cells. The design of the drifts network which matches up to this function is also influenced by two other specifications: the minimization of the drift dimensions in order to limit their influence on the integrity of the geological formation and the necessity of a safe ventilation in case of fire. The resulting layout is a network of 4 parallel drifts (2 of them being dedicated to the operation, the other two being dedicated to the construction activities). The average diameter of these access drifts is 7 meters. The link between the surface and the underground is ensured by 4 shafts. The most important function of the disposal cells is to contribute to the long term performance of the repository. In this regard, the thermal and geotechnical considerations play an important role. The B wastes (intermediate level wastes) are not (or not very) exothermic. Consequently, the design of their disposal cells result mainly from geotechnical considerations. The disposal packages (made of concrete) are piled up in

  11. Low-risk alternative waste forms for problematic high-level and long-lived nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.W.A.; Begg, B.D.; Moricca, S.; Day, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The highest cost component the nuclear waste clean up challenge centres on high-level waste (HLW) and consequently the greatest opportunity for cost and schedule savings lies with optimising the approach to HLW cleanup. The waste form is the key component of the immobilisation process. To achieve maximum cost savings and optimum performance the selection of the waste form should be driven by the characteristics of the specific nuclear waste to be immobilised, rather than adopting a single baseline approach. This is particularly true for problematic nuclear wastes that are often not amenable to a single baseline approach. The use of tailored, high-performance, alternative waste forms that include ceramics and glass-ceramics, coupled with mature process technologies offer significant performance improvements and efficiency savings for a nuclear waste cleanup program. It is the waste form that determines how well the waste is locked up (chemical durability), and the number of repository disposal canisters required (waste loading efficiency). The use of alternative waste forms for problematic wastes also lowers the overall risk by providing high performance HLW treatment alternatives. The benefits tailored alternative waste forms bring to the HLW cleanup program will be briefly reviewed with reference to work carried out on the following: The HLW calcines at the Idaho National Laboratory; SYNROC ANSTO has developed a process utilising a glass-ceramic combined with mature hot-isostatic pressing (HIP) technology and has demonstrated this at a waste loading of 80 % and at a 30 kg HIP scale. The use of this technology has recently been estimated to result in a 70 % reduction in waste canisters, compared to the baseline borosilicate glass technology; Actinide-rich waste streams, particularly the work being done by SYNROC ANSTO with Nexia Solutions on the Plutonium-residues wastes at Sellafield in the UK, which if implemented is forecast to result in substantial

  12. The use of short rotation willows and poplars for the recycling of saline waste waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaconette Mirck; Ronald S. Jr. Zalesny; Ioannis Dimitriou; Jill A. Zalesny; Timothy A. Volk; Warren E. Mabee

    2009-01-01

    The production of high-salinity waste waters by landfills and other waste sites causes environmental concerns. This waste water often contains high concentrations of sodium and chloride, which may end up in local ground and surface waters. Vegetation filter systems comprised of willows and poplars can be used for the recycling of saline waste water. These vegetation...

  13. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  14. Review: Zygmunt Bauman (2005. Verworfenes Leben. Die Ausgegrenzten der Moderne [Wasted Lives: Modernity and Its Outcasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Spetsmann-Kunkel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Zygmunt BAUMAN delivers in his book Wasted Lives: Modernity and Its Outcasts a graphic and pessimistic description of ostracism in contemporary society. In the first part the outcasts of modern society are described, following market logic, as superfluous. Part two traces the actions of the state in punishing and segregating those who are ostracised. Finally, the involvement of those who are not (yet ostracised is depicted as somewhat fragile, with instability and lack of commitment as central characteristics of our liquid modernity. The fear of losing social status and thus becoming useless is inherent in life in modern society. This review ends with a few brief reflections on possible connections between BAUMAN's analysis and social research projects. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0703295

  15. Study of spallation neutrons for the transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brochard, F.; Boyard, J.L.; Duchazeaubeneix, J.C.; Durand, J.M.; Faivre, J.C.; Leray, S.; Milleret, G.; Plouin, F.; Whittal, D.M.; Beau, M.; Crespin, S.; Frehaut, J.; Lochard, J.P.; Martinez, E.; Patin, Y.; Petitbon, E.; Sigaud, J.; Legrain, R.; Lepretre, A.; Terrien, Y.; Bacha, F.; Maillard, J.; Silva, J.

    1994-01-01

    With the renewed interest in accelerator-driven systems to transmute long-lived nuclear waste or to produce energy, new requirements for intermediate-energy nuclear data are now emerging. In all these systems, neutrons are produced by spallation reactions induced by around 1 GeV protons on a heavy target. These neutrons then drive a sub-critical blanket in which wastes are burned or energy is produced. A good knowledge of the spallation process (energy and angular distribution of the neutrons) is necessary to design and optimize the target-blanket system: for instance, to determine the best choices of beam energy, of composition and geometry of the target, in order to have the maximum neutron yield at the lowest cost, or to minimize the back-scattering of neutrons to the accelerator. A programme aimed at measuring the double differential cross-sections for the production of spallation neutrons induced by protons and deuterons GeV beams on different targets, is beginning at SATURNE. (authors). 3 refs., 3 figs

  16. Assessment of studies and researches on warehousing - High-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes - December 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This large report first presents the approach adopted for the study and research on the warehousing of high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive wastes. It outlines how reversible storage and warehousing are complementary, discusses the lessons learned from researches performed by the CEA on long duration warehousing, presents the framework of studies and researches performed since 2006, and presents the scientific and technical content of studies and researches (warehousing need analysis, search for technical options providing complementarity with storage, extension or creation of warehousing installations). The second part addresses high-level and intermediate-level-long-lived radioactive waste parcels, indicates their origins and quantities. The third part proposes an analysis of warehousing capacities: existing capacities, French industrial experience in waste parcel warehousing, foreign experience in waste warehousing. The fourth part addresses reversible storage in deep geological formation: storage safety functions, storage reversibility, storage parcels, storage architecture, chronicle draft. The fifth part proposes an inventory of warehousing needs in terms of additional capacities for the both types of wastes (high-level, and intermediate-level-long-lived), and discusses warehousing functionalities and safety objectives. The sixth and seventh parts propose a detailed overview of design options for warehousing installations, respectively for high-level and for intermediate-level-long-lived waste parcels: main technical issues, feasibility studies of different concepts or architecture shapes, results of previous studies and introduction to studies performed since 2011, possible evolutions of the HA1, HA2 and MAVL concepts. The eighth chapter reports a phenomenological analysis of warehousing and the optimisation of material selection and construction arrangements. The last part discusses the application of researches to the extension of the

  17. Nondestructive and destructive measurements, a synergy for the wastes characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoravain, S.; Dogny, S.

    2001-01-01

    The waste generated by nuclear industry have to be treated and conditioned to be stored in sites managed by ANDRA. Three channels are conceivable, the storage of very low activity waste, the surface storage of short live and low and intermediate activity waste, and the deep storage for long life or high activity waste. At this day, only the surface storage for waste at short life and low and intermediate activity is operational and allows to evacuate the radioactive waster. (N.C.)

  18. Short-lived brine infiltration during upper amphibolite facies metamorphism in the continental collision zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashino, Fumiko; Kawakami, Tetsuo; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi; Satish-Kumar, Madhusoodhan; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Grantham, Geoffrey; Sakata, Shuhei; Hirata, Takafumi

    2017-04-01

    conditions, and the different chemical profiles would represent differences in diffusion coefficients for each element. In addition, we estimated trace element concentrations of the brine and duration of the microstructural development, using elemental partition coefficients between fluids and minerals and diffusion equations. The duration, which was estimated to be 4 Myr, suggests short-lived brine infiltration in an otherwise long-lived continental collision scenario (e.g., Elburg et al., 2016). References Elburg, M.A., Andersen, T., Jacobs, J., Läufer, A., Ruppel, A., Krohne, N., Damaske, D. (2016) Journal of Geology 124, 1-26. Higashino, F., Kawakami, T., Tsuchiya, N., Satish-Kumar, M., Ishikawa, M., Grantham, G.H., Sakata, S., Hattori, K., Hirata, T. (2015) Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences 110, 166-178. Higashino, F., Kawakami, T., Tsuchiya, N., Satish-Kumar, M., Ishikawa, M., Grantham, G.H., Sakata, S., Hirata, T. Journal of Petrology, under review. Newton, R.C., Manning, C.E. (2010) Geofluids 10, 58-72. Ruiz-Agudo, E., Putnis, C.V., Putnis, A. (2014) Chemical Geology 383, 132-146.

  19. Multi-model evaluation of short-lived pollutant distributions over east Asia during summer 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quennehen, B.; Raut, J.-C.; Law, K. S.; Daskalakis, N.; Ancellet, G.; Clerbaux, C.; Kim, S.-W.; Lund, M. T.; Myhre, G.; Olivié, D. J. L.; Safieddine, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Thomas, J. L.; Tsyro, S.; Bazureau, A.; Bellouin, N.; Hu, M.; Kanakidou, M.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Myriokefalitakis, S.; Quaas, J.; Rumbold, S. T.; Schulz, M.; Cherian, R.; Shimizu, A.; Wang, J.; Yoon, S.-C.; Zhu, T.

    2016-08-01

    is too weak to explain the differences between the models. Our results rather point to an overestimation of SO2 emissions, in particular, close to the surface in Chinese urban areas. However, we also identify a clear underestimation of aerosol concentrations over northern India, suggesting that the rapid recent growth of emissions in India, as well as their spatial extension, is underestimated in emission inventories. Model deficiencies in the representation of pollution accumulation due to the Indian monsoon may also be playing a role. Comparison with vertical aerosol lidar measurements highlights a general underestimation of scattering aerosols in the boundary layer associated with overestimation in the free troposphere pointing to modelled aerosol lifetimes that are too long. This is likely linked to too strong vertical transport and/or insufficient deposition efficiency during transport or export from the boundary layer, rather than chemical processing (in the case of sulphate aerosols). Underestimation of sulphate in the boundary layer implies potentially large errors in simulated aerosol-cloud interactions, via impacts on boundary-layer clouds.This evaluation has important implications for accurate assessment of air pollutants on regional air quality and global climate based on global model calculations. Ideally, models should be run at higher resolution over source regions to better simulate urban-rural pollutant gradients and/or chemical regimes, and also to better resolve pollutant processing and loss by wet deposition as well as vertical transport. Discrepancies in vertical distributions require further quantification and improvement since these are a key factor in the determination of radiative forcing from short-lived pollutants.

  20. Multi-model evaluation of short-lived pollutant distributions over east Asia during summer 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Quennehen

    2016-08-01

    mitigation in Beijing is too weak to explain the differences between the models. Our results rather point to an overestimation of SO2 emissions, in particular, close to the surface in Chinese urban areas. However, we also identify a clear underestimation of aerosol concentrations over northern India, suggesting that the rapid recent growth of emissions in India, as well as their spatial extension, is underestimated in emission inventories. Model deficiencies in the representation of pollution accumulation due to the Indian monsoon may also be playing a role. Comparison with vertical aerosol lidar measurements highlights a general underestimation of scattering aerosols in the boundary layer associated with overestimation in the free troposphere pointing to modelled aerosol lifetimes that are too long. This is likely linked to too strong vertical transport and/or insufficient deposition efficiency during transport or export from the boundary layer, rather than chemical processing (in the case of sulphate aerosols. Underestimation of sulphate in the boundary layer implies potentially large errors in simulated aerosol–cloud interactions, via impacts on boundary-layer clouds.This evaluation has important implications for accurate assessment of air pollutants on regional air quality and global climate based on global model calculations. Ideally, models should be run at higher resolution over source regions to better simulate urban–rural pollutant gradients and/or chemical regimes, and also to better resolve pollutant processing and loss by wet deposition as well as vertical transport. Discrepancies in vertical distributions require further quantification and improvement since these are a key factor in the determination of radiative forcing from short-lived pollutants.

  1. Radon and its short-lived daughter products in the lower atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Servant, J.

    1964-01-01

    The variations of vertical and temporal distributions of natural radioactivity with geographical location in the lower atmospheric layers are shown. The content of radon and its short lived daughters products are measured. Radon content is measured continually with a new apparatus, the sensibility of which is 0,2.10 -11 Ci m -3 i.e. the fiftieth of the mean concentration near the soil, this apparatus allowed us to show that radioactive equilibrium between radon and its daughter products is realised when the atmosphere is stable. Air observations between 0 and 100 meters above the ground point out that radon and its decay products are valuable tracers to mark the stability of the atmosphere. Under very stable nighttime conditions the radon accumulates in the former 30 meters of the air layer, at sunrise it ascends and at 9 o'clock attains 100 meters high. The removal rate of the air in the lower atmosphere is computed from the movement of this radon mass, it is equal to 90 per cent for a summer day. We have show that this radon comes from the soil in which it diffuses by brownian motion the intensity of which varies with the water content of the soil, its value for June 1958 is 6,10 -17 Ci cm -2 s -1 and for January 1959 0.2,10 -17 Ci cm -2 s - 1. During the year 1958-1959 general mean of flux for the sedimentary soil studied is equal to 3. 8 ± 1.3, 10 -17 Ci cm -2 s -1 it is identical to the world wide mean computed by H. Israel. In a hilly site in the Morvan, air movements are well marked by this radioactivity. We observed from one hand downslope and up-slope breezes having, respectively, speeds of 0.2 m s -1 and 0.7 m s -1 and from the other hand by night, in the valley and with a light wind favours the stagnation of the air near the ground, a strong increase of the radioactivity which is proportional to the one of the granitic rocks of the region. The radon flux of this soil is 74,10 -17 Ci cm -2 s -1 and the radioactivity of the air can attain 1.5,10 -8 Ci m

  2. Regional emission metrics for short-lived climate forcers from multiple models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aamaas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs, the impact of emissions depends on where and when the emissions take place. Comprehensive new calculations of various emission metrics for SLCFs are presented based on radiative forcing (RF values calculated in four different (chemical-transport or coupled chemistry–climate models. We distinguish between emissions during summer (May–October and winter (November–April for emissions in Europe and East Asia, as well as from the global shipping sector and global emissions. The species included in this study are aerosols and aerosol precursors (BC, OC, SO2, NH3, as well as ozone precursors (NOx, CO, VOCs, which also influence aerosols to a lesser degree. Emission metrics for global climate responses of these emissions, as well as for CH4, have been calculated using global warming potential (GWP and global temperature change potential (GTP, based on dedicated RF simulations by four global models. The emission metrics include indirect cloud effects of aerosols and the semi-direct forcing for BC. In addition to the standard emission metrics for pulse and sustained emissions, we have also calculated a new emission metric designed for an emission profile consisting of a ramping period of 15 years followed by sustained emissions, which is more appropriate for a gradual implementation of mitigation policies.For the aerosols, the emission metric values are larger in magnitude for emissions in Europe than East Asia and for summer than winter. A variation is also observed for the ozone precursors, with largest values for emissions in East Asia and winter for CO and in Europe and summer for VOCs. In general, the variations between the emission metrics derived from different models are larger than the variations between regions and seasons, but the regional and seasonal variations for the best estimate also hold for most of the models individually. Further, the estimated climate impact of an illustrative mitigation

  3. Dormancy and germination in short-lived lepidium perfoliatu l. (brassicaceae) seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, An-Jun; Tian, M.; Long, Chun-Lin

    2010-01-01

    To understand germination timing in an ecological context, the response to environmental events that effect seed dormancy is central and has to be combined with knowledge of germination responses to different ecological factors. In this study, seed dormancy, germination and seedling survival of annual short-lived clasping pepper weed Lepidium perfoliatum L. (Brassicaceae) were investigated. Three types of pre-treatments viz., various temperature dry storage, light and water stress were tested as possible dormancy and survival-affecting environmental events. Fresh mature seeds were greatly dormant. Warm (30 deg. C) dry storage more facilitated breaking dormancy, they germinated well under apt conditions (e.g. 20 deg. C and 10/20 deg. C plus periodic light, 14 h/d). For those seeds which underwent after-ripening, they could germinate at a range of constant temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 deg. C) and one alternating temperature (10/20 deg. C). Under alternating temperature regimes, the final percent germination of L. perfoliatum seeds increased from 37 deg. C to 93% when temperature altered from 4/10 deg. C to 10/20 deg. C in light, then decreased with increasing temperature. The germination pattern under constant temperature conditions was similar to that under alternating temperature and significant differences in final percent germinations and rates of germination were observed among different temperatures. Under different light treatments, final germination of showed significant differences, only with 35% of germination percentage in dark, much lower than those in red and white light (i.e. 93% and 91%, respectively). GA3 could promote the germination of non-dormant seeds in dark. When water potentials were reduced, final percent germination decreased dramatically, and few seeds germinated at -0.98 MPa (generated by PEG-8000). The changes of proline content in resultant seedlings were reverse to that of final percent germination with changing water

  4. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as {sup 36}Cl and {sup 93}Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon.

  5. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. Preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    A preliminary safety assessment has been performed of a deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste, SFL 3-5. The purpose of the study is to investigate the capacity of the facility to act as a barrier to the release of radionuclides and toxic pollutants, and to shed light on the importance of the location of the repository site. A safety assessment (SR 97) of a deep repository for spent fuel has been carried out at the same time. In SR 97, three hypothetical repository sites have been selected for study. These sites exhibit fairly different conditions in terms of hydrogeology, hydrochemistry and ecosystems. To make use of information and data from the SR 97 study, we have assumed that SFL 3-5 is co-sited with the deep repository for spent fuel. A conceivable alternative is to site SFL 3-5 as a completely separate repository. The focus of the SFL 3-5 study is a quantitative analysis of the environmental impact for a reference scenario, while other scenarios are discussed and analyzed in more general terms. Migration in the repository's near- and far-field has been taken into account in the reference scenario. Environmental impact on the three sites has also been calculated. The calculations are based on an updated forecast of the waste to be disposed of in SFL 3-5. The forecast includes radionuclide content, toxic metals and other substances that have a bearing on a safety assessment. The safety assessment shows how important the site is for safety. Two factors stand out as being particularly important: the water flow at the depth in the rock where the repository is built, and the ecosystem in the areas on the ground surface where releases may take place in the future. Another conclusion is that radionuclides that are highly mobile and long-lived, such as 36 Cl and 93 Mo , are important to take into consideration. Their being long-lived means that barriers and the ecosystems must be regarded with a very long time horizon

  6. A miRNA catalogue and ncRNA annotation of the short-living fish Nothobranchius furzeri

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgart, Mario; Barth, Emanuel; Savino, Aurora; Groth, Marco; Koch, Philipp; Petzold, Andreas; Arisi, Ivan; Platzer, Matthias; Marz, Manja; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Background The short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-lived vertebrate that can be cultured in captivity and was recently established as a model organism for aging research. Small non-coding RNAs, especially miRNAs, are implicated in age dependent control of gene expression. Results Here, we present a comprehensive catalogue of miRNAs and several other non-coding RNA classes (ncRNAs) for Nothobranchius furzeri. Analyzing multiple small RNA-Seq libraries, we show most of these...

  7. Probalistisk short-term risk modeling for back-end fuel cycle and waste management facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjellbert, N.A.

    1980-03-01

    This study of probabilistic short-term risk modeling of back-end fuel cycle and waste management facilities represents the continuation of work started in 1977. The purpose of the report is to present a more detailed survey of models and analysis techniques that mey be applicable. The definition of the risk concept and the nature of the facilities and events which are to be analyzed are described. The most important criteria are that the model or method shall be quantitative, logically/scientifically based, and be able to handle systems of some complexity. Several formalized analysis methods are described, most of them emanating from reliability theory. No single model will fulfill all criteria simultaneously, to the degree desired. Nevertheless, fault tree analysis seems to be an efficient tool in many applications, although it must probably be used together with other models in most cases. Other methodologies described can also be useful, such as failure modes and effects analysis, renewal theory and Markov chains, reliability block diagrams, event trees and cause/consequence diagrams, the GO methodology, Monte Carlo simulation, and, often necessary, various consequence modeling techniques. (author)

  8. Wind Turbine Waste Heat Recovery—A Short-Term Heat Loss Forecasting Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Xydis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The transition from the era of massive renewable energy deployment to the era of cheaper energy needed has made scientists and developers more careful with respect to energy planning compared with a few years ago. The focus is—and will be—placed on retrofitting and on extracting the maximum amount of locally generated energy. The question is not only how much energy can be generated, but also what kind of energy and how it can be utilized efficiently. The waste heat coming from wind farms (WFs when in operation—which until now was wasted—was thoroughly studied. A short-term forecasting methodology that can provide the operator with a better view of the expected heat losses is presented. The majority of mechanical (due to friction and electro-thermal (i.e., generator losses takes place at the nacelle while a smaller part of this thermal source is located near the foundation of the wind turbine (WT where the power electronics and the transformers are usually located. That thermal load can be easily collected via a working fluid and then be transported to the nearest local community or nearby agricultural or small scale industrial units using the necessary piping.

  9. Measurements of airborne short-lived radioactivity concentration in a PET facility at a national University hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    National universities in Japan became under regulation of Industrial Safety and Health Law since 2004FY. One of the legal obligations is working environment measurements such as airborne radioactivity concentration in the rooms where employees handle unsealed radiation sources. Both in 2004FY and in 2005FY, measurements of airborne radioactivity concentration were carried out by two different agencies. The most prominent difference among them is the measurement for short-lived PET nuclides. In 2004FY, one agency measured the radioactivity with a Ge spectrometer at its own laboratory, whereas, in 2005FY, the other agency brought a NaI scintillation counter for gross gamma counting to the Hospital. It can be shown that detection limits for short-lived PET nuclides are in principle almost the same in both methods. It is also found that, in the actual case, gamma spectrometry with a Ge spectrometer is superior in judgement of detection of the radioactivity. (author)

  10. Possibilities of chemical isolation of element 106 from aqueous solutions according to the model experiments with short lived tungsten isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeglowski, Z.; Bruchertseifer, H.; Brudanin, V.B.

    1993-01-01

    A rapid method for continuous separation of short-lived tungsten isotopes from the lanthanides has been developed. It consists in transforming nuclear reaction products from the target by an aerosol jet to an absorber where the KCl particulates are dissolved in 0.2 M HF and percolating the product solution through three successively linked columns filled with ion exchange resins Dowex 50X8 (cationite), Dowex 1X8 (anionite) and again Dowex 50X8. 3 refs

  11. Development of resonance ionization in a supersonic gas-jet for studies of short-lived and long-lived radioactive nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatsuka, Takaaki, E-mail: takatsuka.takaaki@e.mbox.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya Univ., Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Tomita, Hideki [Nagoya Univ., Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Sonnenschein, Volker [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Sonoda, Tetsu [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Adachi, Yoshitaka; Sakamoto, Chika [Nagoya Univ., Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Mita, Hiroki [Institute of Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Noto, Takuma [Nagoya Univ., Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ito, Chikara; Maeda, Shigetaka [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002 Narita, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Iguchi, Tetsuo [Nagoya Univ., Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Wada, Michiharu [RIKEN Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Wendt, Klaus [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Staudingerweg 7, Mainz 55128 (Germany); Moore, Iain [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä (Finland)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Resonance ionization of {sup 93}Nb in gas-jet was demonstrated using Ti:Sapphire laser. • The line width of the spectrum in the gas-jet was similar to that in vacuum. • An experimental setup for high-resolution RIS was designed. -- Abstract: High-resolution resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) is required for laser spectroscopy and trace analysis of short-lived and long-lived radioactive nuclei. We have proposed high-resolution resonance ionization spectroscopy in a gas jet combined with a narrow band-width injection-locked Ti:Sapphire laser. Resonance ionization of stable {sup 93}Nb in a gas jet was demonstrated using a broad bandwidth Ti:Sapphire laser. In addition, a setup for high-resolution RIS in a gas-jet was designed using numerical simulations of the gas-jet conditions based on computational fluid dynamics.

  12. Assisted Living Systems for Elderly and Disabled People: A Short Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Iliev

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The number of elderly people living alone in their homes is permanently growing in the whole western world. Because of the deteriorating capabilities to sense and interact with the environment, such as memory, eye sight, hearing and mobility, the ageing populations often live with significantly degraded life quality. Many also suffer from chronic diseases that require medical treatment and periodical examinations. Different Assisted Living Systems have been proposed to cope with the problems. The goal is to enable the elderly people to live longer in their preferred environment, to enhance the quality of their live and to reduce the expenses of the public health care. The Assisted Living Systems are based on a lot of sensors, actuators and multimedia equipment, providing for the autonomy of people and assisting them in carrying out their daily activities together with available interaction with remote relatives and friends. The applied approaches and implementations are specific that limit the dissemination of the results between the object oriented groups. Besides, most of the projects require considerable funding for implementation. For the time being and especially for some countries with lower Gross Domestic Product, the efforts may be directed to creation of low-cost assistive systems performing some basic tasks, related to the need and health status of the living alone adults or disabled people, e.g. automatic fall detection and signalization, as well as instantaneous monitoring the photo-pletismographic signals together with permanently available communication interface between the caregiver and the user.

  13. Simultaneous Measurements of Nanoaerosols and Radioactive Aerosols Containing the Short-lived Radon Isotopes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otáhal, P.P.S.; Burian, I.; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír; Holub, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 175, č. 5 (2017), s. 53-56 ISSN 0144-8420. [Conference on Protection against Radon at Home and at Work / 13th International Workshop on the Geological Aspects of Radon Risk Mapping /8./. Prague, 12.09.2017-16.09.2017] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : equilibrium -equivalent concentration * radon * radioactive nenoaerosols Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2016

  14. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in terrestrial bird species inhabiting an e-waste recycling site in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-03-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Currently, limited data are available about SCCPs in terrestrial organisms. In the present study, SCCP concentration in the muscles of seven terrestrial bird species (n = 38) inhabiting an e-waste recycling area in South China was determined. This concentration varied from 620 to 17,000 ng/g lipid. Resident birds accumulated significantly higher SCCP concentrations than migratory birds (p e-waste area. Two different homologue group patterns were observed in avian samples. The first pattern was found in five bird species dominated by C10 and C11 congeners, while the second was found in the remains, which show rather equal abundance of homologue groups. This may be caused by two sources of SCCPs (local and e-waste) in the study area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Centuries of thermal sea-level rise due to anthropogenic emissions of short-lived greenhouse gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zickfeld, Kirsten; Solomon, Susan; Gilford, Daniel M

    2017-01-24

    Mitigation of anthropogenic greenhouse gases with short lifetimes (order of a year to decades) can contribute to limiting warming, but less attention has been paid to their impacts on longer-term sea-level rise. We show that short-lived greenhouse gases contribute to sea-level rise through thermal expansion (TSLR) over much longer time scales than their atmospheric lifetimes. For example, at least half of the TSLR due to increases in methane is expected to remain present for more than 200 y, even if anthropogenic emissions cease altogether, despite the 10-y atmospheric lifetime of this gas. Chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons have already been phased out under the Montreal Protocol due to concerns about ozone depletion and provide an illustration of how emission reductions avoid multiple centuries of future TSLR. We examine the "world avoided" by the Montreal Protocol by showing that if these gases had instead been eliminated in 2050, additional TSLR of up to about 14 cm would be expected in the 21st century, with continuing contributions lasting more than 500 y. Emissions of the hydrofluorocarbon substitutes in the next half-century would also contribute to centuries of future TSLR. Consideration of the time scales of reversibility of TSLR due to short-lived substances provides insights into physical processes: sea-level rise is often assumed to follow air temperature, but this assumption holds only for TSLR when temperatures are increasing. We present a more complete formulation that is accurate even when atmospheric temperatures are stable or decreasing due to reductions in short-lived gases or net radiative forcing.

  16. Effects of post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel, high-level waste and long-lived intermediate level waste sited in opalinus clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, L.; Marschall, P.; Zuidema, P.; Gribi, P.

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive report issued by the Swiss National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste NAGRA takes a look at post-disposal gas generation in a repository for spent fuel and highly radioactive wastes in Opalinus clay strata. This study provides a comprehensive treatment of the issue of gas generation in a repository for spent fuel (SF), vitrified high-level waste (HLW) and long-lived intermediate-level waste (ILW), sited in the Opalinus clay of the Zuercher Weinland in northern Switzerland. The issue of how gas generation in and transport from waste repositories may influence disposal system performance has been under study for many years, both at Nagra and internationally. The report consists of three main parts: (i) A synthesis of basic information on the host rock and on details of repository construction; (ii) A discussion on gas transport characteristics of the engineered barrier system and the geosphere; (iii) A discussion on the effects of gas on system performance, based on the available information on gas generation, gas transport properties and gas pathways provided in the previous parts of the report. Simplified model calculations based on a mass balance approach for the gas generated within the repository are presented and discussed

  17. Direct benefits of genetic mosaicism and intraorganismal selection: modeling coevolution between a long-lived tree and a short-lived herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folse, Henry J; Roughgarden, Joan

    2012-04-01

    We model direct fitness benefits of genetic mosaicism for a long-lived tree in coevolution with a short-lived herbivore to test four hypotheses: that mosaicism reduces selection on the herbivore for resistance to plant defenses; that module-level selection allows the individual tree to adapt to its herbivore; and that this benefits the tree population, increasing average tree fitness and reducing local adaptation of the herbivore. We show that: mosaicism does not sufficiently reduce selection for resistance in the herbivore to benefit the tree; that individual trees do benefit from module-level selection when somatic mutation introduces new defenses; and that mosaicism does reduce local adaptation in the herbivore, which increases average tree fitness. These results are robust to varying genetic assumptions of dominance and the somatic mutation rate, but only hold for sufficiently long-lived trees with relatively strong selection. We also show that a mixed reproductive strategy of primarily asexual reproduction interspersed with occasional sexual reproduction is effective in coevolving with the herbivore, as it maintains beneficial allele combinations. Finally, we argue that intraorganismal genetic heterogeneity need not threaten the integrity of the individual and may be adaptive when selection acts concordantly between levels. © 2011 The Author. Evolution© 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  18. Short communication: a food-systems approach to assessing dairy product waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, B G; Baird, D L; Bastiaans, K; Darnell, R; Hendrie, G A; Riley, M; Sanguansri, P; Syrette, J; Noakes, M; Keating, B A

    2014-10-01

    Concern about world population increase, food security, and the environmental burdens of food production have made food-waste reduction a social and environmental priority. In this context, the quantification of dairy product waste is especially difficult due to the varied means of disposal, by solid and liquid waste streams, and due to inclusion as an ingredient in many processed foods. In this study, food intake data from the Australian National Nutrition Survey (>13,000 participants; >4,500 food items) were disaggregated into basic foods and total national dairy product intake was expressed in whole-milk equivalents. This result was compared with total domestic milk supply, indicating a level of waste of 29% for dairy products in the Australian food system. With national food-waste reduction targets becoming increasingly common, reliable estimates of food waste at the national scale are important for goal setting, baseline reporting, and performance monitoring. For this purpose, the systems approach to assessing food waste demonstrated in this project is deemed to have advantages over other common methods of food-waste assessment, such as bin audits, waste diaries, and surveys. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Forecasting Hazardous Waste Generation Using Short Data Sets: Case Study of Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aistė Karpušenkaitė

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to inefficient waste sorting in primary and secondary waste generation sources Lithuania fails in trying to meet EU requirements for waste management sector regarding the amount of waste flow that reaches landfills. Especially sensitive situation is with hazardous waste, which often are disposed along with municipal solid waste and with it reaches landfills and due to the fact that mechanical and biological treatment plant are only now being established in the biggest cities of Lithuania, landfills becomes a big issue. The main purpose of this research is to find out which mathematical modelling methods could be fitted and if it is possible to forecast annual hazardous waste generation by using automotive, medical and daylight lamps waste generation statistical data. This is part of a research of medical, automotive and daylight lamps waste generation forecasting possibilities. Tests on the performance of artificial neural networks, multiple linear regression, partial least squares, support vector machines and four nonparametric regression methods were conducted on two developed data sets. The best and most promising results in both cases were demonstrated by generalized additives method (R2 = 0.99 and kernel regression (R2 = 0.99.

  20. Decay properties of short-lived mass-separated fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, E.

    1977-01-01

    The present work describes determinations of total β-decay energies and studies of delayed neutron emission including the identification and half-life determinations of delayed neutron precursors and the measurement of neutron spectra. It also includes a short review of the OSIRIS on-line isotope separator facility. (Auth.)

  1. Simultaneous Measurements of Nanoaerosols and Radioactive Aerosols Containing the Short-lived Radon Isotopes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otáhal, P.P.S.; Burian, I.; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír; Holub, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 175, č. 5 (2017), s. 53-56 ISSN 0144-8420. [Conference on Protection against Radon at Home and at Work / 13th International Workshop on the Geological Aspects of Radon Risk Mapping /8./. Prague, 12.09.2017-16.09.2017] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : equilibrium-equivalent concentration * radon * radioactive nenoaerosols Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2016

  2. IN-SITU RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT NEAR THE NOPAL I URANIUM DEPOSIT AT PENA BLANCA, MEXICO: CONSTRAINTS FROM SHORT-LIVED DECAY-SERIES RADIONUCLIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Luo; T.L. Ku; V. Todd; M. Murrell; J. Alfredo Rodriguez Pineda; J. Dinsmoor; A. Mitchell

    2005-07-11

    For nuclear waste management, an important mechanism by which radioactive waste components are isolated from returning to the human environment, the biosphere, is by the geological barrier in which the effectiveness of the barrier is characterized by in-situ retardation factor, i.e., the transport rate of a radionuclide relative to that of groundwater. As part of natural analog studies of the Yucca Mountain Project of the U. S. Department of Energy, we propose such characterization by using naturally-occurring decay-series radioisotopes as an analog. We collected large-volume (>1000 liters) groundwater samples from three wells (PB, Pozos, and PB4, respectively) near the Nopal I Uranium Ore site at Pena Blanca, Mexico, by using an in-situ Mn-cartridge filtration technique for analysis of short-lived decay-series radionuclides. Results show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes ({sup 228}Ra, {sup 224}Ra and {sup 223}Ra) and activity ratios of {sup 224}Ra/{sup 228}Ra and {sup 224}Ra/{sup 223}Ra are higher at PB and Pozos than at PB4. In contrast, the {sup 210}Po activity is much lower at PB and Pozos than at PB4. The high Ra activities and activities ratios at PB and Pozos are attributable to the high alpha-recoil input from the aquifer rocks, while the high {sup 210}Po activity at PB4 is due to the enhanced colloidal transport. Based on a uranium-series transport model, we estimate that the in-situ retardation factor of Ra is (0.43 {+-} 0.02) x 10{sup 3} at PB, (1.68 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at Pozos, and (1.19 {+-} 0.08) x 10{sup 3} at PB4 and that the mean fracture width in the aquifer rocks is about 0.23 {micro}m at PB, 0.37 {micro}m at Posos, and 4.0 {micro}m at PB4, respectively. The large fracture width at PB4 as derived from the model provides an additional evidence to the inference from the Po measurements that particle-reactive radionuclides are transported mainly as colloidal forms through the large fractures in rocks. Our model also suggests that

  3. ''Public impact of long term wastes storage links'' between wastes radiological characterization and public impact evaluation at short and long term; ''Impact sur le public des stockages a long terme des dechets'' liens entre caracterisation radiologique des dechets et evaluations d'impact pour le public a court et a long terme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillion, E. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs ANDRA, 92 - Chatenay Malabry (France)

    2001-07-01

    The food for thought of these days SFRP being the wastes characterisation, this presentation will put the emphasis on the radioisotopes that interest ANDRA because they are important for their contribution to radiological impact calculated for some scenario. The approach of storage safety and the impact evaluations are presented, for the short term safety, for the long term safety in the case of a surface storage concerning the low and intermediate level radioactive waste, the long term safety in deep storage for high level and years living radioactive waste. (N.C.)

  4. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ``ideas``. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ``cradle-to-grave`` systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ``downselection`` of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW.

  5. Overview of non-thermal mixed waste treatment technologies: Treatment of mixed waste (ex situ); Technologies and short descriptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This compendium contains brief summaries of new and developing non- thermal treatment technologies that are candidates for treating hazardous or mixed (hazardous plus low-level radioactive) wastes. It is written to be all-encompassing, sometimes including concepts that presently constitute little more than informed ''ideas''. It bounds the universe of existing technologies being thought about or considered for application on the treatment of such wastes. This compendium is intended to be the very first step in a winnowing process to identify non-thermal treatment systems that can be fashioned into complete ''cradle-to-grave'' systems for study. The purpose of the subsequent systems paper studies is to investigate the cost and likely performance of such systems treating a representative sample of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mixed low level wastes (MLLW). The studies are called Integrated Non-thermal Treatment Systems (INTS) Studies and are being conducted by the Office of Science and Technology (OST) of the Environmental Management (EM) of the US Department of Energy. Similar studies on Integrated Thermal Treatment Systems have recently been published. These are not designed nor intended to be a ''downselection'' of such technologies; rather, they are simply a systems evaluation of the likely costs and performance of various non- thermal technologies that have been arranged into systems to treat sludges, organics, metals, soils, and debris prevalent in MLLW

  6. The high level and long lived radioactive wastes; Les dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the main conclusions of 15 years of researches managed by the CEA. This report is the preliminary version of the 2005 final report. It presents the main conclusions of the actions on the axis 1 and 3 of the law of the 30 December 1991. The synthesis report on the axis 1 concerns results obtained on the long lived radionuclides separation and transmutation in high level and long lived radioactive wastes. the synthesis report on the axis 3 presents results obtained by the processes of conditioning and of ground and underground long term storage. (A.L.B.)

  7. Archaeology and the future: Managing nuclear waste as a living heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtorf, Cornelius; Hoegberg, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Archaeology, the study of the remains of the ancient past, may be relevant to the long-term preservation of RK and M, because it works to recover information, knowledge and meaning that have been lost. As a discipline, archaeology studies how the past is understood in the present, potentially drawing lessons that could guide future action concerning the preservation of RK and M across time by indicating how future societies could make sense of the past. Case studies, such as an examination of European megalithic tombs, show that the understanding of the past varies across time. It was emphasised that archaeological interpretation always reflects contemporary perceptions of past and future, which are socially and culturally embedded and highly mutable over time. What is more, archaeology is a fairly recent discipline and there is no certainty that it will exist in the long term, to help recover and reconstruct lost RK and M. As a result, it cannot be assumed that information, knowledge and meaning of the past can be transmitted reliably in the long term. Based on this understanding Profs. Cornelius Holtorf and Anders Hoegberg made a case for trying to keep knowledge alive over time, continuously engaging each present. They used the notion of 'living heritage', which refers to striving for continuity in the short and medium terms as a way to reach the long term, keeping in mind that reinterpretation and knowledge development over time is a given. As a result, they suggest to 'think about the long term but act for the short and medium terms'

  8. Online selection of short-lived particles on many-core computer architectures in the CBM experiment at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-01-01

    Modern experiments in heavy ion collisions operate with huge data rates that can not be fully stored on the currently available storage devices. Therefore the data flow should be reduced by selecting those collisions that potentially carry the information of the physics interest. The future CBM experiment will have no simple criteria for selecting such collisions and requires the full online reconstruction of the collision topology including reconstruction of short-lived particles. In this work the KF Particle Finder package for online reconstruction and selection of short-lived particles is proposed and developed. It reconstructs more than 70 decays, covering signals from all the physics cases of the CBM experiment: strange particles, strange resonances, hypernuclei, low mass vector mesons, charmonium, and open-charm particles. The package is based on the Kalman filter method providing a full set of the particle parameters together with their errors including position, momentum, mass, energy, lifetime, etc. It shows a high quality of the reconstructed particles, high efficiencies, and high signal to background ratios. The KF Particle Finder is extremely fast for achieving the reconstruction speed of 1.5 ms per minimum-bias AuAu collision at 25 AGeV beam energy on single CPU core. It is fully vectorized and parallelized and shows a strong linear scalability on the many-core architectures of up to 80 cores. It also scales within the First Level Event Selection package on the many-core clusters up to 3200 cores. The developed KF Particle Finder package is a universal platform for short- lived particle reconstruction, physics analysis and online selection.

  9. Development of a Method to Assess the Radiation Dose due to Internal Exposure to Short-lived Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmaman, D.; Koch, J.; Ribak, J.

    2014-01-01

    Work with radioactive materials requires monitoring of the employees' exposure to ionizing radiation. Employees may be exposed to radiation from internal and/or external exposure. Control of external exposure is mostly conducted through personal radiation dosimeters provided to employees. Control of internal exposure can be performed by measuring the concentration of radioactive substances excreted in urine or through whole-body counting in which the entire body or target organs are scanned with a sensitive detector system (1). According to the regulations in Israel an employee that may be internally exposed must undergo an exposure control at least once every three months. The idea lying behind the control of internal exposure by urine testing is that if radioactive material has penetrated into the employee body, it can be detected even if the test is performed once every three months. A model was fitted for each element describing its dispersion in the body and its excretion therefrom (2). By means of this model, one can estimate the activity that entered the body and calculate the resulting radiation dose to which the worker was exposed. There is a problem to implement this method when it comes to short-lived radioactive materials, for which it is very likely that the material that penetrated into the body has decayed and cannot be detected by testing once every three months. As a result, workers with short-lived radioactive materials are presently not monitored for internal exposure, in contradiction to the requirements of the Safety at Work Regulations. The purpose of the study is to develop an alternative method to assess the amount of radioactive material absorbed in the body and the resulting radiation dose due to internal exposure of workers to short-lived radioactive materials

  10. Dead-time corrections on long-interval measurements of short-lived activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irfan, M.

    1977-01-01

    A method has been proposed to make correction for counting losses due to dead time where the counting interval is comparable to or larger than the half-life of the activity under investigation. Counts due to background and any long-lived activity present in the source have been taken into consideration. The method is, under certain circumstances, capable of providing a valuable check on the accuracy of the dead time of the counting system. (Auth.)

  11. Methods to Collect, Compile, and Analyze Observed Short-lived Fission Product Gamma Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finn, Erin C.; Metz, Lori A.; Payne, Rosara F.; Friese, Judah I.; Greenwood, Lawrence R.; Kephart, Jeremy D.; Pierson, Bruce D.; Ellis, Tere A.

    2011-09-29

    A unique set of fission product gamma spectra was collected at short times (4 minutes to 1 week) on various fissionable materials. Gamma spectra were collected from the neutron-induced fission of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium isotopes at thermal, epithermal, fission spectrum, and 14-MeV neutron energies. This report describes the experimental methods used to produce and collect the gamma data, defines the experimental parameters for each method, and demonstrates the consistency of the measurements.

  12. GROWTH HORMONE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH SHORT STATURE LIVED IN SAMARA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Mikhailova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth inhibition in children is heterogeneous state, and it may accompany many endocrine, somatic, genetic and chromosome diseases. Generally recognized medications for treatment of somatotropic insufficiency in present times are biosynthetic analogs of human growth hormone (hGH, obtained with DNA-recombinant technology. This article presents the results of estimation of effectiveness of hGH in treatment of children with short stature (n=77 with isolated deficiency of growth hormone, panhypopituitarism, Turner's syndrome, treated with hGH during 3 years. All patients had significant positive dynamics of clinical status, the velocity of grouth increased from 1.9 cm (initial per year to 11.0 cm (the end of first year, with following decrease to 5.3 cm per year. SDS index of growth had stable tendency to increase: medium SDS index of growth initially was -3.9 SD, on the end of third year – -2.0 SD. It was shown, that treatment with hGH is effective in any types of short stature.Key words: children, short stature, treatment, human growth hormone.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:108-113

  13. Harvard-MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, March 1, 1983-February 29, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.

    1984-02-01

    This report describes research efforts towards the achievement of a clearer understanding of the solution chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future clinical agents labeled with Tc-99m, the development of new receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals for the in vivo assessment of insulin receptors and for imaging the adrenal medulla and the brain, the examination of the utility of monoclonal antibodies and liposomes in the design of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnosis and therapy, and the synthesis of short-lived positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals for transverse imaging of regional physiological processes

  14. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narama, Chiyuki; Daiyrov, Mirlan; Duishonakunov, Murataly; Tadono, Takeo; Sato, Hayato; Kääb, Andreas; Ukita, Jinro; Abdrakhmatov, Kanatbek

    2018-04-01

    Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006-2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000 m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary), and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth-drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i) a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex), (ii) a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii) no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2) in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s-1 at peak discharge.

  15. Evidence That Lifelong Low Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiation Increase Lifespan in Long- and Short-Lived Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cuttler, Jerry M.; Feinendegen, Ludwig E.; Socol, Yehoshua

    2017-01-01

    After the 1956 radiation scare to stop weapons testing, studies focused on cancer induction by low-level radiation. Concern has shifted to protecting “radiation-sensitive individuals.” Since longevity is a measure of health impact, this analysis reexamined data to compare the effect of dose rate on the lifespans of short-lived (5% and 10% mortality) dogs and on the lifespans of dogs at 50% mortality. The data came from 2 large-scale studies. One exposed 10 groups to different γ dose rates; th...

  16. Large drainages from short-lived glacial lakes in the Teskey Range, Tien Shan Mountains, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Narama

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Four large drainages from glacial lakes occurred during 2006–2014 in the western Teskey Range, Kyrgyzstan. These floods caused extensive damage, killing people and livestock as well as destroying property and crops. Using satellite data analysis and field surveys of this area, we find that the water volume that drained at Kashkasuu glacial lake in 2006 was 194 000  m3, at western Zyndan lake in 2008 was 437 000 m3, at Jeruy lake in 2013 was 182 000 m3, and at Karateke lake in 2014 was 123 000 m3. Due to their subsurface outlet, we refer to these short-lived glacial lakes as the tunnel-type, a type that drastically grows and drains over a few months. From spring to early summer, these lakes either appear, or in some cases, significantly expand from an existing lake (but non-stationary, and then drain during summer. Our field surveys show that the short-lived lakes form when an ice tunnel through a debris landform gets blocked. The blocking is caused either by the freezing of stored water inside the tunnel during winter or by the collapse of ice and debris around the ice tunnel. The draining then occurs through an opened ice tunnel during summer. The growth–drain cycle can repeat when the ice-tunnel closure behaves like that of typical supraglacial lakes on debris-covered glaciers. We argue here that the geomorphological characteristics under which such short-lived glacial lakes appear are (i a debris landform containing ice (ice-cored moraine complex, (ii a depression with water supply on a debris landform as a potential lake basin, and (iii no visible surface outflow channel from the depression, indicating the existence of an ice tunnel. Applying these characteristics, we examine 60 depressions (> 0.01 km2 in the study region and identify here 53 of them that may become short-lived glacial lakes, with 34 of these having a potential drainage exceeding 10 m3 s−1 at peak discharge.

  17. Validation of Six Short and Ultra-short Screening Instruments for Depression for People Living with HIV in Ontario: Results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie K Y Choi

    Full Text Available Major depression affects up to half of people living with HIV. However, among HIV-positive patients, depression goes unrecognized 60-70% of the time in non-psychiatric settings. We sought to evaluate three screening instruments and their short forms to facilitate the recognition of current depression in HIV-positive patients attending HIV specialty care clinics in Ontario.A multi-centre validation study was conducted in Ontario to examine the validity and accuracy of three instruments (the Center for Epidemiologic Depression Scale [CESD20], the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale [K10], and the Patient Health Questionnaire depression scale [PHQ9] and their short forms (CESD10, K6, and PHQ2 in diagnosing current major depression among 190 HIV-positive patients in Ontario. Results from the three instruments and their short forms were compared to results from the gold standard measured by Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (the "M.I.N.I.".Overall, the three instruments identified depression with excellent accuracy and validity (area under the curve [AUC]>0.9 and good reliability (Kappa statistics: 0.71-0.79; Cronbach's alpha: 0.87-0.93. We did not find that the AUCs differed in instrument pairs (p-value>0.09, or between the instruments and their short forms (p-value>0.3. Except for the PHQ2, the instruments showed good-to-excellent sensitivity (0.86-1.0 and specificity (0.81-0.87, excellent negative predictive value (>0.90, and moderate positive predictive value (0.49-0.58 at their optimal cut-points.Among people in HIV care in Ontario, Canada, the three instruments and their short forms performed equally well and accurately. When further in-depth assessments become available, shorter instruments might find greater clinical acceptance. This could lead to clinical benefits in fast-paced speciality HIV care settings and better management of depression in HIV-positive patients.

  18. Social Trust and Confidence in the Management of Long Lived Radioactive Wastes: Qualitative Data from France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mays, Claire; Charron, Sylvie; Brenot, Jean

    2003-01-01

    Our qualitative study brought confirmation to Petts' finding that trust components may be of variable significance to different populations in different risk contexts. When we asked interviewees simply to talk about LLiRW (long-lived radioactive wastes management), social trust and confidence were frequently addressed (more than any other of our seven study themes). However, the themes' status appears to differ according to study sample. For the Limousine interviewees, these concepts are central and deeply tied into the uncertainty evoked by LLiRWM. Some interviewees explicitly described how social trust in waste managers, and confidence in the RWM system, are challenged by the very long term, and by the unpredictability of health effects from ionizing radiation. Limousine interviewees ask themselves questions about trust and confidence every time they think about the issues of mine and mill tailings in their community. While managers can draw guidance on how to ameliorate their performance on e.g. openness and credibility, residents suggest that there are structural limits to how far social trust can suffice in a RWM system. In such a context, improving system confidence may reside not so much in convincing residents that institutional actors are more trustworthy, as in fostering a dialogue among all these stakeholders on how to address long term, uncertain risks and their impacts. This is in alignment with Bradbury et al. who with reference to Webler recommend that 'increasing trust and decreasing distrust' be viewed primarily as a basis for initiating and sustaining a more effective (fair and competent) dialogue with the goal of developing consensus on risk management policies. Uninvolved urban samples also talked about trust and confidence, especially during the group interviews. In contrast, however, participants seemed to use these themes as a tool to spark animated discussion on a risk topic - LLiRWM - of which they had not necessarily given much thought in

  19. Social Trust and Confidence in the Management of Long Lived Radioactive Wastes: Qualitative Data from France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mays, Claire [Inst. Symlog, Cachan (France); Charron, Sylvie; Brenot, Jean [IRSN-DPHD-SEGR, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2003-10-01

    Our qualitative study brought confirmation to Petts' finding that trust components may be of variable significance to different populations in different risk contexts. When we asked interviewees simply to talk about LLiRW (long-lived radioactive wastes management), social trust and confidence were frequently addressed (more than any other of our seven study themes). However, the themes' status appears to differ according to study sample. For the Limousine interviewees, these concepts are central and deeply tied into the uncertainty evoked by LLiRWM. Some interviewees explicitly described how social trust in waste managers, and confidence in the RWM system, are challenged by the very long term, and by the unpredictability of health effects from ionizing radiation. Limousine interviewees ask themselves questions about trust and confidence every time they think about the issues of mine and mill tailings in their community. While managers can draw guidance on how to ameliorate their performance on e.g. openness and credibility, residents suggest that there are structural limits to how far social trust can suffice in a RWM system. In such a context, improving system confidence may reside not so much in convincing residents that institutional actors are more trustworthy, as in fostering a dialogue among all these stakeholders on how to address long term, uncertain risks and their impacts. This is in alignment with Bradbury et al. who with reference to Webler recommend that 'increasing trust and decreasing distrust' be viewed primarily as a basis for initiating and sustaining a more effective (fair and competent) dialogue with the goal of developing consensus on risk management policies. Uninvolved urban samples also talked about trust and confidence, especially during the group interviews. In contrast, however, participants seemed to use these themes as a tool to spark animated discussion on a risk topic - LLiRWM - of which they had not necessarily

  20. Sorption of short-lived radionuclides in a layer of sorbent with spherical granules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlin, Yu.V.

    1993-01-01

    Sorption methods have found wide application in the purification of liquid radioactive wastes. The working element in sorption methods for this purpose is usually a sorption column with a fixed layer of sorbent. Continuous-action equipment with a moving layer of sorbent is very seldom used. When a fixed layer of sorbent is used its wear and prolonged mixing in the sorption column are reduced to a minimum, and maximum purification is achieved due to the advantages of the dynamic method of sorption over the static method. The time of protective action of the sorbent layer is determined by the time taken for the radionuclide to pass through the sorption column, and for the majority of radionuclides is determined by numerous parameters, including the type of sorbent and radionuclide, the rate of flow through the sorbent, the size of the sorbent granules, etc. The physical and chemical aspects of this process have been investigated in detail, and numerous methods for modeling it mathematically have been developed and have been used to develop methods of designing sorption column apparatus. The specific nature of the radionuclides as unstable materials enables the hypothetical case of a open-quotes perpetualclose quotes sorption filter to be represented. In fact, to achieve this it is only necessary to assume that the half-life of the radionuclide is so small that the rate of decay of the radionuclide in the sorption column (both in the sorbed state and in the aqueous phase of the sorption layer) is equal to the rate that it is fed into the column in the flow of liquid radioactive waste. In this case the sorption front of the radionuclide in the column wall remains fixed after a certain initial period. In this paper, a mathematical model of such a hypothetical filter for the case of spherical sorbent granules is considered

  1. Transmutation prospect of long-lived nuclear waste induced by high-charge electron beam from laser plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X. L.; Xu, Z. Y.; Luo, W.; Lu, H. Y.; Zhu, Z. C.; Yan, X. Q.

    2017-09-01

    Photo-transmutation of long-lived nuclear waste induced by a high-charge relativistic electron beam (e-beam) from a laser plasma accelerator is demonstrated. A collimated relativistic e-beam with a high charge of approximately 100 nC is produced from high-intensity laser interaction with near-critical-density (NCD) plasma. Such e-beam impinges on a high-Z convertor and then radiates energetic bremsstrahlung photons with flux approaching 1011 per laser shot. Taking a long-lived radionuclide 126Sn as an example, the resulting transmutation reaction yield is the order of 109 per laser shot, which is two orders of magnitude higher than obtained from previous studies. It is found that at lower densities, a tightly focused laser irradiating relatively longer NCD plasmas can effectively enhance the transmutation efficiency. Furthermore, the photo-transmutation is generalized by considering mixed-nuclide waste samples, which suggests that the laser-accelerated high-charge e-beam could be an efficient tool to transmute long-lived nuclear waste.

  2. CONCRETE CONTAINERS FOR LONG TERM STORAGE AND FINAL DISPOSAL OF TRU WASTE AND LONG LIVED ILW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, H.; Asano, H.; Tunaboylu, K.; Mayer, G.; Klubertanz, G.; Kobayashi, S.; Komuro, T.; Wagner, E.

    2003-01-01

    Transuranic (TRU) waste packaging development has been conducted since 1998 by the Radioactive Waste Management Funding and Research Centre (RWMC) to support the TRU waste disposal concept in Japan. In this paper, the overview of development status of the reinforced concrete package is introduced. This package has been developed in order to satisfy the Japanese TRU waste disposal concept based on current technology and to provide a low cost package. Since 1998, the basic design work (safety evaluation, manufacturing and handling procedure, economic evaluation, elemental tests etc.) have been carried out. As a result, the basic specification of the package was decided. This report presents the concept as well as the results of basic design, focused on safety analysis and handling procedure of the package. Two types of the packages exist: - Package-A: for non-heat generating TRU waste from reprocessing in 200 l drums and - Package-B: for heat generating TRU-waste from reprocessing

  3. Preparation of short-lived nuclide, 27Mg, and its application to life sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanoi, Keitaro; Saito, Takayuki; Akiyama, Yuki; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.

    2009-01-01

    Magnesium-27 was produced by a research reactor, JRR3M, to study uptake and translocation manner in a rice plant. Since the half life of 27 Mg is very short (9.46 min), we developed an experimental system to perform 27 Mg uptake, immediately after production of the nuclide. After application of 27 Mg to the plant, the distribution of 27 Mg in the whole plant was investigated by an imaging plate (IP) which can detect beta-ray effectively. From the IP image, it was suggested that there was a preferential translocation of Mg to the new leaves rather than the mature leaves. (author)

  4. Studies on separation, conversion and transmutation of long-living radionuclides. A contribution to advanced disposal of high-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modolo, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The future role and acceptance of nuclear energy will be decisively determined by the safe operation of existing and future facilities and by convincing solutions for nuclear waste management. With respect to the long half-lives of some radionuclides (actinides and fission products) and the related question as to whether the release of radionuclides from a repository can be prevented over very long periods of time, alternatives to the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels are discussed internationally. As a potential complementary solution, the technological option with partitioning and transmutation (P and T) is considered. This method separates and converts the long-lived radionuclides into stable, short-lived nuclides via neutron reactions in dedicated facilities. Against this background, the first main chapter of the present work looks at the chemical separation of actinides from high-level reprocessing wastes. In order to achieve a better understanding of the processes at the molecular level, basic investigations were also performed on separating actinides(III) via liquid-liquid or liquid-solid extraction. At the same time, reversible processes were developed and tested on the laboratory scale with the aid of mixer-settlers and centrifugal extractors. The subsequent chapter focuses on separating the long-lived fission product iodine-129 from radioactive wastes as well as from process effluents arising from reprocessing. As part of this work, different simple chemical and physical techniques were developed for complete recovery with respect to transmutation or conditioning in host matrices that are sufficiently stable for final storage. Its high mobility and radiological properties make iodine-129 relevant for the long-term safety assessment of final repositories. In addition, transmutation experiments on iodine-127/129 targets were performed using high-energy protons (145-2600 MeV). Due to the expected low cross sections (<100 mb), transmutation with protons

  5. Increased Concentrations of Short-Lived Decay-Series Radionuclides in Groundwaters Underneath the Nopal I Uranium Deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, S.; Ku, T.; Todd, V.; Murrell, M. T.; Dinsmoor, J. C.

    2007-05-01

    The Nopal I uranium ore deposit at Pena Blanca, Mexico, located at > 200 meters above the groundwater table, provides an ideal natural analog for quantifying the effectiveness of geological barrier for isolation of radioactive waste nuclides from reaching the human environments through ground water transport. To fulfill such natural analog studies, three wells (PB1, PB2, and PB3 respectively) were drilled at the site from the land surface down to the saturated groundwater zone and ground waters were collected from each of these wells through large- volume sampling/in-situ Mn-filter filtration for analyses of short-lived uranium/thorium-series radionuclides. Our measurements from PB1 show that the groundwater standing in the hole has much lower 222Rn activity than the freshly pumped groundwater. From this change in 222Rn activity, we estimate the residence time of groundwater in PB1 to be about 20 days. Our measurements also show that the activities of short-lived radioisotopes of Th (234Th), Ra (228Ra, 224Ra, 223Ra), Rn (222Rn), Pb (210Pb), and Po (210Po) in PB1, PB2, and PB3 are all significantly higher than those from the other wells near the Nopal I site. These high activities provide evidence for the enrichment of long-lived U and Ra isotopes in the groundwater as well as in the associated adsorbed phases on the fractured aquifer rocks underneath the ore deposit. Such enrichment suggests a rapid dissolution of U and Ra isotopes from the uranium ore deposit in the vadose zone and the subsequent migration to the groundwater underneath. A reactive transport model can be established to characterize the in-situ transport of radionuclides at the site. The observed change of 222Rn activity at PB1 also suggests that the measured high radioactivityies in ground waters from the site isare not an artifact of drilling operations. However, further studies are needed to assess if or to what extent the radionuclide migration is affected by the previous mining activities at

  6. Studies of images of short-lived events using ERTS data. [forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschman, W. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Detection of short-lived events has continued. Forest fires, oil spills, vegetation damage, volcanoes, storm ridges, earthquakes, and floods have been detected and analyzed.

  7. A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrograph for short-lived and super-heavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schury, P., E-mail: schury@riken.jp [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); New Mexico State University, Dept. of Chem. and BioChem., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Wada, M. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Ito, Y. [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Naimi, S.; Sonoda, T. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Mita, H. [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan); RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Takamine, A. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Aoyama Gakuin University, Sagamihara, Kanagawa (Japan); Okada, K. [Sophia University, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo (Japan); Wollnik, H. [New Mexico State University, Dept. of Chem. and BioChem., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Chon, S. [KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Haba, H.; Kaji, D. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Koura, H. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan); Miyatake, H. [KEK, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Morimoto, K.; Morita, K. [RIKEN, Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, Wako City, Saitama (Japan); Ozawa, A. [University of Tsukuba, Institute of Physics, Tsukuba City, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Demonstrated very fast mass measurements with a multi-reflection time of flight mass spectrograph. • Mass resolving power of R{sub m}≈150,000 was achieved in 1.2-ms for A/q=39 ions. • Mass precision of (δm)/m =7.7×10{sup 8} was demonstrated for {sup 40}Ca{sub +}. • Effects of thermal and voltage instabilities are described. • Effects of thermal and voltage instabilities are described. -- Abstract: A multi-reflection time-of-flight (MRTOF) mass spectrograph has been implemented at RIKEN to provide high-precision mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei. Of particular interest are mass measurements of r-process nuclei and trans-uranium nuclei. In such nuclei, the MRTOF can perform on par with or better than traditional Penning trap systems. We demonstrate that the MRTOF-MS is capable of accurately attaining relative mass precision of δm/m<10{sup -7} and describe it’s utility with heavy, short-lived nuclei.

  8. Measurement of short-lived radon progenies by simultaneous alpha gamma-spectrometry at the German radon reference chamber

    CERN Document Server

    Paul, A; Honig, A; Sulima, T; Buchholz, A; Keyser, U

    1999-01-01

    In the German radon reference chamber, the short-lived radon progenies are separated by a sample tube according to the attached or unattached fraction, while their activity concentration is afterwards measured by simultaneous alpha- and gamma-spectrometry. The results are expressed by the equilibrium factor F and the unattached fraction f sub p (International Commission on Radiological Protection, ICRP Publication 50, Ann. ICRP 17 (1987) 1). Both F and f sub p , can be therefore studied with respect to the full set of environmental parameters, e.g. temperature, humidity, air pressure and aerosol concentration (Honig et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 416 (1998) 525). Up to now, well-defined and stable equilibrium factors in the interval from 0.1 to 1.0 have been established. In correlation with this, the unattached fraction can be varied from 0.01 to 0.9. The sample and measuring technique for the short-lived radon progenies described in this work is the basis for fundamental studies with regard to the equilibr...

  9. Separation and purification of short lived fission products from irradiated uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.R.; Rao, K.L.N.; Mathai, C.; Varma, R.N.; Dhiwar, V.I.; Saxena, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    Fission produced radioisotopes like 95 Zr, 140 Ba, 103 Ru, 89 Sr and 91 Y whose half lives are less than 1 year find a wide variety of applications in the fields of industry, medicine and research. Isotope Division, BARC has been supplying these isotopes in hudreds of mCi amounts during the past several years. A new method for the sequential separation of these isotopes from irradiated uranium has been developed based on synthetic inorganic exchangers like stannic phosphate, polyphospho antimonic acid, hydrous manganese dioxide, etc. This report describes the new flow sheet worked out and adopted for the regular processing of these isotopes at hundreds of milli curie amounts. (author). 19 refs., 4 tabs. , 1 fig

  10. A novel technique for measuring diffusivities of short-lived radioisotopes in solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voss, T.; Strohm, A.; Matics, S.; Scharwaechter, P.; Frank, W.

    2002-01-01

    After reminding the reader of the major techniques for measuring diffusion coefficients in solids, a detailed description of the conventional radiotracer techniques is presented. These allow to measure solid-state diffusivities in the regime 10 -8 -10 -24 m 2 s -1 and therefore, and for other reasons to be discussed, are superior to all competing methods. However, the conventional radiotracer techniques suffer from the restriction that they are not applicable to radiotracer atoms with half-lives t 1/2 or∼ t 1/2 >or∼10 min). First results on the diffusion of 31 Si (t 1/2 =2.6 h) and 11 C (t 1/2 =20.38 min) in Si-Ge alloys and Si-C-N-based ceramics measured in this set-up are presented. (orig.)

  11. Development of new organometallic species for the labelling of radiotracers with short half-lives radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet-Dales, A.

    2003-11-01

    The reactivity of clean organotins have been studied in the Stille coupling reaction in fast conditions, witch can be used with short half-life radioisotope. In a first part, development of the reaction conditions have been studied for the transfer of a methyl group by the Stille coupling reaction, via the synthesis of the correspond mono-organotin. The reaction time was optimized onto model compounds in 12-carbon and 11-carbon chemistry. In a second part, this methodology was applied to the synthesis of NK3 receptors radioligands, in 12-carbon and 11-carbon chemistry. Biological studies showed that these ligands have a good affinity with NK3 receptors, and are potential positron emission tomography tracers. (author)

  12. High Accuracy mass Measurement of the very Short-Lived Halo Nuclide $^{11}$Li

    CERN Multimedia

    Le scornet, G

    2002-01-01

    The archetypal halo nuclide $^{11}$Li has now attracted a wealth of experimental and theoretical attention. The most outstanding property of this nuclide, its extended radius that makes it as big as $^{48}$Ca, is highly dependent on the binding energy of the two neutrons forming the halo. New generation experiments using radioactive beams with elastic proton scattering, knock-out and transfer reactions, together with $\\textit{ab initio}$ calculations require the tightening of the constraint on the binding energy. Good metrology also requires confirmation of the sole existing precision result to guard against a possible systematic deviation (or mistake). We propose a high accuracy mass determintation of $^{11}$Li, a particularly challenging task due to its very short half-life of 8.6 ms, but one perfectly suiting the MISTRAL spectrometer, now commissioned at ISOLDE. We request 15 shifts of beam time.

  13. Studies of short-lived products of spallation fission reactions at TRIUMF

    CERN Document Server

    Bischoff, G; D'Auria, J M; Dautet, H; Lee, J K P; Pate, B D; Wiesehahn, W

    1976-01-01

    The gas-jet recoil transport technique has been used to transport products from spallation and fission reactions from a target chamber to a shielded location for nuclear spectroscopic studies. These involve X- beta - gamma coincidence measurements and (shortly) time- of-flight mass spectroscopy. It has been deduced that the proton beam at present intensities has no appreciable effect on the ability of ethylene and other cluster-producing gases to transport radioactivity. Preliminary results will be presented for shortlived fission products from uranium, and for spallation products of iodine and argon. The latter were obtained from the bombardment of gas and aerosol targets mixed with the transporting gas in the target chamber, which appears to be a generally useful technique.

  14. Human neutrophil kinetics: modeling of stable isotope labeling data supports short blood neutrophil half-lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahoz-Beneytez, Julio; Elemans, Marjet; Zhang, Yan; Ahmed, Raya; Salam, Arafa; Block, Michael; Niederalt, Christoph; Asquith, Becca; Macallan, Derek

    2016-06-30

    Human neutrophils have traditionally been thought to have a short half-life in blood; estimates vary from 4 to 18 hours. This dogma was recently challenged by stable isotope labeling studies with heavy water, which yielded estimates in excess of 3 days. To investigate this disparity, we generated new stable isotope labeling data in healthy adult subjects using both heavy water (n = 4) and deuterium-labeled glucose (n = 9), a compound with more rapid labeling kinetics. To interpret results, we developed a novel mechanistic model and applied it to previously published (n = 5) and newly generated data. We initially constrained the ratio of the blood neutrophil pool to the marrow precursor pool (ratio = 0.26; from published values). Analysis of heavy water data sets yielded turnover rates consistent with a short blood half-life, but parameters, particularly marrow transit time, were poorly defined. Analysis of glucose-labeling data yielded more precise estimates of half-life (0.79 ± 0.25 days; 19 hours) and marrow transit time (5.80 ± 0.42 days). Substitution of this marrow transit time in the heavy water analysis gave a better-defined blood half-life of 0.77 ± 0.14 days (18.5 hours), close to glucose-derived values. Allowing the ratio of blood neutrophils to mitotic neutrophil precursors (R) to vary yielded a best-fit value of 0.19. Reanalysis of the previously published model and data also revealed the origin of their long estimates for neutrophil half-life: an implicit assumption that R is very large, which is physiologically untenable. We conclude that stable isotope labeling in healthy humans is consistent with a blood neutrophil half-life of less than 1 day. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  15. Tensile properties of chrome tanned leather waste short fibre filled unsaturated polyester composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talib, Satariah; Romli, Ahmad Zafir; Saad, Siti Zaleha

    2017-12-01

    Waste leather from industries was commonly disposed via land filling or incineration where the oxidation of Cr III to Cr VI by oxidants (such as peroxides and hypohalide) can easily occur. Cr VI is well known as carcinogenic and mutagenic element where the excessive exposure to this element can be very harmful. As an alternative way, the leather waste from footwear industry was utilised as filler in unsaturated polyester composite (UPC). The leather waste was ground using 0.25 mm mesh size and used without any chemical treatment. The sample was fabricated via castingtechnique and the study was carried out at 1 wt%, 2 wt% and 3 wt% filler loading. The leather waste filled composites showed lower tensile strength and Young's modulus than the unfilled composite. The increasing loading amount of leather waste led to the decreased in tensile strength and Young's modulus. The tensile results was supported by the decreasing pattern of density result which indicates the increasing of void content as the filler loading increased. The results of glass transition temperature are also parallel to the tensile properties where the increasing filler loading had decreased the glass transition temperature. Based on the morphological observation on the fractured tensile sample, much severe filler agglomerations and higher amount of voids was observed at higher filler loading compared to the lower filler loading.

  16. α and long-lived βγ waste source term. A first generation model for a deep cemented waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovera, P.; Mangin, J.P.; Jorda, M.; Lewi, J.

    1987-01-01

    According to the normal scenario of radioactivity release to the biosphere, only long-lived nuclides are able to migrate significantly to the surface. A first generation model, concerning a cemented waste of hulls and ends deeply disposed of in a granitic medium is in progress at CEA. Two nuclides have been selected: 237-Neptunium (as a reference of α emitters) and 135-Cesium (as a reference of long-lived β emitters). Attributing the long term activity to these both nuclides leads to a model which is conservative beyond ca. 150000 years. Principal difficulties arise from physico-chemical behaviour of Neptunium in aqueous phase, and from non-linear Cesium adsorption on various media. Condiment code (versions 2 and 3), which is developed parallely to the present model is conceived to take account for these phenomena

  17. Measurement of Short Living Baryon Magnetic Moment using Bent Crystals at SPS and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Burmistrov, L; Ivanov, Yu; Massacrier, L; Robbe, P; Scandale, W; Stocchi, A

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic moments of baryons containing u,d and s quarks have been extensively studied and measured. The experimental results are all obtained by a well-assessed method that consists in measuring the polarisation vector of the incoming particles and the precession angle when the particle is travelling through an intense magnetic field. The polarization is evaluated by analysing the angular distribution of the decay products. No measurement of magnetic moments of charm or beauty baryons (and τ leptons) has been performed so far. The main reason is the lifetimes of charm/beauty baryons, too short to measure the magnetic moment by standard techniques. Historically, the prediction of baryon magnetic moments was one of the striking successes of the quark model. The importance of the measurement of heavy quark magnetic moment is to test the possibility that the charmed and/or beauty quarks has an anomalous magnetic moment, arising if those quarks are composite objects. Measurements on magnetic moments of heav...

  18. Short Lived Climate Pollutants cause a Long Lived Effect on Sea-level Rise: Analyzing climate metrics for sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterner, E.; Johansson, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate change depends on the increase of several different atmospheric pollutants. While long term global warming will be determined mainly by carbon dioxide, warming in the next few decades will depend to a large extent on short lived climate pollutants (SLCP). Reducing emissions of SLCPs could contribute to lower the global mean surface temperature by 0.5 °C already by 2050 (Shindell et al. 2012). Furthermore, the warming effect of one of the most potent SLCPs, black carbon (BC), may have been underestimated in the past. Bond et al. (2013) presents a new best estimate of the total BC radiative forcing (RF) of 1.1 W/m2 (90 % uncertainty bounds of 0.17 to 2.1 W/m2) since the beginning of the industrial era. BC is however never emitted alone and cooling aerosols from the same sources offset a majority of this RF. In the wake of calls for mitigation of SLCPs it is important to study other aspects of the climate effect of SLCPs. One key impact of climate change is sea-level rise (SLR). In a recent study, the effect of SLCP mitigation scenarios on SLR is examined. Hu et al (2013) find a substantial effect on SLR from mitigating SLCPs sharply, reducing SLR by 22-42% by 2100. We choose a different approach focusing on emission pulses and analyse a metric based on sea level rise so as to further enlighten the SLR consequences of SLCPs. We want in particular to understand the time dynamics of SLR impacts caused by SLCPs compared to other greenhouse gases. The most commonly used physical based metrics are GWP and GTP. We propose and evaluate an additional metric: The global sea-level rise potential (GSP). The GSP is defined as the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a forcer to the sea level rise after a time horizon caused by an emissions pulse of a CO2. GSP is evaluated and compared to GWP and GTP using a set of climate forcers chosen to cover the whole scale of atmospheric perturbation life times (BC, CH4, N2O, CO2 and SF6). The study

  19. Regulation of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the regulation of radioactive waste management of the UJD are presented. Radioactive waste (RAW) is the gaseous, liquid or solid material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or activities greater than clearance levels and for which no use is foreseen. The classification of radioactive waste on the basis of type and activity level is: - transition waste; - short lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-SL); - long lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-LL); - high level waste. Waste management (in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll.) involves collection, sorting, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal of radioactive waste originated by nuclear facilities and conditioning, transport to repository and disposal of other radioactive waste (originated during medical, research and industrial use of radioactive sources). The final goal of radioactive waste management is RAW isolation using a system of engineered and natural barriers to protect population and environment. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic regulates radioactive waste management in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll. Inspectors regularly inspect and evaluate how the requirements for nuclear safety at nuclear facilities are fulfilled. On the basis of safety documentation evaluation, UJD issued permission for operation of four radioactive waste management facilities. Nuclear facility 'Technologies for treatment and conditioning contains bituminization plants and Bohunice conditioning centre with sorting, fragmentation, evaporation, incineration, supercompaction and cementation. Final product is waste package (Fibre reinforced container with solidified waste) acceptable for near surface repository in Mochovce. Republic repository in Mochovce is built for disposal of short lived low and intermediate level waste. Next

  20. Quantitative assessment of the brain perfusion using the short-lived isotope 195m-Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, P.; Nickel, O.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities of quantitatively assessing the brain perfusion on the basis of a modified transit time theory, using the favourable properties of the ultrashort-lived isotope 195m-Au, are shown. The intravascular deposition of the isotope 195m-Au enables quantitative brain perfusion studies based on both the dorsal and lateral projection. The 195m-Au isotope has a half-life of 30 sec and is able to be eluated from the 195m-Hg 195m-Au generator (Byk-Mallinckrodt). The quantification of brain perfusion (in terms of ml/min/100 g) is based on a recently published theory for non-diffusing radio-indicators, using a first-pass technique. This method of quantification corresponds to a modification of the transit time theory from Maier and Zierler (1) and accounts for the influences of dispersion and recirculation of an intravenously injected non-diffused tracer bolus (2, 3). The energy spectrum of the eluate from the generator shows two lines of high intensity at 262 keV and 68 keV. The low-energy peak is suited for the lateral view, i.e. brain perfusion studies of one hemisphere, without a significant 'look-through-effect'. The high-energy peak is successfully used for dorsal projections of brain perfusion studies. An examination takes less time than one minute and can be repeated after three minutes. Dynamic brain perfusion studies enable parametric images of the quantitative regional brain perfusion distribution, or the reciprocal mean transit times, to be obtained by calculation. Infarcted areas are able to be visualized with high sensitivity. Quantitative perfusion patterns during activation of the visual centre are detectable. The advantages of this method are discussed. (orig.) [de

  1. Balancing Short- and Long-lived Climate Pollutant Mitigation: Clearer Metrics are Critical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocko, I.; Hamburg, S.; Pacala, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    We propose a new standard for reporting Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) that is central to climate policy debates and decision-making. GWPs are an essential element of policy analysis and policymaking, and are even built into legal structures that regulate "carbon dioxide equivalents." However, the current reporting convention is misleading because it hides the divergence between short and long-term interests inside a single timescale. We propose using two timescales everywhere, as an inseparable pair. This makes explicit one of the principal issues in climate policy: the temporal tradeoffs of benefits among actions that reduce emissions of a suite of climate pollutants. Policymakers often treat GWPs as if they were a value-neutral technocratic measure, while in fact the choice of timescales, at the heart of the GWP, is central to the political battles over climate policy. At its most basic, cutting emissions of pollutants with different radiative properties and atmospheric lifetimes yields climate benefits that vary in the near- and long-term. Battles such as that between coal and natural gas rest on this distinction. The most common form of GWP is based on a 100 year time integral, but this timescale conceals near-term impacts. On the other hand, opting instead for a 20 year time integral ignores climate impacts after 20 years. A distinguished list of scientists and economists has attempted to come up with improved metrics that incorporate the range of timescales into a single value. Our proposal abandons this quest. There is no "right" answer to the underlying dispute, but there is a right answer for policy analysis: use two time constants together, similar to the way that systolic and diastolic blood pressures, latitude and longitude, and city and highway gas mileage are reported together. This strategy will provide much needed clarification to myriad climate change solution-related decisions.

  2. The short live of the climate lie; Die kurzen Beine der Klimaluege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuss, Holger; Courtillot, Vincent; Shaviv, Nir (and others)

    2011-07-01

    A worldwide network of fear lobby claims with missionary enthusiasm: Climate change means the end of the world. But the facts are quite different. The DVDs under consideration are required by anyone who do not want to trusts blindly the statements of politicians, environmental groups and lobbyists. After all, the climate paranoia specifically benefits some stakeholders as an ideal knockout argument in order to push through more tax increases or to gain power and influence. The most renowned experts and scientists of the 'climate skeptics' met at the 3rd International Power and Climate Conference of the European Institute for Climate and Energy (EIKE) at 3rd to 4th December, 2010 in Berlin (Federal Republic of Germany) in order to keep you up to date of their unprejudiced research on the issue of the man-made global warming. Within this meeting the following lectures were held: (1) Holger Thuss: Why is climate still an issue (Holger Thuss); (2) Scientific results by consensus? (vincent Courtillot); (3) New insights into the solar impact on climate and its importance for the understanding of climate change (Nir Shaviv); (4) Threats from climate change - adaptation is the solution (Bob Carter); (5) The lobby of the renewable energy industry (Guenter Ederer); (6) Climate 'protection' as an instrument of geostrategic politics (Emmanuel Martin); (7) What is the importance of Climategate for science? (Terence Kealey); (8) Live from Cancun - video conference from the UN Climate Change Conference in Cancun (Roy Spencer, Lord Christopher Monckton); (9) Climate, water, carbon dioxide and the sun (Jan Veizer); (10) Man vs. Nature - Who emits more CO{sub 2}? (Ian Plimer); (11) Climate change between models, statistics and substitute religion (Werner Kirstein); (12) Persistence in temperature series shows the impact of the sun on our climate (Horst-Joachim Luedecke); (13) Worldwide long-term data show the majority of thermometer is not heated (Friedrich

  3. Systematics of criticality properties of actinide nuclides and its bearing on the long lived fission waste problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, M.; Rao, K.S.; Garg, S.B.; Iyengar, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a systematic analysis of the criticality parameters of over twenty fissile and fertile isotopes of eight transthorium actinide elements that has been carried out by us. It is observed that K ∞ increases and critical mass decreases monotonically with the fissility parameter (Z 2 /A) of the nuclides. This implies that each and every isotope of transuranic elements such as Np, Am, Cm etc. which are produced as by-products during reactor operation is a more valuable nuclear fuel than the corresponding fissile/fissible isotopes of plutonium. This finding has a profound bearing on the long lived fission waste problem and supports the view that the byproduct actinide elements should be separated from the high level waste stream and recycled back into fission reactors, thereby eliminating one of the commonly voiced concerns regarding the acceptability of nuclear fission power

  4. Using Atmospheric Dispersion Theory to Inform the Design of a Short-lived Radioactive Particle Release Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishel, Jeremy P; Keillor, Martin E; Arrigo, Leah M; Baciak, James E; Detwiler, Rebecca S; Kernan, Warnick J; Kirkham, Randy R; Milbrath, Brian D; Seifert, Allen; Seifert, Carolyn E; Smart, John E

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric dispersion theory can be used to predict ground deposition of particulates downwind of a radionuclide release. This paper uses standard formulations found in Gaussian plume models to inform the design of an experimental release of short-lived radioactive particles into the atmosphere. Specifically, a source depletion algorithm is used to determine the optimum particle size and release height that maximizes the near-field deposition while minimizing both the required source activity and the fraction of activity lost to long-distance transport. The purpose of the release is to provide a realistic deposition pattern that might be observed downwind of a small-scale vent from an underground nuclear explosion. The deposition field will be used, in part, to study several techniques of gamma radiation survey and spectrometry that could be used by an On-Site Inspection team investigating such an event.

  5. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Ka-Ngo Leung; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-01-01

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a 'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity. (author)

  6. Microcomputer-based systems for automatic control of sample irradiation and chemical analysis of short-lived isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourret, S.C.

    1974-01-01

    Two systems resulted from the need for the study of the nuclear decay of short-lived radionuclides. Automation was required for better repeatability, speed of chemical separation after irradiation and for protection from the high radiation fields of the samples. A MCS-8 computer was used as the nucleus of the automatic sample irradiation system because the control system required an extensive multiple-sequential circuit. This approach reduced the sequential problem to a computer program. The automatic chemistry control system is a mixture of a fixed and a computer-based programmable control system. The fixed control receives the irradiated liquid sample from the reactor, extracts the liquid and disposes of the used sample container. The programmable control executes the chemistry program that the user has entered through the teletype. (U.S.)

  7. The utilisation of short-lived radionuclides in the assessment of formulation and in vivo disposition of drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Digenis, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    The utilisation of short-lived radionuclides in the assessment of drug formulations, and the in vivo distribution of drugs is discussed. Disintegration of tablets and capsules as a function of the formulation, and gastric emptying are important. The applicability of perturbed angular correlation to the study of the dissolution of water soluble substances from solid dosages in man is shown. Examples are given to illustrate how external scintigraphy can be applied to study the tissue distribution of 18 F-haloperidol, 82 Br-bromperidol, in rat and monkey. 11 C, L-andD-phenylalanine in rats, 11 C, D-leucine in mice with human colon tumours; 13 N-nitrosoureas and 13 N-nitroso-carbamates. (U.K.)

  8. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

    1986-01-01

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The authors determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentally exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individuals more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the above literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. The authors computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. The small number of cancers in the exposed population and the influence of increased levels of TSH, nonuniform irradiation of the thyroid, and thyroid cell killing at high dose make it difficult to draw firm conclusions from these studies. 14 references, 8 tables

  9. Thyroid cancer in the Marshallese: relative risk of short-lived internal emitters and external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lessard, E.T.; Brill, A.B.; Adams, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    In a study of the comparative effects of internal versus external irradiation of the thyroid in young people, we determined that the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times less thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. We determined this finding for a group of 85 Marshall Islands children, who were less than 10 years of age at the time of exposure and who were accidentially exposed to internal and external thyroid radiation at an average level of 1400 rad. The external risk coefficient ranged between 2.5 and 4.9 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk, and thus, from our computations, the internal risk coefficient for the Marshallese children was estimated to range between 1.0 and 1.4 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk. In contrast, for individual more than 10 years of age at the time of exposure, the dose from internal irradiation of the thyroid with short-lived internal emitters produced several times more thyroid cancer than did the same dose of radiation given externally. The external risk coefficients for the older age groups were reported in the literature to be in the range of 1.0 to 3.3 cancers per million person-rad-years-at risk. We computed internal risk coefficients of 3.3 to 8.1 cancers per million person-rad-years at risk for adolescent and adult groups. This higher sensitivity to cancer induction in the exposed adolescents and adults, is different from that seen in other exposed groups. 14 refs., 8 tabs

  10. Screening for frailty in elderly subjects living at home: validation of the Modified Short Emergency Geriatric Assessment (SEGAm) instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oubaya, N; Mahmoudi, R; Jolly, D; Zulfiqar, A A; Quignard, E; Cunin, C; Nazeyrollas, P; Novella, J L; Dramé, M

    2014-01-01

    To validate the modified version of the Short Emergency Geriatric Assessment (SEGAm) frailty instrument in elderly people living at home. Longitudinal, prospective, multicentre study. Four departments (Ardennes, Marne, Meurthe-et-Moselle, Meuse) in two French Regions (Champagne-Ardenne and Lorraine). Subjects aged 65 years or more, living at home, who could read and understand French, with a degree of autonomy corresponding to groups 5, or 6 in the AGGIR autonomy evaluation scale. Assessment included demographic characteristics, comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the SEGAm instrument. Psychometric validation was used to study feasibility and acceptability, internal structure validity, reliability, and discriminant validity of the SEGAm instrument. Between July 1st 2012 and March 31st 2013, 167 patients were included in the study. Averaged age was 77±7 years, the majority were women (70.7%). Feasibility and acceptability of the SEGAm instrument were excellent: we observed no refusal to participate, no drop-out during administration, no missing items, no ceiling or floor effects, and the administration time was short (5.0±3.5 min). By factor analysis, the instrument proved to be unidimensional. It showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient: 0.68) and good test-retest (intra-class correlation: 0.88) at 7 days interval. Discriminant validity showed a significant difference, mainly for nutritional status, fall risk, dependency, mood and depression risk, and comorbidities. Based on these psychometric properties, the SEGAm appears to be an easy-to-use instrument that is particularly suitable for use in the community to identify frail elderly people who could benefit from early targeted interventions.

  11. Concerted action on the retrievability of long lived radioactive waste in deep underground repositories - progress to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodd, D.H.

    2000-01-01

    Within the EURATOM Framework Programme: Nuclear Fission Safety, a Concerted Action on the retrievability of long lived radioactive waste in deep underground repositories is being carried out. This Concerted Action commenced on the 1st of January 1998 and involves experts from nine different European countries. The Concerted Action will be completed by the 31st of December 1999. This paper gives a brief overview of the objectives of the Concerted Action, the work programme that has been defined to meet these objectives, the work performed to date, and the remaining work programme. (author)

  12. Half-life measurement of short-lived 44 + 44 94mRu using isochronous mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Q.; Wang, M.; Zhou, X. H.; Zhang, Y. H.; Tu, X. L.; Chen, X. C.; Xu, X.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Xu, H. S.; Blaum, K.; Chen, R. J.; Fu, C. Y.; Ge, Z.; Huang, W. J.; Li, H. F.; Liu, J. H.; Mei, B.; Shuai, P.; Si, M.; Sun, B. H.; Sun, M. Z.; Wang, Q.; Xiao, G. Q.; Xing, Y. M.; Yamaguchi, T.; Yan, X. L.; Yang, J. C.; Yuan, Y. J.; Zang, Y. D.; Zhang, P.; Zhang, W.; Zhou, X.

    2017-09-01

    Decay of the 8+ isomer in fully stripped ions 44 + 94Ru is observed during its circulation in the experimental Cooler Storage Ring (CSRe) at the Heavy Ion Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL). The 44 + 94Ru ions were produced via projectile fragmentation and stored in CSRe tuned into the isochronous ion-optical mode. The timing signals of the ions, passing through a time-of-flight detector, were consecutively registered and used to determine the variation of revolution time as a function of revolution number. A sudden change of the revolution time at a specific revolution was identified as a fingerprint of the 44 + 94Ru isomer decay. The isomeric half-life was deduced to be 102(17) μ s , which agrees well with the theoretical expectation by blocking the internal conversion decay of the isomer. Our work proved the feasibility of studying decays of short-lived isomers in high atomic charge states using the isochronous mass spectrometry. In addition, 44 + 94 mRu represents the shortest-lived nuclear state whose mass has ever been measured directly.

  13. A miRNA catalogue and ncRNA annotation of the short-living fish Nothobranchius furzeri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mario; Barth, Emanuel; Savino, Aurora; Groth, Marco; Koch, Philipp; Petzold, Andreas; Arisi, Ivan; Platzer, Matthias; Marz, Manja; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2017-09-05

    The short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-lived vertebrate that can be cultured in captivity and was recently established as a model organism for aging research. Small non-coding RNAs, especially miRNAs, are implicated in age dependent control of gene expression. Here, we present a comprehensive catalogue of miRNAs and several other non-coding RNA classes (ncRNAs) for Nothobranchius furzeri. Analyzing multiple small RNA-Seq libraries, we show most of these identified miRNAs are expressed in at least one of seven Nothobranchius species. Additionally, duplication and clustering of N. furzeri miRNAs was analyzed and compared to the four fish species Danio rerio, Oryzias latipes, Gasterosteus aculeatus and Takifugu rubripes. A peculiar characteristic of N. furzeri, as compared to other teleosts, was a duplication of the miR-29 cluster. The completeness of the catalogue we provide is comparable to that of the zebrafish. This catalogue represents a basis to investigate the role of miRNAs in aging and development in this species.

  14. Comparison of short-lived medical isotopes activation by laser thin target induced protons and conventional cyclotron proton beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Dudnikova, Galina; Liu, Tung-Chang; Papadopoulos, Dennis; Sagdeev, Roald; Su, J. J.; UMD MicroPET Team

    2014-10-01

    Production diagnostic or therapeutic nuclear medicines are either by nuclear reactors or by ion accelerators. In general, diagnostic nuclear radioisotopes have a very short half-life varying from tens of minutes for PET tracers and few hours for SPECT tracers. Thus supplies of PET and SPECT radiotracers are limited by regional production facilities. For example 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is the most desired tracer for positron emission tomography because its 110 minutes half-life is sufficient long for transport from production facilities to nearby users. From nuclear activation to completing image taking must be done within 4 hours. Decentralized production of diagnostic radioisotopes will be idea to make high specific activity radiotracers available to researches and clinicians. 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F can be produced in the energy range from 10-20 MeV by protons. Protons of energies up to tens of MeV generated by intense laser interacting with hydrogen containing targets have been demonstrated by many groups in the past decade. We use 2D PIC code for proton acceleration, Geant4 Monte Carlo code for nuclei activation to compare the yields and specific activities of short-lived isotopes produced by cyclotron proton beams and laser driven protons.

  15. Targeted alpha therapy using short-lived alpha-particles and the promise of nanobodies as targeting vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekempeneer, Yana; Keyaerts, Marleen; Krasniqi, Ahmet; Puttemans, Janik; Muyldermans, Serge; Lahoutte, Tony; D’huyvetter, Matthias; Devoogdt, Nick

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The combination of a targeted biomolecule that specifically defines the target and a radionuclide that delivers a cytotoxic payload offers a specific way to destroy cancer cells. Targeted radionuclide therapy (TRNT) aims to deliver cytotoxic radiation to cancer cells and causes minimal toxicity to surrounding healthy tissues. Recent advances using α-particle radiation emphasizes their potential to generate radiation in a highly localized and toxic manner because of their high level of ionization and short range in tissue. Areas covered: We review the importance of targeted alpha therapy (TAT) and focus on nanobodies as potential beneficial vehicles. In recent years, nanobodies have been evaluated intensively as unique antigen-specific vehicles for molecular imaging and TRNT. Expert opinion: We expect that the efficient targeting capacity and fast clearance of nanobodies offer a high potential for TAT. More particularly, we argue that the nanobodies’ pharmacokinetic properties match perfectly with the interesting decay properties of the short-lived α-particle emitting radionuclides Astatine-211 and Bismuth-213 and offer an interesting treatment option particularly for micrometastatic cancer and residual disease. PMID:27145158

  16. Long-lived radioactive waste and nuclear plant decommissioning a legacy to future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAulay, I.R.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive waste is an inevitable by-product of all uses of radioactive substances. This is the case of natural radioactivity as well as for artificially produced radioactive isotopes, and it is easy to overlook the significance of the waste problem in the case of technologically enhanced natural radioactivity. Several options are available for the disposal of radioactive waste and the paper considers these in detail from the point of view of the possible future impact of radiation doses to individuals or populations. Particular consideration is given to the use of deep disposal at stable geological sites as a means of dealing with large amounts of radioactive waste. It should not be forgotten that some of what we term waste today need not necessarily always be so. Indeed, there is a good case to make for the recycling of low activity materials rather than the uneconomic expedient of burying them. The paper will consider the possible recycling of valuable materials following suitable reprocessing and dilution and mention the dose implications of examples of such re-utilisation of radioactive materials

  17. Assay of long-lived radionuclides in low-level wastes from power reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, J.E.; Noyce, J.R.; Coe, L.J.; Wright, K.W.

    1985-04-01

    The 10 CFR Part 61 waste classification system includes several nuclides which are difficult to assay without expensive radiochemical methods. In order for waste generators to classify wastes practically, NRC Staff has recommended the use of correlation factors to scale the difficult-to-measure nuclides with nuclides which can be measured more easily (i.e., gamma emitters such as /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs). In this study, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) performed complete radiochemical assays for all the 10 CFR Part 61 waste classification nuclides on over 100 samples. These data, along with almost 800 other samples in the SAIC data base, were used to assess the validity of correlation factors suggested for use in nuclear power plant wastes. Specific generic correlation factors are recommended with other approaches to correlate nuclides for which generic scaling factors are not defensible. The primary nuclide correlations studied were /sup 14/C, /sup 55/Fe, /sup 59/Ni, /sup 63/Ni, and /sup 94/Nb, with /sup 60/Co; /sup 90/Sr, /sup 99/Tc, /sup 129/I, /sup 135/Cs, and /sup 239, 240/Pu with /sup 137/Cs; /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239, 240/Pu, /sup 241/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 242/Cm, and /sup 243, 244/Cm with /sup 144/Ce; and /sup 238/Pu, /sup 241/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 242/Cm and /sup 243, 244/Cm with /sup 239, 240/Pu.

  18. Assay of long-lived radionuclides in low-level wastes from power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cline, J.E.; Noyce, J.R.; Coe, L.J.; Wright, K.W.

    1985-04-01

    The 10 CFR Part 61 waste classification system includes several nuclides which are difficult to assay without expensive radiochemical methods. In order for waste generators to classify wastes practically, NRC Staff has recommended the use of correlation factors to scale the difficult-to-measure nuclides with nuclides which can be measured more easily (i.e., gamma emitters such as 60 Co or 137 Cs). In this study, Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) performed complete radiochemical assays for all the 10 CFR Part 61 waste classification nuclides on over 100 samples. These data, along with almost 800 other samples in the SAIC data base, were used to assess the validity of correlation factors suggested for use in nuclear power plant wastes. Specific generic correlation factors are recommended with other approaches to correlate nuclides for which generic scaling factors are not defensible. The primary nuclide correlations studied were 14 C, 55 Fe, 59 Ni, 63 Ni, and 94 Nb, with 60 Co; 90 Sr, 99 Tc, 129 I, 135 Cs, and /sup 239, 240/Pu with 137 Cs; 238 Pu, /sup 239, 240/Pu, 241 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm, and /sup 243, 244/Cm with 144 Ce; and 238 Pu, 241 Pu, 241 Am, 242 Cm and /sup 243, 244/Cm with /sup 239, 240/Pu

  19. Short placental telomere was associated with cadmium pollution in an electronic waste recycling town in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuiqin Lin

    Full Text Available In Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site near Shantou, Guangdong province, China, primitive ways of e-waste processing have caused severe cadmium and lead pollution to the local residents. However, the possible effects of cadmium or lead pollution to genomic integrity of the local residents have not been investigated. We examined the possible relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in placenta and placental telomere length in Guiyu and compared the data with that of a non-polluted town. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and real-time PCR were used to determine placental cadmium and lead concentrations, and placental telomere length. We found that placental cadmium concentration was negatively correlated with placental telomere length (r = -0.138, p = 0.013. We also found that placental cadmium concentration of 0.0294 µg/g might be a critical point at which attrition of placental telomere commenced. No significant correlation between placental lead concentration and placental telomere length was detected (r = 0.027, p = 0.639. Our data suggest that exposure to cadmium pollution during pregnancy may be a risk factor for shortened placental telomere length that is known to be related to cancer development and aging. Furthermore, grave consequence on the offspring from pregnancies in e-waste polluted area is indicated.

  20. Short Placental Telomere was Associated with Cadmium Pollution in an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingying; Fan, Xiaojuan; Du, Li; Xu, Xijin; Qiu, Shaoshan; Zhang, Yuling; Wang, Yun; Gu, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    In Guiyu, an electronic waste recycling site near Shantou, Guangdong province, China, primitive ways of e-waste processing have caused severe cadmium and lead pollution to the local residents. However, the possible effects of cadmium or lead pollution to genomic integrity of the local residents have not been investigated. We examined the possible relationship between cadmium and lead concentrations in placenta and placental telomere length in Guiyu and compared the data with that of a non-polluted town. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and real-time PCR were used to determine placental cadmium and lead concentrations, and placental telomere length. We found that placental cadmium concentration was negatively correlated with placental telomere length (r = −0.138, p = 0.013). We also found that placental cadmium concentration of 0.0294 µg/g might be a critical point at which attrition of placental telomere commenced. No significant correlation between placental lead concentration and placental telomere length was detected (r = 0.027, p = 0.639). Our data suggest that exposure to cadmium pollution during pregnancy may be a risk factor for shortened placental telomere length that is known to be related to cancer development and aging. Furthermore, grave consequence on the offspring from pregnancies in e-waste polluted area is indicated. PMID:23565277

  1. A survey of selected neutron-activation reactions with short-lived products of importance to fusion reactor technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, R.C.; Gomes, I.C.; Smith, D.L.

    1994-11-01

    The status of the cross sections for production of short-lived radioactivities in the intense high-energy neutron fields associated with D-T fusion reactors is investigated. The main concerns relative to these very radioactive isotopes are with radiation damage to sensitive components such as superconducting magnets, the decay-heat problem and the safety of personnel during operation of the facility. The present report surveys the status of nuclear data required to assess these problems. The study is limited to a few high-priority nuclear reactions which appear to be of critical concern in this context. Other reactions of lesser concern are listed but are not treated in the present work. Among the factors that were considered in defining the relevant reactions and setting priorities are: quantities of the elemental materials in a fusion reactor, isotopic abundances within elemental categories, the decay properties of the induced radioactive byproducts, the reaction cross sections, and the nature of the decay radiations. Attention has been focused on radioactive species with half lives in the range from about 1 second to 15 minutes. Available cross-section and reaction-product decay information from the literature has been compiled and included in the report. Uncertainties have been estimated by examining several sets of experimental as well as evaluated data. Comments on the general status of data for various high-priority reactions are offered. On the basis of this investigation, it has been found that the nuclear data are in reasonably good shape for some of the most important reactions but are unacceptable for others. Based on this investigation, the reactions which should be given the greatest attention are: 16 O(n,p) 16 N, 55 Mn(n,p) 55 Cr, 57 Fe(n,p) 57 Mn, 186 W(n,2n) 185m W, and 207 Pb(n,n') 207m Pb. However, the development of fusion power would benefit from an across-the-board refinement in these nuclear data so that a more accurate quantitative

  2. APEX accelerator cycle for transmutation of long-lived fission wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Steinberg, M.; Takahashi, H.; Grand, P.; Botts, T.; Kouts, H.J.C.

    1980-01-01

    Based on preliminary studies, some conclusions can be drawn concerning the Accelerator Fuel Enricher and Fission Product Exterminator (APEX). APEX-1 and APEX-2 systems can destroy TU's, 137 Cs, and 90 Sr at acceptable cost and efficiency. The principal difference between APEX-1 and APEX-2 is the in-reactor and in-circuit inventory of 137 Cs and 90 Sr. Stable and low hazard wastes can be disposed of by burial. Accelerator breeders can effectively sustain a fission reactor economy indefinitely. Military waste can be blended into commercial fuel cycle for transmutation. Accelerator and target technologies appear practical and could be developed in a few years. More detailed studies are needed to better define the technical and economic features of the LAFER and APEX cycles, so that comparative assessments can be made between these cycles, as well as with other transmutation and waste disposal concepts

  3. A New Approach for the Permanent Disposal of Long Lived Fission Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fission can meet humanity's disparate requirements for carbon-free energy throughout this century and for millennia to come - not only for electricity but also as a source of hydrogen for transportation fuels and a heat source for desalination. However, most countries are not pursuing fission as an option for future energy and global climate needs. One paramount reason is diminished public acceptance over concerns of waste disposal. We would also add 'fuel resources' as a major future concern, because fission is not sustainable in the long term with the present 'once-through' fuel that utilizes less than 1% of the mined uranium and consigns its fertile potential to a permanent waste repository. Accordingly, global scale fission will become attainable (i.e., doable) if and when an integrated solution to this overall 'fuel-cycle' problem is realized. It is the back-end of the fuel cycle - i.e., the need for permanent storage of spent fuel and high-level waste - that has become the focus of much of the criticism. In particular, the construction and implementation of permanent waste repositories such as Yucca Mountain is becoming increasingly problematic from a financial and political perspective. The major shortcoming of these conventional repositories is that they must accommodate the whole spent fuel output from once-through fuel cycles. They are thus burdened with very large masses of material but where less than 1% is long-term, hazardous waste and where only a small fraction of the potential nuclear energy has been extracted. Second, such facilities must ensure integrity of waste containment for tens of thousands of years. Given that anything more than a few hundred years hence is unknowable and wholly unpredictable as far as future civilizations are concerned, public perception is that such facilities cannot be guaranteed to be absolutely secure for their envisaged lifetimes of tens of millennia.

  4. Accelerator-driven destruction of long-lived radioactive waste and energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear waste management involves many issues. ATW is an option that can assist a repository by enhancing its capability and thereby assist nuclear waste management. Technology advances and the recent release of liquid metal coolant information from Russia has had an enormous impact on the viability of an ATW system. It now appears economic with many repository enhancing attributes. In time, an ATW option added to present repository activities will provide the public with a nuclear fuel cycle that is acceptable from economic and environmental points of view

  5. Synthesis of long live storage studies surface storage of MA-VL wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollender, F.; Jourdain, F.; Piault, E.; Blanchet, Y.; Avakian, G.; Goger, F.; Caillaud, J.; Devictor, N.; Bary, B.; Moitier, C.; Breton, E.; Ranc, G.; Gaillard, J.P.; Lagrave, H.

    2004-01-01

    This document is realized in the framework of the axis 3 of the law of 1991 on the radioactive wastes management. It presents a long time surface storage installation of medium activity long life wastes. The long time of the installation would reach 300 years at the maximum. The feasibility is demonstrated and the design choices are presented and justified. The specific points of the long time storage installation, which are different from a classical industrial storage installation, are also discussed. (A.L.B.)

  6. Waste transmutation: perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, S.

    1997-01-01

    After the introduction on the source and nature of nuclear waste, this lecture analyzes the different methods proposed to transmute long-lived isotopes into stable or short-lived isotopes. It is shown that direct methods (photonuclear reactions, spallation, muon catalyzed fusion) do not lead to a sufficient transmutation rate within a reasonable cost. Only the use of hybrid systems, fusion-fission or spallation-fission, can be foreseen. (author)

  7. Studies for the storage of high level and long living radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This synthesis presents the studies and main results of the year 1999 obtained in the framework of the second axis of the 1991 law about the feasibility study of deep underground radioactive waste repositories. It precises also the French and international context in which researches are carried out, in particular with the development of scientific partnerships. (J.S.)

  8. A contribution to the physical and chemical model of long-lived radioactive wastes by clayey materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgeon, L.

    1994-01-01

    This work deals with the high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes confinement which come from the irradiated fuels reprocessing. These wastes are generally coated in a deep geological structure confinement matrix. The radiation protection of a such storage requires that the coating matrix, the technological barriers which separate the storage and the geological medium and the reception rock does not let the radioactive wastes pass. The materials used in this work for the confinement studies are clayey minerals and the retention mechanisms studies are realized on cesium 135, neptunium 237, americium 241 and uranium 233. The first part of this thesis concerns the clayey minerals retention properties towards ions in aqueous solutions. More particularly the relations between these properties and the chemical structure of these solids are investigated. In the second part are presented the experimental works which have allowed to specify the intrinsic characteristics of the studied minerals. Indeed the knowledge of these parameters is essential to quantitatively explain the results of the radionuclides retention. The adsorption mechanisms are described in a third part. (O.L.). 112 refs., 59 figs., 51 tabs

  9. Morbidity among children living around clinical waste treatment and disposal site in the Northwest region of Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter I. K. Mochungong

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical waste is ineffectively treated and disposed in Cameroon. Disposal sites have unrestricted access and are located within communities. We hypothesize that vector proliferation and exposure to chronic low-level emissions will increase morbidity in children living around such sites. Self-reported disease frequency questionnaires were used to estimate the frequency of new episodes of intestinal, respiratory and skin infections among exposed children less than 10 years. Data was simultaneously collected for unexposed children of the same age, using the same questionnaire. Data reporting by the parents was done in the first week in each of the 6 months study period. The risk ratios were 3.54 (95% CI, 2.19-5.73, 3.20 (95% CI, 1.34-7.60 and 1.35 (95% CI, 0.75-2.44 for respiratory, intestinal and skin infections respectively. Their respective risk differences were 0.47 (47%, 0.18 (18% and 0.08 (8%. The study revealed that poor treatment and disposal of clinical waste sites enhance morbidity in children living close to such areas. Simple health promotion and intervention programs such as relocating such sites can significantly reduce morbidity.

  10. Waste Handling in SVAFO's Hot Cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, Jennifer; Ekenborg, Fredrik; Hellsten, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations entails the generation of significant quantities of radioactive waste that must be accepted for disposal. In order to optimise the use of the final repositories for radioactive waste it is important that the waste be sent to the correct repository; that is, that waste containing short-lived radionuclides not be designated as long-lived due to conservative characterisation procedures. The disposal of short-lived waste in a future Swedish repository for long-lived waste will result in increased costs, due to the higher volumetric cost of the disposal as well as costs associated with decades of interim storage before disposal can occur. SVAFO is a non-profit entity that is responsible for the decommissioning of nuclear facilities from historical research and development projects in Sweden. They provide interim storage for radioactive waste arising from research activities until the final repository for long-lived waste is available. SVAFO's offices and facilities are located on the Studsvik site on the east coast of Sweden near the town of Nykoeping. Some of the retired facilities that SVAFO is in the process of decommissioning are located elsewhere in Sweden. The HM facility is a small waste treatment plant owned and operated by SVAFO. The plant processes both liquid and solid radioactive wastes. The facility includes a hot cell equipped with a compactor, a saw and other tools as well as manipulators for the handling and packaging of waste with high dose rates. The cell is fitted with special systems for transporting waste in and passing it out in drums. As with most hot cells there has been an accumulation of surface contamination on the walls, floor and other surfaces during decades of operation. Until recently there has been no attempt to quantify or characterize this contamination. Current practices dictate that after waste is handled in the hot cell it is conservatively designated as long-lived

  11. Focus on the legislative approach to short half life radioactive hospital waste releasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Caterina; Traino, Antonio Claudio

    2015-11-01

    We propose to summarize the advancements introduced by the new Directive 2013/59/Euratom concerning the concept of clearance, for which the radioactive medical waste represents a typical candidate. We also intend to spotlight disputable points in the regulatory scheme in force in Italy, as well to make a contribution to evaluate whether the practice of patients' urine storing, stated by it, can be regarded to be proper. With directing our interest to radionuclides used in Nuclear Medicine, we first present an overview of how the clearance concept, and that of exemption closely related to it, have been developed from the previous Directive 96/29 to the new one; then we describe the implementation of these concepts in the Italian legislation. Subsequently we estimate the exposure due both to keeping the effluent on site and to direct discharging it to the environment. In line with a well established international consensus, the Directive 2013/59 drives simple and harmonized regulation of clearance. On the contrary, some complexity and lack of consistency can be found in the framework of the national legislation affecting the radioactive medical waste handling. In addition the practice of excreta storing is disputed not to be really beneficial. The opportunity should be taken to make the whole system of these requirements simpler and more consistent and effective when it is revised to transpose the new Directive. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Measurement of formation cross sections of short-lived nuclei by 14 MeV neutrons - Mg, Si, S, Cl, Cr, Zn, Ga, Y, In -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawade, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Yamada, Takashi; Katoh, Toshio; Iida, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Akito.

    1990-10-01

    Sixteen neutron activation cross sections for (n,2n), (n,p), (n,n'p), (n,t) and (n,α) reactions producing short-lived nuclei with half-lives between 0.5 and 20 m have been measured in the energy range of 13.4 to 14.9 MeV for Mg, Si, S, Cl, Cr, Zn, Ga, Y and In. Five half-lives of short-lived nuclei produced by 14 MeV or thermal neutron bombardments were measured with Ge detectors for 66 Cu, 89m Zr, 91m Mo, 97m Nb and 104m Rh in the spectrum multi-scaling mode. (author)

  13. Harvard--MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, September 1, 1977--April 30, 1978. [/sup 99m/Tc, positron-emitting radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelstein, S.J.; Brownell, G.L.

    1978-05-01

    Progress is reported on the following studies: chemistry studies designed to achieve a more complete understanding of the fundamental chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future radiopharmaceuticals incorporating the radionuclide /sup 99m/Tc; the development of new radiopharmaceuticals intended to improve image quality and lower radiation doses by the use of short-lived radionuclides and disease-specific agents; the development of short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides which offer advantages in transverse section imaging of regional physiological processes; and studies of the toxic effects of particulate radiation.

  14. Japan's strategy on high-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the radioactive waste management in Japan and analyses the recommendations of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEC) about radioactive waste disposal in deep geologic deposits. A question arising from the approach of introducing partitioning technologies is how to manage the product partitioned and the secondary waste generated. A variety of technologies to transmute the product long-lived nuclides into short-lived ones are developed. 7 refs., 2 figs

  15. The investigation of properties of short-lived SF isotopes (Z > 100 at the focal plane of VASSILISSA separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svirikhin Alexandr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available For experiments aimed at the study of spontaneous fission of transfermium nuclei improvements in the focal plane detector system of recoil separator VASSILISSA have been made. A neutron detector consisting of 54 3He-filled counters has been mounted around the focal-plane detector chamber. The reaction 48Ca + 206Pb = 2n + 252No is used for tuning the separator settings and calibrating the detector system with the spontaneous fission of the 252No. The average neutron number per 252No spontaneous fission event is as large as ν̅ = 4.06 ± 0.12. The short-lived heavy isotopes 244,246Fm, produced in the complete fusion reactions 40Ar + 206,208Pb, are investigated. The average number of neutrons per spontaneous fission of 244,246Fm from the experimental data were (ν̅ = 3.3 ± 0.3 and (ν̅ = 3.55 ± 0.50, respectively. Both values are determined for the first time.

  16. Impact of biogenic very short-lived bromine on the Antarctic ozone hole during the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Rafael Pedro; Kinnison, Douglas E.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2017-04-01

    Active bromine released from the photochemical decomposition of biogenic very short-lived bromocarbons (VSLBr) enhances stratospheric ozone depletion. Based on a dual set of 1960-2100 coupled chemistry-climate simulations (i.e. with and without VSLBr), we show that the maximum Antarctic ozone hole depletion increases by up to 14% when natural VSLBr are considered, in better agreement with ozone observations. The impact of the additional 5 pptv VSLBr on Antarctic ozone is most evident in the periphery of the ozone hole, producing an expansion of the ozone hole area of 5 million km2, which is equivalent in magnitude to the recently estimated Antarctic ozone healing due to the implementation of the Montreal Protocol. We find that the inclusion of VSLBr in CAM-Chem does not introduce a significant delay of the modelled ozone return date to 1980 October levels, but instead affect the depth and duration of the simulated ozone hole. Our analysis further shows that total bromine-catalysed ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere surpasses that of chlorine by year 2070, and indicates that natural VSLBr chemistry would dominate Antarctic ozone seasonality before the end of the 21st century. This work suggests a large influence of biogenic bromine on the future Antarctic ozone layer.

  17. Very-short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) and inorganic bromine (Bry) in the Pacific tropical tropopause layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Maria A.; Atlas, Elliot L.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Kinnison, Douglas; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Tilmes, Simone; Rodriguez-Lloveras, Xavier; Filus, Michal; Harris, Neil R. P.; Meneguz, Elena; Ashfold, Matthew J.; Manning, Alistair J.; Fernandez, Rafael P.; Schauffler, Sue; Donets, Valeria; Thornberry, Troy; Rollins, Andrew; Elkins, James W.; Hintsa, Eric J.

    2017-04-01

    Organic very-short-lived brominated substances (VSLBr) and inorganic bromine species (Bry) play an important role in the chemistry of upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region. Their distribution, vertical structure, and variability provide information about sources and transport. In addition, an accurate quantification of the reactive and reservoirs species defines the halogen budget and assists in the assessment of the ozone depletion potential for brominated trace gases. In the last decade, there have been efforts to better understand the chemical and physical processes that occur in the Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL), including convection, dehydration, and heterogeneous recycling reactions, which influence the partitioning of the trace gas species that enter the stratosphere. However, uncertainties in the estimation of the organic and inorganic partitioning of bromine and the input to the stratosphere still persist. Based on the measurements of samples collected by the Global Hawk Whole Air Sampler (GWAS) during the NASA-Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (ATTREX), and chemistry climate simulations (using CAM-Chem along ATTREX flight tracks), we will examine the vertical distribution of selected organic species in the UT/LS of the Eastern and Western Pacific. We also will describe the budget and partitioning of bromine at the tropical tropopause and evaluate the contribution of bromine to ozone destruction in the lower stratosphere.

  18. Impact of short-lived non-CO2 mitigation on carbon budgets for stabilizing global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Riahi, Keywan; Meinshausen, Malte; Schaeffer, Michiel; Knutti, Reto

    2015-01-01

    Limiting global warming to any level requires limiting the total amount of CO 2 emissions, or staying within a CO 2 budget. Here we assess how emissions from short-lived non-CO 2 species like methane, hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), black-carbon, and sulphates influence these CO 2 budgets. Our default case, which assumes mitigation in all sectors and of all gases, results in a CO 2 budget between 2011–2100 of 340 PgC for a >66% chance of staying below 2°C, consistent with the assessment of the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Extreme variations of air-pollutant emissions from black-carbon and sulphates influence this budget by about ±5%. In the hypothetical case of no methane or HFCs mitigation—which is unlikely when CO 2 is stringently reduced—the budgets would be much smaller (40% or up to 60%, respectively). However, assuming very stringent CH 4 mitigation as a sensitivity case, CO 2 budgets could be 25% higher. A limit on cumulative CO 2 emissions remains critical for temperature targets. Even a 25% higher CO 2 budget still means peaking global emissions in the next two decades, and achieving net zero CO 2 emissions during the third quarter of the 21st century. The leverage we have to affect the CO 2 budget by targeting non-CO 2 diminishes strongly along with CO 2 mitigation, because these are partly linked through economic and technological factors. (letter)

  19. Modeling the transport of very short-lived substances into the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Schauffler

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The transport of very short-lived substances into the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere is investigated by a three-dimensional chemical transport model using archived convective updraft mass fluxes (or detrainment rates from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast's ERA-Interim reanalysis. Large-scale vertical velocities are calculated from diabatic heating rates. With this approach we explicitly model the large scale subsidence in the tropical troposphere with convection taking place in fast and isolated updraft events. The model calculations agree generally well with observations of bromoform and methyl iodide from aircraft campaigns and with ozone and water vapor from sonde and satellite observations. Using a simplified treatment of dehydration and bromine product gas washout we give a range of 1.6 to 3 ppt for the contribution of bromoform to stratospheric bromine, assuming a uniform mixing ratio in the boundary layer of 1 ppt. We show that the most effective region for VSLS transport into the stratosphere is the West Pacific, accounting for about 55% of the bromine from bromoform transported into the stratosphere under the supposition of a uniformly distributed source.

  20. Transport and deposition of nano-particles. Application to the free action of short-lived radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.

    1997-01-01

    Short-lived radon daughters ( 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi, and 214 Po) are important contributors to the natural average annual individual dose. The models describing the evolution of these aerosol in a house depend critically on a parameter, the 218 Po deposition velocity, which, although aerosol deposition has been extensively studied, is poorly known. A numerical and experimental study is thus carried out for a simple case: deposition in a cylindrical tube under laminar flow condition. The numerical results help understanding the difference between the transport and deposition of these radionuclides and those of non radioactive aerosols. Comparison of these well environment does not give satisfactory correlation, requiring the study of phenomena that may affect deposition. The first of these is the possible variation in the e 218 Po diffusion coefficient. Furthermore, experiments coupled with numerical calculations show that this variation could be due to 218 Po neutralization. The second phenomenon concerns the effect of the surface type, which is also shown experimentally. By modelling the neutralization and using results with a piratically smooth surface, good numerical/experimental correlations are obtained. Understanding this simple case than makes possible studying a more complex case: deposition in controlled turbulent flow. Two theories are thus experimentally validated. In addition, a 218 Po deposition velocity representative of our experimental conditions is determined. Finally, we report a feasibility study of radon daughters transport and deposition in a ventilated chamber taking into account all the involved phenomena. (author)

  1. Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are short-lived: reappraising the influence of migration, genetic factors and activation on estimation of lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Yifan; Chow, Kevin V; Soo, Priscilla; Xu, Zhen; Brady, Jamie L; Lawlor, Kate E; Masters, Seth L; O'keeffe, Meredith; Shortman, Ken; Zhang, Jian-Guo; Lew, Andrew M

    2016-04-26

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play an important role in immunity to certain pathogens and immunopathology in some autoimmune diseases. They are thought to have a longer lifespan than conventional DCs (cDCs), largely based on a slower rate of BrdU labeling by splenic pDCs. Here we demonstrated that pDC expansion and therefore BrdU labeling by pDCs occurs in bone marrow (BM). The rate of labeling was similar between BM pDCs and spleen cDCs. Therefore, slower BrdU labeling of spleen pDCs likely reflects the "migration time" (∼2 days) for BrdU labeled pDCs to traffic to the spleen, not necessarily reflecting longer life span. Tracking the decay of differentiated DCs showed that splenic pDCs and cDCs decayed at a similar rate. We suggest that spleen pDCs have a shorter in vivo lifespan than estimated utilizing some of the previous approaches. Nevertheless, pDC lifespan varies between mouse strains. pDCs from lupus-prone NZB mice survived longer than C57BL/6 pDCs. We also demonstrated that activation either positively or negatively impacted on the survival of pDCs via different cell-death mechanisms. Thus, pDCs are also short-lived. However, the pDC lifespan is regulated by genetic and environmental factors that may have pathological consequence.

  2. Deconvolution of alpha spectra from air filters applied for measurements of the short-lived radon progeny concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skubacz Krystian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a description of a method for the analysis of the complex alpha spectra generated during the measurement of the activity of filters outside of a vacuum chamber under environmental conditions. The peaks corresponding to the energies of alpha particles emitted by the specific isotopes are particularly large on the low-energy side of the peak maximum, and the energy resolution strongly depended on the applied filters. The analysis was based on the non-linear regression to a function designed for four, six and eight parameters. Satisfactory results were obtained for each of these functions, and the best-fitting results were achieved for the eight-parameter function. In addition, the uncertainties related to the estimated parameters, as well as the signals corresponding to functions that describe the shape of the energy peak, have been evaluated. There are also examples of the implementation of the method with respect to short-lived radon progeny and thoron decay products.

  3. Simulation study on the measurements of diffusion coefficients in solid materials by short-lived radiotracer beams

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, S C; Kawakami, H

    2003-01-01

    We have examined, by a computer simulation, an on-line measurement of diffusion coefficients by using a short-lived alpha particle emitter, sup 8 Li (half life of 0.84s), as a radiotracer. The energy spectra of alpha particles emitted from diffusing sup 8 Li primarily implanted in the sample of LiAl ar simulated as a measure of the diffusion of sup 8 Li in the sample. As a possible time sequence for the measurement, a time cycle of 6s, i.e. the implantation of sup 8 Li for 1.5s and subsequent diffusion for 4.5s, is supposed. The sample is primarily set on a given temperature for the measurement. The time-dependent yields of alpha particles during the time cycle reveal the possibility to measure the diffusion coefficient with an accuracy of 10% if larger than 1 x 10 sup - sup 9 cm sup 2 /s, by the comparison with the experimental spectra measured at the temperature, i.e. at a certain diffusion coefficient. (author)

  4. Neutron-captures in Low Mass Stars and the Early Solar System Record of Short-lived Radioactivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busso Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noticeable improvements were recently introduced in the modelling of n-capture nucleosynthesis in the advanced evolutionary stages of giant stars (Asymptotic Giant Branch, or AGB, stars. Two such improvements are closely linked together and concern the introduction of non-parameterized, physical models for extended mixing processes and the adoption of accurate reaction rates for H- and He-burning reactions, including the one for the main neutron source 13C(α,n16O. These improvements profited of a longstanding collaboration between stellar physicists and C. Spitaleri’s team and of his seminal work both as a leader in the Nuclear Astrophysics scenario and as a talent-scout in the recruitment of young researchers in the field. We present an example of the innovative results that can be obtained thanks to the novelties introduced, by estimating the contributions from a nearby AGB star to the synthesis of short-lived (t1/2 ≤ 10 Myr radioactive nuclei which were alive in early Solar System condensates. We find that the scenario indicating an AGB star as the source of such radioactivities, discussed for many years by researchers in this field, appears now to be no longer viable, when the mentioned improvements of AGB models and nuclear parameters are considered.

  5. Neutron-captures in Low Mass Stars and the Early Solar System Record of Short-lived Radioactivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Maurizio; Vescovi, Diego; Trippella, Oscar; Palmerini, Sara; Cristallo, Sergio; Piersanti, Luciano

    2018-01-01

    Noticeable improvements were recently introduced in the modelling of n-capture nucleosynthesis in the advanced evolutionary stages of giant stars (Asymptotic Giant Branch, or AGB, stars). Two such improvements are closely linked together and concern the introduction of non-parameterized, physical models for extended mixing processes and the adoption of accurate reaction rates for H- and He-burning reactions, including the one for the main neutron source 13C(α,n)16O. These improvements profited of a longstanding collaboration between stellar physicists and C. Spitaleri's team and of his seminal work both as a leader in the Nuclear Astrophysics scenario and as a talent-scout in the recruitment of young researchers in the field. We present an example of the innovative results that can be obtained thanks to the novelties introduced, by estimating the contributions from a nearby AGB star to the synthesis of short-lived (t1/2 ≤ 10 Myr) radioactive nuclei which were alive in early Solar System condensates. We find that the scenario indicating an AGB star as the source of such radioactivities, discussed for many years by researchers in this field, appears now to be no longer viable, when the mentioned improvements of AGB models and nuclear parameters are considered.

  6. Mechanical and Morphological Properties of Waste Short Nylon Fibers and Nanoclay Reinforced NR/SBR Rubber Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Andideh

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Natural rubber and styrene butadiene rubber (NR/SBR reinforced with short nylon fibers along with nanoclay (Cloisite 15A hybrid composites were prepared in an internal and a two roll-mill mixer by a three-step mixingprocess. The effects of fiber content at a constant loading of 3 wt% nanoclay were studied on the microstructure, mechanical and morphological properties of the prepared nanocomposites. The adhesion between the fiber and the rubber was enhanced by the addition of a dry bonding system consisting of resorcinol, hexamethylene tetramine and hydrated silica (HRH. The curing characteristics of the composites were determined and subsequently vulcanized at 150°C using a hot press. It was observed that the cure time and swelling index of the composites decreased while maximum torque, and cure rate increased with increasing of short fiber and nanoclay contents. Thestructure and fracture surface morphology of the nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction results of nanocomposites indicated that the interlayer distance of silicate layers increased. The mechanical properties (tensile, tear strength, elongation-at-break and hardness ofnanocomposites containing virgin and waste fibers in the longitudinal direction are compared.

  7. Cyclotron production of molecules labelled with short-lived radioisotopes β+ emitters (15O, 13N, 11C) and their clinical uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bougharouat, B.

    1981-01-01

    Clinical use of three short-lived radioisotopes: 15 O, 13 N and 11 C is studied on two complementary aspects. A production and purification system is realized; detection instruments in medical use are studied. The production of labelled molecules with the three radiotracers 15 O, 13 N, 11 C from the target bombardment with charged and accelerated particles was studied [fr

  8. Differences in rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in Europe in 2003: results from the MOSAIC cohort.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeitlin, J.; Draper, E.S.; Kollee, L.A.A.; Milligan, D.; Boerch, K.; Agostino, R.; Gortner, L.; Reempts, P. van; Chabernaud, J.L.; Gadzinowski, J.; Breart, G.; Papiernik, E.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Advances in perinatal medicine increased survival after very preterm birth in all countries, but comparative population-based data on these births are not readily available. This analysis contrasts the rates and short-term outcome of live births before 32 weeks of gestation in 10

  9. Relative importance of different exposure routes of heavy metals for humans living near a municipal solid waste incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tong; Wan, Yi; Ben, Yujie; Fan, Senrong; Hu, Jianying

    2017-07-01

    The potential health effects of toxic chemicals (e.g. heavy metals) emitted by municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are of great concern to local residents, however there have been few studies on the contributions of different exposure pathways and their subsequent effects on the body burden of residents living near MSWIs. In this study, multiple exposure routes of heavy metals including Pb, Cr, Cd and Mn were assessed by investigating the metals in foods (such as vegetables, crops, meats and fruits etc.), drinking water, ambient air and soil collected surrounding an MSWI in Shenzhen, south China. Vegetable ingestion played the most important role in the total average daily dose of Pb and Cr, and cereals were the key exposure routes for Mn and Cd. Compound-specific contaminations were observed in the investigated areas, with Pb and Cr present in the surrounding environment, having accumulated to relatively high levels in the local vegetables, and the intake of contaminated vegetable foods greatly influencing the body burden of Pb and Cr. Consistently, significantly high blood concentrations of Pb and Cr were detected in the local residents compared to a referenced population, and a lack of significant differences was found for Cd and Mn. The results possibly suggested that emission of MSWI influenced the external exposure doses of the major pathways of Pb and Cr in this study, and resulted in the different body burden of metals in humans living near a MSWI. MSWI-local food-humans is an important exposure pathway for residents living near MSWI, and thus should not be neglected in developing future strategies and policies to prevent the high risks suffered by residents living near MSWIs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Presentation of preliminary studies relative to the long duration disposal of medium level and long lived (MLLL) wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, C.; Moreau, A.; Fayette, L.; Bellon, M.; Templier, J.C.; Macias, R.M.; Porcher, J.B.; Rey, F.; Hollender, F.; Girard, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    In the contract of objectives signed in 2001 with the government, the French atomic energy commission (CEA) committed itself to supply reports of preliminary studies about long duration disposal concepts for medium level and long lived radioactive wastes. This document makes the synthesis of the preliminary studies carried out in 2001 and 2002 by exploring simultaneously the surface and subsurface disposal concepts. The studies deal with the design of a facility with a long service life. Four hypotheses have been retained for the preliminary studies: a secular lifetime (typically 100 to 300 years), a single and new site for all waste packages (no existing facility available), two confinement barriers, an envelope-type site with specific characteristics (seismicity, climate conditions, airplane crash..). These preliminary studies show the existence of solutions for each option: with and without storage containers in both type (surface and subsurface) of facilities. They outline the necessity of studying more thoroughly some technical points. This instruction will be performed for the concepts retained after a multi-criteria analysis. (J.S.)

  11. Determination of long-lived fission products and actinides in Savannah River site HLW sludge and glass for waste acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibler, N.E.; Boyce, W.T.; Coleman, C.J.

    1997-01-01

    Savannah River Site (SRS) is currently immobilizing the radioactive, caustic, high-level waste sludge in Tank 51 into a borosilicate glass for disposal in a geologic repository. A requirement for repository acceptance is that SRS report the concentrations of certain fission product and actinide radionuclides in the glass. This paper presents measurements of many of these concentrations in both Tank 51 sludge and the final glass. The radionuclides were measured by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry and α, β, and γ counting methods. Examples of the radionuclides are Sr-90, Cs-137, U-238, Pu-239, and Cm-244. Concentrations in the glass are 3.1 times lower due to dilution of the sludge with a nonradioactive glass forming frit in the vitrification process. Results also indicated that in both the sludge and glass the relative concentrations of the long lived fission products insoluble in caustic area in proportion to their yields from the fission of U-235 in the SRS reactors. This allowed the calculation of a fission yield scaling factor. This factor in addition to the sludge dilution factor can be used to estimate concentrations of waste acceptance radionuclides that cannot be measured in the glass

  12. Contribution of the short lived radionuclides in food to the total radiation burden of man after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, D.; Djuric, G.; Smelcerovic, M.; Maksimovic, B.

    1989-01-01

    The paper presents the results of the short lived radionuclides (I-131, Te(I)-132, Cs-136, Ce-141,144, Ru-103,106, Ba(La)-140, Zr-95, Mo-99, Nb-95, Sb-125) mass activities estimation in some foodstuff (milk and milk products), immediately after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl, in May 1986. The activities of the radionuclides were determined on Ge(Li) detector by standard gamma spectrometry, with the total error less than 20%. The results enabled the evaluation of the short lived radionuclides contribution in the total dose due to ingestion of milk and milk products, in the first month after the accident, compared to the contribution of I-131 and to the contribution of the main long lived radionuclides: Ce-134 and Cs-137 (author)

  13. Andra. Everything on the management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    This publication briefly presents the ANDRA, the French National Agency for the management of radioactive wastes, its mission, its activities, its financing, and some key figures. It briefly presents the phenomenon of radioactivity, radioactive wastes and their storage. It presents the different classes of radioactive wastes (very-low-level, low- and intermediate-level and short-lived, low-level and long-lived, high-level and intermediate-level and long-lived) and their storage principles. It sketches the pathway followed by a waste from its production to its storage. It presents the various ANDRA sites

  14. Inactivation of Candida glabrata by a humid DC argon discharge afterglow: dominant contributions of short-lived aqueous active species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Lu, Weiping; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Le; Wang, Xia; Zhu, Qunlin; Zeng, Xue; Yi, Ping

    2017-05-01

    Plasma medicine applications are currently attracting significant interest all over the world. Bactericidal treatments of Candida glabrata cultured in saline suspension are performed in this study by a room-temperature reactive afterglow of a DC-driven argon discharge. Water vapor was added to the discharge to study the inactivation contributions of reactive hydrolytic species including OH and H2O2 transporting along the gas flow to the treated solutions. The inactivation results indicate that the dominant roles in the bactericidal treatments are played by the short-lived aqueous active species, but not the stable species like H2O2aq (aq indicates an aqueous species). Further analysis shows that the ·OHaq radicals play an important role in the inactivation process. The ·OHaq radicals in the suspension are mostly produced from the direct dissolution of the OH species in the reactive afterglow. With the increase of added water vapor content, the ·OHaq production increases and enhances the inactivation efficiency of C. glabrata. Furthermore, it is found that the ambient air diffusion shows essential effects on the bactericidal activity of the remote humid argon discharge. Higher bactericidal effects can be obtained in open-space treatments compared to in a controlled Ar + H2O gas atmosphere. Key active air-byproduct species are believed to be generated in the suspension during the treatments and contributing to the inactivation process. Based on chemical analysis, the peroxynitrous acid ONOOHaq is considered as the key antimicrobial air-byproduct species. These results indicate the important dependence of plasma biomedical effects on the processing environment, which finally relates to the critical contributions of the key reactive species formed therein.

  15. Regional temperature change potentials for short-lived climate forcers based on radiative forcing from multiple models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamaas, Borgar; Berntsen, Terje K.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Shine, Keith P.; Collins, William J.

    2017-09-01

    We calculate the absolute regional temperature change potential (ARTP) of various short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) based on detailed radiative forcing (RF) calculations from four different models. The temperature response has been estimated for four latitude bands (90-28° S, 28° S-28° N, 28-60° N, and 60-90° N). The regional pattern in climate response not only depends on the relationship between RF and surface temperature, but also on where and when emissions occurred and atmospheric transport, chemistry, interaction with clouds, and deposition. We present four emissions cases covering Europe, East Asia, the global shipping sector, and the entire globe. Our study is the first to estimate ARTP values for emissions during Northern Hemisphere summer (May-October) and winter season (November-April). The species studied are aerosols and aerosol precursors (black carbon, organic carbon, SO2, NH3), ozone precursors (NOx, CO, volatile organic compound), and methane (CH4). For the response to BC in the Arctic, we take into account the vertical structure of the RF in the atmosphere, and an enhanced climate efficacy for BC deposition on snow. Of all SLCFs, BC is the most sensitive to where and when the emissions occur, as well as giving the largest difference in response between the latitude bands. The temperature response in the Arctic per unit BC emission is almost four times larger and more than two times larger than the global average for Northern Hemisphere winter emissions for Europe and East Asia, respectively. The latitudinal breakdown likely gives a better estimate of the global temperature response as it accounts for varying efficacies with latitude. An annual pulse of non-methane SLCF emissions globally (representative of 2008) lead to a global cooling. In contrast, winter emissions in Europe and East Asia give a net warming in the Arctic due to significant warming from BC deposition on snow.

  16. Regional temperature change potentials for short-lived climate forcers based on radiative forcing from multiple models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Aamaas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We calculate the absolute regional temperature change potential (ARTP of various short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs based on detailed radiative forcing (RF calculations from four different models. The temperature response has been estimated for four latitude bands (90–28° S, 28° S–28° N, 28–60° N, and 60–90° N. The regional pattern in climate response not only depends on the relationship between RF and surface temperature, but also on where and when emissions occurred and atmospheric transport, chemistry, interaction with clouds, and deposition. We present four emissions cases covering Europe, East Asia, the global shipping sector, and the entire globe. Our study is the first to estimate ARTP values for emissions during Northern Hemisphere summer (May–October and winter season (November–April. The species studied are aerosols and aerosol precursors (black carbon, organic carbon, SO2, NH3, ozone precursors (NOx, CO, volatile organic compound, and methane (CH4. For the response to BC in the Arctic, we take into account the vertical structure of the RF in the atmosphere, and an enhanced climate efficacy for BC deposition on snow. Of all SLCFs, BC is the most sensitive to where and when the emissions occur, as well as giving the largest difference in response between the latitude bands. The temperature response in the Arctic per unit BC emission is almost four times larger and more than two times larger than the global average for Northern Hemisphere winter emissions for Europe and East Asia, respectively. The latitudinal breakdown likely gives a better estimate of the global temperature response as it accounts for varying efficacies with latitude. An annual pulse of non-methane SLCF emissions globally (representative of 2008 lead to a global cooling. In contrast, winter emissions in Europe and East Asia give a net warming in the Arctic due to significant warming from BC deposition on snow.

  17. Inactivation of Candida glabrata by a humid DC argon discharge afterglow: dominant contributions of short-lived aqueous active species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Qing; Liu, Hongbin; Xu, Le; Wang, Xia; Zhu, Qunlin; Lu, Weiping; Chen, Qiang; Zeng, Xue; Yi, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Plasma medicine applications are currently attracting significant interest all over the world. Bactericidal treatments of Candida glabrata cultured in saline suspension are performed in this study by a room-temperature reactive afterglow of a DC-driven argon discharge. Water vapor was added to the discharge to study the inactivation contributions of reactive hydrolytic species including OH and H 2 O 2 transporting along the gas flow to the treated solutions. The inactivation results indicate that the dominant roles in the bactericidal treatments are played by the short-lived aqueous active species, but not the stable species like H 2 O 2aq (aq indicates an aqueous species). Further analysis shows that the ·OH aq radicals play an important role in the inactivation process. The ·OH aq radicals in the suspension are mostly produced from the direct dissolution of the OH species in the reactive afterglow. With the increase of added water vapor content, the ·OH aq production increases and enhances the inactivation efficiency of C. glabrata . Furthermore, it is found that the ambient air diffusion shows essential effects on the bactericidal activity of the remote humid argon discharge. Higher bactericidal effects can be obtained in open-space treatments compared to in a controlled Ar + H 2 O gas atmosphere. Key active air-byproduct species are believed to be generated in the suspension during the treatments and contributing to the inactivation process. Based on chemical analysis, the peroxynitrous acid ONOOH aq is considered as the key antimicrobial air-byproduct species. These results indicate the important dependence of plasma biomedical effects on the processing environment, which finally relates to the critical contributions of the key reactive species formed therein. (paper)

  18. Safety of geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive waste in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    A major activity of the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) in the field of radioactive waste management is the organisation of independent, international peer reviews of national studies and projects. The peer reviews help national programmes assess accomplished work. The general comments expressed in these reviews are also of potential interest to other member countries. The French Government requested that the NEA organize an international peer review of the Dossier 2005 Argile produced by the National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). The scope and objectives of the review were laid out in the Terms of Reference (ToR). The peer review was to inform the French Government whether the Dossier 2005 Argile was: consistent with international practices and with other national disposal programmes, in particular those considering argillaceous formations, and whether the future research needs were consistent with the available knowledge basis and priorities well-identified. The French authorities were particularly interested in receiving detailed recommendations for specific improvements, notably if the decision-making process led to a site-selection phase. According to the ToR, the NEA Secretariat established an international review team (IRT) made up of ten international specialists, including one member of the NEA Secretariat. The experts were chosen to bring complementary expertise to the review. This report presents the consensus view of the IRT. It is based on the Dossier 2005 Argile and supporting documents, on information provided by ANDRA in answers to questions raised by the IRT, and on direct interactions with staff from ANDRA during two working seminars in France. (author)

  19. Technical progress and perspectives in the geologic disposal of long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of final long-lived radwaste storage in facilities built in geological formations involves the development of very deep repositories that ensure safety, i. e. that can withstand malicious or accidental disturbances throughout very long periods of time. This concept was developed after an extended period of review reflection discussion and consideration of other options. This article is intended to provide a vision of the state-of-the-art and a description of the latest breakthroughs and tendencies from the perspective of an integral approach. (Author) 11 refs

  20. Behaviour of long-lived radionuclides associated with deep-sea disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The IAEA sponsored this Coordinated Research Programme to improve knowledge of various long-lived radionuclides likely to be dumped in the deep sea. During the three years of this programme the state of knowledge has advanced significantly in this area, and this document provides a review of the progress. The isotopes studied were mainly 238 Pu, 239 Pu, 240 Pu, 241 Am, 226 Ra, 210 Po, 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 60 Co, and 99 Tc. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 15 papers

  1. Management of long-lived radioactive waste: stakes and ASN actions; La gestion des dechets radioactifs a vie longue: enjeux et actions de l'ASN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandrieux, G. [Autorite de Surete Nucleaire, Dir. des dechets, des installations de recherche et du cycle, Division de Marseille, 75 - Paris (France)

    2011-02-15

    Due to the length of time it takes to decay, long-lived radioactive waste will remain a hazard on a timescale beyond the length of a human life, and even of several generations. In the case of this waste, long-term management solutions must be implemented to protect human health and the environment without requiring human intervention. In accordance with requirements under the Law, ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive waste) is carrying out research on disposal solutions in deep or subsurface geological formations. Nonetheless, until such repositories become available, ASN (authority for nuclear safety) has a duty to ensure safety at current and future interim storage facilities, as well as the safety of operations to retrieve and package this type of waste. To this end, ASN acts on several levels: it is involved in drawing up regulations and reference texts, at national and international level, it examines safety analysis reports related to radioactive waste management at basic nuclear installations, by means of inspections that it performs at every step in radioactive waste management. In its capacity as joint coordinator of the national plan for the management of nuclear waste and materials (PNGMDR) working group, ASN also plays a very active role in drawing up the provisions of the PNGMDR aimed at improving and optimising radioactive waste management. (author)

  2. Morbidity and mortality of people who live close to municipal waste landfills: a multisite cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataloni, Francesca; Badaloni, Chiara; Golini, Martina Nicole; Bolignano, Andrea; Bucci, Simone; Sozzi, Roberto; Forastiere, Francesco; Davoli, Marina; Ancona, Carla

    2016-06-01

    The evidence on the health effects related to residing close to landfills is controversial. Nine landfills for municipal waste have been operating in the Lazio region (Central Italy) for several decades. We evaluated the potential health effects associated with contamination from landfills using the estimated concentration of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) as exposure. A cohort of residents within 5 km of landfills was enrolled (subjects resident on 1 January 1996 and those who subsequently moved into the areas until 2008) and followed for mortality and hospitalizations until 31 December 2012. Assessment of exposure to the landfill (H2S as a tracer) was performed for each subject at enrolment, using a Lagrangian dispersion model. Information on several confounders was available (gender, age, socioeconomic position, outdoor PM10 concentration, and distance from busy roads and industries). Cox regression analysis was performed [Hazard Ratios (HRs), 95% confidence intervals (CIs)]. The cohort included 242 409 individuals. H2S exposure was associated with mortality from lung cancer and respiratory diseases (e.g. HR for increment of 1 ng/m(3) H2S: 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19; HR 1.09, 95% CI 1.00-1.19, respectively). There were also associations between H2S and hospitalization for respiratory diseases (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 1.00-1.03), especially acute respiratory infections among children (0-14 years) (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.02-1.11). Exposure to H2S, a tracer of airborne contamination from landfills, was associated with lung cancer mortality as well as with mortality and morbidity for respiratory diseases. The link with respiratory disease is plausible and coherent with previous studies, whereas the association with lung cancer deserves confirmation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.

  3. XPS Investigation of ceramic matrixes for disposal of long-living radioactive waste products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teterin Yury A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of ceramic matrixes for the long-term storage of highly active radionuclide wastes and determination of physical and chemical forms of radionuclides in them is one of the important problems in radioecology. It enables to create purpose fully materials for the long-term storage of radionuclides. In the present work the samples of ceramics [CaCe0.9Ti2O6.8(I and CaCeTi2O7(II}] formed under various conditions were investigated with the X-ray photo electron spectroscopy. It is necessary for synthesis of ceramic matrixes, for the disposal of the plutonium and others tetravalent actinides. A technique was developed for the determination of cerium oxidation state (Ce3+ and Ce4+ on the basis of the X-ray photo electron spectroscopy spectral structure characteristics. It was established that the sample (I formed at 300 MPa and T = 1400 °C in the air atmosphere contained on the surface two types of cerium ions in the ratio – 63 atomic % of Ce3+ and 37 atomic % of Ce4+, and the sample (II formed at 300 MPa and T= 1300 °C in the oxygen atmosphere contained on its surface two types of cerium ions also, but in the ratio – 36 atomic % of Ce3+ and 64 atomic % of Ce4+. It was established that on the surface of the studied ceramics carbonates of calcium and/or cerium could be formed under influence of the environment that leads to the destruction of ceramics.

  4. The waste disposal facility in the Aube District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, Patrice

    2013-06-01

    The waste disposal facility in the Aube district is the second surface waste disposal facility built in France. It is located in the Aube district, and has been operated by Andra since 1992. With a footprint of 95 hectares, it is licensed for the disposal of 1 million cubic meters of low- and intermediate-level, short-lived waste packages. The CSA is located a few kilometers away another Andra facility, currently in operation for very-low-level waste, and collection and storage of non-nuclear power waste (the Cires). Contents: Andra in the Aube district, an exemplary industrial operator - The waste disposal facility in the Aube district (CSA); Low- and intermediate-level, short-lived radioactive waste (LILW-SL); The LILW-SL circuit; Protecting present and future generations

  5. Application of mass spectrometric techniques for the trace analysis of short-lived iodine-containing volatiles emitted by seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundel, Michael; Thorenz, Ute R; Petersen, Jan H; Huang, Ru-Jin; Bings, Nicolas H; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2012-04-01

    Knowledge of the composition and emission rates of iodine-containing volatiles from major widespread seaweed species is important for modeling the impact of halogens on gas-phase atmospheric chemistry, new particle formation, and climate. In this work, we present the application of mass spectrometric techniques for the quantification of short-lived iodine-containing volatiles emitted by eight different seaweeds from the intertidal zone of Helgoland, Germany. A previously developed online time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometric method was used to determine I(2) emission rates and investigate temporally resolved emission profiles. Simultaneously, iodocarbons were preconcentrated on solid adsorbent tubes and quantified offline using thermodesorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total iodine content of the seaweeds was determined using microwave-assisted tetramethylammonium hydroxide extraction followed by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry analysis. The highest total iodine content was found in the Laminariales, followed by the brown algae Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus vesiculosus, Fucus serratus, and both red algae Chondrus crispus and Delesseria sanguinea. Laminariales were found to be the strongest I(2) emitters. Time series of the iodine release of Laminaria digitata and Laminaria hyperborea showed a strong initial I(2) emission when first exposed to air followed by an exponential decline of the release rate. For both species, I(2) emission bursts were observed. For Laminaria saccharina und F. serratus, a more continuous I(2) release profile was detected, however, F. serratus released much less I(2). A. nodosum and F. vesiculosus showed a completely different emission behavior. The I(2) emission rates of these species were slowly increasing with time during the first 1 to 2 h until a more or less stable I(2) emission rate was reached. The lowest I(2) emission rates were detected for the red algae C. crispus and D. sanguinea. Total iodocarbon

  6. Safety of radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimbault, P.

    2002-01-01

    Radioactive waste produced in France vary considerably by their activity level, their half lives, their volume or even their nature. In order to manage them safely, the treatment and final disposal solution must be adapted to the type of waste considered by setting up specific waste management channels. A strong principle in France is that it is the responsibility of the nuclear operators as waste producers to dispose of their waste or have them disposed of in a suitable manner. The competent authorities regulate and control the radioactive waste management activities. At present, only short-lived low and intermediate level waste have a definitive solution, the surface repository, where adequate waste packages are disposed of in concrete structures. Other types of radioactive waste are in interim storage facilities at the production sites. For very low level waste coming mainly from dismantling of nuclear facilities a dedicated repository is planned to be built in the coming years. Dedicated repositories are also planned for radiferous, tritiated and graphite waste. As for high level waste and long-lived waste coming mainly from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel the disposal options are being sought along the lines specified by law 91-1381 concerning research on radioactive waste management, passed on December 30, 1991: research of solutions to partition and transmute long-lived radionuclides in the waste; studies of retrievable and non retrievable disposal in deep geological layers with the help of underground laboratories; studies of processes for conditioning and long term surface storage of these waste. In 2006, the French Parliament will assess the results of the research conducted by ANDRA relative to deep geological disposal as well as the work conducted by CEA in the two other areas of research and, if this research is conclusive, pass a law defining the final disposal option. (author)

  7. Storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  8. Overview of past activities for the use of short-lived radionuclides and the role of the Bureau of Radiological Health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paras, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Bureau of Radiological Health has developed a national program to control unnecessary medical radiation exposures to man and to assure the safe and effective use of radiation. The continuing interest and the role of the Bureau in the use of short-lived radionuclides (SLR's) are emphasized. An overview of the Bureau's SLR program, past accomplishments, and the status of production and use of iodine-123 are presented

  9. Different profiles of anthropogenic and naturally produced organohalogen compounds in serum from residents living near a coastal area and e-waste recycling workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguchi, Akifumi; Nomiyama, Kei; Devanathan, Gnanasekaran; Subramanian, Annamalai; Bulbule, Kesav A; Parthasarathy, Peethambaram; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2012-10-15

    We determined the contamination status and accumulation profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hydroxylated PCB congeners (OH-PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and bromophenols (BPhs) in serum from e-waste recycling workers and residents near a coastal area in India. Residue levels of penta- to octa-chlorinated PCBs, penta- to octa-chlorinated OH-PCBs, 6MeO-BDE47, 6OH-BDE47, and 2,4,6-tri-BPh in serum from residents living near the coastal area were significantly higher than those in serum from e-waste recycling workers. Residue levels of tri- to tetra-chlorinated PCBs, tri- to tetra-chlorinated OH-PCBs, PBDEs, octa-brominated OH-PBDEs, and tetra-BPhs in serum from e-waste recycling workers were higher than those in serum from residents living near the coastal area. Principal component analysis revealed that residents living near the coastal area and e-waste recycling workers had different serum profiles of chlorinated and brominated compounds. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Urinary Concentrations of Bisphenols and Their Association with Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in People Living Near E-Waste Recycling Facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Xue, Jingchuan; Gao, Chuan-zi; Qiu, Rong-liang; Li, Yan-xi; Li, Xiao; Huang, Ming-zhi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2016-04-05

    In this study, concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and seven other bisphenols (BPs) were measured in urine samples collected from people living in and around e-waste dismantling facilities, and in matched reference population from rural and urban areas in China. BPA, bisphenol S (BPS), and bisphenol F (BPF) were frequently detected (detection frequencies: > 90%) in urine samples collected from individuals who live near e-waste facilities, with geometric mean (GM) concentrations of 2.99 (or 3.75), 0.361 (or 0.469), and 0.349 (or 0.435) ng/mL (or μg/g Cre), respectively; the other five BPs were rarely found in urine samples, regardless of the sampling location. The urinary concentrations of BPA and BPF, but not BPS, were significantly higher in individuals from e-waste recycling locations than did individuals from a rural reference location. Our findings indicated that e-waste dismantling activities contribute to human exposure to BPA and BPF. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was measured in urine as a marker of oxidative stress. In the e-waste dismantling location, urinary 8-OHdG was significantly and positively correlated (p < 0.001) with urinary BPA and BPS, but not BPF; a similar correlation was also observed in reference sites. These findings suggest that BPA and BPS exposures are associated with elevated oxidative stress.

  11. Development of low-alkaline cement using pozzolans for geological disposal of long-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihara, Morihiro; Iriya, Keishiro; Torii, Kazuyuki

    2008-01-01

    To reduce uncertainties in the safety assessment of the disposal system for long-lived radioactive waste, cement was developed which generates leachates with a lower pH than that of ordinary cement paste. This cement is termed 'low-alkaline cement'. Large amounts of pozzolans were used to produce the low-alkaline cement with ordinary Portland cement. Silica fume was found to be an effective pozzolans to reduce pH, but the needed large amount of silica fume reduced the workability of fresh concrete. Therefore, the authors also used fly ash with silica fume, to develop more workable low-alkaline cement, termed high-volume fly ash silica fume cement (HFSC). Two types of HFSC developed showed high compressive strength, smaller drying shrinkage and lower temperature rise than that of ordinary Portland cement. It was confirmed that HFSC could be used as self-compacting concrete. Therefore they can be applied as either structural or backfilling concrete in the disposal system. (author)

  12. Monitoring metals in the population living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste incinerator: levels in hair of school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Martí; Bocio, Ana; Schuhmacher, Marta; Domingo, Jose L

    2005-06-01

    Hair samples of 134 school children (12-14 yr old) living in three residential zones in the vicinity of a new hazardous waste incinerator (HWI) (Constanti, Tarragona County, Catalonia, Spain) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), and vanadium (V) concentrations. These concentrations were compared with those obtained in a baseline survey performed in the same area during the period of construction of the HWI. Current mean concentrations ranged from values under the respective limit of detection (As, Be, Cd, Tl, and V) to 0.70 and 0.86 microg/g for Hg and Pb, respectively. In comparison to the baseline survey, the levels of Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Sn showed a significant reduction, whereas Hg concentrations were similar. No significant differences were observed according to the sex of the children. However, some differences were noted, especially for Pb and Cr, with respect to the specific zone of residence. In general terms, the current metal levels in hair of school children are similar or even lower than those recently reported for a number of industrial and residential areas of various regions and countries.

  13. Probabilistic safety assessment for a generic deep geological repository for high-level waste and long-lived intermediate-level waste in clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resele, G.; Holocher, J.; Mayer, G.; Hubschwerlen, N.; Niemeyer, M.; Beushausen, M.; Wollrath, J.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the selection procedure for the search of a final site location for the disposal of radioactive wastes, the comparison and evaluation of different potentially suitable repository systems in different types of host rocks will be an essential and crucial step. Since internationally accepted guidelines on how to perform such quantitative comparisons between repository systems with regard to their long-term safety behaviour are still lacking, in 2007 the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection launched the project 'VerSi' (Vergleichende Sicherheitsanalysen - Comparing Safety Assessments) that aims at the development of a methodology for the comparison of long-term safety assessments. A vital part of the VerSi project is the performance of long-term safety assessments for the comparison of two repository systems. The comparison focuses on a future repository for heat-generating, i.e. high-level and long-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Germany. Rock salt is considered as a potential host rock for such a repository, and one repository system in VerSi is defined similarly to the potential site located in the Gorleben salt dome. Another suitable host rock formation may be clay. A generic location within the lower Cretaceous clays in Northern Germany is therefore chosen for the comparison of safety assessments within the VerSi project. The long-term safety assessment of a repository system for heat-generating radioactive waste at the generic clay location comprises different steps, amongst others: - Identifying the relevant processes in the near-field, in the geosphere and in the biosphere which are relevant for the long-term safety behaviour. - Development of a safety concept for the repository system. - Deduction of scenarios of the long-term evolution of the repository system. - Definition of statistic weights, i. e. the likelihood of occurrence of the scenarios. - Performance of a

  14. A new process to improve short-chain fatty acids and bio-methane generation from waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Bin; Gao, Peng; Zhang, Dong; Chen, Yinguang; Dai, Lingling; Dai, Xiaohu

    2016-05-01

    As an important intermediate product, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) can be generated after hydrolysis and acidification from waste activated sludge, and then can be transformed to methane during anaerobic digestion process. In order to obtain more SCFA and methane, most studies in literatures were centered on enhancing the hydrolysis of sludge anaerobic digestion which was proved as un-efficient. Though the alkaline pretreatment in our previous study increased both the hydrolysis and acidification processes, it had a vast chemical cost which was considered uneconomical. In this paper, a low energy consumption pretreatment method, i.e. enhanced the whole three stages of the anaerobic fermentation processes at the same time, was reported, by which hydrolysis and acidification were both enhanced, and the SCFA and methane generation can be significantly improved with a small quantity of chemical input. Firstly, the effect of different pretreated temperatures and pretreatment time on sludge hydrolyzation was compared. It was found that sludge pretreated at 100°C for 60min can achieve the maximal hydrolyzation. Further, effects of different initial pHs on acidification of the thermal pretreated sludge were investigated and the highest SCFA was observed at initial pH9.0 with fermentation time of 6d, the production of which was 348.63mg COD/gVSS (6.8 times higher than the blank test) and the acetic acid was dominant acid. Then, the mechanisms for this new pretreatment significantly improving SCFA production were discussed. Finally, the effect of this low energy consumption pretreatment on methane generation was investigated. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damveld, Herman [Groningen (Netherlands)

    2003-10-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible.

  16. Nuclear Waste and Ethics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damveld, Herman

    2003-01-01

    In the past years in almost all conferences on storage of nuclear waste, ethics has been considered as an important theme. But what is ethics? We will first give a sketch of this branch of philosophy. We will then give a short explanation of the three principal ethical theories. In the discussion about storage of nuclear waste, the ethical theory of utilitarianism is often implicitly invoked. In this system future generations weigh less heavily than the present generation, so that people of the future are not considered as much as those now living. We reject this form of reasoning. The discussion about nuclear waste is also sometimes pursued from ethical points of departure such as equality and justice. But many loose ends remain in these arguments, which gives rise to the question of whether the production and storage of nuclear waste is responsible

  17. Species Selection Favors Dispersive Life Histories in Sea Slugs, but Higher Per-Offspring Investment Drives Shifts to Short-Lived Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krug, Patrick J; Vendetti, Jann E; Ellingson, Ryan A; Trowbridge, Cynthia D; Hirano, Yayoi M; Trathen, Danielle Y; Rodriguez, Albert K; Swennen, Cornelis; Wilson, Nerida G; Valdés, Ángel A

    2015-11-01

    For 40 years, paleontological studies of marine gastropods have suggested that species selection favors lineages with short-lived (lecithotrophic) larvae, which are less dispersive than long-lived (planktotrophic) larvae. Although lecithotrophs appeared to speciate more often and accumulate over time in some groups, lecithotrophy also increased extinction rates, and tests for state-dependent diversification were never performed. Molecular phylogenies of diverse groups instead suggested lecithotrophs accumulate without diversifying due to frequent, unidirectional character change. Although lecithotrophy has repeatedly originated in most phyla, no adult trait has been correlated with shifts in larval type. Thus, both the evolutionary origins of lecithotrophy and its consequences for patterns of species richness remain poorly understood. Here, we test hypothesized links between development mode and evolutionary rates using likelihood-based methods and a phylogeny of 202 species of gastropod molluscs in Sacoglossa, a clade of herbivorous sea slugs. Evolutionary quantitative genetics modeling and stochastic character mapping supported 27 origins of lecithotrophy. Tests for correlated evolution revealed lecithotrophy evolved more often in lineages investing in extra-embryonic yolk, the first adult trait associated with shifts in development mode across a group. However, contrary to predictions from paleontological studies, species selection actually favored planktotrophy; most extant lecithotrophs originated through recent character change, and did not subsequently diversify. Increased offspring provisioning in planktotrophs thus favored shifts to short-lived larvae, which led to short-lived lineages over macroevolutionary time scales. These findings challenge long-standing assumptions about the effects of alternative life histories in the sea. Species selection can explain the long-term persistence of planktotrophy, the ancestral state in most clades, despite frequent

  18. Climate response to projected changes in short-lived species under an A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menon, Surabi; Shindell, Drew T.; Faluvegi, Greg; Bauer, Susanne E.; Koch, Dorothy M.; Unger, Nadine; Menon, Surabi; Miller, Ron L.; Schmidt, Gavin A.; Streets, David G.

    2007-03-26

    We investigate the climate forcing from and response to projected changes in short-lived species and methane under the A1B scenario from 2000-2050 in the GISS climate model. We present a meta-analysis of new simulations of the full evolution of gas and aerosol species and other existing experiments with variations of the same model. The comparison highlights the importance of several physical processes in determining radiative forcing, especially the effect of climate change on stratosphere-troposphere exchange, heterogeneous sulfate-nitrate-dust chemistry, and changes in methane oxidation and natural emissions. However, the impact of these fairly uncertain physical effects is substantially less than the difference between alternative emission scenarios for all short-lived species. The net global mean annual average direct radiative forcing from the short-lived species is .02 W/m{sup 2} or less in our projections, as substantial positive ozone forcing is largely offset by negative aerosol direct forcing. Since aerosol reductions also lead to a reduced indirect effect, the global mean surface temperature warms by {approx}0.07 C by 2030 and {approx}0.13 C by 2050, adding 19% and 17%, respectively, to the warming induced by long-lived greenhouse gases. Regional direct forcings are large, up to 3.8 W/m{sup 2}. The ensemble-mean climate response shows little regional correlation with the spatial pattern of the forcing, however, suggesting that oceanic and atmospheric mixing generally overwhelms the effect of even large localized forcings. Exceptions are the polar regions, where ozone and aerosols may induce substantial seasonal climate changes.

  19. Daily variation of radon gas and its short-lived progeny concentration near ground level and estimation of aerosol residence time

    Science.gov (United States)

    M, Mohery; A, M. Abdallah; A, Ali; S, S. Baz

    2016-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of radon (222Rn) gas and its short-lived progenies 218Po, 214Pb, and 214Po were continuously monitored every four hours at the ground level in Jeddah city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The measurements were performed three times every week, starting from November 2014 to October 2015. A method of electrostatic precipitation of positively charged 218Po and 214Po by a positive voltage was applied for determining 222Rn gas concentration. The short-lived 222Rn progeny concentration was determined by using a filter holder connected with the alpha-spectrometric technique. The meteorological parameters (relative air humidity, air temperature, and wind speed) were determined during the measurements of 222Rn and its progeny concentrations. 222Rn gas as well as its short-lived progeny concentration display a daily and seasonal variation with high values in the night and early morning hours as compared to low values at noon and in the afternoon. The observed monthly atmospheric concentrations showed a seasonal trend with the highest values in the autumn/winter season and the lowest values in the spring/summer season. Moreover, and in parallel with alpha-spectrometric measurements, a single filter-holder was used to collect air samples. The deposited activities of 214Pb and the long-lived 222Rn daughter 210Pb on the filter were measured with the gamma spectrometric technique. The measured activity concentrations of 214Pb by both techniques were found to be relatively equal largely. The highest mean seasonally activity concentrations of 210Pb were observed in the autumn/winter season while the lowest mean were observed in the spring/summer season. The mean residence time (MRT) of aerosol particles in the atmospheric air could be estimated from the activity ratios of 210Pb/214Pb. Project supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research (DSR), King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Grant No. 291/965/1434).

  20. Anthropogenic analogues for geological disposal of high level and long lived waste. Final report of a coordinated research project 1999-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    Human-made materials comprise important elements of the engineered barriers within the multi-barrier containment system in all concepts for the geological disposal of long lived radioactive wastes. A typical waste package consists of a metallic container for the solid waste (e.g. spent fuel or borosilicate glass in the case of high level waste, or cemented intermediate level wastes), possibly with an additional metallic over-pack to provide added protection or further corrosion resistance to the container. In the repository, waste packages are surrounded by buffer or backfill materials, such as clays, which have been subject to varying degrees of mechanical or chemical processing. Repository concepts for intermediate level wastes generally contain large volumes of cement and concrete in various applications: as a waste conditioning matrix, in boxes for waste components, as backfill between waste packages and as vault and silo structures within excavated caverns and tunnels. The long term behaviour and interactions of these materials is an important aspect of the performance of a repository, and post-closure safety assessment requires information on their durability, stability and slow degradation characteristics. Analogue information from archaeological and other anthropogenic materials can indicate the mechanisms and rates of long term corrosion of glasses and metals and of degradation of cements over hundreds or thousands of years, which can be used to constrain estimates of degradation rates over similar or longer periods. Under some circumstances it is also possible to find these materials in locations where they have interacted with natural radionuclides over long periods. This can provide useful data on how radionuclides might be sorbed or precipitated as they pass from the waste matrix into the surrounding, degrading engineered barrier system of a repository far into the future. Over the last twenty five years, many countries have gathered information on the

  1. Conceptual design and cost inputs associated with co-disposal of the spent fuel and long lived radioactive wastes in the deep geologic disposal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fako, R.; Sociu, F.; Nicolae, R.; Barariu, G

    2013-01-01

    The paper aims to be an integrated approach for the containment and isolation of spent fuel and / or long lived radioactive wastes in a Deep Geologic Repository in Romania. Several scenarios could be defined for the management of spent fuel and long lived radioactive waste in Romania considering many specific constraints in Romania (political, geological, economic, demographic, etc.). This paper intends to be an upgrade of several Research, Development and Demonstration (RD&D) works performed by SITON specialists on this subject, taking into account also the conclusions of the Workshop ôCost estimation on spent nuclear fuel disposal in Romaniaö organized by IAEA in cooperation with ANDR at the beginning of this year in Romania.This paper is, also, addressed to decision makers with target on to adopt the best strategy for construction of Deep Geologic Repository in Romania. (authors)

  2. Public debate on the general options relative to the management of high-medium activity and long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-09-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. This document presents the organizational aspects of the debate: origin, organization committee (mission, members, commitments), framework (the December 31, 1991 law, technical enlargement, society aspects), topics (summary of the debate in ten questions), organization modalities (4 main steps, schedule, venues), objectives and perspectives (sharing information, decision making processes to be implemented by 2006). (J.S.)

  3. Radioactive waste management and disposal in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A national near-surface repository at a remote and arid location is proposed for the disposal of solid low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Australia. The repository will be designed to isolate the radioactive waste from the human environment under controlled conditions and for a period long enough for the radioactivity to decay to low levels. Compared to countries that have nuclear power programs, the amount of waste in Australia is relatively small. Nevertheless, the need for a national disposal facility for solid low-level radioactive and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes is widely recognised and the Federal Government is in the process of selecting a site for a national near-surface disposal facility for low and short-lived intermediate level wastes. Some near surface disposal facilities already exist in Australia, including tailings dams at uranium mines and the Mt Walton East Intractable Waste Disposal Facility in Western Australia which includes a near surface repository for low level wastes originating in Western Australia. 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  4. Parallel short forms for the assessment of activities of daily living in cardiovascular rehabilitation patients (PADL-cardio): development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, Andreas; Abberger, Birgit; Boecker, Maren; Baumeister, Harald

    2017-11-26

    To develop and validate parallel short forms for the assessment of activities of daily living in cardiac rehabilitation patients (PADL-cardio I & II). PADL-cardio I & II were developed based on a sample of 106 patients [mean age  =  57.6; standard deviation (SD) = 11.1; 72.6% males] using Rasch analysis and validated with a sample of 81 patients (mean age  =  59.1; SD  =  11.1; 88.9% males). All patients answered PADL-cardio and the Short Form 12 Health Survey. Both versions of PADL-cardio are composed of 10 items. The fit to the Rasch model was given documented by a non-significant Item-trait interaction score (PADL-cardio I: χ 2  = 31.08, df  =  30, p  =  0.41; PADL-cardio II: χ 2  = 45.6, df  =  40, p  =  0.25). The two versions were free of differential item functioning. Person-separation reliability was 0.72/0.78 and unidimensionality was given. The two versions correlated with r = 0.98 and the correlation between PADL-cardio and the underlying item bank was 0.99 for both versions. Concurrent validity is indicated through correlations with the Short Form 12 Health Survey (r  = -0.37 to -0.40). PADL-cardio provides a short and psychometrically sound option for the assessment of activities of daily living in cardiovascular rehabilitation patients. The two versions of PADL-cardio are equivalent. Hence, they can be used to reduce practice and retest effects in repeated measurement, facilitating the longitudinal assessment of activities of daily living. Implications for Rehabilitation New parallel test forms for the assessment of activities of daily living in cardiac rehabilitation (PADL-cardio I & PADL-cardio II) are available. PADL-cardio I & II consist of 10 items and are therefore especially timesaving. Concurrent validity is given through correlations with the Short Form Health Survey 12. Therapeutic success could be determined more precisely by the parallel forms reducing practice

  5. Associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure and oxidative stress in people living near e-waste recycling facilities in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shao-You; Li, Yan-Xi; Zhang, Jian-Qing; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Gui-Hua; Huang, Ming-Zhi; Li, Xiao; Ruan, Ju-Jun; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Qiu, Rong-Liang

    2016-09-01

    Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from e-waste recycling activities in China is known. However, little is known on the association between PAH exposure and oxidative damage to DNA and lipid content in people living near e-waste dismantling sites. In this study, ten hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) and two biomarkers [8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and malondialdehyde (MDA)] of oxidative stress were investigated in urine samples collected from people living in and around e-waste dismantling facilities, and in reference population from rural and urban areas in China. The urinary levels of ∑10OH-PAHs determined in e-waste recycling area (GM: 25.4μg/g Cre) were significantly higher (pwaste workers (36.6μg/g Cre) showed significantly higher (pwaste recycling site. The differences in urinary Σ10OH-PAHs levels between smokers (23.4μg/g Cre) and non-smokers (24.7μg/g Cre) were not significant (p>0.05) in e-waste dismantling sites, while these differences were significant (pwaste dismantling site. Furthermore, we found that urinary concentrations of Σ10OH-PAHs and individual OH-PAHs were significantly associated with elevated 8-OHdG, in samples collected from e-waste dismantling site; the levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-PYR) (r=0.284, pwaste dismantling site may have an effect on oxidative damage to DNA among selected participants, but this needs to be validated in large studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation into the possibility of using short silver half-lives for the determination of silver in nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guazzoni, P.; Laverlochere, M.; Heilmann, C.; Jung, M.; Francois, H.

    1982-01-01

    The 24 s and 2.4 mn short halft-life Ag 110 and Ag 108 isotopes were used to determine the quantity of silver remaining in developed nuclear emulsions after exposure to various neutron and gamma radiations. The test carried out should lead to the development and construction of automatic measurement equipment [fr

  7. Basic study on neutron activation analysis measuring short-lived nuclides (half-lives 0.7 to 100 s) using JRR-3M NAA facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonezawa, Chushiro; Ichimura, Shigeju; Matsue, Hideaki; Kurosawa, Tatsuya

    1998-11-01

    Analytical basis for neutron activation analysis (NAA) measuring nuclides of second order half-life produced by (n, γ) reaction has been studied using a neutron activation analysis facility of JRR-3M. Basic experimental conditions such as high count rate gamma-ray measurement, effects of irradiation capsule material and stability of neutron flux were examined. The analytical sensitivities and detection limits for 20 elements of which activated radionuclides have half-lives from 0.7 to 100 s were obtained. Scandium, Hf, Dy and In were elements having the highest analytical sensitivity, with detection limits down to 4.2 to 14 ng. Fluorine, of which determination by other methods is difficult, can be detected in more than 530 ng. Determination of ppm levels of F in silicon nitride powder using a single and cyclic activation methods were performed. Accuracy and precision for F determination were verified by analyzing reference materials of Opal Glass (NIST SRM91) and Oyster Tissue (NIST SRM1566a). The relationship between the detection limit of F and Al contents was also clarified. Analytical applications of high sensitive elements such as Se, Sc, Hf, In and Dy in various materials, including reference materials, were also examined and the accuracy, precision and detection limits of the present method were evaluated. (author)

  8. Determination of long-lived radionuclide (10Be, 41Ca, 129I) concentrations in nuclear waste by accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nottoli, Emmanuelle; Bienvenu, Philippe; Labet, Alexandre; Bertaux, Maite; Bourles, Didier; Arnold, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    Radiological characterization of nuclear waste is essential for storage sites management. However, most of Long-Lived Radionuclides (LLRN), important for long-term management, are difficult to measure since concentration levels are very low and waste matrices generally complex. In an industrial approach, LLRN concentrations are not directly measured in waste samples but assessed from scaling factors with respect to easily measured gamma emitters. Ideally, the key nuclide chosen ( 60 Co, 137 Cs) should be produced by a similar mechanism (fission or activation) as the LLRN of interest and should have similar physicochemical properties. However, the uncertainty on the scaling factors, determined from experimental and/or calculation data, can be quite important. Consequently, studies are performed to develop analytical procedures which would lead to determine precisely the concentration of LLRN in nuclear waste. In this context, the aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of three LLRN: 129 I (T 1/2 = 15.7*10 6 a), 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 9.94*10 4 a) and 10 Be (T 1/2 = 1.387*10 6 a) in spent resins used for primary fluid purification in Pressurized Water Reactors using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for measurement. The AMS technique combined mass spectrometry and nuclear physics to achieve highly efficient molecular and elemental isobars separation. Energies of several Million Electron-Volt transferred to the ions in the first accelerating part of specifically developed tandem accelerators lead to molecular isobars destruction through interaction with the argon gas used to strip the injected negative ions to positive ones. At the exit of the tandem accelerator, the energy acquired in both accelerating parts allows an elemental isobars separation based on their significantly different energy loss (dE) while passing through a thickness of matter dx that is proportional to their atomic number (Z) and inversely proportional to ions velocity (v) according to the

  9. Hydro-mechanical improvement of the cap cover of a surface landfill for low and intermediate level radioactive waste short life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstaevel, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    This study related to the Manche storage center (CSM), one of the first landfill in the world dedicated to low and intermediate radioactive waste short-live time. The researches considered in this thesis supported by industrial companies, focus on the hydraulic study of cap cover materials of the site, and their hydro-mechanical improvement. The aim is to improve their impermeability in order to be substituted to the geo-membrane as cap cover liner. A specification imposed by Andra was to consider a solution of the re-use of the in situ material by adding of additive. The initial material is a sandy silt, a material with a significant proportion of fines. In the literature there are many studies on the mechanical improvement of fine materials (applications to road infrastructure) and the treatment of sandy materials by adding a fine fraction (constitution of waterproof barriers). On the other hand there are very few studies on the impermeability improvement of fine soils. A physical tests campaign on treated materials with bentonite was carried out at various treatment rates. The results showed that the addition of additive induces a decrease in optimum dry unit weight for a normal Proctor compaction energy and increases their optimum water content. In addition, the susceptibility to erosion, internal or external, observed during oedo-permeameter test was assessed from various stability criteria available in the literature. Unlike the treatment of soil for road embankments, the increase of the material stiffness is not wanted and flexibility is preferred what is observed with the treatment tested. The comparative hydraulic conductivity of the untreated and treated materials were measured. In this study different devices (oedo-permeameter, permeameters, triaxial device) were used. The influence of the treatment rate of the material on the decrease of the hydraulic conductivity was observed. Four large scale experimentations were designed; they should be monitored

  10. Biomedical waste management: Incineration vs. environmental safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam V

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Public concerns about incinerator emissions, as well as the creation of federal regulations for medical waste incinerators, are causing many health care facilities to rethink their choices in medical waste treatment. As stated by Health Care Without Harm, non-incineration treatment technologies are a growing and developing field. Most medical waste is incinerated, a practice that is short-lived because of environmental considerations. The burning of solid and regulated medical waste generated by health care creates many problems. Medical waste incinerators emit toxic air pollutants and toxic ash residues that are the major source of dioxins in the environment. International Agency for Research on Cancer, an arm of WHO, acknowledged dioxins cancer causing potential and classified it as human carcinogen. Development of waste management policies, careful waste segregation and training programs, as well as attention to materials purchased, are essential in minimizing the environmental and health impacts of any technology.

  11. 182Hf-182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jesper C; Olsen, Mia B; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K; Connelly, James N; Jørgensen, Jes K; Krot, Alexander N; Nordlund, Ake; Bizzarro, Martin

    2013-05-28

    Refractory inclusions [calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., (26)Al, (41)Ca, and (182)Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of (26)Al corresponding to (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼5 × 10(-5), rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and (26)Al/(27)Al of Solar System, including the origin of short-lived radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the (182)Hf-(182)W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with (26)Al/(27)Al of ∼3 × 10(-6). The decoupling between (182)Hf and (26)Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for (182)Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for (26)Al. Admixing of stellar-derived (26)Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the (26)Al-(26)Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support (182)Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the (182)Hf-(182)W clock.

  12. Saving and Re-building Lives: Determinants of Short-term and Long-term Disaster Relief

    OpenAIRE

    Geethanjali SELVARETNAM; Kannika THAMPANISHVONG; David ULPH

    2014-01-01

    We analyse both theoretically and empirically, the factors that influence the amount of humanitarian aid received by countries which are struck by natural disasters, particularly distinguishing between immediate disaster relief and long term humanitarian aid. The theoretical model is able to make predictions as well as explain some of the peculiarities in the empirical results. We show that both short and long term humanitarian aid increases with number of people killed, financ...

  13. Status of the public debate on the general options of management of high and intermediate activity and long-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprised 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is a status of the general organisation and progress of the debate from its preparing to its end in mid-January 2006. It shows the challenges the CNDP had to take up to treat the scientifical and technical questions in an accessible way, allowing the participation and the hearing of the large public. A status is made of the deception and satisfaction of the public. A lack of confidence in public authorities and scientists has been expressed several times. No pro-nuclear/anti-nuclear shock has occurred and the debate has revealed a remarkable richness in its content. One contribution of the debate to the future project of law is its enlargement to the overall nuclear wastes and valorizable materials and not only to the high/intermediate-level and long-lived wastes. (J.S.)

  14. Short-term outcomes of laparoscopy-assisted hybrid living donor hepatectomy: a comparison with the conventional open procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Toshihiro; Kaido, Toshimi; Iida, Taku; Seo, Satoru; Taura, Kojiro; Fujimoto, Yasuhiro; Ogawa, Kohei; Hatano, Etsuro; Okajima, Hideaki; Uemoto, Shinji

    2017-12-01

    Although minimally invasive living donor surgery has been increasingly accepted, its safety remains to be fully clarified in a large-scale study. This study evaluated the safety and effectiveness of our laparoscopy-assisted hybrid living donor surgery (LAHDS) procedure with an upper median incision in comparison with conventional open donor hepatectomy (ODH). From 2011 to 2016, 153 adult living donors [right lobe (RL) graft: 80 donors; left lobe (LL) graft: 73 donors] were enrolled and divided into LAHDS (n = 76) and ODH (n = 77) groups. Donor characteristics, surgical outcomes, and postoperative complications were compared between the 2 groups in each graft subgroup. Postoperative liver function tests (LFTs), inflammatory markers, pain parameters, incision-related symptoms, and recipient outcomes were compared between the 2 groups in all donors. In RL donors, operative blood loss was significantly lower in the LAHDS group than in the ODH group (201 vs. 313 g; p = 0.034). In LL donors, duration of surgery was significantly longer in the LAHDS group than in the ODH group (459 vs. 403 min; p = 0.034). The incidence of complications, length of hospital stay, and postoperative changes in both LFTs and inflammatory markers were comparable. The incidence of postoperative scar discomfort or tightness was significantly lower in the LAHDS group than in the ODH group (2.6 vs. 31.2%; p < 0.001), whereas postoperative pain parameters were comparable. The incidence of wound problems and abdominal wall numbness tended to be lower, but not significantly so, in the LAHDS group. This large consecutive case series demonstrates that our LAHDS procedure can be performed as safely as ODH, and it can improve quality of life without impaired donor and recipient outcomes.

  15. Short-lasting systemic and regional benefits of early crystalloid infusion after intravenous inoculation of dogs with live Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garrido A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the systemic and regional hemodynamic effects of early crystalloid infusion in an experimental model of septic shock induced by intravenous inoculation with live Escherichia coli. Anesthetized dogs received an intravenous infusion of 1.2 x 10(10 cfu/kg live E. coli in 30 min. After 30 min of observation, they were randomized to controls (no fluids; N = 7, or fluid resuscitation with lactated Ringer's solution, 16 ml/kg (N = 7 or 32 ml/kg (N = 7 over 30 min and followed for 120 min. Cardiac index, portal blood flow, mean arterial pressure, systemic and regional oxygen-derived variables, blood lactate, and gastric PCO2 were assessed. Rapid and progressive cardiovascular deterioration with reduction in cardiac output, mean arterial pressure and portal blood flow (~50, ~25 and ~70%, respectively was induced by the live bacteria challenge. Systemic and regional territories showed significant increases in oxygen extraction and in lactate levels. Significant increases in venous-arterial (~9.6 mmHg, portal-arterial (~12.1 mmHg and gastric mucosal-arterial (~18.4 mmHg PCO2 gradients were also observed. Early fluid replacement, especially with 32 ml/kg volumes of crystalloids, promoted only partial and transient benefits such as increases of ~76% in cardiac index, of ~50% in portal vein blood flow and decreases in venous-arterial, portal-arterial, gastric mucosal-arterial PCO2 gradients (7.2 ± 1.0, 7.2 ± 1.3 and 9.7 ± 2.5 mmHg, respectively. The fluid infusion promoted only modest and transient benefits, unable to restore the systemic and regional perfusional and metabolic changes in this hypodynamic septic shock model.

  16. An alternative approach to comparing long- and short-lived emissions in light of the 2°C global temperature limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Stephen; Bowerman, Niel; Lowe, Jason; Huntingford, Chris; Frame, Dave; Allen, Myles; Gohar, Laila; Millar, Richard

    2014-05-01

    International climate policy has defined its goal in terms of limiting global average temperature, specifically to 2°C above pre-industrial levels. Emissions of several different greenhouse gases (GHGs) are currently aggregated and traded in terms of their carbon dioxide equivalent. The metric used for aggregating and trading is the 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100). Importantly though, the GWP100 does not measure temperature and so does clearly indicate the relative value of different emissions in the context of a global temperature limit. Recent developments in climate research have led to two different, potentially conflicting, perspectives on priorities in reducing emissions. First, a clear link has been demonstrated between cumulative emissions of carbon dioxide and peak temperature. This emphasises the need for carbon dioxide emissions to fall to near zero and provides a conceptually neat way to frame policy, but says little about the role of other GHGs. Second, other studies have shown that emissions of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), many of which currently lie outside climate policy, have a substantial near-term effect on climate. It has been suggested that immediate SLCP reductions will therefore increase the chance of staying below 2°C and may even "buy time" for carbon dioxide reductions. This presentation summarises two recent papers which clarify the roles of SLCPs and long-lived GHGs in determining peak global temperature, and propose new emission metrics to reflect these. SLCP emissions reductions in a given decade have a significant impact on peak temperature only if carbon dioxide emissions are already falling. Immediate action on SLCPs might potentially "buy time" for adaptation by reducing near-term warming, but it does not buy time to delay reductions in carbon dioxide compared with delayed SLCP reductions. Peak temperature is ultimately constrained by cumulative emissions of several long-lived gases (including carbon dioxide

  17. Dose concepts and the achievability of protection for the disposal of long-lived solid waste according to ICRP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugier, A.; Schneider, Th.

    2010-01-01

    excess of risk resulting from the exposure of the involved population. In this perspective, ICRP has considered it was neither its responsibility nor a wise position to establish evolutionary scenarios for the health of future generations, which would be among the requirements for converting this general appreciation into an actual prediction of health effects. For long-term situations the relevant concept is potential exposure although the situation is planned. According to ICRP 103, long lived waste disposal should be dealt with as a planned exposure situation, and the resulting exposures in the long term should be considered as potential exposures. This leads to the use of a risk constraint in implementing the optimisation principle, which implies the consideration of the dose and the associated probability of occurrence for each process or event corresponding to the scenario of exposure. The same level of protection should be achieved for future generations as for present generations. The position of the ICRP on the interpretation of the quote by ICRP 81 that 'individuals and populations in the future should be afforded at least at the same level of protection from actions taken today as is the current generation' is that the risk resulting from the evolution of the disposal system should be as low as reasonably achievable below a selected risk constraint. In the demonstration of compliance (performance assessment), which may differ when dealing with natural processes vs. human intrusion, the objective is not to attempt to estimate a radiation detriment for future individuals but rather to test the weaknesses and the robustness of the disposal system. The goal is to compare disposal options. Calculated doses to future individuals should be regarded as indicators of safety. In ICRP 103 it is stated that 'in the decision-making process, owing to the increasing uncertainties, giving less weight to very low doses and to doses received in the distant future could be

  18. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa) and snails (Ampullariidae) in an e-waste dismantling area in China: Homologue group pattern, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C 10 and C 11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35.7% and 33.0% of total SCCPs, respectively. SCCPs in snails and hulls are generally higher than in soil samples (30.4-530 ng/g dw), and SCCPs in hulls are approximate five times higher than in corresponding rice samples (4.90-55.1 ng/g dw). Homologue pattern analysis indicates that paddy seeds (both hull and rice) tend to accumulate relatively high volatile SCCP homologues, especially the ones with shorter carbon chain length, while snails tend to accumulate relatively high lipophilic homologues, especially the ones with more substituted chlorines. SCCPs in both paddy seeds and snails are linearly related to those in the soil. The e-waste dismantling area, which covers a radius of approximate 20 km, shows higher pollution levels for SCCPs according to their spatial distribution in four matrices. The preliminary assessment indicates that SCCP levels in local soils pose no significant ecological risk for soil dwelling organisms, but higher risks from dietary exposure of SCCPs are suspected for people living in e-waste dismantling area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Saving and Re-building Lives: Determinants of Short-term and Long-term Disaster Relief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethanjali SELVARETNAM

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We analyse both theoretically and empirically, the factors that influence the amount of humanitarian aid received by countries which are struck by natural disasters, particularly distinguishing between immediate disaster relief and long term humanitarian aid. The theoretical model is able to make predictions as well as explain some of the peculiarities in the empirical results. We show that both short and long term humanitarian aid increases with number of people killed, financial loss and level of corruption, while GDP per capita had no effect. More populated countries receive more humanitarian aid. Earthquake, tsunami and drought attract more aid.

  20. Short and long-term efficacy and phytotoxicity of phosphine against Rhynchophorus ferrugineus in live Phoenix canariensis palms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembilio, O.; Jaques, J.A.

    2015-07-01

    The red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, is a palm borer native to South Asia which has spread mainly due to the unintended movement of infested planting material. As a result, this species has become the most destructive palm pest in the world. The difficulty of detecting the early stages of infestation due to its cryptic life cycle has led many countries to implement, strict pre- and post-entry quarantine regulations to prevent further spread. However, there are no quarantine protocols to ensure that palm material for planting is free of R. ferrugineus. The aim of this study has been to determine the efficacy of aluminium phosphide as a safe quarantine treatment against different stages of R. ferrugineus and the possible phytotoxic effects on live Phoenix canariensis palms. Our results confirm that a dose of 1.14 g/m3 for 2 days is enough to kill all stages of R. ferrugineus in live palms with no phytotoxic effects on treated palms for up to one year after the treatment. This procedure, which could be easily applied in sealed containers used for palm trade, could drastically reduce risks associated to palm movement worldwide. (Author)

  1. Metabolic adaptations to short-term every-other-day feeding in long-living Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Borg, Holly M; Rakoczy, Sharlene

    2013-09-01

    Restrictive dietary interventions exert significant beneficial physiological effects in terms of aging and age-related disease in many species. Every other day feeding (EOD) has been utilized in aging research and shown to mimic many of the positive outcomes consequent with dietary restriction. This study employed long living Ames dwarf mice subjected to EOD feeding to examine the adaptations of the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidative defense systems to this feeding regimen. Every other day feeding lowered liver glutathione (GSH) concentrations in dwarf and wild type (WT) mice but altered GSH biosynthesis and degradation in WT mice only. The activities of liver OXPHOS enzymes and corresponding proteins declined in WT mice fed EOD while in dwarf animals, the levels were maintained or increased with this feeding regimen. Antioxidative enzymes were differentially affected depending on the tissue, whether proliferative or post-mitotic. Gene expression of components of liver methionine metabolism remained elevated in dwarf mice when compared to WT mice as previously reported however, enzymes responsible for recycling homocysteine to methionine were elevated in both genotypes in response to EOD feeding. The data suggest that the differences in anabolic hormone levels likely affect the sensitivity of long living and control mice to this dietary regimen, with dwarf mice exhibiting fewer responses in comparison to WT mice. These results provide further evidence that dwarf mice may be better protected against metabolic and environmental perturbations which may in turn, contribute to their extended longevity. © 2013.

  2. The short-lived annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri shows a typical teleost aging process reinforced by high incidence of age-dependent neoplasias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cicco, Emiliano; Tozzini, Eva Terzibasi; Rossi, Giacomo; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2011-04-01

    The annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri is the shortest-lived vertebrate which can be cultured in captivity. Here, we performed a histopathological analysis of age-related lesions in this species. Post-mortem analysis revealed lesions in liver (~90%), kidney (~75%), heart (~70%) and gonads (~40%) which are similar to those previously described in the small teleost Poecilia reticulata. In addition, a high incidence of neoplasias was observed in liver (~35%) and kidney (~25%). Different laboratory strains of N. furzeri show large genetic differences in longevity. Cross-sectional analysis revealed a clear age-dependent increase in the incidence of liver neoplasias which was accelerated in a short-lived strain. Cross-sectional analysis of gonads revealed sex-specific differences in the occurrence of lesions, with males being more severely affected than females. In conclusion, our analysis demonstrates that short life span in N. furzeri is a consequence of a typical teleost aging process which determines systemic failure of homeostasis functions rather than of a single organ or apparatus. Unlike other teleosts, however, this scenario is reinforced by high incidence of age-dependent neoplasias, making this species a promising model to analyze the molecular pathways of age-dependent spontaneous tumorigenesis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A generalized method for characterization of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu content using short-lived fission product gamma spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, Justin, E-mail: knowles@utk.edu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Skutnik, Steven [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Glasgow, David; Kapsimalis, Roger [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-11

    Rapid nondestructive assay methods for trace fissile material analysis are needed in both nuclear forensics and safeguards communities. To address these needs, research at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Neutron Activation Analysis facility has developed a generalized nondestructive assay method to characterize materials containing fissile isotopes. This method relies on gamma-ray emissions from short-lived fission products and makes use of differences in fission product yields to identify fissile compositions of trace material samples. Although prior work has explored the use of short-lived fission product gamma-ray measurements, the proposed method is the first to provide a complete characterization of isotopic identification, mass ratios, and absolute mass determination. Successful single fissile isotope mass recoveries of less than 6% recovery bias have been conducted on standards of {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu as low as 12 ng in less than 10 minutes. Additionally, mixtures of fissile isotope standards containing {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu have been characterized as low as 198 ng of fissile mass with less than 7% recovery bias. The generalizability of this method is illustrated by evaluating different fissile isotopes, mixtures of fissile isotopes, and two different irradiation positions in the reactor. It is anticipated that this method will be expanded to characterize additional fissile nuclides, utilize various irradiation facilities, and account for increasingly complex sample matrices.

  4. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  5. Health effects associated with the disposal of solid waste in landfills and incinerators in populations living in surrounding areas: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattiello, Amalia; Chiodini, Paolo; Bianco, Elvira; Forgione, Nunzia; Flammia, Incoronata; Gallo, Ciro; Pizzuti, Renato; Panico, Salvatore

    2013-10-01

    Potential health hazards for the environment and people living nearby landfills and incinerators are claimed to be related to several methods of waste management. Independent systematic review of the scientific literature is a key procedure to support the lay public and policy makers to achieve informed decisions. The study design and potential biases of papers retrieved in this comprehensive literature search were analyzed. The most consistent result is that the risks of congenital anomalies and hospitalization due to respiratory disease are likely to be real nearby special waste landfills. From the very little information on exclusively urban waste depots it is reasonable to say that correct management of landfill does not increase the risk of these health effects. It is confirmed that historically incinerators are an important source of pollution and harm for the health of populations living nearby; however, changes in technology are producing more reassuring results. A moderate level of confidence is possible in limited areas of knowledge, implying the need to overcome the limitations of current studies about exposure assessment and to control confounders at the individual level.

  6. Accurate mass measurements of very short-lived nuclei. Prerequisites for high-accuracy investigations of superallowed β-decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herfurth, F.; Kellerbauer, A.; Sauvan, E.; Ames, F.; Engels, O.; Audi, G.; Lunney, D.; Beck, D.; Blaum, K.; Kluge, H.J.; Scheidenberger, C.; Sikler, G.; Weber, C.; Bollen, G.; Schwarz, S.; Moore, R.B.; Oinonen, M.

    2002-01-01

    Mass measurements of 34 Ar, 73-78 Kr, and 74,76 Rb were performed with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP. Very accurate Q EC -values are needed for the investigations of the Ft-value of 0 + → 0 + nuclear β-decays used to test the standard model predictions for weak interactions. The necessary accuracy on the Q EC -value requires the mass of mother and daughter nuclei to be measured with δm/m ≤ 3 . 10 -8 . For most of the measured nuclides presented here this has been reached. The 34 Ar mass has been measured with a relative accuracy of 1.1 .10 -8 . The Q EC -value of the 34 Ar 0 + → 0 + decay can now be determined with an uncertainty of about 0.01%. Furthermore, 74 Rb is the shortest-lived nuclide ever investigated in a Penning trap. (orig.)

  7. Unattached fraction of short-lived Rn decay products in indoor and outdoor environments: An improved single-screen method and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineking, A.; Porstendoerfer, J.

    1990-01-01

    The unattached fraction fp of potential alpha energy of short-lived Rn decay products was measured under realistic, natural conditions in different dwellings and in the open atmosphere by a single-screen technique. An improved data evaluation method was developed where the measured activities of 218 Po (RaA) and 214 Pb (RaB) were corrected by the screen-attached activities of 214 Bi ( 214 Po) [RaC (RaC')]. This method is based on the experimental observation that the 214 Bi ( 214 Po) unattached activities are negligible under realistic living conditions and that the size distributions of the aerosol-attached activities of all short-lived Rn daughters are identical. In closed rooms without additional aerosol sources, a mean unattached fraction fp of the potential alpha energy of 0.096 was obtained at a mean aerosol particle concentration of 6100 cm-3 and at a mean equilibrium factor F of 0.30. This mean fp value is about three times higher than the value used in the literature for the radiation exposure calculation of the human public. In closed rooms with additional aerosol sources (cigarette smoke, heating systems, aerosols from a burning candle), the aerosol particle concentrations ranged up to 10(6) cm-3 and the attachment rates, X, increased up to 1000 h-1. The fp values sometimes decreased below the detection limit of 0.005, and the F values increased to as high as 0.77. In the ambient atmosphere in the vicinity of Goettingen, a mean unattached fraction fp of 0.02 and a mean aerosol particle concentration of 3.4 x 10(4) cm-3 were measured at 1 m above the ground. The mean equilibrium factor F was determined to be 0.7.A

  8. Effective Strategy for Conformer-Selective Detection of Short-Lived Excited State Species: Application to the IR Spectroscopy of the N1H Keto Tautomer of Guanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Hiroya; Tokugawa, Munefumi; Masaki, Yoshiaki; Ishiuchi, Shun-Ichi; Gloaguen, Eric; Seio, Kohji; Saigusa, Hiroyuki; Fujii, Masaaki; Sekine, Mitsuo; Mons, Michel

    2016-04-14

    The ultrafast deactivation processes in the excited state of biomolecules, such as the most stable tautomers of guanine, forbid any state-of-the-art gas phase spectroscopic studies on these species with nanosecond lasers. This drawback can be overcome by grafting a chromophore having a long-lived excited state to the molecule of interest, allowing thus a mass-selective detection by nanosecond R2PI and therefore double resonance IR/UV conformer-selective spectroscopic studies. The principle is presently demonstrated on the keto form of a modified 9-methylguanine, for which the IR/UV double resonance spectrum in the C═O stretch region, reported for the first time, provides evidence for extensive vibrational couplings within the guanine moiety. Such a successful strategy opens up a route to mass-selective IR/UV spectroscopic investigations on molecules exhibiting natural chromophores having ultrashort-lived excited states, such as DNA bases, their complexes as well as peptides containing short-lived aromatic residues.

  9. Inconsistencies between14C and short-lived radionuclides-based sediment accumulation rates: Effects of long-term remineralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskaran, M; Bianchi, T S; Filley, T R

    2017-08-01

    14 C is the most widely utilized geochronometer to investigate geological, geochemical and geophysical problems over the past 5 decades. Establishment of precise sedimentation rates is crucial for the reconstruction of paleo-climate, -ecological and - environmental studies when extrapolation of sedimentation rates is utilized for time scales beyond the dating range. However, agreement between short-term and long-term sedimentation rates in anthropogenically unperturbed sediment cores has not been shown. Here we show that the AMS 14 C-based long-term mass accumulation rate (MAR) of an organic-rich (>70%) sediment core from Mud Lake, Florida to be ∼5 times lower than the short-term MAR obtained using 239,240 Pu, 137 Cs and excess 210 Pb ( 210 Pb xs ). The measured sediment inventories of 210 Pb xs , 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu are comparable to the atmospheric fallout for the sampling site, indicating very little accelerated sediment erosion over the past several decades. Presence of sharp fallout peaks of 239,240 Pu indicates very little sediment mixing. The penetration depths of 137 Cs and 239,240 Pu were found to be much deeper than expected and this is attributed to their post-depositional mobility. MAR calculated using 14 C-ages in successive layers also indicated decreasing MARs with depth, and was reflective of progressive remineralization. Using first-order kinetics, the sediment remineralization rate was found to be 4.4 × 10 -4 y -1 and propose that over the long-term, remineralization of organic-rich sediment affected the long-term MAR, but not the ratio of 14 C/ 12 C. Thus, the MAR and linear sedimentation rate obtained using 14 C (and other isotope-based methods) could be erroneous, although 14 C ages may not be affected by such remineralization. Long-term remineralization rates of organic matter has a direct bearing on the biogeochemical cycling of elements in aqueous systems and mass balance of elements needs to be taken into consideration. Copyright

  10. Structure and short time degradation studies of sodium zirconium phosphate ceramics loaded with simulated fast breeder (FBR) waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayanan, A.; Ambashta, R. D.; Sudarsan, V.; Ajithkumar, T.; Sen, D.; Mazumder, S.; Wattal, P. K.

    2017-04-01

    Sodium zirconium phosphate (NZP) ceramics have been prepared using conventional sintering and hot isostatic pressing (HIP) routes. The structure of NZP ceramics, prepared using the HIP route, has been compared with conventionally sintered NZP using a combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (31P and 23Na) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques. It is observed that NZP with no waste loading is aggressive toward the steel HIP-can during hot isostatic compaction and significant fraction of cations from the steel enter the ceramic material. Waste loaded NZP samples (10 wt% simulated FBR waste) show significantly low can-interaction and primary NZP phase is evident in this material. Upon exposure of can-interacted and waste loaded NZP to boiling water and steam, 31P NMR does not detect any major modifications in the network structure. However, the 23Na NMR spectra indicate migration of Na+ ions from the surface and possible re-crystallization. This is corroborated by Small-Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) data and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) measurements carried out on these samples.

  11. Microbial activity in argillite waste storage cells for the deep geological disposal of French bituminous medium activity long lived nuclear waste: Impact on redox reaction kinetics and potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, A.; Leone, L.; Charlet, L.

    2009-04-01

    Micro-organisms are ubiquitous and display remarkable capabilities to adapt and survive in the most extreme environmental conditions. It has been recognized that microorganisms can survive in nuclear waste disposal facilities if the required major (P, N, K) and trace elements, a carbon and energy source as well as water are present. The space constraint is of particular interest as it has been shown that bacteria do not prosper in compacted clay. An evaluation of the different types of French medium and high level waste, in a clay-rich host rock storage environment at a depth between 500 and 600 m, has shown that the bituminous waste is the most likely candidate to accommodate significant microbial activity. The waste consists of a mixture of bitumen (source of bio-available organic matter and H2 as a consequence of its degradation and radiolysis) and nitrates and sulphates kept in a stainless steel container. The assumption, that microbes only have an impact on reaction kinetics needs to be reassessed in the case where nitrates and sulphates are present since both are known not to react at low temperatures without bacterial catalysis. The additional impact of both oxy-anions and their reduced species on redox conditions, radionuclide speciation and mobility gives this evaluation their particular relevance. Storage architecture proposes four primary waste containers positioned into armoured cement over packs and placed with others into the waste storage cell itself composed of a cement mantle enforcing the argillite host rock, the latter being characterized by an excavation damaged zone constricted both in space and in time and a pristine part of 60 m thickness. Bacterial activity within the waste and within the pristine argillite is disregarded because of the low water activity (colonies is the high pH controlled by the cement solution. Archea are able to survive at high pH, when hydrogen gas is available as an energy sources; they are therefore likely candidates

  12. Social scientist on board in long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parotte, C.

    2013-01-01

    In Belgium, the long-term management of radioactive waste is under the exclusive competence of the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (knew as ONDRAF/NIRAS). Unlike low-level waste, no institutional policy has yet been formally approved for the long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste (knew as B and C waste). In this context, ONDRAF/NIRAS considers the public and stakeholders' participation as an essential factor in the formulation of an effective and legitimate policy. This is why it has decided to integrate them in different ways during the elaboration of the Waste Plan (ONDRAF/NIRAS-document containing guidelines to make a principled policy decision about nuclear waste management). To do so, social scientists have been regularly mobilized either as external evaluators, follow-up committee members, or participatory observants. Hence, the Waste Plan is only the first step in a long decision-making process. For a PhD student under contract with ONDRAF/NIRAS, this mandate consists of thinking out a way to construct an inter-organizational innovative communication system that would be participative, transparent and embedded in a long-term perspective, thus integrating all the further legal steps to take throughout the decision-making process. In this regard, two paradoxical constraints must be taken into account: on the one hand, my own influence on the legal decision-making process should remain limited, because of a series of constraints, lock-ins and previous decisions which have to be respected; on the other hand, ONDRAF/NIRAS expects the research conclusions to be policy relevant and useful. In this paper, the purpose is twofold. Firstly, the issues raised by this policy mandate is an opportunity to question the per-formative dimensions of the social scientist in the decision-making process and, more specifically, to have a reflexive view on our position as PhD Student. Secondly, assuming the

  13. 2005 dossier. ANDRA's researches on the geological disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes. Results and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    This document makes a status of the researches carried out by the French national agency of radioactive wastes (ANDRA) about the geologic disposal of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes in deep geologic formations (argilites and granites). Content: 1 - Research on deep disposal of radioactive waste: general interest task: Legislative framework, ANDRA scientific objectives, Inspections and assessments; 2 - Designing a safe and reversible disposal system: Repository safety, Reversibility: an essential requirement; 3 - Clay Research on a repository in a clay formation, A long research programme, Dossier 2005 Argile; 4 - Meuse/Haute-Marne site clay: Expected properties of the rock formation, Choice of argillite, Meuse/Haute-Marne site, Conclusions from 10 years of research at the Meuse/Haute-Marne site; 5 - Repository installations: Safe and reversible architecture, Disposal of B waste, Disposal of C waste, Possible disposal of spent fuel (CU); 6 - The disposal facility in operation: From waste packages reception to their disposal in cells, Stages of the progressive closure of engineered structures; 7 - Reversible management: Freedom of choice for future generations, Various closure stages; 8 - Long-term evolution of the repository: Apprehending the repository complexity Main evolutions expected, Slow and limited release of radioactive substances; 9 - Repository safety and impact on man: Several evolution scenarios, Normal evolution, Altered evolution; 10 - Granite Research on a repository in a granite formation: A global approach, Scientific co-operations, Dossier 2005 Granite; 11 - Characteristics of French granite formations: What properties are required for a repository?, Different types of granite formations; 12 - Repository installations: Repository design adapted to granite fractures, Clay seals to prevent water flows, Waste disposal packages ensuring long-term leak-tightness, Physical and chemical environment favourable for waste packages, Architecture

  14. Social scientist on board in long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste in Belgium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parotte, C. [Spiral Research Center, Department of Political Sciences, Faculty of Law, University of Liege (Belgium)

    2013-07-01

    In Belgium, the long-term management of radioactive waste is under the exclusive competence of the Belgian Agency for Radioactive Waste and Enriched Fissile Materials (knew as ONDRAF/NIRAS). Unlike low-level waste, no institutional policy has yet been formally approved for the long-term management of high level and/or long-lived radioactive waste (knew as B and C waste). In this context, ONDRAF/NIRAS considers the public and stakeholders' participation as an essential factor in the formulation of an effective and legitimate policy. This is why it has decided to integrate them in different ways during the elaboration of the Waste Plan (ONDRAF/NIRAS-document containing guidelines to make a principled policy decision about nuclear waste management). To do so, social scientists have been regularly mobilized either as external evaluators, follow-up committee members, or participatory observants. Hence, the Waste Plan is only the first step in a long decision-making process. For a PhD student under contract with ONDRAF/NIRAS, this mandate consists of thinking out a way to construct an inter-organizational innovative communication system that would be participative, transparent and embedded in a long-term perspective, thus integrating all the further legal steps to take throughout the decision-making process. In this regard, two paradoxical constraints must be taken into account: on the one hand, my own influence on the legal decision-making process should remain limited, because of a series of constraints, lock-ins and previous decisions which have to be respected; on the other hand, ONDRAF/NIRAS expects the research conclusions to be policy relevant and useful. In this paper, the purpose is twofold. Firstly, the issues raised by this policy mandate is an opportunity to question the per-formative dimensions of the social scientist in the decision-making process and, more specifically, to have a reflexive view on our position as PhD Student. Secondly, assuming the

  15. A renewed search for short-lived 126Sn in the early Solar System: Hydride generation MC-ICPMS for high sensitivity Te isotopic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennecka, Gregory A.; Borg, Lars E.; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Souders, Amanda K.; Shollenberger, Quinn R.; Marks, Naomi E.; Wadhwa, Meenakshi

    2017-03-01

    Although there is limited direct evidence for supernova input into the nascent Solar System, many models suggest it formed by the gravitational collapse of a molecular cloud that was triggered by a nearby supernova. Existing lines of evidence, mostly in the form of short-lived radionuclides present in the early Solar System, are potentially consistent with this hypothesis, but still allow for alternative explanations. Since the natural production of 126Sn is thought to occur only in supernovae and this isotope has a short half-life (126Sn→126Te, t1/2 = 235 ky), the discovery of extant 126Sn would provide unequivocal proof of supernova input to the early Solar System. Previous attempts to quantify the initial abundance of 126Sn by examining Sn-Te systematics in early solids have been hampered by difficulties in precisely measuring Te isotope ratios in these materials. Thus, here we describe a novel technique that uses hydride generation to dramatically increase the ionization efficiency of Te-an approximately 30-fold increase over previous work. This introduction system, when coupled to a MC-ICPMS, enables high-precision Te isotopic analyses on samples with aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) that exhibit an exceptionally large range in Sn/Te ratios, facilitating the search for the short-lived isotope 126Sn. This sample set shows no evidence of live 126Sn, implying at most minor input of supernova material during the time at which the CAIs formed. However, based on the petrology of this sample set combined with the higher than expected concentrations of Sn and Te, as well as the lack of nucleosynthetic anomalies in other isotopes of Te suggest that the bulk of the Sn and Te recovered from these particular refractory inclusions is not of primary origin and thus does not represent a primary signature of Sn-Te systematics of the protosolar nebula during condensation of CAIs or their precursors. Although no evidence of supernova input was found based on Sn-Te systematics

  16. Creating dynamic images of short-lived dopamine fluctuations with lp-ntPET: dopamine movies of cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Evan D; Kim, Su Jin; Sullivan, Jenna M; Wang, Shuo; Normandin, Marc D; Constantinescu, Cristian C; Cosgrove, Kelly P

    2013-08-06

    We describe experimental and statistical steps for creating dopamine movies of the brain from dynamic PET data. The movies represent minute-to-minute fluctuations of dopamine induced by smoking a cigarette. The smoker is imaged during a natural smoking experience while other possible confounding effects (such as head motion, expectation, novelty, or aversion to smoking repeatedly) are minimized. We present the details of our unique analysis. Conventional methods for PET analysis estimate time-invariant kinetic model parameters which cannot capture short-term fluctuations in neurotransmitter release. Our analysis--yielding a dopamine movie--is based on our work with kinetic models and other decomposition techniques that allow for time-varying parameters. This aspect of the analysis--temporal-variation--is key to our work. Because our model is also linear in parameters, it is practical, computationally, to apply at the voxel level. The analysis technique is comprised of five main steps: pre-processing, modeling, statistical comparison, masking and visualization. Preprocessing is applied to the PET data with a unique 'HYPR' spatial filter that reduces spatial noise but preserves critical temporal information. Modeling identifies the time-varying function that best describes the dopamine effect on 11C-raclopride uptake. The statistical step compares the fit of our (lp-ntPET) model to a conventional model. Masking restricts treatment to those voxels best described by the new model. Visualization maps the dopamine function at each voxel to a color scale and produces a dopamine movie. Interim results and sample dopamine movies of cigarette smoking are presented.

  17. Determination of essential and trace elements in milk and measurement of short-lived nuclides using FIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, R.; Kalayoglu, S.; Unseren, E.; Grass, F.; Boeck, H.

    1988-01-01

    In the experiments, Gueluem, Sek and Pinar brand of bottled milks and Pinar milk powder which are commercially available were used. As standards IAEA Milk powder A-11, NBS-Orchard Leaves 1571 and for Cu single standard was used. Samples and standards were irradiated together in the central thimble of I.T.U. TRIGA Mark-II reactor for 1-8 hrs and for 60 sec in the fast pneumatic tube of TRIGA Reactor. Depending on the nuclear characteristics of the isotopes to be analyzed, they are counted at different counting times. The activities were measured with a high-purity Ge detector coupled to Canberra 90 model multichannel analyzer in the ITU. In order to determine short half-life nuclides a very fast irradiation and measuring system (FIMS) has been used. When the average values of the 16 elements are considered, it is observed that the amount of Na, As, Al, Mn, Zn, Rb , Co in the milk powder is greater than that of milk, where as in Pinar milk, which is a durable kind of milk, the amount of Na, K, Br, Al , As, Zn, Co is larger than that in daily milk. When daily products of different brands are compared, it was found that the quantity of Fe, Cr, Mg is higher while Cl, Sb, Zn, Rb, Co is less than that in Gueluem milk. The quantity of Cl is about 10 times as much and Mg 7 times less than in Sek milk. It was not possible to investigate how the seasons and the regions from where the milk was collected affect the quantity of the elements. It will be useful to continue the study in this field

  18. A report of the symposium on 'comprehensive research on the management of long-lived radioactive wastes' in the Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Akira; Naito, Keiji; Suzuki, Susumu; Furuya, Hirotaka; Sato, Masatomo.

    1983-01-01

    In the Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Tokyo, the special research project ''Comprehensive Research on the Management of Long-lived Radioactive WasΩtes'' is carried out in the three-year period from fiscal 1982 to 1984. In this connection, a symposium has been held on January 25, 1983. Seven lectures given by the respective speakers are summarized individually: (1) the research of transuranic elements in educational institutions, (2) an outline of the actinoid research facilities planned in Tohoku University, (3) the radiation damage and leachability of glass solids, (4) the situation and trend in Japan and abroad of the disposal of long-lived nuclide wastes, (5) practical site tests concerning the geologic-formation disposal of low-level wastes, (6) the trend in the research of geologic formations for the disposal of high-level wastes, (7) the safety in the management of long-lived radioactive wastes. (Mori, K.)

  19. Underground Architecture and Layout for the Belgian High-Level and Long-Lived Intermediate-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility- 12116

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cotthem, Alain [TRACTEBEL ENGINEERING SA (Belgium); Van Humbeeck, Hughes [ONDRAF/NIRAS (Belgium); Biurrun, Enrique [DBE TECHNOLOGY GmbH (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The underground architecture and layout of the proposed Belgian high-level (HLW) and long-lived, intermediate-level radioactive wastes (ILW-LL) disposal system (repository) is mainly based on lessons learned during the development and 30-year-long operation of an underground research laboratory (URL) ('HADES') located adjacent to the city of Mol at a depth of 225 m in a 100-m-thick, Tertiary clay formation; the Boom clay. The following main operational and safety challenges are addressed in the proposed architecture and layout: 1. Following excavation, the underground openings needed to be promptly supported to minimize the extent of the excavation damaged zone (EDZ). 2. The size and unsupported stand-up time at tunnel crossings/intersections also needed to be minimized to minimize the extent of the related EDZ. 3. Steel components had to be minimized to limit the related long-term (post-closure) corrosion and hydrogen production. 4. The shafts and all equipment had to go down through a 180-m-thick aquifer and handle up to 65-Ton payloads. 5. The shaft seals had to be placed in the underlying clay layer. The currently proposed layout minimizes the excavated volume based on strict long-term-safety criteria and optimizes operational safety. Operational safety is further enhanced by a remote-controlled waste-package-handling system transporting the waste packages from their respective surface location down to their respective disposal location with no intermediate operation. The related on-site preparation and thenceforth use of cement-based, waste package- transportation containers are integral operational-safety components. In addition to strengthening the waste packages and providing radiation protection, these containers also provide long-term corrosion protection of the internal 'primary' steel packages. (authors)

  20. Seasonal phenology of interactions involving short-lived annual plants, a multivoltine herbivore and its endoparasitoid wasp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Minghui; Gols, Rieta; Harvey, Jeffrey A

    2014-01-01

    Spatial-temporal realism is often missing in many studies of multitrophic interactions, which are conducted at a single time frame and/or involving interactions between insects with a single species of plant. In this scenario, an underlying assumption is that the host-plant species is ubiquitous throughout the season and that the insects always interact with it. We studied interactions involving three naturally occurring wild species of cruciferous plants, Brassica rapa, Sinapis arvensis and Brassica nigra, that exhibit different seasonal phenologies, and a multivoltine herbivore, the large cabbage white butterfly, Pieris brassicae, and its gregarious endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia glomerata. The three plants have very short life cycles. In central Europe, B. rapa grows in early spring, S. arvensis in late spring and early summer, and B. nigra in mid to late summer. P. brassicae generally has three generations per year, and C. glomerata at least two. This means that different generations of the insects must find and exploit different plant species that may differ in quality and which may be found some distance from one another. Insects were either reared on each of the three plant species for three successive generations or shifted between generations from B. rapa to S. arvensis to B. nigra. Development time from neonate to pupation and pupal fresh mass were determined in P. brassicae and egg-to-adult development time and body mass in C. glomerata. Overall, herbivores performed marginally better on S. arvensis and B. nigra plants than on B. rapa plants. Parasitoids performance was closely tailored with that of the host. Irrespective as to whether the insects were shifted to a new plant in successive generations or not, development time of P. brassicae and C. glomerata decreased dramatically over time. Our results show that there were some differences in insect development on different plant species and when transferred from one species to another. However, all three

  1. Strategies to reduce short-chain organic acids and synchronously establish high-rate composting in acidic household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergersen, Ove; Bøen, Anne S; Sørheim, Roald

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document whether addition of lime or increased amount of bulking agent would ensure, efficiently, a predictable composting process in acidic SSOW applicable in full scale plants. The results show that both lime addition and increasing the amount of bulking agent relative to waste support the development of high-rate respiration in composting. Both strategies are considered efficient in establishing desired microbial composting processes of acid household waste. Reduction in the content of different organic acids and loss on ignition were higher when more bulking agent was used compared with adding 5% lime to the acidic SSOW. Respiration was completely repressed in samples with 10% lime, where pH remained high. In addition fat and protein seem to degrade faster with increasing amount of bulking agent.

  2. Public debate on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The definition and implementation of safe and perennial solutions for the management of radioactive wastes is a necessity from the point of view of both the nuclear industrialists and the public authorities, but also of the overall French citizens. For the low- or medium-level or short living radioactive wastes, some solutions have been defined are are already implemented. On the other hand, no decision has been taken so far for the long living medium to high-level radioactive wastes. Researches are in progress in this domain according to 3 ways of research defined by the law from December 30, 1991: separation-transmutation, disposal in deep underground, and long duration surface or sub-surface storage. This paper presents in a digest way, the principle, the results obtained so far, and the perspectives of each of the three solutions under study. (J.S.)

  3. Radioactive waste management in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussat, A.

    1988-01-01

    Solutions for radioactive waste management are already in existence and applied on an industrial scale for short-lived wastes. France has acquired an aknowledged expertise on the international level and several foreign contemporaries are interested in the relevant techniques developed. An intensive international cooperation has allowed to define bases for an underground deep repository for long-lived wastes. It is therefore important to choose a site which meets the expected storage conditions. This development work has been started in several countries in a similar way and which should be completed by the beginning of the next century. An 'open channel' with the public about this emotional topic can smooth the way for solutions by which mankind can master its technological challenges

  4. Formation of short-lived positron emitters in reactions of protons of energies up to 200 MeV with the target elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen

    CERN Document Server

    Kettern, K; Qaim, S M; Shubin, Yu N; Steyn, G F; Van der Walt, T N; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.02.007

    2004-01-01

    Excitation functions were measured by the stacked-foil technique for proton induced reactions on carbon, nitrogen and oxygen leading to the formation of the short-lived positron emitters /sup 11/C (T/sub 1 /2/=20.38 min) and /sup 13/N (T/sub 1/2/=9.96 min). The energy region covered extended up to 200 MeV. The product activity was measured non-destructively via gamma -ray spectrometry. A careful decay curve analysis of the positron annihilation radiation was invariably performed. The experimental results were compared with theoretical data obtained using the modified hybrid nuclear model code ALICE-IPPE for intermediate energies. The agreement was found to be generally satisfactory. The data are of importance in proton therapy.

  5. Measurement of (n, p) reaction cross sections for short-lived products (T1/2=0.6-13.8 s) by 14 MeV neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasugai, Yoshimi; Ikeda, Yujiro; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    Activation cross sections of the (n, p) reactions at 14 MeV for short-lived products were measured by using the D-T neutrons source, FNS (Fusion Neutronics Source) at JAERI. Measured reactions were 11 B(n, p) 11 Be(T 1/2 =13.8 s), 18 O(n, p) 18 N(0.63 s), 26 Mg(n, p) 26 Na(1.07 s), 30 Si(n, p) 30 Al(3.60 s) and 34 S(n, p) 34 S(12.4 s). Using the present results, systematic trend of the (n, p) reaction cross sections for light-mass-targets was discussed. (author)

  6. Fission rate measurements in spent fuel via Gamma-Ray spectrometry of short-lived fission products induced in a zero power reactor - 071

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krohnert, H.; Perret, G.; Murphy, M.F.; Chawla, R.

    2010-01-01

    A new measurement technique is being developed to determine fission rates in fresh and spent power reactor fuel following irradiation in a zero-power research reactor. The technique is required for the future experimental program LIFE'at'PROTEUS, one goal of the program being the investigation of power profiles across fresh and burnt fuel interfaces typical of a newly reloaded power reactor. In order to discriminate against the intrinsic activity of spent fuel, the approach described here uses high-energy γ-rays (above 2200 keV) emitted by freshly produced short-lived fission products. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a technique, fresh and spent UO 2 fuel samples with nominal burn-ups of 0, 36, 46 and 64 GWd/t were irradiated in the PROTEUS reactor and their γ-ray activities were recorded directly after the irradiations. For the first time, following irradiation in a zero-power research reactor, it was possible to compare the freshly induced short-lived γ-ray activity from spent fuel samples having high intrinsic γ-ray backgrounds with corresponding activities induced in fresh fuel. In this paper, first results of derived fission rate ratios between a fresh and a 36 GWd/t spent sample based on four high-energy peaks ( 142 La (2542 keV), 89 Rb (2570 keV), 138 Cs (2640 keV) and 95 Y (3576 keV)) are presented. The measured fission rate ratios from the various fission products agree within 1-2 standard deviations, the 1σ uncertainties being ∼2.5 - 4.5%. At the current state of analysis, calculated and measured fission rate ratios agree within 1-2σ, but a bias of about 4% could be observed. (authors)

  7. 182Hf–182W age dating of a 26Al-poor inclusion and implications for the origin of short-lived radioisotopes in the early Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holst, Jesper C.; Olsen, Mia B.; Paton, Chad; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Schiller, Martin; Wielandt, Daniel; Larsen, Kirsten K.; Connelly, James N.; Jørgensen, Jes K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nordlund, Åke; Bizzarro, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Refractory inclusions [calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions, (CAIs)] represent the oldest Solar System solids and provide information regarding the formation of the Sun and its protoplanetary disk. CAIs contain evidence of now extinct short-lived radioisotopes (e.g., 26Al, 41Ca, and 182Hf) synthesized in one or multiple stars and added to the protosolar molecular cloud before or during its collapse. Understanding how and when short-lived radioisotopes were added to the Solar System is necessary to assess their validity as chronometers and constrain the birthplace of the Sun. Whereas most CAIs formed with the canonical abundance of 26Al corresponding to 26Al/27Al of ∼5 × 10−5, rare CAIs with fractionation and unidentified nuclear isotope effects (FUN CAIs) record nucleosynthetic isotopic heterogeneity and 26Al/27Al of radioisotopes. However, their chronology is unknown. Using the 182Hf–182W chronometer, we show that a FUN CAI recording a condensation origin from a solar gas formed coevally with canonical CAIs, but with 26Al/27Al of ∼3 × 10−6. The decoupling between 182Hf and 26Al requires distinct stellar origins: steady-state galactic stellar nucleosynthesis for 182Hf and late-stage contamination of the protosolar molecular cloud by a massive star(s) for 26Al. Admixing of stellar-derived 26Al to the protoplanetary disk occurred during the epoch of CAI formation and, therefore, the 26Al–26Mg systematics of CAIs cannot be used to define their formation interval. In contrast, our results support 182Hf homogeneity and chronological significance of the 182Hf–182W clock. PMID:23671077

  8. The transcript catalogue of the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri provides insights into age-dependent changes of mRNA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Andreas; Reichwald, Kathrin; Groth, Marco; Taudien, Stefan; Hartmann, Nils; Priebe, Steffen; Shagin, Dmitry; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias

    2013-03-16

    The African annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri has over recent years been established as a model species for ageing-related studies. This is mainly based on its exceptionally short lifespan and the presence of typical characteristics of vertebrate ageing. To substantiate its role as an alternative vertebrate ageing model, a transcript catalogue is needed, which can serve e.g. as basis for identifying ageing-related genes. To build the N. furzeri transcript catalogue, thirteen cDNA libraries were sequenced using Sanger, 454/Roche and Solexa/Illumina technologies yielding about 39 Gb. In total, 19,875 protein-coding genes were identified and annotated. Of these, 71% are represented by at least one transcript contig with a complete coding sequence. Further, transcript levels of young and old fish of the strains GRZ and MZM-0403, which differ in lifespan by twofold, were studied by RNA-seq. In skin and brain, 85 differentially expressed genes were detected; these have a role in cell cycle control and proliferation, inflammation and tissue maintenance. An RNA-seq experiment for zebrafish skin confirmed the ageing-related relevance of the findings in N. furzeri. Notably, analyses of transcript levels between zebrafish and N. furzeri but also between N. furzeri strains differed largely, suggesting that ageing is accelerated in the short-lived N. furzeri strain GRZ compared to the longer-lived strain MZM-0403. We provide a comprehensive, annotated N. furzeri transcript catalogue and a first transcriptome-wide insight into N. furzeri ageing. This data will serve as a basis for future functional studies of ageing-related genes.

  9. Low interannual precipitation has a greater negative effect than seedling herbivory on the population dynamics of a short-lived shrub,Schiedea obovata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialic-Murphy, Lalasia; Gaoue, Orou G

    2018-01-01

    Climate projections forecast more extreme interannual climate variability over time, with an increase in the severity and duration of extreme drought and rainfall events. Based on bioclimatic envelope models, it is projected that changing precipitation patterns will drastically alter the spatial distributions and density of plants and be a primary driver of biodiversity loss. However, many other underlying mechanisms can impact plant vital rates (i.e., survival, growth, and reproduction) and population dynamics. In this study, we developed a size-dependent integral projection model (IPM) to evaluate how interannual precipitation and mollusk herbivory influence the dynamics of a Hawaii endemic short-lived shrub, Schiedea obovata (Caryophyllaceae). Assessing how wet season precipitation effects population dynamics it critical, as it is the timeframe when most of the foliar growth occurs, plants flower and fruit, and seedlings establish. Temporal variation in wet season precipitation had a greater effect than mollusk herbivory on S . obovata population growth rate λ, and the impact of interannual precipitation on vital rates shifted across plant ontogeny. Furthermore, wet season precipitation influenced multiple vital rates in contrasting ways and the effect of precipitation on the survival of larger vegetative and reproductively mature individuals contributed the most to variation in the population growth rate. Among all combination of wet season precipitation and herbivory intensities, the only scenario that led to a growing population was when high wet precipitation was associated with low herbivory. Our study highlights the importance of evaluating how abiotic factors and plant-consumer interactions influence an organism across its life cycle to fully understand the underpinning mechanisms that structure its spatial and temporal distribution and abundance. Our results also illustrate that for short-lived species, like S. obovata , seedling herbivory can have

  10. Measurements of Short Lived Gas Phase Pollutants during AN Anthropogenic Biomass Burning Event during Winter in Manchester, UK Using a Tof-Cims

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priestley, M.; Bannan, T.; le Breton, M.; Leather, K.; Bacak, A.; Villegas, E.; Khan, A.; Allan, J. D.; Shallcross, D. E.; Coe, H.; Percival, C.

    2017-12-01

    Anthropogenic biomass burning represents a significant source of short lived harmful gases that reduces air quality and is one of the least well constrained processes in air quality and climate modelling (Andreae & Merlet 2001). Guy Fawkes Night (bonfire night) is a regular event in the UK where open fires are lit. Previous gas phase studies of bonfire night have typically used offline techniques focusing on persistent organic pollutants. Here, the first simultaneous online gas phase measurements of short lived pollutants from mixed biomass and anthropogenic fuel types were made using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (TOF-CIMS) with the iodide reagent ion in November 2014 in Manchester, UK. We detected a suite of compounds including isocyanates, nitrates and amides. Ambient concentrations of hydrogen cyanide (HCN), isocyanic acid and methyl isocyanate increased from maximums of 132 ppt, 144 ppt and 327 ppt to peak plume concentrations of 1.2 ppb, 1.6 ppb and 4.3 ppb respectively. We used the 6 sigma approach to define the biomass plume using HCN as a tracer and find the [HNCO]/[CO] ratio definition of burning phase is applicable (Roberts et al. 2010). Flaming emission increased the normalised excess mixing ratio (NEMR) by a factor of 2-4 relative to smouldering emission and treating burning phases separately improved the average accuracy of the NEMR by 29%. References Andreae, M.O. & Merlet, P., 2001. Emission of trace gases and aerosols from biomass burning. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 15(4), pp.955-966. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000GB001382. Roberts, J.M. et al., 2010. Measurement of HONO, HNCO, and other inorganic acids by negative-ion proton-transfer chemical-ionization mass spectrometry (NI-PT-CIMS): Application to biomass burning emissions. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques, 3, pp.981-990.

  11. Short-Lived Antigen Recognition but Not Viral Infection at a Defined Checkpoint Programs Effector CD4 T Cells To Become Protective Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Bianca L; Devarajan, Priyadharshini; McKinstry, K Kai; Strutt, Tara M; Vong, Allen M; Jones, Michael C; Kuang, Yi; Mott, Daniel; Swain, Susan L

    2016-11-15

    Although memory CD4 T cells are critical for effective immunity to pathogens, the mechanisms underlying their generation are still poorly defined. We find that following murine influenza infection, most effector CD4 T cells undergo apoptosis unless they encounter cognate Ag at a defined stage near the peak of effector generation. Ag recognition at this memory checkpoint blocks default apoptosis and programs their transition to long-lived memory. Strikingly, we find that viral infection is not required, because memory formation can be restored by the addition of short-lived, Ag-pulsed APC at this checkpoint. The resulting memory CD4 T cells express an enhanced memory phenotype, have increased cytokine production, and provide protection against lethal influenza infection. Finally, we find that memory CD4 T cell formation following cold-adapted influenza vaccination is boosted when Ag is administered during this checkpoint. These findings imply that persistence of viral Ag presentation into the effector phase is the key factor that determines the efficiency of memory generation. We also suggest that administering Ag at this checkpoint may improve vaccine efficacy. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Tim-3 co-stimulation promotes short-lived effector T cells, restricts memory precursors, and is dispensable for T cell exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Lyndsay; Filderman, Jessica; Szymczak-Workman, Andrea L; Kane, Lawrence P

    2018-02-20

    Tim-3 is highly expressed on a subset of T cells during T cell exhaustion in settings of chronic viral infection and tumors. Using lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) Clone 13, a model for chronic infection, we found that Tim-3 was neither necessary nor sufficient for the development of T cell exhaustion. Nonetheless, expression of Tim-3 was sufficient to drive resistance to PD-L1 blockade therapy during chronic infection. Strikingly, expression of Tim-3 promoted the development of short-lived effector T cells, at the expense of memory precursor development, after acute LCMV infection. These effects were accompanied by increased Akt/mTOR signaling in T cells expressing endogenous or ectopic Tim-3. Conversely, Akt/mTOR signaling was reduced in effector T cells from Tim-3-deficient mice. Thus, Tim-3 is essential for optimal effector T cell responses, and may also contribute to exhaustion by restricting the development of long-lived memory T cells. Taken together, our results suggest that Tim-3 is actually more similar to costimulatory receptors that are up-regulated after T cell activation than to a dominant inhibitory protein like PD-1. These findings have significant implications for the development of anti-Tim-3 antibodies as therapeutic agents.

  13. Retrospective estimation of exposure to short-lived {sup 222}Rn progeny by measurements of {sup 210}Pb in the skull

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheler, R.; Dettmann, K.; Brose, J

    1998-07-01

    The inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its short-lived decay products results in the exposure of the respiratory tract followed by the skeletal deposition of {sup 210}Pb originating in the lung from {sup 214}Po. By measurement of the {sup 210}Pb activity in the skull it could be possible to estimate previous exposures for a known relationship between {sup 210}Pb content in the skeleton and exposure. The measurement technique consists of two arrays of low energy germanium detectors (LEGe) with a total active area of 8000 mm{sup 2} installed in a large shielded chamber. The interpretation of estimated {sup 210}Pb deposit in terms of exposure can be made by using 'conversion coefficients' K{sub E}(t{sub m}) for the relationship between the {sup 210}Pb activity A(t{sub m}) and cumulative exposure. The decision limit of {sup 210}Pb for the total skeleton in a counting time of 7200 s was estimated to be 17 Bq, or about 0.9 J.h.m{sup -3} (250 WLM) of exposure. The results of the first measurements of a group of individuals living in high radon prone areas show a good qualitative correspondence with the expected {sup 210}Pb content of the skeleton. (author)

  14. Leadership emergence over time in short-lived groups: Integrating expectations states theory with temporal person-perception and self-serving bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Yuval; Luria, Gil

    2016-10-01

    Research into leadership emergence typically focuses on the attributes of the emergent leader. By considering also the attributes of perceivers and the passage of time, we develop a more complete theory of leadership emergence in short-lived groups. Using expectation states theory as an overarching theoretical framework, and integrating it with the surface- and deep-level diversity literature and with theories of self-serving biases, we examine the predictors of leadership emergence in short timeframes. We conduct a field study in a military assessment boot camp (a pilot study, n = 60; and a main study, n = 89). We use cross-sectional and longitudinal exponential random graph models to analyze data on participants' abilities and on their perceptions of who, in their respective groups, were "leaders." We find that the criteria by which people perceive leadership in others change over time, from easily noticeable attributes to covert leadership-relevant attributes, and that people also rely on leadership-relevant attributes that they possess at high levels to inform their perceptions of leadership in others. The integration of expectation states theory, attribute salience over time and theories of self-serving bias is needed for a full understanding of leadership emergence in groups, because perceivers' own abilities are instrumental in shaping their perceptions of emergent leadership over time. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Project No. 4 - Waste incineration facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    There are currently 12000 m 3 of combustible waste stored at the Ignalina NPP site. It is estimated that by 2005 the volume will have increase to 15000 m 3 (filters, personnel protection, clothing and plastics). As a part of the preparation for the closure of the Ignalina NPP an incineration facility will be required to process combustible wastes to reduce the overall volume of short-lived radioactive wastes stored at the Ignalina NPP site, thus reducing the overall risk to the environment. Project activities includes the design, construction and commissioning of the proposed facility, including all licensing documentation

  16. A practical approach to the disposal of highly toxic and long-lived spent nuclear fuel waste between Venus and Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehricke, K.A.

    1983-01-01

    Extraterrestrial disposal, while not the only alternative, nevertheless assures definite and irreversible removal of the most toxic and long-lived waste from the biosphere. The disposal 'site' should lie at minimum safe transfer energy level. Primary candidate is the space between Venus and Earth. The number of propulsion phases should be a minimum, preferably only one. Lunar gravity assist can be helpful to achieve higher inclination of the heliocentric orbit relative to the ecliptic. Solidified spent fuel isotopes and actinides, sufficient to reduce the residual terrestrial waste to the radiation level of natural uranium deposits after 30 to 40 yr instead of 1000 to 1500 yr, is deposited into heliocentric orbits. Transportation systems, requirements, costs and the associated socio-economic benefit potentials of an environmentally more benign and a more vigorous nuclear power generation program are presented. Prior to solidification, an interim storage of 10 yr, following removal from the reactor, may be required. The Shuttle, with one Orbiter modified as Nuclear Waste Carrying Orbiter and an out of near-Earth orbit booster, provides a safe and economic transportation system at disposal mission costs from surface to disposal orbit of less than 0.5 cents/kWhe or <= 0.1 cent/kWhe depending on level of orbital operations. Details are discussed. (author)

  17. Evaluation of anaerobic digestion processes for short sludge-age waste activated sludge combined with anammox treatment of digestate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huoqing; Batstone, Damien; Keller, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce energy input and enhance energy recovery from wastewater is driving renewed interest in high-rate activated sludge treatment (i.e. short hydraulic and solids retention times (HRT and SRT, respectively)). This process generates short SRT activated sludge stream, which should be highly degradable. However, the evaluation of anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge has been limited. This paper assesses anaerobic digestion of short SRT sludge digestion derived from meat processing wastewater under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. The thermophilic digestion system (55°C) achieved 60 and 68% volatile solids destruction at 8 day and 10 day HRT, respectively, compared with 50% in the mesophilic digestion system (35°C, 10 day HRT). The digestion effluents from the thermophilic (8-10 day HRT) and mesophilic systems were stable, as assessed by residual methane potentials. The ammonia rich sludge dewatering liquor was effectively treated by a batch anammox process, which exhibited comparable nitrogen removal rate as the tests using a control synthetic ammonia solution, indicating that the dewatering liquor did not have inhibiting/toxic effects on the anammox activity.

  18. Delivery of halogenated very short-lived substances from the west Indian Ocean to the stratosphere during the Asian summer monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fiehn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLSs are naturally produced in the ocean and emitted to the atmosphere. When transported to the stratosphere, these compounds can have a significant influence on the ozone layer and climate. During a research cruise on RV Sonne in the subtropical and tropical west Indian Ocean in July and August 2014, we measured the VSLSs, methyl iodide (CH3I and for the first time bromoform (CHBr3 and dibromomethane (CH2Br2, in surface seawater and the marine atmosphere to derive their emission strengths. Using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model FLEXPART with ERA-Interim meteorological fields, we calculated the direct contribution of observed VSLS emissions to the stratospheric halogen burden during the Asian summer monsoon. Furthermore, we compare the in situ calculations with the interannual variability of transport from a larger area of the west Indian Ocean surface to the stratosphere for July 2000–2015. We found that the west Indian Ocean is a strong source for CHBr3 (910 pmol m−2 h−1, very strong source for CH2Br2 (930 pmol m−2 h−1, and an average source for CH3I (460 pmol m−2 h−1. The atmospheric transport from the tropical west Indian Ocean surface to the stratosphere experiences two main pathways. On very short timescales, especially relevant for the shortest-lived compound CH3I (3.5 days lifetime, convection above the Indian Ocean lifts oceanic air masses and VSLSs towards the tropopause. On a longer timescale, the Asian summer monsoon circulation transports oceanic VSLSs towards India and the Bay of Bengal, where they are lifted with the monsoon convection and reach stratospheric levels in the southeastern part of the Asian monsoon anticyclone. This transport pathway is more important for the longer-lived brominated compounds (17 and 150 days lifetime for CHBr3 and CH2Br2. The entrainment of CHBr3 and CH3I from the west Indian Ocean to the stratosphere during the

  19. Clay 2001 dossier: progress report on feasibility studies and research into deep geological disposal of high-level, long-lived waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    A French Act of Parliament passed on 30 December 1991 set out the main areas of research required to prepare solutions for the long-term management of high-level, long-lived radioactive waste. The three avenues of research listed in the Act included a feasibility study of the deep geological disposal of these waste, with responsibility for steering the study given to ANDRA, France National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management. Following government decisions taken in 1998, the study focused on two types of geological medium, clay and granite. The clay formations study is essentially based on results from an underground laboratory sited at the border between the Meuse and Haute-Marne departments, where the Callovo-Oxfordian argillite beds are being investigated. No site has yet been chosen for an underground laboratory for the granite study, so for the time being this will draw on generic work and on research carried out in laboratories outside France. ANDRA has decided to present an initial report on the results of its research programme, publishing a dossier on the work on clay formations in 2001 with a second dossier covering the work on granite due for release in 2002. This dossier is thus a review of the work carried out by ANDRA on the feasibility study into a radioactive waste repository in a clay formation. It represents one step in a process of studies and research work leading up to the submission of a report due in 2005 containing ANDRA conclusions on the feasibility of a repository in the clay formation. (author)

  20. Log live high activity radioactive wastes / Researches and results law of the 30 December 1991. Separation and transmutation of long lived radionuclides; Les dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue / recherches et resultats Loi du 30 decembre 1991. Separation et transmutation des radionucleides a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-12-15

    The law of the 30 December 1991 on the high activity long lived radioactive wastes reached the end. This synthesis final document presents the scientific and technological results, obtained still the end of 2005, on the separation and the transmutation of long lived radionuclides of high activity long lived radioactive wastes. It is organized in five chapters: a presentation of the context and the historical aspects, the researches, the objectives and the strategy of the axis 1, the researches results on the advanced separation, the researches results on the transmutation, the scenario of separation-transmutation and their environmental, technical and economical impacts. (A.L.B.)

  1. The patterning of test scores of children living in proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site who are classified as neurologically impaired

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licata, L.

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the pattern of impairment on test scores of the neurologically impaired children and proximity to an inactive toxic waste disposal site. Subjects (N = 147) were students, ages 6-16, classified as neurologically impaired. Seventy-six who lived within six miles of the site served as the experimental group and 71 who did not live near a site comprised the control group. Research was based on existing data available through the Child Study Team evaluation process. Attention was given to the ACID cluster of the WISC-R, the Arithmetic and Reading subtests on the WRAT, and the Koppitz scores of the Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test. No significant difference was found between the experimental and control groups. Sex differences within the experimental group were not significant. Time of exposure and patterning of scores in the experimental group were investigated. Time had a significant main effect on WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtests, the ACID cluster and the Bender Test for the total group. Main effect for sex was significant for the WISC-R Information subtest. An interaction effect was found to be significant on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest WRAT. The longer the girls lived within the site area the lower they scored on the WISC-R Information subtest and the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The variable exposure (interaction of distance and time) was related to lower scores on the WISC-R Arithmetic and Digit Span subtest. A two-way interaction was found on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. The longer the females were exposed to the waste site area, the lower they scored on the WRAT Arithmetic subtest. A comparison of those children in the site area from birth and those in the area three years prior to the evaluation was done. A significant main effect was found for the Bender Gestalt.

  2. Radioactive wastes: sources, treatment, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    Sources, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes are analyzed in an attempt to place a consideration of the problem of permanent disposal at the level of established or easily attainable technology. In addition to citing the natural radioactivity present in the biosphere, the radioactive waste generated at each phase of the fuel cycle (mills, fabrication plants, reactors, reprocessing plants) is evaluated. The three treatment processes discussed are preliminary storage to permit decay of the short-lived radioisotopes, solidification of aqueous wastes, and partitioning the long-lived α emitters for separate and long-term storage. Dispersion of radioactive gases to the atmosphere is already being done, and storage in geologically stable structures such as salt mines is under active study. The transmutation of high-level wastes appears feasible in principle, but exceedingly difficult to develop

  3. Accidents at work and living conditions among solid waste segregators in the open dump of Distrito Federal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefel, Maria da Graça; Carneiro, Fernando Ferreira; Santos, Leonor Maria Pacheco; Gubert, Muriel Bauerman; Amate, Elisa Maria; dos Santos, Wallace

    2013-09-01

    The work of recycling solid waste segregators allows a precarious livelihood, but triggers a disease process that exacerbates their health and well-being. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of occupational accidents at the open dump in the Federal District and its associated factors. Most segregators have had an accident at work (55.5%), perceived the danger of their working environment (95.0%) and claimed they did not receive personal protective equipment (51.7%). Among other findings, 55.8% ate foods found in the trash, 50.0% experienced food insecurity at home and 44.8% received Bolsa Família. There was a statistically significant relationship between work accidents and perception of dangerous work environment, household food insecurity and the presence of fatigue, stress or sadness (p accidents (p accidents than men (p < 0.025). We conclude that the solid waste segregators constitute a vulnerable community, not only from the perspective of labor, but also from the social and environmental circumstances. To reverse this situation, effective implementation of the National Policy of Solid Wastes is imperative, in association with affirmative policies to grant economic emancipation for this population.

  4. Phosphorus and short-chain fatty acids recovery from waste activated sludge by anaerobic fermentation: Effect of acid or alkali pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liang; Zhang, Cheng; Hu, Hui; Liu, Jianyong; Duan, Tengfei; Luo, Jinghuan; Qian, Guangren

    2017-09-01

    Waste activated sludge (WAS) was pretreated by acid or alkali to enhance the anaerobic fermentation (AF) for phosphorus (P) and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) release into the liquid simultaneously. With acid pretreatment, the released total P concentration achieved 120mg/L, which was 71.4% higher than that with alkali pretreatment. In addition, alkali pretreatment enhanced organic P release with about 35.3% of organic P in the solid being converted to inorganic P, while little had changed with acid pretreatment. The results also showed that acid and alkali pretreatment enhanced SCFAs production by 15.3 and 12.5times, respectively. Acid pretreatment could be preferred for simultaneous recovery of P and SCFAs by AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 1. round table - Nuclear wastes and radioactive materials. 2. round table - risks linked with nuclear wastes and materials. 3. round table - the problem of long-term management of medium-high activity and long lived wastes. The process defined by the 1991 law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the debates of the first round table of Paris about the problems raised by nuclear wastes in the case of the geologic disposal option. Four families of questions have been tackled: 1 - the exhaustiveness of ANDRA's inventory, the solutions foreseen for the different types of wastes; 2 - the high-medium activity wastes and their processing; 3 - the management of non-reprocessed spent MOX fuels; 4 - the safety and security standards used and their establishment. Four presentations are attached to these proceedings and deal with: the measured and estimated inventory of all radioactive wastes; the inventory and management of radioactive wastes and the place of citizens; the point of view of the nuclear safety authority; conditioning and storage. (J.S.)

  6. Short-lived long non-coding RNAs as surrogate indicators for chemical exposure and LINC00152 and MALAT1 modulate their neighboring genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenori Tani

    Full Text Available Whole transcriptome analyses have revealed a large number of novel long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs. Although accumulating evidence demonstrates that lncRNAs play important roles in regulating gene expression, the detailed mechanisms of action of most lncRNAs remain unclear. We previously reported that a novel class of lncRNAs with a short half-life (t1/2 < 4 h in HeLa cells, termed short-lived non-coding transcripts (SLiTs, are closely associated with physiological and pathological functions. In this study, we focused on 26 SLiTs and nuclear-enriched abundant lncRNA, MALAT1(t1/2 of 7.6 h in HeLa cells in neural stem cells (NSCs derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, and identified four SLiTs (TUG1, GAS5, FAM222-AS1, and SNHG15 that were affected by the following typical chemical stresses (oxidative stress, heavy metal stress and protein synthesis stress. We also found the expression levels of LINC00152 (t1/2 of 2.1 h in NSCs, MALAT1 (t1/2 of 1.8 h in NSCs, and their neighboring genes were elevated proportionally to the chemical doses. Moreover, we confirmed that the overexpression of LINC00152 or MALAT1 upregulated the expressions of their neighboring genes even in the absence of chemical stress. These results reveal that LINC00152 and MALAT1 modulate their neighboring genes, and thus provide a deeper understanding of the functions of lncRNAs.

  7. Researches on the management of high activity and long-lived radioactive wastes. Axis 1 - separation-transmutation; Recherches sur la gestion des dechets radioactifs a haute activite et a vie longue. Axe 1 - separation-transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-11-15

    This document gathers the transparencies of seven presentations given at a technical workshop of the French nuclear energy society (SFEN) about the researches on separation-transmutation of high activity and long-lived radioactive wastes. The presentations deal with: inventory and radiotoxicity of the rad-wastes in concern; industrial experience; experience on chemical separation: molecules and processes; reactors physics and transmutation - reactors for transmutation; fuels and targets; scenarios that include transmutation; environmental impacts of these different scenarios. (J.S.)

  8. Health risks for the population living in the vicinity of an Integrated Waste Management Facility: Screening environmental pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingo, José L., E-mail: joseluis.domingo@urv.cat [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Rovira, Joaquim [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain); Vilavert, Lolita; Nadal, Martí [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Figueras, María J. [Microbiology Unit, School of Medicine, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Schuhmacher, Marta [Laboratory of Toxicology and Environmental Health, School of Medicine, IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Sant Llorenç 21, 43201 Reus, Catalonia (Spain); Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Av. Països Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2015-06-15

    We performed a screening investigation to assess the human health risks of the Integrated Waste Management Facility (IWMF: mechanical–biological treatment (MBT) plant plus municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI); Ecoparc-3) of Barcelona (Spain). Air concentrations of pollutants potentially released by the MBT plant (VOCs and bioaerosols) and the MSWI (trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs) were determined. Trace elements, PCDD/Fs and PCBs were also analyzed in soil samples. The concentrations of trace elements and bioaerosols were similar to those previously reported in other areas of similar characteristics, while formaldehyde was the predominant VOC. Interestingly, PCDD/F concentrations in soil and air were the highest ever reported near a MSWI in Catalonia, being maximum concentrations 10.8 ng WHO-TEQ/kg and 41.3 fg WHO-TEQ/m{sup 3}, respectively. In addition, there has not been any reduction in soils, even after the closure of a power plant located adjacently. Human health risks of PCDD/F exposure in the closest urban nucleus located downwind the MSWI are up to 10-times higher than those nearby other MSWIs in Catalonia. Although results must be considered as very preliminary, they are a serious warning for local authorities. We strongly recommend to conduct additional studies to confirm these findings and, if necessary, to implement measures to urgently mitigate the impact of the MSWI on the surrounding environment. We must also state the tremendous importance of an individual evaluation of MSWIs, rather than generalizing their environmental and health risks. - Highlights: • Health risks of an Integrated Waste Management Facility in Catalonia are assessed. • PCDD/F exposure near this facility is up to 10-times higher than that near others. • Environmental monitoring of incineration plants should be performed case-by-case. • Since results are very preliminary, confirmatory studies should be conducted.

  9. The new ICRP recommendations on radiological protection in geological disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lochard, Jacques; Schneider, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste management has been the subject of several recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) since 1985. The aim of the new Publication 122 (2013) is to describe how the 2007 general recommendations of the Commission (Publication 103) can be applied in the context of geological disposal. For this purpose, it is important to emphasise that the new approach developed by ICRP is based on three types of exposure situations: planned, emergency and existing: - Planned exposure situations correspond to situations where exposures result from the operation of deliberately introduced sources. Exposures can be planned and fully controlled. - Emergency exposure situations correspond to situations where exposures result from the loss of control of a source within a planned exposure, or from an unexpected situation (e.g. malevolent event). These situations require urgent actions to prevent or mitigate exposures. - Existing exposure situations correspond to situations where exposures result from sources that already exist when decisions are taken to control them. The characterisation of exposure is therefore a prerequisite for their control. The application of the three basic radiological protection principles - justification, optimisation of protection and limitation of individual doses - are therefore considered in this new framework with justification and optimisation applying to the three types of exposure situations and limitation only to planned exposure situations. The main points highlighted in Publication 122 for the application of the system of radiological protection to geological disposal of long-life solid radioactive waste are summarized

  10. Decreased Temperature Facilitates Short-Term Sea Star Wasting Disease Survival in the Keystone Intertidal Sea Star Pisaster ochraceus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren T Kohl

    Full Text Available An extensive 2013 mass mortality event along the West Coast of North America due to Sea Star Wasting Disease (SSWD has affected at least 20 species of sea stars. Among environmental factors potentially contributing to the timing of the current outbreak, increased coastal water temperatures are hypothesized to have contributed to previous and current outbreaks of SSWD. With a laboratory experiment, we tested whether cooler temperatures, similar to average winter temperatures, compared to average summer temperatures could slow the progression of morbidity or prevent SSWD mortality entirely in Pisaster ochraceus. Sea stars housed in cooler water progressed through SSWD states more slowly than sea stars housed at summer temperatures. However, the cooler temperature did not prevent SSWD mortality, and all stars died of the disease. Our data are consistent with experimental studies and field observations during previous and current outbreaks, and support the hypothesis that changes in coastal water temperatures have influenced one of the largest disease related mass mortality events in our oceans.

  11. Decreased Temperature Facilitates Short-Term Sea Star Wasting Disease Survival in the Keystone Intertidal Sea Star Pisaster ochraceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Warren T; McClure, Timothy I; Miner, Benjamin G

    2016-01-01

    An extensive 2013 mass mortality event along the West Coast of North America due to Sea Star Wasting Disease (SSWD) has affected at least 20 species of sea stars. Among environmental factors potentially contributing to the timing of the current outbreak, increased coastal water temperatures are hypothesized to have contributed to previous and current outbreaks of SSWD. With a laboratory experiment, we tested whether cooler temperatures, similar to average winter temperatures, compared to average summer temperatures could slow the progression of morbidity or prevent SSWD mortality entirely in Pisaster ochraceus. Sea stars housed in cooler water progressed through SSWD states more slowly than sea stars housed at summer temperatures. However, the cooler temperature did not prevent SSWD mortality, and all stars died of the disease. Our data are consistent with experimental studies and field observations during previous and current outbreaks, and support the hypothesis that changes in coastal water temperatures have influenced one of the largest disease related mass mortality events in our oceans.

  12. Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting Short-lived Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. V. Nonisothermal Collapse Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Alan P.

    2017-08-01

    Recent meteoritical analyses support an initial abundance of the short-lived radioisotope (SLRI) 60Fe that may be high enough to require nucleosynthesis in a core-collapse supernova, followed by rapid incorporation into primitive meteoritical components, rather than a scenario where such isotopes were inherited from a well-mixed region of a giant molecular cloud polluted by a variety of supernovae remnants and massive star winds. This paper continues to explore the former scenario, by calculating three-dimensional, adaptive mesh refinement, hydrodynamical code (FLASH 2.5) models of the self-gravitational, dynamical collapse of a molecular cloud core that has been struck by a thin shock front with a speed of 40 km s-1, leading to the injection of shock front matter into the collapsing cloud through the formation of Rayleigh-Taylor fingers at the shock-cloud intersection. These models extend the previous work into the nonisothermal collapse regime using a polytropic approximation to represent compressional heating in the optically thick protostar. The models show that the injection efficiencies of shock front materials are enhanced compared to previous models, which were not carried into the nonisothermal regime, and so did not reach such high densities. The new models, combined with the recent estimates of initial 60Fe abundances, imply that the supernova triggering and injection scenario remains a plausible explanation for the origin of the SLRIs involved in the formation of our solar system.

  13. Triggering Collapse of the Presolar Dense Cloud Core and Injecting Short-lived Radioisotopes with a Shock Wave. V. Nonisothermal Collapse Regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boss, Alan P., E-mail: aboss@carnegiescience.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, 5241 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015-1305 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Recent meteoritical analyses support an initial abundance of the short-lived radioisotope (SLRI) {sup 60}Fe that may be high enough to require nucleosynthesis in a core-collapse supernova, followed by rapid incorporation into primitive meteoritical components, rather than a scenario where such isotopes were inherited from a well-mixed region of a giant molecular cloud polluted by a variety of supernovae remnants and massive star winds. This paper continues to explore the former scenario, by calculating three-dimensional, adaptive mesh refinement, hydrodynamical code (FLASH 2.5) models of the self-gravitational, dynamical collapse of a molecular cloud core that has been struck by a thin shock front with a speed of 40 km s{sup −1}, leading to the injection of shock front matter into the collapsing cloud through the formation of Rayleigh–Taylor fingers at the shock–cloud intersection. These models extend the previous work into the nonisothermal collapse regime using a polytropic approximation to represent compressional heating in the optically thick protostar. The models show that the injection efficiencies of shock front materials are enhanced compared to previous models, which were not carried into the nonisothermal regime, and so did not reach such high densities. The new models, combined with the recent estimates of initial {sup 60}Fe abundances, imply that the supernova triggering and injection scenario remains a plausible explanation for the origin of the SLRIs involved in the formation of our solar system.

  14. Transport of short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P) to the Himalayas during the South Asian summer monsoon onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristofanelli, P; Putero, D; Landi, T C; Marinoni, A; Duchi, R; Calzolari, F; Bonasoni, P; Adhikary, B; Stocchi, P; Verza, G; Vuillermoz, E; Laj, P; Kang, S; Ming, J

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of six years (2006–2011), equivalent black carbon (eqBC), coarse aerosol mass (PM 1–10 ), and surface ozone (O 3 ), observed during the monsoon onset period at the Nepal Climate Observatory–Pyramid WMO/GAW Global Station (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.), were analyzed to investigate events characterized by a significant increase in these short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P). These events occurred during periods characterized by low (or nearly absent) rain precipitation in the central Himalayas, and they appeared to be related to weakening stages (or ‘breaking’) of the South Asian summer monsoon system. As revealed by the combined analysis of atmospheric circulation, air-mass three-dimensional back trajectories, and satellite measurements of atmospheric aerosol loading, surface open fire, and tropospheric NO x , the large amount of SLCF/P reaching the NCO-P appeared to be related to natural (mineral dust) and anthropogenic emissions occurring within the PBL of central Pakistan (i.e., Thar Desert), the Northwestern Indo-Gangetic plain, and the Himalayan foothills. The systematic occurrence of these events appeared to represent the most important source of SLCF/P inputs into the central Himalayas during the summer monsoon onset period, with possible important implications for the regional climate and for hydrological cycles. (letter)

  15. Y chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci in a representative group of males living in South Württemberg: a database for application in forensic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graw, M; Seitz, T

    2000-09-11

    In this study, we resolved the allelic distribution of three Y chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs), DYS19 (n=218), DYS390 (n=257) and DYS393 (n=215), in a population study of 257 unrelated men living in the area of South Wüerttemberg/Hohenzollern. In DYS19 and in DYS393, five different alleles were discovered, and in DYS390, six different alleles. Forty-nine different haplotypes were found in 202 unrelated male individuals. By investigating each of the three STR systems separately, the most powerful results were found in DYS390, with a PE (power of exclusion) of 0.74, followed by DYS19 (PE: 0.65) and DYS393 (PE: 0.47). Using a combination of two systems (n=202), the PEs ranged from 0.79 (DYS19 and DYS393) to 0.89 (DYS19 and DYS390). The combination of all three STR systems revealed a PE of 0.93.

  16. FORMATION OF THE SHORT-LIVED RADIONUCLIDE 36Cl IN THE PROTOPLANETARY DISK DURING LATE-STAGE IRRADIATION OF A VOLATILE-RICH RESERVOIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin Qingzhu; Matzel, Jennifer; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Ramon, Erick C.; Weber, Peter K.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Ishii, Hope A.; Ciesla, Fred J.

    2011-01-01

    Short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in the early solar system provide fundamental insight into protoplanetary disk evolution. We measured the 36 Cl- 36 S-isotope abundance in wadalite ( 36 Cl (τ 1/2 ∼ 3 x 10 5 yr) in the early solar system. Its presence, initial abundance, and the noticeable decoupling from 26 Al raise serious questions about the origin of SLRs. The inferred initial 36 Cl abundance for wadalite, corresponding to a 36 Cl/ 35 Cl ratio of (1.81 ± 0.13) x 10 -5 , is the highest 36 Cl abundance ever reported in any early solar system material. The high level of 36 Cl in wadalite and the absence of 26 Al ( 26 Al/ 27 Al ≤ 3.9 x 10 -6 ) in co-existing grossular (1) unequivocally support the production of 36 Cl by late-stage solar energetic particle irradiation in the protoplanetary disk and (2) indicates that the production of 36 Cl, recorded by wadalite, is unrelated to the origin of 26 Al and other SLRs ( 10 Be, 53 Mn) recorded by primary minerals of CAIs and chondrules. We infer that 36 Cl was largely produced by irradiation of a volatile-rich reservoir in an optically thin protoplanetary disk adjacent to the region in which the CV chondrite parent asteroid accreted while the Sun was a weak T Tauri star. Subsequently, 36 Cl accreted into the Allende CV chondrite together with condensed water ices.

  17. Estimation of tumour risk at low dose from experimental results after incorporation of short-lived bone-seeking alpha emitters 224Ra and 227Th in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luz, A.; Mueller, W.A.; Goessner, W.; Hug, O.

    1976-01-01

    As a revision of older and recent data of experimental bone-tumour induction in mice after single and repeated incorporation of short-lived 224 Ra and 227 Th, the following indications for estimation of tumour risk at low dose can be given. (1) Dose rate has considerable influence on tumour risk following internal irradiation, but the relative increase of risk with decreasing dose rate is dose dependent. (2) At a tumour risk of about 10% the range of incidence in repeated experiments is high. It therefore seems difficult to find the exact dose-effect relationships in low-risk experiments. (3) On the other hand, the lower incidence at lower dose level seems to be, rather, a risk of the second half of lifespan. In addition, the high range of the rate of spontaneously occurring neoplasms at greater age does not permit exact statements about the whole lifespan. (4) However, one can tentatively assume that it should be possible to find dose limits for the tumour risk during the first half of the lifespan. (5) Besides radiation dose, other cofactors may interfere at the low-dose and low-risk level. There is no significant decrease in osteosarcoma risk if the incorporation period starts after stunting of growth. The greater risk in female mice than in males indicates hormones as an example of cofactors for the pathogenesis of osteosarcoma. (author)

  18. Reaction dynamics. Extremely short-lived reaction resonances in Cl + HD (v = 1) → DCl + H due to chemical bond softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tiangang; Chen, Jun; Huang, Long; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Chunlei; Sun, Zhigang; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming; Zhang, Dong H

    2015-01-02

    The Cl + H2 reaction is an important benchmark system in the study of chemical reaction dynamics that has always appeared to proceed via a direct abstraction mechanism, with no clear signature of reaction resonances. Here we report a high-resolution crossed-molecular beam study on the Cl + HD (v = 1, j = 0) → DCl + H reaction (where v is the vibrational quantum number and j is the rotational quantum number). Very few forward scattered products were observed. However, two distinctive peaks at collision energies of 2.4 and 4.3 kilocalories per mole for the DCl (v' = 1) product were detected in the backward scattering direction. Detailed quantum dynamics calculations on a highly accurate potential energy surface suggested that these features originate from two very short-lived dynamical resonances trapped in the peculiar H-DCl (v' = 2) vibrational adiabatic potential wells that result from chemical bond softening. We anticipate that dynamical resonances trapped in such wells exist in many reactions involving vibrationally excited molecules. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Design and development of a computer-based continuous monitor for the determination of the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.

    1984-01-01

    A portable, rugged, monitor has been designed and built for measuring the short-lived decay products of radon and thoron. The monitor is computer-based and employs a continuous filter strip which can be advanced at programmable time intervals to allow unattended continuous operatin with automatic sampling, analysis and recording of radiation levels. Radionuclide analysis is carried out by two silicon diffused-junction alpha-detectors and electronic circuitry with multichannel spectral analysis capabilities. Standard gross α-count methods and α-spectroscopy methods can easily be implemented. The built-in computer performs a variety of operations via a specially designed interface module, including control and data recording functions, and computations, program storage and display functions. Programs and data are stored in the built-in casette tape drive and the computer integrated CRT display and keyboard allow simple, prompted menu-type operation of standard software. Graphical presentation of α-spectra can be shown on the computer CRT and printed when required on the computer built-in thermal printer. In addition, to implementing the specially developed radionuclide analysis software, the operator can interact and modify existing software, and program new ones, through BASIC language programming, or employ the computer in a totally unrelated, general purpose model. Although the monitor is ideally suited for environmental radon (thoron) daughter monitoring, it could also be used in the determination of other airborne radionuclides provided adequate analytical procedures are developed or included in the already existing computer software. (orig.)

  20. 'Sleeping reactor' irradiations. The use of a shut-down reactor for the determination of elements with short-lived activation products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jerde, E.A.; Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN; Glasgow, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis utilizing the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) immediately following SCRAM is a workable solution to obtaining data for ultra-short lived species, principally Al, Ti, Mg, and V. Neutrons are produced in the HFIR core within the beryllium reflector due to gamma-ray bombardment from the spent fuel elements. This neutron flux is not constant, varying by over two orders of magnitude during the first 24 hours. The problems associated with irradiation in a changing neutron flux are removed through the use of a specially tailored activation equation. This activation equation is applicable to any irradiation at HFIR in the firs 24 hours after SCRAM since the fuel elements are identical from cycle to cycle, and the gamma-emitting nuclides responsible for the neutrons reach saturation during the fuel cycle. Reference material tests demonstrate that this method is successful, and detection limit estimates reveal that it should be applicable to materials of widely ranging mass and composition. (author)

  1. Radiation protection principles as applied to the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste and protection of the public. Commentary of ICRP publication 81 and publication 82

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosako, Toshiso

    2001-01-01

    This commentary is for ICRP Publication 81 concerning the disposal of long-lived solid radioactive waste to which the Publication 82 giving theoretical basis for protection of the public exposed for a long period. The primary object for prevention is the public in this disposal, which is quite different from the concept hitherto where the object is the facility. The essential points in the prevention are the definition and direction for the protection of future generations, critical group, potential exposures, protection optimization, principles in the technology and management, consistency of the principle, and evidence of observance to radiological standards. Dose constraint of 0.3 mSv/y or 10 -5 risk, reasonable measures taken for reduction of probable human invasion of its influence and observance to technological and control principles are recommended. Publication 82 principally describes and discusses the reference level for intervention and dose limits to the public due to action.(K.H.)

  2. VESPA. Behaviour of long-lived fission and activation products in the nearfield of a nuclear waste repository and the possibilities of their retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischofer, Barbara; Hagemann, Sven [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Altmaier, Marcus [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) (Germany); and others

    2016-06-15

    The present document is the final report of the Joint Research Project VESPA (Behaviour of Long-lived Fission and Activation Products in the Near Field of a Nuclear Waste Repository and the Possibilities of Their Retention), started in July 2010 with a duration of four years. The following four institutions were collaborative Partners in VESPA: - Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH - Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung, IEK-6: Nukleare Entsorgung und Reaktorsicherheit, Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ) - Institut fuer Ressourcenoekologie (IRE), Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) - Institut fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT) VESPA was funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy (BMWi) under the contract numbers 02 E 10770 (GRS), 02 E 10780 (FZJ-IEF-6), 02 E 10790 (HZDR-IRE), 02 E 10800 (KIT-INE).

  3. Reduction of the radio-toxicity of long-lived nuclear wastes. Theoretical and strategic studies of the transmutation of minor actinides and fission products in electronuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, Stephanie

    1995-01-01

    The first objective of this research thesis is to establish an assessment of the current situation regarding long-lived nuclear wastes: their identification, quantities produced in electronuclear reactors and during the fuel cycle, and their toxicity on the long term (until millions of years). The author then proposes a synthesis of possible solutions of management, particularly the solution based on separation and transmutation of these materials in electronuclear reactors, as well as of the consequences on the core and fuel cycle parameters. An application study is performed on an electronuclear fleet which, according to different scenarios, may comprise Pressurised Water Reactors and Fast Breeder Reactors, in order to assess the opportunities and constraints of such a solution, as well as expected benefits on assessments regarding materials, activity and radio-toxicity on the long term while taking present technologies into account [fr

  4. The HILW-LL (high- and intermediate-level waste, long-lived) disposal project: working toward building the Cigeo Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labalette, Th.

    2011-01-01

    The French Act of 28 June 2006 identifies reversible disposal in deep geological facilities as the benchmark solution for long-term management of high-level waste (HLW) and for intermediate-level long-lived waste (ILW-LL). The Act tasks ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) with the pursuit of studies and research on the choice of a site and the design of the repository, with a view to examining the licence application in 2015 and, provided that the licence is granted, to make the facility operational by 2025. At the end of 2009, ANDRA submitted to the Government its proposals regarding the site and the design of the Industrial Centre for Geological Disposal, known as CIGEO. With the definition of a possible area for the construction of underground disposal facilities, one of the key stages in the project has been achieved. The choice of a surface site will be validated following the public consultation scheduled for the end of 2012. The project is now on the point of entering the definition stage (preliminary design). CIGEO will be a nuclear facility unlike any other. It will be built and operated for a period of over 100 years. For it to be successful, the project must meet certain requirements related to its integration in the local area, industrial planning, safety and reversibility, while also controlling costs. Reversibility is a very important concept that will be defined by law. It is ANDRA's responsibility to ensure that a reasonable balance is found between these different concerns. (author)

  5. France's State of the Art Distributed Optical Fibre Sensors Qualified for the Monitoring of the French Underground Repository for High Level and Intermediate Level Long Lived Radioactive Wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delepine-Lesoille, Sylvie; Girard, Sylvain; Landolt, Marcel; Bertrand, Johan; Planes, Isabelle; Boukenter, Aziz; Marin, Emmanuel; Humbert, Georges; Leparmentier, Stéphanie; Auguste, Jean-Louis; Ouerdane, Youcef

    2017-06-13

    This paper presents the state of the art distributed sensing systems, based on optical fibres, developed and qualified for the French Cigéo project, the underground repository for high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive wastes. Four main parameters, namely strain, temperature, radiation and hydrogen concentration are currently investigated by optical fibre sensors, as well as the tolerances of selected technologies to the unique constraints of the Cigéo's severe environment. Using fluorine-doped silica optical fibre surrounded by a carbon layer and polyimide coating, it is possible to exploit its Raman, Brillouin and Rayleigh scattering signatures to achieve the distributed sensing of the temperature and the strain inside the repository cells of radioactive wastes. Regarding the dose measurement, promising solutions are proposed based on Radiation Induced Attenuation (RIA) responses of sensitive fibres such as the P-doped ones. While for hydrogen measurements, the potential of specialty optical fibres with Pd particles embedded in their silica matrix is currently studied for this gas monitoring through its impact on the fibre Brillouin signature evolution.

  6. Progress on the national low level radioactive waste repository and national intermediate level waste store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, C.

    2003-01-01

    The Australian Government is committed to establishing two purpose-built facilities for the management of Australia's radioactive waste; the national repository for disposal of low level and short-lived intermediate level ('low level') waste, and the national store for storage of long-lived intermediate level ('intermediate level') waste. It is strongly in the interests of public security and safety to secure radioactive waste by disposal or storage in facilities specially designed for this purpose. The current arrangements where waste is stored under ad hoc arrangements at hundreds of sites around Australia does not represent international best practice in radioactive waste management. Environmental approval has been obtained for the national repository to be located at Site 40a, 20 km east of Woomera in South Australia, and licences are currently being sought from the Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ARPANSA) to site, construct and operate the facility. The national repository may be operating in 2004 subject to obtaining the required licences. The national store will be located on Australian Government land and house intermediate level waste produced by Australian Government departments and agencies. The national store will not be located in South Australia. Short-listing of potentially suitable sites is expected to be completed soon

  7. Nuclear wastes: research programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    The management of long-living and high level radioactive wastes in France belongs to the framework of the December 30, 1991 law which defines three ways of research: the separation and transmutation of radionuclides, their reversible storage or disposal in deep geologic formations, and their processing and surface storage during long duration. Research works are done in partnership between public research and industrial organizations in many French and foreign laboratories. Twelve years after its enforcement, the impact of this law has overstepped the simple research framework and has led to a deep reflection of the society about the use of nuclear energy. This short paper presents the main results obtained so far in the three research ways, the general energy policy of the French government, the industrial progresses made in the framework of the 1991 law and the international context of the management of nuclear wastes. (J.S.)

  8. Assessing and modeling sediment mobility in estuarine and coastal settings due to extreme climate events from natural short-lived isotope distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleb, Bassam; Hillaire-Marcel, Claude; Ruiz Fernandez, Ana-Carolina; Sanchez Cabeza, Joan-Albert

    2016-04-01

    Climatic events (e.g. floods, storminess) and management activities (e.g. dredging) may result in the burial or removal and re-suspension of sediments in estuaries and coastal areas. When such sediments are contaminated, such processes may either help restoring better chemical environments or lead to their long-term contamination. Geochemical signatures in surface sediments may help identifying such sedimentological events. However, short-lived isotope data are generally required to set time-constraints on their occurrence. Whereas 210Pb and radioactive fallout isotope contents can help setting time constraints at ~50 to ~100 yr-time scales, natural disequilibria in the 232Th-228Ra-228Th sequence do provide information on processes which occurred within the last 30 yrs, as illustrated in the present study. Box-cored sediments from the Saguenay Fjord and lower estuary of the St. Lawrence (Canada) as well as from estuaries and lagoons from the Sinaloa Coast (Mexico) are used to document the behavior of these isotopes either under relatively steady conditions (St. Lawrence estuary) or under high-frequency extreme climate events (storms and floods; Saguenay Fjord, Coastal Sinaloa). 228Th/232Th activity ratios were determined by chemical extraction of Th and alpha counting of unspiked samples, rapidly after sampling (228Th/232Th). The activity of the intermediate isotope 228Ra was then estimated based on replicate measurements on aliquot samples made a few years later. Under steady conditions, core-top sediment shows an excess in 228Th vs 232Th (AR ~ 1.6), whereas the intermediate 228Ra depicts a deficit vs its parent 232Th (AR ~0.6). Downcore, radioactive decay carries rapidly 228Th-activities to those of the parent 228Ra within about 10 yrs (i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Th), then both move during the next ~20 yrs (~ i.e., ~ 5 half-lives of 228Ra, when added to the 10 yrs of 228Th-excess) towards secular equilibrium with the parent long-lived 232Th. A few algorithms

  9. Disposal of radioactive waste from nuclear research facilities

    CERN Document Server

    Maxeiner, H; Kolbe, E

    2003-01-01

    Swiss radioactive wastes originate from nuclear power plants (NPP) and from medicine (e.g. radiation sources), industry (e.g. fire detectors) and research (e.g. CERN, PSI). Their conditioning, characterisation and documentation has to meet the demands given by the Swiss regulatory authorities including all information needed for a safe disposal in future repositories. For NPP wastes, arisings as well as the processes responsible for the buildup of short and long lived radionuclides are well known, and the conditioning procedures are established. The radiological inventories are determined on a routinely basis using a combined system of measurements and calculational programs. For waste from research, the situation is more complicated. The wide spectrum of different installations combined with a poorly known history of primary and secondary radiation results in heterogeneous waste sorts with radiological inventories quite different from NPP waste and difficult to measure long lived radionuclides. In order to c...

  10. Absorbed doses by the thyroid follicles due to the short half-lives isotope; Dose absorvida pelos foliculos tireoideanos devido aos isotopos de iodo de meia-vida curta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, Laelia; Amaral, Ademir; Colas-Linhart, Nicole; Hindie, Elif; Oliveira, Jairo R. de; Oliveira, Pedro A.R. de [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia (GERAR); Universite Paris 7, Paris Cedex 18 (France). Faculte de Medecine Xavier Bichat. Lab. de Chimie et Biophysique des Traceurs; Paris Cedex 12 (France). Hopital Saint-Antoine. Service de Medecine Nucleaire; Universidade Federal de Pernambuco UFPE, Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; E-mails: lpbcampos@uol.com.br; amaral@ufpe.br

    2005-11-15

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the contributions of internally deposited short-lived iodines to the dose absorbed by thyroid's follicle, in the case of nuclear accidents . Dose calculation was carried out, at follicular level, for {sup 131} I and short-lived iodines ({sup 132}I, {sup 133}I, {sup 134}I and {sup 135}I), using the code MCNP4C. The thyroid's follicles were modeled as spheres, with different diameters (between 40 to 240 {mu}m), having the same density as for soft tissue ({rho} = 1.04 g.cm{sup -3}). The results showed that the contribution of short-lived iodines for total dose is about 72%. The results reported in this work pointed out that, in case of nuclear accidents, the contributions of the short-lived iodines to the total dose absorbed by thyroid, at follicular level, cannot be neglected in a prospective evaluation of risks associated to internal contamination by radioactive iodine.(author)

  11. Paying to waste lives: the affordability of reducing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skordis, Jolene; Nattrass, Nicoli

    2002-05-01

    It is estimated that each HIV-positive child in South Africa costs the government more in terms of health and welfare expenses than it does to reduce mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV through the use of antiretroviral regimens (where the mother continues to breast-feed). Programmes to reduce MTCT of HIV/AIDS are, thus, clearly affordable. Using Nevirapine (according to the HIVNET 012 Protocol) saves more lives and [corrected] is more cost-effective than using Zidovudine (CDC 2 weeks regime).

  12. Bioaccumulation of short chain chlorinated paraffins in a typical freshwater food web contaminated by e-waste in south china: Bioaccumulation factors, tissue distribution, and trophic transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Runxia; Luo, Xiaojun; Tang, Bin; Chen, Laiguo; Liu, Yu; Mai, Bixian

    2017-03-01

    Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review for inclusion into the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. However, limited information is available on their bioaccumulation and biomagnification in ecosystems, which is hindering evaluation of their ecological and health risks. In the present study, wild aquatic organisms (fish and invertebrates), water, and sediment collected from an enclosed freshwater pond contaminated by electronic waste (e-waste) were analyzed to investigate the bioaccumulation, distribution, and trophic transfer of SCCPs in the aquatic ecosystem. SCCPs were detected in all of the investigated aquatic species at concentrations of 1700-95,000 ng/g lipid weight. The calculated bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) varied from 2.46 to 3.49. The relationship between log BAF and the octanol/water partition coefficient (log K OW ) for benthopelagic omnivorous fish species followed the empirical model of bioconcentration, indicating that bioconcentration plays an important role in accumulation of SCCPs. In contrast, the relationship for the benthic carnivorous fish and invertebrates was not consistent with the empirical model of bioconcentration, implying that the bioaccumulation of SCCPs in these species could be more influenced by other complex factors (e.g., habitat and feeding habit). Preferential distribution in the liver rather than in other tissues (e.g., muscle, gills, skin, and kidneys) was noted for the SCCP congeners with higher log K OW , and bioaccumulation pathway (i.e. water or sediment) can affect the tissue distribution of SCCP congeners. SCCPs underwent trophic dilution in the aquatic food web, and the trophic magnification factor (TMF) values of SCCP congener groups significantly correlated with their corresponding log K OW values (p behavior and fate of SCCPs in aquatic ecosystem. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Gut-homing conventional plasmablasts and CD27- plasmablasts elicited after a short time exposure to an oral live attenuated Shigella vaccine candidate in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin R. Toapanta

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no licensed Shigella vaccine; however, various promising live attenuated vaccine candidates have emerged, including CVD1208S (ΔguaBA, Δset, Δsen S. flexneri 2a, which was shown to be safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 clinical trials. Here we report the immune responses elicited in an outpatient Phase 2 clinical trial in which subjects were vaccinated with CVD 1208S. Oral immunization with CVD 1208S elicited high anti-S. flexneri 2a LPS and IpaB antibody responses, as well as an acute plasmablast (PB infiltration in peripheral blood 7 days after immunization. PB sorted based on their expression of homing molecules confirmed that cells expressing integrin α4β7 alone or in combination with CD62L were responsible for antibody production (as measured by ELISpot. Furthermore, using high-color flow-cytometry, on day 7 after immunization, we observed the appearance of conventional PB (CPB, CD19dim CD20- CD27+high CD38+high CD3-, as well as a PB population that did not express CD27 (CD27- PB; pre-plasmablasts. The pattern of individual or simultaneous expression of homing markers (integrin α4β7, CD62L, CXCR3 and CXCR4 suggested that CPB cells homed preferentially to the inflamed gut mucosa. In contrast, ~50% CD27- PB cells appear to home to yet to be identified peripheral lymphoid organs or were in a transition state preceding integrin α4β7 upregulation. In sum, these observations demonstrate that strong immune responses, including distinct PB subsets with the potential to home to the gut and other secondary lymphoid organs, can be elicited after a short time of exposure to a shigella oral

  14. Time-series variations of the short-lived Ra in coastal waters: implying input of SGD to the coastal zone of Da-Chia River, Taichung, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Feng-Hsin; Su, Chih-Chieh; Lin, In-Tain; Huh, Chih-An

    2015-04-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been recognized as an important pathway for materials exchanging between land and sea. Input of SGD carries the associated nutrients, trace metals, and inorganic carbon that may makes great impacts on ecosystem in the coastal zone. Due to the variability of SGD magnitude, it is difficult to estimate the flux of those associated materials around the world. Even in the same area, SGD magnitude also varies in response to tide fluctuation and seasonal change on hydraulic gradient. Thus, long-term investigation is in need. In Taiwan, the SGD study is rare and the intrusion of seawater in the coastal aquifer is emphasized in previous studies. According to the information from Hydrogeological Data Bank (Central Geological Survey, MOEA), some areas still show potentiality of SGD. Here, we report the preliminary investigation result of SGD at Gaomei Wildlife Conservation Area which located at the south of the Da-Chia River mouth. This study area is characterized by a great tidal rang and a shallow aquifer with high groundwater recharge rate. Time-series measurement of the short-lived Ra in surface water was done in both dry and wet seasons at a tidal flat site and shows different trends of excess Ra-224 between dry and wet seasons. High excess Ra-224 activities (>20 dpm/100L) occurred at high tide in dry season but at low tide in wet season. The plot of salinity versus excess Ra-224, showing non-conservative curve, suggests that high excess Ra-224 activities derive from desorption in dry season but from SGD input in wet season.

  15. Young parents produce offspring with short telomeres: A study in a long-lived bird, the Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Sophie Marie; Barbraud, Christophe; Chastel, Olivier; Delord, Karine; Ruault, Stéphanie; Weimerskirch, Henri; Angelier, Frédéric

    2018-01-01

    In wild vertebrates, young parents are less likely to successfully rear offspring relative to older ones because of lower parental skills ('the constraint hypothesis'), lower parental investment ('the restraint hypothesis') or because of a progressive disappearance of lower-quality individuals at young ages ('the selection hypothesis'). Because it is practically difficult to follow an offspring during its entire life, most studies have only focused on the ability of individuals to breed or produce young, while neglecting the ability of such young to subsequently survive and reproduce. Several proxies of individual quality can be useful to assess the ability of young to survive and recruit into the population. Among them, telomere length measurement appears especially promising because telomere length has been linked to longevity and fitness in captive and wild animals. By sampling 51 chicks reared by known-aged parents, we specifically tested whether parental age was correlated to offspring telomere length and body condition in a long-lived bird species, the Black-browed Albatross (Thalassarche melanophrys). Young Black-browed albatrosses produced chicks with shorter telomere relative to those raised by older ones. Short offspring telomeres could result from poor developmental conditions or heritability of telomere length. Moreover, young parents also had chicks of lower body condition when compared with older parents, although this effect was significant in female offspring only. Overall, our study demonstrates that parental age is correlated to two proxies of offspring fitness (body condition and telomere length), suggesting therefore that older individuals provide better parental cares to their offspring because of increased parental investment (restraint hypothesis), better foraging/parental skills (constraint hypothesis) or because only high-quality individuals reach older ages (selection hypothesis).

  16. RNA-seq of the aging brain in the short-lived fish N. furzeri - conserved pathways and novel genes associated with neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Mario; Groth, Marco; Priebe, Steffen; Savino, Aurora; Testa, Giovanna; Dix, Andreas; Ripa, Roberto; Spallotta, Francesco; Gaetano, Carlo; Ori, Michela; Terzibasi Tozzini, Eva; Guthke, Reinhard; Platzer, Matthias; Cellerino, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    The brains of teleost fish show extensive adult neurogenesis and neuronal regeneration. The patterns of gene regulation during fish brain aging are unknown. The short-lived teleost fish Nothobranchius furzeri shows markers of brain aging including reduced learning performances, gliosis, and reduced adult neurogenesis. We used RNA-seq to quantify genome-wide transcript regulation and sampled five different time points to characterize whole-genome transcript regulation during brain aging of N. furzeri. Comparison with human datasets revealed conserved up-regulation of ribosome, lysosome, and complement activation and conserved down-regulation of synapse, mitochondrion, proteasome, and spliceosome. Down-regulated genes differ in their temporal profiles: neurogenesis and extracellular matrix genes showed rapid decay, synaptic and axonal genes a progressive decay. A substantial proportion of differentially expressed genes (~40%) showed inversion of their temporal profiles in the last time point: spliceosome and proteasome showed initial down-regulation and stress-response genes initial up-regulation. Extensive regulation was detected for chromatin remodelers of the DNMT and CBX families as well as members of the polycomb complex and was mirrored by an up-regulation of the H3K27me3 epigenetic mark. Network analysis showed extensive coregulation of cell cycle/DNA synthesis genes with the uncharacterized zinc-finger protein ZNF367 as central hub. In situ hybridization showed that ZNF367 is expressed in neuronal stem cell niches of both embryonic zebrafish and adult N. furzeri. Other genes down-regulated with age, not previously associated with adult neurogenesis and with similar patterns of expression are AGR2, DNMT3A, KRCP, MEX3A, SCML4, and CBX1. CBX7, on the other hand, was up-regulated with age. © 2014 The Authors. Aging cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. More evidence for very short-lived substance contribution to stratospheric chlorine inferred from HCl balloon-borne in situ measurements in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Mébarki

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Volume mixing ratio (vmr vertical profiles of hydrogen chloride (HCl are retrieved from in situ measurements performed by a balloon-borne infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (SPIRALE during two balloon flights in the tropics (Teresina, Brazil, 5.1° S–42.9° W in June 2005 and June 2008. HCl vertical profiles obtained from 15 to 31 km are presented and analysed to estimate the contribution of very short-lived substances (VSLS to total stratospheric chlorine. Both retrieved vertical profiles of HCl from these flights agree very well with each other, with estimated overall uncertainties of 6% on vmr between 23 and 31 km. Upper limits of HCl vmr as low as 20 pptv in June 2008 and 30 pptv in June 2005 are inferred in the upper part of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL. Backward trajectory calculations and such low amounts suggest that the air masses sampled correspond to typical background conditions, i.e. neither influenced by recent tropospheric nor stratospheric air. Taking into account the recently reported VSL source gas measurements obtained in similar conditions (Laube et al., 2008 and the main intermediate degradation product gas COCl2 (Fu et al., 2007, a total VSLS contribution of 85±40 pptv to stratospheric chlorine is inferred. This refines the WMO (2007 estimation of 50 to 100 pptv, which was not taking into account any HCl contribution. In addition, comparisons of HCl measurements between SPIRALE and the Aura MLS satellite instrument in the tropical lower and middle stratosphere lead to a very good agreement. The previous agreement between MLS-deduced upper stratospheric total chlorine content and modelled values including 100 pptv of VSLS (Froidevaux et al., 2006 is thus supported by our present result about the VSLS contribution.

  18. Gut-Homing Conventional Plasmablasts and CD27(-) Plasmablasts Elicited after a Short Time of Exposure to an Oral Live-Attenuated Shigella Vaccine Candidate in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toapanta, Franklin R; Simon, Jakub K; Barry, Eileen M; Pasetti, Marcela F; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen L; Sztein, Marcelo B

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no licensed Shigella vaccine; however, various promising live-attenuated vaccine candidates have emerged, including CVD1208S (ΔguaBA, Δset, Δsen S. flexneri 2a), which was shown to be safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 clinical trials. Here, we report the immune responses elicited in an outpatient Phase 2 clinical trial in which subjects were vaccinated with CVD 1208S. Oral immunization with CVD 1208S elicited high anti-S. flexneri 2a LPS and IpaB antibody responses as well as an acute plasmablast (PB) infiltration in peripheral blood 7 days after immunization. PB sorted based on their expression of homing molecules confirmed that cells expressing integrin α4β7 alone or in combination with CD62L were responsible for antibody production (as measured by ELISpot). Furthermore, using high-color flow-cytometry, on day 7 after immunization, we observed the appearance of conventional PB (CPB, CD19(dim) CD20(-) CD27(+high) CD38(+high) CD3(-)), as well as a PB population that did not express CD27 (CD27(-) PB; pre-plasmablasts). The pattern of individual or simultaneous expression of homing markers (integrin α4β7, CD62L, CXCR3, and CXCR4) suggested that CPB cells homed preferentially to the inflamed gut mucosa. In contrast, ~50% CD27(-) PB cells appear to home to yet to be identified peripheral lymphoid organs or were in a transition state preceding integrin α4β7 upregulation. In sum, these observations demonstrate that strong immune responses, including distinct PB subsets with the potential to home to the gut and other secondary lymphoid organs, can be elicited after a short time of exposure to a shigella oral vaccine.

  19. Gut-Homing Conventional Plasmablasts and CD27− Plasmablasts Elicited after a Short Time of Exposure to an Oral Live-Attenuated Shigella Vaccine Candidate in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toapanta, Franklin R.; Simon, Jakub K.; Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Sztein, Marcelo B.

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no licensed Shigella vaccine; however, various promising live-attenuated vaccine candidates have emerged, including CVD1208S (ΔguaBA, Δset, Δsen S. flexneri 2a), which was shown to be safe and immunogenic in Phase 1 clinical trials. Here, we report the immune responses elicited in an outpatient Phase 2 clinical trial in which subjects were vaccinated with CVD 1208S. Oral immunization with CVD 1208S elicited high anti-S. flexneri 2a LPS and IpaB antibody responses as well as an acute plasmablast (PB) infiltration in peripheral blood 7 days after immunization. PB sorted based on their expression of homing molecules confirmed that cells expressing integrin α4β7 alone or in combination with CD62L were responsible for antibody production (as measured by ELISpot). Furthermore, using high-color flow-cytometry, on day 7 after immunization, we observed the appearance of conventional PB (CPB, CD19dim CD20− CD27+high CD38+high CD3−), as well as a PB population that did not express CD27 (CD27− PB; pre-plasmablasts). The pattern of individual or simultaneous expression of homing markers (integrin α4β7, CD62L, CXCR3, and CXCR4) suggested that CPB cells homed preferentially to the inflamed gut mucosa. In contrast, ~50% CD27− PB cells appear to home to yet to be identified peripheral lymphoid organs or were in a transition state preceding integrin α4β7 upregulation. In sum, these observations demonstrate that strong immune responses, including distinct PB subsets with the potential to home to the gut and other secondary lymphoid organs, can be elicited after a short time of exposure to a shigella oral vaccine. PMID:25191323

  20. Impact on short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) from a realistic land-use change scenario via changes in biogenic emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, C E; Monks, S A; Spracklen, D V; Arnold, S R; Forster, P M; Rap, A; Carslaw, K S; Chipperfield, M P; Reddington, C L S; Wilson, C

    2017-08-24

    More than one quarter of natural forests have been cleared by humans to make way for other land-uses, with changes to forest cover projected to continue. The climate impact of land-use change (LUC) is dependent upon the relative strength of several biogeophysical and biogeochemical effects. In addition to affecting the surface albedo and exchanging carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and moisture with the atmosphere, vegetation emits biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs), altering the formation of short-lived climate forcers (SLCFs) including aerosol, ozone (O 3 ) and methane (CH 4 ). Once emitted, BVOCs are rapidly oxidised by O 3 , and the hydroxyl (OH) and nitrate (NO 3 ) radicals. These oxidation reactions yield secondary organic products which are implicated in the formation and growth of aerosol particles and are estimated to have a negative radiative effect on the climate (i.e. a cooling). These reactions also deplete OH, increasing the atmospheric lifetime of CH 4 , and directly affect concentrations of O 3 ; the latter two being greenhouse gases which impose a positive radiative effect (i.e. a warming) on the climate. Our previous work assessing idealised deforestation scenarios found a positive radiative effect due to changes in SLCFs; however, since the radiative effects associated with changes to SLCFs result from a combination of non-linear processes it may not be appropriate to scale radiative effects from complete deforestation scenarios according to the deforestation extent. Here we combine a land-surface model, a chemical transport model, a global aerosol model, and a radiative transfer model to assess the net radiative effect of changes in SLCFs due to historical LUC between the years 1850 and 2000.

  1. Mitigation of Short-Lived Climate Pollutants from Residential Coal Heating and Combined Heating/Cooking Stoves: Impacts on the Cryosphere, Policy Options, and Co-benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafe, Z.; Anenberg, S.; Klimont, Z.; Kupiainen, K.; Lewis, J.; Metcalfe, J.; Pearson, P.

    2017-12-01

    Residential solid fuel combustion for cooking, heating, and other energy services contributes to indoor and outdoor air pollution, and creates impacts on the cryosphere. Solid fuel use often occurs in colder climates and at higher elevations, where a wide range of combustion emissions can reduce reflectivity of the snow- and ice-covered surfaces, causing climatic warming. Reducing short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs), such as black carbon (BC), could have substantial climate and health co-benefits, especially in areas where emissions influence the cryosphere. A review of existing literature and emissions estimates, conducted as part of the Warsaw Summit on BC and Other Emissions from Residential Coal Heating Stoves and Combined Cooking/Heating Stoves, found little nationally-representative data on the fuels and technologies used for heating and combined cooking/heating. The GAINS model estimates that 24 million tonnes of coal equivalent were combusted by households for space heating globally in 2010, releasing 190 kilotons (kt) BC. Emissions from combined cooking/heating are virtually unknown. Policy instruments could mitigate cryosphere-relevant emissions of SLCPs from residential heating or cooking. These include indoor air quality guidelines, stove emission limits, bans on the use of specific fuels, regulatory codes that stipulate when burning can occur, stove changeout programs, and voluntary public education campaigns. These measures are being implemented in countries such as Chile (fuelwood moisture reduction campaign, energy efficiency, heating system improvements), Mongolia (stove renovation, fuel switching), Peru (improved stove programs), Poland (district heating, local fuel bans), United States (stove emission regulation) and throughout the European Community (Ecodesign Directive). Few, if any, of these regulations are likely to reduce emissions from combined cooking/heating. This research team found no global platform to create and share model

  2. Stepwise catalytic mechanism via short-lived intermediate inferred from combined QM/MM MERP and PES calculations on retaining glycosyltransferase ppGalNAcT2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Trnka

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The glycosylation of cell surface proteins plays a crucial role in a multitude of biological processes, such as cell adhesion and recognition. To understand the process of protein glycosylation, the reaction mechanisms of the participating enzymes need to be known. However, the reaction mechanism of retaining glycosyltransferases has not yet been sufficiently explained. Here we investigated the catalytic mechanism of human isoform 2 of the retaining glycosyltransferase polypeptide UDP-GalNAc transferase by coupling two different QM/MM-based approaches, namely a potential energy surface scan in two distance difference dimensions and a minimum energy reaction path optimisation using the Nudged Elastic Band method. Potential energy scan studies often suffer from inadequate sampling of reactive processes due to a predefined scan coordinate system. At the same time, path optimisation methods enable the sampling of a virtually unlimited number of dimensions, but their results cannot be unambiguously interpreted without knowledge of the potential energy surface. By combining these methods, we have been able to eliminate the most significant sources of potential errors inherent to each of these approaches. The structural model is based on the crystal structure of human isoform 2. In the QM/MM method, the QM region consists of 275 atoms, the remaining 5776 atoms were in the MM region. We found that ppGalNAcT2 catalyzes a same-face nucleophilic substitution with internal return (SNi. The optimized transition state for the reaction is 13.8 kcal/mol higher in energy than the reactant while the energy of the product complex is 6.7 kcal/mol lower. During the process of nucleophilic attack, a proton is synchronously transferred to the leaving phosphate. The presence of a short-lived metastable oxocarbenium intermediate is likely, as indicated by the reaction energy profiles obtained using high-level density functionals.

  3. Stepwise catalytic mechanism via short-lived intermediate inferred from combined QM/MM MERP and PES calculations on retaining glycosyltransferase ppGalNAcT2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, Tomáš; Kozmon, Stanislav; Tvaroška, Igor; Koča, Jaroslav

    2015-04-01

    The glycosylation of cell surface proteins plays a crucial role in a multitude of biological processes, such as cell adhesion and recognition. To understand the process of protein glycosylation, the reaction mechanisms of the participating enzymes need to be known. However, the reaction mechanism of retaining glycosyltransferases has not yet been sufficiently explained. Here we investigated the catalytic mechanism of human isoform 2 of the retaining glycosyltransferase polypeptide UDP-GalNAc transferase by coupling two different QM/MM-based approaches, namely a potential energy surface scan in two distance difference dimensions and a minimum energy reaction path optimisation using the Nudged Elastic Band method. Potential energy scan studies often suffer from inadequate sampling of reactive processes due to a predefined scan coordinate system. At the same time, path optimisation methods enable the sampling of a virtually unlimited number of dimensions, but their results cannot be unambiguously interpreted without knowledge of the potential energy surface. By combining these methods, we have been able to eliminate the most significant sources of potential errors inherent to each of these approaches. The structural model is based on the crystal structure of human isoform 2. In the QM/MM method, the QM region consists of 275 atoms, the remaining 5776 atoms were in the MM region. We found that ppGalNAcT2 catalyzes a same-face nucleophilic substitution with internal return (SNi). The optimized transition state for the reaction is 13.8 kcal/mol higher in energy than the reactant while the energy of the product complex is 6.7 kcal/mol lower. During the process of nucleophilic attack, a proton is synchronously transferred to the leaving phosphate. The presence of a short-lived metastable oxocarbenium intermediate is likely, as indicated by the reaction energy profiles obtained using high-level density functionals.

  4. Effects of inclusion Aspergillus niger fermented shrimp waste meal in broiler diets on live performance and digestive organ weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan H. Djunaidi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of different levels of shrimp waste meal fermented with Aspergillus niger (LUF in diets on growth performance and digestive organ weight of broilers. A total of 75 d-old chicks were randomly allocated to 5 (five treatments in 3 replication pens of 5 birds each. Treatments consisted of LUF inclusion of 0 (control, and 5, 7.5, 10 and 12,5% (P0, P1, P2, P3 and P4 in the diets. Birds were raised under standard condition and provided with feed and water ad-libitum. Feed and birds were weighed weekly up to 35 days to determine body weight, feed intake and feed conversion. At the end of experimental period, the birds were slaughatered and dressed up to determine carcass percentage and digestive organ weight. There was a significant negative linear response in body weight, feed consumption and feed conversion with increase of LUF more than 7.5% in the diets until 35 days of age, but % carcass was almost the same for all treatment. There was no significant response in digestive organ weight with increasing levels of LUF. The present result indicated that LUF could be considered as a potential feed ingredient as protein source of broiler but its inclusion should be limited until 7.5% of the diet to maintain growth performance and digestive organ weight.

  5. Nuclear Waste Removal Using Particle Beams Incineration with Fast Neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Revol, Jean Pierre Charles

    1997-01-01

    The management of nuclear waste is one of the major obstacles to the acceptability of nuclear power as a main source of energy for the future. TARC, a new experiment at CERN, is testing the practicality of Carlo Rubbia's idea to make use of Adiabatic Resonance Crossing to transmute long-lived fission fragments into short-lived or stable nuclides. Spallation neutrons produced in a large Lead assembly have a high probability to be captured at the energies of cross-section resonances in elements such as 99Tc, 129I, etc. An accelerator-driven sub-critical device using Thorium (Energy Amplifier) would be very effective in eliminating TRansUranic elements which constitute the most dangerous part of nuclear waste while producing from it large amounts of energy. In addition, such a system could transform, at a high rate and little energetic cost, long-lived fission fragments into short-lived elements.

  6. Future extension of the Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The existing Swedish repository for low and intermediate level waste (SFR) is licensed for disposal of short-lived waste originated from operation and maintenance of Swedish nuclear power plants. The repository is foreseen to be extended to accommodate short-lived waste from the future decommissioning of the Nuclear Power Plants. Long-lived waste from operation, maintenance and eventually decommissioning will be stored some years before disposal in a geological repository. This repository can be build either as a further extension of the SFR facility or as a separate repository. This paper discusses the strategy of a step-wise extended repository where the extensions are performed during operation of the existing parts of the repository. It describes the process for licensing new parts of the repository (and re-license of the existing parts). (author)

  7. The future implications of some long-lived fission product nuclides discharged to the environment in fuel reprocessing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, P.M.; Jones, J.A.

    1972-12-01

    Current reprocessing practice leads to the discharge to the environment of virtually all the krypton-85 and tritium, and a large fraction of the iodine-129, formed as fission products in reactor fuel. As nuclear power programmes expand the global inventory of these long-lived nuclides is increasing. The radiological significance of these discharges is assessed in terms of radiation exposure of various population groups during the next few decades. The results of this assessment show that krypton-85 will give higher dose rates than tritium or iodine-129, but that on conventional radiological protection criteria these do not justify taking action to remove krypton-85 from reprocessing plant effluents before the 21st century. (author)

  8. Completely automated short-term genotoxicity testing for the assessment of chemicals and characterisation of contaminated soils and waste waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Corinna; Eisentraeger, Adolf

    2008-05-01

    The umu-test was developed for the detection of effects of chemical mutagens and carcinogens in environmental samples. It is performed according to ISO 13829 with Salmonella choleraesius subsp. chol. (strain TA1535/pSK1002). By automating the entire test, large numbers of toxicants and environmental samples as well as more treatments and parallels can be tested and, additionally, only low sample volumes are needed. In this work, an automated umu-test has been set up by installing a robotic XYZ-platform and a microplate reader inside a cabin. The use of established technical equipment for the automation in combination with a performance according to ISO standards was the essential aim of the approach. After initial preparation, the test is conducted software-controlled, follows the standard and fulfils the validity criteria of the standard procedure. For the optimization of the automated test umu-tests with one concentration of methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) of 166.7 mg/L were carried out. After optimization of incubation and pipetting conditions in the automated test, dose-response curves of various chemicals and environmental samples were assessed. The results of the automated umu-test have been compared with those of the standard manual test. The aim of the study was to show the applicability of an automated test system for the assessment of the genotoxic effects of various chemicals and environmental samples. During optimization, tests with 166.7 mg/L of MMS in every well of the microplate are carried out. Chemicals with different physical, chemical and toxicological properties are applied in both test systems. Water samples from different waste water treatment plants, and water extracts of contaminated and uncontaminated soils are assessed in the umu-test. The test is performed in parallel manually according to the standard and automatically using the robotic platform. Dose-response relationships and DLI-values are recorded and compared. The umu-test is applied

  9. Dietary exposure to metals by individuals living near a hazardous waste incinerator in Catalonia, Spain: temporal trend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Cid, Roser; Perelló, Gemma; Domingo, José L

    2009-12-01

    The concentrations of arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), and vanadium (V) were determined in a number of foodstuffs purchased during 2006 in various localities of Tarragona County (Catalonia, Spain), near a hazardous waste incinerator, which has been operating since 1999. The dietary intake of the above elements by the population of the area was subsequently estimated. The results were compared with those obtained in previous surveys (baseline 1997 and 2002) performed in the same area. The levels of Be, Tl, and V were under their respective limits of detection in all samples. The estimated dietary intakes of the elements analyzed in the current survey by an adult man of 70 kg were the following: 351 microg/day for As, 4.6 microg/day for Cd, 57.5 microg/day for Cr, 7.1 microg/day for Hg, 2,229 microg/day for Mn, 78.0 microg/day for Ni, 39.9 microg/day for Pb, and 37.9 microg/day for Sn. On average, fish and seafood were the main contributor to the total dietary intake of As, Cd, and Hg and one of the most important for Pb. In general terms, the differences on metal exposure through dietary intake between the present and our two previous surveys were not particularly relevant. The current intake of the most toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, and Pb) remains under the respective Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intakes established by the Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization.

  10. Effect of solids retention time and temperature on waste activated sludge hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids accumulation under alkaline conditions in continuous-flow reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Leiyu; Wang, Hua; Chen, Yinguang; Wang, Qin

    2009-01-01

    The effects of solids retention time (SRT) and temperature on waste activated sludge (WAS) hydrolysis and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation were investigated in a series of continuous-flow reactors at pH 10. The experimental results showed that the increase of either SRT or temperature benefited the hydrolysis of WAS and the production of SCFAs. The changes in SRT gave also impact on the percentage of acetic and propionic acids in the fermentative SCFAs, but little influence on that of the slightly long-chain SCFAs, such as n-butyric, iso-butyric, n-valeric and iso-valeric acids. Compared with the control (pH unadjusted) experiment, at SRT of 12d and temperature of 20 degrees C the concentration of SCFAs produced at pH 10 increased from 261.2 to 933.5mg COD/L, and the propionic acid percentage improved from 11.7 to 16.0%. It can be concluded from this investigation that the efficient continuous production of SCFAs at pH 10 is feasible.

  11. Waste transmutation: perspectives; Transmutation des dechets: les perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leray, S.

    1997-12-31

    After the introduction on the source and nature of nuclear waste, this lecture analyzes the different methods proposed to transmute long-lived isotopes into stable or short-lived isotopes. It is shown that direct methods (photonuclear reactions, spallation, muon catalyzed fusion) do not lead to a sufficient transmutation rate within a reasonable cost. Only the use of hybrid systems, fusion-fission or spallation-fission, can be foreseen. (author).

  12. Safety Aspects in Radioactive Waste Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter W. Brennecke

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, within the framework of national as well as international programmes, notable advances and considerable experience have been reached, particularly in minimising of the production of radioactive wastes, conditioning and disposal of short-lived, low and intermediate level waste, vitrification of fission product solutions on an industrial scale and engineered storage of long-lived high level wastes, i.e. vitrified waste and spent nuclear fuel. Based on such results, near-surface repositories have successfully been operated in many countries. In contrast to that, the disposal of high level radioactive waste is still a scientific and technical challenge in many countries using the nuclear power for the electricity generation. Siting, planning and construction of repositories for the high level wastes in geological formations are gradually advancing. The site selection, the evaluation of feasible sites as well as the development of safety cases and performance of site-specific safety assessments are essential in preparing the realization of such a repository. In addition to the scientific-technical areas, issues regarding economical, environmental, ethical and political aspects have been considered increasingly during the last years. Taking differences in the national approaches, practices and the constraints into account, it is to be recognised that future developments and decisions will have to be extended in order to include further important aspects and, finally, to enhance the acceptance and confidence in the safety-related planning work as well as in the proposed radioactive waste management and disposal solutions.

  13. Radioactive wastes: a proposal to its classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domenech N, H.; Garcia L, N.; Hernandez S, A.

    1996-01-01

    On the basis of the quantities and the characteristics of the stored radioactive wastes in Cuba and the IAEA system of wastes classification, the concentration activities that would be used as limits for those categories are evaluated. This approach suggests a limit of 10 TBq/m 3 for short lived liquid wastes of Low and Intermediate Level (less than 30 years) and 5 TBq/m 3 for long lived liquid wastes (more than 30 years). For solid wastes the suggested limits are ten times lower. Taking into account the small quantities of arising wastes and to make easy its segregation, collection and disposal, a low level waste sub-classification in three new categories, whether or not they may be direct discharged, is suggested. As lower classification limit, while not specific exemption levels are established in the country, the use of an ALI min fraction is emphasized, meanwhile the total discharged activity will be no greater than 10 MBq or 100 MBq when the discharge occurs over the whole year. (authors). 6 refs., 5 tabs

  14. Modeling minor actinide multiple recycling in a lead-cooled fast reactor to demonstrate a fuel cycle without long-lived nuclear waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisz Przemysław

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of closed nuclear fuel cycle seems to be the most promising options for the efficient usage of the nuclear energy resources. However, it can be implemented only in fast breeder reactors of the IVth generation, which are characterized by the fast neutron spectrum. The lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR was defined and studied on the level of technical design in order to demonstrate its performance and reliability within the European collaboration on ELSY (European Lead-cooled System and LEADER (Lead-cooled European Advanced Demonstration Reactor projects. It has been demonstrated that LFR meets the requirements of the closed nuclear fuel cycle, where plutonium and minor actinides (MA are recycled for reuse, thereby producing no MA waste. In this study, the most promising option was realized when entire Pu + MA material is fully recycled to produce a new batch of fuel without partitioning. This is the concept of a fuel cycle which asymptotically tends to the adiabatic equilibrium, where the concentrations of plutonium and MA at the beginning of the cycle are restored in the subsequent cycle in the combined process of fuel transmutation and cooling, removal of fission products (FPs, and admixture of depleted uranium. In this way, generation of nuclear waste containing radioactive plutonium and MA can be eliminated. The paper shows methodology applied to the LFR equilibrium fuel cycle assessment, which was developed for the Monte Carlo continuous energy burnup (MCB code, equipped with enhanced modules for material processing and fuel handling. The numerical analysis of the reactor core concerns multiple recycling and recovery of long-lived nuclides and their influence on safety parameters. The paper also presents a general concept of the novel IVth generation breeder reactor with equilibrium fuel and its future role in the management of MA.

  15. Biogeochemical reactive-transport modelling of the interactions of medium activity long-lived nuclear waste in fractured argillite and the effect on redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, J.S.; Steele, H.; Kwong, S.; Albrecht, A.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The role of anaerobic microbial processes in mediating gas generation and redox reactions in organic (cellulose) containing low level activity nuclear wastes (LLW) is well established through monitoring of operational near-surface LLW disposal sites and municipal waste disposal sites. Modelling approaches based on Monod kinetic growth models to represent the complex suite of anaerobic processes have been developed and these models are able to reproduce the evolving biogeochemistry and gas generation of large scale and long term (10 year) experiments on cellulose waste degradation. In the case of geological disposal of medium activity long-lived nuclear waste (MAVL) microbial processes have the potential to exploit metabolic energy sources present in the waste, engineered barriers and host geological formation and as a consequence influence redox potential. Several electron donors and electron acceptors may be present in MAVL. Electron donors include; hydrogen (resulting from radiolysis and anaerobic corrosion of metals), and hydrolysis products of organic waste materials. Sulphate, nitrate and Fe(III) containing minerals and corrosion products are examples of electron acceptors present in intermediate level wastes. Significant amounts of organic matter, sulphate and iron minerals may also be present in host geological formations and have the potential to act as microbial energy sources once the system is perturbed by electron donors/acceptors from the waste. The construction of a geological disposal facility will physically disturb the host formation, potentially causing fracturing of the excavation damage zone (EDZ). The EDZ may thus provide environmental conditions, such as space and free water that together with nutrient and energy sources to promote microbial activity. In this study the Generalised Repository Model (GRM) developed to simulate the coupled microbiological, chemical and transport processes in near

  16. Oxygen isotopic and geochemical evidence for a short-lived, high-temperature hydrothermal event in the Chegem caldera, Caucasus Mountains, Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazis, C.; Taylor, H.P.; Hon, K.; Tsvetkov, A.

    1996-01-01

    Within the 2.8 Ma Chegem ash-flow caldera (11 ?? 15 km), a single cooling unit of rhyolitic to dacitic welded tuff more than 2 km thick is exposed in deep valleys incised during recent rapid uplift of the Caucasus Mountains. The intracaldera tuff is mineralogically fresh and unaltered, and is overlain by andesite lavas and cut by a resurgent granodiorite intrusion. Major- and trace-element compositions for a 1405-m stratigraphic section of intracaldera tuff display trends of upwardly increasing Na2O, CaO, Al2O3, total Fe, MgO, TiO2, Sr and Zr and decreasing SiO2, K2O and Rb. This mafic-upward zoning (from 76.1 to 69.9% SiO2) reflects an inverted view of the upper part of the source magma chamber. Oxygen isotope studies of 35 samples from this 1405-m section define a striking profile with "normal" igneous ??18O values (+7.0 to +8.5) in the lower 600 m of tuff, much lower ??18O values (-4.0 to +4.3) in a 700-m zone above that and a shift to high ??18O values (+4.4 to -10.9) in the upper 100 m of caldera-fill exposure. Data from two other partial stratigraphic sections indicate that these oxygen isotope systematics are probably a caldera-wide phenomenon. Quartz and feldspar phenocrysts everywhere have "normal" igneous ??18O values of about +8.5 and +7.5, respectively, whereas groundmass and glass ??18O values range from -7.7 to +12.3. Consequently, the ??18O values of coexisting feldspar, groundmass and glass form a steep array in a plot of ??feldspar vs. ??groundmass/glass. Such pronounced disequilibrium between coexisting feldspar and groundmass or glass has never before been observed on this scale. It requires a hydrothermal event involving large amounts of low-18O H2O at sufficiently high temperatures and short enough time (tens of years or less) that glass exchanges thoroughly but feldspar does not. The most likely process responsible for the O depletions at Chegem is a very high temperature (500-600??C), short-lived, vigorous meteoric-hydrothermal event that was

  17. Tracing historical tropical cyclones and the 1883 Krakatoa tsunami in short-lived geological archives of the Ashburton Delta (NW Australia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Simon Matthias; Brill, Dominik; Engel, Max; Scheffers, Anja; Pint, Anna; Wennrich, Volker; Squire, Peter; Kelletat, Dieter; Brückner, Helmut

    2014-05-01

    Records of coastal geological archives are discontinuous. They store traces of both episodic and long-term processes as particular depositional landforms, deposits or erosional features. In particular the identification and interpretation of episodic high-energy coastal flooding due to tropical cyclones (TCs) and tsunamis is associated with a number of difficulties, including the spatial and temporal variability of geological records as well as the application of different dating techniques. In addition, the differentiation between tsunami and storm deposits remains challenging, notably where modern deposits and/or historical reports on the event are absent. Analysing modern (or historic) analogues for which documentation of process-specific parameters and/or geomorphic and sedimentary effects are available contributes to a better understanding of their sedimentary signatures and related depositional processes. These studies are key components to unravel the fossil record and the history of past events. The NW coast of Western Australia (WA) is highly vulnerable to extreme wave events. On average 1-2 TCs impact the W Australian coast per year, and ten historically documented tsunami events are recorded since 1858, including the tsunami following the 1883 Krakatoa eruption. However, no sedimentary evidence on this particular event has been presented yet, and little is known about the geological imprint of both (pre)historic TCs and tsunamis in NW Australia in general. Here we present new data on the sedimentology and chronostratigraphy of historical washover events found in short-lived geological archives of the Ashburton River delta (NW part of Western Australia), where clearly distinguishable traces of both TCs and the 1883 Krakatoa tsunami are recorded. We aim at (i) establishing (at least locally valid) sedimentary criteria differentiating between TCs and tsunami deposits; (ii) presenting an OSL-based local chronostratigraphy with direct relation to historical

  18. Evolution of sperm quality in men living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator possibly correlated with decreasing dioxins emission levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, A C; Viel, J-F; Bailly, A; Blagosklonov, O; Amiot, C; Roux, C

    2014-09-01

    The objective was to examine the impact on sperm parameters of environmental exposure to dioxins around a municipal waste incinerator initially with high emission levels and during reduction levels. An ecological study with quasi-experimental conditions was performed in patients of a reproductive laboratory. The first semen analyses of 251 men living in Besançon, France, between 2001 and 2007, were included. To analyse the contribution of direct exposure (inhalation), the calendar time was dichotomised in two periods 2001-2003 versus 2004-2007 and used as a proxy for exposure. Regarding the indirect exposure pathway (food), the statistical analysis was made with a nonparametric test to assess the trends. There was a negative correlation between the year of exposure and the percentage of abnormal mid-piece and the multiple abnormalities index, even after adjusting for age and days abstention from inter-course. A positive correlation was found between the progressive motile sperm count and the period of exposure. These findings are to be put into the context of a drastic reduction in emissions of dioxins. Our results suggest an effect of chronic exposure to dioxins on spermiogenesis with more abnormalities. These results should be confirmed with concentration measurements of dioxins in infertile men. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. [Morbidity in a population living close to urban waste incinerator plants in Lazio Region (Central Italy): a retrospective cohort study using a before-after design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golini, Martina Nicole; Ancona, Carla; Badaloni, Chiara; Bolignano, Andrea; Bucci, Simone; Sozzi, Roberto; Davoli, Marina; Forastiere, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    the body of evidence on health effects of residential exposure to urban waste incinerators suggests association with reproductive outcomes and some cancers, but the overall evidence is still limited. we evaluated the impact of two incinerators on hospital admissions for respiratory and cardiovascular diseases in a cohort of people living nearby two incineration plants in Lazio Region (Central Italy) using a before-and-after design. the study area was defined as the 7-km radius around the incinerators. People who were resident in the area from 1996 to 2008 were enrolled in a retrospective longitudinal study. All addresses were geocoded. A Lagrangian dispersion model (SPRAY) for PM₁₀ (ng/m³) was used for incinerators exposure assessment. Average annual concentration of background PM₁₀ (μg/m³) was estimated on a regional basis by means of RAMS and FARM models. Both PM₁₀ exposures were estimated at the residential address. All subjects were followed for hospital admissions in the period before (1996-2002) and after (2003-2008) the activation of the plants. The association between exposure to emissions from incinerators and hospitalizations in the two periods was estimated using the multivariate Cox model (for repeated events), adjusting for age, area-level socioeconomic status, distance from industries, traffic roads and highways. An interaction term between the period of follow-up (before or after the activation of the plants) and the exposure levels was used to test the effect of the incinerators. 47,192 subjects resident in the study area were enrolled. No clear association between pollution exposure from incinerators and cause-specific morbidity of residents in highest concentration areas was found when compared to the reference group. However, an effect of PM₁₀ on respiratory diseases and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was suggested. The effect was due to excesses of hospitalizations for the same causes among men living in highest

  20. Waste Package Lifting Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. Marr

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the waste package during the horizontal and vertical lifting operations in order to support the waste package lifting feature design. The scope of this calculation includes the evaluation of the 21 PWR UCF (pressurized water reactor uncanistered fuel) waste package, naval waste package, 5 DHLW/DOE SNF (defense high-level waste/Department of Energy spent nuclear fuel)--short waste package, and 44 BWR (boiling water reactor) UCF waste package. Procedure AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, calculations, is used to develop and document this calculation

  1. A multi-model intercomparison of halogenated very short-lived substances (TransCom-VSLS): linking oceanic emissions and tropospheric transport for a reconciled estimate of the stratospheric source gas injection of bromine

    OpenAIRE

    Hossaini, R.; Patra, P. K.; Leeson, A. A.; Krysztofiak, G.; Abraham, N. L.; Andrews, S. J.; Archibald, A. T.; Aschmann, J.; Atlas, E. L.; Belikov, D. A.; Bonisch, H.; Carpenter, L. J.; Dhomse, S.; Dorf, M.; Engel, A.

    2016-01-01

    The first concerted multi-model intercomparison of halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) has been performed, within the framework of the ongoing Atmospheric Tracer Transport Model Intercomparison Project (TransCom). Eleven global models or model variants participated (nine chemical transport models and two chemistry–climate models) by simulating the major natural bromine VSLS, bromoform (CHBr3) and dibromomethane (CH2Br2), over a 20-year period (1993–2012). Except f...

  2. Spin rotation and depolarization of high-energy particles in crystals at Hadron Collider (LHC) and Future Circular Collider (FCC) energies and the possibility to measure the anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived particles

    OpenAIRE

    Baryshevsky, V. G.

    2015-01-01

    We study the phenomena of spin rotation and depolarization of high-energy particles in crystals in the range of high energies that will be available at Hadron Collider (LHC) and Future Circular Collider (FCC). It is shown that these phenomena can be used to measure the anomalous magnetic moments of short-lived particles in this range of energies. We also demonstrate that the phenomenon of particle spin depolarization in crystals provides a unique possibility of measuring the anomalous magneti...

  3. Radioactive waste management at ANSTO - Managing current and historic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.; Dimitrovski, L.; Hart, K.; Levins, D.

    2001-01-01

    ANSTO aimed at improving current processes and waste systems are being carried out. Currently, waste water from active drains at ANSTO is treated by a flocculation/centrifugation process and discharged to the sewer. Over the next few years, ANSTO plans to upgrade its effluent treatment facilities using state-of-the-art technology. Pilot plant demonstration of a membrane-based process is in progress after which a specification will be prepared for a full scale plant. Planning is also under way for a new facility to treat and package ANSTO's radioactive waste in readiness for disposal in the national repository for low level and short lived intermediate level waste. (author)

  4. Final disposal of high-level radioactive waste and/or long-living nuclear waste in a clay formation in the Belgian-Dutch border region; Definitieve berging van hoogradioactief en/of langlevend kernafval in een kleiformatie in de Belgisch-Nederlandse grensstreek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyns, W.

    2010-10-15

    Recently, the Belgian organization NIRAS presented its 'Draft Waste Plan'. In this plan NIRAS chooses clay as the reference option for final geological disposal of high-level radioactive and/or long-living nuclear waste (b and C waste). The author presents an overview of the current state of affairs in scientific research on underground storage of radioactive waste in Belgian clay layers. [Dutch] Recent presenteerde het Belgische NIRAS het 'Ontwerp Afvalplan'. In dit plan kiest NIRAS als referentieoptie voor definitieve geologische berging van hoogradioactief en/of langlevend kernafval (B- en C-afval) in klei. De auteur geeft een overzicht van de stand van zaken van wetenschappelijk onderzoek naar ondergrondse opslag van radioactief afval in Belgische kleilagen.

  5. The storage center of short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Situated at 50 km of Troyes, the Aube Center was opened in 1992 in order to take over from the Manche Center, for the surface storage of low life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It offers an answer to manage safely theses wastes at an industrial scale during 50 years. (A.L.B.)

  6. Response of Living Shorelines to Wave Energy and Sea Level rise: Short-term Resilience and Long-term Vulnerability in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currin, C.; Davis, J.

    2017-12-01

    A decade of research and monitoring of Living Shoreline sites in North Carolina identifies both resilient and vulnerable features of this approach to estuarine shoreline stabilization. We used a wave energy model to calculate representative wave energy along 1500 miles of estuarine shoreline, and observed a linear, negative relationship between wind-wave energy and the width of fringing salt marshes. Proximity to navigation channels (boat wakes) further reduced fringing marsh width. These results provide guidance for Living Shoreline design alternatives. Surface elevation tables (SETs) deployed at the lower edge of both natural fringing marshes and `Living Shoreline' marsh-sill sites demonstrated that while natural marshes were losing surface elevation at an average rate of 6 mm y-1, marsh surface elevation at Living Shoreline sites increased at an average of 3 mm y-1. Marsh vegetation at the lower edge of natural sites exhibited a decline in biomass, while Living Shoreline sites exhibited an increase in upper marsh species and an extension of lower marsh into previous mudflat habitat. These changes provide Living Shoreline (marsh-sill) sites with added resilience to sea level rise, though decreased inundation alters the delivery of other ecosystem services (fish habitat, nutrient cycling). North Carolina lagoonal estuaries have low suspended sediment supply and low topography, and modeling predicts that landward transgression is the primary means by which salt marsh acreage can be maintained under moderate to high sea level rise scenarios. In this region, bank erosion can be important source of sediment to wetland habitats. Further, the association of built infrastructure with Living Shoreline sites portends a future scenario of coastal squeeze, as marsh migration landward will be inhibited.

  7. The health risk levels of different age groups of residents living in the vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerator posed by PCDD/Fs in atmosphere and soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiafu; Zhang, Ying; Sun, Tingting; Hao, Huawei; Wu, Hao; Wang, Lili; Chen, Yuxing; Xing, Limin; Niu, Zhiguang

    2018-03-07

    In our study, health risk levels of different age groups of residents living in the vicinity of a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) posed by polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in atmosphere and soil were evaluated. The toxic equivalent concentrations of PCDD/Fs (TEQ) in surrounding atmosphere and soil of studied MSWI were 0.05-0.12 pg I-TEQ Nm -3 and 7.622-15.450 ng I-TEQ kg -1 , respectively. The PCDFs/PCDDs (F/D) values of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere of studied MSWI ranged from 0.40 to 5.90 with a mean of 1.80, suggesting that the PCDD/Fs mainly came from combustion sources and studied MSWI could be a key source of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere. The F/D ratios of PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil ranged from 0.18 to 1.81 with a mean of 0.90, suggesting combustion is not the mainly sources of PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil, and studied MSWI may have limited influence on PCDD/Fs in surrounding soil. O8CDD and 2,3,4,7,8-P5CDF could be the total PCDD/Fs and TEQ indicators in surrounding atmosphere of studied MSWI, respectively. The carcinogenic risk (CR) values of PCDD/Fs in surrounding atmosphere and soil for children, teens and adults were 1.24E-06, 9.06E-07 and 4.41E-06, respectively, suggesting that the potential cancer risk occurred but the risk was at acceptable levels for both children and adults (atmosphere was performed, which will help us have a good view of the health risk levels of PCDD/Fs in surrounding environment of MWSI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Assessment of vehicular live load and load factors for design of short-span bridges according to the new Egyptian Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatem M. Seliem

    2015-04-01

    The study shows that concrete box-girders designed according to ECP-201:2012 and ECP-201:2003 using the ultimate limit state method yield almost the same demand. Despite the increase in the VLL of ECP-201:2012, and consequently the live load forces, concrete I-shaped girder bridges will be subjected to less total factored internal forces in comparison to ECP-201:2003 This is attributed to the interaction between the live to dead loads ratio and the load combinations. Design of composite steel plate girder bridges according to ECP-201:2012 using the allowable stress design method yields over designed sections.

  9. Extrapolation of short term observations to time periods relevant to the isolation of long lived radioactive waste. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1995-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    This report addresses safety analysis of the whole repository life-cycle that may require long term performance assessment of its components and evaluation of potential impacts of the facility on the environment. Generic consideration of procedures for the development of predictive tools are completed by detailed characterization of selected principles and methods that were applied and presented within the co-ordinated research project (CRP). The project focused on different approaches to extrapolation, considering radionuclide migration/sorption, physical, geochemical and geotechnical characteristics of engineered barriers, irradiated rock and backfill performance, and on corrosion of metallic and vitreous materials. This document contains a comprehensive discussion of the overall problem and the practical results of the individual projects preformed within the CRP. Each of the papers on the individual projects has been indexed separately

  10. Fusion reactor radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaser, J.D.; Postma, A.K.; Bradley, D.J.

    1976-01-01

    Quantities and compositions of non-tritium radioactive waste are estimated for some current conceptual fusion reactor designs, and disposal of large amounts of radioactive waste appears necessary. Although the initial radioactivity of fusion reactor and fission reactor wastes are comparable, the radionuclides in fusion reactor wastes are less hazardous and have shorter half-lives. Areas requiring further research are discussed

  11. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected

  12. Risk perception, risk evaluation and human values: cognitive bases of acceptability of a radioactive waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earle, T.C.; Lindell, M.K.; Rankin, W.L.

    1981-07-01

    Public acceptance of radioactive waste management alternatives depends in part on public perception of the associated risks. Three aspects of those perceived risks were explored in this study: (1) synthetic measures of risk perception based on judgments of probability and consequences; (2) acceptability of hypothetical radioactive waste policies, and (3) effects of human values on risk perception. Both the work on synthetic measures of risk perception and on the acceptability of hypothetical policies included investigations of three categories of risk: (1) Short-term public risk (affecting persons living when the wastes are created), (2) Long-term public risk (affecting persons living after the time the wastes were created), and (3) Occupational risk (affecting persons working with the radioactive wastes). The human values work related to public risk perception in general, across categories of persons affected. Respondents were selected according to a purposive sampling strategy.

  13. A hierarchical classification approach for recognition of low-density (LDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in mixed plastic waste based on short-wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Giuseppe; Serranti, Silvia

    2018-03-03

    The aim of this work was to recognize different polymer flakes from mixed plastic waste through an innovative hierarchical classification strategy based on hyperspectral imaging, with particular reference to low density polyethylene (LDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE). A plastic waste composition assessment, including also LDPE and HDPE identification, may help to define optimal recycling strategies for product quality control. Correct handling of plastic waste is essential for its further "sustainable" recovery, maximizing the sorting performance in particular for plastics with similar characteristics as LDPE and HDPE. Five different plastic waste samples were chosen for the investigation: polypropylene (PP), LDPE, HDPE, polystyrene (PS) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). A calibration dataset was realized utilizing the corresponding virgin polymers. Hyperspectral imaging in the short-wave infrared range (1000-2500nm) was thus applied to evaluate the different plastic spectral attributes finalized to perform their recognition/classification. After exploring polymer spectral differences by principal component analysis (PCA), a hierarchical partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model was built allowing the five different polymers to be recognized. The proposed methodology, based on hierarchical classification, is very powerful and fast, allowing to recognize the five different polymers in a single step. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The concept of responsibility to future generations for the management and storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vial, E.

    2004-01-01

    Recognition of the concept of responsibility to future generations seems, to imply the need to assume responsibility today for radioactive waste legacy of the past as well as for the waste that is currently being generated. However, this view of things, or more precisely this interpretation, is clouded by the lack of a clear definition of the concept of responsibility towards future generations. The concept has been used mainly in connection with long-lived radioactive wastes, which pose the greatest management problem as it so so far exceeds any human scale of reference. Consideration for future generations has to be a factor in the management of all types of radioactive waste, be it short, medium or long-lived waste or very low, low, intermediate or highly radioactive waste. As a general rule the concept of responsibility has made focus on long lived waste, whatever its level of radioactivity. The current alternatives for the management of radioactive waste may be: interim storage, final disposal, incineration, transmutation, to lower the radioactivity of the wastes. These different alternatives are discussed because they are not all genuine solutions and need to be deepened. (N.C.)

  15. Regulatory decision making in the presence of uncertainty in the context of the disposal of long lived radioactive wastes. Third report of the Working group on principles and criteria for radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-10-01

    Plans for disposing of radioactive wastes have raised a number of unique and mostly philosophical problems, mainly due to the very long time-scales which have to be considered. While there is general agreement on disposal concepts and on many aspects of a safety philosophy, consensus on a number of issues remains to be achieved. The IAEA established a subgroup under the International Radioactive Waste Management Advisory Committee (INWAC). The subgroup started its work in 1991 as the ''INWAC Subgroup on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal''. With the reorganization in 1995 of IAEA senior advisory committees in the nuclear safety area, the title of the group was changed to ''Working Group on Principles and Criteria for Radioactive Waste Disposal''. The working group is intended to provide an open forum for: (1) the discussion and resolution of contentious issues, especially those with an international component, in the area of principles and criteria for safe disposal of waste; (2) the review and analysis of new ideas and concepts in the subject area; (3) establishing areas of consensus; (4) the consideration of issues related to safety principles and criteria in the IAEA's Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme; (5) the exchange of information on national safety criteria and policies for radioactive waste disposal. This is the third report of the working group and it deals with the subject of regulatory decision making under conditions of uncertainty which is a matter of concern with respect to disposal of radioactive wastes underground. 14 refs

  16. Present status of management of medical radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, Kunihide [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Radioisotope Center

    1995-12-01

    This paper is a review of the present status of medical radioactive waste management. The primary sources of radioactive waste arise from medical utilization involving in in-vivo tests, in-vivo treatments, in-vitro tests, and activated materials. Radioactive wastes contaminated by 19 clinically applied radioisotopes (RI) are classified as `Medical` by The Japanese Radioisotope Association (JRA). Medical solid and liquid wastes are routinely collected and disposed of by the JRA at their Takizawa Institute. Medical radioactive wastes amount to about 44% of all collected radioactive refuse in Japan with the exception of power plants. The half-lives of these RI are relatively short. Positron emitters, for example, used for PET tests have very short half-lives ranging from about a few minutes to an hour. Materials contaminated by these RI are legally disposed of as radioactive wastes. In contrast, radioactive contamination found in the underwear of {sup 131}I in-vivo treated patients is not legally controlled. Activated parts of cyclotrons target foils, electrodes etc., are also not legally controlled and are voluntarily isolated at each facility. (author).

  17. Neutralization and storage of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minczewski, J.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants are described. The methods of radioactive wastes processing are shortly presented. Their volume is compared with the quantity of wastes from fossil-fuel power plants and municipal wastes. (A.S.)

  18. The transcript catalogue of the short-lived fish Nothobranchius furzeri provides insights into age-dependent changes of mRNA levels

    OpenAIRE

    Petzold, Andreas; Reichwald, Kathrin; Groth, Marco; Taudien, Stefan; Hartmann, Nils; Priebe, Steffen; Shagin, Dmitry; Englert, Christoph; Platzer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Background The African annual fish Nothobranchius furzeri has over recent years been established as a model species for ageing-related studies. This is mainly based on its exceptionally short lifespan and the presence of typical characteristics of vertebrate ageing. To substantiate its role as an alternative vertebrate ageing model, a transcript catalogue is needed, which can serve e.g. as basis for identifying ageing-related genes. Results To build the N. furzeri transcript catalogue, thirte...

  19. Issues and Experiences on Radioactive Waste Quality Control / Quality Assurance with Regard to Future Disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmerhagen, I.; Brennecke, P.; Steyer, S.; Bandt, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the Federal Republic of Germany all types of radioactive waste (short-lived, long-lived) are to be disposed of in deep geological formations. Thus, the safe management of radioactive waste presupposes an appropriate conditioning of primary waste-to-waste packages suitable for emplacement in a repository as well as the documentation of pre-treatment, processing and packaging steps and the waste package characteristics being relevant for disposal. Due to the operation, decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities as well as the application of radioisotopes in industry, medicine and research and development radioactive waste continuously arises in Germany. In order to manage this waste different measures and procedures regarding its conditioning and quality control/quality assurance were introduced and since many years successfully applied. Waste conditioning is especially characterized by a flexible application of the Konrad waste acceptance requirements. The rationale for this approach is due to the present non-availability of a repository in Germany. Several examples of a 'tailor-made' application of the waste acceptance requirements in treatment, conditioning and documentation processes as well as the quality assurance/quality control processes illustrate the current German approach. (authors)

  20. Estimating the mean and variance of measurements from serial radioactive decay schemes with emphasis on 222Rn and its short-lived progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkret, W.C.; Borak, T.B.; Boes, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    Classically, the mean and variance of radioactivity measurements are estimated from poisson distributions. However, the random distribution of observed events is not poisson when the half-life is short compared with the interval of observation or when more than one event can be associated with a single initial atom. Procedures were developed to estimate the mean and variance of single measurements of serial radioactive processes. Results revealed that observations from the three consecutive alpha emissions beginning with 222 Rn are positively correlated. Since the poisson estimator ignores covariance terms, it underestimates the true variance of the measurement. The reverse is true for mixtures of radon daughters only. (author)

  1. Long-lived high and intermediate level radioactive wastes: defining the context, stakes and perspectives; Dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue: situer le contexte, les enjeux et les perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The French law from December 30, 1991 has defined an ambitious 15 years program of researches in order to explore the different possible paths for the long-term management of long-lived high and intermediate level radioactive wastes. The law foresees also that at the end of the 15 years research program, a project of law will be prepared by the French government and transmitted to the European parliament in 2006. A public debate has been organized and emceed in 2005 in order dialogue with the general public and to gather its questions, remarks and fears. In the framework of their contribution to this debate, the ministries of industry and environment have prepared this document which answers some key questions about radioactive waste management: where do wastes come from, what are the risks, how are they managed today in France and in foreign countries, what are the results of the researches carried out during 15 years, what are the advantages and drawbacks of each waste management solution considered, what is the perspective of application of each solution, what is the position of experts, what will be the decision process. This synthetic document supplies some reference marks to better understand these different points. Some pedagogical files about radioactivity, fuel cycle, and nuclear industry activities are attached to the document. (J.S.)

  2. [Living with achondroplasia- how do young persons with disproportional short stature rate their quality of life and which factors are associated with quality of life?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohenkohl, Anja C; Sommer, Rachel; Bestges, Stephanie; Kahrs, Sabine; Klingebiel, Karl-Heinz; Bullinger, Monika; Quitmann, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Presently, little is known aqout the quality of life (QoL) as well as the strengths and difficulties of young people with achondroplasia. This study describes these patient-reported indicators and identifies possible correlates. At the invitation of a patient organization, a total of 89 short-statured patients aged 8 to 28 years and their parents participated in this study. QoL was assessed cross-sectionally with both generic and disease-specific instruments and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as a brief behavioral screening. In addition to descriptive analyses, patient data were compared with a reference population. Hierarchical regression analyses reflecting sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological variables were conducted to identify correlates of QoL. QoL and the strengths and difficulties of young patients with achondroplasia did not differ substantially from a healthy norm sample. However, the participants reported more behavioral problems and limitations in their physical and social QoL compared to patients with another short stature diagnosis. Strengths and difficulties, height-related beliefs, and social support correlated significantly with QoL. Adding psychological variables to the regression model increased the proportion of variance explained in QoL. Young persons with achondroplasia did not differ in their QoL and strengths and difficulties from healthy controls. Characteristics such as height appear less important for the self-perceived QoL than are strengths and difficulties and protective psychosocia~factors.

  3. Review and Analysis of Solid Long-lived and High Level Radioactive Waste arising at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant and the Restricted Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antropov, V.M.; Bugai, D.A.; Dutton, L.M.C.; Gerchikov, M.Y.; Kennett, E.J.; Ledenev, A.I.; Novikov, A.A.; Rudko, V.; Ziegenhagen, J.

    2001-01-01

    The study characterised potential waste arisings in the Exclusion Zone surrounding the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant. Studied sites include the Industrial Zone outside the Sarcophagus, three engineered disposal sites (the so-called PZRO), non-engineered near surface trench dumps (PVLRO), contaminated soil and sites of ''unauthorized'' disposal within the Exclusion Zone. Analysis of the previous methodology used for waste characterisation and inventory estimates identified a number of errors. A new database was established, which contains the most up-to date information on radwaste in the Exclusion Zone. Based on the analysis of the available information and potential radiological consequences, a judgement was taken regarding the priority of waste retrieval. In a number of cases it is necessary to carry out risk assessment to ensure that in-situ disposal would satisfy the Ukrainian regulations. Assessments of waste stream volumes for subsequent incineration, encapsulation, storage and disposal in the planned near-surface facilities have been made. It is judged that throughput and capacity of the planned waste management facilities specified by OSAT is, in general, appropriate to the likely waste arisings. (author)

  4. The transport implications of siting policies for the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, I.A.

    1986-01-01

    This report has been produced to be complementary to the previously issued report ''The Transport Implications of Regional Policies for The Disposal of Intermediate Level Radioactive Wastes''. The same combinations of disposal facilities have been used so that direct comparison with intermediate waste results can be made. Low level wastes and short-lived intermediate level wastes for near-surface disposal are assumed to share a common infrastructure on the rail system and hence a methodology of separating total costs between these two waste types has been derived. Two transport modes, road and rail have been analysed. Hybrid transport, a combination of road and rail systems, has not been examined since no site is considered to produce sufficient waste to justify a dedicated rail service. Sellafield, has not been included in this examination since it is assumed to be served by its own disposal site at Drigg. (author)

  5. Annual report of the Aube storage center for very-low-level radioactive wastes (CSTFA) - 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2011 activity report of the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety, security and radiation protection, environmental monitoring and effluents, public information and communication

  6. Aube storage center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. Annual report 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-09-01

    The National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (Andra), was established by the December 1991 Waste Act as a public body in charge of the long-term management of all radioactive waste, under the supervision of the Ministry of Ecology, Energy, Sustainable Development and the Sea (formerly the Ministry of Industry and the Ministry of Environment), and the Ministry of Research. The Andra operates two storage centers in the Aube region (France): the center for short-lived low- and intermediate-level wastes, and the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. This document is the 2010 activity report of the center for very-low-level radioactive wastes. It presents a review of the activities of the center: presentation of the installations, safety, security and radiation protection, environmental monitoring and effluents, public information and communication

  7. Measurement of cross sections producing short-lived nuclei by 14MeV neutron. Cd, Sn, Te, Nd, Gd, Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan); Iida, T.; Takahashi, A.

    1998-03-01

    Nine neutron activation cross sections producing the nuclei with half-lives between 25sec and 22min were measured at energy range between 13.4 and 14.9 MeV by activation method. The (n,p) and (n,{alpha}) reaction cross sections were measured for the isotopes of {sup 110}Cd, {sup 112}Sn, {sup 122}Te, {sup 130}Te and {sup 185}Re and those of {sup 130}Te, {sup 148}Nd and {sup 158}Gd, respectively. The present results were compared with our systematics proposed on the basis of 58 cross section data of (n,p) and 33 data of (n,{alpha}) reaction. Good agreements have been seen between them. (author)

  8. Assessment of the geometry of proximal femur for short cephalomedullary nail placement: An observational study in dry femora and living subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra Pathrot

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intramedullary devices have increasingly become popular and are widely used for fixation of unstable intertrochanteric and subtrochanteric fractures as well. These implants have been designed taking into consideration the anthropometry of the western population whose anthropometry varies from those of other ethnic groups. This study was carried out to assess the geometry of proximal femur for the placement of short cephalomedullary nails in our subset of patients and suggest suitable design modifications based on these parameters. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the following three groups: (1 Anthropometric study of 101 adult human dry femora, (2 radiographs of the same femora, and (3 radiographs of the contralateral uninjured limb of 102 patients with intertrochanteric or subtrochanteric fractures. In Group 1, standard anthropometric techniques were used to measure neck shaft angle (NSA, minimal neck width (NW, trochanteric offset, and distance from the tip of greater trochanter (GT to the lower border of lesser trochanter on the femoral shaft axis (distance X. In Group 2 and 3, the NSA, minimal NW, NW at 130° and 135°, trochanteric shaft angle (TSA, trochanteric offset, distance X, distance between the tip of GT and the point where the neck axis crosses the line joining the tip of the GT to the lower border of the lesser trochanter on the femoral shaft axis (distance Y, and canal width at 10, 15, and 20 cm from tip of GT were measured on standard radiographs. The values obtained in these three groups were pooled to obtain mean values. Various parameters of commonly used short cephalomedullary nails available for fixation of pertrochanteric fractures were obtained. These were compared to the results obtained to suggest suitable modifications in the nail designs for our subset of patients. Results: The mean parameters observed were as follows: NSA 128.07° ± 4.97 (range 107°–141°, minimum NW 29.0 ± 2.8 mm

  9. The waste management program VUB-AZ: An integrated solution for nuclear biomedical waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Covens, P.; Sonck, M.; Eggermont, G.; Meert, D.

    2001-01-01

    Due to escalating costs and the lack of acceptance of near-surface disposal facilities, the University of Brussels (VUB) and its Academic hospital (AZ) have developed an on-site waste storage program in collaboration with Canberra Europe. This programme is based on selective collection, measurement before decay, storage for decay of short-lived radionuclides, measurement after decay and eventual clearance as non-nuclear waste. It has proved its effectiveness over the past 5 years. Effective characterisation for on-site storage for decay of short-lived radionuclides makes selective collection of waste streams mandatory and requires motivated and trained laboratory staff. Dynamic optimisation of this selective collection increases the efficiency of the storage for decay programme. The accurate qualitative and quantitative measurement of nuclear biomedical waste before decay has several advantages such as verification of correct selective collection, optimisation of the decay period and possibility of clearance below the minimal detectable activity. In the research phase of the program several measurement techniques were investigated. The following measurement concept was selected. Closed PE drums containing low density solid waste materials contaminated with small amounts of β/γ-or pure β-emitting radionuclides are assessed for specific activity by the Canberra measurement unit for nuclear biomedical waste, based on a HPGe-detector. Liquid waste containing (β/γ-emitters are characterised by the same technique while for pure β-emitting liquid waste a Packard liquid scintillation counter is used. Measurement results are obtained by using the gamma-spectroscopy software Genie-2000. A user-friendly interface, based on Procount-2000 and optimised by Canberra for the characterisation of nuclear biomedical waste, has increased the sample throughput of the measurement concept. The MDA (minimal detectable activity) of different radionuclides obtained by the measurement

  10. Short-term effects of sugarcane waste products from ethanol production plant as soil amendments on sugarcane growth and metal stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkajit, Pensiri; DeSutter, Thomas; Tongcumpou, Chantra

    2013-05-01

    Numerous waste products have been widely studied and used as soil amendments and metal immobilizing agents. Waste utilization from ethanol production processes as soil amendments is one of the most promising and sustainable options to help utilize materials effectively, reduce waste disposal, and add value to byproducts. As a consequence, this present work carried out a four-month pot experiment of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) cultivation in Cd and Zn contaminated soil to determine the effect of three sugarcane waste products (boiler ash, filter cake and vinasse) as soil amendment on sugarcane growth, metal translocation and accumulation in sugarcane, and fractionation of Cd and Zn in soil by the BCR sequential extraction. Four treatments were tested: (1) non-amended soil; (2) 3% w/w boiler ash; (3) 3% w/w filter cake; and (4) a combination of 1.5% boiler ash and 1.5% vinasse (w/w). Our findings showed the improved biomass production of sugarcanes; 6 and 3-fold higher for the above ground parts (from 8.5 to 57.6 g per plant) and root (from 2.1 to 6.59 g per plant), respectively, as compared to non-amended soil. Although there was no significant difference in Cd and Zn uptake in sugarcane (mg kg(-1)) between the non-amended soil and the treated soils (0.44 to 0.52 mg Cd kg(-1) and 39.9 to 48.1 mg Zn kg(-1), respectively), the reduction of the most bioavailable Cd concentration (BCR1 + 2) in the treated soils (35.4-54.5%) and the transformation of metal into an insoluble fraction (BCR3) highlighted the beneficial effects of sugarcane waste-products in promoting the sugarcane growth and Cd stabilization in soil.

  11. The Danish inventory of radioactive waste and the required repository type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Gerhard [Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt (Germany). Div. on Nuclear Engineering and Facility Safety

    2014-11-15

    Denmark has a relatively small inventory of radioactive wastes. As Denmark never built and operated nuclear power plants, the wastes resulted only from various research activities. In order to manage those wastes, the Danish Government has ordered to describe those wastes and the available management options. Based on vague criteria, most of the waste types were termed as ''short-lived'' and as suitable for a surface-near disposal facility. The Government then ordered the Geological survey organization of Denmark, GEUS, to scan Denmark for suitable locations. ''Suitable'' depth was defined as 0 to 100 m below ground. Neither were isolation properties or other requirements for geological layers defined nor were those criteria agreed in a broader sense (with experts, with the public). GEUS identified a number of potentially suitable locations and selected six of those as the most promising. In this paper the basic decision of preferring surface-near disposal for most of the waste types is analysed. As a central criterion for the suitability of the waste types for surface-near disposal is defined that those waste types decay within 300 years to below today's clearance levels. The results show, that none of the Danish types of waste meets this simple requirement. All are above that criterion, most of them by several orders of magnitude and over very much longer times such as 100.000 years or even longer. The basic assumption of the performed site selection procedure, to search for near-surface locations for short-lived wastes, so proves to be invalid. The whole process should be re-done on the basis that the long-term isolation of those wastes in impermeable layers has to be guaranteed. The suitability criteria should focus on the long-term isolation of all wastes and should be agreed in advance.

  12. Deep reversible storage. Design options for the storage in deep geological formation - High-medium activity, long living wastes 2009 milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    This report aims at presenting a synthesis of currently studied solutions for the different components of the project of deep geological radioactive waste storage centre. For each of these elements, the report indicates the main operational objectives to be taken into account in relationship with safety functions or with reversibility. It identifies the currently proposed design options, presents the technical solutions (with sometime several possibilities), indicates industrial references (in the nuclear sector, in underground works) and comments results of technological tests performed by the ANDRA. After a description of functionalities and of the overall organisation of storage components, the different following elements and aspects are addressed: surface installations, underground architecture, parcel transfer between the surface and storage cells, storage container for medium-activity long-life (MAVL) waste, storage cell for medium-activity long-life waste, handling of MAVL parcels in storage cells, storage container for high-activity (HA) waste, storage cell for HA waste, handling of HA parcels in storage cells, and works for site closing

  13. Deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate-level waste in Sweden (SFL 3-5): An international peer review of SKB 's preliminary safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, N.; Apted, M.; Glasser, F.; Voss, C.

    2000-10-01

    The SKB safety assessment of the SFL 3-5 repository (the planned deep repository for long-lived low- and intermediate level waste) can be read in two contexts: as a preliminary evaluation of the performance and design options for a repository that will not be required for perhaps forty years; or as an evaluation of a repository that might need to be sited together with the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, and whose nature and performance might thus need to be understood to a level that can be used to make wider programmatic decisions during the next five years. These two 'assessment contexts' are quite different, and an overarching issue is the fact that it was not clear to the review team which view to take. Apparently, SKB would tend towards the first context. However, it is not at all apparent to the reviewers why the second context should not be the predominant driver in the near future. The review team notes that the SFL 3-5 repository, as modelled by SKB, gives rise to potentially perceptible radionuclide releases to the environment on a timescale of hundreds of years after closure. This is in contrast to the SR 97 assessment for the SFL 2 spent fuel repository, which base scenario predicts no releases over a million year timescale. It is clear that according to SKB's SR97 and SFL3-5 analyses, for co-located facilities, it is this repository that has the potential for real radiological impacts in the immediate future. An initial recommendation from the review, is that SKB and the regulatory authorities consider which context is appropriate to the current status of the Swedish programme. This is important, because an overall impression of the reviewers is that the analysis would not be 'fit for purpose' if it were needed to assist with decision-making by SKB or the regulatory agencies. There are too many unanswered questions, and the overall impression of the safety concept is one of some fragility. Because there is no real design basis presented, no thorough

  14. Development of a pyro-partitioning process for long-lived radioactive nuclides. Process test for pretreatment of simulated high-level waste containing uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Masateru; Hijikata, Takatoshi; Kinoshita, Kensuke; Inoue, Tadashi

    2000-01-01

    A pyro-partitioning process developed at CRIEPI requires a pre-treatment process to convert high-level liquid waste to chloride. A combination process of denitration and chlorination has been developed for this purpose. Continuous process tests using simulated high-level waste were performed to certify the applicability of the process. Test results indicated a successful material balance sufficient for satisfying pyro-partitioning process criteria. In the present study, process tests using simulated high-level waste containing uranium were also carried out to prove that the pre-treatment process is feasible for uranium. The results indicated that uranium can be converted to chloride appropriate for the pyro-partitioning process. The material balance obtained from the tests is to be used to revise the process flow diagram. (author)

  15. Measurement of formation cross sections of short-lived nuclei by 14 MeV neutron. Nd, Sm, Dy, Er, Yb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakane, H.; Yamamoto, H.; Kawade, K. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering; Iida, T.; Takahashi, A.

    1997-03-01

    Eight neutron activation cross sections producing the nuclei with half-lives between 3 min and 24 min were obtained at the energy range between 13.4 and 14.9 MeV by activation method. The cross sections were {sup 146}Nd(n,p){sup 146}Pr, {sup 154}Sm(n,{alpha}){sup 151}Nd, {sup 162}Dy(n,p){sup 162}Tb, {sup 163}Dy(n,np){sup 162}Tb, {sup 163}Dy(n,p){sup 163}Tb, {sup 164}Dy(n,p){sup 164}Tb, {sup 170}Er(n,{alpha}){sup 167}Dy, {sup 174}Yb(n,p){sup 170}Tm. {sup 163}Dy(n,np){sup 162}Tb (T{sub 1/2}=7.7 min) was obtained for the first time. Present results are compared with previous results and the evaluated data of JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-VI. There are some discrepancies between present results and the JENDL-3 and ENDF/B-VI. (author)

  16. Comparison of neutron capture cross sections obtained from two Hauser-Feshbach statistical models on a short-lived nucleus using experimentally constrained input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Rebecca; Liddick, Sean; Spyrou, Artemis; Crider, Benjamin; Dombos, Alexander; Naqvi, Farheen; Prokop, Christopher; Quinn, Stephen; Larsen, Ann-Cecilie; Crespo Campo, Lucia; Guttormsen, Magne; Renstrom, Therese; Siem, Sunniva; Bleuel, Darren; Couture, Aaron; Mosby, Shea; Perdikakis, George

    2017-09-01

    A majority of the abundance of the elements above iron are produced by neutron capture reactions, and, in explosive stellar processes, many of these reactions take place on unstable nuclei. Direct neutron capture experiments can only be performed on stable and long-lived nuclei, requiring indirect methods for the remaining isotopes. Statistical neutron capture can be described using the nuclear level density (NLD), the γ strength function (γSF), and an optical model. The NLD and γSF can be obtained using the β-Oslo method. The NLD and γSF were recently determined for 74Zn using the β-Oslo method, and were used in both TALYS and CoH to calculate the 73Zn(n, γ)74Zn neutron capture cross section. The cross sections calculated in TALYS and CoH are expected to be identical if the inputs for both codes are the same, however, after a thorough investigation into the inputs for the 73Zn(n, γ)74Zn reaction there is still a factor of two discrepancy between the two codes.

  17. Rapid increase in cosmogenic 14C in AD 775 measured in New Zealand kauri trees indicates short-lived increase in 14C production spanning both hemispheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güttler, D.; Adolphi, F.; Beer, J.; Bleicher, N.; Boswijk, G.; Christl, M.; Hogg, A.; Palmer, J.; Vockenhuber, C.; Wacker, L.; Wunder, J.

    2015-02-01

    In 2012, Miyake et al. reported a sudden and strong increase of the atmospheric radiocarbon (14C) content in Japanese cedar trees of 1.2% between AD 774 and 775. While their findings were quickly confirmed by a German oak chronology for the Northern Hemisphere (NH), the question remained if the effect was seen in both hemispheres. Here we present the first annually resolved Southern Hemisphere (SH) 14C record spanning the interval AD 760-787, using New Zealand kauri (Agathis australis) chronology wood. An almost identical distinct increase compared to Northern Hemisphere data was observed, suggesting a cosmic event with globally uniform impact as a potential cause for the increase. Deploying a carbon cycle box model a worldwide averaged net 14C production of 2.2 ×108 14C atoms cm-2 was estimated, which is 3.7 times higher than the average annual 14C production. The immediate appearance of the event in tree rings on both hemispheres suggests a short duration event of significantly less than 1 yr.

  18. Opicapone: a short lived and very long acting novel catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor following multiple dose administration in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, José Francisco; Almeida, Luis; Falcão, Amílcar; Palma, P Nuno; Loureiro, Ana I; Pinto, Roberto; Bonifácio, Maria João; Wright, Lyndon C; Nunes, Teresa; Soares-da-Silva, Patrício

    2013-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to assess the tolerability, pharmacokinetics and inhibitory effect on erythrocyte soluble catechol-O-methyltransferase (S-COMT) activity following repeated doses of opicapone. Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study enrolled healthy male subjects who received either once daily placebo or opicapone 5, 10, 20 or 30 mg for 8 days. Results Opicapone was well tolerated. Its systemic exposure increased in an approximately dose-proportional manner with an apparent terminal half-life of 1.0 to 1.4 h. Sulphation was the main metabolic pathway. Opicapone metabolites recovered in urine accounted for less than 3% of the amount of opicapone administered suggesting that bile is likely the main route of excretion. Maximum S-COMT inhibition (Emax) ranged from 69.9% to 98.0% following the last dose of opicapone. The opicapone-induced S-COMT inhibition showed a half-life in excess of 100 h, which was dose-independent and much longer than plasma drug exposure. Such a half-life translates into a putative underlying rate constant that is comparable with the estimated dissociation rate constant of the COMT–opicapone complex. Conclusion Despite its short elimination half-life, opicapone markedly and sustainably inhibited erythrocyte S-COMT activity making it suitable for a once daily regimen. PMID:23336248

  19. Short summary of International workshop on principles for disposal of radioactive and other hazardous wastes, Stockholm 7-10 june 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop has been to discuss legal, scientific and practical aspects of disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LLW and ILW) and other types of hazardous wastes. During the autumn the National Institute of Radiation Protection will produce proceedings from the workshop. These proceedings will be published by the Department of Environment and Energy and will include opening addresses, invited paper, reports from discussions from plenary sessions as well as working groups and the recommendations agreed upon. In annexes will be found reports from the different working groups as well as the more interesting parts of the national presentations that served as discussion material for the different working groups

  20. Characterization of waste rock associated with acid drainage at the Penn Mine, California, by ground-based visible to short-wave infrared reflectance spectroscopy assisted by digital mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, S.I.C.; Brimhall, G.H.; Alpers, Charles N.; Swayze, G.A.

    2005-01-01

    Prior to remediation at the abandoned Cu-Zn Penn Mine in the Foothills massive sulfide belt of the Sierra Nevada, CA, acid mine drainage (AMD) was created, in part, by the subaerial oxidation of sulfides exposed on several waste piles. To support remediation efforts, a mineralogical study of the waste piles was undertaken by acquiring reflectance spectra (measured in the visible to short-wave infrared range of light (0.35-2.5 ??m) using a portable, digitally integrated pen tablet PC mapping system with differential global positioning system and laser rangefinder support. Analysis of the spectral data made use of a continuum removal and band-shape comparison method, and of reference spectral libraries of end-member minerals and mineral mixtures. Identification of secondary Fe-bearing minerals focused on band matching in the region between 0.43 and 1.3 ??m. Identification of sheet and other silicates was based on band-shape analysis in the region between 1.9 and 2.4 ??m. Analysis of reflectance spectra of characterized rock samples from the mine helped in gauging the spectral response to particle size and mixtures. The resulting mineral maps delineated a pattern of accumulation of secondary Fe minerals, wherein centers of copiapite and jarosite that formed at low pH (<3) were surrounded successively by goethite and hematite, which mark progressive increases in pH. This pattern represents the evolution of acid solutions discharged from the pyritic waste piles and the subsequent accumulation of secondary precipitates by hydrolysis reactions. The results highlight the high capacity of the pyritic waste to release further acid mine drainage into the environment, as well as the effectiveness of the mapping method to detect subtle changes in surface mineralogy and to produce maps useful to agencies responsible for remediating the site. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward

    2016-01-01

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  2. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  3. CD154 blockade alters innate immune cell recruitment and programs alloreactive CD8+ T cells into KLRG-1(high short-lived effector T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana R Ferrer

    Full Text Available CD154/CD40 blockade combined with donor specific transfusion remains one of the most effective therapies in prolonging allograft survival. Despite this, the mechanisms by which these pathways synergize to prevent rejection are not completely understood. Utilizing a BALB/c (H2-K(d to B6 (H2-K(b fully allogeneic skin transplant model system, we performed a detailed longitudinal analysis of the kinetics and magnitude of CD8(+ T cell expansion and differentiation in the presence of CD154/CD40 pathway blockade. Results demonstrated that treatment with anti-CD154 vs. DST had distinct and opposing effects on activated CD44(high CD62L(low CD8(+ T cells in skin graft recipients. Specifically, CD154 blockade delayed alloreactive CD8(+ T cell responses, while DST accelerated them. DST inhibited the differentiation of alloreactive CD8(+ T cells into multi-cytokine producing effectors, while CD40/CD154 blockade led to the diminution of the KLRG-1(low long-lived memory precursor population compared with either untreated or DST treated animals. Moreover, only CD154 blockade effectively inhibited CXCL1 expression and neutrophil recruitment into the graft. When combined, anti-CD154 and DST acted synergistically to profoundly diminish the absolute number of IFN-γ producing alloreactive CD8(+ T cells, and intra-graft expression of inflammatory chemokines. These findings demonstrate that the previously described ability of anti-CD154 and DST to result in alloreactive T cell deletion involves both delayed kinetics of T cell expansion and differentiation and inhibited development of KLRG-1(low memory precursor cells.

  4. What ethics should apply to the management of long-lived radioactive waste?; Quelle ethique pour la gestion des dechets radioactifs a vie longue?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strohl, P

    2002-07-01

    Taking action now in the name of a responsible attitude towards humanity in the future: management of the long-term risk posed by certain types of radioactive waste may give rise to a kind of metamoral revolution which goes beyond its specific nature - as long as it remains in the province of reality, rather than the imagination. Following the decisions made by the French Government in December 1998 concerning the creation of two underground laboratories, and the recent granting of permission to build the laboratory at Bure in the Meuse, it is perhaps time to discuss the ethical questions raised by the management of radioactive waste, because the responses usually put forward remain too superficial. Furthermore, it is all too often accepted that they should be made subordinate to the debates on the future of the nuclear industry within the framework of energy policy, whereas the waste that the industry has generated already exists. The safety of this waste must therefore be guaranteed, both in the immediate future and in the long term, so that mankind and the environment are not exposed to levels of irradiation or contamination which exceed those permitted by the radiological protection standards - and this must be done until the danger disappears through radioactive decay, whatever the fate of the nuclear industry. However, we can be certain that any weakening in nuclear technology would adversely affect management of the downstream portion of the fuel cycle.

  5. A contribution to the physical and chemical model of long-lived radioactive wastes by clayey materials; Contribution a la modelisation physico-chimique de la retention de radioelements a vie longue par des materiaux argileux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgeon, L.

    1994-11-25

    This work deals with the high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes confinement which come from the irradiated fuels reprocessing. These wastes are generally coated in a deep geological structure confinement matrix. The radiation protection of a such storage requires that the coating matrix, the technological barriers which separate the storage and the geological medium and the reception rock does not let the radioactive wastes pass. The materials used in this work for the confinement studies are clayey minerals and the retention mechanisms studies are realized on cesium 135, neptunium 237, americium 241 and uranium 233. The first part of this thesis concerns the clayey minerals retention properties towards ions in aqueous solutions. More particularly the relations between these properties and the chemical structure of these solids are investigated. In the second part are presented the experimental works which have allowed to specify the intrinsic characteristics of the studied minerals. Indeed the knowledge of these parameters is essential to quantitatively explain the results of the radionuclides retention. The adsorption mechanisms are described in a third part. (O.L.). 112 refs., 59 figs., 51 tabs.

  6. IL-15 induces strong but short-lived tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cell responses through the regulation of Tim-3 in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heon, Elise K. [University of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD 21201 (United States); Wulan, Hasi [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, PLA General Hospital, Beijing, 100853 (China); Macdonald, Loch P.; Malek, Adel O.; Braunstein, Glenn H.; Eaves, Connie G.; Schattner, Mark D. [Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Allen, Peter M.; Alexander, Michael O.; Hawkins, Cynthia A.; McGovern, Dermot W.; Freeman, Richard L. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Amir, Eitan P.; Huse, Jason D. [University of Illinois, Chicago, IL 60607 (United States); Zaltzman, Jeffrey S.; Kauff, Noah P.; Meyers, Paul G. [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Gleason, Michelle H., E-mail: GleasonM@cblabs.org [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Overholtzer, Michael G., E-mail: OverholtzerM@cblabs.org [University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Wiseman, Sam S. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); and others

    2015-08-14

    and IL-2 had different kinetics in inducing TI CD8 T cell responses. • IL-15 induced stronger but shorter-lived TI CD8 T cell responses than IL-2. • IL-15, but not IL-2, caused upregulation of Tim-3 on TI CD8 T cells. • Blocking Tim-3 resulted in increased IL-15-induced proliferation and IFN-γ production in TI CD8 T cells.