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Sample records for short life radioactive

  1. Innovative methodology for intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators using short half-life in situ prepared radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P. A.; Santos, J. A. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: An original radionuclide calibrator method for activity determination is presented. The method could be used for intercomparison surveys for short half-life radioactive sources used in Nuclear Medicine, such as 99m Tc or most positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: By evaluation of the resulting net optical density (netOD) using a standardized scanning method of irradiated Gafchromic XRQA2 film, a comparison of the netOD measurement with a previously determined calibration curve can be made and the difference between the tested radionuclide calibrator and a radionuclide calibrator used as reference device can be calculated. To estimate the total expected measurement uncertainties, a careful analysis of the methodology, for the case of 99m Tc, was performed: reproducibility determination, scanning conditions, and possible fadeout effects. Since every factor of the activity measurement procedure can influence the final result, the method also evaluates correct syringe positioning inside the radionuclide calibrator. Results: As an alternative to using a calibrated source sent to the surveyed site, which requires a relatively long half-life of the nuclide, or sending a portable calibrated radionuclide calibrator, the proposed method uses a source preparedin situ. An indirect activity determination is achieved by the irradiation of a radiochromic film using 99m Tc under strictly controlled conditions, and cumulated activity calculation from the initial activity and total irradiation time. The irradiated Gafchromic film and the irradiator, without the source, can then be sent to a National Metrology Institute for evaluation of the results. Conclusions: The methodology described in this paper showed to have a good potential for accurate (3%) radionuclide calibrators intercomparison studies for 99m Tc between Nuclear Medicine centers without source transfer and can easily be adapted to other short half-life radionuclides

  2. Focus on the legislative approach to short half life radioactive hospital waste releasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrucci, Caterina; Traino, Antonio Claudio

    2015-11-01

    We propose to summarize the advancements introduced by the new Directive 2013/59/Euratom concerning the concept of clearance, for which the radioactive medical waste represents a typical candidate. We also intend to spotlight disputable points in the regulatory scheme in force in Italy, as well to make a contribution to evaluate whether the practice of patients' urine storing, stated by it, can be regarded to be proper. With directing our interest to radionuclides used in Nuclear Medicine, we first present an overview of how the clearance concept, and that of exemption closely related to it, have been developed from the previous Directive 96/29 to the new one; then we describe the implementation of these concepts in the Italian legislation. Subsequently we estimate the exposure due both to keeping the effluent on site and to direct discharging it to the environment. In line with a well established international consensus, the Directive 2013/59 drives simple and harmonized regulation of clearance. On the contrary, some complexity and lack of consistency can be found in the framework of the national legislation affecting the radioactive medical waste handling. In addition the practice of excreta storing is disputed not to be really beneficial. The opportunity should be taken to make the whole system of these requirements simpler and more consistent and effective when it is revised to transpose the new Directive. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  4. Treatment of short-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Chiri

    1976-01-01

    Recently short life nuclides have come to be utilized increasingly as diagnostic radioisotopes, and Tc-99m (half-life; 6.05 hours) and Ga-67 (half-life 7.79 hours) are replacing the most nuclides fomerly used in vivo test. Such development of radioactive products inevitably causes the rapid increase of their wastes. At present, the radioactive wastes produced by hospitals and university laboratories in Japan are collected by the Japan Radioisotope Association, and treated by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. These wastes are divided into combustibles and incombustibles to store in the store house in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present law in Japan contains the contradiction which treats the matter with one several millionth of radioactivity after decay same as the original radioactive matter. Thus solid must be stored permanently, while gas and liquid can be discharged after dilution. (Kobatake, H.)

  5. The storage center of short life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    Situated at 50 km of Troyes, the Aube Center was opened in 1992 in order to take over from the Manche Center, for the surface storage of low life low and intermediate level radioactive wastes. It offers an answer to manage safely theses wastes at an industrial scale during 50 years. (A.L.B.)

  6. Hydro-mechanical improvement of the cap cover of a surface landfill for low and intermediate level radioactive waste short life time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verstaevel, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    This study related to the Manche storage center (CSM), one of the first landfill in the world dedicated to low and intermediate radioactive waste short-live time. The researches considered in this thesis supported by industrial companies, focus on the hydraulic study of cap cover materials of the site, and their hydro-mechanical improvement. The aim is to improve their impermeability in order to be substituted to the geo-membrane as cap cover liner. A specification imposed by Andra was to consider a solution of the re-use of the in situ material by adding of additive. The initial material is a sandy silt, a material with a significant proportion of fines. In the literature there are many studies on the mechanical improvement of fine materials (applications to road infrastructure) and the treatment of sandy materials by adding a fine fraction (constitution of waterproof barriers). On the other hand there are very few studies on the impermeability improvement of fine soils. A physical tests campaign on treated materials with bentonite was carried out at various treatment rates. The results showed that the addition of additive induces a decrease in optimum dry unit weight for a normal Proctor compaction energy and increases their optimum water content. In addition, the susceptibility to erosion, internal or external, observed during oedo-permeameter test was assessed from various stability criteria available in the literature. Unlike the treatment of soil for road embankments, the increase of the material stiffness is not wanted and flexibility is preferred what is observed with the treatment tested. The comparative hydraulic conductivity of the untreated and treated materials were measured. In this study different devices (oedo-permeameter, permeameters, triaxial device) were used. The influence of the treatment rate of the material on the decrease of the hydraulic conductivity was observed. Four large scale experimentations were designed; they should be monitored

  7. Nuclear incineration method for long life radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Takaaki; Uematsu, Kunihiko.

    1987-01-01

    Nuclear incineration method is the method of converting the long life radioactive nuclides in wastes to short life or stable nuclides by utilizing the nuclear reaction caused by radiation, unlike usual chemical incineration. By the nuclear incineration, the radioactivity of wastes increases in a short period, but the problems at the time of the disposal are reduced because of the decrease of long life radioactive nuclides. As the radiation used for the nuclear incineration, the neutron beam from fission and fusion reactors and accelerators, the proton beam and gamma ray from accelerators have been studied. The object of the nuclear incineration is actinide, Sr-90, Cs-137, I-129 and Tc-99. In particular, waste actinide emits alpha ray, and is strongly toxic, accordingly, the motive of attempting the nuclear incineration is strong. In Japan, about 24t of waste actinide will accumulate by 2000. The principle of the nuclear incineration, and the nuclear incineration using nuclear fission and fusion reactors and accelerators are described. The nuclear incineration using fission reactors was examined for the first time in 1972 in USA. It is most promising because it is feasible by the present technology without particular research and development. (Kako, I.)

  8. Safety objectives and basic design for surface centres for long-term storage of solid radioactive waste with short or medium half-life and low or medium specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    RFS or Regles Fondamentales de Surete (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety, while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires, or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary, any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The role of this RFS is to define the safety objectives and the basic design philosophy for surface centres for long-term storage of packages of radioactive waste with short or medium half-life and with low or medium specific activity

  9. Study of radioactive nuclides of very short half-life produced by fast neutrons; Etude de corps radioactifs a vie tres breve produits par neutrons rapides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monnand, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1965-07-01

    Several radionuclides, already known, with half-lives ranging from 5 10{sup -5} to 1 second were observed by pulsed irradiations of C - Mg - Al - Y - In - Tl - Pb - Bi with 14.3 MeV neutrons. These radionuclides are: {sup 12}B (20 {+-} 0.4 ms) - {sup 24m}Na (20 {+-} 0.6 ms) - {sup 88m1}Y (0.332 {+-} 0.012 ms) - {sup 88m2}Y (14.6 {+-} 0.4 ms) - {sup 114m}In (43.5 {+-} 2 ms) - {sup 202m}Tl (0.570 {+-} 0.010 ms) - {sup 204m}Tl (0.063 {+-} 0.002 ms) - {sup 205m}Pb (5.5 {+-}0.3 ms) - {sup 206m}Pb (0.126 {+-} 0.006 ms) - {sup 207m}Pb (830 {+-} 30 ms) - {sup 208m}Bi (2.56 {+-} 0.1 ms). Their half-life, the {beta} and {gamma} rays energies and the production cross sections were measured. (author) [French] Plusieurs radionucleides deja connus, de periode comprise entre 5 10{sup -5} et 1 seconde ont ete observes par irradiation pulsee avec des neutrons de 14,3 MeV, des elements suivants: C - Mg - Al - Y - In - Tl - Pb - Bi. Ces radionucleides sont: {sup 12}B (20 {+-} 0.4 ms) - {sup 24m}Na (20 {+-} 0.6 ms) - {sup 88m1}Y (0.332 {+-} 0.012 ms) - {sup 88m2}Y (14.6 {+-} 0.4 ms) - {sup 114m}In (43.5 {+-} 2 ms) - {sup 202m}Tl (0.570 {+-} 0.010 ms) - {sup 204m}Tl (0.063 {+-} 0.002 ms) - {sup 205m}Pb (5.5 {+-}0.3 ms) - {sup 206m}Pb (0.126 {+-} 0.006 ms) - {sup 207m}Pb (830 {+-} 30 ms) - {sup 208m}Bi (2.56 {+-} 0.1 ms). Leur periode, l'energie des rayonnements {beta} et {gamma} emis, et la section efficace de production ont ete mesurees. (auteur)

  10. Radioactive materials transportation life-cycle cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, P.C.; Donovan, K.S.; Spooner, O.R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses factors that should be considered when estimating the life-cycle cost of shipping radioactive materials and the development of a working model that has been successfully used. Today's environmental concerns have produced an increased emphasis on cleanup and restoration of production plants and interim storage sites for radioactive materials. The need to transport these radioactive materials to processing facilities or permanent repositories is offset by the reality of limited resources and ever-tightening budgets. Obtaining the true cost of transportation is often difficult because of the many direct and indirect costs involved and the variety of methods used to account for fixed and variable expenses. In order to make valid comparisons between the cost of alternate transportation systems for new and/or existing programs, one should consider more than just the cost of capital equipment or freight cost per mile. Of special interest is the cost of design, fabrication, use, and maintenance of shipping containers in accordance with the requirements of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. A spread sheet model was developed to compare the life-cycle costs of alternate fleet configurations of TRUPACT-II, which will be used to ship transuranic waste from U.S. Department of Energy sites to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico

  11. Management of ''short-lifetime'' radioactive wastes, an industrial reality to safeguard the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussat, A.

    1992-01-01

    On the occasion of the inauguration of the Aube waste storage center by A.Billardon, Vice Minister for Energy, the author reviews the management situation in France for short life radioactive wastes. The wastes are first defined and their characteristics explained, and then are discussed the general principles underlying the management of these wastes, which involves finding ways to avoid the dispersal of radioactive products into the environment. The author explains why the French have chosen surface storage, and then goes into the integrated management system developed to optimize the long-term management of short-term wastes on the technical and economic levels. The two storage centers existing in France (the Manche and Aube centers) are then described. The article winds up with a presentation of the system as it has been adapted abroad, and another possible adaptation for use in storing toxic industrial wastes. 2 figs., 3 photos

  12. Teaching Hemingway's "The Short Happy Life."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Considers many ways to teach Hemingway's "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber." Explores the ironic implications of Macomber's experience and compares it with the experience of Sammy in another initiation story, John Updike's "A&P." Describes how he leads the discussion about this story, and ends the discussion by…

  13. Impact of Radioactivity on the Life Sciences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1968-01-01

    This document is a reprint from ‘Maria Sklodowska-Curie: Centenary Lectures’, published by the IAEA in 1968. It is about tracer methods and application of radioactive tracer methods to living systems. (nowak)

  14. Electron scattering off short-lived radioactive nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.; Emoto, T.; Furukawa, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We have established a novel method which make electron scattering off short-lived radioactive nuclei come into being. This novel method was named SCRIT (Self-Confining RI ion Target). It was based on the well known "ion trapping" phenomenon in electron storage rings. Stable nucleus, 133 Cs, was used as target nucleus in the R&D experiment. The luminosity of interaction between stored electrons and Cs ions was about 1.02(0.06) × 10 26 cm -2 s -1 at beam current around 80 mA. The angular distribution of elastically scattered electrons from trapped Cs ions was measured. And an online luminosity monitor was used to monitor the change of luminosity during the experiment. (author)

  15. 2009 National inventory of radioactive material and wastes. In short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    This booklet gives a summary of the national inventory report on radioactive wastes that are present on the French territory (as recorded until december, 2007). Intended for public information, the booklet explains the basics of radioactive materials and wastes and waste management, and gives some data on present and future waste volumes, information about radioactive waste classification, the geographical distribution of waste sites in France, etc. The various types of radioactive wastes are described (classified by their lifetime and activity level) as well as historical storage sites, polluted areas where wastes are stored, radioactive objects, etc. and their respective management approaches are presented

  16. Radioactive source simulation for half-life experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanitsuksombut, Warapon; Decthyothin, Chanti

    1999-01-01

    A simulation of radioactivity decay by using programmable light source with a few minutes half-life is suggested. A photodiode with digital meter label in cps is use instead of radiation detector. Both light source and photodiode are installed in a black box to avoid surrounding room light. The simulation set can also demonstrate Inverse Square Law experiment of radiation penetration. (author)

  17. Limited BRC rulemaking: Regulatory approach and experience in Texas for short-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBurney, Ruth E.; Pollard, Christine G.

    1992-01-01

    In 1987, the Texas Department of Health (TDH) implemented a rule to allow, under certain conditions, wastes containing limited concentrations of short- lived radionuclides (less than 300-day half-life) to be disposed of in Type I sanitary landfills. The rule was based on a technical analysis that demonstrated the degree of safety for approximately 340 m of radioactive waste generated annually in Texas and identified major restrictions and conditions for disposal. TDH's Bureau of Radiation Control staff have been able to maintain an account of licensees utilizing the rule during the past years. Several research and industrial facilities in the state have saved significantly on waste disposal expenses. Public concerns and economic impacts for licensees as well as other regulatory aspects and experiences with the rule are discussed. (author)

  18. Calibration on Pegase of a selective D.R.G. installation for short life and long life fission gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasnier, F.

    1968-01-01

    Pegase irradiation loops are equipped with a detection installation which measures the global activity of short-life and long-life fission gases which are released in CO 2 , but the reduced size of circuits in the loop results in an accumulation of long life fission gases, and therefore in problems in the interpretation of measured signals. Thus, the authors propose an additional detection installation which allows long-life fission gases to be separately measured. The principle is to ensure a partial decay of the sampled gas by imposing an additional transit time in order to get rid of short-life fission gases which have a radioactive period of some tenths of a second. A second detector is then used to measure the residual activity of long-life fission gases. The author describes the installation (the normal circuit and the modified circuit), reports the performed tests and the calibration, presents and discusses the obtained results and the installation sensitivity (for short-life and long-life fission gases), and reports their application to the relationship between DRG (sheath failure detection) signals obtained on Pegase and on EDF and EL4 reactors

  19. Long life of a short film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, R V

    2000-01-01

    What follows is an account of my personal experiences as an independent Indian film director who had the fortune to make the country's first openly gay film, the short BOMgAY That said, I would like this essay to be accepted as, rather than a critical appraisal of Indian cinema, a humbly autobiographical account of one individual caught in the hectic throes of political (and cinematic) visibility.

  20. On Al-26 and other short-lived interstellar radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Donald D.; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Leising, Mark D.

    1993-01-01

    Several authors have shown that massive stars exploding at a rate of about three per century can account for a large portion, if not all, of the observed interstellar Al-26. In a separate argument using models of Galactic chemical evolution, Clayton (1984) showed that the Al-26/Al-27 production ratio was not large enough to maintain enough Al-26 in the Galactic disk gas of about 10 exp 10 solar masses having solar composition. We present a resolution of those conflicting arguments. A past history of Galactic infall growing the Galactic disk so dilutes the stable Al-27 concentration that the two approaches can be brought into near agreement. If massive stars dominate the production of Al-26, we suggest that the apparent shortfall of their Al-26/Al-27 yield ratio is to be interpreted as evidence for significant growth of the Galactic disk. We also discuss the implications of these arguments for other extinct radioactivities in meteorites, using I-129 and Sm-146 as examples.

  1. Low-level radioactive waste associated with plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciacca, F.; Zigler, G.; Walsh, R.

    1992-01-01

    Many utilities operating nuclear power plants are expected to seek to extend the useful life of their plants through license renewal. These US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensees are expected to implement enhanced inspection, surveillance, testing, and monitoring (ISTM) as needed to detect and mitigate age-related degradation of important structures, systems, and components (SSCs). In addition, utilities may undertake various refurbishment and upgrade activities at these plants to better assure economic and reliable power generation. These activities performed for safety and/or economic reasons can result in radioactive waste generation, which is incremental to that generated in the original licensing term. Work was performed for the NRC to help define and characterize potential environmental impacts associated with nuclear plant license renewal and plant life extension. As part of this work, projections were made of the types and quantities of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) likely to be generated by licensee programs. These projections were needed to estimate environmental impacts related to the disposal of such wastes

  2. Quality of life among dots (directly observed treatment short course ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of life among dots (directly observed treatment short course) cured patients: ... which is a specific instrument and covers four domains of health i.e. physical, ... thereby necessitating measures for the improvement of the overall health of ...

  3. Estimating the mean and variance of measurements from serial radioactive decay schemes with emphasis on 222Rn and its short-lived progeny

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inkret, W.C.; Borak, T.B.; Boes, D.C.

    1990-01-01

    Classically, the mean and variance of radioactivity measurements are estimated from poisson distributions. However, the random distribution of observed events is not poisson when the half-life is short compared with the interval of observation or when more than one event can be associated with a single initial atom. Procedures were developed to estimate the mean and variance of single measurements of serial radioactive processes. Results revealed that observations from the three consecutive alpha emissions beginning with 222 Rn are positively correlated. Since the poisson estimator ignores covariance terms, it underestimates the true variance of the measurement. The reverse is true for mixtures of radon daughters only. (author)

  4. Simulation Studies of Diffusion-Release and Effusive-Flow of Short-Lived Radioactive Isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Yan; Kawai, Yoko

    2005-01-01

    Delay times associated with diffusion release from targets and effusive-flow transport of radioactive isotopes to ion sources are principal intensity limiters at ISOL-based radioactive ion beam facilities, and simulation studies with computer models are cost effective methods for designing targets and vapor transport systems with minimum delay times to avoid excessive decay losses of short lived ion species. A finite difference code, Diffuse II, was recently developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study diffusion-release of short-lived species from three principal target geometries. Simulation results are in close agreement with analytical solutions to Fick’s second equation. Complementary to the development of Diffuse II, the Monte-Carlo code, Effusion, was developed to address issues related to the design of fast vapor transport systems. Results, derived by using Effusion, are also found to closely agree with experimental measurements. In this presentation, the codes will be used in conc...

  5. A formula for half-life of proton radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Xing; Dong, Jian-Min

    2018-01-01

    We present a formula for proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters with the inclusion of the spectroscopic factor. The coefficients in the formula are calibrated with the available experimental data. As an input to calculate the half-life, the spectroscopic factor that characterizes the important information on nuclear structure should be obtained with a nuclear many-body approach. This formula is found to work quite well, and in better agreement with experimental measurements than other theoretical models. Therefore, it can be used as a powerful tool in the investigation of proton emission, in particular for experimentalists. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11435014, 11405223, 11675265, 11575112), the 973 Program of China (2013CB834401, 2013CB834405), National Key Program for S&T Research and Development (2016YFA0400501), the Knowledge Innovation Project (KJCX2-EW-N01) of Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Funds for Creative Research Groups of China (11321064) and the Youth Innovation Promotion Association of Chinese Academy of Sciences

  6. Gas Generation in Radioactive Wastes - MAGGAS Predictive Life Cycle Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streatfield, R.E.; Hebditch, D.J.; Swift, B.T.; Hoch, A.R.; Constable, M.

    2006-01-01

    Gases may form from radioactive waste in quantities posing different potential hazards throughout the waste package life cycle. The latter includes surface storage, transport, placing in an operating repository, storage in the repository prior to backfill, closure and the post-closure stage. Potentially hazardous situations involving gas include fire, flood, dropped packages, blocked package vents and disruption to a sealed repository. The MAGGAS (Magnox Gas generation) model was developed to assess gas formation for safety assessments during all stages of the waste package life cycle. This is a requirement of the U.K. regulatory authorities and Nirex and progress in this context is discussed. The processes represented in the model include: Corrosion, microbial degradation, radiolysis, solid-state diffusion, chemico-physical degradation and pressurisation. The calculation was split into three time periods. First the 'aerobic phase' is used to model the periods of surface storage, transport and repository operations including storage in the repository prior to backfill. The second and third periods were designated 'anaerobic phase 1' and 'anaerobic phase 2' and used to model the waste packages in the post-closure phase of the repository. The various significant gas production processes are modeled in each phase. MAGGAS (currently Version 8) is mounted on an Excel spreadsheet for ease of use and speed, has 22 worksheets and is operated routinely for assessing waste packages (e.g. for ventilation of stores and pressurisation of containers). Ten operational and decommissioning generic nuclear power station waste streams were defined as initial inputs, which included ion exchange materials, sludges and concentrates, fuel element debris, graphite debris, activated components, contaminated items, desiccants and catalysts. (authors)

  7. Optimal issuing of perishables with a short fixed shelf life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, R.

    2011-01-01

    The management of inventories of perishable products with a short maximal shelf life takes a good issuing policy next to a good ordering policy. Ordering policies of non-perishables are well studied in literature and implemented in Automated Store Ordering (ASO) systems and Computer Assisted

  8. Step-By-Step: Life Cycle Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Radioactive waste is an unavoidable by-product when nuclear technologies are used for electricity production and for beneficial practices in medicine, agriculture, research and industry. When the radioactivity of the waste is above a certain threshold, the waste requires special disposal methods. Through extensive research, standards and approaches have been developed for safely and securely preparing for and managing radioactive waste disposal. In the course of its journey from the point of generation to disposal, radioactive waste undergoes a number of predisposal management treatment steps to transform it into a safe, stable and manageable form suitable for transport, storage and disposal

  9. Short-lived radioactive nuclides in meteorites and early solar system processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussidon, M.; Gounelle, M.

    2007-01-01

    Now extinct, short-lived radioactive nuclides, such as 7 Be (T 1/2 = 53 days), 10 Be (T 1/2 = 1.5 Ma), 26 Al (T 1/2 = 0.74 Ma), 36 Cl (T 1/2 = 0.3 Ma), 41 Ca (T 1/2 = 0.1 Ma), 53 Mn (T 1/2 = 3.7 Ma) and 60 Fe (T 1/2 = 1.5 Ma), were present in the proto-solar nebula when the various components of meteorites formed. The presence of these radioactive isotopes requires a 'last-minute' origin, either nucleosynthesis in a massive star dying close in space and time to the nascent solar system or production by local irradiation of part of the proto-solar disk by high-energy solar cosmic rays. In this review, we list: (i) the different observations indicating the existence of multiple origins for short-lived radioactive nuclides, namely 7 Be, 10 Be and 36 Cl for irradiation scenario and 60 Fe for injection scenario; (ii) the constraints that exist on their distribution (homogeneous or heterogeneous) in the accretion disk; (iii) the constraints they brought on the timescales of nebular processes (from Ca-Al-rich inclusions to chondrules) and of the accretion and differentiation of planetesimals. (authors)

  10. Use of standard spectra for the short life radionuclides and ratios for long life radionuclides in the wastes of EDF PWR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantes, B.; Bienvenu, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the type of declaration of radioactivity in the wastes of PWR type reactors park. Particularly, it insists on the justification of use of spectra for the declaration of short live radionuclides. It tackles the important developments of methods and measures of radiochemical analysis made by the Cea in order to determine the ratios to declare the long life radioisotopes. (N.C.)

  11. Evaluating the life cycle environmental impact of short span bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Du, Guangli; Pettersson, Lars; Karoumi, Raid

    2016-01-01

    impact of the construction sector. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a systematic method for assessing the environmental impact of products and systems, but its application in bridges is scarce. In Swede, most of the bridges are short spans and the type of concrete slab-frame bridge (CFB) accounts...... for a large share. Soil steel composite bridge (SSCB) is a functional equivalent solution for CFB. In order to mitigate the environmental burdens of short span bridges, this paper performed a comparative LCA study between these two types of bridge. The results indicate that the initial material consumption...

  12. Life-Cycle Cost Study for a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, B.C.; Walter, P.L.; Baird, R.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the life-cycle cost estimates for a proposed low-level radioactive waste disposal facility near Sierra Blanca, Texas. The work was requested by the Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority and performed by the National Low-Level Waste Management Program with the assistance of Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation

  13. Evaluation of regional pulmonary function using short-lived radioactive gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashitaka, Tsuyoshi [Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine

    1993-05-01

    We investigated the application of short-lived radioactive gases for the assessment of regional pulmonary function, particularly diffusing capacity, in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease and interstitial lung disease. Short-lived radioactive gases including C[sup 15]O-O, [sup 11]CO[sub 2], and [sup 11]CO were produced using a baby cyclotron for medical care. Using a [gamma] camera, breath-holding images were taken serially after inhalation of the radioactive gases. The first exponential component of time-activity curve was analyzed to obtain clearance rate, which was expressed as exponential coefficient ([lambda]). Moreover, we created a functional map which was calculated by the clearance rate of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] as a percentage. Regional clearance rates of each gas in normal volunteers revealed higher values in the lower lung field than in the upper lung field. Whole lung clearance rates ([lambda]) of each gas in patients correlated well with D[sub LCO]/V[sub A], which indicates diffusing capacity. The functional map showed decreased regional diffusion closely matched to the perfusion defects seen by [sup 99m]Tc-MAA perfusion images. However, in certain interstitial lung diseases decreased clearance of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] was observed in regions having no evidence of perfusion defects. We concluded the functional map display of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] is useful indicator of the regional diffusing capacity of both the normal and diseased lung, and that it is beneficial to analyze the pathogenic physiology of diseased lungs by making a comparison between the functional map of [sup 11]CO[sub 2] and [sup 99m]Tc-MAA perfusion images. (author).

  14. Radioactivity--Killer or the "Elixir of Life"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Paula

    2011-01-01

    It is frequently said that a good teacher will spice up their lessons with anecdotes and stories associated with the subject as these help to bring the subject alive. This is true in teaching radioactivity but it is not always easy to find a useful fund of stories--especially for a non-specialist. Paula Kennedy shares the stories and anecdotes…

  15. Measurements of airborne short-lived radioactivity concentration in a PET facility at a national University hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Tadashi

    2006-01-01

    National universities in Japan became under regulation of Industrial Safety and Health Law since 2004FY. One of the legal obligations is working environment measurements such as airborne radioactivity concentration in the rooms where employees handle unsealed radiation sources. Both in 2004FY and in 2005FY, measurements of airborne radioactivity concentration were carried out by two different agencies. The most prominent difference among them is the measurement for short-lived PET nuclides. In 2004FY, one agency measured the radioactivity with a Ge spectrometer at its own laboratory, whereas, in 2005FY, the other agency brought a NaI scintillation counter for gross gamma counting to the Hospital. It can be shown that detection limits for short-lived PET nuclides are in principle almost the same in both methods. It is also found that, in the actual case, gamma spectrometry with a Ge spectrometer is superior in judgement of detection of the radioactivity. (author)

  16. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chelet, Y.

    2006-01-01

    The beginning of this book explains the why and how of the radioactivity, with a presentation of the different modes of disintegration. Are tackled the reports between radioactivity and time before explaining how the mass-energy equivalence appears during disintegrations. Two chapters treat natural radioisotopes and artificial ones. This book makes an important part to the use of radioisotopes in medicine (scintigraphy, radiotherapy), in archaeology and earth sciences (dating) before giving an inventory of radioactive products that form in the nuclear power plants. (N.C.)

  17. Radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  18. Overview of sources of radioactive particles of Nordic relevance as well as a short description of available particle characterisation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B. (Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences (Norway)); Nygren, U.; Thaning, L.; Ramebaeck, H. (Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) (Sweden)); Sidhu, S. (Inst. for Energy Technology (Norway)); Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark. Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Poellaenen, R. (STUK (Finland)); Ranebo, Y.; Holm, E. (Univ. Lund (Sweden))

    2008-10-15

    The present overview report show that there are many existing and potential sources of radioactive particle contamination of relevance to the Nordic countries. Following their release, radioactive particles represent point sources of short- and long-term radioecological significance, and the failure to recognise their presence may lead to significant errors in the short- and long-term impact assessments related to radioactive contamination at a particular site. Thus, there is a need of knowledge with respect to the probability, quantity and expected impact of radioactive particle formation and release in case of specified potential nuclear events (e.g. reactor accident or nuclear terrorism). Furthermore, knowledge with respect to the particle characteristics influencing transport, ecosystem transfer and biological effects is important. In this respect, it should be noted that an IAEA coordinated research project was running from 2000-2006 (IAEA CRP, 2001) focussing on characterisation and environmental impact of radioactive particles, while a new IAEA CRP focussing on the biological effects of radioactive particles will be launched in 2008. (author)

  19. Overview of sources of radioactive particles of Nordic relevance as well as a short description of available particle characterisation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, O.C.; Salbu, B.; Nygren, U.; Thaning, L.; Ramebaeck, H.; Sidhu, S.; Roos, P.; Poellaenen, R.; Ranebo, Y.; Holm, E.

    2008-10-01

    The present overview report show that there are many existing and potential sources of radioactive particle contamination of relevance to the Nordic countries. Following their release, radioactive particles represent point sources of short- and long-term radioecological significance, and the failure to recognise their presence may lead to significant errors in the short- and long-term impact assessments related to radioactive contamination at a particular site. Thus, there is a need of knowledge with respect to the probability, quantity and expected impact of radioactive particle formation and release in case of specified potential nuclear events (e.g. reactor accident or nuclear terrorism). Furthermore, knowledge with respect to the particle characteristics influencing transport, ecosystem transfer and biological effects is important. In this respect, it should be noted that an IAEA coordinated research project was running from 2000-2006 (IAEA CRP, 2001) focussing on characterisation and environmental impact of radioactive particles, while a new IAEA CRP focussing on the biological effects of radioactive particles will be launched in 2008. (au)

  20. Redistribution of natural radioactive elements resulting from animal and plant life activity in regions with high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malslov, V.I.; Maslova, K.I.; Alexakhin, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A quantitative assessment is made of the influence of plant and animal life on the migration and redistribution of naturally occurring radionuclides in several localized areas with unusually high soil concentrations of 226 Ra, 238 U, or 232 Th. In the taiga and tundra zones examined, the effects of radionuclide accumulation in certain plant species and of the feeding and burrowing habits of small mammals were particularly significant. The observed regularities have predictive applications in assessing the redistribution of radionuclides in regions of high radioactivity

  1. Development of a Method to Assess the Radiation Dose due to Internal Exposure to Short-lived Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmaman, D.; Koch, J.; Ribak, J.

    2014-01-01

    Work with radioactive materials requires monitoring of the employees' exposure to ionizing radiation. Employees may be exposed to radiation from internal and/or external exposure. Control of external exposure is mostly conducted through personal radiation dosimeters provided to employees. Control of internal exposure can be performed by measuring the concentration of radioactive substances excreted in urine or through whole-body counting in which the entire body or target organs are scanned with a sensitive detector system (1). According to the regulations in Israel an employee that may be internally exposed must undergo an exposure control at least once every three months. The idea lying behind the control of internal exposure by urine testing is that if radioactive material has penetrated into the employee body, it can be detected even if the test is performed once every three months. A model was fitted for each element describing its dispersion in the body and its excretion therefrom (2). By means of this model, one can estimate the activity that entered the body and calculate the resulting radiation dose to which the worker was exposed. There is a problem to implement this method when it comes to short-lived radioactive materials, for which it is very likely that the material that penetrated into the body has decayed and cannot be detected by testing once every three months. As a result, workers with short-lived radioactive materials are presently not monitored for internal exposure, in contradiction to the requirements of the Safety at Work Regulations. The purpose of the study is to develop an alternative method to assess the amount of radioactive material absorbed in the body and the resulting radiation dose due to internal exposure of workers to short-lived radioactive materials

  2. Calculation of the biological half-life of radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.

    1982-01-01

    The biological half-life of 137 Cs and 90 Sr was determined based on K and Ca metabolism and on the considerable chemical similarity of K and Ca, carriers of Cs and Sr, resp. The tsub(1/2)=a/bxln2 formula was used for the calculation, where a is the quantity of the element in question, while b is the daily need of the animal for the given element. The biological half-life for cattle of both 137 Cs and 90 Sr was found to be 30 days, while that for swine 20 days and 35 days respectively. (Sz.J.)

  3. Half-life distribution table of radioactive nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugenberger, P.

    1954-01-01

    This table allows to identify an element if its period is known. Data for this table were taken from the half-life values adopted by Hollander, PERLMAN and SEABORG (Rev. mod. Phys., 1953, 22 number 2). Moreover for each nucleus, the mass number, the charge number and the type of decay are given in the table. (author) [fr

  4. Life cycle costs for disposal and assured isolation of low-level radioactive waste in Connecticut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chau, B.; Sutherland, A.A.; Baird, R.D.

    1998-03-01

    This document presents life cycle costs for a low-level radioactive disposal facility and a comparable assured isolation facility. Cost projections were based on general plans and assumptions, including volume projections and operating life, provided by the Connecticut Hazardous Waste Management Service, for a facility designed to meet the State's needs. Life cycle costs include the costs of pre-construction activities, construction, operations, closure, and post-closure institutional control. In order to provide a better basis for understanding the relative magnitude of near-term costs and future costs, the results of present value analysis of ut-year costs are provided

  5. Transport of short lived radioactive contaminants with prologed half-lives of daughters through river water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metwally, S.M.; Prohl, G.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main pathways for transporting contaminants to other parts in the environment, are rivers. This work is devoted for deriving and assessment the concentration of soluble radio contaminants along a river at any time after discharge, including the short-lived radionuclides in comparison with the discharge time interval, and prolonged half-life of the produced daughter nuclei. The assumed boundary conditions and deduced formulas can be applied either in case of accidental release or discharge under authority control. The formulas determining the produced daughter nuclei concentration require inequality of the parent and daughter nuclei half-lives. Because of the regional variation of river morphology, the assumed constancy of the flow velocity and dispersion coefficient requires dividing the river path into zones of similar hydrologic characteristics

  6. The management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This educative booklet describes the role and missions of the ANDRA, the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes, and the different aspects of the management of radioactive wastes: goal, national inventory, classification, transport (organisation, regulation, safety), drumming, labelling, surface storage of short life wastes, environmental control, management of long life wastes (composition, research, legal aspects) and the underground research laboratories (description, public information, projects, schedules). (J.S.)

  7. Simultaneous Measurements of Nanoaerosols and Radioactive Aerosols Containing the Short-lived Radon Isotopes.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Otáhal, P.P.S.; Burian, I.; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír; Holub, R.F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 175, č. 5 (2017), s. 53-56 ISSN 0144-8420. [Conference on Protection against Radon at Home and at Work / 13th International Workshop on the Geological Aspects of Radon Risk Mapping /8./. Prague, 12.09.2017-16.09.2017] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : equilibrium-equivalent concentration * radon * radioactive nenoaerosols Subject RIV: DL - Nuclear Waste, Radioactive Pollution ; Quality OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.917, year: 2016

  8. The low to intermediate activity and short living waste storage facility. For a controlled management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Sited at about 50 km of Troyes (France), the Aube facility started in 1992 and has taken over the Manche facility for the surface storage of low to intermediate and short living radioactive wastes. The Aube facility (named CSFMA) is the answer to the safe management of these wastes at the industrial scale and for 50 years onward. This brochure presents the facility specifications, the wastes stored at the center, the surface storage concept, the processing and conditioning of waste packages, and the environmental monitoring performed in the vicinity of the site. (J.S.)

  9. ESOL facility for the generation and radiochemical separation of short half-life fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehrke, R.J.; Meikrantz, D.H.; Baker, J.D.; Anderl, R.A.; Novick, V.J.; Greenwood, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    A facility has been developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the generation and rapid radiochemical separation of short half-life mixed fission products. This facility, referred to as the Idaho Elemental Separation On Line (ESOL), consists of electro-plated sources of spontaneously fissioning 252 Cf with a helium jet transport arrangement to continuously deliver short half-life, mixed fission products to the radiochemistry laboratory for rapid, computer controlled, radiochemical separations. 18 refs., 13 figs

  10. NARRATIVE: A short history of my life in science A short history of my life in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, Joseph R.

    2010-08-01

    I was certainly surprised, and felt extremely honored, when Salvador Miret-Artés suggested that he would like to organize this festschrift. Before that day I never anticipated that such an honor would come to me. I would like to thank Salvador for the large amount of time and work he has expended in organizing this special issue, the Editors of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter for making it possible, and also the contributing authors for their efforts. My family home was outside of Petersburg, Virginia in Dinwiddie County in an area that was, during my youth, largely occupied by small farms. This is a region rich in American history and our earliest ancestors on both sides of the family settled in this area, beginning in the decade after the first Virginia settlement in Jamestown. My father was an engineer and my mother was a former school teacher, and their parents were small business owners. From earliest memories I recall being interested in finding out how things worked and especially learning about the wonders of nature. These interests were fostered by my parents who encouraged such investigations during long walks, visits to friends and relatives, and trips to museums. However, my earliest memory of wanting to become a scientist is associated with a Christmas gift of a chemistry set when I was about ten years old. I was absolutely fascinated by the amazing results that could be achieved with simple chemical reactions and realized then that I wanted to do something in life that would be associated with science. The gift of that small chemistry set developed over the next few years into a serious interest in chemistry, and throughout my junior high-school years I spent nearly all the money I earned doing odd jobs for neighbors on small laboratory equipment and chemical supplies, eventually taking over our old abandoned chicken house and turning it into a small chemistry lab. I remember being somewhat frustrated at the limits, mainly financial, that kept

  11. Short-time leaching behaviour of a cement-matrix incorporating soluble radioactive aggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniels, H.; Kalitz, C.; Kuhne, L.; Steinhardt, T.; Caspary, G.; Printz, R.; Scherer, U.W.

    2015-01-01

    As the chemical characterisations of certain cement-based radioactive waste-forms produced by the Nuclear-Services of Juelich Research Centre were not yet fully available, a related study was conducted. In this work the interaction of a specific cement-matrix with incorporated radioactive aggregates, so-called drum-dryer product, was investigated. Therefore, representative cement-samples containing the radioactive waste were taken. The main focus was laid on these samples' behaviour under leaching conditions to quantify soluble and insoluble compounds. Additionally, possible chemical interactions of cement components with drum-dryer product were evaluated. For these purposes, chemical analytics as well as physical methods for characterisation and structural evaluation of the waste-form' s behaviour were used. The leaching experiments lasted for up to 39 days. A comparison of the results of the elementary and ion-chromatographic analysis before and after leaching of the samples was carried out. This lead to the deduction that the majority of the drum-dryer product is not incorporated in the cement matrix in the form of insoluble compounds like a solid solution. Although structural examinations showed the formation of an Apatite-phase that is not characteristic for portland cement, they also supported the measured overall high leachability of the cemented drum-dryer products. It can be concluded that the chemical interaction between the cement matrix and drum-dryer product during and after cementation plays a subordinate, yet not negligible, role with respect to solubility of the drum dryer product under aqueous leaching conditions. Additionally, it can be postulated that the drum-dryer product did not undergo substantial chemical alteration in the environment created by the cement-matrix and the respective leaching experiments. (authors)

  12. Comparison of SUREPAK life cycle costs to other methods of low-level radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winston, S.J.; Little, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    Comparisons of costs of low-level radioactive waste management techniques invariably degenerate into parochial arguments over differences in commercial objectives. The purpose of this paper is to establish a common basis for comparing technologies and then to examine the result as a complete cycle instead of a snapshot view taken at an arbitrary point in the progression. One objective is to portray cost sensitivity in terms of the options available for waste management. A second, perhaps less obvious, point is the definition of cost factors hidden from the short-term view. The final objective is to show the cumulative effects of costs externally imposed without reference to the technology employed (e.g., legislated surcharges based on arbitrary parameters)

  13. Submission of the national commission of the public debate on the options concerning the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This document deals with the presentation of a public debate on the radioactive wastes management and the opportunities of its organization. It presents successively the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes, the today radioactive wastes management policy and some questions and topics which could be discussed during the debate. (A.L.B.)

  14. Neutron-captures in Low Mass Stars and the Early Solar System Record of Short-lived Radioactivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busso, Maurizio; Vescovi, Diego; Trippella, Oscar; Palmerini, Sara; Cristallo, Sergio; Piersanti, Luciano

    2018-01-01

    Noticeable improvements were recently introduced in the modelling of n-capture nucleosynthesis in the advanced evolutionary stages of giant stars (Asymptotic Giant Branch, or AGB, stars). Two such improvements are closely linked together and concern the introduction of non-parameterized, physical models for extended mixing processes and the adoption of accurate reaction rates for H- and He-burning reactions, including the one for the main neutron source 13C(α,n)16O. These improvements profited of a longstanding collaboration between stellar physicists and C. Spitaleri's team and of his seminal work both as a leader in the Nuclear Astrophysics scenario and as a talent-scout in the recruitment of young researchers in the field. We present an example of the innovative results that can be obtained thanks to the novelties introduced, by estimating the contributions from a nearby AGB star to the synthesis of short-lived (t1/2 ≤ 10 Myr) radioactive nuclei which were alive in early Solar System condensates. We find that the scenario indicating an AGB star as the source of such radioactivities, discussed for many years by researchers in this field, appears now to be no longer viable, when the mentioned improvements of AGB models and nuclear parameters are considered.

  15. Release studies of a thin foil tantalum target for the production of short-lived radioactive nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, J R J; Drumm, P V; Lettry, Jacques; Nilsson, T; Catherall, R; Jonsson, O C; Ravn, H L; Simon, H

    2002-01-01

    Measurements have been made at ISOLDE, of the release curves and yields of radioactive beams of lithium, sodium and beryllium from a target constructed from 2 $\\mu$m thick foils. The release curves have been analysed by fitting to a mathematical model to determine the coefficients of diffusion of the particles in the foils and effusion through the target and ionizer at several temperatures. Through a better understanding of the rate of transport of the particles, it is possible to design targets and ionizers with improved yields. This is most important for the rare, short-lived isotopes in which there is considerable interest for physics experiments. This target has demonstrated large increases in the yields of $^{11}$Li and $^{12}$Be, in agreement with the predictions of the model. (11 refs).

  16. A simple method to prolong the service life of radioactive sources for external radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingjie; Tian, Yuan; Dai, Jianrong

    2014-07-08

    A radioactive source is usually replaced and disposed after being used for a certain amount of time (usually a half-life). In this study, a simple method is proposed to prolong its service life. Instead of replacing the used source with a new source of full activity, a new source of less activity is added in the source holder in front of the used one, so that the total activity of two sources is equal to the initial activity of the used source or even higher. Similarly, more sources can be added to the previous ones. Attenuation of front source(s) to the back source(s) was evaluated with exponential attenuation equation, and variation of source-focus distance (SFD) with inverse square law for Leksell 4C Gamma Knife, which served as an example of external radiotherapy units. When the number of front sources increased from 1 to 3, the relative air kerma decreased from 36.5% to 5.0%. Both the attenuation effect and SFD variation contributed to the decrease in air kerma, with the former being the major factor. If the height of the source can be decreased in some way, such as increasing the specific activity of sources, the sources can be used more efficiently. The method prolongs the service life of sources by several factors, and reduces the expense of source exchange and reclamation.

  17. Treatment and storage of radioactive wastes at Institute for Energy Technology, Kjeller, Norway and a short survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundby, J.E.

    1988-08-01

    The treatment and storage of low-level and intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Norway is described. A survey of non-radioactive hazardous wastes and planned processing methods for their treatment in Norway is given. It seems that processing methods developed for radioactive wastes to a greater extent could be adopted to hazardous wastes, and that an increased interdisciplinary waste cooperation could be a positive contribution to the solution of the hazardous waste problems

  18. Extrinsic and intrinsic factors that shape the life history of the short living scallop Argopecten ventricosus

    OpenAIRE

    Guerra, Citlali

    2011-01-01

    The scallop Argopecten ventricosus is characterized by its high swimming activity, fast growth, high reproductive effort and the early age to get first sexual maturity. These traits may be the result of the adaptation to a specific environment that favors an active lifestyle and a short lifespan (2 years). This opens the question of how environmental factors modulate the way a short living marine ectotherm budget energy investments among life history traits and how this modulation impacts the...

  19. Propose of a model for dose and hazard calculation due the Rn-222, Rn-220 and its short half-life daugthers inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauricio, C.L.P.

    1982-01-01

    The compartimental dosimetric model is used to simulate, by computer, the interactions of the inhalated radon atom radiations and its short half-life daugthers with cells. The metabolic trajectory of these radionuclides is described by differential equations of continuous medium dynamics, where the elements transform by radioactive decay. This work permits to determine the individual retenction function, beeing useful in radioprotection routines or emergence situations. The results of internal dosimetry are consistent with the new I.C.R.P. - 32 international recommendations. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Short-term planning and the life-cycle consumption puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Frank Caliendo; David Aadland

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a new explanation for the hump-shaped age- consumption profile observed in household data. Standard life-cycle models are based on an optimization problem that spans the entire life expectancy. Alternatively, we examine the consumption profile of an individual with a shorter planning horizon. The actual consumption profile is the envelope of a continuum of control problems because the agent’s short-term planning horizon continually slides along the time- scale, and the age...

  1. Radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Yoshio; Shimizu, Makoto.

    1975-01-01

    The problems of radioactivity in the ocean with marine life are various. Activities in this field, especially the measurements of the radioactivity in sea water and marine life are described. The works first started in Japan concerning nuclear weapon tests. Then the port call to Japan by U.S. nuclear-powered naval ships began. On the other hand, nuclear power generation is advancing with its discharge of warm water. The radioactive pollution of sea water, and hence the contamination of marine life are now major problems. Surveys of the sea areas concerned and study of the radioactivity intake by fishes and others are carried out extensively in Japan. (Mori, K.)

  2. Radioactivity of radon and its short-lived decay products in room air, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimo, Michikuni; Katoh, Takao

    1983-01-01

    In the reactor room of the Kyoto University Research Reactor Institute, the measurements of radon (Rn) and its short-lived decay products (Rn-Dts) were carried out under ventilated and non-ventilated conditions. The indoor activities were equal to outdoor ones under ventilated condition and those activities increased till about 10 times of outdoors under non-ventilated condition. We attempted to explain these results on a basis of a simple model. The calculations were performed taking into account: (1) supply of Rn and Rn-Dts from outdoor, (2) the emanation rate of Rn from the wall materials of building, (3) the removal rate of Rn-Dts by ventilation and wall deposition, and (4) the attachment rate of unattached atom to aerosols. In addition, natural ventilation were considered during periods without artificial ventilation. (author)

  3. The Life Review in Five Short Stories about Characters Facing Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Grier

    1985-01-01

    Uses five modern short stories about people facing death to illustrate and connect various observations of and theories about the dying process developed by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross and Robert N. Butler. In response to the imminence of their deaths, the characters survey their past, attempting to reintegrate their life's experiences. (JAC)

  4. The short life radionuclides in meat after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smelcerovic, M.; Popovic, D.; Djuric, G.

    1992-01-01

    The paper presents the results of identification and short life radionuclides (I-131, Te (I)-132, Cs-136, Ce-141, 144, Ru-103, 106, Ba(La)-140, Zr-95, Nb-95, Mo-99, Sb-125) mass activities evaluation in meat (lamb, rabbit, game) after the nuclear accident in Chernobyl in 1986. (author)

  5. Quality of life and self-esteem in children treated for idiopathic short stature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Theunissen, N.C.M.; Kamp, G.A.; Koopman, H.M.; Zwinderman, K.A.H.; Vogels, T.; Wit, J.-M.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and self-esteem were studied in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) participating in a study on the effect of growth hormone treatment. Study design: Prepubertal children (n = 36) with ISS were randomly assigned to a treatment or

  6. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  7. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 -- a fee levied on electricity generated in commercial nuclear power plants -- is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans contained in the DOE's Draft 1988 Mission Plan Amendment. The total-system cost for the system with a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $24 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $31 to $33 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel to be disposed of. The $7 billion cost savings for the single-repository system in comparison with the two-repository system is due to the elimination of $3 billion for second-repository development and $7 billion for the second-repository facility. These savings are offset by $2 billion in additional costs at the first repository and $1 billion in combined higher costs for the MRS facility and transportation. 55 refs., 2 figs., 24 tabs

  8. Simulation of short-term fluctuations in gamma exposure rate due to radioactive cloud released from nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichikawa, Yoichi; Shikata, Hiroshi; Ishida, Kenji; Ohba, Tachimori.

    1981-01-01

    The measured γ-exposure rate around nuclear power plants is due mainly to natural causes and radioactive clouds emitted from the plants. An exposure calculation method based on puff model has been already proposed to identify the plant contributions and to estimate values in response to short-term fluctuations of meteorological condition and the release rate. However, the calculation method by this model consumes a lot of computer time, since the calculation requires a three-dimensional integration of the distribution of the concentration from each puff. Hence, we propose a simplified method using approximate polynominal equations and interpolations. The computer time needed for the calculation with the simplified method is reduced to 1/30 of that required by the previous method. The calculation results by simplified method are compared with those by the previous method and with the measured exposure rate less natural background. The results of two different methods are in good agreement. The calculated exposure rate is within the range from half to twice as much as the measured exposure rate less background. (author)

  9. Development of controller of acquisition and sample positioner for activation for use in measurements of short half-life radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secco, Marcello

    2016-01-01

    High resolution gamma spectroscopy measurements have several applications. Those involving short half-life radioisotope measurements may present low precision problems when the radioactive source is far from detector end cup and in the very high activity situations also can present accuracy loss due to dead time and pile-up effects. A way to overcome these problems is changing the source detector distance as the activity is decreasing, and thereby maximizing the statistical counting. In the present study, the Controller of Acquisition and Sample Positioner for Activation (CASPA) was developed. It is a low cost and weight device, made with low atomic number materials designed to assist gamma spectroscopy measurements, which is able to control the distance between the source and the detector, even allowing that there is a change of this distance during the measurement process. Because it is automated it optimizes the time of the operator, who has complete freedom to program their routine measurements in the device besides minimizing the radiation dose in the operator. An interface that allow the user control the CASPA system and to program the acquisition system was created. Tests aiming to optimize the operation of CASPA system were carried out and the safety of the CASPA operation was verified, it was not presented any failure during their tests. It was applied the repeatability tests by the acquisition 60 Co standard source and was found that the positioning of automated system has reproduced the results of static system with a 95% of confidence level. (author)

  10. Life-cycle assessment of eucalyptus short-rotation coppices for bioenergy production in Southern France

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle , Benoit; Nguyen The , Nicolas; Maupu , Pauline; Vial , Estelle

    2011-01-01

    Short rotation coppices (SRCs) are considered prime candidates for biomass production, yielding good-quality feedstock that is easy to harvest. Besides technical, social and economical aspects, environmental issues are important to take into account when developing SRCs. Here, we evaluated the environmental impacts of delivering 1 GJ of heat from eucalyptus SRC using life cycle assessment (LCA), based on management scenarios involving different rotations lengths, fertilizer input rates, stem ...

  11. Biological Half-Life Measurements of Radioactive Strontium in Hormonal-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haquin, G.; Riemer, T.; Kaniun, N.; Datz, H.; Yungreiss, Z.; Vexler, A.; Ben-Yosef, R.; Pelled, O.; German, U.; Marko, R.; Teshuva, A.; Kol, R.

    2004-01-01

    Therapy for metastatic bone pain in Hormonal-Resistant Prostate Cancer (HRPC) patients is performed by administering systemic radioisotope therapy [1]. The beta radiation emitted by the radioactive strontium 89 Sr [T 1/2 =50.5 d, E β (max)=1.49 MeV], an adequate radionuclide for this therapy procedure, irradiates the metastatic cells in the bone, producing the desired palliative effect. The beta disintegration of 89 Sr is followed by a low abundance (0.00945%) gamma ray with energy of 909 keV. The commercially available 89 Sr is in the form of Sr Cl and contains an impurity of less than 0.5% of 85 Sr [T 1/2 =64.8 d] ,which decays by electron capture, emitting gamma rays at 511 keV (95.71%). The radiation dose to the metastatic cells due to the gamma rays is negligible compared to the dose given by the beta radiation, assuming that the 89 Sr is concentrated at the metastatic bony lesions. Accurate information about retention and excretion of Sr in the patient's body will contribute to better evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. he effective half-life of 89 Sr can be calculated either from Whole Body Counting (WBC) measurements or by measuring 85 Sr and/or 89 Sr in urine/blood. WBC measurements, using collimated HPGe detectors, allow the follow-up of 89 Sr and 85 Sr at different sites in the skeletal bones of the patient. Biological half-lives of Sr in different body sections measured by WBC and the correlation with excretion-rate-based biological half-lives are presented

  12. Management of radioactive medical waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, S.; Mathey, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Hospitals are producers of small amounts of radioactive waste. Current legislation details exactly how hospitals should manage it. Sealed sources are returned to suppliers. Disposal of unsealed sources, liquid or solid, depends upon their half-life: short-lived radioisotopes (half-life less than two months) are stocked on site while they decay; isotopes with longer half-lives (greater than two months) are handled by a specialist organization (ANDRA). (authors). 8 refs

  13. Design and Performance Assessment of a Conceptual Cover Cap of Near Surface Repository for Short Lived Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaba, Ruth; Kim, Changlak [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The safety of the overall waste disposal system is determined by the performance of its individual components: waste form, waste container, engineered barrier and the host environment. The design of the cover cap helps in preventing percolation of water, and in retarding radionuclide migration from the disposal facility to the biosphere. The cover of a disposal facility is usually a combination of materials such as sand, gravel, concrete, clay and soil conditioned for vegetation growth. The cover system will be designed using models such as EPA's Hydrological Evaluation of Land fill Performance (HELP) code. This paper describes a conceptual design for a cover cap for a land fill as a preferred disposal facility for low and short lived intermediate radioactive waste in Uganda. Majority of the waste is generated from disused sealed and unsealed radioactive sources arising from medical, industrial applications, and research. Radioactive waste management has raised a lot of concern in both developed and developing countries. Each country has a responsibility to come up with a solution to prevent contamination of the environment and humans from radioactive waste. It is important to have thicker soil layers in cap designs so as to support vegetation growth since some activities such as erosion and settlements are expected. Help simulations in this study will assist to demonstrate that it is possible to design a cover cap which can contain radioactive waste packages for hundreds of years provided the proper institutional and performance monitoring schemes are implemented.

  14. The management of subjective quality of life by short-stay hospital patients: An exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlinski Evelyn

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study tested the homeostatic model of subjective quality of life in a group of 47 short stay patients as they progressed through the stages of hospitalization for surgery. Method Participants completed a questionnaire measuring subjective quality of life, positive and negative affect, self-esteem, optimism and cognitive flexibility, the day prior to admission (T1, two days post-operation (T2 and one week after discharge (T3. Neuroticism and Extroversion were measured at Time 1. Results All variables remained stable across the three times, apart from positive affect, which dropped significantly post-operation but returned to its previous level post discharge. Conclusion Although the homeostatic model of subjective quality of life was supported at Time 1, the analyses raise doubts about the stability of personality. This finding is consistent with recent discussions of personality.

  15. Analytical studies by activation. Part A and B: Counting of short half-life radio-nuclides. Part C: Analytical programs for decay curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junod, E.

    1966-03-01

    Part A and B: Since a radio-nuclide of short half-life is characterized essentially by the decrease in its activity even while it is being measured, the report begins by recalling the basic relationships linking the half-life the counting time, the counting rate and the number of particles recorded. The second part is devoted to the problem of corrections for counting losses due to the idle period of multichannel analyzers. Exact correction formulae have been drawn up for the case where the short half-life radionuclide is pure or contains only a long half-life radio-nuclide. By comparison, charts have been drawn up showing the approximations given by the so-called 'active time' counting and by the counting involving the real time associated with a measurement of the overall idle period, this latter method proving to be more valid than the former. A method is given for reducing the case of a complex mixture to that of a two-component mixture. Part C: The problems connected with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the decay curves of a mixture of radioactive sources of which one at least has a short half-life are presented. A mathematical description is given of six basic processes for which some elements of Fortran programs are proposed. Two supplementary programs are drawn up for giving an overall treatment of problems of dosage in activation analysis: one on the basis of a simultaneous irradiation of the sample and of one or several known samples, the other with separate irradiation of the unknown and known samples, a dosimeter (activation, or external) being used for normalizing the irradiation flux conditions. (author) [fr

  16. Short communication: Influence of labeling on Australian and Chinese consumers' liking of milk with short (pasteurized) and long (UHT) shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, D G; Bolhuis, D P; Hu, X; Keast, R S J

    2016-03-01

    Sixty percent of milk consumed in China has a long shelf life (UHT), presumably because milk with a short shelf life (pasteurized) is comparatively expensive. This in contrast to Australia, where 10% of consumed milk is UHT and the price between UHT and pasteurized milk is equivalent. Whether UHT is actually more liked than pasteurized milk by Chinese consumers is unknown. However, the potential positive halo around the expensive pasteurized milk might result in Chinese consumers liking milk more when it is labeled as "short shelf-life milk." To test these hypotheses, Chinese (n=48, 20 males, 28 females, 23 ± 7.2 yr) and Australian (n=93, 11 males, 82 females, 24 ± 5.6 yr) consumers tasted and rated (9-point hedonic scale), in a randomized order, 3 × 30-mL samples of UHT milk (labeled as "long shelf-life milk," "short shelf-life milk," or "milk") and 3 × 30-mL samples of pasteurized milk (also labeled as "long shelf-life milk," "short shelf-life milk," or "milk"). Australian participants' liking of milk was not influenced by labeling. Regardless of what the label stated, they always preferred the taste of pasteurized milk over the taste of UHT milk. This was different for Chinese participants, who preferred the taste of UHT milk over the taste of pasteurized milk, but in general had a higher liking for any milk that was labeled "short shelf-life milk." Both Australian and Chinese were more positive about pasteurized than UHT milk. In conclusion, Chinese, but not Australian, consumers' liking of milk was guided by the positive expectations of pasteurized milk and the negative expectations of UHT milk. Further research is needed to investigate if the present findings can be extrapolated to a larger and more varied group of Chinese and Australian consumers. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Long and short hospice stays among nursing home residents at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huskamp, Haiden A; Stevenson, David G; Grabowski, David C; Brennan, Eric; Keating, Nancy L

    2010-08-01

    To identify characteristics of nursing homes and residents associated with particularly long or short hospice stays. Observational study using administrative data on resident characteristics and hospice utilization from a large regional hospice linked with publicly available data on nursing home characteristics. A total of 13,479 residents who enrolled in hospice during 2001-2008. Logistic regression models of the probability of a long (>180 days) or very short (stay, adjusting for nursing home characteristics, a measure of nursing home quality developed using Minimum Data Set Quality Indicator/Quality Measures data, and resident characteristics. Nursing home characteristics were not statistically significant predictors of long stays. The probability of a short stay increased with the facility's nurse staffing ratio and decreased with the share of residents covered by Medicaid. Men (relative to women) and blacks (relative to whites) were less likely to have a long stay and more likely to have a short stay, while those 70 years or younger (relative to those 81-90) and residents with Alzheimer's disease/dementia were more likely to have long stays and less likely to have short stays. Fourteen percent of hospice users were discharged before death because they failed to meet Medicare hospice eligibility criteria, and these residents had longer lengths of stay, on average. Few facility characteristics were associated with very long or very short hospice stays. However, high rates of discharge before death that may reflect a less predictable life trajectory of nursing home residents suggests that further evaluation of the hospice benefit for nursing home residents may be needed.

  18. Reliability testing of the Danish version of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molsted, Stig; Heaf, James; Prescott, Lotte

    2005-01-01

    . MATERIAL AND METHODS: Translation into Danish and back-translation into English were performed. Pilot, field and internal consistency reliability tests were performed. RESULTS: Cronbach's alpha coefficients for the internal reliability test ranged from 0.77 to 0.93 for the eight generic scales. In a test......OBJECTIVE: The questionnaire Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF) is valuable for assessing the health-related quality of life in patients treated with chronic dialysis. The aim of this study was to translate and test the reliability of the KDQOL-SF for use in Denmark...... involving all patients, two of the disease-specific scales had Cronbach's alpha coefficients of test of the scores...

  19. Hitting the road to adulthood: short-term personality development during a major life transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleidorn, Wiebke

    2012-12-01

    Previous research suggests that normative life transitions have the potential to trigger personality maturation. But what exactly happens during such a transitional stage? The present study examined personality trait changes in a sample of 910 German high school students during their transition from school to adult life. Despite the short observation period of three semiannual measurements, growth curve analyses revealed significant mean-level changes in personality traits. These changes occurred primarily in a positive direction, were strongest for the trait of conscientiousness, and most pronounced in those students who were directly confronted with this transitional experience. Bivariate growth curve models indicated that individual differences in personality change were substantially associated with changes in students' investments into achievement behavior. Supporting socioanalytic perspectives on personality development, these findings can be discussed with respect to process approaches to personality change assuming that consistent behavioral changes might lead to personality change in a bottom-up fashion.

  20. Classification of radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This document first indicates the origins of radioactive wastes (mainly electronuclear industry), and the composition of spent fuel, and that only fission products and minor actinides are considered as radioactive wastes whereas uranium and plutonium can be used as new fuel after recycling. The classification of radioactive wastes is indicated in terms of radioactivity level and radionuclide half-life: high level (0.2 per cent of the total waste volume but 96 per cent of total waste radioactivity), medium level long life (3 per cent of volume, 4 per cent of radioactivity), low level long life (7 per cent of volume, 0.1 per cent of radioactivity), low and medium level and short life (63 per cent of volume and 0.02 per cent of radioactivity), very low level (27 per cent of volume and less than 0.01 per cent of radioactivity). An overview of radioactive waste processing and storage in France is presented for each category. Current and predicted volumes are indicated for each category. The main challenges are briefly addressed: spent fuel recycling, waste valorisation by fourth-generation reactors. Processing locations in France and in the World are indicated. Some key figures are provided: 2 kg of radioactive waste are produced per inhabitant and per year, and waste management costs represent 5 per cent of the total cost of produced electricity

  1. The short half-life descendents from radon measured in Sao Jose dos Campos and Cachoeira Paulista, Brazil, and its correlation with meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade Marinho, E.V. de.

    1985-09-01

    The correlations between the activity of the short half-life radon decay products in the low atmosphere and the meterological parameters, measuring the atmospheric polonium 214 are studied. The aerosols were collected on membrane filters and analysed by alpha spectrometry. Measurements have been made in Sao Jose dos Campos and Cachoeira Paulista, in Brazil. At S. Jose dos Campos the influence of the pluviometry on the concentration of atmospheric Po 214 has been analysed, showing that high activity correspond to low pluviometry and inversely, low activities correspond to high pluviometry. At Cachoeira Paulista, the variation in the atmospheric Po 214 activity in corresation with the air stability, measured, showing the accumulation of radioactive aerosols during the greater stability in the the lower atmospheric layers, was studied. (author) [pt

  2. Yoghurt from short supply chain: preliminary study of microbiological and physicochemical characteristics during shelf life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Carfora

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoghurt is one of very popular flavorful and healthful dairy product obtained by fermentation of lactic acid bacteria including Lactobacillus delbrueckii bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Its production and consumption is growing continuously due to its therapeutic properties beside its high nutritive value. Thirty samples of yoghurt from short supply chain produced in 2 factory localized in Lazio region were analyzed with the aim of determining how certain microbiological and physicochemical characteristics change during their shelf life. Different types of yoghurt were studied: plain (12, fruit (14 and cereal yoghurt (4 produced with cow (8 and goat milk (22.The obtained results show: no presence of Enterobacteria, occasional presence of moulds and a considerable presence of yeasts. On the other hand, all the products analyzed have shown an almost constant amount of lactic acid bacteria during their shelf life. Lactic acid bacteria were identified by a biochemical and polymerase chain reaction assay. The presence of undesired microorganisms like yeasts was found. However, the quality of products was satisfying for the concentration of lactic acid bacteria detected in their shelf life.

  3. A repeated short educational intervention improves asthma control and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Vicente; Peiró, Meritxell; Torrejón, Montserrat; Fletcher, Monica; López-Viña, Antolín; Ignacio, José María; Quintano, José Antonio; Bardagí, Santiago; Gich, Ignasi

    2015-11-01

    We assessed the effectiveness of an asthma educational programme based on a repeated short intervention (AEP-RSI) to improve asthma control (symptom control and future risk) and quality of life. A total of 230 adults with mild-to-moderate persistent uncontrolled asthma participated in a 1-year cluster randomised controlled multicentre study. The AEP-RSI was given in four face-to-face sessions at 3-month intervals, and included administration of a written personalised action plan and training on inhaler technique. Centres were randomised to the AEP-RSI (intervention) group or usual clinical practice group. Specialised centres using a standard educational programme were the gold standard group. A significant improvement in the Asthma Control Test score was observed in all three groups (pQuality of Life Questionnaire scores (0.95±1.04 and 0.89±0.84 versus 0.52±0.97, respectively). The AEP-RSI was effective in improving asthma symptom control, future risk and quality of life. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  4. The management of radioactive wastes; La gestion des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    This educative booklet describes the role and missions of the ANDRA, the French national agency for the management of radioactive wastes, and the different aspects of the management of radioactive wastes: goal, national inventory, classification, transport (organisation, regulation, safety), drumming, labelling, surface storage of short life wastes, environmental control, management of long life wastes (composition, research, legal aspects) and the underground research laboratories (description, public information, projects, schedules). (J.S.)

  5. The high-level and long life radioactive wastes management in France: inquiry near the actors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dars, A.

    2002-07-01

    This document presents talks carried out near various actors of the radioactive wastes management in France. These talks have been realized in the framework of an inquiry aiming at supporting the developments of an economic sciences thesis, relative to the sustainable management of the nuclear wastes. This inquiry aimed to better determine the actors stakes, the controversies on the technical choices, but also the possible cooperation. (A.L.B.)

  6. A short form of the Diabetes Quality of Life for Youth questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, T. C.; Hoey, H.; McGee, H. M.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to test the construct validity of the Diabetes Quality of Life for Youth (DQOLY) questionnaire in a large representative sample of young people with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Methods: The 52-item DQOLY questionnaire was completed by 2,077 adolescent...... of a revised questionnaire, two with four factors and one with six factors, with all models indicating the presence of one satisfaction scale, but with many of the impact and worry scale items either double loading or not loading on any factors. Subsequent confirmatory analysis indicated that compared...... with the original DQOLY scales, the six-factor solution was the best-fitting model. Conclusions/interpretation: The DQOLY factor structure does not show construct validity in a large, diverse representative sample of young people with type 1 diabetes. However, a revised (short-form) version of the DQOLY is proposed...

  7. Life cycle inventory of sodium acetate and expanded graphite: Short report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, N. [ESU-Services Ltd., Uster (Switzerland); Nguyen, B. [Haute Ecole d' Ingenierie et de Gestion du canton de Vaud, Laboratoire d' Energetique Solaire et de Physique du BATiment, HEIG-VD / LESBAT, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    This short report for the Laboratory for Solar Energy and Building Physics at the University of Applied Sciences in Yverdon, Switzerland, takes a look at work being done on the issue of solar energy storage. The use of sodium acetate as a phase-change material is reviewed and considered as being a good way of optimising solar heating systems. The goal of this study was to assess if the energy gain resulting from the use of sodium acetate is balanced out or not by its embodied energy. The study investigated sodium acetate with and without expanded graphite. The paper discusses the life cycle inventory analysis of the two materials and provides some aggregated key indicators for further analysis. In general the ecoinvent methodology has been followed in order to achieve full consistency with the background data used and to provide an assessment of the materials' impact on the environment.

  8. Models for estimation of service life of concrete barriers in low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walton, J.C.; Plansky, L.E.; Smith, R.W.

    1990-09-01

    Concrete barriers will be used as intimate parts of systems for isolation of low level radioactive wastes subsequent to disposal. This work reviews mathematical models for estimating the degradation rate of concrete in typical service environments. The models considered cover sulfate attack, reinforcement corrosion, calcium hydroxide leaching, carbonation, freeze/thaw, and cracking. Additionally, fluid flow, mass transport, and geochemical properties of concrete are briefly reviewed. Example calculations included illustrate the types of predictions expected of the models. 79 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs

  9. Models for estimation of service life of concrete barriers in low-level radioactive waste disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walton, J.C.; Plansky, L.E.; Smith, R.W. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-09-01

    Concrete barriers will be used as intimate parts of systems for isolation of low level radioactive wastes subsequent to disposal. This work reviews mathematical models for estimating the degradation rate of concrete in typical service environments. The models considered cover sulfate attack, reinforcement corrosion, calcium hydroxide leaching, carbonation, freeze/thaw, and cracking. Additionally, fluid flow, mass transport, and geochemical properties of concrete are briefly reviewed. Example calculations included illustrate the types of predictions expected of the models. 79 refs., 24 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Short Personality and Life Event scale for detection of suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artieda-Urrutia, Paula; Delgado-Gómez, David; Ruiz-Hernández, Diego; García-Vega, Juan Manuel; Berenguer, Nuria; Oquendo, Maria A; Blasco-Fontecilla, Hilario

    2015-01-01

    To develop a brief and reliable psychometric scale to identify individuals at risk for suicidal behaviour. Case-control study. 182 individuals (61 suicide attempters, 57 psychiatric controls, and 64 psychiatrically healthy controls) aged 18 or older, admitted to the Emergency Department at Puerta de Hierro University Hospital in Madrid, Spain. All participants completed a form including their socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and the Personality and Life Events scale (27 items). To assess Axis I diagnoses, all psychiatric patients (including suicide attempters) were administered the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Descriptive statistics were computed for the socio-demographic factors. Additionally, χ(2) independence tests were applied to evaluate differences in socio-demographic and clinical variables, and the Personality and Life Events scale between groups. A stepwise linear regression with backward variable selection was conducted to build the Short Personality Life Event (S-PLE) scale. In order to evaluate the accuracy, a ROC analysis was conducted. The internal reliability was assessed using Cronbach's α, and the external reliability was evaluated using a test-retest procedure. The S-PLE scale, composed of just 6 items, showed good performance in discriminating between medical controls, psychiatric controls and suicide attempters in an independent sample. For instance, the S-PLE scale discriminated between past suicide and past non-suicide attempters with sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 75%. The area under the ROC curve was 88%. A factor analysis extracted only one factor, revealing a single dimension of the S-PLE scale. Furthermore, the S-PLE scale provides values of internal and external reliability between poor (test-retest: 0.55) and acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.65) ranges. Administration time is about one minute. The S-PLE scale is a useful and accurate instrument for estimating the risk of suicidal behaviour in

  11. 3. Radioactive pharmaceutical medications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    In the chapter common definitions of for radio-pharmacy are given. Radio-pharmacy medications are pharmacy medications which contain minor amount of one or several radionuclides (radioactive tracers), those radiation ability is applying in diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. At the same time radionuclides with more short life time, which are ether gamma-radiators or beta-radiators are applying. The following items for such radioisotopes production; radionuclides applying in nuclear medicine; radio-pharmaceutics; radio-toxicity; quality insurance; order for 18 F-PDG production; radionuclide analysis are considered

  12. Nuclear radioactive techniques applied to materials research

    CERN Document Server

    Correia, João Guilherme; Wahl, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we review materials characterization techniques using radioactive isotopes at the ISOLDE/CERN facility. At ISOLDE intense beams of chemically clean radioactive isotopes are provided by selective ion-sources and high-resolution isotope separators, which are coupled on-line with particle accelerators. There, new experiments are performed by an increasing number of materials researchers, which use nuclear spectroscopic techniques such as Mössbauer, Perturbed Angular Correlations (PAC), beta-NMR and Emission Channeling with short-lived isotopes not available elsewhere. Additionally, diffusion studies and traditionally non-radioactive techniques as Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy, Hall effect and Photoluminescence measurements are performed on radioactive doped samples, providing in this way the element signature upon correlation of the time dependence of the signal with the isotope transmutation half-life. Current developments, applications and perspectives of using radioactive ion beams and tech...

  13. The impact of radioactive discharges on native British wild-life and the implications for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, D.

    1998-01-01

    In the context of managing and regulating radioactive waste disposal in the UK, the aim has been to limit the radiation exposure of humans within nationally accepted dose rate limits and to constrain exposures to be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). In practice, a system of radiological control has been applied to protect more restricted 'critical groups' within the human population who, through their habits, are likely to receive the highest radiation exposures. This has had the effect of ensuring that the overall average radiation exposure of an individual member of the UK general public from radioactive waste disposal to the environment is a small fraction of the relevant dose rate limit. The radiological protection of the environment per se has received little explicit regulatory attention. Indeed, there are no criteria currently defined specifically for the protection of the environment. The aims of this report are to: determine how far currently available environmental information provides support for the current UK regulatory approach to radioactive discharges and disposal; identify significant gaps or key uncertainties in information and define research required in order for the Environment Agency to meet the requirements of the current legislation; and, provide guidance on the Environment Agency's regulatory approach to protecting the environment in the context of the current legislation and international developments. To meet these objectives, the terms of reference have been re-interpreted as to: determine the current regulatory position in respect of the protection of the environment from the effects of incremental radiation exposure arising from any aspect of the UK radioactive waste management programme; provide a critical review of the available assessments of the radiation exposure of native wild organisms from both the natural background and the radionuclide contamination of the environment arising from human activities; review available

  14. Report of results and progress research (1982-1984) total research on long life radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    The specific research ''Synthetic research on long life radioactive waste management'' has been advanced in the Research Center for Nuclear Energy, University of Tokyo, for three years since 1982. This research was roughly divided into material science, biology and process engineering, and the research has been advanced according to 14 subthemes by the cooperation of the researchers in wide fields in the university. In this report, the report of the progress of research and the data on the results of researche from fiscal year 1982 to 1984 are summarized. The title of research, organization, the persons in charge, the period of research, the title of report, the objective, contents, state of progress, results obtained in 1984 and results obtained during three years of 5 material group papers, 7 process group papers and 4 biology group papers are given. (Kako, I.)

  15. Life history and ecology of the elusive European short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, J M R; Santos, S V; Nadeau, J L; Gunn, B; Bigney Wilner, K; Balasubramanian, H; Overington, S; Lesage, C-M; D'entremont, J; Wieckowski, K

    2017-12-01

    To improve the understanding of the life history and ecology of one of Europe's most elusive fishes, the short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus, data from wild populations in a shallow coastal lagoon in southern Portugal were analysed. The data were collected from 17 tagged seahorses on a focal-study grid as well as from >350 seahorses encountered during underwater visual surveys and a fishery-independent study using beach seines. These populations of settled juveniles and adults had a mean population density of 0·009 m -2 . During the study period (2000-2004), reproduction peaked in July and August. Juveniles recruited to the lagoon at c. 66 mm standard length (L S ) and 0·5 years of age and established small home ranges (0·8 to 18·2 m 2 ). First reproduction was estimated at 100 mm and 1 year of age. Based on a fitted von Bertalanffy model, H. hippocampus grew quickly (growth coefficient K = 0·93) to a maximum theoretical size L ∞  = 150 mm and have a maximum lifespan of c. 3·2 years. Courtship behaviours were consistent with the maintenance of pair bonds and males brooded multiple batches of young per year. Estimated annual reproductive output averaged 871 young (±632). Together these analyses provide the first life-history parameters for this species and indicate that H. hippocampus bears characteristics of opportunist and intermediate strategists. Such populations are predicted to exhibit large fluctuations in abundance, making them vulnerable to extended periods of poor recruitment. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Contribution of WHOQOL-Bref in the quality of life of workers in a radioactive installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Ivani M.; Silva, Amanda J. da; Potiens, Maria da Penha A.; Carneiro, Janete C.G.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analysed the contribution of WHOQOL-Bref (physical, social, psychological and environmental) for the global life quality of individual occupationally exposed to ionizing radiations and to verify its interrelationship with the social demographic variables, its work conditions and life style. The studied sample (n=86) has answered to a questionnaire composed by socio demographic, work conditions and life style questions and by the WHOQOL-Bref instrument. The data analysis involved descriptive and non parametric tests. The results shown that the psychological domain obtained more average score (75.9+-12.4) and the environmental less score (62.5+-11.4). It was observed significant correlations (p<0.05) among the four domains of the WHOQOL-Bref and the studied variables. The internal consistency of the instrument, evaluated by Alpha of Cronbach, for the studied sample was considered high (0.832)

  17. The study of a new short-life isomeric state in 38K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iordachescu, A.

    1976-01-01

    The 38 K nucleus having a protone and neutron hole coupled with a 40 Ca inert core has a structure analysed easily by the shell model. A new short life, high spin and highly excited isomeric state of the 38 K nucleus has been studied in detail using this model. Theoretical aspects connected with static and dynamic electromagnetic moments of the nucleus state, with the magnetic moment of the nucleus and the selection rules according to the isotopic spin are presented in the case of gamma transitions. Experimentallz/ presented in the case of gamma transitions. Experimentally, it has been used a combination between a natural pulsation of the cyclotron beam and an external pulsation by electrostatic deflexion, thus obtaining a pulsation beam of 12-26 MeV alpha particles. As targets, a series of chemical chlorine combinations have been utilized, the isomeric state being obtained by the reaction 35 Cl(α,n) 38 K, having the isomeric level (1fsub(7/2))sub(7+)sup(2). (author)

  18. Micooprecessor controlled facility for I.N.A.A. using short half life nuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; Korthoven, P.J.M.; Bruin, M. de

    1986-01-01

    At IRI a new, fully atomated facility for short half life INAA is being developed and installed at the Institute 2 MW reactor. The fast rabbit transfer system is constructed only of plastic and carbonfiber parts, so that rabbit contamination is minimized. This system is automated in such a way that it can operate safely without direct supervision; the sequence of irradiations and measurements is optimized by a computer-program for a given set of samples and analysis procedures. The rabbit system is controlled by an Apple IIe-computer connected to the central PDP 11/44 system of the Radiochemistry department. For a given set of samples and required analysis procedures (irradiation-,decay-, and measurement times) the central computer calculates an optimal sequence of individual actions (transfer from and to the reactor, sample storage of detector) to be carried out by the system. This sequence is loaded into the Apple-computer as a series of commands together with timing information. Actual control of the procedure occurs through the peripheral computer, which makes the system independent of delays or break-downs of the central multi-user computer system. Hardware, software and operating characteristics of the fast rabbit system will be discussed. (author)

  19. Pricing and Warranty Level Decisions for New and Remanufactured Short Life-Cycle Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan Shu San

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Remanufacturing has become more prominent as a recovery process to mitigate the massive disposal of short life-cycle product at its end-of-use. However, remanufactured product is often perceived to be inferior to new product, and it has lower value in consumer’s willingness to pay. To increase the perceived quality of the remanufactured product, manufacturer offers a warranty, since one of the three roles possessed in warranty is being a signal to product reliability. This paper studies the pricing decisions and warranty level decision for new and remanufactured products in a closed-loop supply chain consists of a manufacturer and a retailer. The optimization modeling is performed under Stackelberg game with manufacturer as the leader. We found that higher expansion effectiveness coefficient would increase the supply chain profit. Also, there is an interval of demand’s speed of change, where the total profit would be at its highest. The optimum warranty level can be achieved regardless the initial warranty level set at the beginning of retailer’s optimization. Furthermore, the remanufactured product’s wholesale and retail prices are influenced by the expansion effectiveness coefficient.

  20. Radioactive wastes management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    This article presents the French way to deal with nuclear wastes. 4 categories of radioactive wastes have been defined: 1) very low-level wastes (TFA), 2) low or medium-wastes with short or medium half-life (A), 3) low or medium-level wastes with long half-life (B), and 4) high-level wastes with long half-life (C). ANDRA (national agency for the management of radioactive wastes) manages 2 sites of definitive surface storage (La-Manche and Aube centers) for TFA-wastes. The Aube center allows the storage of A-wastes whose half-life is less than 30 years. This site will receive waste packages for 50 years and will require a regular monitoring for 300 years after its decommissioning. No definitive solutions have been taken for B and C wastes, they are temporarily stored at La Hague processing plant. Concerning these wastes the French parliament will have to take a decision by 2006. At this date and within the framework of the Bataille law (1991), scientific studies concerning the definitive or retrievable storage, the processing techniques (like transmutation) will have been achieved and solutions will be proposed. These studies are numerous, long and complex, they involve fresh knowledge in geology, chemistry, physics,.. and they have implied the setting of underground facilities in order to test and validate solutions in situ. This article presents also the transmutation technique. (A.C.)

  1. Assessing the Validity of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire--Short Form in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.; Spencer, Thomas; Zhang, Huabin F.; Biederman, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed the psychometric properties of the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short Form (Q-LES-QSF) in adults with ADHD. Method: One hundred fifty ADHD and 134 non-ADHD adults from a case-control study and 173 adults randomized to placebo or methylphenidate were assessed with the Q-LES-QSF and the…

  2. Short-term complementary and alternative medicine on quality of life in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Paulo Araujo; Guimarães, André Brito Bastos; Albuquerque, Andrea de Oliveira; de Oliveira, Karoline Lucas; Cavalcante, Maria Luzete Costa; Guimarães, Sergio Botelho

    2016-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FMS) is a syndrome characterized by chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain, whose etiology is not completely understood. Different therapeutic approaches have been used with inconsistent results. This observation does not invalidate the continued search for alternative treatments aimed at improving quality of life (QoL) in FMS. This study compared three classical traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) therapies: acupuncture (AC), electroacupuncture (EAC) and moxibustion (MX) in the management of pain and promotion of QoL in FMS patients. A preliminary, group-assigned, comparative study enrolled 30 women, mean age (46.90±9.24) years (range 20-60 years), who met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for FMS diagnosis and a pain-pressure threshold (PPT) < 4 kg/cm(2). The study was conducted in a teaching tertiary-care medical institution from May 2010 through April 2012. AC, EAC and MX were delivered for 30 min, once a week, for 8 weeks, bilaterally at Neiguan (PC6), Hegu (LI4), Yanglingquan (GB34), Sanyinjiao (SP6) and Taichong (LR3) acupoints. Each week, immediately before treatment and after treatment, subjects were tested for PPTs, Wong-Baker Faces Pain Scale (WBFPS; for pain intensity) and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36: for QoL). There was no significant improvement in pain or reduction of tender points in any of the groups studied, at the end of the 8th session. Significant improvement of QoL was perceived in vitality (after AC treatment) and in mental health (after EAC and MX treatments). TCM therapies (AC, EAC and MX) promoted an improvement in the QoL in two areas (vitality and mental health) in FMS women. Further large-scale clinical trials are required to confirm this effect.

  3. Assessing utility where short measures are required: development of the short Assessment of Quality of Life-8 (AQoL-8) instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Graeme

    2009-09-01

    As researchers seek to include clinical outcomes, the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of participants and meet economic evaluation demands, they are confronted with collecting disparate outcome data where parsimony is imperative. This study addressed this through construction of a short HRQoL measure, the Assessment of Quality of Life (AQoL)-8 from the original AQoL. Data from the AQoL validation database (N = 996) were reanalyzed using item response theory (IRT) to identify the least fitting items, which were removed. The standard AQoL scoring algorithm and weights were applied. Validity, reliability, and sensitivity tests were carried out using the 2004 South Australian Health Omnibus Survey (N = 3015), including direct comparisons with other short utility measures, the EQ5D and SF6D. The IRT analysis showed that the AQoL was a weak scale (Loevinger H = 0.36) but reliable (Mokken rho = 0.84). Removal of the four weakest items led to an 8-item instrument with two items per subscale, the AQoL-8. The AQoL-8 Loevinger H = 0.38 and Mokken rho = 0.80 suggested similar psychometric properties to the AQoL. It correlated (intraclass correlation coefficient) 0.95 (or 90% of shared variance) with the AQoL. The AQoL-8 was as sensitive to six common health conditions as the AQoL, EQ5D, and SF6D. The utility scores fall on the same life-death scale as those of the AQoL. Where parsimony is imperative, researchers may consider use of the AQoL-8 to collect participant self-report HRQoL data that is suitable for use either as reported outcomes or for the calculation of quality-adjusted life-years for cost-utility analysis.

  4. Half-life distribution table of radioactive nuclei; Table de distribution des periodes des noyaux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gugenberger, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-07-01

    This table allows to identify an element if its period is known. Data for this table were taken from the half-life values adopted by Hollander, PERLMAN and SEABORG (Rev. mod. Phys., 1953, 22 number 2). Moreover for each nucleus, the mass number, the charge number and the type of decay are given in the table. (author) [French] Cette table permet l'identification d'un element dont la periode est connue. Elle a ete etablie en utilisant les valeurs des periodes donnees par HOLLANDER, PERLMAN et SEABORG dans Rev. mod. Phys., 1953, 25 numero 2. On y trouve en outre, pour chaque nuclide, les caracteristiques suivantes: Z, A, modes de desintegration. (auteur)

  5. Half-life distribution table of radioactive nuclei; Table de distribution des periodes des noyaux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gugenberger, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay(France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1954-07-01

    This table allows to identify an element if its period is known. Data for this table were taken from the half-life values adopted by Hollander, PERLMAN and SEABORG (Rev. mod. Phys., 1953, 22 number 2). Moreover for each nucleus, the mass number, the charge number and the type of decay are given in the table. (author) [French] Cette table permet l'identification d'un element dont la periode est connue. Elle a ete etablie en utilisant les valeurs des periodes donnees par HOLLANDER, PERLMAN et SEABORG dans Rev. mod. Phys., 1953, 25 numero 2. On y trouve en outre, pour chaque nuclide, les caracteristiques suivantes: Z, A, modes de desintegration. (auteur)

  6. The association between short periods of everyday life activities and affective states: a replication study using ambulatory assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas eBossmann

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Regularly conducted exercise programs effectively influence affective states. Studies suggest that this is also true for short bouts of physical activity of ten minutes or less. Accordingly, everyday life activities of short duration might be used to regulate affective states. However, this association has rarely been studied in reference to unstructured activities in ongoing real-life situations. The current study examined the influence of various everyday life activities on three dimensions of mood (valence, calmness, energetic arousal in a predominantly inactive sample. Ambulatory Assessment (AA was used to investigate the association between actual physical activity (aPA and affective states during the course of one day. Seventy-seven students ages 19 - 30 participated in the study. aPA was assessed with accelerometers, and affective state assessments were conducted hourly using an e-diary with a six-item mood scale that was specially designed for AA. Multilevel analyses indicated that the mood dimensions energetic arousal (p = .001 and valence (p = .005 were positively influenced by the intensity of the activity carried out in the ten minutes prior to the assessment. As their activity increased, the participants’ positive feelings and energetic arousal increased. However, the students’ calmness was not affected by their activity levels. The findings highlight the importance of integrating short activity intervals of 10 minutes or less into everyday life routines to improve affective states.

  7. Polarized secondary radioactive beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaika, N.I.

    1992-01-01

    Three methods of polarized radioactive nuclei beam production: a) a method nuclear interaction of the non-polarized or polarized charged projectiles with target nuclei; b) a method of polarization of stopped reaction radioactive products in a special polarized ion source with than following acceleration; c) a polarization of radioactive nuclei circulating in a storage ring are considered. Possible life times of the radioactive ions for these methods are determined. General schemes of the polarization method realizations and depolarization problems are discussed

  8. Monolithic photonic integration for visible and short near-infrared wavelengths: technologies and platforms for bio and life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcel, Marco A. G.; Artundo, Iñigo; Domenech, J. David; Geuzebroek, Douwe; Sunarto, Rino; Hoofman, Romano

    2018-04-01

    This tutorial aims to provide a general overview on the state-of-the-art of photonic integrated circuits (PICs) in the visible and short near-infrared (NIR) wavelength ranges, mostly focusing in silicon nitride (SiN) substrates, and a guide to the necessary steps in the design toward the fabrication of such PICs. The focus is put on bio- and life sciences, given the adequacy and, thus, a large number of applications in this field.

  9. Pricing decision model for new and remanufactured short-life cycle products with time-dependent demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu San Gan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we develop a model that optimizes the price for new and remanufactured short life-cycle products where demands are time-dependent and price sensitive. While there has been very few published works that attempt to model remanufacturing decisions for products with short life cycle, we believe that there are many situations where remanufacturing short life cycle products is rewarding economically as well as environmentally. The system that we model consists of a retailer, a manufacturer, and a collector of used product from the end customers. Two different scenarios are evaluated for the system. The first is the independent situation where each party attempts to maximize his/her own total profit and the second is the joint profit model where we optimize the combined total profit for all three members of the supply chain. Manufacturer acts as the Stackelberg leader in the independently optimized scenario, while in the other the intermediate prices are determined by coordinated pricing policy. The results suggest that (i reducing the price of new products during the decline phase does not give better profit for the whole system, (ii the total profit obtained from optimizing each player is lower than the total profit of the integrated model, and (iii speed of change in demand influences the robustness of the prices as well as the total profit gained.

  10. Some problems of parametric neutron activation analysis based on the use of radioactive daughters of longer-lived mothers with low mother/daughter half-life ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.M.

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical and practical aspects of the use of radioactive daughters originated from the decay of longer-lived radioactive mothers in parametric activation analysis, when the ratio: mother half-life to daughter half-life is less than 10, are discussed. The mother-daughter relationships: 47 Ca/ 47 Sc; 95 Zr/ 95 Nb; 140 Ba/ 140 La; 99 Mo/ 99m Tc and 115 Cd/ 115m In are selected as models for the study. The cases when the radionuclide of interest is formed through both direct and indirect routes are also analyzed. As illustrative example, the direct reaction and the reaction chain: 47 Ti(n,p) 47 Sc/ 46 Ca(n,γ) 47 Ca(β - ) 47 Sc are evaluated with respect to the determination of the elements involved and their reciprocal interferences. (author)

  11. A short life history of Prof. Dr. F.P. Jonker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, C.R.

    1978-01-01

    This year Prof. Dr. F.P. Jonker, Frits as he is known among his friends, will retire from the formal academic life at the State University of Utrecht: a long and busy life of 49 years, devoted to teaching, administration, and scientific research. Looking back on all these years, one realises the

  12. Experimental research on the ultimate strength of hard aluminium alloy 2017 subjected to short-time radioactive heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dafang, Wu; Yuewu, Wang; Bing, Pan; Meng, Mu; Lin, Zhu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ultimate strength at transient heating is critical to security design of missiles. ► We measure the ultimate strength of alloy 2017 subjected to transient heating. ► Experimental results at transient heating are lacking in strength design handbook. ► Ultimate strength of alloy 2017 experimented is much higher than handbook value. ► The results provide a new method for optimal design of high-speed flight vehicles. -- Abstract: Alloy 2017 (Al–Cu–Mg) is a hard aluminium alloy strengthened by heat treatment. Because of its higher strength, finer weldability and ductility, hard aluminium alloy 2017 has been widely used in the field of aeronautics and astronautics. However, the ultimate strength and other characteristic mechanical parameters of aluminium alloy 2017 in a transient heating environment are still unclear, as these key mechanical parameters are lacking in the existing strength design handbook. The experimental characterisation of these critical parameters of aluminium alloy 2017 is undoubtedly meaningful for reliably estimating life span of and improving safety in designing high-speed flight vehicles. In this paper, the high-temperature ultimate strength, loading time and other mechanical properties of hard aluminium alloy 2017 under different transient heating temperatures and loading conditions are investigated by combining a transient aerodynamic heating simulation system and a material testing machine. The experimental results reveal that the ultimate strength and loading capability of aluminium alloy 2017 subjected to transient thermal heating are much higher than those tested in a long-time stable high-temperature environment. The research of this work not only provides a substantial basis for the loading capability improvement and optimal design of aerospace materials and structures subject to transient heating but also presents a new research direction with a practical application value.

  13. Verification of computer system PROLOG - software tool for rapid assessments of consequences of short-term radioactive releases to the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiselev, Alexey A.; Krylov, Alexey L.; Bogatov, Sergey A. [Nuclear Safety Institute (IBRAE), Bolshaya Tulskaya st. 52, 115191, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-01

    In case of nuclear and radiation accidents emergency response authorities require a tool for rapid assessments of possible consequences. One of the most significant problems is lack of data on initial state of an accident. The lack can be especially critical in case the accident occurred in a location that was not thoroughly studied beforehand (during transportation of radioactive materials for example). One of possible solutions is the hybrid method when a model that enables rapid assessments with the use of reasonable minimum of input data is used conjointly with an observed data that can be collected shortly after accidents. The model is used to estimate parameters of the source and uncertain meteorological parameters on the base of some observed data. For example, field of fallout density can be observed and measured within hours after an accident. After that the same model with the use of estimated parameters is used to assess doses and necessity of recommended and mandatory countermeasures. The computer system PROLOG was designed to solve the problem. It is based on the widely used Gaussian model. The standard Gaussian model is supplemented with several sub-models that allow to take into account: polydisperse aerosols, aerodynamic shade from buildings in the vicinity of the place of accident, terrain orography, initial size of the radioactive cloud, effective height of the release, influence of countermeasures on the doses of radioactive exposure of humans. It uses modern GIS technologies and can use web map services. To verify ability of PROLOG to solve the problem it is necessary to test its ability to assess necessary parameters of real accidents in the past. Verification of the computer system on the data of Chazhma Bay accident (Russian Far East, 1985) was published previously. In this work verification was implemented on the base of observed contamination from the Kyshtym disaster (PA Mayak, 1957) and the Tomsk accident (1993). Observations of Sr-90

  14. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-04-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Progrram is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report is an input into the third evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The total-system cost for the reference waste-management program in this analysis is estimated to be 24 to 30 billion (1984) dollars. For the sensitivity cases studied in this report, the costs could be as high as 35 billion dollars and as low as 21 billion dollars. Because factors like repository location, the quantity of waste generated, transportation-cask technology, and repository startup dates exert substantial impacts on total-system costs, there are several tradeoffs between these factors, and these tradeoffs can greatly influence the total cost of the program. The total-system cost for the reference program described in this report is higher by 3 to 5 billion dollars, or 15 to 20%, than the cost for the reference program of the TSLCC analysis of April 1984. More than two-thirds of this increase is in the cost of repository construction and operation. These repository costs have increased because of changing design concepts, different assumptions about the effort required to perform the necessary activities, and a change in the source data on which the earlier analysis was based. Development and evaluation costs have similarly increased because of a net addition to the work content. Transportation costs have increased because of different assumptions about repository locations and several characteristics of the transportation system. It is expected that the estimates of total-system costs will continue to change in response to both an evolving program strategy and better definition of the work required to achieve the program objectives

  15. Analysis of radioactive strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    In environmental radiation survey, radioactive strontium has been analyzed in compliance with the manual ''Analyzing methods for radioactive strontium'' published in 1960 by the Science and Technology Agency, Japan, and revised in 1963. However, in a past decade, progress and development in analyzing methods and measuring equipments have been significant, therefore the manual was revised in 1974. Major revisions are as follows. (1) Analysis of 90 Sr with long half life was changed to the main theme and that of 89 Sr with short half life became a subordinate one. (2) Measuring criteria and sampling volume were revised. (3) Sample collection method was unified. (4) Analyzing method for soil was improved to NaOH-HCl method which has good recovery rate. (5) 90 Y separation method of simple operation was added for sea water analysis besides EDTA and fuming nitric acid methods. (6) Flame spectrometry for quantitative analysis of stable strontium was revised to atomic absorption spectrometry. The contents of the manual comprises 11 chapters describing introduction, measuring criteria for 90 Sr ( 89 Sr), rain and dust, land water, sea water, soil, sea bottom and river bottom sediments (changed from human urine and human bones), crops, milk (the previous one chapter was divided into two), marine organisms, and everyday foods, respectively. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  16. Determination of short half-life elements in biological, foodstuff, and environmental samples qualitatively by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syukria Kurniawati; Muhayatun Santoso; Diah Dwiana Lestiani

    2010-01-01

    NAA applications at routine operation power of 15 MW at Multipurpose Reactor GA Siwabessy (MPR-GAS) for sample matrices analysis have been widely applied. However, the results are not optimum for some matrices especially for short half-live elements. Preliminary study of short half-life elements determination in biological, foodstuff, and environmental samples using 1 MW power have been conducted to solve this problem. The samples were irradiated in rabbit system of MPR-GAS for 5 minutes, counted for 200 seconds by HPGe detector, and the spectrum were analyzed further using software Genie 2000 and Bandung NAA Utility. Analysis under 1 MW power on biological and foodstuff samples were capable to detect eight elements: Al, Br, CI, Ca, I, K, Mg, Ti, and Na for biological samples; Al, Br, CI, Ca, I, K, Mg, Mn, and Na for foodstuff samples, while at 15 MW power only three elements (CI, K, Na) were detected. At 1 MW power the counting process is more optimum due to smaller radiation exposure and dead time. For the environmental samples, the number of elements detected by 1 MW and 15 MW powers did not differ significantly. Generally, the results on the three types of samples showed that the elements of short half-life are better detected at 1 MW than that of 15 MW power. Further research needs to be done to obtain the optimum analytical conditions for irradiation and counting time determination. (author)

  17. Technological study about a disposal measures of low-level radioactive waste including uranium and long-half-life radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Nakatani, Takayoshi; Sakai, Akihiro; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Sasaki, Toshihisa; Nakamura, Yasuo

    2017-02-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) performed the technical studies contributed for the disposal measures of uranium-bearing waste with low concentration and intermediate depth disposal-based waste occurring from the process of the nuclear fuel cycle. (1) Study of the trench disposal of uranium-bearing waste. As a part of the study of disposal measures of the uranium-bearing waste, we carried out the safety assessment (exposure dose assessment) and derived the upper limit of radioactivity concentration of uranium which was allowed to be included in radioactive waste for trench disposal. (2) Preliminary study for the expansion of material applied to clearance in uranium-bearing waste. Currently, the clearance level of uranium handling facilities was derived from the radioactivity concentration of uranium corresponding to dose criterion about the exposure pathways of the reuse and recycle of metal. Therefore, we preliminarily evaluated whether metal and concrete were able to be applied to clearance by the method of the undergrounding disposal. (3) Study of the concentration limitation scenarios for the intermediate depth disposal-based waste. We carried out dose assessment of intermediate depth disposal of radioactive waste generated from JAEA about radioactive concentration limitation scenarios of which the concept was shown by the study team in Nuclear Regulation Authority. Based on the results, we discussed whether the waste was applied to radioactive waste conforming to concept of intermediate depth disposal. (author)

  18. Psychosocial stressors and the short life spans of legendary jazz musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalano, F

    2000-04-01

    Mean age at death of 168 legendary jazz musicians and 100 renowned classical musicians were compared to examine whether psychosocial stressors such as severe substance abuse, haphazard working conditions, lack of acceptance of jazz as an art form in the United States, marital and family discord, and a vagabond life style may have contributed to shortened life spans for the jazz musicians. Analysis indicated that the jazz musicians died at an earlier age (57.2 yr.) than the classical musicians (73.3 yr.).

  19. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    OpenAIRE

    E.R. Migliaro; P. Contreras; S. Bech; A. Etxagibel; M. Castro; R. Ricca; K. Vicente

    2001-01-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-...

  20. Quality of life in South East Asian patients who consult for dyspepsia: Validation of the short form Nepean Dyspepsia Index

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadeva, Sanjiv; Wee, Hwee-Lin; Goh, Khean-Lee; Thumboo, Julian

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Treatment objectives for dyspepsia include improvements in both symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). There is a lack of disease-specific instruments measuring HRQoL in South East Asian dyspeptics. Objectives To validate English and locally translated version of the Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI) in Malaysian patients who consult for dyspepsia. Methods The English version of the SF-NDI was culturally adapted locally and a Malay translation was de...

  1. Public participation in decision-making processes: ONDRAF/NIRAS' approach to the disposal of low-level and short-lived radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, E.

    2000-01-01

    January 16, 1998, is a milestone in the nuclear waste management in Belgium. On that day, the Belgian government effectively opted for a definitive or potentially definitive solution for the Iona term management of low-level, short-lived radioactive waste. The government also wanted this solution to be implemented in a progressive, flexible, and reversible manner. it was thereby definitively abandoning the prolonged interim storage option, in favour of either surface disposal or deep geological disposal. At the same time, the government entrusted new missions to ONDRAFINIRAS, aimed at enabling it to make, around 2001-2002, the necessary technical and economic choice between surface disposal and deep geological disposal. ONDRAFNIRAS had to develop, in particular, methods, including the management and dialogue strictures, necessary to integrate a repository project at the local level. Furthermore, it had to restrict from then on its investigations to the four already existing nuclear zones in Belgium namely those of Doel, Fleurus, Mol-Dessel, and Tihange, and to the local towns or villages having shown an interest in a preliminary field study. Early in 1998, ONDRAFNIRAS set up a new work programme and developed an entirely new work methodology. As we understood that the best way to take involved into account the interests of all parties, is to involve them in the decision making on the project, we developed the idea of the local partnerships. Any party that could be directly affected by a collective decision, must have a say in it. Another innovative aspect of this new methodology is that of integration: an integration at the local level which is meant to enable the development of draft repository projects creating new perspectives for the regions concerned. Extending over four to five years, ONDRAFINIRAS's new work programme assumes the active participation of all the interested local representatives. Because it has understood that any party that could be directly

  2. Assessment of costs related to the implementation of management solutions on the long term for high and medium level long life radioactive wastes. ANDRA's proposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    This huge document contains several volumes which propose detailed costing of the various parts of the Cigeo project after sketch studies (this project deals with the deep geological storage of high and medium level long life radioactive wastes). It notably states the various hypotheses regarding the inventory of radioactive wastes, the waste supply prediction, and works closure. This cost assessment takes the different project stages into account and a cost update. Various aspects are thus assessed, some related to investments (design studies, preliminary works, construction of the various installations, renewal of equipment during exploitation, installation dismantling and works closure, insurance, commissioning authority and engineering subcontracting), to exploitation (production and maintenance, support, activities related to safety, radiation protection and control of the environment, operating costs, utilities, storage containers, insurance), and to other expenses (tax, research and development, technological tests, control after closure)

  3. Associations between Psychological Problems and Quality of Life in Pediatric Short Stature from Patients’ and Parents’ Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Monika; Sommer, Rachel; Rohenkohl, Anja Christine; Bernardino Da Silva, Neuza Maria

    2016-01-01

    Short stature has been associated with psychosocial impairments, but whether treatments and achieved height impact on health-related quality of life (HrQoL) and psychological functioning of children/adolescents is still controversial. This study aimed to examine the effects of height deviation and treatment status on psychosocial adaptation outcomes and to identify clinical and psychosocial determinants of internalizing/externalizing problems in a large cohort of short statured children/adolescents from seven European countries. Participants were 345 children aged 8–18 years with a clinical diagnosis of short stature and 421 parents of 4–18 year-old patients. Children and parents reported on psychological problems (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), generic (KIDSCREEN) and condition-specific HrQoL (QoLISSY). According to analyses of covariance, children/adolescents with current short stature presented more parent-reported internalizing problems and lower self- and parent-reported condition-specific HrQoL, compared to patients with an achieved height above -2SD. Treated children self-reported better HrQoL than the untreated group. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that, rather than height–related clinical variables, children’s sex, younger age and poorer HrQoL were the best predictors of psychological problems, explaining 39% of the variance in patient- and 42% in parent-reported internalizing problems, and 22% of the variance in patient- and 24% in parent-reported externalizing problems. Treatment status also moderated the negative links between patient-reported HrQoL and internalizing problems, explaining 2% of additional variance. These results suggest that children with current short stature are at greater risk for internalizing problems. Routine assessment of HrQoL in pediatric healthcare may help identify children for referral to specialized psychological assessment and intervention. PMID:27097033

  4. Psychological and behavioral intervention improves the quality of life and mental health of patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer treated with postoperative radioactive iodine-131

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu HX

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Hong-Xia Wu,1,* Hua Zhong,2,3,* Yue-Dong Xu,1 Cui-Ping Xu,4 Ying Zhang,5 Wei Zhang1 1Department of Endocrinology, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, 2Department of Oncology, Shandong University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 3Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, 4Department of Nursing, Shandong Provincial Qianfoshan Hospital, Shandong University, Jinan, Shandong, 5Department of Nursing, Tianjin Chest Hospital, Tianjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: We examined the effects of psychological and behavioral intervention on health-related quality of life and mental health among patients suffering from differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC treated with postoperative radioactive iodine-131 (RAI.Methods: Sixty patients with DTC, undergoing RAI, were randomly assigned to receive either conventional nursing (n=30 or a 1-year psychological and behavioral intervention based on conventional nursing (n=30. Health-related quality of life and mental health issues, depression, and anxiety were measured using the Quality of Life Core Questionnaire, Self-rating Depression Scale, and Self-rating Anxiety Score, respectively.Results: After RAI treatment, patients in both groups showed improved functional capacities (ie, physical, role, cognitive, emotional, and social and global quality of life, along with reduced depression and anxiety (P<0.05. At 1-year follow-up, compared with patients in the routine nursing group, those in the psychological and behavioral intervention group demonstrated greater improvements in functional capacities, global quality of life, and depression and anxiety symptoms (P<0.05.Conclusion: Psychological and behavioral interventions for patients with DTC undergoing RAI facilitated positive outcomes, suggesting that nursing care models that include psychological and behavioral interventions

  5. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Migliaro

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min. R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  6. Relative influence of age, resting heart rate and sedentary life style in short-term analysis of heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaro, E R; Contreras, P; Bech, S; Etxagibel, A; Castro, M; Ricca, R; Vicente, K

    2001-04-01

    In order to assess the relative influence of age, resting heart rate (HR) and sedentary life style, heart rate variability (HRV) was studied in two different groups. The young group (YG) consisted of 9 sedentary subjects aged 15 to 20 years (YG-S) and of 9 nonsedentary volunteers (YG-NS) also aged 15 to 20. The elderly sedentary group (ESG) consisted of 16 sedentary subjects aged 39 to 82 years. HRV was assessed using a short-term procedure (5 min). R-R variability was calculated in the time-domain by means of the root mean square successive differences. Frequency-domain HRV was evaluated by power spectrum analysis considering high frequency and low frequency bands. In the YG the effort tolerance was ranked in a bicycle stress test. HR was similar for both groups while ESG showed a reduced HRV compared with YG. Within each group, HRV displayed a negative correlation with HR. Although YG-NS had better effort tolerance than YG-S, their HR and HRV were not significantly different. We conclude that HRV is reduced with increasing HR or age, regardless of life style. The results obtained in our short-term study agree with others of longer duration by showing that age and HR are the main determinants of HRV. Our results do not support the idea that changes in HRV are related to regular physical activity.

  7. Radioactivity and radioprotection: the every day life in a nuclear installation. Press tour at CEA/GRENOBLE 18 november 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    In the framework of the public information, this paper gives a general information on the radioactivity and the radioprotection at the CEA/Cadarache center. A first part is devoted to a presentation of the radioactivity with definitions and radiation effects on the human being and the environment. An other part presents the radioprotection activities and regulations. The last part deals with specific activities of the CEA/Cadarache: the CASCAD installations for spent fuels storage, the LECA Laboratory for the Examination of Active Fuels and a dismantling installation for big irradiated objects. Historical aspects of the CEA/Cadarache are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  8. Recovery after Orthognathic Surgery: Short-term Health-Related Quality of Life Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, George; Jaskolka, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Assess the patient-reported time to recovery for quality of life outcomes: post-surgery sequelae, discomfort/pain, oral function, and daily activities following orthognathic surgery Methods 170 patients (age 14 to 53) were enrolled in a prospective study prior to orthognathic surgery. Each patient was given a 20 item Health-Related Quality of Life instrument (OSPostop) to be completed each post-surgery day (PSD) for 90 days. The instrument was designed to assess patients’ perception of recovery for 4 domains: post-surgery sequelae; discomfort/pain; oral function; and daily activities. Discomfort/pain was recorded with a 7-point Likert-type scale; all other items were measured on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Results Post-surgery sequelae, except swelling, resolved within the first week after surgery for over 75% of the subjects. Discomfort/pain and medication usage persisted for two to three weeks after surgery for most subjects. Return to usual activities, except for recreational activities, which took substantially longer, mirrored the resolution of discomfort/pain. Problems with oral function took the longest to resolve, approximately 6 to 8 weeks for the majority of subjects. Conclusions Comprehensive daily postoperative patient quality of life data provides the orthognathic surgeon with estimated recovery times in distinct domains. This information is vital in the provision of informed consent as well as pre-operative education of patients regarding peri-operative and post-operative expectations. Ultimately this data can be combined with individual risk factors to provide personalized consent and expectations as well as tailor peri-operative and post-operative management regimens. PMID:18848110

  9. Interpreting Quality of Life after Brain Injury Scores: Cross-Walk with the Short Form-36.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Lindsay; Marsden-Loftus, Isaac; Koskinen, Sanna; Bakx, Wilbert; Bullinger, Monika; Formisano, Rita; Maas, Andrew; Neugebauer, Edmund; Powell, Jane; Sarajuuri, Jaana; Sasse, Nadine; von Steinbuechel, Nicole; von Wild, Klaus; Truelle, Jean-Luc

    2017-01-01

    The Quality of Life after Brain Injury (QOLIBRI) instruments are traumatic brain injury (TBI)-specific assessments of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), with established validity and reliability. The purpose of the study is to help improve the interpretability of the two QOLIBRI summary scores (the QOLIBRI Total score and the QOLBRI Overall Scale [OS] score). An analysis was conducted of 761 patients with TBI who took part in the QOLIBRI validation studies. A cross-walk between QOLIBRI scores and the SF-36 Mental Component Summary norm-based scoring system was performed using geometric mean regression analysis. The exercise supports a previous suggestion that QOLIBRI Total scores GOSE), as a measure of global function, are presented in the form of means and standard deviations that allow comparison with other studies, and data on age and sex are presented for the QOLIBRI-OS. While bearing in mind the potential imprecision of the comparison, the findings provide a framework for evaluating QOLIBRI summary scores in relation to generic HRQoL that improves their interpretability.

  10. Application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Ali; Araghi, Mahmood Tavakoli; Shamsabadi, Fatemeh; Bayat, Mahdiye; Dabirkhani, Fatemeh; Moradpour, Farhad; Mansori, Kamyar; Moradi, Yousef; Rajabi, Abdolhalim

    2016-01-01

    Cataract is a prevalent disease in the elderly, and negatively influences patients' quality of life. This study was conducted to study the application of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-BREF) to patients with cataract. In this cross-sectional study, 300 patients with cataract were studied in Neyshabur, Iran from July to October 2014. The Iranian version of the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to measure their quality of life. Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Pearson's correlation coefficient, the paired t-test, the independent t-test, and a linear regression model were used to analyze the data in SPSS version 16.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). The mean age of the participants was 68.11±11.98 years, and most were female (53%). The overall observed Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the WHOQOL-BREF was 0.889, ranging from 0.714 to 0.810 in its four domains. The total mean score of the respondents on the WHOQOL-BREF was 13.19. The highest and lowest mean scores were observed in the social relationship domain (14.11) and the physical health domain (12.29), respectively. A backward multiple linear regression model found that duration of disease and marital status were associated with total WHOQOL scores, while age, duration of disease, marital status, and income level were associated with domains one through four, respectively (pmeasurement of the quality of life of patients with cataract. It was also found that the patients with cataract who were surveyed reported a relatively moderate quality of life.

  11. Radioactive waste treatment and handling in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivintsev, Yu.V.

    1984-01-01

    Classification of radioactive wastes customary in France and the program of radiation protection in handling them are discussed. Various methods of radioactive waste processing and burial are considered. The French classification of radioactive wastes differs from one used in the other countries. Wastes are classified under three categories: A, B and C. A - low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes with short-lived radionuclides (half-life - less than 30 years, negligible or heat release, small amount of long-lived radionuclides, especially such as plutonium, americium and neptunium); B - low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes with long-lived radionuclides (considerable amounts of long-lived radionuclides including α-emitters, low and moderate-level activity of β- and γ-emitters, low and moderate heat release); C - high-level radioactive wastes with long-lived radionuclides (high-level activity of β- and γ-emitters, high heat release, considerable amount of long-lived radionuclides). Volumetric estimations of wastes of various categories and predictions of their growth are given. It is noted that the concept of closed fuel cycle with radiochemical processing of spent fuel is customary in France

  12. Radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cluchet, J.; Roger, B.

    1975-10-01

    After mentioning the importance of the problem of the disposal of wastes produced in the electro-nuclear industry, a short reminder on a few laws of radioactivity (nature and energy of radiations, half-life) and on some basic dosimetry is given. The conditioning and storage procedures are then indicated for solid wastes. The more active fractions of liquid wastes are incorporated into blocks of glass, whereas the less active are first concentrated by chemical treatments or by evaporation. The concentrates are then embedded into concrete, asphalt or resins. Storage is done according to the nature of each type of wastes: on a hard-surfaced area or inside concrete-lined trenches for the lowest radioactivity, in pits for the others. Transuranium elements with very long half-lives are buried in very deep natural cavities which can shelter them for centuries. From the investigations conducted so far and from the experience already gained, it can be concluded that safe solutions are within our reach [fr

  13. The antitumor agent 3-bromopyruvate has a short half-life at physiological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Matthew; Biddle, Perry; Jantzi, Josh; Weaver, Samantha; Schirch, Doug

    2014-09-12

    Clinical research is currently exploring the validity of the anti-tumor candidate 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) as a novel treatment for several types of cancer. However, recent publications have overlooked rarely-cited earlier work about the instability of 3-BP and its decay to 3-hydroxypyruvate (3-HP) which have obvious implications for its mechanism of action against tumors, how it is administered, and for precautions when preparing solutions of 3-BP. This study found the first-order decay rate of 3-BP at physiological temperature and pH has a half-life of only 77 min. Lower buffer pH decreases the decay rate, while choice of buffer and concentration do not affect it. A method for preparing more stable solutions is also reported. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Large Engine Technology (LET) Short Haul Civil Tiltrotor Contingency Power Materials Knowledge and Lifing Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Samuel D.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the results of an experimental program conducted on two advanced metallic alloy systems (Rene' 142 directionally solidified alloy (DS) and Rene' N6 single crystal alloy) and the characterization of two distinct internal state variable inelastic constitutive models. The long term objective of the study was to develop a computational life prediction methodology that can integrate the obtained material data. A specialized test matrix for characterizing advanced unified viscoplastic models was specified and conducted. This matrix included strain controlled tensile tests with intermittent relaxtion test with 2 hr hold times, constant stress creep tests, stepped creep tests, mixed creep and plasticity tests, cyclic temperature creep tests and tests in which temperature overloads were present to simulate actual operation conditions for validation of the models. The selected internal state variable models where shown to be capable of representing the material behavior exhibited by the experimental results; however the program ended prior to final validation of the models.

  15. International conference on the safety and security of radioactive sources: Towards a global system for the continuous control of sources throughout their life cycle. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the conference is to promote a wide exchange of information on key issues relating to the safety and security of radioactive sources, including: drawing up an inventory; finding a solution without delay to situations resulting from past activities; preparing for the future by defining a global cooperative approach to the continuous control of radioactive sources during their life cycle. It is expected that the conference will foster a better understanding of the risks posed by these sources from the point of view of radiation safety and the threat associated with some of them in the event of malevolent use, and will help in finding ways of reducing the likelihood of the occurrence of a radiological incident or accident, or of a malevolent act. It is also expected to identify the preparedness and response measures that are necessary and to facilitate a common understanding on the feasibility of creating a sustainable global system for ensuring the safety and security of radioactive sources

  16. International conference on the safety and security of radioactive sources: Towards a global system for the continuous control of sources throughout their life cycle. Contributed papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The objective of the conference is to promote a wide exchange of information on key issues relating to the safety and security of radioactive sources, including: drawing up an inventory; finding a solution without delay to situations resulting from past activities; preparing for the future by defining a global cooperative approach to the continuous control of radioactive sources during their life cycle. It is expected that the conference will foster a better understanding of the risks posed by these sources from the point of view of radiation safety and the threat associated with some of them in the event of malevolent use, and will help in finding ways of reducing the likelihood of the occurrence of a radiological incident or accident, or of a malevolent act. It is also expected to identify the preparedness and response measures that are necessary and to facilitate a common understanding on the feasibility of creating a sustainable global system for ensuring the safety and security of radioactive sources.

  17. [Living with achondroplasia- how do young persons with disproportional short stature rate their quality of life and which factors are associated with quality of life?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohenkohl, Anja C; Sommer, Rachel; Bestges, Stephanie; Kahrs, Sabine; Klingebiel, Karl-Heinz; Bullinger, Monika; Quitmann, Julia

    2015-11-01

    Presently, little is known aqout the quality of life (QoL) as well as the strengths and difficulties of young people with achondroplasia. This study describes these patient-reported indicators and identifies possible correlates. At the invitation of a patient organization, a total of 89 short-statured patients aged 8 to 28 years and their parents participated in this study. QoL was assessed cross-sectionally with both generic and disease-specific instruments and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) as a brief behavioral screening. In addition to descriptive analyses, patient data were compared with a reference population. Hierarchical regression analyses reflecting sociodemographic, clinical, and psychological variables were conducted to identify correlates of QoL. QoL and the strengths and difficulties of young patients with achondroplasia did not differ substantially from a healthy norm sample. However, the participants reported more behavioral problems and limitations in their physical and social QoL compared to patients with another short stature diagnosis. Strengths and difficulties, height-related beliefs, and social support correlated significantly with QoL. Adding psychological variables to the regression model increased the proportion of variance explained in QoL. Young persons with achondroplasia did not differ in their QoL and strengths and difficulties from healthy controls. Characteristics such as height appear less important for the self-perceived QoL than are strengths and difficulties and protective psychosocia~factors.

  18. Management and storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faussat, A.

    1995-01-01

    Management of radioactive waste is a matter of public concern. Such management, however, is today handled industrially in France, and when these techniques are well applied, its is possible to create storage centres. Waste having a short half-life is now stored in the Centre de l'Aube, which replaces the one begun in 1969 in the Department de la Manche. For waste with a long half-life, following the law passed in 1991, ANDRA is pursuing its programme of site prospecting to establish two underground laboratories for studying geological storage. (author). 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Radioactive waste management solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siemann, Michael

    2015-01-01

    One of the more frequent questions that arise when discussing nuclear energy's potential contribution to mitigating climate change concerns that of how to manage radioactive waste. Radioactive waste is produced through nuclear power generation, but also - although to a significantly lesser extent - in a variety of other sectors including medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education. The amount, type and physical form of radioactive waste varies considerably. Some forms of radioactive waste, for example, need only be stored for a relatively short period while their radioactivity naturally decays to safe levels. Others remain radioactive for hundreds or even hundreds of thousands of years. Public concerns surrounding radioactive waste are largely related to long-lived high-level radioactive waste. Countries around the world with existing nuclear programmes are developing longer-term plans for final disposal of such waste, with an international consensus developing that the geological disposal of high-level waste (HLW) is the most technically feasible and safe solution. This article provides a brief overview of the different forms of radioactive waste, examines storage and disposal solutions, and briefly explores fuel recycling and stakeholder involvement in radioactive waste management decision making

  20. Microbial profiles of commercial, vacuum-packaged, fresh pork of normal or short storage life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Richard A; Peirson, Michael D; Lam, Jocelyn; Tan, Kit Bee

    2004-12-01

    The microbial ecology of fresh vacuum-packed pork cuts during storage at -1.5 degrees C for up to 45 days was examined to characterize rates of microbial growth and pH changes in commercially prepared products of normal storage quality. Pork loins in commercial distribution with odour defects were also studied to determine a possible cause of the defects and avoid future problems. In addition, microbial profiles of pork cuts from two plants were compared, after storage for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, to identify possible reasons for differences in the storage life of product from the plants. The effects of a change in sanitation procedures on the microbial populations of products stored for 25 days were also studied. With normal product, microbial growth in different packages progressed at different rates, reflecting differences in initial levels of bacterial contamination. All samples in the study reached 8 weeks without apparent organoleptic change and samples carried 5.8+/-1.2 log bacteria cm(-2) (mean+/-S.D.). The flora of loins with the odour defect were predominately lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and carnobacteria, but they contained large fractions of Enterobacteriaceae spoiled products, but species of Enterobacteriaceae and lactic acid bacteria could have contributed to spoilage. Comparison of microbial groups present in 16 other cuts, half from each of two commercial plants, which were stored for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, showed that larger fractions of Enterobacteriaceae were present in samples from the plant having difficulty achieving the desired storage life. Additional bacterial samples from 12 cuts supplied by the latter plant obtained after adoption of an acid sanitizer step in the plant cleaning regimen, and also stored for 25 days at -1.5 degrees C, yielded few Enterobacteriaceae, Aeromonas or Shewanella. Use of an acid sanitizer in plant cleaning may be a means of controlling alkali-tolerant bacteria such as Aeromonas or Shewanella which can

  1. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  2. Vitamin E plasma kinetics in swine show low bioavailability and short half-life of -α-tocopheryl acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kempen, T A T G; Reijersen, M H; de Bruijn, C; De Smet, S; Michiels, J; Traber, M G; Lauridsen, C

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin E is important for animal production because of its effects on health and product quality, but the amount and form required remains controversial. Our objective was to quantify the absolute bioavailability of oral -α-tocopheryl acetate (α-TAc) in swine (22 ± 1 kg and 8 wk old, fitted with jugular catheters) adapted to a diet supplemented with 75 mg/kg -α-TAc; 75 mg/kg was chosen because this level represents the nonweighted average inclusion level in piglet diets across Western key swine-producing countries. For this, a 350-g test meal (6% fat) was supplied at time 0 containing 75 mg deuterated (D9) -α-TAc to 9 animals, and 8 animals received an intravenous () dose containing deuterated (D6) RRR-α-tocopherol (α-T) at one-eighth the oral dose and a test meal without supplemental vitamin E. Plasma samples (12 to 13 per animal) were obtained at incremental intervals over 75 h for analysis of deuterated α-T using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, the i.v. dose rapidly disappeared from plasma and then reappeared. The half-life for this first peak was only 1.7 ± 0.3 min. The second peak had an appearance rate (Ka) of 0.10 ± 0.06 d and a half-life of 5.9 ± 1.2 h. Oral dosing resulted, after a lag of 56 min, in a Ka of 0.91 ± 0.21 d and a half-life of 2.6 ± 0.8 h. The bioavailability for oral α-TAc was 12.5%, whereas the area under the curve was only 5.4%. This low bioavailability, small area under the curve, and short half-life are likely because of various factors, that is, the use of only 6% fat in the diet, the use of the acetate ester and , and the high dose relative to requirements. In conclusion, i.v. dosed vitamin E shows both a rapid and a very slow pool, whereas orally dosed vitamin E shows a single slow pool. The oral material has a very short half-live (44% of i.v. or 2.6 h), low bioavailability (12.5%), and a very small area under the curve (5.4%), bringing into question the efficacy of typical doses of vitamin

  3. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Short-term quality of life change perceived by patients after transition to mandibular overdentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Julie SCHUSTER

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this longitudinal observational study was to evaluate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL following patient rehabilitation with implant-retained mandibular overdentures (IMO and to identify the contribution of the different domains to OHRQoL. The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-EDENT, Dental Impact on Daily Living (DIDL, and Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI questionnaires were completed twice by 25 patients: after 3 months of rehabilitation with complete dentures (CD and after 3 months of IMO loading using stud abutments. The evaluation after IMO rehabilitation showed significant improvement in three DIDL domains: appearance (p = 0.011, eating and chewing (p = 0.003, and general performance (p = 0.003. The GOHAI results showed significant differences in two domains: psychosocial (p = 0.005 and pain and discomfort (p = 0.0004. The OHIP-EDENT outcomes showed significant improvements in five domains: functional limitation (p = 0.0001, physical pain (p = 0.0002, physical disability (p = 0.0010, and psychological disability and handicap (p = 0.032. The largest observed effect sizes were close to one standard deviation and were observed in the eating and chewing domain (0.93 of the DIDL; the pain and discomfort domain (0.83 of the GOHAI, and the functional limitation (0.89, physical pain (1.02, physical disability (0.84 domains of the OHIP-EDENT. The percentage of satisfied patients increased in all domains. Self-reported OHRQoL of CD wearers was significantly improved after 3 months of treatment with IMO, especially concerning the functional and pain-related aspects.

  5. Short-term quality of life change perceived by patients after transition to mandibular overdentures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Alessandra Julie; Marcello-Machado, Raissa Micaella; Bielemann, Amália Machado; Nascimento, Gustavo Giacomelli; Pinto, Luciana de Rezende; Del Bel Cury, Altair Antoninha; Faot, Fernanda

    2017-03-27

    The aim of this longitudinal observational study was to evaluate the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) following patient rehabilitation with implant-retained mandibular overdentures (IMO) and to identify the contribution of the different domains to OHRQoL. The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-EDENT), Dental Impact on Daily Living (DIDL), and Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) questionnaires were completed twice by 25 patients: after 3 months of rehabilitation with complete dentures (CD) and after 3 months of IMO loading using stud abutments. The evaluation after IMO rehabilitation showed significant improvement in three DIDL domains: appearance (p = 0.011), eating and chewing (p = 0.003), and general performance (p = 0.003). The GOHAI results showed significant differences in two domains: psychosocial (p = 0.005) and pain and discomfort (p = 0.0004). The OHIP-EDENT outcomes showed significant improvements in five domains: functional limitation (p = 0.0001), physical pain (p = 0.0002), physical disability (p = 0.0010), and psychological disability and handicap (p = 0.032). The largest observed effect sizes were close to one standard deviation and were observed in the eating and chewing domain (0.93) of the DIDL; the pain and discomfort domain (0.83) of the GOHAI, and the functional limitation (0.89), physical pain (1.02), physical disability (0.84) domains of the OHIP-EDENT. The percentage of satisfied patients increased in all domains. Self-reported OHRQoL of CD wearers was significantly improved after 3 months of treatment with IMO, especially concerning the functional and pain-related aspects.

  6. Safety analysis of geologic containment of long life radioactive wastes. Critical assessment of existing methods and proposition of prospective approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masure, P.; Gedefroy, P.; Imauven, C.

    1983-01-01

    Existing methods of risk analysis applied to disposal of long-lived radioactive waste in geologic formations are rewieved. A prospective analysis method for containment performances is proposed, deduced in the burial system from the combination of interaction between wastes, repository, host rock, surrounding geosphere, of natural evolution of each component of the system, sudden or chance events that could break waste containment. The method is based on the elaboration of four basic schemes graded in difficulties to facilitate comparisons

  7. Radioactive Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radioactive decay is the emission of energy in the form of ionizing radiation. Example decay chains illustrate how radioactive atoms can go through many transformations as they become stable and no longer radioactive.

  8. Professor Tyndale John Rendle-Short (1919-2010), British and Australian paediatrician: A life in two domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearn, John

    2014-05-01

    Professor Tyndale John Rendle-Short (1919-2010), a British and Australian paediatrician, lived a professional life of considerable influence in two domains - academic paediatrics and fundamentalist theology. A Cambridge medical graduate (1943) and doctor-soldier, he was appointed as the Foundation Professor of Child Health at the University of Queensland (1961). In Australia, he was a pioneer in three paediatric developments ('rooming-in' for mothers in hospitals, autism research and cystic fibrosis). His A Synopsis of Children's Diseases was published in six editions, was translated into three languages and was used as a standard paediatric textbook on four Continents. Distinct from this clinical domain, as a passionate anti-Darwinist his fundamentalist theology was that variously self-described as 'theistic evolution' (believing in 'progressive Creationism') and later that of 'six-literal day young-earth Creation'. He established and was the Foundation Chairman of the Creation Science Foundation (UK) and was World Chairman of the US-based Creation Ministries International. This biography is a record of this perhaps paradoxical and unique life. © The Author(s) 2013 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  9. Analyzing the Psychometric Properties of the Short Form-36 Quality of Life Questionnaire in Patients with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amer, Rashed; Al Khalifa, Khalid; Alajlan, Safeyah Ali; Al Ansari, Ahmed

    2018-03-14

    The Short Form-36 (SF-36) questionnaire is a valuable and easy-to-use tool for the measurement of quality of life in patients with obesity. To become a widely used tool, the questionnaire must be validated in many different contexts. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the SF-36 questionnaire among patients with obesity in Bahrain. The 36-item questionnaire was administered to a study cohort scheduled to undergo bariatric surgery at the Bahrain Defence Force Hospital in Bahrain. Demographic data were extracted. Principal component analysis was used to extract component factors. Factor analysis was used to determine construct validity and fit. The Cronbach's alpha value of the extracted factors was used to determine the internal consistency reliability. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 19.0 and IBM AMOS version 22.0. Most of the participants were female with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 43.24 kg/m 2 . A six-factor solution explaining 52.31% of variance was generated. The global fit parameter estimates indicated that the suggested model exhibited an acceptable-to-good fit. Overall, the internal consistency reliability estimate of the SF-36 questionnaire was greater than 0.70. The identified six-factor model of the SF-36 questionnaire is a valuable tool for the measurement of quality of life among patients with obesity in Bahrain.

  10. Radioactivity monitoring of life environment in the Republic of Croatia, Report for 2004 - IMI-CRZ-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The radioactivity measurement programme in the environment of Republic of Croatia for 2004 is continuation of measurements that have started in 1959. Sampling, radiochemical analyses and measurements were carried out by the Radiation Protection Unit, Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb. The scope of the monitoring of contamination in the environmental samples according to the European Commission recommendations of 8 June 2000, was to collect samples of air, fallout, soil, water, alimentary products and fodder. The purpose of these investigations is to collect as many data as possible for the assessment of radiation risk to man. (author)

  11. Short bowel patients treated for two years with glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2): compliance, safety, and effects on quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, P B; Lund, P; Gottschalck, I B

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) has been shown to improve intestinal absorption in short bowel syndrome (SBS) patients in a short-term study. This study describes safety, compliance, and changes in quality of life in 11 SBS patients at baseline, week 13, 26, and 52 during two...... years of subcutaneous GLP-2 treatment, 400 microgram TID, intermitted by an 8-week washout period. METHODS: Safety and compliance was evaluated during the admissions. The Sickness Impact Profile (SIP), Short Form 36 (SF 36), and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (IBDQ) evaluated quality of life......-ascendo-anastomosis. The investigator excluded a patient due to unreliable feedback. Stoma nipple enlargement was seen in all 9 jejunostomy patients. Reported GLP-2 compliance was excellent (>93%). GLP-2 improved the overall quality of life VAS-score (4.1 +/- 2.8 cm versus 6.0 +/- 2.4 cm, P

  12. Short and long-term quality of life after reconstruction of bladder exstrophy in infancy: preliminary results of the QUALEX (QUAlity of Life of bladder EXstrophy) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jochault-Ritz, Sandy; Mercier, Mariette; Aubert, Didier

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the study was to assess quality of life (QOL) of patients born with bladder exstrophy (BE) and reconstructed during early childhood in 7 French university hospitals (QUALEX study: QUAlity of Life of bladder EXstrophy). Patients from 6 to 42 years old answered self-administered Short-Form 36 (SF-36), VSP-A (Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Adolescent), VSP-AE (Vécu et Santé Perçue de l'Enfant), AUQUIE (AUto-QUestionnaire Imagé de l'Enfant), and general questionnaires about functional and socioeconomic data. Dimension scores were compared between adults and adolescents using SF-36 and adolescents and children using VSP-AE. Scores were also compared to the general French population. Among the 134 eligible patients, 36 adults, 18 adolescents, and 17 children answered the questionnaire. There was no difference between responders and nonresponders in reconstruction criteria. Continence was achieved in 77% of adults, 65% of adolescents, and 12% of children. Adolescent QOL was globally superior to adults and children. Adult QOL was globally lower than the general population except on the physical dimension. Children's QOL was also globally lower than the general population except for relations with family and school work. Adolescents' scores on SF-36 were superior to the general population but lower on half of the dimensions with VSP-AE. Patients presenting with reconstructed BE have impaired QOL, and functional results seem to be the most likely predictive factor of health-related QOL score. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The low to intermediate activity and short living waste storage facility. For a controlled management of radioactive wastes; Le centre de stockage des dechets de faible et moyenne activite a vie courte. Pour une gestion controlee des dechets radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Sited at about 50 km of Troyes (France), the Aube facility started in 1992 and has taken over the Manche facility for the surface storage of low to intermediate and short living radioactive wastes. The Aube facility (named CSFMA) is the answer to the safe management of these wastes at the industrial scale and for 50 years onward. This brochure presents the facility specifications, the wastes stored at the center, the surface storage concept, the processing and conditioning of waste packages, and the environmental monitoring performed in the vicinity of the site. (J.S.)

  14. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Niello, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    The book summarizes general concepts on radiation, nuclear structure, radioactivity and the interaction of the nuclear radiation with matter. It describes also the basic principles of radio dosimetry. Natural and artificial sources of radiation are reviewed as well as the effects of radiation in man. Medical and industrial applications of ionizing radiation and the pollution produced by the discharge of radioactive materials are outlined. A short review is made of the safety rules and the regulations concerning the protection of the environment [es

  15. The safe transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swindell, G.E.

    1975-01-01

    In the course of transport by road, rail, sea and air, consignments of radioactive material are in close proximity to ordinary members of the public and in most cases they are loaded and unloaded by transport workers who have no special training or experience in the handling of radioactive substances. The materials being transported cover a wide variety - ranging from small batches of short-lived radionuclides used in medical practice which can be transported in small sealed lead pots in cardboard boxes, to large, extremely radioactive consignments of irradiated nuclear fuel in flasks weighing many tons. With the growing development of nuclear power programmes the transport of irradiated fuel is likely to increase markedly. It is clear that unless adequate regulations concerning the design and assembly of the packages containing these materials are precisely set down and strictly carried out, there would be a high probability that some of the radioactive contents would be released, leading to contamination of other transported goods and the general environment, and to the delivery of a radiation dose to the transport workers and the public. An additional requirement is that the transport should proceed smoothly and without delay. This is particularly important for radioactive materials of short half-life, which would lose significant amounts of their total activity in unnecessary delays at international boundaries. Therefore, it is essential that the regulations are also enforced, to ensure that the radioactive material is contained and the surrounding radiation level reduced to a value which poses no threat to other sensitive goods such as photographic film, or to transport workers and other passengers. These regulations should be as uniform as possible on an international basis, so that consignments can move freely from one country to another with as little delay as possible at the frontiers. (author)

  16. Submission of the national commission of the public debate on the options concerning the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes management; Saisine de la commission nationale du debat public sur les options generales en matiere de gestion des dechets radioactifs de haute activite et de moyenne activite a vie longue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This document deals with the presentation of a public debate on the radioactive wastes management and the opportunities of its organization. It presents successively the long life high and medium activity radioactive wastes, the today radioactive wastes management policy and some questions and topics which could be discussed during the debate. (A.L.B.)

  17. Atmospheric natural radioactivity outdoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1985-01-01

    Following a short account of natural atmospheric radioactivity, radon concentrations are given as well as their variations with time obtained by means of a original apparatus developped in Brest. The radioactive equilibrium of radon and its daughters is then considered, many experiments demonstrating that equilibrium is seldom reached even for 218 Po (RaA). Finally, some characteristics of natural radioactive aerosols are studied: charge, particle size distribution (demonstrating they are fine aerosols since only 30 per cent are made of particles with radii exceeding 0,1 μm) [fr

  18. Using radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-10-01

    The leaflet discusses the following: radioactivity; radioisotopes; uses of ionising radiations; radioactivity from (a) naturally occurring radioactive elements, and (b) artificially produced radioisotopes; uses of radioactivity in medicine, (a) clinical diagnostic, (b) therapeutic (c) sterilization of medical equipment and materials; environmental uses as tracers; industrial applications, e.g. tracers and radiography; ensuring safety. (U.K.)

  19. Radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamberlain, A.C.

    1991-01-01

    Radon. Fission product aerosols. Radioiodine. Tritium. Plutonium. Mass transfer of radioactive vapours and aerosols. Studies with radioactive particles and human subjects. Index. This paper explores the environmental and health aspects of radioactive aerosols. Covers radioactive nuclides of potential concern to public health and applications to the study of boundary layer transport. Contains bibliographic references. Suitable for environmental chemistry collections in academic and research libraries

  20. Life History theory hypotheses on child growth: Potential implications for short and long-term child growth, development and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2018-01-01

    Life history theory integrates ecological, physiological, and molecular layers within an evolutionary framework to understand organisms' strategies to optimize survival and reproduction. Two life history hypotheses and their implications for child growth, development, and health (illustrated in the South African context) are reviewed here. One hypothesis suggests that there is an energy trade-off between linear growth and brain growth. Undernutrition in infancy and childhood may trigger adaptive physiological mechanisms prioritizing the brain at the expense of body growth. Another hypothesis is that the period from conception to infancy is a critical window of developmental plasticity of linear growth, the duration of which may vary between and within populations. The transition from infancy to childhood may mark the end of a critical window of opportunity for improving child growth. Both hypotheses emphasize the developmental plasticity of linear growth and the potential determinants of growth variability (including the role of parent-offspring conflict in maternal resources allocation). Implications of these hypotheses in populations with high burdens of undernutrition and infections are discussed. In South Africa, HIV/AIDS during pregnancy (associated with adverse birth outcomes, short duration of breastfeeding, and social consequences) may lead to a shortened window of developmental plasticity of growth. Furthermore, undernutrition and infectious diseases in children living in South Africa, a country undergoing a rapid nutrition transition, may have adverse consequences on individuals' cognitive abilities and risks of cardio-metabolic diseases. Studies are needed to identify physiological mechanisms underlying energy allocation between biological functions and their potential impacts on health. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A modelling study for long-term life prediction of carbon steel overpack for geological isolation of High-Level Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, Naoki; Honda, Akira; Ishikawa, Hirohisa

    1996-01-01

    Current plans for the geological disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) in Japan include metal overpacks which contain HLW. Overpacks may be required to remain intact for more than several hundred years in order to provide containment of radio nuclides. The main factor limiting the performance of overpacks is considered to be corrosion by groundwater. Carbon steel is one of the candidate material for overpacks. A mathematical model for life prediction of carbon steel overpack has been developed based on corrosion mechanism. General corrosion and localized corrosion are considered because these are likely to initiate in repository conditions. In general corrosion model, the reduction of oxygen and water are considered as cathodic reaction. In localized corrosion model, we have constructed a model which predict the period for localized corrosion based on oxygen transport in bentonite. We also developed a model which predict the propagation rate of localized corrosion that is based on mass balance within the corroding cavity. (author)

  2. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  3. Progressive Decline in Height Standard Deviation Scores in the First 5 Years of Life Distinguished Idiopathic Growth Hormone Deficiency from Familial Short Stature and Constitutional Delay of Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Juliane; Lass, Nina; Toschke, Christina; Reinehr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Familial short stature (FSS) and constitutional delay of growth (CDG) are the most frequent norm variants in children presenting with short stature. Knowing the growth patterns of these entities in the first years of life might be helpful to distinguish them from growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or other chronic diseases. We studied the height in the first 5 years of life in 26 children with FSS, in 38 children with CDG and in 14 children with idiopathic GHD. Height standard deviation scores (SDS) did not change between birth and 6 months of life, while height SDS decreased significantly afterwards in GHD, FSS, and CDG. The loss of height SDS was higher in the first 2 years of life than between 2 and 5 years of life in children with CDG (-0.92 vs. -0.11; p = 0.003) or FSS (-0.79 vs. -0.01; p = 0.002). In idiopathic GHD, the loss of height SDS did not differ between the first 2 years of life and the next 3 years (-0.78 vs. -0.77; p = 0.821). Children with FSS and CDG showed a decline in height SDS mainly in the first 2 years of life, whereas the height SDS of children with idiopathic GHD decreased almost continuously over the first 5 years of life. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Operational experience, the open joint stock company IZOTOP, on reducing radiological threat in Russia and Commonwealth of Independent States countries from radioactive sources at the end of their life cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akakiev, B.V.; Makarevich, I.M.; Nesterov, V.P.; Gasselblat, A.D.; Filatov, K.V.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: The issues of radiological threat from radioactive sources at the end of their life cycle is described in the paper. The order of works execution is described by the example of radioisotope irradiation facilities discharge including works on transportation and preparation for radioactive sources storage. The procedure of development and agreement of organizational and technical documentation on un-shipping of ionizing radiation sources is described. The safe work organization structure and transportation of radioactive materials to Joint Stock Company IZOTOP is considered. Standard examples of taking over the control of different radioactive sources is presented, which presents radiological threat. Sources disposal technology in Russia is shown. Summary of Joint Stock Company IZOTOP activities in 2004-2009 years in Russia and Commonwealth of Independent States member-countries on radiological threat is provided.

  5. High level and long life radioactive wastes. Todays situation and future evolutions. Framework and process of the Granite collegial mission of dialogue. FAQ about the Granite collegial mission of dialogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    On December 9, 1998, the French government decided the construction of two underground laboratories for the study of the disposal of radioactive wastes in the deep underground. One site will be located in a granitic massif which remains to be determined. This document presents the framework and the different steps of the 'Granite' mission: the situation of radioactive wastes in France, some data about the conditioning, storage and reprocessing of high activity and long life radioactive wastes, the legal framework of the management of radioactive wastes and the related warranties, the disposal in deep underground and the realization of underground research laboratories, the government decision of December 9, 1998, the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue and the different steps of the geological surveys about granites. A second part answers some frequently asked questions about the 'Granite' collegial mission of dialogue: decision procedure, planning of the mission, consultation of the geologic survey, role of the mission, public information etc.. (J.S.)

  6. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves only some domains of health-related quality of life measured by the Short Form-36 questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chok Limsuwat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR has inconsistent effects on health-related quality of life (HRQL in patients with chronic lung diseases. We evaluated the effect of PR on HRQL outcomes using the 36-item short form of the medical outcomes (SF-36. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the files of all patients who completed PR in 2010, 2011, and first half of 2012. We collected information on demographics, symptoms, pulmonary function tests, 6-minute walk tests (6-MWT, and responses on the SF-36 survey, including the physical component score (PCS and mental component score (MCS. Results: The study included 19 women and 22 men. The mean age was 69.8 ± 8.5 years. The diagnoses included chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; n = 31, asthma (n = 3, interstitial lung disease (n = 5, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA; n = 2. The mean forced expiratory volume-one second (FEV1 was 1.16 ± 0.52 L (against 60.5 ± 15.9% of predicted value. There was a significant improvement in 6-MWT (P < 0.0001. The PCS improved post-PR from 33.8 to 34.5 (P = 0.02; the MCS did not change. Conclusion: These patients had low SF-36 scores compared to the general population; changes in scores after PR were low. These patients may need frequent HRQL assessment during rehabilitation, and PR programs should consider program modification in patients with small changes in mental health.

  7. The Short Health Scale: a valid and reliable measure of health related quality of life in English speaking inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Edel

    2013-09-01

    Health related quality of life in inflammatory bowel disease is influenced both by disease activity as well as by the psychosocial characteristics of the individual patient. The Short Health Scale (SHS) is a four-part visual analogue scale questionnaire using open-ended questions that are designed to assess the impact of inflammatory bowel disease on a health related quality of life. The four dimensions include bowel symptoms, activities of daily life, worry and general wellbeing. It has previously been validated in Swedish and Norwegian speaking patients.

  8. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Veena D; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Lim, Jeremy FY

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for h...

  9. Quality of life assessed with the medical outcomes study short form 36-item health survey of patients on renal replacement therapy: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.S. Liem (Ylian Serina); J.L. Bosch (Johanna); L.R. Arends (Lidia); M.H. Heijenbrok-Kal (Majanka); M.G.M. Hunink (Myriam)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) is the most widely used generic instrument to estimate quality of life of patients on renal replacement therapy. Purpose of this study was to summarize and compare the published literature on quality of

  10. Reliability, construct and criterion validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 score: A short measure for children and adolescents' well-being and health-related quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravens-Sieberer, U.; Erhart, M.; Rajmil, L.; Herdman, M.; Auquier, P.; Bruil, J.; Power, M.; Duer, W.; Abel, T.; Czemy, L.; Mazur, J.; Czimbalmos, A.; Tountas, Y.; Hagquist, C.; Kilroe, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: To assess the criterion and construct validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) score, a short version of the KIDSCREEN-52 and KIDSCREEN-27 instruments. Methods: The child self-report and parent report versions of the KIDSCREEN-10 were tested in a

  11. An assessment of factorial structure and health-related quality of life in problem drug users using the Short Form 36 Health Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchholz, Angela; Krol, Anneke; Rist, Fred; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Schippers, Gerard M.

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To confirm the factorial structure of the Short Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) in problem drug users and to compare their health-related quality of life (HRQOL) with general Dutch population norms. METHOD: Data of 394 participants from the Amsterdam Cohort Study among drug users, who had

  12. Radioactivity and nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1996-01-01

    Radioactive wastes generated by nuclear activities must be reprocessed using specific treatments before packaging, storage and disposal. This digest paper gives first a classification of radioactive wastes according to their radionuclides content activity and half-life, and the amount of wastes from the different categories generated each year by the different industries. Then, the radiotoxicity of nuclear wastes is evaluated according to the reprocessing treatments used and to their environmental management (surface storage or burial). (J.S.)

  13. Radioactivity of fish II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obo, F; Wakamatsu, C; Hiwatashi, Y; Tamari, T; Yoshitake, N; Tajima, D

    1955-01-01

    Various tissues of fish captured east of Formosa after the Bikini H-Bomb experiment had radioactivities (detected on May 27, 1954) in counts/min/ash from 5 g. fresh tissues: blood 2414, eyeball 49, heart muscle 111, white muscle 11, red muscle (chiai) 123, bone 46, skin 28, pancreas 131, liver 522, stomach muscle 106, stomach contents 52, spermatozoa 47, and spleen 504. High radioactivities in blood and blood synthesizing organs (liver and spleen) were emphasized. The radioactivity in the blood had a half-life of 34 to 35 days and the maximum energy of ..beta..-ray of approximate 0.4 m.e.v.

  14. Radioactive wastes. Their industrial management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    This paper introduces a series that will review the present situation in the field of long-term management of radioactive wastes. Both the meaning and the purposes of an industrial management of radioactive wastes are specified. This short introduction is complemented by outline of data on the French problem [fr

  15. Exhaust gas cleaning system for handling radioactive fission and activation gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiser, H.; Schwarz, H.

    1975-01-01

    An exhaust gas cleaning system utilizing the principle of delaying radioactive gases to permit their radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere, comprising an adsorbent for adsorbing radioactive gas and a container for containing the adsorbent and for constraining gas to flow through the adsorbent, the adsorbent and the container forming simultaneously an adsorptive delay section and a mechanical delay section, by means of a predetermined ratio of volume of voids in the adsorbent to total volume of the container containing the adsorbent, for delaying radioactive gas to permit its radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere is described. A method of using an adsorbent for cleaning a radioactive gas containing an isotope which is adsorbed by the adsorbent and containing an isotope whose adsorption by the adsorbent is low as compared to the isotope which is adsorbed and which is short-lived as compared to the isotope which is adsorbed, comprising constraining the gas to flow through the adsorbent with the retention time for the isotope which is adsorbed being at least the minimum for permitting radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere and with the retention time for the isotope of relatively low adsorption and relatively short life being at least the minimum for permitting radioactive decay to a level acceptable for release to the atmosphere is also described. (U.S.)

  16. On capabilities of thermomechanical treatment in increasing durability of short service life elements of mining аnd processing equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. И. Болобов

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hadfield steel (110G13L is the basic material for fast wornout items of mining equipment: beaters, hammers, liners, refractory plates of crushers and mills. By way of example, the effect of cold hardening was specifically analyzed on the rate of wear of mining equipment parts for various types of wear by hard (more than 1100 HV and soft rock. A unique ability of that steel to resist shock wear is noted. It is shown that this steel exhibits low resistance to abrasive rock wear. Meanwhile wear by rock of hardness lower than steel (less than 1100 HV, may be substantially increased by pre-hardening of samples (up to 10-fold. In case of wear by high hardness rocks, shock impact that should contribute to hardening of the material, fails  to increase abrasive wear resistance of Hadfield steel, and in that parameter it does not differ from the conventional medium carbon steel 45. Also, the authors of this article describe a technique they developed of high-temperature thermomechanical treatment of specimen of Hadfield steel (free forging at 1150-950ºC and subsequent quenching in water and experiments in their abrasion. The results of tests show that hardness and wear resistance of Hadfield steel to hard abrasive (corundum 25A with aggregate hardness of ~2500 HV increases with plastic deformation at HTMT. For maximum plastic deformation intensity (deformation magnitude of α = 2.25, reached in the experiments by the authors, wear resistance grew by 70% as compared to undeformed steel. The dependence is presented of wear resistance of steel on hardness, HV, achieved in the result of plastic deformation. Since a similar positive effect was obtained earlier by the authors for 35HGSA steel, also used in mining machinery, they conclude that the HTMT technique may be recommended for treating short lived parts of the mining and mineral processing equipment to increase their service life.

  17. Psychometric attributes of the Cervantes short-form questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life in menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Pluvio J; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; Ruiz, Miguel A; Baquedano, Laura; Sánchez, Sonia; Argudo, Cristina; Fernández-Abellán, Mariela; González, Silvia; Iglesias, Eva; Calleja, Jackie; Presa, Jesus; Duque, Alfonso; Ruiz, Fernando; Otero, Borja; Rejas, Javier

    2016-02-01

    To analyse the psychometric properties of the Cervantes scale short-form (SF) in the peri- and post-menopausal periods. Outpatients women 45-65 years with menstrual problems associated with the climacteric syndrome were analysed. Original and SF versions of the Cervantes scale were administered along with the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire (WPAI) scales. Conceptual model, burden of administration, feasibility, reliability, criteria validity and construct validity were assessed. 317 women [55.7±5.3 years (mean±standard deviation)] were recruited: 75.4% were post- and 22.3% were peri-menopausal. The Cervantes-SF was completed in 2.5±1.6min, and 86% answered all items. Cronbach's α was 0.820, and ranged from 0.510 (Aging) to 0.918 (Vasomotor Symptoms) for individual dimensions. The scale structure matched the structure of the original version, χ(2)/(degrees of freedom)=3.6, Comparative Fit Index=0.848, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.850, and root mean square error of approximation=0.099, although differences were found between sexual activity statuses. Criteria validity was good (r=0.890), concurrent validity was congruent with a priori hypothesis using either the EQ-5D or the WPAI scales. The scale discriminated significantly the severity of both vasomotor and genital climacteric associated symptoms. The Cervantes-SF has shown good psychometric properties for measuring Health related quality of life in peri- and post-menopausal women who regularly attended gynaecology clinics in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radioactivity - superstition and science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinsch, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    Fairy-tales, myths, superstition - how was it fair, when we could still be afraid for witches and goblins. Where demons floated and nicks danced, the dry science has spreaded and disenchanted the life. If there would not be things like radioactivity, against which can be struggled in the collective well being. Then it is bad, clear, or good, it heals sicks, also clear. But what is now correct? In his usual humorous way the author, Dr. Hermann Hinsch, explains by means of numerous examples the phenomenon ''radioactivity'' and its effects on life. Provocantly but illustratively he illuminates, which position radioactive radiation has in our life and how and where we have already met it wantedly or unwantedly. Perhaps we must then something less shudder, but something more realism at such theme is surely not harmful.

  19. Radioactive source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabkina, L.E.; Mazurek, V.; Myascedov, D.N.; Prokhorov, P.; Kachalov, V.A.; Ziv, D.M.

    1976-01-01

    A radioactive layer in a radioactive source is sealed by the application of a sealing layer on the radioactive layer. The sealing layer can consist of a film of oxide of titanium, tin, zirconium, aluminum, or chromium. Preferably, the sealing layer is pure titanium dioxide. The radioactive layer is embedded in a finish enamel which, in turn, is on a priming enamel which surrounds a substrate

  20. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal

  1. Life-Cycle Cost and Risk Analysis of Alternative Configurations for Shipping Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PM Daling; SB Ross; BM Biwer

    1999-12-17

    The Nevada Test Site (NTS) is a major receiver of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) for disposal. Currently, all LLW received at NTS is shipped by truck. The trucks use highway routes to NTS that pass through the Las Vegas Valley and over Hoover Dam, which is a concern of local stakeholder groups in the State of Nevada. Rail service offers the opportunity to reduce transportation risks and costs, according to the Waste Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (WM-PEIS). However, NTS and some DOE LLW generator sites are not served with direct rail service so intermodal transport is under consideration. Intermodal transport involves transport via two modes, in this case truck and rail, from the generator sites to NTS. LLW shipping containers would be transferred between trucks and railcars at intermodal transfer points near the LLW generator sites, NTS, or both. An Environmental Assessment (EA)for Intermodal Transportation of Low-Level Radioactive Waste to the Nevada Test Site (referred to as the NTSIntermodal -M) has been prepared to determine whether there are environmental impacts to alterations to the current truck routing or use of intermodal facilities within the State of Nevada. However, an analysis of the potential impacts outside the State of Nevada are not addressed in the NTS Intermodal EA. This study examines the rest of the transportation network between LLW generator sites and the NTS and evaluates the costs, risks, and feasibility of integrating intermodal shipments into the LLW transportation system. This study evaluates alternative transportation system configurations for NTS approved and potential generators based on complex-wide LLW load information. Technical judgments relative to the availability of DOE LLW generators to ship from their sites by rail were developed. Public and worker risk and life-cycle cost components are quantified. The study identifies and evaluates alternative scenarios that increase the use of rail (intermodal

  2. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomek, D.

    1980-01-01

    The prospects of nuclear power development in the USA up to 2000 and the problems of the fuel cycle high-level radioactive waste processing and storage are considered. The problems of liquid and solidified radioactive waste transportation and their disposal in salt deposits and other geologic formations are discussed. It is pointed out that the main part of the high-level radioactive wastes are produced at spent fuel reprocessing plants in the form of complex aqueous mixtures. These mixtures contain the decay products of about 35 isotopes which are the nuclear fuel fission products, about 18 actinides and their daughter products as well as corrosion products of fuel cans and structural materials and chemical reagents added in the process of fuel reprocessing. The high-level radioactive waste management includes the liquid waste cooling which is necessary for the short and middle living isotope decay, separation of some most dangerous components from the waste mixture, waste solidification, their storage and disposal. The conclusion is drawn that the seccessful solution of the high-level radioactive waste management problem will permit to solve the problem of the fuel cycle radioactive waste management as a whole. The salt deposits, shales and clays are the most suitable for radioactive waste disposal [ru

  3. Radioactivity metrology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.

    1979-01-01

    Some aspects of the radioactivity metrology are reviewed. Radioactivity primary references; absolute methods of radioactivity measurements used in the Laboratoire de Metrologie des Rayonnements Ionisants; relative measurement methods; traceability through international comparisons and interlaboratory tests; production and distribution of secondary standards [fr

  4. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teillac, J.

    1988-01-01

    This study of general interest is an evaluation of the safety of radioactive waste management and consequently the preservation of the environment for the protection of man against ionizing radiations. The following topics were developed: radiation effects on man; radioactive waste inventory; radioactive waste processing, disposal and storage; the present state and future prospects [fr

  5. National Plan for the management of radioactive materials and wastes 2013-2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-02-01

    This new release of the National Plan for the management of radioactive materials and wastes (PNGMDR) first addresses the principles and objectives of this management: presentation of radioactive materials and wastes, principles to be taken into account to define the different management ways, legal and institutional framework for waste management, societal dimension and memory safeguarding, waste management cost and financing. It proposes an assessment and draws perspectives for the existing management practices: management of historical situations, management of residues of mine processing and mine tailings, management of radioactive wastes, waste management with respect to radioactive decay, valorization of radioactive wastes, incineration of radioactive wastes, storage of very-low-activity wastes, of storage of low- and medium-activity and short-life wastes, management of reinforced natural radioactivity wastes. The third part gives an overview of needs and perspectives for management methods: wastes requiring a specific processing, low-activity long-life wastes, and high-activity and medium-activity long-life wastes

  6. Short summary of International workshop on principles for disposal of radioactive and other hazardous wastes, Stockholm 7-10 june 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of the workshop has been to discuss legal, scientific and practical aspects of disposal of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LLW and ILW) and other types of hazardous wastes. During the autumn the National Institute of Radiation Protection will produce proceedings from the workshop. These proceedings will be published by the Department of Environment and Energy and will include opening addresses, invited paper, reports from discussions from plenary sessions as well as working groups and the recommendations agreed upon. In annexes will be found reports from the different working groups as well as the more interesting parts of the national presentations that served as discussion material for the different working groups

  7. The role of national system of radiological survey in short, intermediate and long term monitoring the environment radioactivity and health status in uranium industry areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumitrescu, Alina; Milu, C.

    2000-01-01

    The environment radioactivity survey in Romania is performed by CNCAN (National Commission for Nuclear Activities Control) national network. The health status survey of population is carried out by national network of Health Ministry which comprises 23 laboratories. The tasks of the these networks are the following: assessment of natural and artificial irradiation of occupationally exposed personnel and population, as well as goods used by them; determination of population irradiation, survey of environment, food and human internal contamination; survey of health status of the population exposed to radiation, monitoring the medical checkups of the occupationally exposed personnel as well as their dosimetric monitoring; specific enactment, authorization and supervision of nuclear facilities, sanitary expertise and medical examinations; educational activities related to hygiene, radiotoxicology, radioecology and radiobiology. (authors)

  8. Optimization of the radioactive waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dellamano, Jose Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Radioactive waste storage is the practice adopted in countries where the production of small quantities of radioactive waste does not justify the immediate investment in the construction of a repository. Accordingly, at IPEN, treated radioactive wastes, mainly solid compacted, have been stored for more than 20 years, in 200 dm 3 drums. The storage facility is almost complete and must be extended. Taking into account that a fraction of these wastes has decayed to a very low level due to the short half - life of some radionuclides and considering that 'retrieval for disposal as very low level radioactive waste' is one of the actions suggested to radioactive waste managers, the Laboratory of Waste Management of IPEN started a project to apply the concepts of clearance levels and exemption limits to optimize the radioactive waste storage capacity . This study has been carried out by determining the doses and costs related to two main options: either to maintain the present situation or to open the packages and segregate the wastes that may be subject to clearance, using the national, two international clearance levels and the annual public limit. Doses and costs were evaluated as well as the collective dose and the detriment cost. The analytical solution among the evaluated options was determined by using the technique to aid decision making known as cost-benefit analysis. At last, it was carried out the sensitivity analysis considering all criteria and parameters in order to assess the robustness of the analytical solution. This study can be used as base to other institutions or other countries with similar nuclear programs. (author)

  9. Short communication: The effect of raw milk cooling on sensory perception and shelf life of high-temperature, short-time (HTST)-pasteurized skim milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A P; Barbano, D M; Drake, M A

    2016-12-01

    The cooling rate of raw milk may influence sensory properties and pasteurized shelf life. Under the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance for grade A milk, raw milk may be cooled instantaneously by on-farm heat exchangers but is also acceptable if "cooled to 10°C or less within four (4) hours of the commencement of the first milking." The objective of this study was to determine the effect of raw milk cooling on consumer perception and shelf life. Raw milk (18-21°C) was obtained and transported within 1h of milking to North Carolina State University (Raleigh). The batch of raw milk was split in 2 portions, and a plate heat exchanger was used to quickly cool one portion to <6°C within 1min. The second portion was stored in a jacketed bulk tank and slowly cooled over 4h to <10°C. Milk from 3 consecutive milkings was collected every 12h, with subsequent milkings added to the previous collections. The bulk milk was kept below 10°C while adding milk for the slow cool milk treatment. After 72h, each whole milk was separated; the skim milk was pasteurized at 73 or 78°C for 20 s, homogenized, and held at 4°C. Difference tests (n=75) and consumer acceptance tests (n=100) were conducted to determine if consumers could detect differences among milks. Descriptive analysis and microbial testing for aerobic, psychrotrophic, and psychrotolerant spore counts were conducted through shelf life. The entire experiment was repeated in triplicate. Raw milks averaged 3.3 logcfu/mL by aerobic plate count, <25cfu/mL coliforms, somatic cell count of 300,000 cells/mL, and 3.15±0.07% protein. Psychrotolerant spores were not found in the raw milk. Consumers could not detect differences between cooling treatments of the same pasteurization temperature or between different temperatures of the same cooling treatment. Milks reached sensory failure 49±4d on average after processing, and aerobic counts were between 5 to 7 logcfu/mL. Cooling treatment had no effect on shelf life. These results suggest

  10. Radioactive battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deaton, R.L.; Silver, G.L.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive battery is described that is comprised of a container housing an electrolyte, two electrodes immersed in the electrolyte and insoluble radioactive material disposed adjacent one electrode. Insoluble radioactive material of different intensity of radioactivity may be disposed adjacent the second electrode. If hydrobromic acid is used as the electrolyte, Br 2 will be generated by the radioactivity and is reduced at the cathode: Br 2 + 2e = 2 Br - . At the anode Br - is oxidized: 2Br - = Br 2 + 2e. (U.S.)

  11. Fast renal trapping of porcine Luteinizing Hormone (pLH shown by 123I-scintigraphic imaging in rats explains its short circulatory half-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Alain

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar moieties of gonadotropins play no primary role in receptor binding but they strongly affect their circulatory half-life and consequently their in vivo biopotencies. In order to relate more precisely hepatic trapping of these glycoproteic hormones with their circulatory half-life, we undertook a comparative study of the distribution and elimination of porcine LH (pLH and equine CG (eCG which exhibit respectively a short and a long half-life. This was done first by following half-lives of pLH in piglets with hepatic portal circulation shunted or not. It was expected that such a shunt would enhance the short half-life of pLH. Subsequently, scintigraphic imaging of both 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in intact rats to compare their routes and rates of distribution and elimination. Methods Native pLH or eCG was injected to normal piglets and pLH was tested in liver-shunted anæsthetized piglet. Blood samples were recovered sequentially over one hour time and the hormone concentrations were determined by a specific ELISA method. Scintigraphic imaging of 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in rats using a OPTI-CGR gamma camera. Results In liver-shunted piglets, the half-life of pLH was found to be as short as in intact piglets (5 min. In the rat, the half-life of pLH was also found to be very short (3–6 min and 123I-pLH was found to accumulate in high quantity in less than 10 min post injection at the level of kidneys but not in the liver. 123I-eCG didn't accumulate in any organ in the rats during the first hour, plasma concentrations of this gonadotropin being still elevated (80% at this time. Conclusion In both the porcine and rat species, the liver is not responsible for the rapid elimination of pLH from the circulation compared to eCG. Our scintigraphic experiments suggest that the very short circulatory half-life of LH is due to rapid renal trapping.

  12. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: Volume 2, Supporting information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report provides cost estimates for the fifth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans. The total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is estimated at $32.1 to $38.2 billion (expressed in constant 1986 collars) over the entire life of the system, or $1.5 to $1.6 billion more than that of the authorized system (i.e., the system without an MRS facility). The current estimate of the total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is $3.8 to $5.4 billion higher than the estimate for the same system in the 1986 TSLCC analysis. In the case with the maximum increase, nearly all of the higher cost is due to a $5.2-billion increase in the costs of development and evaluation (D and E); all other system costs are essentially unchanged. The cost difference between the improved-performance system and the authorized system is smaller than the difference estimated in last year's TSLCC analysis. Volume 2 presents the detailed results for the 1987 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost (TSLCC). It consists of four sections: Section A presents the yearly flows of waste between waste-management facilities for the 12 aggregate logistics cases that were studied; Section B presents the annual total-system costs for each of the 30 TSLCC cases by major cost category; Section C presents the annual costs for the disposal of 16,000 canisters of defense high-level waste (DHLW) by major cost category for each of the 30 TSLCC cases; and Section D presents a summary of the cost-allocation factors that were calculated to determine the defense waste share of the total-system costs

  13. Quality of life in South East Asian patients who consult for dyspepsia: Validation of the short form Nepean Dyspepsia Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goh Khean-Lee

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment objectives for dyspepsia include improvements in both symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL. There is a lack of disease-specific instruments measuring HRQoL in South East Asian dyspeptics. Objectives To validate English and locally translated version of the Short-Form Nepean Dyspepsia Index (SF-NDI in Malaysian patients who consult for dyspepsia. Methods The English version of the SF-NDI was culturally adapted locally and a Malay translation was developed using standard procedures. English and Malay versions of the SF-NDI were assessed against the SF-36 and the Leeds Dyspepsia Questionnaire (LDQ, examining internal consistency, test-retest reliability and construct validity. Results Pilot testing of the translated Malay and original English versions of the SF-NDI in twenty subjects did not identify any cross-cultural adaptation problems. 143 patients (86 English-speaking and 57 Malay speaking with dyspepsia were interviewed and the overall response rate was 100% with nil missing data. The median total SF-NDI score for both languages were 72.5 and 60.0 respectively. Test-retest reliability was good with intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.90 (English and 0.83 (Malay, while internal consistency of SF-NDI subscales revealed α values ranging from 0.83 – 0.88 (English and 0.83 – 0.90 (Malay. In both languages, SF-NDI sub-scales and total score demonstrated lower values in patients with more severe symptoms and in patients with functional vs organic dyspepsia (known groups validity, although these were less marked in the Malay language version. There was moderate to good correlation (r = 0.3 – 0.6 between all SF-NDI sub-scales and various domains of the SF-36 (convergent validity. Conclusion This study demonstrates that both English and Malay versions of the SF-NDI are reliable and probably valid instruments for measuring HRQoL in Malaysian patients with dyspepsia.

  14. Radioactivity and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivedi, R N [Fertilizer Association of India, New Delhi

    1977-12-01

    Power generation from radioisotopes is one of the major applications of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and is in practice in over twenty countries including India. Other well-known applications of radioactive substances are in medicine, industry, scientific and industrial research programs, and nuclear weapons. The only serious disadvantage with the radioisotopes and their waste products is the constant release of radiation energy which contaminates the environment and endangers the life. An attempt has been made to identify the major sources of radioactivity in the environment and assess its potential impact on the environment. Recent developments in safety measures for prevention of contamination and control of radioactivity and in radioactive wastes management are also discussed.

  15. Short-term modern life-like stress exacerbates Aβ-pathology and synapse loss in 3xTg-AD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglietto-Vargas, David; Chen, Yuncai; Suh, Dongjin; Ager, Rahasson R; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J; Medeiros, Rodrigo; Myczek, Kristoffer; Green, Kim N; Baram, Tallie Z; LaFerla, Frank M

    2015-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder that impairs memory and other cognitive functions in the elderly. The social and financial impacts of AD are overwhelming and are escalating exponentially as a result of population aging. Therefore, identifying AD-related risk factors and the development of more efficacious therapeutic approaches are critical to cure this neurological disorder. Current epidemiological evidence indicates that life experiences, including chronic stress, are a risk for AD. However, it is unknown if short-term stress, lasting for hours, influences the onset or progression of AD. Here, we determined the effect of short-term, multi-modal 'modern life-like' stress on AD pathogenesis and synaptic plasticity in mice bearing three AD mutations (the 3xTg-AD mouse model). We found that combined emotional and physical stress lasting 5 h severely impaired memory in wild-type mice and tended to impact it in already low-performing 3xTg-AD mice. This stress reduced the number of synapse-bearing dendritic spines in 3xTg-AD mice and increased Aβ levels by augmenting AβPP processing. Thus, short-term stress simulating modern-life conditions may exacerbate cognitive deficits in preclinical AD by accelerating amyloid pathology and reducing synapse numbers. Epidemiological evidence indicates that life experiences, including chronic stress, are a risk for Alzheimer disease (AD). However, it is unknown if short stress in the range of hours influences the onset or progression of AD. Here, we determined the effect of short, multi-modal 'modern-lifelike'stress on AD pathogenesis and synaptic plasticity in mice bearing three AD mutations (the 3xTg-AD mouse model). We found that combined emotional and physical stress lasting 5 h severely impaired memory in wild-type mice and tended to impact it in already low-performing 3xTg-AD mice. This stress reduced the number of synapse-bearing dendritic spines in 3xTg-AD mice and increased Aβ levels by

  16. Radioactivity measurement of soil and vegetables contaminated from low level radioactive fall out arised from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. A study on Institute for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem Services, Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshita, Seiichi; Kawagoe, Yoshinori; Nakanishi, Tomoko M.; Tanoi, Keitaro; Makino, Yoshio; Yasunaga, Eriko; Takata, Daisuke; Sasaki, Haruto

    2011-01-01

    After the accident of Fukushima nuclear power plant, vegetables were grown at an experimental farm of Nishi-Tokyo City in Tokyo, which was located about 230km away from the power plant. The outer leaves of cabbages and leaves of potatoes were taken after 47 and 40 days, respectively, and the radioactivity of 134 Cs and 137 Cs was measured. The total radioactivity of 134 Cs and 137 Cs in both plants was less than 9Bq/kg, which was far lower than that of the regulated value, 500Bq/kg, for human to intake. The radioactivity of soil was about 130Bq/kg, less than that of the natural activity of 40 K, about 290Bq/kg. The difference of the radioactivity image of cabbage outer leaves, washed and without washing, was not observed using an imaging plate. (author)

  17. Study on Renal Anemia: A Double Tracer Study on Metabolism and Red Cell Life Span in Chronic Renal Diseases using Radioactive Iron (59Fe) and Chromium (51Cr)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Kyung Tae; Lee, Mun Ho

    1968-01-01

    The ferrokinetics and red cell life spans of the patients with chronic glomerulonephritis were investigated by the double tracing method using radioactive iron ( 59 Fe) and chromium ( 51 Cr). According to the serum NPN levels, the patients were subdivided into 3 groups: Group 1. 6 patients, had the levels below 40 mg/dl. Group 2. 6 patients, had the levels between 41 mg/dl to 80 mg/dl. Group 3. 10 patients had the levels above 80 mg/dl. The results were as follows: 1) Red blood cell, hematocrit and hemoglobin values were moderately reduced in patients with normal serum NPN levels, while markedly reduced in patients with elevated serum NPN levels. 2) The plasma volume was increased, while the red cell volume was decreased in patients with elevated serum NPN levels, hence, total blood volume was unchanged. 3) The serum iron level was slightly reduced in patients of groups 1 and 2, while was within the normal ranges in patients of group 3. 4) i) In patients with normal serum NPN levels, the plasma iron disappearance rate, red cell iron utilization rate, red cell iron turnover rate, daily red cell iron renewal rate, circulating red cell iron and red cell iron concentration were within the normal ranges, while the plasma iron turnover rate was slightly reduced. ii) In patients with elevated serum NPN levels, the plasma iron disappearance rate was delayed, while the plasma iron turnover rate was within the normal ranges. The red cell iron utilization rate, red cell iron turnover rate and circulating red cell iron were decreased and the period in which the red cell iron utilization rate reached its peak was delayed in Group 3 patients. The daily red cell iron renewal rate and the red cell iron concentration were unchanged. iii) The mean red cell life span was within the normal ranges in patients with normal serum NPN levels, while was shortened in patients with elevated serum NPN levels.

  18. Radioactive Waste Management Program Activities in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.

    2000-01-01

    The concept of radioactive waste management in Croatia comprises three major areas: management of low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW), spent fuel management and decommissioning. All the work regarding radioactive waste management program is coordinated by Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) and Croatian Power Utility (HEP) in cooperation with other relevant institutions. Since the majority of work has been done in developing low and intermediate level radioactive waste management program, the paper will focus on this part of radioactive waste management, mainly on issues of site selection and characterization, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance. A short description of national radioactive waste management infrastructure will also be presented. (author)

  19. Medical applications of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hospitals, clinics and other medical complexes are probably the most extensive users of radioactive solutions of Tc-99m, Tl-201, Ga-67, I-123, Xe-133 and radiopharmaceuticals as diagnostic tools to evaluate the dynamic function of various organs in the body, detect cancerous tumors, sites of infection or other bodily dysfunctions. Examples of monitoring blood flow to a stressed heart and to the brain of a cocaine addict are shown. Short-lived positron emitting radionuclides (C-11, N-13, O-15 and F-18) are produced right in a hospital. Other radionuclides are used as therapeutics to reduce tumor size or kill diseased cells. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) is another medical diagnostic tool that is useful in the early detection of the AIDS virus and cancer as well as many other illnesses. Biological researchers, using radioactive biological compounds, have developed many of todays medical diagnostic procedures. Most of the recent Nobel Laureates in the life sciences have used radiolabeled compounds in their research. A brief review of these applications with several examples is presented

  20. Long term radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    In France, waste management, a sensitive issue in term of public opinion, is developing quickly, and due to twenty years of experience, is now reaching maturity. With the launching of the French nuclear programme, the use of radioactive sources in radiotherapy and industry, waste management has become an industrial activity. Waste management is an integrated system dealing with the wastes from their production to the long term disposal, including their identification, sortage, treatment, packaging, collection and transport. This system aims at guaranteing the protection of present and future populations with an available technology. In regard to their long term management, and the design of disposals, radioactive wastes are divided in three categories. This classification takes into account the different radioisotopes contained, their half life and their total activity. Presently short-lived wastes are stored in the shallowland disposal of the ''Centre de la Manche''. Set up within the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), the National Agency for waste management (ANDRA) is responsible within the framework of legislative and regulatory provisions for long term waste management in France [fr

  1. Your radioactive garden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    The booklet on radiation risks from nuclear waste is based on lectures given by the author at Westminster School (United Kingdom) and elsewhere during 1986. A description is given of naturally-occurring radioactivity, and the health risks due to this radiation. The types of radioactive wastes produced by the nuclear industry are described, including low-level wastes, short-lived and long-lived intermediate-level wastes, and high level wastes. These wastes are discussed with respect to their potential health risks and their disposal underground. (U.K.)

  2. Effective Half-life of I-131 in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Treated by Radioactive I-131

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seok Gun [Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-12-15

    Effective half life of I-131 (T{sub eff}) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated by I-131 is must-know value for dose calculation and determination of release time from isolation room. There has been no report about T{sub eff} in Koreans. Thus, author tried to measure dose rate without radiation exposure to faculty members and calculated T{sub eff}. Probe of radiation survey meter was fixed at the wall of isolation room, and body of survey meter was placed outside the room. With this simple arrangement, author could measure radiation frequently without radiation exposure to faculty members in 68 patient (F=55, M=13, age=47{+-}13.7) treated by I-131 (3.7{approx}7.4 GBq) for differentiated thyroid cancer from Jan 2006 to Dec 2006. From this data, T{sub eff}, 48 hr retention rate, and the time necessary to whole body retention of I-131 become less than 1.1 GBq were calculated. Serum creatinine levels were measured before and after thyroid hormone withdrawal. T{sub eff} was 15.4{+-}4.3 hr (9.4{approx}32.5 hr). There was a loose correlation between T{sub eff} and serum creatinine concentration (r=0.45). 48hr retention was 4.9{+-}4.2% (1{approx}23%). Time necessary to whole body retention of I-131 become less than 1.1 GBq was calculated as 47.1{+-}13.2 hr for 9.25 GBq, 42.1{+-}11.9 hr for 7.4 GBq, 35.7{+-}10.0 hr for 5.55 GBq, and 26.7{+-}7.5 hr for 3.7 GBq dose of I-131. Author successfully measured radiation dose rates in isolated patients treated by high dose of I-131 without radiation exposure to the faculty members with simple arrangement of survey meter probe. Using those data, T{sub eff} and some other indices were calculated.

  3. MODEL RADIOACTIVE RADON DECAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.I. Parovik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In a model of radioactive decay of radon in the sample (222Rn. The model assumes that the probability of the decay of radon and its half-life depends on the fractal properties of the geological environment. The dependencies of the decay parameters of the fractal dimension of the medium.

  4. New radioactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, W.; Sandulescu, A.

    1996-01-01

    Some atomic nuclei reorganize their structure by ejection of big protons and neutrons aggregates. The observation of these new radioactivities specifies the theories of the nuclear dynamics. (authors)

  5. Radioactivity Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, R.B.; Browne, E.

    1985-01-01

    The Radioactivity Handbook will be published in 1985. This handbook is intended primarily for applied users of nuclear data. It will contain recommended radiation data for all radioactive isotopes. Pages from the Radioactivity Handbook for A = 221 are shown as examples. These have been produced from the LBL Isotopes Project extended ENDSF data-base. The skeleton schemes have been manually updated from the Table of Isotopes and the tabular data are prepared using UNIX with a phototypesetter. Some of the features of the Radioactivity Handbook are discussed here

  6. No impact of dietary iodine restriction in short term development of hypothyroidism following fixed dose radioactive iodine therapy for Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Jubbin Jagan; Stephen, Charles; Paul, Thomas V; Thomas, Nihal; Oommen, Regi; Seshadri, Mandalam S

    2015-01-01

    The increased incidence of autoimmune thyroid disease with increasing dietary iodine intake has been demonstrated both epidemiologically and experimentally. The hypothyroidism that occurs in the first year following radioactive iodine therapy is probably related to the destructive effects of the radiation and underlying ongoing autoimmunity. To study the outcomes at the end of six months after fixed dose I, (131)therapy for Graves' disease followed by an iodine restricted diet for a period of six months. Consecutive adult patients with Graves' disease planned for I(131) therapy were randomized either to receive instructions regarding dietary iodine restriction or no advice prior to fixed dose (5mCi) I(131) administration. Thyroid functions and urinary iodine indices were evaluated at 3(rd) and 6(th) month subsequently. Forty seven patients (13M and 34F) were assessed, 2 were excluded, 45 were randomized (Cases 24 and Controls 21) and 39 patients completed the study. Baseline data was comparable. Median urinary iodine concentration was 115 and 273 μg/gm creat (p = 0.00) among cases and controls respectively. Outcomes at the 3(rd) month were as follows (cases and controls); Euthyroid (10 and 6: P = 0.24), Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38) and Hyperthyroid (7 and 8: P = 0.64). Outcomes at the end of six months were as follows (cases and controls); Euthyroid (10 and 5: P = 0.12), Hypothyroid (3 and 5: P = 0.38) and Hyperthyroid (7 and 9: P = 0.43). Of the hypothyroid patients 5 (cases 1 and controls 4: P = 0.13) required thyroxine replacement. There was no statistical significant difference in the outcome of patients with dietary iodine restriction following I(131) therapy for Graves' disease.

  7. Quality of life and discriminating power of two questionnaires in fibromyalgia patients: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Ana; Pagano, Tatiana; Matsutani, Luciana A; Ferreira, Elizabeth A G; Pereira, Carlos A B; Marques, Amélia P

    2010-01-01

    Fibromyalgia is a painful syndrome characterized by widespread chronic pain and associated symptoms with a negative impact on quality of life. Considering the subjectivity of quality of life measurements, the aim of this study was to verify the discriminating power of two quality of life questionnaires in patients with fibromyalgia: the generic Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the specific Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). A cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 participants divided into Fibromyalgia Group (FG) and Control Group (CG) (n=75 in each group). The participants were evaluated using the SF-36 and the FIQ. The data were analyzed by the Student t-test (α=0.05) and inferential analysis using the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) Curve--sensitivity, specificity and area under the curve (AUC). The significance level was 0.05. The sample was similar for age (CG: 47.8 ± 8.1; FG: 47.0 ± 7.7 years). A significant difference was observed in quality of life assessment in all aspects of both questionnaires (pquality of life in fibromyalgia patients, and we suggest that both should be used in parallel because they evaluate relevant and complementary aspects of quality of life.

  8. CHANGES IN QUALITY OF LIFE AFTER SHORT AND LONG TERM FOLLOW-UP OF ROUX-EN-Y GASTRIC BYPASS FOR MORBID OBESITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael M. LAURINO NETO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Context It is unclear whether health-related quality of life (HRQL is sustained in a long-term follow-up of morbidly obese patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB. Objective This study aims to analyze the HRQL changes following RYGB in short and long-term follow-up. Methods We compared the health-related quality of life among three separate patient groups, using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36. Group A - 50 preoperative morbidly obese patients; Group B - 50 RYGB patients 1-2 years post-surgery; Group C - 50 RYGB patients more than 7 years post-surgery. Results The groups were similar for gender, age and body mass index before surgery. We observed that physical functioning, social function, emotional role functioning and mental health scales did not vary between the three groups. The physical role functioning scale was unchanged in the short-term and decreased compared to the preoperative scale in the long-term follow-up. Bodily pain improved after the operation but returned to the initial level after 7 years. The vitality and general health perceptions improved after the operation and maintained these results after 7 years compared with the preoperative perceptions. Conclusions RYGB improved health-related quality of life in three SF-36 domains (bodily pain, general health perceptions and vitality in the short-term and two SF-36 domains (general health perceptions and vitality in the long-term.

  9. Dispersal of radioactivity by wildlife from contaminated sites in a forested landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garten, C.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.

    1995-12-31

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located within the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province of eastern Tennessee (USA). Wildlife populations have access to some radioactively contaminated sites at ORNL. Contaminated animals or animal nests within the Laboratory`s boundaries have been found to contain {sup 90}Sr or {sup 137}Cs on the order of 10{sup -2}-10{sup 4} Bq g{sup -1} and trace amounts of other radionuclides (including transuranic elements). Animals that are capable of flight and animals with behaviour patterns or developmental life stages involving contact with sediments in radioactive ponds, like benthic invertebrates, present the greatest potential for dispersal of radioactivity. The emigration of frogs and turtles from waste ponds also presents a potential for dispersal of radioactivity but over distances < 5 km. Mud-dauber wasps (Hymenoptera) and swallows (Hirundinidae) may transport radioactive mud for nest building, but also over relatively short distances (0.2-1 km). Movement by small mammals is limited by several factors, including physical barriers and smaller home ranges. Larger animals, like white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) are potential vectors of radioactivity due to their greater body size, longer life expectancy, and larger home range. Larger animals contain greater amounts of total radioactivity than smaller animals, but tissue concentrations of {sup 137}Cs generally decline with body size. (author).

  10. Detailed description of a new management system for solid, short-lived low and intermediate level radioactive waste at Ignalina NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The objective is to modify and extend the existing system at the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) for handling of Very Low Level Waste (VLLW), short lived Low and Intermediate Level Waste (LLW-SL and ILW-SL). The ultimate aim is to reduce the risks and the influence on the personnel and the environment. According to the request from INPP, the modified system is based on the existence of an incineration plant. This system description describes treatment of non-combustible VLLW, LLW-SL and ILW-SL at a new waste handling facility (WHF) located in the future buildings 159/2 and 159/3 at the INPP. The new WHF is also handling Exempt Waste (EW), Reusable Material (RM) and Free Release Goods (FRG). The buildings 159/2 and 159/3 are future extensions of the existing building 159. (author)

  11. Radioactivity. Centenary of radioactivity discovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Tubiana, M.; Bimbot, R.

    1997-01-01

    This small booklet was edited for the occasion of the exhibitions of the celebration of the centenary of radioactivity discovery which took place in various locations in France from 1996 to 1998. It recalls some basic knowledge concerning radioactivity and its applications: history of discovery, atoms and isotopes, radiations, measurement of ionizing radiations, natural and artificial radioactivity, isotope dating and labelling, radiotherapy, nuclear power and reactors, fission and fusion, nuclear wastes, dosimetry, effects and radioprotection. (J.S.)

  12. Quality of Life Through Gender Role Perspective in Candidate Renal Transplant Recipients: A Report From Başkent University Using the Short Form 36 Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyüz Özdemir, Aydan; Sayın, Cihat Burak; Erdal, Rengin; Özcan, Cihangir; Haberal, Mehmet

    2018-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality of life of patients with end-stage renal disease through a "gender role perspective." Patients were on hemodialysis treatment and on a wait list for transplant. This study was conducted at the Başkent University Adana, Ankara, and Istanbul hemodialysis centers. Patients completed Short Form 36 Health Survey questionnaires voluntarily to evaluate quality of life. The questions were answered independently by patients while they were undergoing hemodialysis treatment. The mean age of participants was 54 ± 16.5 years. Quality of life was found to be higher in men (44.7 ± 19.2), and there was a negative correlation between quality of life and age in both sexes, as well as marriage age, number of pregnancies, and age of patient at the first live birth in women (P < .05). We found statistically significant differences between men and women regarding physical health and mental health dimensions. Quality of life scores increased with level of education (P < .001). In addition, patients in Ankara had the highest quality of life compared with Istanbul and Adana (P < .01). Average time on hemodialysis treatment, the number of weekly hemodialysis sessions, mean time of the disease, and mean duration of abandoning hemodialysis sessions were negatively associated with all components of quality of life (P < .05). We found that sex, education level, social status, and home city of patients had a high impact on quality of life. Thus, it is essential to educate both male and female patients regarding sex/gender and health issues before transplant to increase the recipient's physical and mental health dimensions.

  13. Trapping radioactive ions

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, Heinz-Jürgen

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning.

  14. Trapping radioactive ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluge, H.-J.; Blaum, K.

    2004-01-01

    Trapping devices for atomic and nuclear physics experiments with radioactive ions are becoming more and more important at accelerator facilities. While about ten years ago only one online Penning trap experiment existed, namely ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN, meanwhile almost every radioactive beam facility has installed or plans an ion trap setup. This article gives an overview on ion traps in the operation, construction or planing phase which will be used for fundamental studies with short-lived radioactive nuclides such as mass spectrometry, laser spectroscopy and nuclear decay spectroscopy. In addition, this article summarizes the use of gas cells and radiofrequency quadrupole (Paul) traps at different facilities as a versatile tool for ion beam manipulation like retardation, cooling, bunching, and cleaning

  15. Presence of radioactivity in a sewage system: a proposal for radioactivity control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serradell, Vicente; Ballesteros, Luisa; Ortiz, Josefina

    2008-01-01

    Most hospitals use radioisotopes in diagnostics and to a lesser extent in therapy. The liquid residues thus generated are usually subjected to treatment before being discharged into the sewage system. Nevertheless, a certain amount of these residues escape from the treatment system and are poured directly into the sewer. In addition, other radioactive products used for research and industrial purposes may also be disposed of in the same way. The waste waters in many sewage systems can therefore be expected to be radiologically contaminated and the need for at least a basic control system in such situations seems obvious. When designing a procedure to measure radioactivity, certain conditions should be borne in mind: 1) The control program has to be simple and inexpensive; 2) Samples must be taken from the appropriate places; 3) Short life radionuclides will probably be present in significant amounts, so that specific recipes should be prepared; 4) Iodine is also frequently present. Special precautions should be taken to keep it in solution. In recent years, the Environmental Radioactivity Laboratory of the Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain) has carried out a series of tests on the Valencia city sewage system and sewage treatment plant in order to design a permanent program to control radioactive contamination of the city's sewage system. This paper presents a proposal which we believe can provide the answer to this problem. (author)

  16. The Short-Term Effectiveness of a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper Training Program in a College Setting with Residence Life Advisers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Tanya L.; Witt, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Although the college years prove to be a vulnerable time for students and a critical period for suicide prevention, few school-based prevention strategies have been empirically evaluated. The current study examined the short-term effects of Question, Persuade, and Refer (QPR), a gatekeeper training program that teaches how to recognize warning…

  17. The 2016-2018 National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes - Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazzo, Alexis; Robert, Jean-Gabriel; Abraham, Christophe; Benaze, Manon de

    2015-01-01

    A first document contains the project of the National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes (PNGMDR) for the period 2016-2018: principles and objectives (presentation of radioactive materials and wastes, principles to be taken into account to define pathways of management of radioactive wastes, legal and institutional framework, information transparency), the management of radioactive materials (context and challenges, management pathways, works on fast breeder reactors of fourth generation), assessment and perspectives of existing pathways of management of radioactive wastes (management of historical situations, management of residues of mining and sterile processing, management of waste with a high natural radioactivity, management of very short life waste, of very low activity wastes, and low and medium activity wastes), needs and perspectives regarding management processes to be implemented for the different types of radioactive wastes. Appendices to this document contain a recall of the content of previous PNGMDR since 2007, a synthesis of realisations and researches performed abroad, research orientations for the concerned period, and international agreement on spent fuel and radioactive waste management. A second document, released by the ASN, proposes an environmental and strategic assessment of the plan. A third one and a fourth one contain the opinion of the Environmental Authority, respectively on the plan preliminary focus, and on the plan itself. An answer to this last one is then proposed, followed by a synthesis of the plan project and the text of the corresponding decree

  18. The 2016-2018 National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    A first document contains the final version of the French National Plan of Management of Radioactive Materials and Wastes (PNGMDR) for the period 2016-2018: principles and objectives (presentation of radioactive materials and wastes, principles to be taken into account to define pathways of management of radioactive wastes, legal and institutional framework, information transparency), the management of radioactive materials (context and challenges, management pathways, works on fast breeder reactors of fourth generation), assessment and perspectives of existing pathways of management of radioactive wastes (management of historical situations, management of residues of mining and sterile processing, management of waste with a high natural radioactivity, management of very short life waste, of very low activity wastes, and low and medium activity wastes), needs and perspectives regarding management processes to be implemented for the different types of radioactive wastes. Appendices to this document contain: a recall of the content of previous PNGMDR since 2007, a synthesis of realisations and researches performed abroad, research orientations for the concerned period, and international agreement on spent fuel and radioactive waste management. A second document, released by the ASN, proposes an environmental and strategic assessment of the plan. A third one and a fourth one contain the opinion of the Environmental Authority on the plan preliminary focus and the answer to the Environmental Authority by the ASN. Finally, a synthesis of the remarks made by the public about the PNGMDR and the answers to these remarks conclude the document

  19. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program. Volume 1. The analysis and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-04-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the fourth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The total-system cost for the reference authorized-system program is estimated to be 24 to 32 billion (1985) dollars. The total-system cost for the reference improved-performance system is estimated to be 26 to 34 billion dollars. A number of sensitivity cases were analyzed. For the authorized system, the costs for the sensitivity cases studied range from 21 to 39 billion dollars. For the improved-performance system, which includes a facility for monitored retrievable storage, the total-system cost in the sensitivity cases is estimated to be as high as 41 billion dollars. The factors that affect costs more than any other single factor for both the authorized and the improved-performance systems are delays in repository startup. A preliminary analysis of the impact of extending the burnup of nuclear fuel in the reactor was also performed; its results indicate that the impact is insignificant: the total-system cost is essentially unchanged from the comparable constant-burnup cases. The current estimate of the the total-system cost for the reference authorized system is zero to 3 billion dollars (9%) higher than the estimate for the reference system in the January 1985 TSLCC analysis

  20. Amersham's high radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caulkin, S

    1984-11-01

    An account is given of the history, organisation and work of Amersham International, to produce radioactive and other products for use in medical diagnosis and therapy, in research in the life sciences, and in industrial processes and control systems. The account covers the developments from the war-time work of Thorium Ltd., on naturally occurring radioactive materials, through the post-war expansion into the field of artificial radioisotopes, as the Radiochemical Centre (part of the UK Atomic Energy Authority), to the recent reorganisation and privatization. The width of the range of activities and products available is emphasised, with examples.

  1. Amersham's high radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caulkin, S.

    1984-01-01

    An account is given of the history, organisation and work of Amersham International, to produce radioactive and other products for use in medical diagnosis and therapy, in research in the life sciences, and in industrial processes and control systems. The account covers the developments from the war-time work of Thorium Ltd., on naturally occurring radioactive materials, through the post-war expansion into the field of artificial radioisotopes, as the Radiochemical Centre (part of the UK Atomic Energy Authority), to the recent reorganisation and privatization. The width of the range of activities and products available is emphasised, with examples. (U.K.)

  2. Extrapolation of short term observations to time periods relevant to the isolation of long lived radioactive waste. Results of a co-ordinated research project 1995-2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-09-01

    This report addresses safety analysis of the whole repository life-cycle that may require long term performance assessment of its components and evaluation of potential impacts of the facility on the environment. Generic consideration of procedures for the development of predictive tools are completed by detailed characterization of selected principles and methods that were applied and presented within the co-ordinated research project (CRP). The project focused on different approaches to extrapolation, considering radionuclide migration/sorption, physical, geochemical and geotechnical characteristics of engineered barriers, irradiated rock and backfill performance, and on corrosion of metallic and vitreous materials. This document contains a comprehensive discussion of the overall problem and the practical results of the individual projects preformed within the CRP. Each of the papers on the individual projects has been indexed separately

  3. Accidents during transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, S.P.

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive materials are a part of modern technology and life. They are used in medicine, industry, agriculture, research and electrical power generation. Tens of millions of packages containing radioactive materials are consigned for transport each year throughout the world. In India, about 80000 packages containing radioactive material are transported every year. The amount of radioactive material in these packages varies from negligible amounts used in consumer products to very large amounts in shipment of irradiator sources and spent nuclear fuel

  4. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahissa Campa, Jaime; Pahissa, Marta H. de

    2000-01-01

    Throughout this century, the application of nuclear energy has produced many benefits, in industry, in research, in medicine, and in the generation of electricity. These activities generate wastes in the same way as do other human activities. The primary objective of radioactive waste management is to protect human health and environment now and in the future without imposing undue burden on future generations, through sound, safe and efficient radioactive waste management. This paper briefly describes the different steps of the management of short lived low and intermediate level wastes, and presents and overview of the state of art in countries involved in nuclear energy, describing their organizations, methodologies used in the processing of these wastes and the final disposal concepts. It also presents the Argentine strategy, its technical and legal aspects. Worldwide experience during the past 50 years has shown that short lived low and intermediate level wastes can be successfully isolated from human and environment in near surface disposal facilities. (author)

  5. Pollution by radioactive iodine and radioactive cesium in fruit fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Kikunaga, Hidetoshi; Izumi, Yuichi

    2011-01-01

    A lot of radioactive materials were spread out by the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station caused by the tsunami accompanying earthquake in the area of Tohoku district-Pacific Ocean, in 2011/3/11. In early stage, short half-life nuclides, such as "1"3"2Te, "1"3"1I, "1"3"6Cs, as well as "1"3"4Cs, "1"3"7Cs were observed in fields. Now "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs which are comparatively long half-life became dominant observing nuclides. The nuclear power plant accident brought serious damages in many directions, especially, the influence of the field pollution by these nuclides is great in the agriculture, and the quick actions and the measures are needed. The influence of "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs to the fruit tree were investigated in cooperation with Fukushima agricultural center, Institute of Fruit Tree Science. We report several facts of the transfer and translocation mechanism of "1"3"4Cs and "1"3"7Cs in fruit trees. (author)

  6. Life-history variation in the short-lived herb Rorippa palustris: effects of germination date and injury timing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Jitka; Sosnová, Monika; Martínková, Jana

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 189, - (2007), s. 237-246 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA ČR GD206/03/H034 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Bud bank * Cohorts * Life history Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.236, year: 2007

  7. Improvements of present radioactive beam facilities and new projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, A.C.

    1995-01-01

    A short overview is given over scheduled improvements of present radioactive beam facilities and of new projects. In order to put these into a coherent context the paper starts with a general section about the making of radioactive beams. (author)

  8. A social work contribution to suicide prevention through assertive brief psychotherapy and community linkage: use of the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, Melissa; Joubert, Lynette

    2013-01-01

    There is a striking absence of literature articulating and evaluating clinical social work contributions to suicide prevention, despite considerable practice in this important field. This article reports on a model of assertive brief psychotherapeutic intervention and facilitated linkage to community services utilized in a prospective cohort study of emergency department suicide attempt aftercare. A key outcome measure, the Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life (MANSA), was used with 65 patients to assess psychosocial domains at initial presentation, 4-weeks, 3-months, and 6-months. There were significant improvements in the domains of work, finance, leisure, social life, living situation, personal safety and health by 3 months. There were highly significant correlations between psychosocial improvements and improved depression scores.

  9. Always more radioactive matters to manage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevallier, J.

    2009-01-01

    The national agency for radioactive waste management published at the end of June (2009)its new three-yearly inventory of radioactive matters and wastes. for this edition, the numbers are stopped at the 31. december 2007. The volume of conditioned wastes represents 1.15 millions of cubic meters. 62% of these wastes come from nuclear industry. The sectors of research and defence each produce 17% of the whole. The remaining 4% come from others industries and medical sector. currently, 824 609 cubic meters are stored. The most being low and intermediate activity at short life (68%) and very low activity (20%). with 2293 cubic meters the high level activity wastes represent 0.2% of the total volume but constitute 94.98% of the total radioactivity. They come from the reprocessing of spent fuels of electronuclear industry and content fission products and minor actinides. They are not still stored but mixed to a glass matrix melt in stainless steel container. (N.C.)

  10. Simulated Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boettler, James L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the errors in the sugar-cube experiment related to radioactivity as described in Project Physics course. The discussion considers some of the steps overlooked in the experiment and generalizes the theory beyond the sugar-cube stage. (PS)

  11. Concentrating Radioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Richard A.

    1974-01-01

    By concentrating radioactivity contained on luminous dials, a teacher can make a high reading source for classroom experiments on radiation. The preparation of the source and its uses are described. (DT)

  12. Short-contact clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% improves quality of life in patients with scalp psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jerry; Thomas, Richard; Wang, Béatrice; Gratton, David; Vender, Ronald; Kerrouche, Nabil; Villemagne, Hervé

    2009-03-01

    Scalp psoriasis has a considerable impact on the quality of life (QOL) of patients, and most patients are dissatisfied with available treatments. Clobetasol propionate shampoo 0.05% has been shown to be effective and safe for moderate to severe scalp psoriasis. We evaluated the effect of clobetasol propionate shampoo on QOL and the degree of participant satisfaction with the product. Participants received once-daily treatment for up to 4 weeks. Their QOL and degree of satisfaction were evaluated by questionnaires. The mean (standard deviation) Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) score decreased significantly from 7.0 (4.9) at baseline to 3.2 (3.2) at week 4 (Pshampoo improved the QOL of participants and resulted in high satisfaction.

  13. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grass, F.

    1982-01-01

    Following a definition of the term 'radioactive waste', including a discussion of possible criteria allowing a delimitation of low-level radioactive against inactive wastes, present techniques of handling high-level, intermediate-level and low-level wastes are described. The factors relevant for the establishment of definitive disposals for high-level wastes are discussed in some detail. Finally, the waste management organization currently operative in Austria is described. (G.G.)

  14. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, R.

    1987-01-01

    In the wake of the Chernobyl reactor accident on April 26, 1986, many individual values for radioactivity in the air, in foodstuffs and in the soil were measured and published. Prof. Dr. Rolf Steiner, Wiesbaden, the author of this paper, evaluated the host of data - mostly official pollution data -, drew conclusions regarding the radioactivity actually released at Chernobyl, and used the data to test the calculation model adotped by the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./RB) [de

  15. Short UV-C Treatment Prevents Browning and Extends the Shelf-Life of Fresh-Cut Carambola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlota Moreno

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we selected a short UV-C treatment for fresh-cut carambola and assessed its efficacy in supplementing the benefits of low temperature storage. UV-C treated (6.0, 10.0, and 12.5 kJ m−2 carambola slices showed reduced deterioration compared to control fruit. Treatment with a dose of 12.5 kJ m−2 UV-C was more effective in maintaining quality and was selected for subsequent experiments evaluating the combination of UV-C and refrigeration on fruit storability and physical, chemical, and microbiological properties. Short UV-C exposure reduced weight loss and electrolyte leakage. UV-C treated carambola slices presented higher phenolic antioxidants than control after 21 d at 4°C and showed no alterations in soluble solids or titratable acidity. UV-C exposure also reduced the counts of molds, yeast, and aerobic mesophilic bacteria. UV-C treated fruit showed a fresh-like appearance even after 21 d as opposed to control carambola which presented spoilage and extensive browning symptoms. The reduction of fruit browning in UV-C treated fruit was not due to reduction in phenylalanine-ammonia lyase (PAL and/or peroxidase (POD, but rather through polyphenol oxidase (PPO inhibition and improved maintenance of tissue integrity.

  16. National policy for control of radioactive sources and radioactive waste from non-power applications in Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klevinskas, G.; Mastauskas, A.

    2001-01-01

    procedures. The State Register of Sources of Ionizing Radiation is managed in local software, based on the FOX PRO database system. The software provides to print out various kinds of reports about the sources - couple of options are available to investigate the 'source's life'. The RAIS (Regulatory Authority Information System), version 2.0, provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) is now under examination and after necessary changes it will be translated into Lithuanian language and adopted to the local conditions. Improving the system, the database on spent sealed radioactive sources will be also included that will allow to have clear and objective information about the sources disused or sources sent for disposal. The principal users of sources of ionizing radiation in non-power applications in Lithuania can be split up into different categories, namely: industry, hospitals, research institutions and others (i.e. museums, libraries). Radioactive waste generated during the use of sources of ionizing radiation (excluding those generated in the nuclear fuel cycle) shall be managed according to the basic radioactive waste management principles and requirements set out in the Law on the Management of Radioactive Waste and in the Lithuanian Hygiene Standard HN 89:2001 'Management of Radioactive Waste', approved by the Minister of Health in 2001. There are requirements for the local waste management (at users' premises) established. Detailed requirements for the management of solid (including spent sealed sources), liquid, gaseous radioactive waste are established, basic requirements for the temporary radioactive waste management facilities, located at users' premises, are set out. There shall be three options for the management of radioactive waste generated during the licensed practice applied: waste below clearance levels shall be managed as ordinary waste or disposed of to environment; waste containing short lived radionuclides (with half-life less than 100

  17. Analysis of trace elements in the shells of short-necked clam Ruditapes philippinarum (Mollusca: Bivalvia) with respect to reconstruction of individual life history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Jumpei; Sakamoto, Wataru

    1998-01-01

    Strontium (Sr) concentration in the shells of short-necked clams collected at different locations (Shirahama, warm area and Maizuru, cold area, Japan) was analyzed by two methods, PIXE and EPMA. The Sr concentration of external surface of shell umbo, which was made during short term at early benthic phase, was analyzed by PIXE, and was ranged from 1000 to 3500 ppm for individuals. The Sr concentration of clams collected at Shirahama showed positive correlation with shell length (SL) in individuals with SL < 31 mm, whereas clams collected at Maizuru did not show significant correlation. This result may be caused from the difference of the spawning seasons between two areas. The Sr concentration of cross section of shell umbo, which develops thicker continuously during their life to form faint stratum structure, was analyzed by EPMA along the line across the stratum structure. Some surges and long term waving patterns of the Sr concentration were observed. These results suggest that the life histories of individual clams could be recorded in the shell umbo cross sections as variations of trace elements and analyses of trace elements could clarify the histories of individual clams. (author)

  18. The short-term effects of an integrated care model for the frail elderly on health, quality of life, health care use and satisfaction with care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelmina Mijntje Looman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study explores the short-term value of integrated care for the frail elderly by evaluating the effects of the Walcheren Integrated Care Model on health, quality of life, health care use and satisfaction with care after three months. Intervention: Frailty was preventively detected in elderly living at home with the Groningen Frailty Indicator. Geriatric nurse practitioners and secondary care geriatric nursing specialists were assigned as case managers and co-ordinated the care agreed upon in a multidisciplinary meeting. The general practitioner practice functions as a single entry point and supervises the co-ordination of care. The intervention encompasses task reassignment between nurses and doctors and consultations between primary, secondary and tertiary care providers. The entire process was supported by multidisciplinary protocols and web-based patient files. Methods: The design of this study was quasi-experimental. In this study, 205 frail elderly patients of three general practitioner practices that implemented the integrated care model were compared with 212 frail elderly patients of five general practitioner practices that provided usual care. The outcomes were assessed using questionnaires. Baseline measures were compared with a three-month follow-up by chi-square tests, t-tests and regression analysis. Results and conclusion: In the short term, the integrated care model had a significant effect on the attachment aspect of quality of life. The frail elderly patients were better able to obtain the love and friendship they desire. The use of care did not differ despite the preventive element and the need for assessments followed up with case management in the integrated care model. In the short term, there were no significant changes in health. As frailty is a progressive state, it is assumed that three months are too short to influence changes in health with integrated care models. A more longitudinal approach is

  19. World Health Organization quality of life instrument-brief and Short Form-36 in patients with coronary artery disease: do they measure similar quality of life concepts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Luciane Nascimento; Camey, Suzi Alves; Fleck, Marcelo Pio; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the validity and reliability of World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument (WHOQOL)-brief and SF-36 in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Considering that depression is known to be associated with bad outcomes in CAD and it is highly associated with poor Quality of Life (QOL), we tested the correlation between WHOQOL and SF-36 and an instrument to screen depressive symptoms. It is a cross-sectional survey conducted in 103 patients with documented CAD. QOL was measured through WHOQOL-brief and SF-36 and depressive symptoms were assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). To evaluate convergent validity, the correlations between both QOL assessment instruments were examined; discriminant validity was assessed through BDI and QOL instruments correlations. Coefficient Cronbach's alpha was used to test reliability. Percentages of floor and ceiling effects were higher in SF-36 scores than the WHOQOL-brief ones. Although WHOQOL-brief showed a maximum of 1% of floor effect and 9% of ceiling effect, SF-36 presented 40 and 32%, respectively. Internal consistency reliability ranged from 0.65 to 0.85 for the WHOQOL-brief and 0.57 to 0.89 for the SF-36. Correlations between subscales of WHOQOL-brief and BDI ranged from -0.74 to -0.61 and correlations between subscales of SF-36 and BDI ranged from -0.68 to -0.26. SF-36 and WHOQOL-brief seem to be valid and consistent QOL measures in patients with CAD. Researchers should define the aims of their studies before choosing which instrument to use, because they appear to measure different constructs of QOL.

  20. Effects of Dental Rehabilitation under General Anesthesia on Children’s Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Using Proxy Short Versions of OHRQoL Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad D. Baghdadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the impact of comprehensive dental treatment under general anesthesia (GA on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL in children using short form versions of the Parental-Caregivers Perceptions questionnaire (P-CPQ and Family Impact Scale (FIS. Design. A pretest/posttest study involved parents whose children (N = 67 were affected with severe childhood caries and completed comprehensive dental treatment under GA. All parents completed the short form versions of the P-CPQ and FIS at baseline and 4–8 weeks following the dental treatment. To examine test-retest reliability, a convenience sample of 38 parents repeated the pretreatment questionnaires 1-2 weeks after they completed them at baseline. Statistical tests including the Kruskal-Wallis test, Cronbach’s alpha, and paired t-test were used to examine cross-sectional construct validity, internal consistency, and responsiveness of the instruments, respectively. Results. Cross-sectional construct validity and internal consistency were acceptable. Test-retest reliability was excellent. Large decreases in posttreatment scores were observed along with moderate to large effect sizes. Conclusions. Dental treatment under GA is associated with considerable improvement in OHRQoL of children and their families, as demonstrated by short form versions of the P-CPQ and FIS completed by the children’s parents.

  1. Modified Pfannenstiel Open Approach as an Alternative to Laparoscopic Total Proctocolectomy and IPAA: Comparison of Short- and Long-term Outcomes and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraes, Leonardo C; Schroeder, Destiny A; Dietz, David W

    2018-05-01

    A laparoscopic approach to total proctocolectomy with IPAA has been suggested to have better short-term outcomes and cosmesis, whereas open surgery by midline incision may result in shorter operative times. We hypothesized that a modified Pfannenstiel open approach would combine the advantages of both techniques. The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes of open total proctocolectomy with IPAA using a modified Pfannenstiel incision versus those following the laparoscopic approach. This was a retrospective study comparing patients submitted to open IPAA using modified Pfannenstiel incision versus laparoscopy from 1998 to 2014. The study was conducted at a high-volume tertiary referral center. Among 1275 patients, 119 patients underwent the laparoscopic approach and 33 underwent the modified Pfannenstiel approach. Short- and long-term outcomes were evaluated, and quality-of-life questionnaires were assessed. Patients who underwent the modified Pfannenstiel approach were younger, more often women, and had lower BMI and ASA classification compared with those who underwent laparoscopy. Surgical time was lower in Pfannenstiel, and no difference was observed in length of hospital stay. No difference was observed in postoperative complications, pouch failure rate, or quality of life. Patients were then matched 1:1 by diagnosis, sex, age (±5 y) and BMI (±5 kg/m). The Pfannenstiel approach still had a shorter surgical time. No difference was observed in the length of hospital stay, complications, pouch failure, or quality of life. In long-term follow-up, pouchitis symptoms occurred more frequently in Pfannenstiel (mean follow-up = 7.3 y), and seepage was more frequently observed in the laparoscopy group (mean follow-up = 4.2 y). These differences were not observed in matched patients. The study was limited by its retrospective design and inherent selection bias. The modified Pfannenstiel approach provides equivalent short- and long-term outcomes and similar

  2. Self rating of health is associated with stressful life events, social support and residency in East and West Berlin shortly after the fall of the wall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, T; Schaub, R; Hiestermann, A; Kirschner, W; Robra, B P

    2000-08-01

    To compare the health status and factors influencing the health of populations that had previously lived under different political systems. Cross sectional health and social survey using postal interviews. The relation between self reported health and psychosocial factors (stressful life events, social support, education, health promoting life style and health endangering behaviour) was investigated. To determine East-West differences a logistic regression model including interaction terms was fitted. East and West Berlin shortly after reunification 1991. Representative sample of 4430 Berlin residents aged 18 years and over (response rate 63%). Of all respondents, 15.4% rated their health as unsatisfactory. Residents of East Berlin rated their health more frequently as unsatisfactory than residents of West Berlin (Or(age adjusted)= 1.29, 95%CI 1.08, 1.52), these differences occurred predominantly in the over 60 years age group. Logistic regression showed significant independent effects of stressful life events, social support, education, and health promoting life style on self rated health. The effects of education and health promoting life style were observed to be more pronounced in the western part of Berlin. Old age and female sex showed a stronger association with unsatisfactory health status in the eastern part of Berlin. For subjects aged over 60 years there was evidence that living in the former East Berlin had an adverse effect on health compared with West Berlin. The impact of education and a health promoting lifestyle on self rated health seemed to be weaker in a former socialist society compared with that of a Western democracy. This study supports an "additive model" rather than a "buffering model" in explaining the effects of psychosocial factors on health.

  3. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  4. Short communication: Feed utilization and its associations with fertility and productive life in 11 commercial Pennsylvania tie-stall herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallimont, J E; Dechow, C D; Daubert, J M; Dekleva, M W; Blum, J W; Liu, W; Varga, G A; Heinrichs, A J; Baumrucker, C R

    2013-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to quantify the relationships of various definitions of feed utilization with both fertility and productive life. Intake and body measurement data were collected monthly on 970 cows in 11 tie-stall herds for 6 consecutive months. Measures of feed utilization for this study were dry matter intake (DMI), dry matter intake efficiency (DME, defined as 305-d fat-corrected milk/305-d DMI), DME with intake adjusted for maintenance requirements (DMEM), crude protein efficiency (defined as 305-d protein yield/305-d crude protein intake), and 2 definitions of residual feed intake (RFI). The first, RFI(reg), was calculated by regressing daily DMI on daily milk, fat, and protein yields, body weight (BW), daily body condition score (BCS) gain or loss, the interaction between BW and BCS gain or loss, and days in milk. The second, RFI(NRC), was estimated by subtracting 305-d DMI predicted according to their fat-corrected milk and BW from actual 305-d DMI. Data were analyzed with 8-trait animal models and included one measure of feed utilization and milk, fat, and protein yields, BW, BCS, days open (DO), and productive life (PL). The genetic correlation between DME and DO was 0.53 (± 0.19) and that between DME and PL was 0.66 (± 0.10). These results show that cows who had higher feed efficiency had greater DO (undesirable) and greater PL (desirable). Results were similar for the genetic correlation between DO and crude protein efficiency (0.42). Productive life had genetic correlations of -0.22 with BW and -0.48 with BCS, suggesting that larger, fatter cows in this study had shorter PL. Correlations between estimated breeding values for feed utilization and official sire genetic evaluations for fertility were in agreement with the results from the multiple-trait models. Selection programs intended to enhance feed efficiency should factor relationships with functional traits to avoid unfavorable effects on cow fertility. Copyright © 2013

  5. Cultural adaptation and validation of the Filipino version of Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form (KDQOL-SF version 1.3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataclan, Rommel P; Dial, Ma Antonietta D

    2009-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease is the 10th leading cause of death among Filipinos. Those with chronic kidney disease are exposed to stressors which effect their daily lives. Therefore, assessment of health-related quality of life is important in these patients. The objective of the present study was to translate the Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF ver. 1.3) into Filipino and measure its validity and reliability. Translation and cultural adaptation began with two translations into Filipino, with reconciliation of the forward translators. Pretesting with 10 renal patients, review by experts (nephrologist, translator and dialysis nurse) and back-translation was also done. The final questionnaire was administered to 80 patients with chronic renal disease undergoing haemodialysis for at least 3 months, who could understand Filipino, and were without life-threatening or terminal conditions at the time of the test. A convenience sample of 30 patients from the group had a repeat test 10-14 days after to determine test-retest reliability. Test-retest reliability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient and internal consistency reliability was measured by determining the Cronbach's alpha value. Validity was measured using Pearson's correlation between the overall health rating scale and the items from the questionnaire. All of the items showed good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient >0.40), ranging from 0.58 (social interaction) to 0.98 (role--emotional). Internal consistency reliability values were acceptable, with Cronbach's alpha ranging from 0.60 (cognitive function) to 0.80 (physical functioning and role--physical). Regarding construct validity, overall health rating in kidney disease-targeted scales was significantly correlated with symptoms/problems, effects of kidney disease and burden of kidney disease. All items in the SF 36 scales had significant correlation with overall health rating (P < 0.05) except

  6. The effect of a novel low temperature-short time (LTST) process to extend the shelf-life of fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Phillip R; Parker, Kyle R; Kanach, Andrew T; Zhu, Tengliang; Morgan, Mark T; Applegate, Bruce M

    2016-01-01

    Pasteurization has long been the standard method to extend the shelf-life of dairy products, as well as a means to reduce microbial load and the risk of food-borne pathogens. However, the process has limitations, which include cost effectiveness, high energy input, and reduction of product quality/organoleptic characteristics. In an effort to reduce these limitations and extend shelf-life, this study examined a novel low temperature, short time (LTST) method in which dispersed milk in the form of droplets was treated with low heat/pressure variation over a short treatment time, in conjunction with pasteurization. Lactobacillus fermentum and Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula were exposed to conventional pasteurization treatments with and without LTST. Using these organisms, the LTST addition was able to reduce microbial load below detection limits; 1.0 × 10(1) cfu/mL, from approximately 1.2 × 10(8) and 1.0 × 10(7) cfu/mL for L. fermentum and P. fluorescens Migula, respectively. In addition, the shelf-life of the treated, raw, and uninoculated product was prolonged from 14 to 35 days, compared with standard pasteurization, to as long as 63 days with the LTST amendment. Sensory analysis of samples also demonstrated equal or greater preference for LTST + pasteurization treated milk when compared to pasteurization alone (α = 0.05). Conventional pasteurization was effective at reducing the above mentioned microorganisms by as much as 5.0 log10 cfu/mL. However, LTST was able to achieve 7.0-8.0 log10 cfu/mL reduction of the same microorganisms. In addition, BActerial Rapid Detection using Optical scattering Technology detected and identified microorganisms isolated both pre- and post-treatment, of which the only organisms surviving LTST were Bacillus spp. Increased lethality, improved shelf-life, and equal or better organoleptic characteristics without increased energy consumption demonstrate the effectiveness of the incorporation of LTST. The improved

  7. Regulation of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin contains information about activities of the Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (UJD). In this leaflet the regulation of radioactive waste management of the UJD are presented. Radioactive waste (RAW) is the gaseous, liquid or solid material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or activities greater than clearance levels and for which no use is foreseen. The classification of radioactive waste on the basis of type and activity level is: - transition waste; - short lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-SL); - long lived low and intermediate level waste (LlLW-LL); - high level waste. Waste management (in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll.) involves collection, sorting, treatment, conditioning, transport and disposal of radioactive waste originated by nuclear facilities and conditioning, transport to repository and disposal of other radioactive waste (originated during medical, research and industrial use of radioactive sources). The final goal of radioactive waste management is RAW isolation using a system of engineered and natural barriers to protect population and environment. Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic regulates radioactive waste management in accordance with Act 130/98 Coll. Inspectors regularly inspect and evaluate how the requirements for nuclear safety at nuclear facilities are fulfilled. On the basis of safety documentation evaluation, UJD issued permission for operation of four radioactive waste management facilities. Nuclear facility 'Technologies for treatment and conditioning contains bituminization plants and Bohunice conditioning centre with sorting, fragmentation, evaporation, incineration, supercompaction and cementation. Final product is waste package (Fibre reinforced container with solidified waste) acceptable for near surface repository in Mochovce. Republic repository in Mochovce is built for disposal of short lived low and intermediate level waste. Next

  8. Changes of levels of depression and quality of life after short-term cognitive behavioral educational program for adolescent students in health class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Atsuko; Tomotake, Masahito

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the changes of levels of depression and quality of life in adolescent students after receiving short-term cognitive behavioral educational program in health class for stress management. Subjects were 176 middle school students aged 12 to 14 years. They completed the Depression Self-Rating Scale for Children (DSRS-C) and the Revised Children Quality of Life Questionnaire (Kiddo-KINDL(R)) before, after and 6-months after the program. The three-session program consisted of psychoeducation and learning skills of cognitive restructuring and problem solving. The total scores of the DSRS-C and the Kiddo-KINDL(R) in all subjects did not significantly change after the completion of program. However, as for the high risk group (score of the DSRS-C≥16), significant improvement in the two scales was found after the program. Especially, depression level in the high risk group significantly decreased and the improvement was maintained 6-months later. These results suggest that this type of approach may be effective for adolescents with high risk of depression in terms of improving not only depressive symptom but also quality of life.

  9. Alleviation of Psychological Distress and the Improvement of Quality of Life in Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Adaptation of a Short-Term Psychotherapeutic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Caspar Franz Oberstadt

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is inevitably fatal. To be diagnosed with a terminal illness such as ALS deeply affects one’s personal existence and goes along with significant changes regarding the physical, emotional, and social domains of the patients’ life. ALS patients have to face a rapidly debilitating physical decline which restrains mobility and impairs all activities of daily living. This progressive loss of autonomy may lead to a sense of hopelessness and loss of quality of life, which in turn may even result in thoughts about physician-assisted suicide. Here, we would like to propose a psychotherapeutic manualized, individual, semi-structured intervention to relieve distress and promote psychological well-being in ALS patients. This short-term intervention was originally developed for advanced cancer patients. “Managing Cancer and Living Meaningfully (CALM” focuses on the four dimensions: (i symptom management and communication with healthcare providers, (ii changes in self and relations with close others, (iii spirituality, sense of meaning and purpose and (iv thinking of the future, hope, and mortality. We suggest to supplement the concept by two additional dimensions which take into account specific issues of ALS patients: (v communication skills, and (vi emotional expression and control. This therapeutic concept named “ManagIng Burden in ALS and Living Meaningfully (mi-BALM” may be a further treatment option to help improving quality of life of ALS patients.

  10. Sheep milk yogurt from a short food supply chain: study of the microbiological, chemico-physical and organoleptic parameters in relation to shelf-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicla Marri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this work was to analyse some microbiological, chemico-physical and organoleptic parameters of sheep milk yogurt during and after its declared shelf-life. Five samples of a sheep’s milk yogurt of the same lot, collected from a short supply chain ovine dairy farm of the Roman province, were analysed. Declared shelf-life of the product was 30 days. The products were examined at 2, 14, 30, 35 and 40 days from the production date, performing the following microbiological analyses: enumeration of i colony-forming units characteristic of the yogurt, ii Enterobacteriaceae, iii yeasts and/or moulds at 25°C. Microbiological identification was performed by miniature biochemical tests and for the lactic acid bacteria also by PCR. At every test interval, evaluation of organoleptic parameters and pH was also performed. The analysed product maintained an almost constant amount of lactic acid bacteria until the end of the declared shelf-life. Concerning lactic acid bacteria, a 100% concordance of the results observed by using biochemical identification methods and PCR assays was obtained. After 14 days from the production, the presence of yeasts (Candida famata was revealed, while the presence of moulds was detected after 30 days. Ralstonia picketii, an environmental microorganism, was also isolated. The results obtained in this study indicate that yogurt spoilage is mainly due to the growth of specific microorganisms of spoilage, such as yeasts and moulds.

  11. The reliability and validity of the short version of the WHO Quality of Life Instrument in an Arab general population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohaeri, Jude U; Awadallab, Abdel W

    2009-01-01

    There is rising interest in quality of life (QOL) research in Arabian countries. The aim of this study was to assess in a nationwide sample of Kuwaiti subjects the reliability and validity of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF), a shorter version of the widely used QOL assessment instrument that comprises 26 items in the domains of physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and the environment. A one-in-three systematic random proportionate sample of consenting Kuwaiti nationals attending large cooperative stores and municipal government offices in the six governorates completed the Arabic translation of the questionnaire. The indices assessed included test-retest reliability, internal consistency, item internal consistency (2C), item discriminant validity (IDV), known-groups and construct validity. There were 3303 participants (44.8% males, 55.2% females, mean age 35.4 years, range 16 to 87 years). The intra-class correlation for the test-retest statistic and the internal consistency values for the full questionnaire and the domains had a Cronbach's alpha > - 0.7. Of the 24 items that constitute the domains, 21 met the 2 C requirement of correlation > - 0.4 with the corresponding domain, while 16 met the IDV criterion of having a higher correlation with their corresponding domain than other domains. Domain scores discriminated significantly between well and sick groups. In the factor analysis, four strong factors emerged with the same construct as in the WHO report. The Arabic translation of the WHOQOL-BREF has impressive reliability and validity indices. The poor IDV findings are due to the multidimensional nature of the questionnaire. The highly significant validity indices should reassure researchers that the questionnaire represents the same constructs across cultures. Negatively worded items possibly need refinement. (author)

  12. Tobacco radioactivity and cancer in smokers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The recent finding that 210 Pb, which also is present in inhaled mainstream smoke, is highly concentrated in a small number of insoluble smoke particles changes the whole complexion of the problem of possible health effects of the inhaled radioactivity in cigarette smoke. Because 210 Pb has a radioactive half-life of 22 years, the body burden of the radioactive 210 Pb and its radioactive daughter products 210 Bi and 210 Po can continue to build up throughout the period of smoking. Alpha interactions with chromosomes of cells surrounding these insoluble radioactive smoke particles may cause cancer and contribute to early atherosclerosis development in cigarette smokers. (U.S.)

  13. Dietary Reversal Ameliorates Short- and Long-Term Memory Deficits Induced by High-fat Diet Early in Life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina Sims-Robinson

    Full Text Available A high-fat diet (HFD, one of the major factors contributing to metabolic syndrome, which is associated with an increased risk of neurodegenerative diseases, leads to insulin resistance and cognitive impairment. It is not known whether these alterations are improved with dietary intervention. To investigate the long-term impact of a HFD on hippocampal insulin signaling and memory, C57BL6 mice were placed into one of three groups based on the diet: a standard diet (control, a HFD, or a HFD for 16 weeks and then the standard diet for 8 weeks (HF16. HFD-induced impairments in glucose tolerance and hippocampal insulin signaling occurred concurrently with deficits in both short- and long-term memory. Furthermore, these conditions were improved with dietary intervention; however, the HFD-induced decrease in insulin receptor expression in the hippocampus was not altered with dietary intervention. Our results demonstrate that memory deficits due to the consumption of a HFD at an early age are reversible.

  14. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupuis, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Managing radioactive wastes used to be a peripheral activity for the French atomic energy commission (Cea). Over the past 40 years, it has become a full-fledged phase in the fuel cycle of producing electricity from the atom. In 2005, the national radioactive waste management agency (ANDRA) presented to the government a comprehensive overview of the results drawn from 15 years of research. This landmark report has received recognition beyond France's borders. By broadening this agency's powers, an act of 28 June 2006 acknowledges the progress made and the quality of the results. It also sets an objective for the coming years: work out solutions for managing all forms of radioactive wastes. The possibility of recovering wastes packages from the disposal site must be assured as it was asked by the government in 1998. The next step will be the official demand for the creation of a geological disposal site in 2016

  15. Radioactive waste interim storage in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    The short summary on the radioactive waste interim storage in Germany covers the following issues: importance of interim storage in the frame of radioactive waste management, responsibilities and regulations, waste forms, storage containers, transport of vitrified high-level radioactive wastes from the reprocessing plants, central interim storage facilities (Gorleben, Ahaus, Nord/Lubmin), local interim storage facilities at nuclear power plant sites, federal state collecting facilities, safety, radiation exposure in Germany.

  16. Psychometric testing of the short version of the world health organization quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire among pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Wei-Sheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies on the effects of tuberculosis on a patient’s quality of life (QOL are scant. The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Taiwan short version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire using patients with tuberculosis in Taiwan and healthy referents. Methods The Taiwanese short version of the WHOQOL-BREF was administered to patients with tuberculosis undergoing treatment and healthy referents from March 2007 to July 2007. Patients with tuberculosis (n = 140 and healthy referents (n = 130, matched by age, sex, and ethnicity, agreed to an interview. All participants lived in eastern Taiwan. Reliability assessments included internal consistency, whereas validity assessments included construct validity, convergent validity, and discriminant validity. Results More than half of these patients and referents were men (70.7% and 66.2%, respectively, and their average ages were 50.1 and 47.9 years, respectively. Approximately 60% of patients and referents were aboriginal Taiwanese (60.7% and 61.1%, respectively. The proportion with low socioeconomic status was greater for these patients. The internal consistency reliability coefficients were .92 and .93 for the patients and healthy referents, respectively. Exploratory factor analysis on the healthy referents displayed a 4-domain model, which was compatible with the original WHOQOL-BREF 4-domain model. However, for the TB patient group, after deleting 3 items, both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed a 6-domain model. Conclusion Psychometric evaluation of the Taiwan short version of the WHOQOL-BREF indicates that it has adequate reliability for use in research with TB patients in Taiwan. However, the factor structure generated from this TB patient sample differed from the WHO’s original 4-factor model, which raised a validity concern to apply the Taiwan short version of the WHOQOL

  17. Radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohme, R.F.; Lazerson, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A problem with ore sorting arrangements is that radiation is difficult to measure accurately while particles are moving at speed past the detector. This is particulary so when dealing with ores such as gold ores which have weak emissions. A method of measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material includes the steps of shielding the radiation detector(s) so that the angle of acceptance of the receptor surface is restricted, and further shielding the shielded portion of the detector with a second material which is less radiation emissive than the material of the first shield. This second shield is between the first shield and the detector

  18. Croatian radioactive waste management program: Current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matanic, R.; Lebegner, J.

    2001-01-01

    Croatia has a responsibility to develop a radioactive waste management program partly due to co-ownership of Krsko nuclear power plant (Slovenia) and partly because of its own medical and industrial radioactive waste. The total amount of generated radioactive waste in Croatia is stored in temporary storages located at two national research institutes, while radioactive waste from Krsko remains in temporary storage on site. National power utility Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP) and Hazardous Waste Management Agency (APO) coordinate the work regarding decommissioning, spent fuel management and low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILRW) management in Croatia. Since the majority of work has been done in developing the LILRW management program, the paper focuses on this part of radioactive waste management. Issues of site selection, repository design, safety assessment and public acceptance are being discussed. A short description of the national radioactive waste management infrastructure has also been presented. (author)

  19. Radioactive wastes. The management of nuclear wastes. Waste workshop, first half-year - Year 2013-2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteoulle, Lucie; Rozwadowski, Elodie; Duverger, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The first part of this report first presents radioactive wastes with their definition, and their classification (radioactivity level, radioactive half-life). It addresses the issue of waste storage by presenting the different types of storage used since the 1950's (offshore storage, surface warehousing, storage in deep geological layer), and by discussing the multi-barrier approach used for storage safety. The authors then present the French strategy which is defined in the PNGMDR to develop new management modes on the long term, to improve existing management modes, and to take important events which occurred between 2010 and 2012 into account. They also briefly present the Cigeo project (industrial centre of geological storage), and evoke controversies related to the decision to locate this project in Bure (existence of geological cracks and defects, stability and tightness of the clay layer, geothermal potential of the region, economic cost). The second part proposes an overview of the issue of nuclear waste management. The author recalls the definition of a radioactive waste, indicates the origins of these wastes and their classification. She proposes a history of the radioactive waste: discovery of radioactivity, military industrialisation and awareness of the dangerousness of radioactive wastes, nuclear wastes and recent incidents (West Valley, La Hague, Windscale). An overview of policies of nuclear waste management is given: immersion of radioactive wastes, major accidental releases, solutions on the short term and on the medium term

  20. Translation, cultural adaptation assessment, and both validity and reliability testing of the kidney disease quality of life - short form version 1.3 for use with Iranian patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pakpour, Amir; Yekaninejad, Mirsaeed; Mølsted, Stig

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aims of the study were to translate the Kidney Disease Quality of Life--Short Form version 1.3 (KDQOL-SF ver. 1.3) questionnaire into Iranian (Farsi), and to then assess it in terms of validity and reliability on Iranian patients. METHODS: The questionnaire was first translated into Farsi...... a larger group (212 patients with end-stage renal disease on haemodialysis). Afterwards, reliability was estimated by internal consistency, and validity was assessed using known group comparisons and constructs for the patient group as a whole. Finally, the factor structure of the questionnaire...... be summarized into an 11 factor structure that jointly accounted for 79.81% of the variance. CONCLUSION: The Iranian version of the KDQOL-SF questionnaire is both highly reliable and valid for use with Iranian patients on haemodialysis....

  1. Short-term quality of life after subthalamic stimulation depends on non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafsari, Haidar Salimi; Weiß, Luisa; Silverdale, Monty; Rizos, Alexandra; Reddy, Prashanth; Ashkan, Keyoumars; Evans, Julian; Reker, Paul; Petry-Schmelzer, Jan Niklas; Samuel, Michael; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Antonini, Angelo; Martinez-Martin, Pablo; Ray-Chaudhuri, K; Timmermann, Lars

    2018-02-24

    Subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) improves quality of life (QoL), motor, and non-motor symptoms (NMS) in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, considerable inter-individual variability has been observed for QoL outcome. We hypothesized that demographic and preoperative NMS characteristics can predict postoperative QoL outcome. In this ongoing, prospective, multicenter study (Cologne, Manchester, London) including 88 patients, we collected the following scales preoperatively and on follow-up 6 months postoperatively: PDQuestionnaire-8 (PDQ-8), NMSScale (NMSS), NMSQuestionnaire (NMSQ), Scales for Outcomes in PD (SCOPA)-motor examination, -complications, and -activities of daily living, levodopa equivalent daily dose. We dichotomized patients into "QoL responders"/"non-responders" and screened for factors associated with QoL improvement with (1) Spearman-correlations between baseline test scores and QoL improvement, (2) step-wise linear regressions with baseline test scores as independent and QoL improvement as dependent variables, (3) logistic regressions using aforementioned "responders/non-responders" as dependent variable. All outcomes improved significantly on follow-up. However, approximately 44% of patients were categorized as "QoL non-responders". Spearman-correlations, linear and logistic regression analyses were significant for NMSS and NMSQ but not for SCOPA-motor examination. Post-hoc, we identified specific NMS (flat moods, difficulties experiencing pleasure, pain, bladder voiding) as significant contributors to QoL outcome. Our results provide evidence that QoL improvement after STN-DBS depends on preoperative NMS characteristics. These findings are important in the advising and selection of individuals for DBS therapy. Future studies investigating motor and non-motor PD clusters may enable stratifying QoL outcomes and help predict patients' individual prospects of benefiting from DBS. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier

  2. Short-term clinical and quality-of-life outcomes in women treated by the TVT-Secur procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jeanette L; de Cuyper, Eva M J; Cornish, Ann; Frazer, Malcolm

    2010-04-01

    The TVT-Secur (Ethicon, Somerville, NJ, USA) is a minimally invasive suburethral synthetic sling used in the treatment of female stress urinary incontinence. It claims to cause less postoperative pain and to enable performing in an office setting. However, this may be at the expense of a significant learning curve and a higher early failure rate. To assess objectively the success rate of the TVT-Secur procedure in the 'U' configuration at six months. Secondary outcomes focussed on subjective success rates, complications, patient satisfaction and quality-of-life (QOL). A prospective observational study was undertaken at two tertiary referral urogynaecology centres. A cohort of 42 consecutive patients with urodynamic stress incontinence who underwent the TVT-Secur procedure in the 'U' configuration between November 2006 and August 2007 were followed up for six months. Three standardised QOL questionnaires were completed preoperatively and at six months. A urogenital history, visual analogue score (VAS) for patient satisfaction, uroflow and urinary stress test were performed at six months. Recruitment was ceased prematurely because of a high number of early failures. Objective and subjective success rates at six months were 58.3% and 51.3% respectively. Complications included urinary tract infections, voiding difficulty, groin discomfort, haematoma, vaginal pain, tape erosion and intra-operative dislodgement of tape. Prevalence of de novo urge incontinence was 10.3%. Only symptom-specific QOL scores improved and only 48.6% indicated a high level satisfaction (VAS > or = 80%) with TVT-Secur. On the basis of this limited study, we are hesitant to recommend the 'U' configuration of the TVT-Secur over its more established counterparts, the TVT and TVT-O.

  3. Monitoring of radioactivity in the environment 201

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, B.; Dyve, J.E.; Tazmini, K.

    2013-01-01

    The Report summarizes the data from Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and The Norwegian Civil Defence monitoring programs for radioactivity in the environment in 2011. A short description of the systems is also presented.(Author)

  4. Investigation concerning the relative formation rate and half-life time of short-lived nuclides with a fast conveyor tube system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreiner, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    Since the installation of the 'Ultrafast Rabbit System' at the FRN in end of 1974, some research was started concerning the possibility of neutron activation analysis of short-lived nuclides (0.02 1/2 < 1 s) and measurements of short-lived fission products of U-235 and Pu-239. One of the results of the investigations is a more exact gamma-energy determination of the 0.8 s Cl-38m with 671.33 keV. In NAA it was possible to reach a sensitivity for lead and boron near 2 μg per sample respectively 10 ppm. In measurements of light fission products 0.1 - 8s after a pulse irradiation some differences of the relative formation rate and half-life in the region of A approximately 100 were found in comparison to literature. For example a strong build-up could be seen measuring the gamma-energy of 276.1 keV that belongs to Nb-101. Therefore we suppose the existence of an isomeric state of Nb-101. In comparison to our own results of yield ratio of the Pu- and U-fission products a good agreement with known data was found. Furthermore the measuring method gives the possibility of coordination of unknown gamma-lines to nuclides using the rate of formation, the half-life, the yield ratio between U and Pu and the build-up factor. That could be verified in some cases, e.g. Nb-103 and Sr-96. (author)

  5. Non-fuel cycle radioactive waste policy in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izmir, A.I.; Uslu, I.

    2001-01-01

    2000. By categorizing the disposal of 'solid', 'liquid' and 'gaseous' waste, an efficient management system is achieved. Solid radioactive waste consists mainly of protective clothing, plastic sheets and bags, gloves, masks, organs and tissues, animal carcasses, filters, overshoes, paper wipes, towels, metal and glass, hand tools, discarded radiopharmaceuticals containers and discarded equipment. It generally contains a relatively low level of radioactivity when compared to liquid wastes. Special consideration should always be given to the management of contaminated sharp objects, such as needles and syringes, scalpel blades, blood lancets, glass ampoules, etc. Short-lived solid radioactive wastes are stored in the waste storage rooms of the facilities until their activities reduce to an acceptable level to be released to the municipal waste disposal area. The liquid waste can be discharged to sewage system when its activity concentration come down to permissible discharge level which is based on IAEA S S-70. The liquid waste from iodine therapy patients is mostly collected and stored in storage tanks. If the treated patient number is low the waste should be collected separately in shielded drums and stored in waste storage rooms of the facilities until its activity concentration level decreases to an acceptable level. b) Management of Sealed Sources. Sealed radiation sources are widely used in industry, medicine and research in Turkey. Sealed sources have a life cycle, which begins with manufacture and culminates in disposal. Each source life cycle comprises a number of potential stages. A source life cycle can involve individuals in the following key organisations: regulator, manufacturer, Original Equipment Manufacturer, distributor, user (one or subsequent users), waste management organisation, and operator of storage or disposal facility. The large number of organisations potentially involved and their interactions mean that life cycles tend to be complex and can

  6. Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of radioactive waste disposal, covering publications of 1976-77. Some of the studies included are: (1) high-level and long-lived wastes, and (2) release and burial of low-level wastes. A list of 42 references is also presented. (HM)

  7. Radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwach, G.

    1986-01-01

    This is an overview of radioactivity monitoring work done in the Austrian Research Centre Seibersdorf in the wake of the Chernobyl accident. It consists of air, rainwater, food and personnel monitoring. Additional services to the public are: information and development of a database and a computer code for predicting future radionuclide concentration in air, soil, water and food. (G.Q.)

  8. Radioactive waste management in Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detilleux, E.

    1984-01-01

    The first part of this paper briefly describes the nuclear industry in Belgium and the problem of radioactive wastes with regard to their quality and quantity. The second part emphasizes the recent guidelines regarding the management of the nuclear industry in general and the radioactive wastes in particular. In this respect, important tasks are the reinforcement of administrative structures with regard to the supervision and the control of nuclear activities, the establishment of a mixed company entrusted with the covering of the needs of nuclear plants in the field of nuclear fuels and particularly the setting up of a public autonomous and specialized organization, the 'Public Organization for the Management of Radioactive Waste and Fissile Materials', in short 'O.N.D.R.A.F.'. This organization is in charge of the management of the transport, the conditioning, the storage and the disposal of radioactive wastes. (Auth.)

  9. Evaluation of the Satisfaction with Appearance Scale and Its Short Form in Systemic Sclerosis: Analysis from the UCLA Scleroderma Quality of Life Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S; Merz, Erin L; Clements, Philip J; Kafaja, Suzanne; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Furst, Daniel E; Khanna, Dinesh

    2015-09-01

    Changes in appearance are common in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and can significantly affect well-being. The Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (SWAP) measures body image dissatisfaction in persons with visible disfigurement; the Brief-Satisfaction with Appearance Scale (Brief-SWAP) is its short form. The present study evaluated the reliability and validity of SWAP and Brief-SWAP scores in SSc. A sample of 207 patients with SSc participating in the University of California, Los Angeles Scleroderma Quality of Life Study completed the SWAP. Brief-SWAP scores were derived from the SWAP. The structural validity of both measures was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliability of total and subscale scores was assessed with Cronbach's alpha coefficients. Convergent and divergent validity was evaluated using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form-36 questionnaire. SWAP and Brief-SWAP total scores were highly correlated (r = 0.97). The 4-factor structure of the SWAP fit well descriptively; the 2-factor structure of the Brief-SWAP fit well descriptively and statistically. Internal consistencies for total and subscale scores were good, and results supported convergent and divergent validity. Both versions are suitable for use in patients with SSc. The Brief-SWAP is most efficient; the full SWAP yields additional subscales that may be informative in understanding body image issues in patients with SSc.

  10. Cross-cultural equivalence of the patient- and parent-reported quality of life in short stature youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Monika; Quitmann, Julia; Silva, Neuza; Rohenkohl, Anja; Chaplin, John E; DeBusk, Kendra; Mimoun, Emmanuelle; Feigerlova, Eva; Herdman, Michael; Sanz, Dolores; Wollmann, Hartmut; Pleil, Andreas; Power, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Testing cross-cultural equivalence of patient-reported outcomes requires sufficiently large samples per country, which is difficult to achieve in rare endocrine paediatric conditions. We describe a novel approach to cross-cultural testing of the Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) questionnaire in five countries by sequentially taking one country out (TOCO) from the total sample and iteratively comparing the resulting psychometric performance. Development of the QoLISSY proceeded from focus group discussions through pilot testing to field testing in 268 short-statured patients and their parents. To explore cross-cultural equivalence, the iterative TOCO technique was used to examine and compare the validity, reliability, and convergence of patient and parent responses on QoLISSY in the field test dataset, and to predict QoLISSY scores from clinical, socio-demographic and psychosocial variables. Validity and reliability indicators were satisfactory for each sample after iteratively omitting one country. Comparisons with the total sample revealed cross-cultural equivalence in internal consistency and construct validity for patients and parents, high inter-rater agreement and a substantial proportion of QoLISSY variance explained by predictors. The TOCO technique is a powerful method to overcome problems of country-specific testing of patient-reported outcome instruments. It provides an empirical support to QoLISSY's cross-cultural equivalence and is recommended for future research.

  11. An integrated unscented kalman filter and relevance vector regression approach for lithium-ion battery remaining useful life and short-term capacity prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Xiujuan; Fang, Huajing

    2015-01-01

    The gradual decreasing capacity of lithium-ion batteries can serve as a health indicator for tracking the degradation of lithium-ion batteries. It is important to predict the capacity of a lithium-ion battery for future cycles to assess its health condition and remaining useful life (RUL). In this paper, a novel method is developed using unscented Kalman filter (UKF) with relevance vector regression (RVR) and applied to RUL and short-term capacity prediction of batteries. A RVR model is employed as a nonlinear time-series prediction model to predict the UKF future residuals which otherwise remain zero during the prediction period. Taking the prediction step into account, the predictive value through the RVR method and the latest real residual value constitute the future evolution of the residuals with a time-varying weighting scheme. Next, the future residuals are utilized by UKF to recursively estimate the battery parameters for predicting RUL and short-term capacity. Finally, the performance of the proposed method is validated and compared to other predictors with the experimental data. According to the experimental and analysis results, the proposed approach has high reliability and prediction accuracy, which can be applied to battery monitoring and prognostics, as well as generalized to other prognostic applications. - Highlights: • An integrated method is proposed for RUL prediction as well as short-term capacity prediction. • Relevance vector regression model is employed as a nonlinear time-series prediction model. • Unscented Kalman filter is used to recursively update the states for battery model parameters during the prediction. • A time-varying weighting scheme is utilized to improve the accuracy of the RUL prediction. • The proposed method demonstrates high reliability and prediction accuracy.

  12. Structural validity of a 16-item abridged version of the Cervantes Health-Related Quality of Life scale for menopause: the Cervantes Short-Form Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Pluvio J; Borrego, Rafael Sánchez; Palacios, Santiago; Ruiz, Miguel A; Rejas, Javier

    2015-03-01

    The Cervantes Scale is a specific health-related quality of life questionnaire that was originally developed in Spanish to be used in Spain for women through and beyond menopause. It contains 31 items and is time-consuming. The aim of this study was to produce an abridged version with the same dimensional structure and with similar psychometric properties. A representative sample of 516 postmenopausal women (mean [SD] age, 57 [4.31] y) seen in outpatient gynecology clinics and extracted from an observational cross-sectional study was used. Item analysis, internal consistency reliability, item-total and item-dimension correlations, and item correlation with the 12-item Medical Outcomes Study Short Form Health Survey Version 2.0 were studied. Dimensional and full-model confirmatory factor analyses were used to check structure stability. A threefold cross-validation method was used to obtain stable estimates by means of multigroup analysis. The scale was reduced to a 16-item version, the Cervantes Short-Form Scale, containing four main dimensions (Menopause and Health, Psychological, Sexuality, and Couple Relations), with the first dimension composed of three subdimensions (Vasomotor Symptoms, Health, and Aging). Goodness-of-fit statistics were better than those of the extended version (χ(2)/df = 2.493; adjusted goodness-of-fit index, 0.802; parsimony comparative fit index, 0.749; root mean standard error of approximation, 0.054). Internal consistency was good (Cronbach's α = 0.880). Correlations between the extended and the reduced dimensions were high and significant in all cases (P < 0.001; r values ranged from 0.90 for Sexuality to 0.969 for Vasomotor Symptoms). The Cervantes Scale can be reduced to a 16-item abridged version (Cervantes Short-Form Scale) that maintains the original dimensional structure and psychometric properties. At 51% of the original length, this version can be administered faster, making it especially suitable for routine medical practice.

  13. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.

    1982-01-01

    This book provides information on the origin, characteristics and methods of processing of radioactive wastes, as well as the philosophy and practice of their storage and disposal. Chapters are devoted to the following topics: radioactive wastes, characteristics of radioactive wastes, processing liquid and solid radioactive wastes, processing wastes from spent fuel reprocessing, processing gaseous radioactive wastes, fixation of radioactive concentrates, solidification of high-level radioactive wastes, use of radioactive wastes as raw material, radioactive waste disposal, transport of radioactive wastes and economic problems of radioactive wastes disposal. (C.F.)

  14. Mass measurement of radioactive isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, H J; Scheidenberger, C

    2004-01-01

    The highest precision in mass measurements on short-lived radionuclides is obtained using trapping and cooling techniques. Here, the experimental storage ring (ESR) at GSI/Darmstadt and the tandem Penning trap mass spectrometer ISOLTRAP at ISOLDE/CERN play an important role. Status and recent results on mass measurements of radioactive nuclides with ESR and ISOLTRAP are summarized.

  15. Radioactive substance separation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Takuhiko.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable separation of fission products, radioactive corrosion products and the likes in primary coolants with no requirement for the replacement of separation system during plant service life, by providing protruded magnetic pole plates in a liquid metal flow channel to thereby form slopes magnetic fields. Constitution: A plurality of magnetic pole plates are disposed vertically in a comb-like arrangement so as not to contact with each other along the direction of flow in a rectangular primary coolant pipeway at the exit of the reactor core in an LMFBR type reactor. Large magnetic poles are provided to the upper and lower sides of the pipeway and coils are wound on the side opposed to the pipeway. When electrical current is supplied to the coils, the magnetic pole is magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely and thus the magnetic pole plates are also magnetized intensely to form large gradient in the magnetic fields between the upper and lower magnetic plates, whereby ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic fission products and radioactive corrosion products in the coolants are intensely adsorbed and not detached by the flow of the coolants. Accordingly, the fission products and the radioactive corrosion products can surely be removed with no requirement for the exchange of separation system during plant service life. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Mapping New York Irish-American Identities: Duality of Spirituality in Elizabeth Cullinan’s Short Story “Life After Death”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta Stanca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Cullinan’s short story “Life After Death” depicts a day in the life of a young New Yorker, Constance, walking along Lexington Avenue, attending the evening Mass at a Dominican church and visiting the Catholic college where she worked part time to pick up her paycheck. Though the woman is involved with the married Francis Hughes and confronted with the burden of the past and of intricate family dynamics, her voice, which is “the Cullinan narrative voice has become that of one of those sceptical granddaughters grown into a reasonably assured and independent adulthood [...] balanced between then and now, the ethnic and the worldly, and better able to judge self and others because of the doubleness” (Fanning qtd. in Bayor and Meagher 528. Thus, the paper will discuss the manner in which Elizabeth Cullinan maps, in her story, the oscillation of Irish Americans between the ethnic drive and a cosmopolitan individuality gained in New York, with a focus on the value of the duality of consciousness and spirituality, which facilitates enriching and clarifying answers to identity dilemmas.

  17. Half-life and mass measurement of the short-lived {sup 215}Po isotope (1.78 ms) at the FRS ion catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, Ann-Kathrin; Bergmann, Julian; Ebert, Jens; Hornung, Christine; Miskun, Ivan; Reiter, Moritz P. [Justus-Liebig Universitaet Giessen (Germany); Ayet San Andres, Samuel; Dickel, Timo; Plass, Wolfgang R.; Scheidenberger, Christoph [Justus-Liebig Universitaet Giessen (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Geissel, Hans; Purushothaman, Sivaji [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    At the Low-Energy Branch (LEB) of the Super-FRS at FAIR, precision experiments with exotic nuclei will be performed using ion traps and lasers. The nuclei will be produced at relativistic energies, slowed down, thermalised in a cryogenic stopping cell (CSC) and made available to various experiments. The thermalisation is a challenging task because of the large energy straggling of the nuclei after production, which requires a stopping cell with large areal densities. Also, the process needs to be performed on a millisecond time scale in order to give access to short-lived nuclides. This method has already been successfully applied at the FRS Ion Catcher at GSI using a prototype CSC. Recently the potential of the method has been demonstrated by the mass and half-life measurement of the {sup 215}Po nuclide with a half-life of 1.78 ms only. The multiple-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer at the FRS Ion Catcher has been used to determine the mass to a sub-ppm accuracy and to provide a mass-selected beam for alpha spectroscopy. Furthermore, experiments have been performed with the prototype CSC in order to test novel concepts to be used with the final version of the CSC for the LEB.

  18. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This eighth chapter presents the radioactive wastes and waste disposal; classification of radioactive wastes; basis requests of the radioactive waste management; conditions for a radioactive waste disposal; registers and inventories; transport of radioactive wastes from a facility to another and the radioactive waste management plan

  19. Health-Related Quality of Life in Elderly Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Treated With Short-Course Radiation Therapy Plus Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minniti, Giuseppe, E-mail: gminniti@ospedalesantandrea.it [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sant' Andrea Hospital, University Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Department of Neurological Sciences, Neuromed Institute, Pozzilli (Italy); Scaringi, Claudia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sant' Andrea Hospital, University Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Baldoni, Alessandra [Department of Medical Oncology, Sant' Andrea Hospital, University Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Lanzetta, Gaetano [Department of Neurological Sciences, Neuromed Institute, Pozzilli (Italy); De Sanctis, Vitaliana [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sant' Andrea Hospital, University Sapienza, Rome (Italy); Esposito, Vincenzo [Department of Neurological Sciences, Neuromed Institute, Pozzilli (Italy); Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Sant' Andrea Hospital, University Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: To describe the quality of life (QOL) in elderly patients with glioblastoma (GBM) treated with an abbreviated course of radiation therapy (RT; 40 Gy in 15 fractions) plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Methods and Materials: Health-related QOL (HRQOL) was assessed by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30, version 3) and EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire Brain Cancer Module (QLQ-BN20). Changes from baseline in the score of 9 preselected domains (global QLQ, social functioning, cognitive functioning, emotional functioning, physical functioning, motor dysfunction, communication deficit, fatigue, insomnia) were determined 4 weeks after RT and thereafter every 8 weeks during the treatment until disease progression. The proportion of patients with improved HRQOL scores, defined as a change of 10 points or more, and duration of changes were recorded. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the questionnaires at baseline. The treatment was consistently associated with improvement or stability in most of the preselected HRQOL domains. Global health improved over time; mean score differed by 9.6 points between baseline and 6-month follow-up (P=.03). For social functioning and cognitive functioning, mean scores improved over time, with a maximum difference of 10.4 points and 9.5 points between baseline and 6-month follow-up (P=.01 and P=.02), respectively. By contrast, fatigue worsened over time, with a difference in mean score of 5.6 points between baseline and 4-month follow-up (P=.02). Conclusions: A short course of RT in combination with TMZ in elderly patients with GBM was associated with survival benefit without a negative effect on HRQOL until the time of disease progression.

  20. Health-Related Quality of Life in Elderly Patients With Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma Treated With Short-Course Radiation Therapy Plus Concomitant and Adjuvant Temozolomide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minniti, Giuseppe; Scaringi, Claudia; Baldoni, Alessandra; Lanzetta, Gaetano; De Sanctis, Vitaliana; Esposito, Vincenzo; Enrici, Riccardo Maurizi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the quality of life (QOL) in elderly patients with glioblastoma (GBM) treated with an abbreviated course of radiation therapy (RT; 40 Gy in 15 fractions) plus concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ). Methods and Materials: Health-related QOL (HRQOL) was assessed by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire Core-30 (QLQ-C30, version 3) and EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire Brain Cancer Module (QLQ-BN20). Changes from baseline in the score of 9 preselected domains (global QLQ, social functioning, cognitive functioning, emotional functioning, physical functioning, motor dysfunction, communication deficit, fatigue, insomnia) were determined 4 weeks after RT and thereafter every 8 weeks during the treatment until disease progression. The proportion of patients with improved HRQOL scores, defined as a change of 10 points or more, and duration of changes were recorded. Results: Sixty-five patients completed the questionnaires at baseline. The treatment was consistently associated with improvement or stability in most of the preselected HRQOL domains. Global health improved over time; mean score differed by 9.6 points between baseline and 6-month follow-up (P=.03). For social functioning and cognitive functioning, mean scores improved over time, with a maximum difference of 10.4 points and 9.5 points between baseline and 6-month follow-up (P=.01 and P=.02), respectively. By contrast, fatigue worsened over time, with a difference in mean score of 5.6 points between baseline and 4-month follow-up (P=.02). Conclusions: A short course of RT in combination with TMZ in elderly patients with GBM was associated with survival benefit without a negative effect on HRQOL until the time of disease progression

  1. RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS SENSORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, Robert M.; Stephens, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    Providing technical means to detect, prevent, and reverse the threat of potential illicit use of radiological or nuclear materials is among the greatest challenges facing contemporary science and technology. In this short article, we provide brief description and overview of the state-of-the-art in sensor development for the detection of radioactive materials, as well as an identification of the technical needs and challenges faced by the detection community. We begin with a discussion of gamma-ray and neutron detectors and spectrometers, followed by a description of imaging sensors, active interrogation, and materials development, before closing with a brief discussion of the unique challenges posed in fielding sensor systems.

  2. Radioactive dust from No. 5 Fukuryu Maru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamatera, H

    1954-01-01

    Analysis of radioactive dust collected on board No. 5 Fukuryu Maru were done by chemical separation and measurement of ..gamma..-ray energy and half-life of each species. Results are summarized as follows, radioactive nuclide and approximate percentage of radioactivity given: /sup 103/Ru, 4.3 to 57; /sup 106/Ru, 1.4; /sup 129/Te, 1.3; /sup 131/I, 4.5; /sup 132/I, 1.0; /sup 132/Te, 1.0; etc.

  3. Marie Curie - science was her life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolschendorf, K.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper a short survey of the life and the work of Marie Curie is presented. She was born in 1867 in Warsaw/Poland and went to Paris in 1891 to study physics, mathematics, and chemistry. In 1895 the married the physicist Pierre Curie, and together they began research work on radioactivity. For her doctorate she investigated various radiating substances and discovered the radioactive element Radium in 1898. She was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903, and later on the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1911 for performing pioneering studies with radium and contributing profoundly to the understanding of radioactivity. In 1934 she died in a health resort due to leukemia. (orig.) [de

  4. Radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkhout, F.

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author)

  5. Radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkhout, F

    1991-01-01

    Focusing on radioactive waste management and disposal policies in the United Kingdom, Sweden and the Federal Republic of Germany, this book gives a detailed historical account of the policy process in these three countries, and draws out the implications for theory and public policy. This comparative approach underlines how profoundly different the policy process has been in different countries. By comparing the evolution of policy in three countries, fundamental questions about the formation and resolution of technical decisions under uncertainty are clarified. The analysis of nuclear strategy, the politics of nuclear power, and the shifting emphasis of government regulation redefines the issue of radwaste management and sets it at the heat of the current debate about power, the environment and society. The combination of up-to-date technological assessment with an account of the social and political implications of radwaste management makes'Radioactive Waste'particularly useful to students of environmental studies, geography and public administration. (author).

  6. Radioactive transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherford, Ernest

    2012-01-01

    Radioactive Transformations describes Ernest Rutherford's Nobel Prize-winning investigations into the mysteries of radioactive matter. In this historic work, Rutherford outlines the scientific investigations that led to and coincided with his own research--including the work of Wilhelm Rӧntgen, J. J. Thomson, and Marie Curie--and explains in detail the experiments that provided a glimpse at special relativity, quantum mechanics, and other concepts that would shape modern physics. This new edition features a comprehensive introduction by Nobel Laureate Frank Wilczek which engagingly explains how Rutherford's early research led to a better understanding of topics as diverse as the workings of the atom's nucleus, the age of our planet, and the fusion in stars.

  7. Radioactive hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The use of radioactive substances in hospital laboratories is discussed and the attendant hazards and necessary precautions examined. The new legislation under the Health and Safety at Work Act which, it is proposed, will replace existing legal requirements in the field of health and safety at work by a system of regulations and approved codes of practice designed to maintain or improve the standards of health, safety and welfare already established, is considered with particular reference to protection against ionising radiations. (UK)

  8. Radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, G.C.; Hyslop, C.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to show how to assess the detriment resulting from the release of radioactive materials to the environment. The minimum information required for the assessments is given for seven radionuclides of interest from the point of view of environmental contamination. The seven radionuclides are tritium, krypton-85, strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-137, radium-226 and plutonium-239. Information is given on the radiation doses and the radiation effects on man due to these radioisotopes. (AN)

  9. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devarakonda, M.S.; Melvin, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper is part of the Annual Literature Review issue of Water Environment Research. The review attempts to provide a concise summary of important water-related environmental science and engineering literature of the past year, of which 40 separate topics are discussed. On the topic of radioactive wastes, the present paper deals with the following aspects: national programs; waste repositories; mixed wastes; waste processing and decommissioning; environmental occurrence and transport of radionuclides; and remedial actions and treatment. 178 refs

  10. Validation of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooppil Nandakumar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore. Methods From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity. Results Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59% completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95, except for Social function (0.66. Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant

  11. Validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form: a cross-sectional study of a dialysis-targeted health measure in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Veena D; Mooppil, Nandakumar; Lim, Jeremy Fy

    2010-12-20

    In Singapore, the prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and the number of people on dialysis is increasing. The impact of ESRD on patient quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome measure. The Kidney Disease Quality Of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF™) has been validated and is widely used as a measure of quality of life in dialysis patients in many countries, but not in Singapore. We aimed to determine the reliability and validity of the KDQOL-SF™ for haemodialysis patients in Singapore. From December 2006 through January 2007, this cross-sectional study gathered data on patients ≥21 years old, who were undergoing haemodialysis at National Kidney Foundation in Singapore. We used exploratory factor analysis to determine construct validity of the eight KDQOL-SF™ sub-scales, Cronbach's alpha coefficient to determine internal consistency reliability, correlation of the overall health rating with kidney disease-targeted scales to confirm validity, and correlation of the eight sub-scales with age, income and education to determine convergent and divergent validity. Of 1980 haemodialysis patients, 1180 (59%) completed the KDQOL-SF™. Full information was available for 980 participants, with a mean age of 56 years. The sample was representative of the total dialysis population in Singapore, except Indian ethnicity that was over-represented. The instrument designers' proposed eight sub-scales were confirmed, which together accounted for 68.4% of the variance. All sub-scales had a Cronbach's α above the recommended minimum value of 0.7 to indicate good reliability (range: 0.72 to 0.95), except for Social function (0.66). Correlation of items within subscales was higher than correlation of items outside subscales in 90% of the cases. The overall health rating positively correlated with kidney disease-targeted scales, confirming validity. General health subscales were found to have significant associations with age, income and education

  12. Wrong low level radioactive waste management in hospitals and improvement steps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keren, M.

    2000-01-01

    Hospitals are producers of great amounts of all kind of waste, including dangerous waste. The dangerous waste can be toxic, biological, radioactive, or a mixture of several kinds. There are clear procedures how to store and treat every kind of waste separately, according to its characteristics. Radioactive waste should be disposed only to a central radwaste disposal site. If the radioactive waste is mixed with biological waste, and contains long half-life isotopes, it should be neutralized from biological hazards before disposal to radwaste storage site. If the waste contains short half-life isotopes, it should be stored in a proper intermediate storage facility till a complete decay of the radioactive elements, and then treated as not radioactive. The existing procedures are old and a new proposal for radwaste procedures was prepared but not implemented. After several repetitive violations of the old regulations by some hospitals, it was decided to advance the implementation of the new proposal. This proposal consists of a detailed procedures for segregation, storage, decay and disposal of radwaste. It is based on the new recommendations of the IAEA. The responsibility for implementing the regulations is on the producers of the waste. This paper summarizes the violations and describes the main recommendations for improving procedures. The competent authority used moderate enforcement steps because of the delay in the implementation of the new procedures. As a matter of fact, the competent authority concluded that it's own investigation procedures should improve, but we shall not discuss it in this paper. (author)

  13. The Herdecke questionnaire on quality of life (HLQ: Validation of factorial structure and development of a short form within a naturopathy treated in-patient collective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beer Andre-Michael

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality of life (QoL of patients has become a central evaluation parameter that also acts as an aid for decisions related to treatment strategies particularly for patients with chronic illnesses. In Germany, one of the newer instruments attempting to measure distinct QoL aspects is the "Herdecke Questionnaire for Quality of Life" (HLQ. In this study, we aimed to validate the HLQ with respect to its factorial structure, and to develop a short form. The validation has been carried out in relation to other questionnaires including the SF-36 Health Survey, the Mood-Scale Bf-S, the Giessen Physical Complaints Questionnaire GBB-24 and McGill's Pain Perception Scale SES. Methods Data for this study derived from a model project on the treatment of patients using naturopathy methods in Blankenstein Hospital, Hattingen. In total, 2,461 patients between the ages of 16 and 92 years (mean age: 58.0 ± 13.4 years were included in this study. Most of the patients (62% suffered from rheumatic diseases. Factorial validation of the HLQ, it's reliability and external consistency analysis and the development of a short form were carried out using the SPSS software. Results Structural analysis of the HLQ-items pointed to a 6-factor model. The internal consistency of both the long and the short version is excellent (Cronbach's α is 0.935 for the HLQ-L and 0.862 for the HLQ-S. The highest reliability in the HLQ-L was obtained for the "Initiative Power and Interest" scale, the lowest for the 2-item scales "Digestive Well-Being" and the "Physical Complaints". However, the scales found by factor analysis herein were only in part congruent with the original 5-scale model which was approved a multitrait analysis approach. The new instrument shows good correlations with several scales of other relevant QoL instruments. The scales "Initiative Power and Interest", "Social Interaction", "Mental Balance", "Motility", "Physical Complaints", "Digestive Well

  14. Be-7 as a tracer for short-term soil surface changes - opportunities and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgart, Philipp

    2013-04-01

    Within the last 20 years the cosmogenic nuclide Beryllium-7 was successfully established as a suitable tracer element to detect soil surface changes with a high accuracy. Particularly soil erosion rates from single precipitation events are in the focus of different studies due to the short radioactive half-life of the Be-7 isotope. High sorption at topmost soil particles and immobility at given pH-values enable fine-scaled erosion modelling down to 2 mm increments. But some important challenging limitations require particular attention, starting from sampling up to the final data evaluation. E.g. these are the realisation of the fine increment soil collection, the limiting amount of measurable samples per campaign due to the short radioactive half-life and the specific requirements for the detector measurements. Both, the high potential and the challenging limitations are presented as well as future perspectives of that tracer method.

  15. Significant long-term, but not short-term, hippocampal-dependent memory impairment in adult rats exposed to alcohol in early postnatal life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, Molly J; Lindquist, Derick H

    2014-09-01

    In rodents, ethanol exposure in early postnatal life is known to induce structural and functional impairments throughout the brain, including the hippocampus. Herein, rat pups were administered one of three ethanol doses over postnatal days (PD) 4-9, a period of brain development comparable to the third trimester of human pregnancy. As adults, control and ethanol rats were trained and tested in a variant of hippocampal-dependent one-trial context fear conditioning. In Experiment 1, subjects were placed into a novel context and presented with an immediate footshock (i.e., within ∼8 sec). When re-exposed to the same context 24 hr later low levels of conditioned freezing were observed. Context pre-exposure 24 hr prior to the immediate shock reversed the deficit in sham-intubated and unintubated control rats, enhancing freezing behavior during the context retention test. Even with context pre-exposure, however, significant dose-dependent reductions in contextual freezing were seen in ethanol rats. In Experiment 2, the interval between context pre-exposure and the immediate shock was shortened to 2 hr, in addition to the standard 24 hr. Ethanol rats trained with the 2 hr, but not 24 hr, interval displayed retention test freezing levels roughly equal to controls. Results suggest the ethanol rats can encode a short-term context memory and associate it with the aversive footshock 2 hr later. In the 24 hr ethanol rats the short-term context memory is poorly transferred or consolidated into long-term memory, we propose, impeding the memory's subsequent retrieval and association with shock. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Explaining parent-child (dis)agreement in generic and short stature-specific health-related quality of life reports: do family and social relationships matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Sommer, Rachel; Bullinger, Monika; Silva, Neuza

    2016-10-21

    In the context of health-related quality of life (HrQoL) assessment in pediatric short stature, the present study aimed to examine the levels of agreement/disagreement between parents' and children's reports of generic and condition-specific HrQoL, and to identify socio-demographic, clinical and psychosocial variables associated with the extent and direction of parent-child discrepancies. This study was part of the retest phase of the QoLISSY project, which was a multicenter study conducted simultaneously in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and UK. The sample comprised 137 dyads of children/adolescents between 8 and 18 years of age, diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS), and one of their parents. The participants completed child- and parent-reported questionnaires on generic (KIDSCREEN-10 Index) and condition-specific HrQoL (QoLISSY Core Module). Children/adolescents also reported on social support (Oslo 3-items Social Support Scale) and parents assessed the parent-child relationships (Parental Role subscale of the Social Adjustment Scale) and burden of short stature on parents (QoLISSY- additional module). The parent-child agreement on reported HrQoL was strong (intraclass correlation coefficients between .59 and .80). The rates of parent-child discrepancies were 61.5 % for generic and 35.2 % for condition-specific HrQoL, with the parents being more prone to report lower generic (42.3 %) and condition-specific HrQoL (23.7 %) than their children. The extent of discrepancies was better explained by family and social relationships than by clinical and socio-demographic variables: poorer parent-child relationships and better children's social support were associated with larger discrepancies in generic HrQoL, while more parental burden was associated with larger discrepancies in condition-specific HrQoL reports. Regarding the direction of discrepancies, higher parental burden was significantly associated with parents

  17. Cultural adaptation and validation of the “Kidney Disease and Quality of Life - Short Form (KDQOL-SF™ version 1.3” questionnaire in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd ElHafeez Samar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL instruments need disease and country specific validation. In Arab countries, there is no specific validated questionnaire for assessment of HRQOL in chronic kidney disease (CKD patients. The aim of this study was to present an Arabic translation, adaptation, and the subsequent validation of the kidney disease quality of life-short form (KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 questionnaire in a representative series of Egyptian CKD patients. Methods KDQOL-SFTM version 1.3 was translated into Arabic by two independent translators, and then subsequently translated back into English. After translation disparities were reconciled, the final Arabic questionnaire was tested by interviewing 100 pre-dialysis CKD (stage 1-4 patients randomly selected from outpatients attending the Nephrology clinic at the Main Alexandria University Hospital. Test re-test reliability was performed, with a subsample of 50 consecutive CKD patients, by two interviews 7 days apart and internal consistency estimated by Cronbach’s α. Discriminant, concept, and construct validity were assessed. Results All items of SF-36 met the criterion for internal consistency and were reproducible. Of the 10 kidney disease targeted scales, only three had Cronbach’s α TM 1.3 were significantly inter-correlated. Finally, principal component analysis of the kidney disease targeted scale indicated that this part of the questionnaire could be summarized into 10 factors that together explained 70.9% of the variance. Conclusion The results suggest that this Arabic version of the KDQOL-SFTM 1.3 questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool for use in Egyptian patients with CKD.

  18. Industrial management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavie, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    This article deals with the present situation in France concerning radioactive waste management. For the short and medium term, that is to say processing and disposal of low and medium level radioactive wastes, there are industrial processes giving all the guarantees for a safe containment, but improvements are possible. For the long term optimization of solution requires more studies of geologic formations. Realization emergency comes less from the waste production than the need to optimize the disposal techniques. An international cooperation exists. All this should convince the public opinion and should develop planning and realization [fr

  19. Absolute radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity of a thin specimen can be determined directly, i.e. without reference to a standard and without knowing decay data, except for half-life, by means of counting at a given solid angle and by 4 πβ-γ coincidence measurement. In accordance with section 7 of the law on units, it is the task of PTB not only to represent the units and its derivation, but also to work out methods of adjusting national prototypes and normals to international prototypes and etalons in accordance with the international metre convention. (DG) [de

  20. Radioactivity telemetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouras, Florent; Legrand, Bernard; Montigaud, Jean-Marie; Grandin, Marc

    1969-05-01

    The authors present an assembly which aims at radio-transmitting from mobile stations information on radioactivity. It comprises 20 mobile stations which can be located within the Cadarache Centre or outside of it within a 10 km radius, and a central station which centralises information. The report proposes a general presentation of these stations, their characteristics and principles of operation. It describes operation sequences, central station functions (call programmer, address and memory management, recording, peripherals) and its energy supply, and mobile station functions. The last part presents the installation, its start-up and exploitation, its threshold devices and its safety device

  1. Analysis of radioactive cobalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This is a manual published by Science and Technology Agency, Japan, which prescribes on the analysis method for radioactive cobalt which is a typical indexing nuclide among the radioactive nuclides released from nuclear facilities. Since the released cobalt is mainly discharged to coastal region together with waste water, this manual is written for samples of sea water, sea bottom sediments and marine organisms. Radioactive cobalt includes the nuclides of 57 co, 58 Co, 60 Co, etc., the manual deals with them as a whole as 60 Co of long half life. Though 60 Co analysis has become feasible comparatively simply due to scintillation or semi-conductor spectrometry, trace 60 Co analysis is performed quantitatively by co-precipitation or collection into alumina and scintillation spectrometry. However, specific collecting operation and γ-γ coincidence measurement have been required so far. This manual employs 60 Co collection by means of ion-exchange method and measurement with low background GM counting system, to analyze quantitatively and rapidly low level 60 Co. It is primarily established as the standard analyzing method for the survey by local autonomous bodies. It is divided into 4 chapters including introduction sea water, marine organisms, and sea bottom sediments. List of required reagents is added in appendix. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Psychometric Properties of the Kidney Disease Quality of Life 36-Item Short-Form Survey (KDQOL-36) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peipert, John D; Bentler, Peter M; Klicko, Kristi; Hays, Ron D

    2018-04-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services require that dialysis patients' health-related quality of life be assessed annually. The primary instrument used for this purpose is the Kidney Disease Quality of Life 36-Item Short-Form Survey (KDQOL-36), which includes the SF-12 as its generic core and 3 kidney disease-targeted scales: Burden of Kidney Disease, Symptoms and Problems of Kidney Disease, and Effects of Kidney Disease. Despite its broad use, there has been limited evaluation of KDQOL-36's psychometric properties. Secondary analyses of data collected by the Medical Education Institute to evaluate the reliability and factor structure of the KDQOL-36 scales. KDQOL-36 responses from 70,786 dialysis patients in 1,381 US dialysis facilities that permitted data analysis were collected from June 1, 2015, through May 31, 2016, as part of routine clinical assessment. We assessed the KDQOL-36 scales' internal consistency reliability and dialysis facility-level reliability using coefficient alpha and 1-way analysis of variance. We evaluated the KDQOL-36's factor structure using item-to-total scale correlations and confirmatory factor analysis. Construct validity was examined using correlations between SF-12 and KDQOL-36 scales and "known groups" analyses. Each of the KDQOL-36's kidney disease-targeted scales had acceptable internal consistency reliability (α=0.83-0.85) and facility-level reliability (r=0.75-0.83). Item-scale correlations and a confirmatory factor analysis model evidenced the KDQOL-36's original factor structure. Construct validity was supported by large correlations between the SF-12 Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary (r=0.40-0.52) and the KDQOL-36 scale scores, as well as significant differences on the scale scores between patients receiving different types of dialysis, diabetic and nondiabetic patients, and patients who were employed full-time versus not. Use of secondary data from a clinical registry. The study provides

  3. Short-term effect of TVT-SECUR procedure on quality of life and sexual function in women with stress urinary incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiang; Zhu, Lan; Zhong, Wen; Li, Bin; Lang, Jinghe

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether patient quality of life and sexual function are improved after the tension-free vaginal tape SECUR (TVT-S) procedure (H-type). Prospective study (Canadian Task Force classification II-3). Single-center hospital. Thirty-three women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI) (high urethral mobility) and no concomitant pelvic floor prolapse underwent TVT-S between October 2009 and October 2011. TVT-S procedure. Before and after surgery(6 and 12 months), all patients completed the Chinese version of the Incontinence Quality of Life Questionnaire (I-QOL). In addition, 28 sexually active patients who underwent the TVT-S procedure completed the short-form Pelvic Organ Prolapse/Urinary Incontinence Sexual Function Questionnaire (PISQ-12) before and after surgery (6 and 12 months). We used a paired t test to compare I-QOL scores before and after surgery. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the preoperative and postoperative PISQ scores. The objective cure rate was 78% (26 of 33 patients) at 12 months after surgery. The objective improvement rate was 12.1% (4 of 33 patients). The subjective satisfaction rate was 90%. Three operations (9.1%) were considered failures. Two patients underwent a TVT procedure after TVT-S because of recurrence. No patients reported severe pain; the mean (SD) visual analog scale pain score was 1.8 (1.2) after surgery. Only 1 patient (3%) was found to have sling erosion at 12 months postoperatively. The I-QOL score was 28.3 (14.2) before surgery and increased to 69.5 (18.9) at 12 months after the TVT-S procedure. The I-QOL score improved significantly after surgery (p .05). Although the objective cure rate was not high, the TVT-S procedure is a minimally invasive, safe, and effective surgical procedure for treatment of SUI (high urethral mobility) and can improve the quality of life and sexual function in women with SUI. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Amine bridges grafted mesoporous silica, as a prolonged/controlled drug release system for the enhanced therapeutic effect of short life drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Fozia; Ahmed, Khalid; Airoldi, Claudio; Gaisford, Simon; Buanz, Asma; Rahim, Abdur; Muhammad, Nawshad; Volpe, Pedro L.O.

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid mesoporous silica SBA-15, with surface incorporated cross-linked long hydrophobic organic bridges was synthesized using stepwise synthesis. The synthesized materials were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-rays diffraction, thermogravimetry and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The functionalized material showed highly ordered mesoporous network with a surface area of 629.0 m 2 g −1 . The incorporation of long hydrophobic amine chains on silica surface resulted in high drug loading capacity (21% Mass/Mass) and prolonged release of ibuprofen up till 75.5 h. The preliminary investigations suggests that the synthesized materials could be proposed as controlled release devices to prolong the therapeutic effect of short life drugs such as ibuprofen to increase its efficacy and to reduce frequent dosage. - Highlights: • Silica SBA-15 was synthesized and modified with long hydrophobic amine linkers. • These materials were characterized using different techniques. • The modified material showed high drug loading capacity and control ibuprofen release in biological fluids.

  5. Amine bridges grafted mesoporous silica, as a prolonged/controlled drug release system for the enhanced therapeutic effect of short life drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehman, Fozia, E-mail: foziaics@yahoo.com [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084–971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Ahmed, Khalid; Airoldi, Claudio [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084–971 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gaisford, Simon; Buanz, Asma [UCL School of Pharmacy, University College London, 29-39 Brunswick Square, London WC1N 1AX (United Kingdom); Rahim, Abdur; Muhammad, Nawshad [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Biomedical Materials (IRCBM), COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Volpe, Pedro L.O. [Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas, UNICAMP, P.O. Box 6154, 13084–971 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid mesoporous silica SBA-15, with surface incorporated cross-linked long hydrophobic organic bridges was synthesized using stepwise synthesis. The synthesized materials were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, nitrogen adsorption, X-rays diffraction, thermogravimetry and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The functionalized material showed highly ordered mesoporous network with a surface area of 629.0 m{sup 2} g{sup −1}. The incorporation of long hydrophobic amine chains on silica surface resulted in high drug loading capacity (21% Mass/Mass) and prolonged release of ibuprofen up till 75.5 h. The preliminary investigations suggests that the synthesized materials could be proposed as controlled release devices to prolong the therapeutic effect of short life drugs such as ibuprofen to increase its efficacy and to reduce frequent dosage. - Highlights: • Silica SBA-15 was synthesized and modified with long hydrophobic amine linkers. • These materials were characterized using different techniques. • The modified material showed high drug loading capacity and control ibuprofen release in biological fluids.

  6. Environmental Radioactivity. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhamat Omar; Ismail Sulaiman; Zalina Laili

    2015-01-01

    This chapter explains several things which consist radioactivity measurements, regular and high background radioactivity, radioactive contaminated soil and radioactivity in fertilizers, rocks, building materials, food, water, environments, sediments, flora and fauna. Besides, the natural radioactive gas concentration of radon and toron in the environment also been discussed specifically in this chapter.

  7. Radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, C.P.

    1975-01-01

    A review is presented on the environmental behavior of radioactive wastes. The management of high-level wastes and waste disposal methods were discussed. Some topics included were ore processing, coagulation, absorption and ion exchange, fixation, ground disposal, flotation, evaporation, transmutation and extraterrestrial disposal. Reports were given of the 226 Ra, 224 Ra and tritium activity in hot springs, 90 Sr concentrations in the groundwater and in White Oak Creek, radionuclide content of algae, grasses and plankton, radionuclides in the Danube River, Hudson River, Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Lake Michigan, Columbia River and other surface waters. Analysis showed that 239 Pu was scavenged from Lake Michigan water by phytoplankton and algae by a concentration factor of up to 10,000. Benthic invertebrates and fish showed higher 239 Pu concentrations than did their pelagic counterparts. Concentration factors are also given for 234 Th, 60 Co, Fe and Mr in marine organisms. Two models for predicting the impact of radioactivity in the food chain on man were mentioned. In an accidental release from a light-water power reactor to the ocean, the most important radionuclides discharged were found to be 90 Sr, 137 Cs, 239 Pu and activation products 65 Zr, 59 Fe, and 95 Zr

  8. Fission rates measured using high-energy gamma-rays from short half-life fission products in fresh and spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroehnert, H.

    2011-02-01

    In recent years, higher discharge burn-ups and initial fuel enrichments have led to more and more heterogeneous core configurations in light water reactors (LWRs), especially at the beginning of cycle when fresh fuel assemblies are loaded next to highly burnt ones. As this trend is expected to continue in the future, the Paul Scherrer Institute has, in collaboration with the Swiss Association of Nuclear Utilities, swissnuclear, launched the experimental programme LIFE(at)PROTEUS. The LIFE(at)PROTEUS programme aims to better characterise interfaces between burnt and fresh UO 2 fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. Thereby, a novel experimental database is to be made available for enabling the validation of neutronics calculations of strongly heterogeneous LWR core configurations. During the programme, mixed fresh and highly burnt UO 2 fuel lattices will be investigated in the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. One of the main types of investigations will be to irradiate the fuel in PROTEUS and measure the resulting fission rate distributions across the interface between fresh and burnt fuel zones. The measurement of fission rates in burnt fuel re-irradiated in a zero-power reactor requires, however, the development of new experimental techniques which are able to discriminate against the high intrinsic activity of the fuel. The principal goal of the present research work has been to develop such a new measurement technique. The selected approach is based on the detection of high-energy gamma-ray lines above the intrinsic background (i.e. above 2200 keV), which are emitted by short-lived fission products freshly created in the fuel. The fission products 88 Kr, 142 La, 138 Cs, 84 Br, 89 Rb, 95 Y, 90m Rb and 90 Rb, with half-lives between 2.6 min and 2.8 h, have been identified as potential candidates. During the present research work, the gamma-ray activity of short-lived fission products has, for the first time, been measured and quantitatively evaluated for re

  9. Fission rates measured using high-energy gamma-rays from short half-life fission products in fresh and spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroehnert, H.

    2011-02-15

    In recent years, higher discharge burn-ups and initial fuel enrichments have led to more and more heterogeneous core configurations in light water reactors (LWRs), especially at the beginning of cycle when fresh fuel assemblies are loaded next to highly burnt ones. As this trend is expected to continue in the future, the Paul Scherrer Institute has, in collaboration with the Swiss Association of Nuclear Utilities, swissnuclear, launched the experimental programme LIFE(at)PROTEUS. The LIFE(at)PROTEUS programme aims to better characterise interfaces between burnt and fresh UO{sub 2} fuel assemblies in modern LWRs. Thereby, a novel experimental database is to be made available for enabling the validation of neutronics calculations of strongly heterogeneous LWR core configurations. During the programme, mixed fresh and highly burnt UO{sub 2} fuel lattices will be investigated in the zero-power research reactor PROTEUS. One of the main types of investigations will be to irradiate the fuel in PROTEUS and measure the resulting fission rate distributions across the interface between fresh and burnt fuel zones. The measurement of fission rates in burnt fuel re-irradiated in a zero-power reactor requires, however, the development of new experimental techniques which are able to discriminate against the high intrinsic activity of the fuel. The principal goal of the present research work has been to develop such a new measurement technique. The selected approach is based on the detection of high-energy gamma-ray lines above the intrinsic background (i.e. above 2200 keV), which are emitted by short-lived fission products freshly created in the fuel. The fission products {sup 88}Kr, {sup 142}La, {sup 138}Cs, {sup 84}Br, {sup 89}Rb, {sup 95}Y, {sup 90m}Rb and {sup 90}Rb, with half-lives between 2.6 min and 2.8 h, have been identified as potential candidates. During the present research work, the gamma-ray activity of short-lived fission products has, for the first time, been

  10. Public debate on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The definition and implementation of safe and perennial solutions for the management of radioactive wastes is a necessity from the point of view of both the nuclear industrialists and the public authorities, but also of the overall French citizens. For the low- or medium-level or short living radioactive wastes, some solutions have been defined are are already implemented. On the other hand, no decision has been taken so far for the long living medium to high-level radioactive wastes. Researches are in progress in this domain according to 3 ways of research defined by the law from December 30, 1991: separation-transmutation, disposal in deep underground, and long duration surface or sub-surface storage. This paper presents in a digest way, the principle, the results obtained so far, and the perspectives of each of the three solutions under study. (J.S.)

  11. Research programme on radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, A.; Hufschmid, P.; Jordi, S.; Schanne, M.; Vigfusson, J.

    2009-11-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Department of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) takes a look at work done within the framework of the research programme on radioactive wastes. The paper discusses the development of various projects and the associated organisations involved. Both long-term and short-term topics are examined. The long-term aspects of handling radioactive wastes include organisation and financing as well as the preservation of know-how and concepts for marking the repositories. Communication with the general public on the matter is looked at along with public perception, opinion-making and acceptance. Waste storage concepts are looked at in detail and aspects such as environmental protection, monitoring concepts, retrievability and encasement materials are discussed. Finally, ethical and legal aspects of radioactive waste repositories are examined. The paper is completed with appendixes dealing with planning, co-ordination and the responsibilities involved

  12. Preliminary estimates of the total-system cost for the restructured program: An addendum to the May 1989 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-12-01

    The total-system life-cycle cost (TSLCC) analysis for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program is an ongoing activity that helps determine whether the revenue-producing mechanism established by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 - a fee levied on electricity generated and sold by commercial nuclear power plants - is sufficient to cover the cost of the program. This report provides cost estimates for the sixth annual evaluation of the adequacy of the fee. The costs contained in this report represent a preliminary analysis of the cost impacts associated with the Secretary of Energy's Report to Congress on Reassessment of the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program issued in November 1989. The major elements of the restructured program announced in this report which pertain to the program's life-cycle costs are: a prioritization of the scientific investigations program at the Yucca Mountain candidate site to focus on identification of potentially adverse conditions, a delay in the start of repository operations until 2010, the start of limited waste acceptance at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility in 1998, and the start of waste acceptance at the full-capability MRS facility in 2,000. Based on the restructured program, the total-system cost for the system with a repository at the candidate site at Yucca Mountain in Nevada, a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS), and a transportation system is estimated at $26 billion (expressed in constant 1988 dollars). In the event that a second repository is required and is authorized by the Congress, the total-system cost is estimated at $34 to $35 billion, depending on the quantity of spent fuel and high-level waste (HLW) requiring disposal. 17 figs., 17 tabs

  13. Years of life lost due to external radiation exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raičević Jagoš J.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new approach for calculation of the years of life lost per excess death due to stochastic health effects is applied to external exposure pathways. The short-term external exposures are due to the passage of radioactive cloud and due to the skin and clothes contamination. The long-term external exposure is the one from the radioactive material deposited on the ground (groundshine. Three nuclides, 131I, 137Cs, and 239Pu, and with the extremely wide range of half-life are considered in order to examine their possible influence on the calculated values of years of life lost. For each of these nuclides, the number of years of life lost has been found as a decreasing function of the age at the expo sure and presented graphically in this paper. For protracted exposures, the fully averaged number of years of life lost is negative correlated with the nuclide’s half-life. On the other hand, the short-term external exposures do not depend on the nuclide’s half-life. In addition, a weak years of life lost dependence of the dose has been commented.

  14. Analytical studies by activation. Part A and B: Counting of short half-life radio-nuclides. Part C: Analytical programs for decay curves; Etudes d'analyse par activation. Parties A et B: le comptage des radio-nucleides de periodes courtes. Partie C: programme de depouillement des courbes de decroissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junod, E [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-03-01

    Part A and B: Since a radio-nuclide of short half-life is characterized essentially by the decrease in its activity even while it is being measured, the report begins by recalling the basic relationships linking the half-life the counting time, the counting rate and the number of particles recorded. The second part is devoted to the problem of corrections for counting losses due to the idle period of multichannel analyzers. Exact correction formulae have been drawn up for the case where the short half-life radionuclide is pure or contains only a long half-life radio-nuclide. By comparison, charts have been drawn up showing the approximations given by the so-called 'active time' counting and by the counting involving the real time associated with a measurement of the overall idle period, this latter method proving to be more valid than the former. A method is given for reducing the case of a complex mixture to that of a two-component mixture. Part C: The problems connected with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the decay curves of a mixture of radioactive sources of which one at least has a short half-life are presented. A mathematical description is given of six basic processes for which some elements of Fortran programs are proposed. Two supplementary programs are drawn up for giving an overall treatment of problems of dosage in activation analysis: one on the basis of a simultaneous irradiation of the sample and of one or several known samples, the other with separate irradiation of the unknown and known samples, a dosimeter (activation, or external) being used for normalizing the irradiation flux conditions. (author) [French] Parties A et B: Un radionucleide de periode courte etant defini specialement par la decroissance de son activite pendant la duree meme du comptage, on rappelle en premiere partie de ce rapport les relations fondamentales qui lient periode, temps de comptage, taux de comptage et nombre d'impulsions enregistrees. La seconde partie

  15. Simple description of cluster radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L.

    2012-05-01

    The partial half-life of radioactive decay of nuclei by the emission of fragments heavier than the alpha particle, such as the emission of carbon, oxygen, neon, magnesium, and silicon isotopes from translead nuclei (known as cluster radioactivity), is re-evaluated in the framework of a semiempirical, one-parameter model based on the quantum mechanical tunneling mechanism through a potential barrier where the Coulomb, centrifugal, and overlapping contributions to the barrier are considered within the spherical nucleus approximation. This treatment has shown not only very adequate to t all the existing half-life data, but also to give more reliable half-life predictions for new, yet unmeasured cases of spontaneous emission of massive nuclear fragments both from heavy and intermediate-mass parent nuclei as well. (author)

  16. Radioactive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, L.

    1987-01-01

    Different techniques for the characterization of radioactive colloids, used in nuclear medicine, have been evaluated and compared. Several radioactive colloids have been characterized in vitro and in vivo and tested experimentally. Colloid biokinetics following interstitial or intravenous injection were evaluated with a scintillation camera technique. Lymphoscintigraphy with a Tc-99-labelled antimony sulphur colloid was performed in 32 patients with malignant melanoma in order to evaluate the technique. Based on the biokinetic results, absorbed doses in tissues and organs were calculated. The function of the reticuloendothelial system has been evaluated in rats after inoculation with tumour cells. Microfiltration and photon correlation spectroscopy were found to be suitable in determining activity-size and particle size distributions, respectively. Maximal lymph node uptake following subcutaneous injection was found to correspond to a colloid particle size between 10 and 50 nm. Lymphoscintigraphy was found to be useful in the study of lymphatic drainage from the primary tumour site in patients with malignant melanoma on the trunk. Quantitative analysis of ilio-inguinal lymph node uptake in patients with malignant melanoma on the lower extremities was, however, found to be of no value for the detection of metastatic disease in lymph nodes. High absorbed doses may be received in lymph nodes (up to 1 mGy/MBq) and at the injection site (about 10 mGy/MBq). In an experimental study it was found that the relative colloid uptake in bone marrow and spleen depended on the total number of intravenously injected particles. This may considerably affect the absorbed dose in these organs. (author)

  17. Anti-restenotic effect of copper-62 liquid-filled balloon in porcine coronary arteries: novel use of a short half-life positron emitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Rosanna C.; Lacy, Jeffrey L.; Bhargava, Balram; Collins, Sara D.; Cates, Pamela; Cottin, Yves; Kollum, Marc; Yang, Nathan; Haynes, Neal G.; Martin, Christopher S.; Nayak, Nisha; Vodovotz, Yoram; Kim, Han-Soo; Waksman, Ron

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of the use of copper-62, a positron emitter with a half-life of 9.7 minutes, as an intracoronary brachytherapy (IRBT) source in the prevention of neointima formation (NF) following overstretch balloon injury (BI) in the porcine model. Methods and Materials: Sixteen swine were treated after BI to their left anterior descending (LAD), left circumflex (LCX), and/or right coronary artery (RCA). Twelve of the injured arteries received placebo and 10 received 25 Gy, delivered to 0.5 mm from the surface of the treatment balloon filled with liquid 62 Cu. Dosimetry was based on Monte Carlo calculations. Two weeks after treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and the treated coronaries were perfusion-fixed and stained. Intimal area (IA) and medial fracture length (FL) were analyzed by computer-aided histomorphometry. Results: The ( 62 Zn/ 62 Cu) generator, together with a rapid concentration process, was successful in delivering the short-lived 62 Cu at the high concentration required for intravascular brachytherapy (IVBT). The fracture length in the two groups was similar (2.10 ± 0.57; 2.02 ± 0.77; p = NS). Arteries studied showed significant reduction in NF (IA: 0.23 ± 0.47 mm 2 vs. 1.08 ± 0.57 mm 2 ; p 62 Cu as an IVBT source is safe and feasible. All 16 swine tolerated the treatment well with no radiation-induced side effects or symptoms throughout the 2-week period. The isotope delivered the dose necessary to inhibit NF in the porcine coronary BI model

  18. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-11-01

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  19. Storage of solid and liquid radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijasic, A.; Gacinovic, O.

    1961-01-01

    Solid radioactive waste collected during 1961 from the laboratories of the Institute amounted to 22.5 m 3 . This report contains data about activity of the waste collected from january to November 1961. About 70% of the waste are short lived radioactive material. Material was packed in metal barrels and stored in the radioactive storage in the Institute. There was no contamination of the personnel involved in these actions. Liquid radioactive wastes come from the Isotope production laboratory, laboratories using tracer techniques, reactor cooling; decontamination of the equipment. Liquid wastes from isotope production were collected in plastic bottles and stored. Waste water from the RA reactor were collected in special containers. After activity measurements this water was released into the sewage system since no activity was found. Table containing data on quantities and activity of radioactive effluents is included in this report

  20. Natural radioactivity in environmental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heijnis, H.; Jenkinson, A.; Chisari, R.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The use natural radioactivity in environmental studies has proven a very powerful tool to determine the dynamics of both natural and antrophogenic processes in our environment. The use of 14 C in archeology and past climate studies has led to many scientific discoveries (i.e. shroud of Turin and Utze 'the ice-man' from Austria). The use of the 238 U-decay series is of at least equal value to studies in archeology and past climates. Some of the Isotopes studied supplement 14 C (which is limited to 40,000 years) up to 350,000 years and others can be utilized to date very young sediments, which can't be dated by 14 C. The so-called 210 Pb dating method has been used over the past 3 decades to date recent sediment. The method uses the disequilibrium in the 238 U decay chain, caused by the escape of the intermediate daughter 222 Rn (a noble gas) from the earth's crust. In the atmosphere the 222 Rn decays via short-lived daughter isotopes to 210 Pb. This 210 Pb with a very convenient half-life of 22,3 years decays to stable 206 Pb. By measuring the surface activity of a sediment core and subsequent samples at regular intervals one can establish a chronology for the sediment core. By studying the trace metals in these cores, one could deduce a contamination history for the region. Examples of studies supported by AINSE and ANSTO will be given

  1. Management of radioactive waste nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dlouhy, Z.; Marek, J.

    1976-01-01

    The authors give a survey of the sources, types and amounts of radioactive waste in LWR nuclear power stations (1,300 MWe). The amount of solid waste produced by a Novovorenezh-type PWR reactor (2 x 400 resp. 1 x 1,000 MWe) is given in a table. Treatment, solidification and final storage of radioactive waste are shortly discussed with special reference to the problems of final storage in the CSR. (HR) [de

  2. Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vudakin, Z.

    1999-01-01

    Analytical method for solving radioactive transformations is presented in this paper. High accuracy series expansion of the depletion function and nonsingular Bateman coefficients are used to overcome numerical difficulties when applying well-known Bateman solution of a simple radioactive decay. Generality and simplicity of the method are found to be useful in evaluating nuclide chains with one hundred or more nuclides in the chain. Method enables evaluation of complete chain, without elimination of short-lives nuclides. It is efficient and accurate

  3. Management of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, H.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants (NPPs) results primarily from their large amounts. In NPPs more radioactive wastes arise than in all other plants of the nuclear fuel cycle, with the exception of uranium mills. Although the volume is great, NPP wastes are relatively low in activity and radiotoxicity and short in half-life. Several methods for treatment of NPP wastes are available that meet all the relevant requirements and they have attained high technical standards and are highly reliable. Consequently, the discharge of radionuclides with liquid and gaseous effluents and the resulting dose commitment to the general public are far below established limits. The quality of the conditioned wastes conforms to the requirements for ultimate disposal. The final disposal of NPP wastes has already been demonstrated successfully in several places and the feasibility of NPP decommissioning and management of the wastes arising in this process have been proved. The problems associated with the management of radioactive wastes from NPPs have been solved both scientifically and technically; there is no urgent need for improvement. This is why for new developments cost-benefit aspects must be considered, including the dose commitment to the operating staff and general aspects such as public acceptance and socio-ethical questions. Spectacular new developments are not to be expected in the near future. However, by continuous improvement of details and optimization of the whole system useful contributions can still be made to develop nuclear technology further. (author)

  4. Study of gel materials as radioactive 222Rn gas detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I.; Rickards, J.; Gammage, R. B.

    2006-01-01

    Commercial hair gel material (polyvinyl pyrolidone triethanolamine carbo-pol in water) and bacteriological agar (phycocolloid extracted from a group of red-purple algae, usually Gelidium sp.) have been studied as radioactive radon gas detectors. The detection method is based on the diffusion of the radioactive gas in the gel material, and the subsequent measurement of trapped products of the natural decay of radon by gamma spectrometry. From the several radon daughters with gamma radiation emission ( 214 Pb, 214 Bi, 214 Po, 210 Pb, 210 Po), two elements, 214 Pb (0.352 MeV) and 214 Bi (0.609 MeV), were chosen for the analysis in this work; in order to determine the best sensitivity, corrections were made for the short half-life of the analysed isotopes. For the gamma spectrometry analysis, a hyper-pure germanium solid state detector was used, associated with a PC multichannel analyser card with Maestro R and Microsoft R Excel R software. The results show the viability of the method: a linear response in a wide radon concentration range (450-10,000 Bq m -3 ), reproducibility of data, easy handling and low cost of the gel material. This detection methodology opens new possibilities for measurements of radon and other radioactive gases. (authors)

  5. Radioactivity measurement for emergency or post-accident situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, D.

    2010-01-01

    Specific objectives have to be achieved by radioactivity measurements during emergency or post-accident situations, which are different from those in normal situation. At the beginning of a nuclear emergency, few radioactivity data will be available, mainly from automatic monitoring systems implemented on the site or in its surrounding. Progressively, measurement programmes will be performed, in priority to get information on dose rate, atmospheric radionuclides and surface activities. In order to avoid excessive exposure of the measure teams, these programmes should be optimized. During early post-accident phase, different types of measurements will be done, following two main objectives: 1) to improve the assessment of the environmental contamination and people exposure; 2) for control purpose, to check the contamination of urban places, foodstuff and other products, compared to specific reference levels. The samples measurement in laboratories would be a challenge: usually, the laboratories involved in routine monitoring have to deal with very low level of radioactivity and a poor diversity of artificial radionuclides; after a reactor accident, the environmental samples to be measured would be more active and with a mixture of radionuclides (mainly with short or middle half-life) difficult to be characterized. So theses laboratories have to be trained and organised before any severe accident. (author)

  6. Environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Outline summary of a report prepared under contract to the DOE: Research Priorities and UK Estuaries: An Overview identifying Research Requirements. Topics considered include the study of radionuclides released into the NE Irish Sea from BNFL, Sellafields, differences in the isotopic composition of stable lead in various sediments, the concentration and distribution of 'hot particles' derived from BNFL in the Irish Sea and adjacent areas, together with attempts to separate hot particles from sediments, and the composition and properties of marine surfaces in relation to uptake and loss of radionuclides, particularly in relation to the common mussel, Mytilus edulis. The problem of the presence of transuranic radionuclides in the bottom sediments of the NE Irish Sea is considered. Profiles of radioactivity are being developed at the shelf-break in order to determine the transfer of radionuclides from the sea surface to the deep sea and to coastal waters; organisms examined include phytoplankton, zooplankton and crustacea (shrimps). Organisms such as Acantharia have been examined to determine transfer of elements and radionuclides to skeletal structures eg Sr, Ba and Si. (U.K.)

  7. Surveillance of the environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, Th.; Gitzinger, C.; Jaunet, P.; Eberbach, F.; Clavel, B.; Hemidy, P.Y.; Perrier, G.; Kiper, Ch.; Peres, J.M.; Josset, M.; Calvez, M.; Leclerc, M.; Leclerc, E.; Aubert, C.; Levelut, M.N.; Debayle, Ch.; Mayer, St.; Renaud, Ph.; Leprieur, F.; Petitfrere, M.; Catelinois, O.; Monfort, M.; Baron, Y.; Target, A.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of these days was to present the organisation of the surveillance of the environmental radioactivity and to allow an experience sharing and a dialog on this subject between the different actors of the radiation protection in france. The different presentations were as follow: evolution and stakes of the surveillance of radioactivity in environment; the part of the European commission, regulatory aspects; the implementation of the surveillance: the case of Germany; Strategy and logic of environmental surveillance around the EDF national centers of energy production; environmental surveillance: F.B.F.C. site of Romans on Isere; steps of the implementation 'analysis for release decree at the F.B.F.C./C.E.R.C.A. laboratory of Romans; I.R.S.N. and the environmental surveillance: situation and perspectives; the part of a non institutional actor, the citizenship surveillance done by A.C.R.O.; harmonization of sampling methods: the results of inter operators G.T. sampling; sustainable observatory of environment: data traceability and samples conservation; inter laboratories tests of radioactivity measurements; national network of environmental radioactivity measurement: laboratories agreements; the networks of environmental radioactivity telemetry: modernization positioning; programme of observation and surveillance of surface environment and installations of the H.A.-M.A.V.L. project (high activity and long life medium activity); Evolution of radionuclides concentration in environment and adaptation of measurements techniques to the surveillance needs; the national network of radioactivity measurement in environment; modes of data restoration of surveillance: the results of the Loire environment pilot action; method of sanitary impacts estimation in the area of ionizing radiations; the radiological impact of atmospheric nuclear tests in French Polynesia; validation of models by the measure; network of measurement and alert management of the atmospheric

  8. Gel nano-particulates against radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deroin, Ph.

    2004-01-01

    The Argonne research center (USA) has developed a 'super-gel' compound, a polymer close to those used in baby's diapers, which can reach a 90% efficiency in the radioactive decontamination of porous materials, like bricks or concrete. The contaminated materials are sprayed with a mixture of polymer gel and wetting agent with nano-particulates in suspension. Under the action of the wetting agent, radioactivity migrates from the pores to the gel and is trapped by the nano-particulates. The drying and recycling of the gel allows to reduce the volume of radioactive wastes. Short paper. (J.S.)

  9. Mushrooms pollution by radioactivity and heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delatouche, L.

    2001-01-01

    Some basic notions of radioactivity are recalled first (definition, origin, measurement units, long- and short-term effects..). Then, the pedology of soils and the properties and toxicity of 3 heavy metals (lead, cadmium, mercury) are presented to better understand the influence of some factors (genre, age, ecological type, pollution, conservation..) on the contamination of macro-mycetes by radioactivity and heavy metals. The role of chemists is to inform the consumers about these chemical and radioactive pollutions and to give some advices about the picking up (quantities, species and places to avoid) and the cooking of mushrooms. (J.S.)

  10. Technical factors in the site selection for a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badillo A, V. E.; Ramirez S, J. R.; Palacios H, J. C.

    2009-10-01

    The storage on surface or near surface it is viable for wastes of low and intermediate level which contain radio nuclides of short half life that would decay at insignificant levels of radioactivity in some decades and also radio nuclides of long half life but in very low concentrations. The sites selection, for the construction of radioactive waste storages, that present an appropriate stability at long term, a foreseeable behavior to future and a capacity to fulfill other operational requirements, is one of the great tasks that confront the waste disposal agencies. In the selection of potential sites for the construction of a radioactive wastes storage of low and intermediate level, several basic judgments should be satisfied that concern to physiography, climatology, geologic, geo-hydrology, tectonic and seismic aspects; as well as factors like the population density, socioeconomic develops and existent infrastructure. the necessary technician-scientific investigations for the selection of a site for the construction of radioactive waste storages are presented in this work and they are compared with the pre-selection factors realized in specify areas in previous studies in different regions of the Mexican Republic. (Author)

  11. Disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive waste management and disposal requirements options available are discussed. The possibility of beneficial utilization of radioactive wastes is covered. Methods of interim storage of transuranium wastes are listed. Methods of shipment of low-level and high-level radioactive wastes are presented. Various methods of radioactive waste disposal are discussed

  12. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  13. Cosmic disposal of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Y; Morisawa, S [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1975-03-01

    The technical and economical possibility and safety of the disposal of highly radioactive waste into cosmos are reviewed. The disposal of highly radioactive waste is serious problem to be solved in the near future, because it is produced in large amounts by the reprocessing of spent fuel. The promising methods proposed are (i) underground disposal, (ii) ocean disposal, (iii) cosmic disposal and (iv) extinguishing disposal. The final disposal method is not yet decided internationally. The radioactive waste contains very long life nuclides, for example transuranic elements and actinide elements. The author thinks the most perfect and safe disposal method for these very long life nuclides is the disposal into cosmos. The space vehicle carrying radioactive waste will be launched safely into outer space with recent space technology. The selection of orbit for vehicles (earth satellite or orbit around planets) or escape from solar system, selection of launching rocket type pretreatment of waste, launching weight, and the cost of cosmic disposal were investigated roughly and quantitatively. Safety problem of cosmic disposal should be examined from the reliable safety study data in the future.

  14. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2008-01-01

    Radioactive waste generated from utilization of radioisotopes and each step of the nuclear fuel cycle and decommissioning of nuclear facilities are presented. On the safe management of radioactive waste management, international safety standards are established such as ''The Principles of Radioactive Waste Management (IAEA)'' and T he Joint Convention on the Safety of Radioactive Waste Management . Basic steps of radioactive waste management consist of treatment, conditioning and disposal. Disposal is the final step of radioactive waste management and its safety is confirmed by safety assessment in the licensing process. Safety assessment means evaluation of radiation dose rate caused by radioactive materials contained in disposed radioactive waste. The results of the safety assessment are compared with dose limits. The key issues of radioactive waste disposal are establishment of long term national strategies and regulations for safe management of radioactive waste, siting of repository, continuity of management activities and financial bases for long term, and security of human resources. (Author)

  15. Quality of Life Outcomes From a Phase 2 Trial of Short-Course Radiation Therapy Followed by FOLFOX Chemotherapy as Preoperative Treatment for Rectal Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khwaja, Shariq S.; Roy, Amit; Markovina, Stephanie; Dewees, Todd A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Hunt, Steven [Section of Colorectal Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Tan, Benjamin [Division of Medical Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Myerson, Robert J.; Olsen, Jeffrey R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Parikh, Parag J., E-mail: pparikh@radonc.wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: A prospective phase 2 trial of short-course (SC) radiation therapy (RT) with 25 Gy over 5 fractions, followed by 4 cycles of 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin (mFOLFOX6) before surgery was recently completed at our institution. We present here the patient-reported quality of life (QOL) outcomes from this trial. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with cT3/T4, any N, any M rectal adenocarcinoma planned for resection were enrolled between 2009 and 2012. The QOL data were obtained prospectively using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colon (FACT-C) questionnaire before RT, before surgery, and 1 year after surgery. The previously validated minimally importance difference (MID) method was used to measure clinically significant QOL changes in FACT-C scores for each patient across time points. We examined the role of ostomy on QOL. We also compared QOL with disease outcomes and physician-reported toxicity. Results: The FACT-C questionnaire was completed by 97% of patients before RT, 85% immediately before surgery, and 62% 1 year after surgery. There was no statistically significant change in mean FACT-C scores from before treatment to after treatment. The majority of patients had either no change or an increase in QOL 1 year after treatment using the MID method. There were significant changes in QOL between patients with ostomy versus no ostomy 1 year after treatment for functional well-being (FWB) (14.81 vs 20.52, P=.018) and the colorectal cancer subscale (CCS) using the MID method (P=.004). Patients without ostomy reported stable changes in bowel control 1 year after surgery. There was no statistically significant correlation between QOL and disease recurrence, pathologic complete response, pathologic T stage downstaging, or acute/late toxicity. Conclusions: SC-RT and sequential mFOLFOX6 as preoperative therapy for rectal cancer results in stable patient-reported QOL outcomes 1 year after treatment. These findings in conjunction

  16. Reliability, construct and criterion validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 score: a short measure for children and adolescents’ well-being and health-related quality of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Michael; Rajmil, Luis; Herdman, Michael; Auquier, Pascal; Bruil, Jeanet; Power, Mick; Duer, Wolfgang; Abel, Thomas; Czemy, Ladislav; Mazur, Joanna; Czimbalmos, Agnes; Tountas, Yannis; Hagquist, Curt; Kilroe, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Background To assess the criterion and construct validity of the KIDSCREEN-10 well-being and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) score, a short version of the KIDSCREEN-52 and KIDSCREEN-27 instruments. Methods The child self-report and parent report versions of the KIDSCREEN-10 were tested in a sample of 22,830 European children and adolescents aged 8–18 and their parents (n = 16,237). Correlation with the KIDSCREEN-52 and associations with other generic HRQoL measures, physical and mental health, and socioeconomic status were examined. Score differences by age, gender, and country were investigated. Results Correlations between the 10-item KIDSCREEN score and KIDSCREEN-52 scales ranged from r = 0.24 to 0.72 (r = 0.27–0.72) for the self-report version (proxy-report version). Coefficients below r = 0.5 were observed for the KIDSCREEN-52 dimensions Financial Resources and Being Bullied only. Cronbach alpha was 0.82 (0.78), test–retest reliability was ICC = 0.70 (0.67) for the self- (proxy-)report version. Correlations between other children self-completed HRQoL questionnaires and KIDSCREEN-10 ranged from r = 0.43 to r = 0.63 for the KIDSCREEN children self-report and r = 0.22–0.40 for the KIDSCREEN parent proxy report. Known group differences in HRQoL between physically/mentally healthy and ill children were observed in the KIDSCREEN-10 self and proxy scores. Associations with self-reported psychosomatic complaints were r = −0.52 (−0.36) for the KIDSCREEN-10 self-report (proxy-report). Statistically significant differences in KIDSCREEN-10 self and proxy scores were found by socioeconomic status, age, and gender. Conclusions Our results indicate that the KIDSCREEN-10 provides a valid measure of a general HRQoL factor in children and adolescents, but the instrument does not represent well most of the single dimensions of the original KIDSCREEN-52. Test–retest reliability was slightly below a priori defined thresholds. PMID:20668950

  17. Quality of Life Outcomes From a Phase 2 Trial of Short-Course Radiation Therapy Followed by FOLFOX Chemotherapy as Preoperative Treatment for Rectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khwaja, Shariq S.; Roy, Amit; Markovina, Stephanie; Dewees, Todd A.; Hunt, Steven; Tan, Benjamin; Myerson, Robert J.; Olsen, Jeffrey R.; Parikh, Parag J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective phase 2 trial of short-course (SC) radiation therapy (RT) with 25 Gy over 5 fractions, followed by 4 cycles of 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin (mFOLFOX6) before surgery was recently completed at our institution. We present here the patient-reported quality of life (QOL) outcomes from this trial. Methods and Materials: Eighty patients with cT3/T4, any N, any M rectal adenocarcinoma planned for resection were enrolled between 2009 and 2012. The QOL data were obtained prospectively using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colon (FACT-C) questionnaire before RT, before surgery, and 1 year after surgery. The previously validated minimally importance difference (MID) method was used to measure clinically significant QOL changes in FACT-C scores for each patient across time points. We examined the role of ostomy on QOL. We also compared QOL with disease outcomes and physician-reported toxicity. Results: The FACT-C questionnaire was completed by 97% of patients before RT, 85% immediately before surgery, and 62% 1 year after surgery. There was no statistically significant change in mean FACT-C scores from before treatment to after treatment. The majority of patients had either no change or an increase in QOL 1 year after treatment using the MID method. There were significant changes in QOL between patients with ostomy versus no ostomy 1 year after treatment for functional well-being (FWB) (14.81 vs 20.52, P=.018) and the colorectal cancer subscale (CCS) using the MID method (P=.004). Patients without ostomy reported stable changes in bowel control 1 year after surgery. There was no statistically significant correlation between QOL and disease recurrence, pathologic complete response, pathologic T stage downstaging, or acute/late toxicity. Conclusions: SC-RT and sequential mFOLFOX6 as preoperative therapy for rectal cancer results in stable patient-reported QOL outcomes 1 year after treatment. These findings in conjunction

  18. Radioactivity in a mountain ecosystem: the Haut Bassin du Var; La radioactivite dans un ecosysteme de montagne: le haut bassin du var

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    After the Chernobyl accident, the IPSN realized a study of the radioactive fallout in the mountain area of the Var (France). Today the main radionuclides are the cesium 134 and 137, others disappeared because of their short half-life. In this paper, the artificial radioactivity of soils and sediments is concerned. The study shows a concentration of the contamination in some specific areas, especially in soils abounding in organic matter. The dose measured can not lead to significant exposures. (A.L.B.)

  19. Radioactive pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, R.O.

    1976-01-01

    The widely published claims that the public health effects resulting from routine emissions are between 0.01 and 0.1 serious health effects per gigawattyear, and hence are at least a thousand times smaller than those resulting from air pollution by the burning of coal, cannot be true, for two reasons. The authors of these claims have ignored at least two of the more important isotopes, radon-222 and carbon-14, which are presently released to the environment, and thus contribute greatly to the health impact of nuclear energy. The health effects calculated in the earlier work cover only those which occur during the year in which the energy is generated. This means, figuratively speaking, that the authors have confused an annual installment payment with the full cost. This is unacceptable. The contribution to the health impact of nuclear energy arising from the single isotopic species radon-222 emanating from the mill tailings is estimated to 400 lung cancer deaths/GW(e)y, larger even than the most pessimistic estimates of the health impact of energy from coal through atmospheric pollution. We have no assurance that other long-lived isotopes do not contribute comparable amounts to the health impact of nuclear energy. The discussion of the health impact of radon-222 raises the fundamental moral question--how far into the future our responsibility extends. If such a long-termresponsibility is rejected, then we must at least try to predict the environmental buildup of radioactive pollutants, in order to avoid unacceptable and irreversible levels of radiation dose rate. The potential health consequences from long-lived radioisotopes seem to have been largely ignored so far, and should be explored in detail

  20. Some principles of service life calculation of reinforcements and in situ corrosion monitoring by sensors in the radioactive waste containers of El Cabril disposal (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, C.; Martinez, I.; Castellote, M.; Zuloaga, P.

    2006-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is the most usual material used in engineered barriers in low-level nuclear waste disposal facilities. The record of modern concrete is no longer than about 100 years. During this time, it has been noticed that the material gives a good performance in many environments, however several chemical aggressive species in water, soil or the atmosphere may react with the cement mineralogical phases and perturb its integrity. El Cabril repository has a design life objective of longer than 300 years and therefore, these structures should maintain their main characteristics during this target service life. The potential aggressive conditions that the cement-based materials can suffer have been identified to be: carbonation, water permeation (leaching) and reinforcement corrosion. More unlikely may be the biological attack. Chlorides are not in the environment but they are inside the drums as part of analytical wastes. Vaults and containers are made of a very similar concrete composition while the mortar is specifically designed to be pumpable, with low hydration heat, low shrinkage and of low permeability. In this paper results of concrete characteristics are given as well as the monitoring of the behaviour of reinforcement corrosion parameters from 1995 on the same environmental conditions of the actual waste. This monitoring has been made in a buried structure with embedded sensors. The effect of temperature is commented

  1. Study on patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment in hengjian proton medical facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Qingbiao; Wang, Qingbin; Liang, Tianjiao; Zhang, Gang; Ma, Yinglin; Chen, Yu; Ye, Rong; Liu, Qiongyao; Wang, Yufei; Wang, Huaibao

    2016-01-01

    At present, increasingly more proton medical facilities have been established globally for better curative effect and less side effect in tumor treatment. Compared with electron and photon, proton delivers more energy and dose at its end of range (Bragg peak), and has less lateral scattering for its much larger mass. However, proton is much easier to produce neutron and induced radioactivity, which makes radiation protection for proton accelerators more difficult than for electron accelerators. This study focuses on the problem of patient-induced radioactivity during proton treatment, which has been ignored for years. However, we confirmed it is a vital factor for radiation protection to both patient escort and positioning technician, by FLUKA’s simulation and activation formula calculation of Hengjian Proton Medical Facility (HJPMF), whose energy ranges from 130 to 230 MeV. Furthermore, new formulas for calculating the activity buildup process of periodic irradiation were derived and used to study the relationship between saturation degree and half-life of nuclides. Finally, suggestions are put forward to lessen the radiation hazard from patient-induced radioactivity. - Highlights: • A detailed study on patient-induced radioactivity was conducted by adopting Monte Carlo code FLUKA and activation formula. • New formulas for calculating the activity build-up process of periodic irradiation were derived and extensively studied. • Patient induced radioactivity, which has been ignored for years, is confirmed as a vital factor for radiation protection. • The induced radioactivity from single short-time treatment and long-time running (saturation) were studied and compared. • Some suggestions on how to reduce the hazard of patient’s induced radioactivity were given.

  2. Stigma and radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.C.

    1988-01-01

    Stigma is a special impact of radioactive waste disposal resulting from the perceptions of risk people have of nuclear waste. In this case, stigma is the devaluing or discrediting of a person, group, or geographical area because of proximity to a nuclear waste disposal site, resulting in negative consequences for the individual and collective (e.g., local economy, community relations, perceived quality of life). As part of a social and economic impact assessment of the proposed HLWR at Hanford Site, WA for Washington State, focus groups were conducted in the Tri-Cities near Hanford to identify stigma effects. Results from the groups showed strong evidence of individual impacts of stigmatization: local residents described prejudice towards them because they live near Hanford which appeared to affect their self-respect, the use of the phrase glowing in the dark by outsiders to symbolize the stigma, and showed concern about the possibility that local products might suffer from reduced demand because of products becoming associated with radioactivity in the public's mind. These results indicate that stigma effects are real and should be studied in research and assessments

  3. Development of controller of acquisition and sample positioner for activation for use in measurements of short half-life radioisotopes; Desenvolvimento de dispositivo movimentador automatizado de amostras com vista a aplicacao em medidas de radioisotopos que possuem curto tempo de meia-vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secco, Marcello

    2016-08-01

    High resolution gamma spectroscopy measurements have several applications. Those involving short half-life radioisotope measurements may present low precision problems when the radioactive source is far from detector end cup and in the very high activity situations also can present accuracy loss due to dead time and pile-up effects. A way to overcome these problems is changing the source detector distance as the activity is decreasing, and thereby maximizing the statistical counting. In the present study, the Controller of Acquisition and Sample Positioner for Activation (CASPA) was developed. It is a low cost and weight device, made with low atomic number materials designed to assist gamma spectroscopy measurements, which is able to control the distance between the source and the detector, even allowing that there is a change of this distance during the measurement process. Because it is automated it optimizes the time of the operator, who has complete freedom to program their routine measurements in the device besides minimizing the radiation dose in the operator. An interface that allow the user control the CASPA system and to program the acquisition system was created. Tests aiming to optimize the operation of CASPA system were carried out and the safety of the CASPA operation was verified, it was not presented any failure during their tests. It was applied the repeatability tests by the acquisition {sup 60}Co standard source and was found that the positioning of automated system has reproduced the results of static system with a 95% of confidence level. (author)

  4. Procurement and use of radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasad, S.S.; Sumathi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Radioactive sources are used throughout the world for a wide variety of peaceful purposes in industry, medicine, agriculture, research and education. It has been recognized that unsecured radioactive sources can cause serious radiological accidents involving radiation injuries and fatalities. Radioactive source after its useful life, although considered waste, can still pose a security threat if not managed properly. Today, there is a growing concern that terrorist or criminal groups could gain access to disused high activity radioactive sources and use it with harmful intent. Consequently, there has been a global trend towards increased control, accounting, and security measures to prevent such incidents. Particular concern is expressed regarding radioactive sources that have become orphaned (not under regulatory control) or vulnerable (under weak regulatory control and about to be orphaned). The International Basic Safety Standards published by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provide an internationally harmonized basis for ensuring the safe and secure use of sources of ionizing radiation

  5. Measurement of radioactivity in steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachtendonk, H.-J. von; Luengen, S.; Wilke, N.

    1999-01-01

    Even after the control of scrap deliveries, there remains a small risk that the radioactive contaminated scrap passes the detecting devices. Therefore, the chemical laboratory takes a role to measure each heat for the absence of artificial radioactive nuclides with a gamma spectrometer equipped with NaI-detector. As the measurement must be performed in sequence with the steel production process, the allowable time for the measurement is quite limited. On the other hand, there could be still some possibility that background radiation might be present as the samples may contain some natural radioactivity. The task is how to differentiate the nature of radioactivity between naturally remaining radioactivity within safe limit and artificial nuclides present in the sample at a low level even though a very small amount of radioactivity could be detected in short time in both cases. We have set the alarm limit to 0.1 Bq/g for Co-60 as indicating nuclide. This limit is set more than 4 s (s = standard deviation) from the average background radiation. Therefore, false alarms are quite improbable. Strategy: The NaI gamma spectrometer performs a gross gamma measurement but it can not differentiate the nature of the nuclides present. If the alarm limit is hurt, the sample is measured on a high resolution gamma spectrometer with Ge-detector for identification of the gamma emitting nuclides. Calibration: Even though no appropriate international standards are adapted and no commercial measuring equipment is commercially available, the desired standard should contain Co-60 in the order of 1 to 100 Bq/g. The presence of other gamma emitting nuclides is desirable. In the Workshop we will present how to surmount this difficulty. (author)

  6. Environmental Radioactive Pollution Sources and Effects on Man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Naggar, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The sources of environmental radioactivity are essentially the naturally occurring radionuclides in the earth,s crust and the cosmogenic radionuclides reaching the environmental ecosystems. The other sources of environmental radioactivity are the man made sources which result from the radioactive materials in human life. The naturally occurring environmental radioactivity is an integral component of the terrestrial and extraterrestrial creation, and therefore it is not considered a source of radioactive pollution to the environment. The radioactive waste from human activities is released into the environment, and its radionuclide content becomes incorporated into the different ecosystems. This results in a situation of environmental radioactive pollution. This review presents the main features of environmental radioactive pollution, the radionuclide behaviour in the ecosystems, pathway models of radionuclides in the body and the probability of associated health hazards. The dose effect relationship of internal radiation exposure and its quantitative aspects are considered because of their relevance to this subject

  7. Radioactivity in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed, I.B.

    1979-01-01

    An account of the various radioisotopes present in the human body, such as the naturally occurring isotopes 40 K, 14 C etc. is given. Other harmful isotopes such as radiophosphorus 32 P, 90 Sr, 87 Rb, 45 Ca, 137 Ce, 131 I and tritium which find their way into the human system either by accidental ingestion or from fallout or during radiodiao.nosis or therapy are also discussed. 90 Sr which has a half-life of 28 years and can enter the human body through milk and other animal foods, is dealt with in detail, because of its being a pure beta emitter. Other general radioactive hazards to the human population in the world are also touched upon. (K.B.)

  8. Analysis of the total system life cycle cost for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program: Volume 1, The analysis and its results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-06-01

    This report provides cost estimates for the fifth evaluation of the adequacy of the fee and is consistent with the program strategy and plans. The total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is estimated at $32.1 to $38.2 billion (expressed in constant 1986 dollars) over the entire life of the system...or $1.5 to $1.6 billion more than that of the authorized system (i.e., the system without an MRS facility). The current estimate of the total-system cost for the reference cases in the improved-performance system is $3.8 to $5.4 billion higher than the estimate for the same system in the 1986 TSLCC analysis. In the case with the maximum increase, nearly all of the higher cost is due to a $5.2-billion increase in the costs of development and evaluation (D and E); all other system costs are essentially unchanged. The cost difference between the improved-performance system and the authorized system is smaller than the difference estimated in last year's TSLCC analysis. Volume 2 presents the detailed results for the 1987 analysis of the total-system life cycle cost (TSLCC). It consists of four sections: Section A presents the yearly flows of waste between waste-management facilities for the 12 aggregate logistics cases that were studied; Section B presents the annual total-system costs for each of the 30 TSLCC cases by major cost category; Section C presents the annual costs for the disposal of 16,000 canisters of defense high-level waste (DHLW) by major cost category for each of the 30 TSLCC cases; and Section D presents a summary of the cost-allocation factors that were calculated to determine the defense waste share of the total-system costs

  9. Monitoring of radioactivity in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legarda, F.; Herranz, M.; Letessier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Radioactivity is a physical phenomenon whose presence in water is monitored due to its potential capability to induce deleterious effects on human health. In this article the effects that can be caused by radioactivity as well as the way in which regulations establish how to perform a monitorization of water that enables us to ascertain that the radiological quality of water is in agreement with the accepted standard of quality of life are analyzed. Finally the means available to know the content of radioactivity in water together with some clues on how to remove it from water are described. (Author) 5 refs

  10. Psychosocial Health and Life-Events--Dynamical Development in the Short Term. A Follow-Up Study of Children at Four and Six Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkhout, Louise; Hoekman, Joop; Goorhuis-Brouwer, Sieneke M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, (1) the psychosocial health in relation to (2) life-events was assessed among 156 children attending 20 schools by parents and teachers with the Child Behavior Checklist and the Caregiver-Teacher Report Form at the ages of four and six. Life-events were reported by parents. (1) According to the report, 93-96% children had no…

  11. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  12. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. Bernot

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO 2 as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with 231 Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise

  13. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  14. Natural atmospheric radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renoux, A.

    1986-01-01

    After having summed up the different old or new units, used in radioactivity and radioprotection, the origins of atmospheric radioactivity are reported. Next the authors deal with the air content in radon, thoron and their radioactive descendants, insisting on the variations of the radon air content and on the radioactive balance between radon and its descendants. Then a few notions concerning the natural radioactive aerosol are developed: electric charge state, granulometric distribution. The possible effects of natural atmospheric radioactivity on man are studied with a distinction between inner irradiation and outer irradiation, an average assessment is shown. Finally the important problem of radon in inhabitations is approached [fr

  15. Evaluation of environmental management cost estimating capabilities for the subject area ''Life-cycle economics for radioactive waste management and environmental remediation''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hombach, W.G.

    1995-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive perspective on the scope of Environmental Management (EM) activities and on the existing capability to estimate their costs. The scope is defined in terms of both activities and associated cost driving factors. The capability to estimate this scope was determined by evaluating existing cost estimating tools identified through a survey of the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Defense (DoD), the US Environmental Protection Agency, and private industry. This paper is largely based on the results of a report produced for the Office of the Secretary of Defense, US Department of Defense, entitled, Evaluation of Environmental Management Cost-Estimating Capabilities of Major Defense Acquisition Programs, March 22, 1995. The DoD sponsored report was designed to have a broad application relevant not only to DoD, but to other government agencies, and industry. In addition to DoD, it has particular application to DOE because significant portions of the analyses and data were derived from DOE environmental management databases, cost models, reports, and work breakdown structures. This paper provides the basis used and methodology employed to conduct an evaluations of selected EM cost estimating tools. The following topics are discussed: Life Cycle of EM Activities; Major Elements of EM Activities; Cost Tool Evaluation Matrix; Results of Cost Tool Evaluations; Cost Tool Development Plan

  16. Radioactivity of and exposure by the consumer's goods containing NORM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, M.; Ohhata, T.; Sato, S.; Ohyama, R.; Furuya, H.

    2005-01-01

    It is so important from the view of point of regulation to know the radioactive concentration or radioactivity in the consumer's goods containing naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and the radiation exposure when they are used in the daily living life. In this study, 20 consumer's goods containing NORM were collected. After chemically processing them, the radioactive concentrations in them were measured by an inductively coupled plasma attached with mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) and a γ-ray spectrometer of Ge(li). In addition, the radiation exposures were calculated in four typical cases where the consumer' goods are generally used in the daily living life. (J.P.N.)

  17. Does man end up as a final disposal site for radioactive substances. Analyses, facts, background information. Life after the Chernobyl accident - and the consequences with regard to food. Endlagerstaette Mensch. Analysen, Tatsachen, Hintergruende. Nach Tschernobyl - Konsequenzen fuer unsere Ernaehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, H

    1986-01-01

    The fire in the Russian reactor that spread sparks of fear and panic into millions of homes also is a challenge: We have to cope with the reality of life after the Chernobyl disaster, and what we first need is sound and proper information. What is to be learnt from the disaster. From the embarassing quarrel between our Government and Land governments about dose limits. Will politicians draw consequences. How good and efficient are current food quality controls. What do the consumers' associations say. What will anti-nuclear power groups do. The book in hand critically reviews the events and activities that followed the Chernobyl accident. It denounces the scandalous behaviour of authorities who created confusion rather than confidence, and the behaviour of those people who are playing a foul game with the people's fear. The author presents information in order to make the complex mechanisms of radioactivity and its effects comprehensible to the general public. He also discusses the problem of 'legally' irradiated food imported from other countries.

  18. An overview of the ecological half-life of the 137Cs radioisotope and a determination of radioactivity levels in sediment samples after Chernobyl in the Eastern Black Sea, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltas, Hasan; Sirin, Murat; Dalgic, Goktug; Cevik, Ugur

    2018-01-01

    A study which determined the activity concentration of 137Cs in sediments contaminated by effluents from the Chernobyl accident which had collected along the coast of the Eastern Black Sea region in Turkey was carried out in 1993. Marine sediment samples were collected in 2015 from the same fifteen sampling points, and the activity concentrations of 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs were determined for the sediment samples. The activity concentrations ranged from 10.94-25.95, 12.14-33.05, 265.74-459.89 and 2.08-37.45 Bq kg- 1 for 226Ra, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs respectively. The results showed that there was a steep decline in 137Cs within the sediment at most of the sampling sites from the Eastern Black Sea region during the 22-year period, except for two sites at which the measured levels were much higher. This may be the result of the combined effects of radioactive contaminant entry into this area from rivers, environmental changes and nuclear testing between 1993 and 2015. Furthermore, the ecological half-life (EHL) of the 137Cs radionuclide was estimated for the sediment samples, and radiological hazard parameters such as the absorbed dose rate in air (D), the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) and the excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) were calculated and compared with the international recommended values. It was shown that these sediments do not present any significant health risk for humans in this area.

  19. Radioactive waste management and disposal in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harries, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    A national near-surface repository at a remote and arid location is proposed for the disposal of solid low-level and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes in Australia. The repository will be designed to isolate the radioactive waste from the human environment under controlled conditions and for a period long enough for the radioactivity to decay to low levels. Compared to countries that have nuclear power programs, the amount of waste in Australia is relatively small. Nevertheless, the need for a national disposal facility for solid low-level radioactive and short-lived intermediate-level radioactive wastes is widely recognised and the Federal Government is in the process of selecting a site for a national near-surface disposal facility for low and short-lived intermediate level wastes. Some near surface disposal facilities already exist in Australia, including tailings dams at uranium mines and the Mt Walton East Intractable Waste Disposal Facility in Western Australia which includes a near surface repository for low level wastes originating in Western Australia. 7 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Treatment of radioactive effluents at the Boris Kidric Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bojovic, P.; Drobnik, S.; Popara, D.

    1964-10-01

    The paper describes the origin, composition and activity of radioactive effluents at the Boris Kidric Institute, their collection at the places or origin, transport to the place of disposal and treatment of some smaller quantities. Special attention has been paid to effluents with short-lived isotopes produced in the Laboratory for radioactive isotope production (author)

  1. Alternative solutions for the disposal of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsey, R.W. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Besides outlining the possibility of dispatching concentrated highly radioactive waste by rockets into space, or of transmuting long-lived isotopes by nuclear reactions into short-lived ones, the author discusses further alternatives for the disposal of radioactive wastes, especially the storage in geologic formations. (HR/LN) [de

  2. Mosses in Radioactive Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marovic, G.; Franic, Z.; Sencar, J.

    2008-01-01

    Mosses, lichens and perennial plants, all characterized by slow growth, are able to efficiently accumulate different radionuclides from their environment to a much higher degree than other vegetation. Consequently, they are sensitive bio indicators of radioactive contamination for various ecosystems. Results of systematic, long-term measurements of 137Cs activities in mosses for the period 1986-2007 are summarized. The study was conducted in the Radiation Protection Unit of the Institute for Medical Research and Occupational Health in Zagreb, as a part of an extensive monitoring program of the Croatian environment. In the overall observed period the highest activity concentration of 137Cs deposited by fallout has been recorded in 1986, which is the year of Chernobyl accident, causing peak 137Cs activity concentration in moss of 8800 Bqkg -1 in May 1986. Mean value for period 1986 - 1990 was 3423 Bqkg -1 . For comparison, in the same period mean 137Cs activity concentration in grass was 390 Bqkg -1 . In 1990s, ten year after Chernobyl accident, mean 137Cs activity concentration in moss was 1345 Bqkg -1 , with maximum value of 3940 Bqkg -1 (December 1994). In 2000s, mean 137Cs activity concentration in mosses was 172 Bqkg -1 with maximum value of 955 Bqkg -1 (July 2002). Fitting the measured 137Cs activity concentrations to the theoretical curve (1) the ecological half-life of 137Cs in moss was found to be about 978 days, while in grass was found to be about 126 days in the period 1986 - 1990. The ecological half-life of 137Cs in grass after 1991 was found to be about 2503 days. The ecological half-life of 137Cs in moss is about eight times higher than 137Cs ecological half-life observed in grass in the first period after the Chernobyl accident.(author)

  3. Study of the degradation of liquid-organic radioactive wastes by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    In this study degradation studies were performed on blank samples, in which two electrochemical cells with different electrodes were used, the first is constituted by mesh electrodes Ti/Ir-Ta/Ti and the second by rod electrodes Ti/Ddb, using as reference an electrolytic medium of scintillation liquid and scintillation liquid more water, applying different potentials ranging from 1 to 25 V. After obtaining the benchmarks, the treatment was applied to samples containing organic liquid radioactive waste, in this case a short half-life radioisotope as Sulfur-35, the degradation characterization of organic compounds was performed in infrared spectrometry. (Author)

  4. Radioactivity and geophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radvanyi, P.

    1992-01-01

    The paper recalls a few steps of the introduction of radioactivity in geophysics and astrophysics: contribution of radioelements to energy balance of the Earth, age of the Earth based on radioactive disintegration and the discovery of cosmic radiations

  5. Radioactive Waste Management Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This strategy defines methods and means how collect, transport and bury radioactive waste safely. It includes low level radiation waste and high level radiation waste. In the strategy are foreseen main principles and ways of storage radioactive waste

  6. Radioactivity in consumer products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W.; Barker, R.F. (eds.)

    1978-08-01

    Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.

  7. Radioactivity of bone cement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherer, M.A.; Winkler, R.; Ascherl, R.; Lenz, E.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 14 samples of different types of bone cement from five different manufacturers were examined for their radioactivity. Each of the investigated bone cements showed a low radioactivity level, i.e. between [de

  8. Immersed radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-03-01

    This document presents a brief overview of immersed radioactive wastes worldwide: historical aspects, geographical localization, type of wastes (liquid, solid), radiological activity of immersed radioactive wastes in the NE Atlantic Ocean, immersion sites and monitoring

  9. Radioactive waste management in West Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, H [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe G.m.b.H. (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-01-01

    The technologies developed in West Germany for radioactive waste management are widely reviewed. The first topic in this review paper is the disposal of low- and middle-level radioactive liquid wastes. Almost all these liquid wastes are evaporated, and the typical decontamination factor attained is 10/sup 4/ -- 10/sup 6/. The second topic is the solidification of residuals. Short explanation is given to bituminization and some new processes. The third topic is high-level liquid wastes. Degradation of glass quality due to various radiation is discussed. Embedding of small glass particles containing radioactive wastes into metal is also explained. Disposals of low-level solid wastes and the special wastes produced from reprocessing and mixed oxide fuel fabrication are explained. Final disposal of radioactive wastes in halite is discussed as the last topic. Many photographs are used to illustrate the industrial or experimental use of those management methods.

  10. Radioactive wastes: sources, treatment, and disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wymer, R.G.; Blomeke, J.O.

    1975-01-01

    Sources, treatment, and disposal of radioactive wastes are analyzed in an attempt to place a consideration of the problem of permanent disposal at the level of established or easily attainable technology. In addition to citing the natural radioactivity present in the biosphere, the radioactive waste generated at each phase of the fuel cycle (mills, fabrication plants, reactors, reprocessing plants) is evaluated. The three treatment processes discussed are preliminary storage to permit decay of the short-lived radioisotopes, solidification of aqueous wastes, and partitioning the long-lived α emitters for separate and long-term storage. Dispersion of radioactive gases to the atmosphere is already being done, and storage in geologically stable structures such as salt mines is under active study. The transmutation of high-level wastes appears feasible in principle, but exceedingly difficult to develop

  11. Self rating of health is associated with stressful life events, social support and residency in East and West Berlin shortly after the fall of the wall

    OpenAIRE

    Hillen, T.; Schaub, R.; Hiestermann, A.; Kirschner, W.; Robra, B.

    2000-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To compare the health status and factors influencing the health of populations that had previously lived under different political systems.
DESIGN—Cross sectional health and social survey using postal interviews. The relation between self reported health and psychosocial factors (stressful life events, social support, education, health promoting life style and health endangering behaviour) was investigated. To determine East-West differences a logistic regression model includi...

  12. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  13. Management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neerdael, B.; Marivoet, J.; Put, M.; Van Iseghem, P.; Volckaert, G.; Wacquier, W.

    1998-09-01

    The document gives an overview of of different aspects of radioactive waste management in Belgium. The document discusses the radioactive waste inventory in Belgium, the treatment and conditioning of radioactive waste as well as activities related to the characterisation of different waste forms. A separate chapter is dedicated to research and development regarding deep geological disposal of radioactive waste. In the Belgian waste management programme, particular emphasis is on studies for disposal in clay. Main results of these studies are highlighted and discussed

  14. Focus on radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, M

    1989-01-01

    Written for children, this book looks at the nature of radioactive materials, how they were discovered, what they are used for and how they affect the environment around us. The emphasis is on the benefits of radioactive materials, particularly in nuclear power stations, in medical diagnostics and radiotherapy, in industry and in agriculture. Nuclear fission and fusion are explained, how radioactive materials are handled and naturally occurring radioactivity are included. (UK).

  15. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balek, V.

    1994-01-01

    This booklet is a publication by International Atomic Energy Agency for general awareness of citizens and policy-makers to clarify their concept of nuclear wastes. In a very simple way it tells what is radioactivity, radiations and radioactive wastes. It further hints on various medial and industrial uses of radiations. It discusses about different types of radioactive wastes and radioactive waste management. Status of nuclear power plants in Central and Eastern European countries are also discussed

  16. Radioactive consumer products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Otomaru

    1981-01-01

    Present situation of utilizing the radioactive consumer products and exposure dose were reviewed with published data. Practically, consumer products are divided into three categories, (1) radioactive nuclides intentionally incorporated into radioluminous dye, ionization chambers for smoke detector, eliminator of static electricity, and glow lamp (2) natural radioactive nuclides contained in false teeth, porcelain, glass, and gas mantle (3) natural radioactive nuclides accumulated as industrial waste at the consumption of coal, petroleum, and natural gas or in fertilizer and materials for construction. (Nakanishi, T.)

  17. Aspects of radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutoiu, Dan

    2003-01-01

    The origin and types of radioactive waste, the objective and the fundamental principles of radioactive waste management and the classification of radioactive waste are presented. Problems of the radioactive waste management are analyzed. (authors)

  18. 500 year concrete for a radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipose, K.E.

    1988-03-01

    The IRUS (Intrusion resistant underground structure) repository planned at Chalk River for the belowground disposal of low level radioactive waste relies on the durability of concrete for the required 500 year service life. A research program for the IRUS repository to design a durable concrete and also to predict its longevity under the repository environment is in progress. The methodology involves the identification of major degradation agents, and the assessment of the rate of diffusion of corrosive ions and/or the rate of advancement of the reaction front into the concrete. Accelerated test methods are being used on laboratory specimens in conjunction with extrapolation procedures to predict long-term durability from short-term data. The inherent limitations are also examined

  19. Protection against radioactive contamination of food and agricultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, A.; Kovacs, Z.

    1977-01-01

    Due to contaminating effects from nuclear explosions and nuclear power plants, the systematic investigation of environmental radioactive contamination is absolutely necessary. In order to reduce the artificial radiation dose to which the human body is exposed, isotope content of foods and agricultural products should be known. The authors evaluate the decontamination possibilities of food produced from vegetable and animal products, starting from the contamination of some products. For vegetable product decontamination the use of suitable fertilizers, thorough scrubbing in excess water and, for cereals, milling is proposed. As the most effective preventive measure of radiation contamination of food products of animal origin, appropriate packing is proposed. The storage and preservation problems are emphasized for short half-life radiation contamination. (P.J.)

  20. Experimental investigation of statistical density function of decaying radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salma, I.; Zemplen-Papp, E.

    1991-01-01

    The validity of the Poisson and the λ P(k) modified Poisson statistical density functions of observing k events in a short time interval is investigated experimentally in radioactive decay detection for various measuring times. The experiments to measure radioactive decay were performed with 89m Y, using a multichannel analyzer. According to the results, Poisson statistics adequately describes the counting experiment for short measuring times. (author) 13 refs.; 4 figs

  1. Understanding radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    This book discusses the sources and health effects of radioactive wastes. It reveals the techniques to concentrate and immobilize radioactivity and examines the merits of various disposal ideas. The book, which is designed for the lay reader, explains the basic science of atoms,nuclear particles,radioactivity, radiation and health effects

  2. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  3. Radioactivity in the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Illustrated by drawings, this publication briefly describes radioactive exposure modalities (external or internal irradiation), the ways they are measured and assessed (doses, units), the different natural radioactivity origins, the different radioactivity origins related to human activity, the share of each origin in population exposures

  4. Physics with radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.; Tanihata, I.

    1992-01-01

    Recently developed facilities allow a wide range of new investigations of the reactions and properties of short-lived nuclei. These studies may help to solve puzzles of nuclear structure and the Big Bang. The purpose of nuclear physics is to measure properties of specific nuclides and infer from them global properties common to all nuclides. One goal, for example, is to understand nuclear sizes and matter distributions in terms of basic nuclear forces. Another is to understand the variation throughout the periodic table of the dominant quantum states, which are known as the open-quotes nuclear shell modelclose quotes states and are characterized, much as are atomic states, by a principal quantum number and by orbital and total angular momentum quantum numbers. In turn other nuclear phenomena, such as the collective excitations known as giant resonances, can be understood in terms of the shell-model configurations and basic nuclear parameters. Radioactive nuclear beam studies of reactions of short-lived nuclides have already yielded results with important ramifications in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. Nuclear physicists expect unstable nuclides to exhibit unusual structures or features that may test their understanding of known nuclear phenomena at extreme conditions, and perhaps even to reveal previously unknown nuclear phenomena, Astrophysicists, for their part, have known for several decades that processes in both Big Bang nucleosynthesis and stellar nucleosynthesis involve short-lived nuclides. Indeed, the original motivation for developing radioactive nuclear beams was astrophysical. 25 refs., 7 figs

  5. Physics with radioactive nuclear beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.N.

    1995-01-01

    Recently developed facilities allow a wide range of new investigations of the reactions and properties of short-lived nuclei. These studies may help to solve puzzles of nuclear structure and the Big Bang. The purpose of nuclear physics is to measure properties of specific nuclides and infer from them global properties common to all nuclides, for example, is to understand nuclear sizes and matter distributions in terms of basic nuclear forces. Another is to understand the variation throughout the periodic table of the dominant quantum states, which are known as the open-quotes nuclear shell model close quotes states and are characterized, much as are atomic states, by a principal quantum number and by orbital and total angular momentum quantum numbers. In turn other nuclear phenomena, such as the collective excitations known as giant resonances, can be understood in terms of the shell-model configurations and basic nuclear parameters. Radioactive nuclear beam studies of reactions of short-lived nuclides have already yielded results with important ramifications in both nuclear physics and astrophysics. Nuclear physicists expect unstable nuclides to exhibit unusual structures or features that may test their understanding of known nuclear phenomena at extreme conditions, and perhaps even to reveal previously unknown nuclear phenomena, Astrophysicists, for their part, have known for several decades that processes in both Big Bang nucleosynthesis and stellar nucleosynthesis involve short-lived nuclides. Indeed, the original motivation for developing radioactive nuclear beams was astrophysical. (author). 25 refs., 7 figs

  6. Physics with energetic radioactive ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, W.F.

    1996-01-01

    Beams of short-lived, unstable nuclei have opened new dimensions in studies of nuclear structure and reactions. Such beams also provide key information on reactions that take place in our sun and other stars. Status and prospects of the physics with energetic radioactive beams are summarized

  7. Chapter 7. Radioactivity of animals and animal organs and factors influencing their value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toelgyessy, J.; Harangozo, M.

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter of textbook of radioecology for university students. In this chapter authors deal with radioactivity of animals and animal organs and factors influencing their value. Chapter consist of next parts: (1) Natural radioactivity of animals; (2) Radioactive contamination of animal tissues; (3) Connection of radioactive contamination with species of animals and discriminatingly ability of animal organism; (4) Connection of radioactive contamination with age of animal and with biological half-life T b ; (5) Factors influencing radioactive contamination of biological cycle: food - animal; (6) Possibilities of decreasing of radioactive contamination of foods with animal origin

  8. Radioactivity in foods - a status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, J F

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of radioactivity data measured after the reactor accident at Chernobyl with those determined in the early 60s shows that iodine 131 in leafy vegetables and in milk was higher in early May than at any previous time. Due to the short half-life of iodine 131 the level of this radionuclide in most of the tested food samples has now fallen below the limit of detectability. Field-grown leafy vegetables contained several hundred Bq/kg of caesium 137 in early May and had to be plowed under. In the meantime caesium 137 activity in most products has fallen to levels not higher than in 1964. In many products the levels are lower. Contamination with strontium 90 and alpha-emitters due to Chernobyl is of minor significance. The total additional effective radiation dose within 50 years in the Federal Republic of Germany is estimated at 150 to 200 mrem per person. The dose due to natural sources in the same time span will be 500 to 20 000 mrem. No reasons are seen for any changes in nutritional behaviour.

  9. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werthamer, N.R.

    1977-01-01

    The State of New York, some 15 years ago, became a party to an attempt to commercialize the reprocessing and storage of spent nuclear fuels at the West Valley Reprocessing Facility operated by Nuclear Fuel Services, Inc. (NFS). That attempted commercialization, and the State of New York, have fallen victim to changing Federal policies in the United States, leaving an outstanding and unique radioactive waste management problem unresolved. At the beginning of construction in 1963, the AEC assured both NFS and New York State of the acceptability of long-term liquid tank storage for high level wastes, and New York State ERDA therefore agreed to become the responsible long-lived stable institution whose oversight was needed. It was understood that perpetual care and maintenance of the wastes, as liquid, in on-site underground tanks, would provide for safe and secure storage in perpetuity. All that was thought to be required was the replacement of the tanks near the end of their 40-year design life, and the transferring of the contents; for this purpose, a perpetual care trust fund was established. In March of 1972, NFS shut West Valley down for physical expansion, requiring a new construction permit from the AEC. After four years of administrative proceedings, NFS concluded that changes in Federal regulations since the original operating license had been issued would require about 600 million dollars if operations were to resume. In the fall of 1976, NFS informed the NRC, of its intention of closing the reprocessing business. The inventories of wastes left are listed. The premises upon which the original agreements were based are no longer valid. Federal responsibilities for radioactive wastes require Federal ownership of the West Valley site. The views of New York State ERDA are discussed in detail

  10. Treating radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of radioactive effluent it is known to produce a floc being a suspension of precipitates carrying radioactive species in a mother liquor containing dissolved non-radioactive salts. It is also known and accepted practice to encapsulate the floc in a solid matrix by treatment with bitumen, cement and the like. In the present invention the floc is washed with water prior to encapsulation in the solid matrix whereby to displace the mother liquor containing the dissolved non-radioactive salts. This serves to reduce the final amount of solidified radioactive waste with consequent advantages in the storage and disposal thereof. (author)

  11. Effect of chemistry variations on the short-term rupture life and tensile properties of 20% cold-worked type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, D.R.; Paxton, M.M.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of compositional variations on the rupture life of 20% cold-worked Type 316 stainless steel were investigated at 19-ksi (131-MPa) uniaxial tensile stress and at 1400 0 F (1033 K). Forty-nine different alloys were studied, with compositional variations from nominal in carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, boron, manganese, copper, silicon, molybdenum, cobalt, chromium and nickel. This alloy and cold-work level represents the duct and fuel cladding material choice for the first four core loadings of the Fast Flux Test Facility, a key element in the Liquid-Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. Tensile properties of four of the alloys were studied at temperatures from room temperature to 1600 0 F (1144 K). Boron, nitrogen, and molybdenum plus silicon additions significantly increased rupture life, while chromium and carbon additions decreased rupture life. Molybdenum plus silicon additions increased yield and ultimate strength and ductility at 1200 0 F (922 K) and below

  12. The Research Results of Radioactive Waste Management Technology Center Year 1996/1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budiman, P.; Martono, H.; Las, T.; Lubis, E.; Mulyanto; Wisnubroto, D. S.; Sucipta

    1997-12-01

    The research results of Radioactive Waste Management Technology Center, National Atomic Energy Agency of Indonesia year 1996/1997 contain paper as form of research results on radioactive waste management related fields. There were included many aspects such as radioactive waste processing, storage, decontamination, decommissioning, safety and environmental aspects. There are 24 papers and 12 short communications indexed individually(ID)

  13. Andra. Everything on the management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-08-01

    This publication briefly presents the ANDRA, the French National Agency for the management of radioactive wastes, its mission, its activities, its financing, and some key figures. It briefly presents the phenomenon of radioactivity, radioactive wastes and their storage. It presents the different classes of radioactive wastes (very-low-level, low- and intermediate-level and short-lived, low-level and long-lived, high-level and intermediate-level and long-lived) and their storage principles. It sketches the pathway followed by a waste from its production to its storage. It presents the various ANDRA sites

  14. Tackling Tuwaitha's radioactive ruins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Some 1000 Iraqi men, women and children in a village near the former Tuwaitha nuclear site are living inside an area contaminated by radioactive residues and ruins. A project to clean-up the site, and other contaminated facilities in Iraq, was kick-started earlier this year at IAEA headquarters. Inhabitants of the Ishtar village, based within the Tuwaitha site boundary, some 20 kilometres south of Baghdad, are living in an area where levels of radiation are known to be higher than normal and prolonged exposure could prove risky over time. US authorities have supplied the IAEA with photographs of the Tuwaitha reactor that show crumbling facades and interiors of rubble, spray-painted with warnings like 'radioactive' and 'HOT'. (See Photo Essay). Once at the heart of Iraq's nuclear programme, the Tuwaitha complex was inspected and largely dismantled during IAEA-led weapons inspections in the 1990s and subsequently bombed in the 2003 war. It is one of a number of sites in the country identified as needing decommissioning or remediation where radioactive material was used or waste are buried. The Iraqi Government has requested the IAEA's assistance to prepare plans and programmes to decommission contaminated facilities in the country. The project's groundwork was set at an IAEA meeting in Vienna in February 2006, attended by the Iraqi Minister for Science and Technology, representatives from sixteen countries, including the US, and the European Commission. 'This is a huge task, one that could take many years,' says Mr. Dennis Reisenweaver, the IAEA safety expert in charge of the effort. Among the first steps is to identify, cordon off, and prioritise contaminated areas that pose the most risk to the public. Some of the challenges facing the clean-up effort include determining now unknown locations where contaminated equipment and materials might be buried, and recovering lost records about the contents of radioactive materials stored in waste containers

  15. Impact of short-term preoperative radiotherapy on health-related quality of life and sexual functioning in primary rectal cancer : Report of a multicenter randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnen, CAM; van de Velde, CJH; Putter, H; van den Brink, M; Maas, CP; Martijn, H; Rutten, HJ; Wiggers, T; Kranenbarg, EK; Leer, JWH; Stiggelbout, AM

    2005-01-01

    Background Few prospective studies have been performed about the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) or total mesorectal excision (TME) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and sexual functioning in patients with resectable rectal cancer. This report describes the HRQL and sexual

  16. Impact of short-term preoperative radiotherapy on health-related quality of life and sexual functioning in primary rectal cancer: report of a multicenter randomized trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marijnen, C.A.; Velde, C.J. van de; Putter, H.; Brink, M.; Maas, C.P.; Martijn, H.; Rutten, H.J.; Wiggers, T.; Kranenbarg, E.K.; Leer, J.W.H.; Stiggelbout, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few prospective studies have been performed about the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (PRT) or total mesorectal excision (TME) on health-related quality of life (HRQL) and sexual functioning in patients with resectable rectal cancer. This report describes the HRQL and sexual

  17. Short-term morbidity and quality of life from a randomized clinical trial of close rectal dissection and total mesorectal excision in ileal pouch-anal anastomosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, S. A. L.; Gardenbroek, T. J.; Aarts, M.; Ponsioen, C. Y.; Tanis, P. J.; Buskens, C. J.; Bemelman, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    Posterior rectal dissection during ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) can be performed in the total mesorectal excision (TME) or close rectal dissection (CRD) plane. The aim of this study was to compare morbidity and quality of life (QoL) in patients having TME or CRD during proctectomy followed by

  18. Experience with radioactivity releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T.V.; Johnson, A.G.; Ringle, J.C.

    1972-01-01

    On December 11, 1970, the reactor top continuous air monitor (CAM) showed an increase in particulate air activity of an unusual nature. A check of the CAM filter with a multi-channel analyzer indicated that the majority of the activity was due to Cs-138 , Cs-139 , Rb-89 , and Rb-90 , which indicated a probable fuel element leak. The CAM filter was changed and rechecked several times, but the rubidium and cesium radionuclides were consistently identified. The procedure was followed by removing three fuel elements at a time. Since the CAM was the only instrument picking up radioactivity, it was used as the primary radiation monitor. During the search for the leaky fuel element, it was found that the element in position E-18 (triangle cut-out) was leaning against the top of the element in E-17. Particulate air activity originating from the rotating rack loading port on the reactor top was reported by OSU during the previous TRIGA Owner's Seminar. Short term relief can be obtained by inserting a standard CAM filter paper over the rotating rack loading tube opening, but this has not proved satisfactory for runs of one hour or longer. A simple filter system for the rotating rack was built, and is operated as part of the argon ventilation system. This appears to have solved the problem

  19. Storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-07-01

    Even if the best waste minimization measures are undertaken throughout radioisotope production or usage, significant radioactive wastes arise to make management measures essential. For developing countries with low isotope usage and little or no generation of nuclear materials, it may be possible to handle the generated waste by simply practicing decay storage for several half-lives of the radionuclides involved, followed by discharge or disposal without further processing. For those countries with much larger facilities, longer lived isotopes are produced and used. In this situation, storage is used not only for decay storage but also for in-process retention steps and for the key stage of interim storage of conditioned wastes pending final disposal. The report will serve as a technical manual providing reference material and direct step-by-step know-how to staff in radioisotope user establishments and research centres in the developing Member States without nuclear power generation. Considerations are limited to the simpler storage facilities. The restricted quantities and low activity associated with the relevant wastes will generally permit contact-handling and avoid the need for shielding requirements in the storage facilities or equipment used for handling. A small quantity of wastes from some radioisotope production cells and from reactor cooling water treatment may contain sufficient short lived activity from activated corrosion products to require some separate decay storage before contact-handling is suitable. 16 refs, 12 figs, 8 tabs

  20. Strategic areas in radioactive waste management. The viewpoint and work orientations of the Nea radioactive waste management committee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee (RWMC) is a forum of senior operators, regulators, policy makers, and senior representatives of R and D institutions in the field of radioactive waste management. The Committee assists Member countries by providing objective guidance on the solution of radioactive waste problems, and promotes Safety in the short- and long-term management of radioactive waste. This report identifies some of the major challenges currently faced by national waste management programmes, and describes the strategic areas in which the RWMC should focus its efforts in future years. (author)

  1. Contribution to the study of radioactivity of drinking water in Madagascar. Case study of the locality of Alasora

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RAVOSON, Heritiana N.

    2007-01-01

    Among the radioactive parameters which pollute water, the radon is a radioactive gas of natural origin. It comes from the desintegration of radium-226, which itself is coming from uranium-238 present in the earth crust. It infiltrates in underground water and generates solid daughters. The ingestion of radon and its daughters results in a medical risk to the exposed people. The interest of this study is to detect the presence of the short half-life radionuclides, radon and radium in drinking water of the Alasora rural district Antananarivo, Madagascar. For measurement, portable Triathler LSC, model 425-034 was used. Results obtained from 11 sites confirm the presence of the short half life radionuclides such as the Po-218, Po-214, Bi-214 and the Pb-214 in the samples. So, the gross alpha at first measurement varies from 13700± 100 Bq -1 to 85500±300 Bq.l -1 . Results also confirm the presence of radon in excess or not supported, by the fact that radium in the samples is lower than the detection limit. To confirm the presence of radium and the origin of the radionuclides in the water, more studies are needed. Compared to the legal limit, the studied zone does not show high radioactivity level. However, it is necessary to reduce any risk of exposure. For this purpose, it is not advised to drink the water immediately after collection. [fr

  2. Natural radioactivity monitoring in selected areas of the planet Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobst, L.

    2015-01-01

    Mankind lives with the natural radioactivity throughout its development. The effects of radiation may affect to some extent the evolutionary development of life on the Earth. It is therefore important to find out what values can achieve this natural radioactivity at different places of the world. In this presentation some results of dose rate measurement during transcontinental flyers are discussed.

  3. Prevention and risks limitation of the radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San Segundo, T.

    1983-01-01

    Associated risks to the ionizing radiation, in general, and to the radioactive installations, in particular, are exposed; as well as the prevention and limitation techniques applied in order to keep risk into acceptable levels are detatched. Finally, the effect in the human life of the radioactivity use and other activities are compared and man-made occupational and public exposures are explained. (author)

  4. Reducing Risks from Sealed Radioactive Sources in Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Sealed radioactive sources are commonly used in a variety of medical applications for both diagnosis and therapy. The sources used in medical applications usually have high levels of radioactivity and, therefore, have the potential to cause serious and life threatening injuries if used improperly or maliciously, or risky if they become lost or are stolen

  5. Short-term modern life-like stress exacerbates Aβ-pathology and synapse loss in 3xTg-AD mice

    OpenAIRE

    Baglietto-Vargas, David; Chen, Yuncai; Suh, Dongjin; Ager, Rahasson R.; Rodriguez-Ortiz, Carlos J.; Mederios, Rodrigo; Myczek, Kristoffer; Green, Kim N.; Baram, Tallie Z.; LaFerla, Frank M.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurological disorder that impairs memory and other cognitive functions in the elderly. The social and financial impacts of AD are overwhelming and are escalating exponentially as a result of population aging. Therefore, identifying AD-related risk factors and the development of more efficacious therapeutic approaches are critical to cure this neurological disorder. Current epidemiological evidence indicates that life experiences, including chronic st...

  6. Comparative analysis of short - term functional outcomes and quality of life in a prospective series of brachytherapy and Da Vinci robotic prostatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Cristina; Roman Martin, Ana A.; Conde-Sanchez, J. Manuel; Congregado-Ruiz, C. Belen; Osman-Garcia, Ignacio; Medina-Lopez, Rafael A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: There is a growing interest in achieving higher survival rates with the lowest morbidity in localized prostate cancer (PC) treatment. Consequently, minimally invasive techniques such as low-dose rate brachytherapy (BT) and robotic-assisted prostatectomy (RALP) have been developed and improved. Comparative analysis of functional outcomes and quality of life in a prospective series of 51BT and 42Da Vinci prostatectomies DV. Materials and Methods: Comparative analysis of functional outcomes and quality of life in a prospective series of 93 patients with low-risk localized PC diagnosed in 2011. 51 patients underwent low-dose rate BT and the other 42 patients RALP. IIEF to assess erectile function, ICIQ to evaluate continence and SF36 test to quality of life wee employed. Results: ICIQ at the first revision shows significant differences which favour the BT group, 79% present with continence or mild incontinence, whereas in the DV group 45% show these positive results. Differences disappear after 6 months, with 45 patients (89%) presenting with continence or mild incontinence in the BT group vs. 30 (71%) in the DV group. 65% of patients are potent in the first revision following BT and 39% following DV. Such differences are not significant and cannot be observed after 6 months. No significant differences were found in the comparative analysis of quality of life. Conclusions: ICIQ after surgery shows significant differences in favour of BT, which disappear after 6 months. Both procedures have a serious impact on erectile function, being even greater in the DV group. Differences between groups disappear after 6 months. (author)

  7. Comparative analysis of short - term functional outcomes and quality of life in a prospective series of brachytherapy and Da Vinci robotic prostatectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Sanchez, Cristina; Roman Martin, Ana A.; Conde-Sanchez, J. Manuel; Congregado-Ruiz, C. Belen; Osman-Garcia, Ignacio; Medina-Lopez, Rafael A. [Virgen del Rocio Universitary Hospital, Seville (Spain)

    2017-03-15

    Introduction: There is a growing interest in achieving higher survival rates with the lowest morbidity in localized prostate cancer (PC) treatment. Consequently, minimally invasive techniques such as low-dose rate brachytherapy (BT) and robotic-assisted prostatectomy (RALP) have been developed and improved. Comparative analysis of functional outcomes and quality of life in a prospective series of 51BT and 42Da Vinci prostatectomies DV. Materials and Methods: Comparative analysis of functional outcomes and quality of life in a prospective series of 93 patients with low-risk localized PC diagnosed in 2011. 51 patients underwent low-dose rate BT and the other 42 patients RALP. IIEF to assess erectile function, ICIQ to evaluate continence and SF36 test to quality of life wee employed. Results: ICIQ at the first revision shows significant differences which favour the BT group, 79% present with continence or mild incontinence, whereas in the DV group 45% show these positive results. Differences disappear after 6 months, with 45 patients (89%) presenting with continence or mild incontinence in the BT group vs. 30 (71%) in the DV group. 65% of patients are potent in the first revision following BT and 39% following DV. Such differences are not significant and cannot be observed after 6 months. No significant differences were found in the comparative analysis of quality of life. Conclusions: ICIQ after surgery shows significant differences in favour of BT, which disappear after 6 months. Both procedures have a serious impact on erectile function, being even greater in the DV group. Differences between groups disappear after 6 months. (author)

  8. Dose control in road transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerulis, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    The radiation doses to workers in the transport of radioactive material should be as low as reasonably achievable. The average doses of drivers and loaders, sampled in this thesis should be decreased. The demonstration of doses control in a road vehicle with radioactive material required by the current Brazilian regulation, CNEN NE 5.01 should be written in its own printed form with exposure values obtained in normally occupied positions from workers and members of the public, even when the consignment does not need 'exclusive use' (⅀IT ≤50). Through bibliographic research, modeling and field research, this research work shows that this demonstration of the control should be done by writing the registration accumulation of load, limited (⅀IT ≤50), also in the own printed form. It is for a better control method, in order to avoid the use of measuring equipment, to build standardization with foreign regulations, to the current occupational doses of radioprotection technicians, the costs and time, (important for consignment with radiopharmaceuticals short half-life) would be all smaller. Exposure values of the parameters used with this method are smaller than regulatory limits. The segregation distances between loads and the cabins of vehicles shall be showed by Brazilian regulation updated to contribute to these aims. (author)

  9. Denial of shipments of radioactive materials in Paraguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More Torres, Luis E.; Romero de Gonzalez, V.; Lopez Caceres, S.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Denials, Delays and Abandonment of the Radioactive Materials is a problem at world level that has been increased in the last times with more emphasis starting from the attack of September 11 the 2001 in the USA. From then radioactive materials have been denial or delayed and until abandoned. The materials of short periods used mainly in nuclear medicine as the 99m Tc or the 131 I, when they are rejected, delayed it usually causes the lost of the material because it has surpassed their useful life and in many cases they are abandoned. The rejections, delays and later abandonment of the materials in special of Medical use have originated serious damages for the nuclear medicine patients as much of diagnoses as of treatments, in Teleterapia for many patients of cancer who could not be treated. In the petroliferous prospecting and Industry has originated numerous economic damages due to the delays since most of the used sources they are of long period but the delay causes an important increase in the cost. (author)

  10. The Sources of Life Chances: Does Education, Class Category, Occupation, or Short-Term Earnings Predict 20-Year Long-Term Earnings?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChangHwan Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In sociological studies of economic stratification and intergenerational mobility, occupation has long been presumed to reflect lifetime earnings better than do short-term earnings. However, few studies have actually tested this critical assumption. In this study, we investigate the cross-sectional determinants of 20-year accumulated earnings using data that match respondents in the Survey of Income and Program Participation to their longitudinal earnings records based on administrative tax information from 1990 to 2009. Fit statistics of regression models are estimated to assess the predictive power of various proxy variables, including occupation, education, and short-term earnings, on cumulative earnings over the 20-year time period. Contrary to the popular assumption in sociology, our results find that cross-sectional earnings have greater predictive power on long-term earnings than occupation-based class classifications, including three-digit detailed occupations for both men and women. The model based on educational attainment, including field of study, has slightly better fit than models based on one-digit occupation or the Erikson, Goldthorpe, and Portocarero class scheme. We discuss the theoretical implications of these findings for the sociology of stratification and intergenerational mobility.

  11. Radioactivity and food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olszyna-Marzys, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    Two topics relating to radioactivity and food are discussed: food irradiation for preservation purposes, and food contamination from radioactive substances. Food irradiation involves the use of electromagnetic energy (x and gamma rays) emitted by radioactive substances or produced by machine in order to destroy the insects and microorganisms present and prevent germination. The sanitary and economic advantages of treating food in this way are discussed. Numerous studies have confirmed that under strictly controlled conditions no undesirable changes take place in food that has been irradiated nor is radioactivity induced. Reference is made to the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power station, which aroused public concern about irradiated food. The events surrounding the accident are reviewed, and its consequences with regard to contamination of different foods with radioactive substances, particularly iodine-131 and cesium-137, are described. Also discussed are the steps that have been taken by different international organizations to set limits on acceptable radioactivity in food.15 references

  12. Radioactive air sampling methods

    CERN Document Server

    Maiello, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    Although the field of radioactive air sampling has matured and evolved over decades, it has lacked a single resource that assimilates technical and background information on its many facets. Edited by experts and with contributions from top practitioners and researchers, Radioactive Air Sampling Methods provides authoritative guidance on measuring airborne radioactivity from industrial, research, and nuclear power operations, as well as naturally occuring radioactivity in the environment. Designed for industrial hygienists, air quality experts, and heath physicists, the book delves into the applied research advancing and transforming practice with improvements to measurement equipment, human dose modeling of inhaled radioactivity, and radiation safety regulations. To present a wide picture of the field, it covers the international and national standards that guide the quality of air sampling measurements and equipment. It discusses emergency response issues, including radioactive fallout and the assets used ...

  13. ORNL radioactive waste operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sease, J.D.; King, E.M.; Coobs, J.H.; Row, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    Since its beginning in 1943, ORNL has generated large amounts of solid, liquid, and gaseous radioactive waste material as a by-product of the basic research and development work carried out at the laboratory. The waste system at ORNL has been continually modified and updated to keep pace with the changing release requirements for radioactive wastes. Major upgrading projects are currently in progress. The operating record of ORNL waste operation has been excellent over many years. Recent surveillance of radioactivity in the Oak Ridge environs indicates that atmospheric concentrations of radioactivity were not significantly different from other areas in East Tennesseee. Concentrations of radioactivity in the Clinch River and in fish collected from the river were less than 4% of the permissible concentration and intake guides for individuals in the offsite environment. While some radioactivity was released to the environment from plant operations, the concentrations in all of the media sampled were well below established standards

  14. Damping of radioactivity of the Bikini ashes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horie, K

    1955-01-01

    The radioactivity (..beta..- and ..gamma..-radiation) of the H-bomb ashes was measured over a period of 600 days by means of an electroscope and a Geiger-Mueller counter. Absorption by Al foils shows that the half-life is shorter for radiation of lower energy.

  15. Abnormal radioactivity of the atmosphere. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrigue, H

    1952-01-01

    Further measurements on the radioactivity of the atmosphere near Puy de Dome are tabulated. The activity in April 1952 with a mean life of 25 hrs was ascribed to the complex particles A. In June 1952 an activity with a mean life of 100 to 400 hrs was attributed to the previously observed A'' particles. The activity associated with the A'' particles was also observed in the soil and air.

  16. Radioactive materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The Radiochemical Processing Plant (RPP) at ORNL has served as the national repository and distribution center for 233 U for > 20 years. Several hundred kilograms of uranium, containing approximately 90 to 98% 233 U, are stored there in the form of metal, oxides, and nitrate solutions. All of these uranium materials contain small, but significant, concentrations of 232 U, ranging from 2 to 225 ppm. Most of the radioactivity associated with the 233 U comes from the decay daughters of 232 U (74-year half-life). The 252 Cf Industrial Sales/Loan Program involves loans of 252 Cf neutron sources to agencies of the US Government and sales of 252 Cf as the bulk oxide and as palladium-californium alloy pellets and wires. The program has been operated since 1968 in temporary facilities at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL). The obsolete hot-cell facilities at SRL are now being decommissioned, and the program activities are being transferred to ORNL's Californium Facility in Bldg. 7930, which is managed by the staff of the Transuranium Processing Plant

  17. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  19. Drainage of radioactive areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-04-01

    This Code of Practice covers all the drainage systems which may occur in the radioactive classified area of an establishment, namely surface water, foul, process and radioactive drainage. It also deals with final discharge lines. The Code of Practice concentrates on those aspects of drainage which require particular attention because the systems are in or from radioactive areas and typical illustrations are given in appendices. The Code makes references to sources of information on conventional aspects of drainage design. (author)

  20. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  1. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources.

  2. Learning more about radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This digest brochure explains what radioactivity is, where it comes from, how it is measured, what are its effects on the body and the way to protect it against these effects, the uses of radioactivity (In the medical field, In industry, In the food industry, and In the cultural world). It ends with some examples of irradiation levels, of natural radioactivity and with the distribution in France of various sources of exposure. (J.S.)

  3. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Almost all IAEA Member States use radioactive sources in medicine, industry, agriculture and scientific research, and countries remain responsible for the safe handling and storage of all radioactively contaminated waste that result from such activities. In some cases, waste must be specially treated or conditioned before storage and/or disposal. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Nuclear Energy Department aimed at establishing appropriate technologies and procedures for managing radioactive wastes. (IAEA)

  4. Handling of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza Mir, Azucena

    1998-01-01

    Based on characteristics and quantities of different types of radioactive waste produced in the country, achievements in infrastructure and the way to solve problems related with radioactive waste handling and management, are presented in this paper. Objectives of maintaining facilities and capacities for controlling, processing and storing radioactive waste in a conditioned form, are attained, within a great range of legal framework, so defined to contribute with safety to people and environment (au)

  5. Radioactive wastes and discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The guide sets out the radiation safety requirements and limits for the treatment of radioactive waste. They shall be observed when discharging radioactive substances into the atmosphere or sewer system, or when delivering solid, low-activity waste to a landfill site without a separate waste treatment plan. The guide does not apply to the radioactive waste resulting from the utilisation of nuclear energy or natural resources

  6. Years of life lost due to external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raicevic, J.J.; Merkle, J.M.; Ehrhardt, J.; Ninkovic, M.M.

    2002-01-01

    A new approach for calculation of the years of life lost per excess death (YLL) due to stochastic health effects is applied to external exposure pathways. The short-term external exposures are due to the passage of radioactive cloud (CL) and due to the skin and clothes contamination (SK). The long-term external exposure is the one from the radioactive material deposited on ground (GR). Three nuclides, 131 I , 137 Cs and 239 Pu with extremely wide range of the half-life are considered to examine its possible influence on the calculated YLL values. For each of these nuclides, the YLL is found as a decreasing function of the age at exposure and presented graphically in this paper. Another negative correlation is established between the fully averaged YLL and the duration of the nuclide's half-life has been found for protracted exposure (GR). On the other hand, the YLL for the short-term external exposures (CL and SK) practically does not depend on the nuclide's half-life. In addition, a weak YLL dependence of the dose was commented. (author)

  7. Parental perception of health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with short stature: literature review and introduction of the parent-reported QoLISSY instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitmann, Julia; Rohenkohl, Anja; Bullinger, Monika; Chaplin, John E; Herdman, Michael; Sanz, Dolores; Mimoun, Emmanuelle; Feigerlova, Eva; DeBusk, Kendra; Power, Michael; Wollmann, Hartmut; Pleil, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    Health-related quality of life (HrQoL) of the child diagnosed with short stature is an important outcome to be assessed both from the patient as well as from the parental perspective. The objective of this study was to review the literature on parent-reported HrQoL and to subsequently develop and psychometrically test the parent-reported version of the Quality of Life in Short Stature Youth (QoLISSY) instrument for use in clinical and epidemiologic research. A review of the literature on parental assessment of child HrQoL via PUBMED was followed by a psychometric analysis of data collected within the European QoLISSY study, in which 686 eligible parents of short statured children/adolescents (aged 4-18 years) meeting inclusion criteria participated. Patient inclusion criteria were a height below -2 SD, a diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or idiopathic short stature (ISS), and treatment status in terms of receiving or not receiving recombinant human growth hormone therapy. Focus groups eliciting parental HrQoL statements, pilot testing with cognitive debriefing, and a field test in 317 parents with a retest in 148 parents were conducted simultaneously in France, Germany, Spain, Sweden and the UK. The psychometric performance of the parent-reported instrument, developed in parallel to the child/ adolescent self-report version, was assessed using standard tests of reliability and validity. Literature search failed to identify a cross-culturally developed height specific instrument available for both patient self-report and parental observer report. Analysis of the QoLISSY focus group phase conducted separately in children, adolescents and parents yielded 169 items generated from parent focus groups. A cognitive debriefing exercise followed by a pilot test of preliminary psychometric characteristics resulted in deleting poorly performing items. Field testing of the parent-reported version suggested a three-domain core HrQoL structure with 22 items

  8. Short-term follow-up of exercise training program and beta-blocker treatment on quality of life in dogs with naturally acquired chronic mitral valve disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Marcondes-Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of carvedilol treatment and a regimen of supervised aerobic exercise training on quality of life and other clinical, echocardiographic, and biochemical variables in a group of client-owned dogs with chronic mitral valve disease (CMVD. Ten healthy dogs (control and 36 CMVD dogs were studied, with the latter group divided into 3 subgroups. In addition to conventional treatment (benazepril, 0.3-0.5 mg/kg once a day, and digoxin, 0.0055 mg/kg twice daily, 13 dogs received exercise training (subgroup I; 10.3±2.1 years, 10 dogs received carvedilol (0.3 mg/kg twice daily and exercise training (subgroup II; 10.8±1.7 years, and 13 dogs received only carvedilol (subgroup III; 10.9±2.1 years. All drugs were administered orally. Clinical, laboratory, and Doppler echocardiographic variables were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Exercise training was conducted from months 3-6. The mean speed rate during training increased for both subgroups I and II (ANOVA, P>0.001, indicating improvement in physical conditioning at the end of the exercise period. Quality of life and functional class was improved for all subgroups at the end of the study. The N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP level increased in subgroup I from baseline to 3 months, but remained stable after training introduction (from 3 to 6 months. For subgroups II and III, NT-proBNP levels remained stable during the entire study. No difference was observed for the other variables between the three evaluation periods. The combination of carvedilol or exercise training with conventional treatment in CMVD dogs led to improvements in quality of life and functional class. Therefore, light walking in CMVD dogs must be encouraged.

  9. Clinical Holistic Medicine (Mindful, Short-Term Psychodynamic Psychotherapy Complemented with Bodywork Improves Quality of Life, Health, and Ability by Induction of Antonovsky-Salutogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Ventegodt

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We had a success rate of treating low, self-assessed, global quality of life (measured by QOL1: How would you assess the quality of your life now? with clinical holistic medicine of 56.4% (95% CI: 42.3–69.7% and calculated from this the Number Needed to Treat (NNT as 1.43–2.36. We found that during treatment, (in average 20 sessions of psychodynamic psychotherapy complemented with bodywork at a cost of 1600 EURO, the patients entered a state of Antonovsky-salutogenesis (holistic, existential healing, which also improved their self-assessed health and general ability one whole step up a 5-point Likert Scale. The treatment responders radically improved their self-assessed physical health (0.6 step, self-assessed mental health (1.6 step, their relation to self (1.2 step, friends (0.3 step, and partner (2.1 step on a 6-step scale, and their ability to love (1.2 step and work (0.8 step, and to function socially (1.0 step and sexually (0.8 step. It seems that treatment with clinical holistic medicine is the cure of choice when the patients (1 present the triad of low quality of life, poor self-assessed physical and/or mental health, and poor ability to function; and (2 are willing to suffer during the therapy by confronting and integrating old emotional problems and trauma(s from the past. For these patients, the treatment provided lasting benefits, without the negative side effects of drugs. A lasting, positive effect might also prevent many different types of problems in the future. The therapy was “mindful” in its focus on existential and spiritual issues.

  10. Short term effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gain Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea and fatigue are commonly reported and result in a reduced capacity to perform daily activities and impaired quality of life. Exercise training has demonstrated efficacy in individuals with other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Historically, however, exercise training has not been utilised as a form of therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension due to the perceived risk of sudden cardiac death and the theoretical possibility that exercise would lead to worsening pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and deterioration in right heart function. Now, with the advances in pharmaceutical management, determining the safety and benefits of exercise training in this population has become more relevant. Only three studies of supervised exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension have been published. These studies demonstrated improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life, in the absence of adverse events or clinical deterioration. However, these studies have not utilised an outpatient-based, whole body exercise training program, the most common format for exercise programs within Australia. It is uncertain whether this form of training is beneficial and capable of producing sustained benefits in exercise capacity and quality of life in this population. Design/Methods This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a 12 week, outpatient-based, supervised, whole body exercise training program, followed by a home-based exercise program, is safe and improves exercise capacity and quality of life in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This study aims to recruit 34 subjects who will be randomly allocated to the exercise group (supervised exercise training 3 times a week for 12 weeks, followed by

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Basis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, B.K.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this Radioactive Waste Management Basis is to describe the systematic approach for planning, executing, and evaluating the management of radioactive waste at LLNL. The implementation of this document will ensure that waste management activities at LLNL are conducted in compliance with the requirements of DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management, and the Implementation Guide for DOE Manual 435.1-1, Radioactive Waste Management Manual. Technical justification is provided where methods for meeting the requirements of DOE Order 435.1 deviate from the DOE Manual 435.1-1 and Implementation Guide.

  12. Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapelushnik, I.; Sheinfeld, M.; Avida, R.; Kadmon, Y.; Ellenbogen, M.; Tirosh, D.

    1999-01-01

    The Airborne Radiation Monitoring System (ARMS) monitors air or ground radioactive contamination. The contamination source can be a radioactive plume or an area contaminated with radionuclides. The system is based on two major parts, an airborne unit carried by a helicopter and a ground station carried by a truck. The system enables real time measurement and analysis of radioactive plumes as well as post flight processing. The Radioactive Plumes Monitoring Simulator purpose is to create a virtual space where the trained operators experience full radiation field conditions, without real radiation hazard. The ARMS is based on a flying platform and hence the simulator allows a significant reduction of flight time costs

  13. Controlling radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtinger, W.

    1992-01-01

    The guideline of the Ministry for Environmental Protection for controlling radioactive waste with a negligible development of heat defines in detail what data are relevant to the control of radioactive waste and should be followed up on and included in a system of documentation. By introducing the AVK (product control system for tracing the course of waste disposal) the operators of German nuclear power plants have taken the requirements of this guideline into account. In particular, possibilities for determining the degree of radioactivity of radioactive waste, which the BMU-guidelines call for, were put into practice by means of the programming technology of the product control system's module MOPRO. (orig.) [de

  14. Environmental radioactivity 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Environmental Radioactivity in New Zealand and Rarotonga : annual report 1996 was published in May this year. The 1996 environmental radioactivity monitoring programme included, as usual, measurements in New Zealand and the Cook Islands of atmospheric, deposited and dairy product radioactivity. The environment in the New Zealand and Cook Island regions has now virtually returned to the situation in the 'pre-nuclear' era. The contination of monitoring, although at a reduced level of intensity, is basically to ensure that any change from the present state, due to any source of radioactivity does not go undetected or unquestioned. (author)

  15. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usang, M. D., E-mail: mark-dennis@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P. [Reactor Department, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Bangi, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive.

  16. Radioactivity of spent TRIGA fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usang, M. D.; Nabil, A. R. A.; Alfred, S. L.; Hamzah, N. S.; Abi, M. J. B.; Rawi, M. Z. M.; Abu, M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Some of the oldest TRIGA fuel in the Malaysian Reaktor TRIGA PUSPATI (RTP) is approaching the limit of its end of life with burn-up of around 20%. Hence it is prudent for us to start planning on the replacement of the fuel in the reactor and other derivative activities associated with it. In this regard, we need to understand all of the risk associated with such operation and one of them is to predict the radioactivity of the fuel, so as to estimate the safety of our working conditions. The radioactivity of several fuels are measured and compared with simulation results to confirm the burnup levels of the selected fuels. The radioactivity measurement are conducted inside the water tank to reduce the risk of exposure and in this case the detector wrapped in plastics are lowered under water. In nuclear power plant, the general practice was to continuously burn the fuel. In research reactor, most operations are based on the immediate needs of the reactor and our RTP for example operate periodically. By integrating the burnup contribution for each core configuration, we simplify the simulation of burn up for each core configuration. Our results for two (2) fuel however indicates that the dose from simulation underestimate the actual dose from our measurements. Several postulates are investigated but the underlying reason remain inconclusive

  17. Application of radioactive sources in analytical instruments for planetary exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Economou, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: In the past 50 years or so, many types of radioactive sources have been used in space exploration. 238 Pu is often used in space missions in Radioactive Heater Units (RHU) and Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) for heat and power generation, respectively. In 1960's, 2 ' 42 Cm alpha radioactive sources have been used for the first time in space applications on 3 Surveyor spacecrafts to obtain the chemical composition of the lunar surface with an instrument based on the Rutherford backscatterring of the alpha particles from nuclei in the analyzed sample. 242 Cm is an alpha emitter of 6.1 MeV alpha particles. Its half-life time, 163 days, is short enough to allow sources to be prepared with the necessary high intensity per unit area ( up to 470 mCi and FWHM of about 1.5% in the lunar instruments) that results in narrow energy distribution, yet long enough that the sources have adequate lifetimes for short duration missions. 242 Cm is readily prepared in curie quantities by irradiation of 241 Am by neutrons in nuclear reactors, followed by chemical separation of the curium from the americium and fission products. For long duration missions, like for example missions to Mars, comets, and asteroids, the isotope 244 Cm (T 1/2 =18.1 y, E α =5.8 MeV) is a better source because of its much longer half-life time. Both of these isotopes are also excellent x-ray excitation sources and have been used for that purpose on several planetary missions. For the light elements the excitation is caused mainly by the alpha particles, while for the heavier elements (> Ca) the excitation is mainly due to the x-rays from the Pu L-lines (E x =14-18 keV). 244 Cm has been used in several variations of the Alpha Proton Xray Spectrometer (APXS): PHOBOS 1 and 2 Pathfinder, Russian Mars-96 mission, Mars Exploration Rover (MER) and Rosetta. Other sources used in X-ray fluorescence instruments in space are 55 Fe and 109 Cd (Viking1,2, Beagle 2) and 57 Co is used in Moessbauer

  18. Correlations between psychopathology and self-reported quality of life among adolescents in youth correctional facilities in Lagos, Nigeria: A short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilola, Olayinka; Ola, Bolanle; Abiri, Gbonjubola; Adewuya, Abiodun O

    2018-02-01

    The relationship between psychopathology and quality of life (QoL) and well-being among young incarcerated offenders has hardly been explored. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that higher self-rated psychopathology would be associated with lower QoL among adolescents resident within youth correctional facilities in Lagos. Psychopathology was assessed using the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire (SDQ), while QoL was measured by using the Paediatric Quality of Life. One hundred and sixty-five adolescents completed the study, mostly boys (n = 124; 75%) with a mean age of 14.3 ± 2.1 years. Nearly, a fifth (30, 18%) of respondents had abnormal total SDQ scores (≥17), suggestive of definite psychiatric disorder, while another 44 (27%) had highly probable psychopathology (total SDQ scores 15-16). There was strong negative correlation (r = -0.51, p psychopathology and QoL among these adolescents, it is plausible to suppose that treatment of mental health problems could have a positive impact on rehabilitation and reintegration. Given the rate of likely psychopathology, mental health screening within young offender institutions should be routine, and followed, as necessary with full assessment and resultant treatment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Infiltration of plasma rich in growth factors for osteoarthritis of the knee short-term effects on function and quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang-Saegusa, Ana; Cugat, Ramón; Ares, Oscar; Seijas, Roberto; Cuscó, Xavier; Garcia-Balletbó, Montserrat

    2011-03-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a highly prevalent, chronic, degenerative condition that generates a high expense. Alternative and co-adjuvant therapies to improve the quality of life and physical function of affected patients are currently being sought. A total of 808 patients with knee pathology were treated with PRGF (plasma rich in growth factors), 312 of them with OA of the knee (Outerbridge grades I-IV) and symptoms of >3 months duration met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated to obtain a sample of 261 patients, 109 women and 152 men, with an average age of 48.39. Three intra-articular injections of autologous PRGF were administered at 2-week intervals in outpatient surgery. The process of obtaining PRGF was carried out following the Anitua Technique. Participants were asked to fill out a questionnaire with personal data and the following assessment instruments: VAS, SF-36, WOMAC Index and Lequesne Index before the first infiltration of PRGF and 6 months after the last infiltration. Statistically significant differences (P PRGF infiltration. At 6 months following intra-articular infiltration of PRGF in patients with OA of the knee, improvements in function and quality of life were documented by OA-specific and general clinical assessment instruments. These favourable findings point to consider PRGF as a therapy for OA.

  20. Improvement of quality of life, anxiety and depression after surgery in patients with stress urinary incontinence: Results of a longitudinal short-term follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giesinger Johannes M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The objective of this study was to compare the effect of incontinence surgery and pelvic floor training on quality of life (QOL, anxiety and depression in patients with stress urinary incontinence (SUI. Methods In a prospective longitudinal study, females with proven SUI were asked to complete a set of standardized questionnaires (sociodemographic data sheet, FACT-G, I-QOL, HADS before and eight weeks after treatment. The comparison groups consisted of a surgical treatment group and a conservative group that underwent supervised pelvic floor training for eight weeks. Results From the 67 female patients included in the study a number of 53 patients completed both assessment time points (mean age 57.4, mean years of SUI 7.6. The surgical treatment group consisted of 32 patients of which 21 patients received a modified Burch colposuspension and 11 patients a tension-free mid-urethral tape suspension. The 21 patients in the conservative group attended eight once-weekly supervised pelvic floor training sessions. After treatment the surgical intervention group showed a significantly higher improvement of QOL (FACT-G and I-QOL and anxiety (HADS than the pelvic floor training group. Conclusion For female patients with SUI surgery yielded a better outcome than pelvic floor training with regard to quality of life and anxiety.

  1. Existence of life-time stable proteins in mature rats-Dating of proteins' age by repeated short-term exposure to labeled amino acids throughout age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Cecilie Leidesdorff; Schjerling, Peter; Bornø, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    In vivo turnover rates of proteins covering the processes of protein synthesis and breakdown rates have been measured in many tissues and protein pools using various techniques. Connective tissue and collagen protein turnover is of specific interest since existing results are rather diverging. Th...... living days, indicating very slow turnover. The data support the hypothesis that some proteins synthesized during the early development and growth still exist much later in life of animals and hence has a very slow turnover rate.......In vivo turnover rates of proteins covering the processes of protein synthesis and breakdown rates have been measured in many tissues and protein pools using various techniques. Connective tissue and collagen protein turnover is of specific interest since existing results are rather diverging....... The aim of this study is to investigate whether we can verify the presence of protein pools within the same tissue with very distinct turnover rates over the life-span of rats with special focus on connective tissue. Male and female Lewis rats (n = 35) were injected with five different isotopically...

  2. Radioactive waste management for a radiologically contaminated hospitalized patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina Jomir, G.; Michel, X.; Lecompte, Y.; Chianea, N.; Cazoulat, A.

    2015-01-01

    Radioactive waste management in the post-accidental phase following caring for a radiologically contaminated patient in a hospital decontamination facility must be anticipated at a local level to be truly efficient, as the volume of waste could be substantial. This management must comply with the principles set out for radioactive as well as medical waste. The first step involves identification of radiologically contaminated waste based on radioactivity measurement for volume reduction. Then, the management depends on the longest radioactive half-life of contaminative radionuclides. For a half-life inferior to 100 days, wastes are stored for their radioactivity to decay for at least 10 periods before disposal like conventional medical waste. Long-lived radioactive waste management implies treatment of liquid waste and special handling for sorting and packaging before final elimination at the French National Agency for Radioactive Waste Management (ANDRA). Following this, highly specialized waste management skills, financial responsibility issues and detention of non-medical radioactive sources are questions raised by hospital radioactive waste management in the post-accidental phase. (authors)

  3. Accumulation of radioactive iron in marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tateda, Yuzuru

    1985-01-01

    The accumulation and excretion of radioactive iron in some marine organisms was investigated by radio-tracer experiments. The concentration factor, biological half-life, distribution in body, and combining form in some organs, are compared and discussed between mollusks and fishes. The results obtained are: 1) The concentration factor of seaweed was higher than those of worm and fish in uptake from seawater. Abalone showed a higher concentration factor than fish. 2) The first component of excretion curve was small in case of a longer period of uptake from seawater. 3) Abalone and octopus showed a higher radioactivity retention than flounder and black-fish. 4) The fish fed labelled seaweed showed a lower radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled worm. 5) The fish fed radioisotopes with prey showed a higher radioactivity retention than fish fed labelled prey. 6) Biological half-lives were longer in abalone and octopus than in fishes. The biological half-lives of radioactive iron in fishes varied according to the uptake modes. 7) The distribution ratio of radioactive iron in organisms were large in the liver and degestive tract. 8) The GFC profile of 59 Fe in some organs of organisms showed combining form of same molecular weight of proteinous matter. (author)

  4. Disposal of radioactive waste. Some ethical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streffer, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The threat posed to humans and nature by radioactive material is a result of the ionizing radiation released during the radioactive decay. The present use of radioactivity in medicine research and technologies produces steadily radioactive waste. It is therefore necessary to safely store this waste, particularly high level waste from nuclear facilities. The decisive factors determining the necessary duration of isolation or confinement are the physical half-life times ranging with some radionuclides up to many million years. It has therefore been accepted worldwide that the radioactive material needs to be confined isolated from the biosphere, the habitat of humans and all other organisms, for very long time periods. Although it is generally accepted that repositories for the waste are necessary, strong public emotions have been built up against the strategies to erect such installations. Apparently transparent information and public participation has been insufficient or even lacking. These problems have led to endeavours to achieve public acceptance and to consider ethical acceptability. Some aspects of such discussions and possibilities will be taken up in this contribution. This article is based on the work of an interdisciplinary group. The results have been published in 'Radioactive Waste - Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal' by C. Streffer, C.F. Gethmann, G. Kamp et al. in 'Ethics of Sciences and Technology Assessment', Volume 38, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  5. Disposal of radioactive waste. Some ethical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streffer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The threat posed to humans and nature by radioactive material is a result of the ionizing radiation released during the radioactive decay. The present use of radioactivity in medicine research and technologies produces steadily radioactive waste. It is therefore necessary to safely store this waste, particularly high level waste from nuclear facilities. The decisive factors determining the necessary duration of isolation or confinement are the physical half-life times ranging with some radionuclides up to many million years. It has therefore been accepted worldwide that the radioactive material needs to be confined isolated from the biosphere, the habitat of humans and all other organisms, for very long time periods. Although it is generally accepted that repositories for the waste are necessary, strong public emotions have been built up against the strategies to erect such installations. Apparently transparent information and public participation has been insufficient or even lacking. These problems have led to endeavours to achieve public acceptance and to consider ethical acceptability. Some aspects of such discussions and possibilities will be taken up in this contribution. This article is based on the work of an interdisciplinary group. The results have been published in 'Radioactive Waste - Technical and Normative Aspects of its Disposal' by C. Streffer, C.F. Gethmann, G. Kamp et al. in 'Ethics of Sciences and Technology Assessment', Volume 38, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.

  6. Radioactive Waste Management Objectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world'. One way it achieves this objective is to issue publications in various series. Two of these series are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III, paragraph A.6, of the IAEA Statute, the IAEA safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property.' The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are primarily written in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own activities. The principal users are Member State regulatory bodies and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series consists of reports designed to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia and politicians, among others. The information is presented in guides, reports on the status of technology and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The series complements the IAEA's safety standards, and provides detailed guidance, experience, good practices and examples on the five areas covered in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series. The Nuclear Energy Basic Principles is the highest level publication in the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and describes the rationale and vision for the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. It presents eight Basic Principles on which nuclear energy systems should be based to fulfil nuclear energy's potential to help meet growing global energy needs. The Nuclear Energy Series Objectives are the second level publications. They describe what needs to be

  7. Public Education and Radioactive Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarten, S.

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the country the mention of anything nuclear or the word radiation ignites fear in the minds of many Americans. Political hype, news stories and the lack of basic understanding about nuclear power and radiation causes many people to reject what they do not understand. Often little, if any, thought may have been given to nearby nuclear weapons facilities where family members and neighbors were gainfully employed at these sites. As older nuclear facilities are closed being a result of the end of the Cold War, with indications that radioactive materials might be transported to other parts of the country, the public in expressing concern. It is important that the public have an understanding of how these materials are handled to insure public safety. It becomes important that both the companies handling these materials and the U.S. Department of Energy create an environment that will involve community participation in developing strategies that will promote and support an understanding of how radioactive wastes will be packaged, transported, and disposed. This is being performed in Oak Ridge, TN. through the efforts of the Oak Ridge Site Specific Advisory Board (ORSSAB). The ORSSAB is a DOE sponsored board of private citizens from all walks of life and professionalism's. The objective of this paper is to offer suggestions as to how public confidence, through education about nuclear, radioactive and associated and wastes are effectively handle the problems related to waste disposal, removal or on-site storage. It is essential that the public fully understand and become involved in the need for the reduction of the waste stream volumes and the technical problems being faced in reaching this goal. The effort of gaining public understanding and support of this important task cannot be limited to just those within close proximity to the facility presently housing these materials, but must extend to those outlying areas and along any potential route that might be

  8. Impact of short-term nutritional supplementation on surrogate markers of undernutrition in hemodialysis patients - prospective real-life interventional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Andreja; Bevc, Sebastjan; Ekart, Robert

    Hemodialysis (HD) patients are at increased risk for undernutrition, especially protein wasting. We present the results of a prospective study in HD patients after 4 months of intervention with oral nutritional supplements (ONS). After a 3-month wash-out period, 92 HD patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were tested for undernutrition with composite parameters, laboratory tests, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and hand-grip strength test (HGS). All patients fulfilling criteria for, or at high risk of, undernutrition were given ONS in addition to their regular diet. The impact of short-term ONS on surrogate markers of undernutrition was statistically analyzed. Data for 84 patients, 45 (53.6%) male, average age 63.3 years, were available for analysis after 4 months. Patients were divided into three groups: group A (n = 28), patients with normal nutritional status (NUS) at baseline not necessitating ONS; group B (n = 43), patients entitled to receive ONS; group C (n = 13), patients entitled to receive but refused to take ONS. In group B patients, received on average 4.1 bottles of ONS (902 mL; 1,623.6 kcal; 73.06 g protein) per week. Baseline results showed statistically-significant differences between groups in serum albumin levels and phase angle (PhA) but not in HGS. After 4 months of ONS, we noticed stagnation of observed markers in group B. Interestingly, in group A, significant deterioration of serum albumin and PhA was observed, but HGS improved. There was a trend towards worsening of serum albumin levels and HGS in group C not reaching statistical significance. In undernourished HD patients after ONS we did not find statistically-significant improvement of NUS evaluating surrogate markers. Nevertheless, in undernourished patients not receiving ONS, serum albumin and HGS showed a trend towards worsening, and even in well-nourished patients, nutritional markers (serum albumin and PhA) declined. We speculate that a certain positive

  9. Impact of regurgitation on health-related quality of life in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease before and after short-term potent acid suppression therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahrilas, Peter J; Jonsson, Andreas; Denison, Hans; Wernersson, Börje; Hughes, Nesta; Howden, Colin W

    2014-05-01

    Limited data exist on the impact of regurgitation on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). We assessed the relationship between regurgitation frequency and HRQOL before and after acid suppression therapy in GORD. We used data from two randomised trials of AZD0865 25-75 mg/day versus esomeprazole 20 or 40 mg/day in non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) (n=1415) or reflux oesophagitis (RO) (n=1460). The Reflux Disease Questionnaire was used to select patients with frequent and intense heartburn for inclusion and to assess treatment response. The Quality of Life in Reflux and Dyspepsia (QOLRAD) questionnaire was used to assess HRQOL. At baseline, 93% of patients in both the NERD and RO groups experienced regurgitation. Mean QOLRAD scores were similar for NERD and RO at baseline and at week 4 and disclosed decremental HRQOL with increasing frequency of regurgitation; a clinically relevant difference of >0.5 in mean QOLRAD scores was seen with regurgitation ≥4 days/week versus <4 days/week. The prevalence of frequent, persistent regurgitation (≥4 days/week) at week 4 among heartburn responders (≤1 day/week of mild heartburn) was 28% in NERD and 23% in RO. QOLRAD scores were higher among heartburn responders. There was a similar pattern of impact related to regurgitation frequency in heartburn responders compared with the group as a whole. Frequent regurgitation was associated with a clinically relevant, incremental decline in HRQOL beyond that associated with heartburn before and after potent acid suppression in both NERD and RO. NCT00206284 and NCT00206245.

  10. Study of niobium isotopes having excess neutrons and a short half-life; Etude des isotopes du niobium excedentaires en neutrons et de courte periode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebenthal, K [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-02-01

    By irradiating Mo with 14 MeV neutrons isomers have been found for {sup 98}Nb (2.8 s half-life) {sup 99}Nb (9 s) and {sup 100}Nb (2.4 s). No isomer of this type seems to exist for {sup 96}Nb. Rapid separation methods are developed for isolating {sup 98}Zr from fission products, and for separating Zr and Nb. The half-life of {sup 98}Zr is measured (31 s) and the formation of {sup 98}Nb (2.8 s) from {sup 98}Zr (31 s) is shown by milking. Rough {beta} and {gamma} measurements of these nuclei are described. The {gamma} spectrum of {sup 98}Nb (51 mn) is studied with a high-resolution Ge/Li - detector. (authors) [French] Des irradiations des isotopes de molybdene avec des neutrons de 14 MeV ont mis en evidence l'existence des isomeres de {sup 98}Nb (periode 2.8 s) {sup 99}Nb (9 s) et {sup 100}Nb (2.4 s). Pour le {sup 96}Nb un isomere de ce type ne semble pas exister. Des methodes rapides de separation sont mises au point pour isoler le zirconium 98 des produits de fission, et pour separer ensuite le niobium du zirconium. La periode du {sup 98}Zr est de 3l s, et on demontre la formation du {sup 98}Nb (2.8 s) a partir du Zr (31 s). Ces corps sont etudies sommairement en spectroscopie {beta} et {gamma}. Le spectre gamma de {sup 98}Nb (periode 51 mn) est etudie avec un detecteur Ge/Li de haute resolution. (auteurs)

  11. Suitability study of using a coincidence monitor for room air radioactivity monitoring in a PET center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roellig, D.; Reichelt, C.; Iwatschenko-Borho, M.

    2001-01-01

    The application of radioactive nuclides in medicine may cause as well radioactive exposure of personnel (Medical Technical Assistants). In the present case the exposure of personnel in the area of medical positron-emission tomography (PET) within the Research Center of Rossendorf due to exhalation of the injected activity by the patient shall be investigated. For this purpose it is necessary to measure the activity concentration of the room air. Conventional methods such as collecting samples on special filters are not suitable due to the short half-life time of the used nuclides. Standard type continuous monitors are hardly suitable as well, because the injected activity of the patient and various radioactive sources required for the calibration of the PET-Camera produce an increased gamma background. In order to eliminate these disturbing influences a monitor has been constructed which uses CCM (cobalt coincidence method) developed by the company Thermo Eberline ESM. This method is specially suitable because upon each radioactive decay of PET nuclides positrons are emitted which in turn annihilate via the simultaneous emission of two 511 keV gamma quanta under an angle of 180 . The air to be measured is sucked through a cavity with two scintillation detectors on opposite sides. The coincident pulses produced by annihilating positrons inside the cavity are counted by a suitable electronic. Gamma quanta from outside the cavity can produce a pulse only in one detector and are rejected. Therefore no heavy lead shielding is required. Besides the mechanical construction of the monitor optimization and calibration for different PET-nuclides had to be performed. Special attention was paid to the sampling system. The air intake had to be close to the breathing zone of the MTA. The hose to the monitor had to be as short as possible. The target of the work was to design a model for an industrial monitor. (orig.) [de

  12. Radioactivity. What has to be known. A generally understandable presentation; Radioaktivitaet. Was man wissen muss. Eine allgemeinverstaendliche Darstellung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traebert, Elmar

    2011-07-01

    The book includes contributions to the following topics: Natural radioactivity. High-energy radiation in science, medicine and everyday life. Nuclear weapons and politics. Civil nuclear power. Benefits and hazards of radioactivity.

  13. Back-reactions, short-circuits, leaks and other energy wasteful reactions in biological electron transfer: redox tuning to survive life in O(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, A William; Osyczka, Artur; Rappaport, Fabrice

    2012-03-09

    The energy-converting redox enzymes perform productive reactions efficiently despite the involvement of high energy intermediates in their catalytic cycles. This is achieved by kinetic control: with forward reactions being faster than competing, energy-wasteful reactions. This requires appropriate cofactor spacing, driving forces and reorganizational energies. These features evolved in ancestral enzymes in a low O(2) environment. When O(2) appeared, energy-converting enzymes had to deal with its troublesome chemistry. Various protective mechanisms duly evolved that are not directly related to the enzymes' principal redox roles. These protective mechanisms involve fine-tuning of reduction potentials, switching of pathways and the use of short circuits, back-reactions and side-paths, all of which compromise efficiency. This energetic loss is worth it since it minimises damage from reactive derivatives of O(2) and thus gives the organism a better chance of survival. We examine photosynthetic reaction centres, bc(1) and b(6)f complexes from this view point. In particular, the evolution of the heterodimeric PSI from its homodimeric ancestors is explained as providing a protective back-reaction pathway. This "sacrifice-of-efficiency-for-protection" concept should be generally applicable to bioenergetic enzymes in aerobic environments. Copyright © 2012 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. All rights reserved.

  14. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  15. Radioactive Wastes. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Charles H.

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. This booklet deals with the handling, processing and disposal of radioactive wastes. Among the topics discussed are: The Nature of Radioactive Wastes; Waste Management; and Research and Development. There are…

  16. Radioactive waste disposal package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampe, Robert F.

    1986-11-04

    A radioactive waste disposal package comprising a canister for containing vitrified radioactive waste material and a sealed outer shell encapsulating the canister. A solid block of filler material is supported in said shell and convertible into a liquid state for flow into the space between the canister and outer shell and subsequently hardened to form a solid, impervious layer occupying such space.

  17. Radioactivity in cigaratte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uslu, I.; Tanker, E.; Aksu, M. L.

    1998-01-01

    Cigaratte is known to be hazardous to health due to nicotine and tar it contains.This is indicated on cigaratte packets by health warnings.However there is less known hazard of smoking due to intake of radioactive compounds by inhalation. This study dwells upon the radioactive hazard of smoking

  18. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  19. Management of Radioactive Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tchokosa, P.

    2010-01-01

    Management of Radioactive Wastes is to protect workers and the public from the radiological risk associated with radioactive waste for the present and future. It application of the principles to the management of waste generated in a radioisotope uses in the industry. Any material that contains or is contaminated with radionuclides at concentrations or radioactivity levels greater than ‘exempt quantities’ established by the competent regulatory authorities and for which no further use is foreseen or intended. Origin of the Radioactive Waste includes Uranium and Thorium mining and milling, nuclear fuel cycle operations, Operation of Nuclear power station, Decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities and Institutional uses of isotopes. There are types of radioactive waste: Low-level Waste (LLW) and High-level Waste. The Management Options for Radioactive Waste Depends on Form, Activity, Concentration and half-lives of the radioactive waste, Storage and disposal methods will vary according to the following; the radionuclides present, and their concentration, and radio toxicity. The contamination results basically from: Contact between radioactive materials and any surface especially during handling. And it may occur in the solid, liquid or gas state. Decontamination is any process that will either reduce or completely remove the amount of radionuclides from a contaminated surface

  20. Induced radioactivity at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    A description of some of the problems and some of the advantages associated with the phenomenon of induced radioactivity at accelerator centres such as CERN. The author has worked in this field for several years and has recently written a book 'Induced Radioactivity' published by North-Holland.

  1. A Remote Radioactivity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jona, Kemi; Vondracek, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Imagine a high school with very few experimental resources and limited budgets that prevent the purchase of even basic laboratory equipment. For example, many high schools do not have the means of experimentally studying radioactivity because they lack Geiger counters and/or good radioactive sources. This was the case at the first high school one…

  2. Radioactive waste management policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, R.W.

    1983-06-01

    The speaker discusses the development of government policy regarding radioactive waste disposal in Canada, indicates overall policy objectives, and surveys the actual situation with respect to radioactive wastes in Canada. He also looks at the public perceptions of the waste management situation and how they relate to the views of governmental decision makers

  3. Sealed radioactive sources toolkit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Kenzie, C.

    2005-09-01

    The IAEA has developed a Sealed Radioactive Sources Toolkit to provide information to key groups about the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. The key groups addressed are officials in government agencies, medical users, industrial users and the scrap metal industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety

  4. K. Radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive waste management is a controversial and emotive subject. This report discusses radioactivity hazards which arise from each stage of the fuel cycle and then relates these hazards to the New Zealand situation. There are three appendices, two of which are detailed considerations of a paper by Dr. B.L.Cohen

  5. Radioactive krypton gas separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    Radioactive krypton is separated from a gas mixture comprising nitrogen and traces of carbon dioxide and radioactive krypton by selective adsorption and then cryogenic distillation of the prepurified gas against nitrogen liquid to produce krypton bottoms concentrate liquid, using the nitrogen gas from the distillation for two step purging of the adsorbent. 16 Claims, 8 Drawing Figures

  6. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iroulard, M.G.

    2007-04-01

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  7. Thermodynamic stability of radioactivity standard solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iroulard, M.G

    2007-04-15

    The basic requirement when preparing radioactivity standard solutions is to guarantee the concentration of a radionuclide or a radioelement, expressed in the form of activity concentration (Ac = A/m (Bq/g), with A: activity and m: mass of solution). Knowledge of the law of radioactive decay and the half-life of a radionuclide or radioelement makes it possible to determine the activity concentration at any time, and this must be confirmed subsequently by measurement. Furthermore, when radioactivity standard solutions are prepared, it is necessary to establish optimal conditions of thermodynamic stability of the standard solutions. Radioactivity standard solutions are prepared by metrology laboratories from original solutions obtained from a range of suppliers. These radioactivity standard solutions must enable preparation of liquid and/or solid radioactivity standard sources of which measurement by different methods can determine, at a given instant, the activity concentration of the radionuclide or radioelement present in the solution. There are a number of constraints associated with the preparation of such sources. Here only those that relate to the physical and chemical properties of the standard solution are considered, and therefore need to be taken into account when preparing a radioactivity standard solution. These issues are considered in this document in accordance with the following plan: - A first part devoted to the chemical properties of the solutions: - the solubilization media: ultra-pure water and acid media, - the carriers: concentration, oxidation state of the radioactive element and the carrier element. - A second part describing the methodology of the preparation, packaging and storage of standard solutions: - glass ampoules: the structure of glasses, the mechanisms of their dissolution, the sorption phenomenon at the solid-solution interface, - quartz ampoules, - cleaning and packaging: cleaning solutions, internal surface coatings and

  8. Objectives for radioactive waste packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flowers, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    The report falls under the headings: introduction; the nature of radioactive wastes; how to manage radioactive wastes; packaging of radioactive wastes (supervised storage; disposal); waste form evaluation and test requirements (supervised storage; disposal); conclusions. (U.K.)

  9. Radioactive Iodine Treatment for Hyperthyroidism

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism Fact Sheet Radioactive Iodine for Hyperthyroidism April, 2012 Download PDFs English Zulu ... prepare for RAI or surgery. How does radioactive iodine treatment work? Iodine is important for making thyroid ...

  10. Radioactivity and wildlife

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, V.H.; Horrill, A.D.; Livens, F.R.

    1990-01-01

    The official assumption is that if levels of radioactivity are safe for humans, they are safe for wildlife too. NCC sponsored a research project by the Institute of Terrestrial Ecology to find out what was known in this field. It appears that the assumption is justified to a certain extent in that mammals are identified as the organisms most vulnerable to the damaging effects of radioactivity. Other general principles are put forward: where there are radioactive discharges to the marine environment, coastal muds and saltmarshes can be particularly contaminated; upland habitats, with low nutrient status and subject to high rainfall, are likely to accumulate radioactivity from atmospheric discharges (e.g. Chernobyl, the wildlife effects of which are reported here). The document concludes that no deleterious effects of radioactivity on wild plants and animals have been detected in the UK, but acknowledges that there are still many gaps in our knowledge of the behaviour of radioisotopes in the natural environment. (UK)

  11. Radioactive wastes. Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaumont, R.

    2001-01-01

    Many documents (journal articles, book chapters, non-conventional documents..) deal with radioactive wastes but very often this topic is covered in a partial way and sometimes the data presented are contradictory. The aim of this article is to precise the definition of radioactive wastes and the proper terms to describe this topic. It describes the main guidelines of the management of radioactive wastes, in particular in France, and presents the problems raised by this activity: 1 - goal and stakes of the management; 2 - definition of a radioactive waste; 3 - radionuclides encountered; 4 - radio-toxicity and radiation risks; 5 - French actors of waste production and management; 6 - French classification and management principles; 7 - wastes origin and characteristics; 8 - status of radioactive wastes in France per categories; 9 - management practices; 10 - packages conditioning and fabrication; 11 - storage of wastes; 12 - the French law from December 30, 1991 and the opportunities of new ways of management; 13 - international situation. (J.S.)

  12. EPA's Radioactive Source Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopsick, D.

    2004-01-01

    The US EPA is the lead Federal agency for emergency responses to unknown radiological materials, not licensed, owned or operated by a Federal agency or an Agreement state (Federal Radiological Emergency Response Plan, 1996). The purpose of EPA's clean materials programme is to keep unwanted and unregulated radioactive material out of the public domain. This is achieved by finding and securing lost sources, maintaining control of existing sources and preventing future losses. The focus is on both, domestic and international fronts. The domestic program concentrates on securing lost sources, preventing future losses, alternative technologies like tagging of radioactive sources in commerce, pilot radioactive source roundup, training programs, scrap metal and metal processing facilities, the demolition industry, product stewardship and alternatives to radioactive devices (fewer radioactive source devices means fewer orphan sources). The international program consists of securing lost sources, preventing future losses, radiation monitoring of scrap metal at ports and the international scrap metal monitoring protocol

  13. Short Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-04

    reflective surgical activity may lead to immediate positive adjustment of an action and promote quality life-long learning skills. Simultaneous additional objectives to this process include literature review, mentor feedback and ...

  14. Nondestructive measurement of environmental radioactive strontium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiba Shuntaro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident was triggered by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. The main radioactivity concerns after the accident are I-131 (half-life: 8.0 days, Cs-134 (2.1 years, Cs-137 (30 years, Sr-89 (51 days, and Sr-90 (29 years. We are aiming to establish a new nondestructive measurement and detection technique that will enable us to realize a quantitative evaluation of strontium radioactivity without chemical separation processing. This technique is needed to detect radiation contained in foods, environmental water, and soil, to prevent us from undesired internal exposure to radiation.

  15. Radioactive metals disposal and recycling impact modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, N.W.; Lunn, R.J.; Belton, V.; Kockar, I.

    2014-01-01

    Screening life cycle assessment models developed to investigate hypothetical disposal and recycling options for the Windscale Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor heat exchangers were used to generate more complex models addressing the main UK radioactive metals inventory. Both studies show there are significant environmental advantages in the metals recycling promoted by the current low level waste disposal policies, strategies and plans. Financial benefits from current metals treatment options are supported and offer even greater benefits when applied to the UK radioactive metals inventory as a whole. (authors)

  16. Method of storing radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Toshio; Hiratake, Susumu.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the radiation doses externally irradiated from treated radioactive waste and also reduce the separation of radioactive nuclide due to external environmental factors such as air, water or the like. Method: Radioactive waste adhered with radioactive nuclide to solid material is molten to mix and submerge the radioactive nuclide adhered to the surface of the solid material into molten material. Then, the radioactive nuclide thus mixed is solidified to store the waste in solidified state. (Aizawa, K.)

  17. Methodical Challenges and a Possible Resolution in the Assessment of Receptor Reserve for Adenosine, an Agonist with Short Half-Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Zsuga

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The term receptor reserve, first introduced and used in the traditional receptor theory, is an integrative measure of response-inducing ability of the interaction between an agonist and a receptor system (consisting of a receptor and its downstream signaling. The underlying phenomenon, i.e., stimulation of a submaximal fraction of receptors can apparently elicit the maximal effect (in certain cases, provides an opportunity to assess the receptor reserve. However, determining receptor reserve is challenging for agonists with short half-lives, such as adenosine. Although adenosine metabolism can be inhibited several ways (in order to prevent the rapid elimination of adenosine administered to construct concentration–effect (E/c curves for the determination, the consequent accumulation of endogenous adenosine biases the results. To address this problem, we previously proposed a method, by means of which this bias can be mathematically corrected (utilizing a traditional receptor theory-independent approach. In the present investigation, we have offered in silico validation of this method by simulating E/c curves with the use of the operational model of agonism and then by evaluating them using our method. We have found that our method is suitable to reliably assess the receptor reserve for adenosine in our recently published experimental setting, suggesting that it may be capable for a qualitative determination of receptor reserve for rapidly eliminating agonists in general. In addition, we have disclosed a possible interference between FSCPX (8-cyclopentyl-N3-[3-(4-(fluorosulfonylbenzoyloxypropyl]-N1-propylxanthine, an irreversible A1 adenosine receptor antagonist, and NBTI (S-(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl-6-thioinosine, a nucleoside transport inhibitor, i.e., FSCPX may blunt the effect of NBTI.

  18. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Crotti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1, KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2 and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3. The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.

  19. Characterization of radioactive waste from a university hospital and evaluation of the management process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, I.M.R.; Batista, A.S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: University hospitals, due to their educational nature, are generally of tertiary size with a wide availability of imaging equipment for diagnosis and / or treatment. The Hospital das Clínicas of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (HC / UFMG) has sectors of Nuclear Medicine, Conventional and Interventional Radiology, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance. The Faculty of Medicine still has a Molecular Imaging Center, equipped with a Positron Emission Tomography (CT) equipment coupled to CT (PET-CT). So who makes use of radionuclide emitting equipment and equipment of different types of radiation should be considered regarding the principles of radioprotection. Methods: A survey of the radioactive waste generated by the Hospital das Clínicas of the Federal University of Minas Gerais (HC / UFMG) was carried out regarding the type, origin, treatment organization, route and destination. Results: It was observed that the sector that generates the most radioactive waste is Nuclear Medicine. The most used radionuclides are shown in the table in comparison with the most relevant ones in the management aspect of waste, taking into account the half-life and emission type. Conclusion: The management of radioactive waste at the Hospital das Clínicas of UFMG is the responsibility of the sectors that generate them until they are safe to be considered common waste, that is, after decay. They follow the guidelines of the Brazilian National Commission of Nuclear Energy (CNEN), Norm CNEN NN 8.01, ensuring safety in the handling of radioactive waste of short half-life

  20. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  1. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  2. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  3. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  4. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  5. Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Adopted: February 2010 Health Physics Society Specialists in Radiation Safety Consumer Products Containing Radioactive Materials Everything we encounter in our daily lives contains some radioactive material, ...

  6. Radioactive wastes. Safety of storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devillers, Ch.

    2001-01-01

    A radioactive waste storage facility is designed in a way that ensures the isolation of wastes with respect to the biosphere. This function comprises the damping of the gamma and neutron radiations from the wastes, and the confinement of the radionuclides content of the wastes. The safety approach is based on two time scales: the safety of the insulation system during the main phase of radioactive decay, and the assessment of the radiological risks following this phase. The safety of a surface storage facility is based on a three-barrier concept (container, storage structures, site). The confidence in the safety of the facility is based on the quality assurance of the barriers and on their surveillance and maintenance. The safety of a deep repository will be based on the site quality, on the design and construction of structures and on the quality of the safety demonstration. This article deals with the safety approach and principles of storage facilities: 1 - recall of the different types of storage facilities; 2 - different phases of the life of a storage facility and regulatory steps; 3 - safety and radiation protection goals (time scales, radiation protection goals); 4 - safety approach and principles of storage facilities: safety of the isolation system (confinement system, safety analysis, scenarios, radiological consequences, safety principles), assessment of the radiation risks after the main phase of decay; 5 - safety of surface storage facilities: safety analysis of the confinement system of the Aube plant (barriers, scenarios, modeling, efficiency), evaluation of radiological risks after the main phase of decay; experience feedback of the Manche plant; variants of surface storage facilities in France and abroad (very low activity wastes, mine wastes, short living wastes with low and average activity); 6 - safety of deep geological disposal facilities: legal framework of the French research; international context; safety analysis of the confinement system

  7. Radioactive waste management in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugi, M.

    2011-01-01

    deep geological repositories are commissioned, the radioactive waste will be temporarily stored in the nuclear power plants and in the central interim storage facility (Würenlingen). The expected amount of waste is based on a safety-related service life of probably 50 years for the existing five nuclear power plants and a MIF collection period until 2050 and comprises approx. 90,000 m3 SMA (conditioned including packaging) and 9,500 m3 HAA / LMA. The site selection procedure is defined as binding in the Sectoral Plan for Deep Geological Repositories. It is a federal planning instrument for regulating and carrying out site selection in accordance with the Swiss Spatial Planning Act. The Sectoral Plan defines the procedural steps and criteria for a transparent and fair selection process and leads to the site selection and the initiation of the general approval procedure in three stages. The Federal Council's decision on the proposals of waste producers regarding geological siting areas according to stage 1 is expected by the end of 2011. Safety is the first priority for site selection, socio-economic and spatial planning aspects have an important but subordinate significance. The commissioning of the deep geological repository SMA is scheduled for 2030 at the earliest, and that for the deep repository HAA at the earliest in 2040. (roessner)

  8. Radioactive Waste in Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Large volumes of hazardous wastes are produced each year, however only a small proportion of them are radioactive. While disposal options for hazardous wastes are generally well established, some types of hazardous waste face issues similar to those for radioactive waste and also require long-term disposal arrangements. The objective of this NEA study is to put the management of radioactive waste into perspective, firstly by contrasting features of radioactive and hazardous wastes, together with their management policies and strategies, and secondly by examining the specific case of the wastes resulting from carbon capture and storage of fossil fuels. The study seeks to give policy makers and interested stakeholders a broad overview of the similarities and differences between radioactive and hazardous wastes and their management strategies. Contents: - Foreword; - Key Points for Policy Makers; - Executive Summary; - Introduction; - Theme 1 - Radioactive and Hazardous Wastes in Perspective; - Theme 2 - The Outlook for Wastes Arising from Coal and from Nuclear Power Generation; - Risk, Perceived Risk and Public Attitudes; - Concluding Discussion and Lessons Learnt; - Strategic Issues for Radioactive Waste; - Strategic Issues for Hazardous Waste; - Case Studies - The Management of Coal Ash, CO 2 and Mercury as Wastes; - Risk and Perceived Risk; - List of Participants; - List of Abbreviations. (authors)

  9. Management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendee, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes is perhaps the most controversial and least understood aspect of the use of nuclear materials in generating electrical power, the investigation of biochemical processes through tracer kinetics, and the diagnosis and treatment of disease. In the siting of nuclear power facilities, the disposal of radioactive wastes is invariably posed as the ultimate unanswerable question. In the fall of 1979, biochemical and physiologic research employing radioactive tracers was threatened with a slowdown resulting from temporary closure of sites for disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW). Radioactive pharmaceuticals used extensively for diagnosis and treatment of human disease have increased dramatically in price, partly as a result of the escalating cost of disposing of radioactive wastes created during production of the labeled pharmaceuticals. These problems have resulted in identification of the disposal of LLW as the most pressing issue in the entire scheme of management of hazardous wastes. How this issue as well as the separate issue of disposal of high-level radioactive wastes (HLW) are being addressed at both national and state levels is the subject of this chapter

  10. Radioactive wastes in the Malargue district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyano, Alejandro

    2004-01-01

    After a short description of the Malargue district and the site of the radioactive mineral wastes accumulated till 1986, as a result of the uranium ores treatment, the book describes the regulatory framework and criticizes the process of approval of the environmental restoration project. Deficiencies in the public opinion consultation are pointed out. The urgency of a prompt execution of the restoration works is stressed

  11. Isotopes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ellam, Rob

    2016-01-01

    An isotope is a variant form of a chemical element, containing a different number of neutrons in its nucleus. Most elements exist as several isotopes. Many are stable while others are radioactive, and some may only exist fleetingly before decaying into other elements. In this Very Short Introduction, Rob Ellam explains how isotopes have proved enormously important across all the sciences and in archaeology. Radioactive isotopes may be familiar from their use in nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and in medicine, as well as in carbon dating. They have been central to establishing the age of the Earth and the origins of the solar system. Combining previous and new research, Ellam provides an overview of the nature of stable and radioactive isotopes, and considers their wide range of modern applications. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subjec...

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation, reliability and validity of the Spanish version of the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) questionnaire: application in a sample of short-term survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Antonio; Trujillo-Martín, Maria del Mar; Rueda, Antonio; Pérez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Avis, Nancy E; Bilbao, Amaia

    2015-11-16

    The aim of this study was to validate the Quality of Life in Adult Cancer Survivors (QLACS) in short-term Spanish cancer survivor's patients. Patients with breast, colorectal or prostate cancer that had finished their initial cancer treatment 3 years before the beginning of this study completed QLACS, WHOQOL, Short Form-36, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, EORTC-QLQ-BR23 and EQ-5D. Cultural adaptation was made based on established guidelines. Reliability was evaluated using internal consistency and test-retest. Convergent validity was studied by mean of Pearson's correlation coefficient. Structural validity was determined by a second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Rasch analysis was used to assess the unidimensionality of the Generic and Cancer-specific scales. Cronbach's alpha were above 0.7 in all domains and summary scales. Test-retest coefficients were 0.88 for Generic and 0.82 for Cancer-specific summary scales. QLACS generic summary scale was correlated with other generic criterion measures, SF-36 MCS (r = - 0.74) and EQ-VAS (r = - 0.63). QLACS cancer-specific scale had lower values with the same constructs. CFA provided satisfactory fit indices in all cases. The RMSEA value was 0.061 and CFI and TLI values were 0.929 and 0.925, respectively. All factor loadings were higher than 0.40 and statistically significant (P validity and reliability of QLACS questionnaire to be used in short-term cancer survivors.

  13. Improving the measurement of health-related quality of life in adolescent with idiopathic scoliosis: the SRS-7, a Rasch-developed short form of the SRS-22 questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caronni, Antonio; Zaina, Fabio; Negrini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Scoliosis Research Society-22 (SRS-22) questionnaire was developed to evaluate health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. Rasch analysis (RA) is a statistical procedure which turns questionnaire ordinal scores into interval measures. Measures from Rasch-compatible questionnaires can be used, similar to body temperature or blood pressure, to quantify disease severity progression and treatment efficacy. Purpose of the current work is to present Rasch analysis (RA) of the SRS-22 questionnaire and to develop an SRS-22 Rasch-approved short form. 300 SRS-22 were randomly collected from 2447 consecutive IS adolescents at their first evaluation (229 females; 13.9 ± 1.9 years; 26.9 ± 14.7 Cobb°) in a scoliosis outpatient clinic. RA showed both disordered thresholds and overall misfit of the SRS-22. Sixteen items were re-scored and two misfitting items (6 and 14) removed to obtain a Rasch-compatible questionnaire. Participants HRQL measured too high with the rearranged questionnaire, indicating a severe SRS-22 ceiling effect. RA also highlighted SRS-22 multidimensionality, with pain/function not merging with self-image/mental health items. Item 3 showed differential item functioning (DIF) for both curve and hump amplitude. A 7-item questionnaire (SRS-7) was prepared by selecting single items from the original SRS-22. SRS-7 showed fit to the model, unidimensionality and no DIF. Compared with the SRS-22, the short form scale shows better targeting of the participants' population. RA shows that SRS-22 has poor clinimetric properties; moreover, when used with AIS at first evaluation, SRS-22 is affected by a severe ceiling effect. SRS-7, an SRS-22 7-item short form questionnaire, provides an HRQL interval measure better tailored to these participants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. External Beam Radiation Therapy or Brachytherapy With or Without Short-course Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter, Prospective Study of Quality of Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, Hiram A., E-mail: hiramgay@wustl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Sanda, Martin G. [Department of Urology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Liu, Jingxia; Wu, Ningying [Division of Public Health Sciences, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Texas Center for Proton Therapy, Irving, Texas (United States); Wei, John T.; Dunn, Rodney L. [Department of Urology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Klein, Eric A. [Glickman Urological and Kidney Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Saigal, Christopher S. [Department of Urology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Litwin, Mark S. [Department of Urology, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Health Policy and Management, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hembroff, Larry [Institute for Public Policy and Social Research, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan (United States); Regan, Meredith M. [Department of Biostatistics and Computational Biology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Chang, Peter [Department of Surgery, Beth Israel-Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Michalski, Jeff M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri (United States); Regan, Meredith; Hembroff, Larry; Wei, John T.; Hamstra, Dan; and others

    2017-06-01

    Purpose: The long-term effects of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (NADT) with radiation therapy on participant-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) have not been characterized in prospective multicenter studies. We evaluated HRQOL for 2 years among participants undergoing radiation therapy (RT) with or without NADT for newly diagnosed, early-stage prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We analyzed longitudinal cohort data from the Prostate Cancer Outcomes and Satisfaction with Treatment Quality Assessment Consortium to ascertain the HRQOL trajectory of men receiving NADT with external beam RT (EBRT) or brachytherapy. HRQOL was measured using the expanded prostate cancer index composite 26-item questionnaire at 2, 6, 12, and 24 months after the initiation of NADT. We used the χ{sup 2} or Fisher exact test to compare the shift in percentages between groups that did or did not receive NADT. Analyses were conducted at the 2-sided 5% significance level. Results: For subjects receiving EBRT, questions regarding the ability to have an erection, ability to reach an orgasm, quality of erections, frequency of erections, ability to function sexually, and lack of energy were in a significantly worse dichotomized category for the patients receiving NADT. Comparing the baseline versus 24-month outcomes, 24%, 23%, and 30% of participants receiving EBRT plus NADT shifted to the worse dichotomized category for the ability to reach an orgasm, quality of erections, and ability to function sexually compared with 14%, 13%, and 16% in the EBRT group, respectively. Conclusions: Compared with baseline, at 2 years, participants receiving NADT plus EBRT compared with EBRT alone had worse HRQOL, as measured by the ability to reach orgasm, quality of erections, and ability to function sexually. However, no difference was found in the ability to have an erection, frequency of erections, overall sexual function, hot flashes, breast tenderness/enlargement, depression

  15. External Beam Radiation Therapy or Brachytherapy With or Without Short-course Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy: Results of a Multicenter, Prospective Study of Quality of Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, Hiram A.; Sanda, Martin G.; Liu, Jingxia; Wu, Ningying; Hamstra, Daniel A.; Wei, John T.; Dunn, Rodney L.; Klein, Eric A.; Sandler, Howard M.; Saigal, Christopher S.; Litwin, Mark S.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Hembroff, Larry; Regan, Meredith M.; Chang, Peter; Michalski, Jeff M.; Regan, Meredith; Hembroff, Larry; Wei, John T.; Hamstra, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The long-term effects of neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (NADT) with radiation therapy on participant-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL) have not been characterized in prospective multicenter studies. We evaluated HRQOL for 2 years among participants undergoing radiation therapy (RT) with or without NADT for newly diagnosed, early-stage prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We analyzed longitudinal cohort data from the Prostate Cancer Outcomes and Satisfaction with Treatment Quality Assessment Consortium to ascertain the HRQOL trajectory of men receiving NADT with external beam RT (EBRT) or brachytherapy. HRQOL was measured using the expanded prostate cancer index composite 26-item questionnaire at 2, 6, 12, and 24 months after the initiation of NADT. We used the χ"2 or Fisher exact test to compare the shift in percentages between groups that did or did not receive NADT. Analyses were conducted at the 2-sided 5% significance level. Results: For subjects receiving EBRT, questions regarding the ability to have an erection, ability to reach an orgasm, quality of erections, frequency of erections, ability to function sexually, and lack of energy were in a significantly worse dichotomized category for the patients receiving NADT. Comparing the baseline versus 24-month outcomes, 24%, 23%, and 30% of participants receiving EBRT plus NADT shifted to the worse dichotomized category for the ability to reach an orgasm, quality of erections, and ability to function sexually compared with 14%, 13%, and 16% in the EBRT group, respectively. Conclusions: Compared with baseline, at 2 years, participants receiving NADT plus EBRT compared with EBRT alone had worse HRQOL, as measured by the ability to reach orgasm, quality of erections, and ability to function sexually. However, no difference was found in the ability to have an erection, frequency of erections, overall sexual function, hot flashes, breast tenderness/enlargement, depression, lack of

  16. Positive serum specific IgE has a short half-life in patients with penicillin allergy and reversal does not always indicate tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortlund, Janni; Mortz, Charlotte Gotthard; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Skov, Per Stahl; Dahl, Ronald; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    The positive and negative predictive values of specific IgE to penicillins are not well established for penicillin hypersensitivity. One reason may be that serum IgE levels to penicillin diminish over time. The objective in this study was to investigate variations in serum half-life (T½) for specific IgE to penicillins (s-IgE) and to evaluate the outcome of penicillin challenges in patients with previous but not present specific IgE to penicillins. Two subgroups were investigated. All included patients had a history of penicillin allergy with reported symptoms such as urticaria/angioedema or unclassified cutaneous rash. T½ of specific IgE to penicillins was calculated based on sera from 29 patients with repeated measurements of s-IgE. Twenty-two patients with a previous positive s-IgE was followed and challenged with penicillin when IgE had become negative. The T½ for s-IgE varied between the 26 patients with decreasing s-IgE from 1.6 months to 76.4 months and 52% had a T½ of less than a year. The three patients with stable and increasing IgE-values showed T½ approaching infinity A total of 29 challenges with β-lactams were performed. Four different patterns were seen when evaluating the clinical reaction to challenge (positive/negative) and post-challenge boost of s-IgE (yes/no). Eight (36.4%) had negative challenge and negative post-challenge s-IgE, eight (36.4%) negative challenge, but positive post-challenge s-IgE levels. 3 (13.6%) had positive challenge and positive post-challenge s-IgE whereas 3 (13.6%) were challenge positive, but had negative post-challenge s-IgE. Specific IgE to penicillins declines over time stressing the importance of a close time relation between diagnostic work-up and clinical reaction. Reversal of previously positive s-IgE may still be associated with positive penicillin challenges and/or re-boostering of s-IgE to positivity.

  17. Predisposal Radioactive Waste Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of the importance of the safe management of radioactive waste means that, over the years, many well-established and effective techniques have been developed, and the nuclear industry and governments have gained considerable experience in this field. Minimization of waste is a fundamental principle underpinning the design and operation of all nuclear operations, together with waste reuse and recycling. For the remaining radioactive waste that will be produced, it is essential that there is a well defined plan (called a waste treatment path) to ensure the safe management and ultimately the safe disposal of radioactive waste so as to guarantee the sustainable long term deployment of nuclear technologies

  18. Radioactive waste (disposal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkin, P.

    1985-01-01

    The disposal of low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes was discussed. The following aspects were covered: public consultation on the principles for assessing disposal facilities; procedures for dealing with the possible sites which the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive (NIREX) had originally identified; geological investigations to be carried out by NIREX to search for alternative sites; announcement that proposal for a site at Billingham is not to proceed further; NIREX membership; storage of radioactive wastes; public inquiries; social and environmental aspects; safety aspects; interest groups; public relations; government policies. (U.K.)

  19. Radioactivity; La radioactivite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This pedagogical document presents the origin, effects and uses of radioactivity: where does radioactivity comes from, effects on the body, measurement, protection against radiations, uses in the medical field, in the electric power industry, in the food (ionization, radio-mutagenesis, irradiations) and other industries (radiography, gauges, detectors, irradiations, tracers), and in research activities (dating, preservation of cultural objects). The document ends with some examples of irradiation levels (examples of natural radioactivity, distribution of the various sources of exposure in France). (J.S.)

  20. Radioactive waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejonghe, P.

    1978-01-01

    This article gives an outline of the present situation, from a Belgian standpoint, in the field of the radioactive wastes processing. It estimates the annual quantity of various radioactive waste produced per 1000 MW(e) PWR installed from the ore mining till reprocessing of irradiated fuels. The methods of treatment concentration, fixation, final storable forms for liquid and solid waste of low activity and for high level activity waste. The storage of radioactive waste and the plutonium-bearing waste treatement are also considered. The estimated quantity of wastes produced for 5450 MW(e) in Belgium and their destination are presented. (A.F.)