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Sample records for short keitarou hara

  1. Phytochemical Studies on Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abdul Mazid

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata (Polygonaceae, commonly known as ‘bekhanjabaj’, is a Bangladeshi perennial herb. A combination of the normal phase column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel afforded sitosterone (1 from the petroleum ether fraction, and viscozulenic acid (2 and acetophenone (3 from the chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of the aerial parts of this plant . The free-radical-scavenging properties the isolated compounds 1-3 were evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay.

  2. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation

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    Carter Michael W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. Methods S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. Results The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Conclusion Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by

  3. S4HARA: System for HIV/AIDS resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasry, Arielle; Carter, Michael W; Zaric, Gregory S

    2008-03-26

    HIV/AIDS resource allocation decisions are influenced by political, social, ethical and other factors that are difficult to quantify. Consequently, quantitative models of HIV/AIDS resource allocation have had limited impact on actual spending decisions. We propose a decision-support System for HIV/AIDS Resource Allocation (S4HARA) that takes into consideration both principles of efficient resource allocation and the role of non-quantifiable influences on the decision-making process for resource allocation. S4HARA is a four-step spreadsheet-based model. The first step serves to identify the factors currently influencing HIV/AIDS allocation decisions. The second step consists of prioritizing HIV/AIDS interventions. The third step involves allocating the budget to the HIV/AIDS interventions using a rational approach. Decision-makers can select from several rational models of resource allocation depending on availability of data and level of complexity. The last step combines the results of the first and third steps to highlight the influencing factors that act as barriers or facilitators to the results suggested by the rational resource allocation approach. Actionable recommendations are then made to improve the allocation. We illustrate S4HARA in the context of a primary healthcare clinic in South Africa. The clinic offers six types of HIV/AIDS interventions and spends US$750,000 annually on these programs. Current allocation decisions are influenced by donors, NGOs and the government as well as by ethical and religious factors. Without additional funding, an optimal allocation of the total budget suggests that the portion allotted to condom distribution be increased from 1% to 15% and the portion allotted to prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections be increased from 43% to 71%, while allocation to other interventions should decrease. Condom uptake at the clinic should be increased by changing the condom distribution policy from a pull system to a push

  4. HARAS. A new method for risk evaluation of working with open radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klaver, T.

    1998-01-01

    Thumbs of rule with respect to the characteristics and the handling of, and protection facilities for radioactive materials in laboratories are used by everybody involved in radiation protection activities. However, the thumbs of rule must be based on a thorough risk analysis. The so-called HARAS study provides the results of such an analysis, consisting of recommendations to alter the government policy with respect to radionuclide laboratories. HARAS is a Dutch abbreviation for handling of radioactive materials

  5. Human hypervariable sequences in risk assessment: rare Ha-ras alleles in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krontiris, T.G.; DiMartino, N.A.; Mitcheson, H.D.; Lonergan, J.A.; Begg, C.; Parkinson, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A variable tandem repeat (VTR) is responsible for the hyperallelism one kilobase 3' to the human c-Ha-ras-1 (Ha-ras) gene. Thirty-two distinct restriction fragments, comprising 3 allelic classes by frequency of occurrence, have thus far been detected in a sample size of approximately 800 caucasians. Rare Ha-ras alleles, 21 in all, are almost exclusively confined to the genomes of cancer patients. From their data the authors have computed the relative cancer risk associated with possession of a rare Ha-ras allele to be 27. To understand the molecular basis for this phenomenon, they have begun to clone Ha-ras fragments from nontumor DNA of cancer patients. They report here the weak activation, as detected by transfection and transformation of NIH 3T3 mouse cells, of two Ha-ras genes which were obtained from lymphocyte DNA of a melanoma patient. They have mapped the regions that confer this transforming activity to the fragment containing the VTR in one Ha-ras clone and the fragment containing gene coding sequences in the other

  6. Effects of shading on Vallisneria natans (Lour. H. Hara growth

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    Fox A.D.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of surface shading were measured on above- and below-ground biomass and fruit production of Vallisneria natans (Lour. H. Hara plants grown from seed in replicated microcosm experiments, based on a control (no shading and four treatments (25%, 50%, 75% and 90% shading. Above- and below-ground biomass was significantly reduced at treatments above 50% shading and first pistillate and staminate florescence dates were significantly delayed above 75% and 50% shading, respectively. Ratios of mature to unripe fruits produced (both in number or dry weight did not differ between shading treatments, but dry weight fruit production was significantly reduced at 90% shading. We conclude that above 50% surface shading, V. natans plants suffer reductions in accumulated biomass and investment in sexual reproduction. We contend that recent expansions in the extent of the native floating water chestnut Trapa spp. at seasonally inundated wetlands in the Yangtze River floodplain could, by shading, have contributed to the reduction in annual biomass and seed production of V. natans, contributing to declines in distribution and abundance.

  7. Oxidative Stress Posttranslationally Regulates the Expression of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras in Cultured Astrocytes

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    Samantha Messina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Addition of hydrogen peroxide to cultured astrocytes induced a rapid and transient increase in the expression of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras. Pull-down experiments with the GTP-Ras-binding domain of Raf-1 showed that oxidative stress substantially increased the activation of Ha-Ras, whereas a putative farnesylated activated form of Ki-Ras was only slightly increased. The increase in both Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras was insensitive to the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide, and was occluded by the proteasomal inhibitor, MG-132. In addition, exposure to hydrogen peroxide reduced the levels of ubiquitinated Ras protein, indicating that oxidative stress leads to a reduced degradation of both isoforms through the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway. Indeed, the late reduction in Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras was due to a recovery of proteasomal degradation because it was sensitive to MG-132. The late reduction of Ha-Ras levels was abrogated by compound PD98059, which inhibits the MAP kinase pathway, whereas the late reduction of Ki-Ras was unaffected by PD98059. We conclude that oxidative stress differentially regulates the expression of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras in cultured astrocytes, and that activation of the MAP kinase pathway by oxidative stress itself or by additional factors may act as a fail-safe mechanism limiting a sustained expression of the potentially detrimental Ha-Ras.

  8. Genetic alterations in Ki-ras and Ha-ras genes in Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas and head and neck cancer

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    Cláudia Malheiros Coutinho

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available CONETXT: Ras gene mutations have been associated to a wide range of human solid tumors. Members of the ras gene family (Ki-ras, Ha-ras and N-ras are structurally related and code for a protein (p21 known to play an important role in the regulation of normal signal transduction and cell growth. The frequency of ras mutations is different from one type of tumor to another, suggesting that point mutations might be carcinogen-specific. OBJECTIVES: To study the occurrence of Ki-ras and Ha-ras mutations. We also studied the relative level of Ha-ras mRNA in 32 of the head and neck tumors. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: University referral unit. PARTICIPANTS: 60 head and neck tumors and in 28 Juvenile Nasopharyngeal Angiofibromas (JNA. DIAGNOSTIC TEST: Using PCR-SSCP we examined the occurrence of Ki-ras and Ha-ras mutations. The relative level of Ha-ras mRNA was examined by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: None of the head and neck tumors or JNA samples showed evidence of mutations within codons 12, 13, 59 and 61 of Ki-ras or Ha-ras genes. However, 17 (53% of the tumors where gene expression could be examined exhibited increased levels of Ha-ras mRNA compared with the normal tissue derived from the same patient. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate for the first time that mutations of Ki-ras and Ha-ras genes are not associated with the development of JNA and confirm previous reports indicating that activating ras mutations are absent or rarely involved in head and neck tumors from western world patients. Furthermore, our findings suggest that overexpression of Ha-ras, rather than mutations, might be an important factor in the development and progression of head and neck tumors.

  9. Effects of shading on Vallisneria natans (Lour.) H. Hara growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Meng, F; Shen, X

    2013-01-01

    Effects of surface shading were measured on above- and below-ground biomass and fruit production of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) H. Hara plants grown from seed in replicated microcosm experiments, based on a control (no shading) and four treatments (25%, 50%, 75% and 90% shading). Above- and below-...... spp. at seasonally inundated wetlands in the Yangtze River floodplain could, by shading, have contributed to the reduction in annual biomass and seed production of V. natans, contributing to declines in distribution and abundance....

  10. ANALISIS KADAR HARA PUPUK ORGANIK KASCING DARI LIMBAH KANGKUNG DAN BAYAM

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    Elfayetti Elfayetti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Pertanian organik merupakan sistem pertanian yang holistik yang mendukung dan mempercepat biodeversiti, siklus biologi dan aktivitas biologi tanah(International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements,2014. Geografi Pertanian merupakan mata kuliah di Jurusan Pendidikan Geografi FIS Unimed. Dalam Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi yang diterapkan di Jurusan Pendidikan Geografi FIS Unimed merupakan matakuliah wajib pada semester genap, tepatnya pada semester IV (empat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan pertumbuhan berat cacing tanah pada pupuk kascing dari limbah kangkung dan bayam dan untuk mengetahui kandungan hara N, P, K dan pH kascing dari limbah kangkung dan bayam pada tanah ultisol. Untuk mengatasi permasalahan pada pupuk organik, maka harus diupayakan bagaimana memperoleh pupuk yang memiliki unsur hara yang padat dan pengadaannya relatif murah dan mudah. Pemanfaatan limbah organik untuk budidaya cacing tanah merupakan salah satu tindakan yang tepat untuk mencapai tujuan tersebut. Rendahnya bahan organik, N, P, K menunjukkan bahwa tanah pada percobaan ini membutuhkan bahan organik. Pemberian bahan organik seperti cacing diharapkan dapat meningkatkan Produktivitas Ultisol dimana Kascing mempunyai sifat-sifat kimia, fisika, dan biologi tanah yang baik, sehingga dapat meningkatkan serapan hara dan pertumbuhan tanaman. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa : 1. Jenis makanan berpengaruh terhadap pertumbuhan cacing tanah dan kualitas kascing yang dihasilkan. 2.Terdapat perbedaaan pada bobot cacing tanah yang dihasilkan dengan adanya perbedaan jenis makanan. Jenis makanan bayam memberikan tingkat pertumbuhan cacing tanah terbaik dengan terjadinya pertambahan bobot sebesar 650 gram yang awalnya hanya 250 gram. 3. Dari beberapa parameter sifat kimia dan biologi kascing, maka jenis makanan bayam memberikan nilai N tertinggi yaitu 0,52 dan pada pakan kangkung terdapatnilai p tertinggi yaitu 0,35. Kata Kunci

  11. Poesia y Pintura: Frank O'Hara y el expresinionismo abstracto

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Santamaría

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este artículo es analizar las relaciones entre poesía y pintura en el seno del expresionismo abstracto. Para ello tomamos tres nombres de referencia: Clement Greenberg (crítico de arte), Frank O'Hara (poeta) y Willem De Kooning (pintor). A través de estos nombres tratamos de señalar la estrecha relación que existía entre poetas y pintores en la llamada Escuela de Nueva York.

  12. Influence of Sulfur on the Arsenic Phytoremediation Using Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoliang; Feng, Tao; Li, Zhixian; Chen, Zhang; Chen, Yuanqi; Wang, Haihua; Xiang, Yanci

    2017-09-01

    Influences of sulfur (S) on the accumulation and detoxification of arsenic (As) in Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, an arsenic hyperaccumulating submerged aquatic plant, were investigated. At low sulfur levels (75%) present in the plant after exposure to As(V). Sulfur plays an important role in the arsenic translocation and detoxification, possibly through stimulating the synthesis of thiols and complexation of arsenite-phytochelatins. This suggests that addition of sulfur to the arsenic-contaminated water may provide a way to promote arsenic bioaccumulation in plants for phytoremediation of arsenic pollution.

  13. Doble gesto suicida por hara-kiri: intento de suicidio y posterior consumación

    OpenAIRE

    Revetria Betancor, Malbinia; Sarkissián, Paula; Rodríguez Alamada, Hugo

    2017-01-01

    El hara kiri es una forma de suicidio cuyo origen se encuentra en la cultura medieval japonesa. Es muy poco frecuente en el Japón contemporáneo y excepcional en Occidente, generalmente asociados a la esquizofrenia. Se presenta un caso de suicidio por este método ocurrido en Uruguay por un varón adulto sin vinculación con la cultura japonesa, con antecedentes de un intento de suicidio anterior por el mismo método, y se realiza una puesta al día del tema. El análisis de los hallazgos d...

  14. Zonation of heme synthesis enzymes in mouse liver and their regulation by β-catenin and Ha-ras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braeuning, Albert; Schwarz, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) hemoproteins play an important role in hepatic biotransformation. Recently, β-catenin and Ha-ras signaling have been identified as players controlling transcription of various CYP genes in mouse liver. The aim of the present study was to analyze the role of β-catenin and Ha-ras in the regulation of heme synthesis. Heme synthesis-related gene expression was analyzed in normal liver, in transgenic mice expressing activated β-catenin or Ha-ras, and in hepatomas. Regulation of the aminolevulinate dehydratase promoter was studied in vitro. Elevated expression of mRNAs and proteins involved in heme biosynthesis was linked to β-catenin activation in perivenous hepatocytes, in transgenic hepatocytes, and in hepatocellular tumors. Stimulation of the aminolevulinate dehydratase promoter by β-catenin was independent of the β-catenin/T-cell-specific transcription factor dimer. By contrast, activation of Ha-ras repressed heme synthesis-related gene expression. The present data suggest that β-catenin enhances the expression of both CYPs and heme synthesis-related genes, thus coordinating the availability of CYP apoprotein and its prosthetic group heme. The reciprocal regulation of heme synthesis by β-catenin and Ha-ras-dependent signaling supports our previous hypothesis that antagonistic action of these pathways plays a major role in the control of zonal gene expression in healthy mouse liver and aberrant expression patterns in hepatocellular tumors.

  15. Short (

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; den Hartog, Laurens

    2013-01-01

    Aim: This systematic review assessed the implant survival rate of short (<10 mm) dental implants installed in partially edentulous patients. A case report of a short implant in the posterior region have been added. Materials and methods: A search was conducted in the electronic databases of MEDLINE

  16. NPV risk simulation of an open pit gold mine project under the O'Hara cost model by using GAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franco-Sepulveda Giovanni; Campuzano Carlos; Pineda Cindy

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes an open pit gold mine project based on the O'Hara cost model. Hypothetical data is proposed based on different authors that have studied open pit gold projects, and variations are proposed according to the probability distributions associated to key variables affecting the NPV, like production level, ore grade, price of ore, and others, so as to see what if, in a gold open pit mine project of 3000 metric tons per day of ore. Two case scenarios were analyzed to simulate the NPV, one where there is low certainty data available, and the other where the information available is of high certainty. Results based on genetic algorithm metaheuristic simulations, which combine basically Montecarlo simulations provided by the Palisade Risk software, the O'Hara cost model, net smelter return and financial analysis tools offered by Excel are reported, in order to determine to which variables of the project is more sensitive the NPV.

  17. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and diuretic properties of Polygonum barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata

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    M. Abdul Mazid

    Full Text Available The antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and diuretic properties of the extracts of P. barbatum (L. Hara var. barbata, Polygonaceae, at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight, were evaluated in mice/rat models using, respectively, the acetic-acid-induced writhing method, the carrageenan-induced edema test and the Lipschitz method. In the acetic-acid-induced writhing test in mice, all extracts displayed a dose dependent analgesic effect. The most potent analgesic activity was observed with the petroleum ether extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight with an inhibition of writhing response 46.8% compared to 62.2% for the positive control aminopyrine. Petroleum ether extract at the dose of 400 mg/kg body weight also displayed the highest levels of anti-inflammatory activity after 2 h with the 39.3% inhibition of paw edema, and this effect was better than the effect observed by the conventional anti-inflammatory agent phenylbutazone (maximum inhibition of 38.3% after 4 h. All extracts increased urine volume in a dose-dependent manner, and the ethyl acetate extract showed a significant level of diuresis comparable to that of the standard diuretic agent furosemide.

  18. Analysis of heavy metals concentration in water and sediment in the Hara biosphere reserve, southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Mohsen; Mansouri, Borhan; Nabizadeh, Sahar; Pourkhabbaz, Alireza

    2014-02-01

    This study determined the concentration of heavy metals (Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn) in water and sediments at nine sites in the Hara biosphere reserve of southern Iran during the summer and winter 2010. Determination of Al, Cr, Cu, and Zn in water was carried out by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer (Shimadzu, AA 610s) and in sediment by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (Perkin Elmer, AA3030). Results showed that the heavy metal concentrations in the water samples decreased in the sequence of Zn > Al > Cu > Cr, while in sediment samples were Cr > Zn > Cu > Al. Data analysis indicated that with the exception of Al, there was a Pearson's correlation coefficient between pH and Cu, Zn, and Cr at α = 0.01, 0.05, and 0.001 in sediment (in winter), respectively. There were also significant differences between heavy metals of Cr, Cu, and Zn during the two seasons (p < 0.001) in the water and sediment.

  19. Akselerasi Pertumbuhan Cendana (Santalum album dengan Aplikasi Unsur Hara Makro Ensensial pada Tiga Jenis Tanah

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    Eny Faridah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cendana (Santalum album Linn. merupakan satu dari pilihan penting untuk digunakan dalam program rehabilitasi lahan-lahan kritis di Indonesia. Upaya untuk mempercepat tingkat pertumbuhannya menjadi sangat penting karena pertumbuhannya yang lambat mengganggu tingkat keberhasilan program rehabilitasi hutan. Mempertimbangkan permasalahan tersebut, studi ini dilakukan dengan tujuan mendapatkan formulasi pendekatan untuk mempercepat pertumbuhan cendana melalui aplikasi unsur hara makro esensial yang dibutuhkan cendana pada tiga tipe tanah, dalam bentuk pupuk biologi seperti biofosfo dan biosulfo. Secara spesifik, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk: 1 Pengaruh jenis media tanah (Grumusol (Vertisol, Mediteran (Alfisol dan Regosol (Entisol terhadap pertumbuhan semai cendana, 2 Pengaruh jenis dan dosis pupuk (biosulfo, biofosfo, dan NPK terhadap pertumbuhan semai cendana, dan 3 Pengaruh jenis media tanah, jenis serta dosis pupuk terhadap ketersediaan hara pada tanah dan jaringan daun tanaman. Penelitian dilakukan di Lab. Silvikultur Intensif, Klebengan, Fakultas Kehutanan UGM dengan menggunakan anakan cendana umur enam bulan. Desain Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL digunakan dengan perlakuan berupa 3 tipe tanah (Grumusol (Vertisol, Mediterran (Alfisol dan Regosol (Entisol, 3 tipe pupuk (biosulfo, biofosfo, dan NPK, serta 5 dosis pupuk (0; 2,5; 5; 7,5 dan 10 g dengan 5 ulangan untuk setiap unit eksperimen. Parameter yang diukur meliputi tingkat pertumbuhan tanaman (pertumbuhan tinggi & diameter, panjang akar dan tingkat kandungan hara pada tanah dan jaringan daun tanaman. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa tanah Mediteran secara positif mempengaruhi semua parameter pertumbuhan diikuti oleh Regosol dan Grumusol, sementara aplikasi jenis dan dosis pupuk yang berbeda tidak memberikan pengaruh yang nyata terhadap semua parameter pertumbuhan. Tanah Mediteran memiliki kandungan N dan K paling tinggi dibandingkan dengan jenis tanah Regosol dan Grumusol, sementara tanah

  20. Effective compounds screening from Rabdosia serra (Maxim) Hara against HBV and tumor in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Chen, Yang; Zhu, Hongyuan; Xiao, Yiyun; Zhang, Xiuzhen; Zhao, Jingfeng; Chen, Yuxiang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to screen and investigate the anti-HBV and anti-tumor activities of separated compounds from Rabdosia serra (Maxim.) Hara to lay the basis for further isolate active entity. Three kinds of extractions from Rabdosia serra using different solvents (petroleum ether, acetidin, butyl alcohol) were prepared and used to analyze their anti-HBV activity in HepG2.2.15 cells for further separation. The cytotoxicity of each extraction was tested by MTT assay, the levels of HBsAg, HBeAg and HBV DNA in supernatants from HepG2.2.15 cells were detected by ELISA and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then, the most effective extraction was further separated, the anti-HBV activities of separated compounds were also tested by MTT and ELISA, and three compounds with highest cytotoxicity were selected to further identify their anti-tumor activities on MCF-7, BGC-823 and HepG2 cells. Acetidin extraction C2 had the most effective anti-HBV activity that was used to be further separated, it led to statistically significant reduction in HBsAg and HBeAg secretion and HBV DNA. The separation of C2 resulted in 14 compounds, A3 and A5 markedly inhibited HBsAg secretion, while A9 inhibited HBeAg secretion in a dose-dependent manner with higher TI comparing with C2. A6, A7, A11 had different anti-tumor activity against different tumor cells. These data showed that the extraction and their separated effective compounds had strong inhibitory effect on HBV replication so as to have anti-HBV activity, and further separation and purification could enhance anti-HBV activity. Meanwhile, some compounds have high cytotoxicities on different tumor cells. Our study could provide a theoretical basis for the next clinical use and the development of potential and efficient drugs for HBV and tumor therapy from Rabdosia serra.

  1. Monoterpenoids from the traditional North Italian vegetable Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H.Hara (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granica, Sebastian; Fusani, Pietro; Stanisławska, Iwona; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Melck, Dominique; Motta, Andrea; Zidorn, Christian

    2017-04-15

    Investigations of young shoots of Aruncus dioicus (Walter) Fernald var. vulgaris (Maxim.) H.Hara (Rosaceae), collected from the wild and used as vegetables in alpine provinces of Italy, yielded eight monoterpenoids. Besides known compounds, aruncin A, aruncide A, and cimicifugolide, five previously undescribed substances, aruncins C, D, and E, and aruncides D and E, were identified. Based on results from the full synthesis of aruncin B, structures of aruncin A and aruncide A were revised. Structures were established by HR mass spectrometry and extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy and based on data from synthetic aruncin B. An HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method was developed to investigate the distribution of the monoterpenoids in different organs of Aruncus dioicus var. vulgaris and in aerial parts of A. dioicus var. aethusifolius (H.Lév.) H.Hara [Syn.: Aruncus aethusifolius (H.Lév.) Nakai]. Preliminary bioactivity studies moreover indicated weak cytotoxicity for some of the compounds against human prostrate adenocarcinoma cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Interactions between bees and Ludwigia elegans (Camb. Hara (Onagraceae flowers at different altitudes in São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Gimenes

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Populations of Ludwigia elegans (Carnb. Hara were examined in Aluminio (600m and Campos do Jordão (1520m, in the State of São Paulo. Flowers of both populations are self-incompatible and dependent on bees for pollination. Flowers of Ludwigia elegans at the Aluminio site were visited by about 30 different species of bees, and those at Campos do Jordão by 10. These results can be related to climatic differences at the two sites, especially temperature, due to their difference in altitude. Inspite of the difference in the absolute number of bee species seen at each site, Tetraglossula anthracina (Michener, 1989 (Colletidae can be considered a specialized and efficient pollinator in both areas, since it visited these flowers frequently and showed many morphological and behavioral adaptations for pollen and nectar collection.

  3. Petrography, mineralization and mineral explorations in the Zendan salt dome (Hara, Bandar Lengeh

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    Habib Biabangard

    2018-04-01

    fluids. On the other hand, this deposit can be classified into the VMS deposits. Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Ashrafpour, Hagheghe and all miners. References Ahmadzadeh Heravi, M., Houshmandzadeh, A. and Nabavi, M.H., 1991. New concepts of Hormuz formations, stratigraphy and the problem of salt diapirism in south of Iran. International Journal of Geosciences, 3(7:1–22. Alian, F. and Bazamad, M., 2014. Petrography of Zendan salt dome (Hara, Bandar Lengeh. 6th Symposium of Iranian society of Economic Geology, Sistan and Baluchestan University, Zahedan, Iran. Arencibia, O.N. and Clark, A.H., 1996. Early magnetite-amphibole-plagioclase alteration-mineralization in the Island copper porphyry copper-gold-molybdenum deposit, British Columbia. Economic Geology, 93(2: 402–438. Barton, M.D. and Johnson, D.A., 2004. Footprints of Fe oxide (Cu-Au systems. Geological Survey of Western Australia, University of Western Australia, Report 33, 116 pp. Nystrom, J.O. and Henriquiz, F., 1994. Magmatic features of iron ore of Kiruna type in Chile and Sweden. Economic Geology, 89(4: 820–839. Stocklin, J., 1968. Structural history and tectonic of Iran: a review. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, 52(7: 1229-1258.

  4. Kadar N, P, K, Ca Jaringan Sawi Pada Lahan Yang Diberi Air Bm Sapi Dan Bokashi Dengan Penambahan Beberapa Bahan Peningkat Hara

    OpenAIRE

    Walunguru, Lena; Lende, Aloysius Ng; Hasan, Mochammad

    2009-01-01

    Degree of N, P, K, Ca Mustard Green Network In Tune That Given Water Bm Cow And Bokashi With Add Several Ingredients To Increase Hara. Organic farming use organic fertilizer such as compost, bokashi, and cattle BM fertilizer. Input of organic fertilizer can decrease by increae the quality of bokashi by apply ash, eggshell powder, and cow crine. Ash to increase potassium, eggshell powder is source of calcium, and cow crine source of nitrogen. The research used Completely Randomized Block De...

  5. Opportunities for Phytoremediation and Bioindication of Arsenic Contaminated Water Using a Submerged Aquatic Plant:Vallisneria natans (lour.) Hara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoliang; Liu, Xingmei; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2015-01-01

    The identification of plants with high arsenic hyperaccumulating efficiency from water is required to ensure the successful application of phytoremediation technology. Five dominant submerged plant species (Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara., Potamageton crispus L., Myriophyllum spicatum L., Ceratophyllum demersum L. and Hydrilla verticillata (L.f.) Royle) in China were used to determine their potential to remove As from contaminated water. V. natans had the highest accumulation of As among them. The characteristics of As accumulation, transformation and the effect of phosphate on As accumulation in V. natans were then further studied. The growth of V. natans was not inhibited even when the As concentration reached 2.0 mg L(-1). After 21 d of As treatment, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) reached 1300. The As concentration in the environment and exposure time are major factors controlling the As concentration in V. natans. After being absorbed, As(V) is efficiently reduced to As(III) in plants. The synthesis of non-enzymic antioxidants may play an important role under As stress and increase As detoxication. In addition, As(V) uptake by V. natans was negatively correlated with phosphate (P) uptake when P was sufficiently supplied. As(V) is probably taken up via P transporters in V. natans.

  6. The Queer Collapse of Civilization: Mariko Ōhara's “Shōjo”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Andreu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses Mariko Ōhara’s short story “Shōjo” (1985 and its attempt at deconstructing the sex-gender system, focusing on the three main characters: Gil and his two sexual/love interests, Kisa and Remora. By examining the story from both gender and animal studies, the aim is to reflect on how the ideas of sex, gender and performativity are inserted into a vaster social construction that also merges with class and animality. We also consider how the recurrent image of decadence and what can be considered a return to a heteronormative situation do not undermine the overall process of deconstruction and social critique offered by the story.

  7. Evaluation of Some Physiochemical Parameters and Heavy Metal Contamination in Hara Biosphere Reserve, Iran, Using a New Pollution Index Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Zarei

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The pollution of the aquatic environment with heavy metals has become a worldwide problem during recent years, due to their potential toxic effects and ability to bio-accumulate in aquatic ecosystems. Heavy metals are sensitive indicators for monitoring changes in the aquatic environment. Methods: In this study, total concentrations of Cr, Pb, Cu, Zn, and Fe were measured in water and sediments from nine sites, based on ecological conditions and human activities and the effects of sediment pH and sediment organic matter on bioavailability of selected metals were determined. Modified degree of contamination (mCd was computed in order to determine anthropogenically derived sediment contamination. Results: Mean concentration of metals in water found to be in the following order: Pb > Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr, while in sediment samples it was Fe > Cr > Zn > Pb > Cu. The average content of examined metals in water was higher than the chronic values in marine surface water guideline values. Mean content of Cr, Pb and Fe in sediments were higher than average of the less contaminated sample but Cu and Zn were lower than this guideline value. In the study area, mCd values were less than 1.5 with values ranging from 0.71 to 1.02. Conclusion: The results of this study indicated with a decrease in organic matter and pH in sediments, the concentration of copper and iron increased. Base on modified contamination degree, the sediments of Hara Biosphere Reserve are considered to be in the zero to very low contamination status.

  8. Ha-ras oncogene expression directed by a milk protein gene promoter: tissue specificity, hormonal regulation, and tumor induction in transgenic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andres, A.C.; Schoenenberger, C.A.; Groner, B.; Henninghausen, L.; LeMeur, M.; Gelinger, P.

    1987-01-01

    The activated human Ha-ras oncogene was subjected to the control of the promoter region of the murine whey acidic protein (Wap) gene, which is expressed in mammary epithelial cells in response to lactogenic hormones. The Wap-ras gene was stably introduced into the mouse germ line of five transgenic mice (one male and four females). Wap-ras expression was observed in the mammary glands of lactating females in two lines derived from female founders. The tissue-directed and hormone-dependent Wap expression was conferred on the Ha-ras oncogene. The signals governing Wap expression are located within 2.5 kilobases of 5' flanking sequence. The other two lines derived from female founders did not express the chimeric gene. In the line derived from the male founder the Wap-ras gene is integrated into the Y chromosome. Expression was found in the salivary gland of male animals only. After a long latency, Wap-ras-expressing mice developed tumors. The tumors arose in tissues expressing Wap-ras - i.e., mammary or salivary glands. Compared to the corresponding nonmalignant tissues, Wap-ras expression was enhanced in the tumors

  9. The study of Forest Hara Biosphere Reserve in coast of Persian Gulf and the importance of heavy metal accumulation; Case study: feathers of great cormorant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIR MEHRDAD MIRSANJARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Mirsanjari MM, Sheybanifar F, Arjmand F. 2014. The study of forest Hara Biosphere Reserve in coast of Persian Gulf and the importance of heavy metal accumulation; Case study: feathers of great cormorant. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 159-164. In recent years, concerns about the long term effects of heavy metals as environmental polluters have arisen, since considerable quantities of heavy metals have been released into the environment as a result of extensive human activities. Heavy metal has been determined as a serious threat to the stability of ecosystems. In this study, we examined the levels of zinc‚ copper‚ lead, and cadmium in the feathers of twenty great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo, collected from Hara Biosphere Reserve during November and December in 2012. The results revealed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the feathers of males is significantly higher than females (P < 0.05. In addition‚ no significant difference was observed in heavy metal concentration between juvenile and adult birds. Moreover, according to the results, the high concentration of heavy metals in some samples indicated this fact that birds are potentially exposed to the risk of heavy metals in their habitat.

  10. STATUS TROFIK PERAIRAN RAWA PENING DITINJAU DARI KANDUNGAN UNSUR HARA (NO3 dan PO4 SERTA KLOROFIL-a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naila Zulfiah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Danau Rawa Pening merupakan danau alami yang multi fungsi yaitu sebagai pembangkit listrik, irigasi, perikanan, air baku dan pariwisata. Aktivitas antropogenik manusia mendorong terjadinya perubahan status trofik perairan. Ledakan populasi fitoplankton dan tumbuhan air terapung merupakan indikasi terjadinya eutrofikasi  di danau ini. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui status terkini kondisi kesuburan Perairan Rawa Pening dengan pendekatan nilai unsur hara (nitrat dan fosfat serta hubungannya dengan klorofil-a. Penelitian dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei-Juni 2007 di Perairan Rawa Pening. Parameter kimia seperti nitrat, fosfat dan klorofil-a dianalisa di laboratorium menggunakan metode spektrofotometri. Selain itu dilakukan pengukuran insitu beberapa parameter fisika dan kimia (suhu, kecerahan, kedalaman dan pH. Hubungan antara nitrat dan fosfat terhadap klorofil-a dianalisa dengan regresi linier berganda menggunakan software Excel 2007. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kisaran nilai nitrat, fosfat dan klorofil-a pada Bulan Mei dan Juni masing-masing adalah 1,38–2,18 mg/L dan 1,32–2,12 mg/L (eutrofik; 0,013–0,030 mg/L dan 0,012–0,031 mg/L (mesotrofik serta 4,67-7,22 mg/L dan 4,71–7,30 mg/L (mesotrofik. Persamaan hubungan antara nitrat dan fosfat terhadap klorofil pada Bulan Mei dan Juni sebagai berikut Y = 0,549 + 2,599 X1 + 36,513 X2 (R2=0,97 dan Y = 1,457 + 1,628 X1 + 73,638 X2 (R2=0,97. Peningkatan kandungan klorofil-a di Rawa Pening berbanding lurus dengan kandungan nitrat dan fosfat. Konsentrasi nitrat pada Bulan Mei sangat mempengaruhi konsentrasi klorofil sementara pada Bulan Juni terjadi sebaliknya dimana fosfat yang berpengaruh besar terhadap klorofil-a.   Rawa Pening Lake is a natural lake that has multi-function as electricity  power, irrigation, fisheries, raw water as well as tourism. Human anthropogenic activities around lake lead to the changes of trophic status of waters. Eutrophycation indicated by blooming

  11. Metal concentrations in selected tissues and main prey species of the annulated sea snake (Hydrophis cyanocinctus) in the Hara Protected Area, northeastern coast of the Persian Gulf, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie-Atagholipour, Mohsen; Riyahi-Bakhtiari, Alireza; Sajjadi, Mirmasoud; Yap, Chee Kong; Ghaffari, Sanaz; Ebrahimi-Sirizi, Zohreh; Ghezellou, Parviz

    2012-01-01

    This study is the first detailed ecotoxicological study of the annulated sea snake, Hydrophis cyanocinctus. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, nickel and vanadium were evaluated in muscle, liver, kidney, skin and blood of the annulated sea snake (H. cyanocinctus) and in the whole bodies of its main prey species (Periophthalmus waltoni and Boleophthalmus dussumieri) in the Hara Protected Area, the Persian Gulf. The mean concentrations of lead and vanadium were highest in the kidney, which identified the kidney as a target organ for metals in sea snakes as it is in other reptilian groups. Mean concentrations of cadmium and nickel were highest in the liver and skin, respectively. Mean cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in the liver compared to prey species, which indicated that prey items may be a source of cadmium for the annulated sea snake in the study area. Data presented here may be considered as a baseline for further ecotoxicological studies in sea snakes.

  12. “Once Upon A Time”: The Efficiency of Storytelling in Shaping Drama Series, A Case Study on Bab El Hara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelle Chamieh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We all know the enigma that compels us to dive into the excitement and vivacity of a certain story we are reading or a series we are watching. The characters become a part of us and the streets, café shops, etc., design our thoughts and dreams as they display the ‘vitrines’ of our reality. All is triggered by a simple word “once upon a time.” In this article, we go in-depth by analyzing storytelling and by exploring the significant role of the character as positioned in a text. However, our main concern is the possibility of being able to decipher values transmitted by a text, where the character plays a major role in terms of reflecting empathy/sympathy towards audiences’ perceptions. We, therefore, came with the idea of designing an innovative value analysis framework – based on Pierre Glaudes’s and Yves Reuter’s grid analysis pattern for value depiction – where two studies that analyze the famous series Bab El Hara, are cross referenced. Then, in order to test the validity of the framework, an original qualitative analysis based on a focus group session is conducted on ten Lebanese respondents (aged between 35 and 45 who relate their personal opinions and beliefs in terms of what they perceive in Bab El Hara, giving, therefore, indication to what values they identify with the most. Effectively, the values which respondents did identify with seemed to correspond perfectly with the value analysis framework which has shown to be a suitable base for value depiction.

  13. An Enduring Shell Artefact Tradition from Timor-Leste: Oliva Bead Production from the Pleistocene to Late Holocene at Jerimalai, Lene Hara, and Matja Kuru 1 and 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle C Langley

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe 485 Oliva spp. shell beads recovered from four archaeological cave sites Jerimalai, Lene Hara, Matja Kuru 1, and Matja Kuru 2, located in Timor-Leste, Island Southeast Asia. While Pleistocene-aged examples of modified marine shells used for personal ornamentation are common in African and Eurasian assemblages, they are exceedingly rare in Southeast Asia, leading some researchers to suggest that these Modern Human societies were less complex than those found further west. In Timor-Leste, the lowest Oliva bead to be recovered was directly dated to ca. 37,000 cal. BP, making it the oldest piece of personal ornamentation in Southeast Asia. Morphometric, taphonomic, use wear, and residue analyses of these beads alongside modern reference specimens, and experimentally made examples indicate that the Oliva shells were modified to be strung consecutively (as in a necklace, and while their mode of production changed remarkably little over the thousands of years they were utilised, an increase in their deposition around 6,000 cal. BP suggests that there was a change in their use coinciding with sea-level stabilisation. These tiny beads demonstrate that early Island Southeast Asian societies produced the same kinds of symbolic material culture we have come to expect from the more intensively studied African/Eurasian region, and that limited sampling and poor recovery methods have biased our perspectives of this region.

  14. Sebaran Horizontal Zat Hara di Perairan Lamalera, Nusa Tenggara Timur (Horizontal Distribution of Nutrients in the Waters Lamalera, East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marojahan Simanjuntak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Perairan Lamalera, Nusa Tenggara Timur merupakan perairan yang sangat penting karena kondisi oseanografinya yang dipengaruhi daratan, Laut Sawu, dan Samudera Hindia sehingga kaya akan sumberdaya laut. Penelitian oseanografi di perairan Lamalera, Nusa Tenggara Timur telah dilakukan pada bulan Juli 2011. Tujuan penelitian tersebut untuk mengkaji kualitas air ditinjau dari kandungan zat hara yang merupakan indikator kesuburan perairan serta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya di perairan Lamalera, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Parameter yang diteliti meliputi fosfat, nitrat, dan silikat serta parameter kualitas air yaitu oksigen terlarut, dan keasaman (pH. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah pengambilan air laut dari lapisan permukaan (5 m, termoklin (15-150 m dan dibawah termoklin (100-300 m pada 19 stasiun penelitian. Kadar fosfat, nitrat, dan silikat dianalisis menurut metode Strickland dan Parsons. Kadar oksigen terlarut diukur dengan menggunakan metode Winkler. Derajat keasaman (pH diukur dengan pH meter Cyber Scan 300. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa kadar zat hara pada umumnya lebih tinggi di sebelah selatan perairan ini. Kadar fosfat berkisar 0,53–5,93 μg A/l; nitrat 0,34–28,31 μg A/l, dan silikat 0,69–44,60 μg A/l. Kadar oksigen terlarut berkisar 2,30–4,90 ml/l, dan nilai pH 7,85–8,21. Parameter yang diteliti di perairan Lamalera, Nusa Tenggara Timur masih baik untuk kehidupan berbagai biota mengacu pada Baku Mutu yang telah ditetapkan oleh Kementerian Negara Lingkungan Hidup (KMNLH. Kata kunci: Kualitas air, fosfat, nitrat, silikat, Perairan Lamalera. Lamalera Waters, East Nusa Tenggara is one of the waters are very important because the condition of the affected land, Sawu Sea, and Indian Ocean, so rich in marine resources. Oceanographic research in the Lamalera Waters, East Nusa Tenggara have been carried out in July 2011. The research objective was to assess water quality in terms of the nutrients content, which is an

  15. Opposite effects of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras on radiation-induced apoptosis via differential activation of PI3K/Akt and Rac/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, J.-A.; Kang, C.-M.; Lee, Y.-S.; Lee, S.-J.; Bae, S.-W.; Cho, C.-K.

    2003-01-01

    It has been well known that Ras signaling is involved in various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. However, distinct cellular functions of Ras isozymes are not fully understood. Here we show the opposing roles of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras genes in the modulation of cell sensitivity to ionizing radiation. Overexpression of active isoform of Ha-Ras (12V-Ha- Ras) in Rat2 cells increases resistance to the ionizing radiation. Constitutive activation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt is detected specifically in 12V-Ha-Ras-overexpressing cells. The specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002 inhibits PI3K/Akt signaling and potentiates the radiation-induced apoptosis, suggesting that activation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway is involved in the increased radio-resistance in cells overexpressing 12V-Ha-Ras. Overexpression of activated Ki-Ras (12V-Ki-Ras), on the other hand, markedly increases radiation sensitivity. The p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activity is selectively enhanced by ionizing radiation in cells overexpressing 12V-Ki-Ras. The specific p38 MAP kinase inhibitor, PD169316, or dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase decreases radiation-induced cell death. We further show that the mechanism that underlies potentiation of cell death in cells overexpressing 12V-Ki-Ras involves Bax translocation to the mitochondrial membrane. Elevated Bax translocation following ionizing irradiation in 12V-Ki-Ras-overexpressing cells is completely inhibited by PD169316 or dominant-negative p38 MAP kinase. In addition, introduction of cells with RacN17, a dominant negative mutant of Rac, resulted in a marked inhibition of radiation-induced Bax translocation and apoptotic cell death as well as p38 MAP kinase activation. Taken together, these findings explain the opposite effects of Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras on modulation of radio-sensitivity, and suggest that differential activation of PI3K/Akt and Rac/p38 MAP kinase signaling by Ha-Ras and Ki-Ras may

  16. PENGARUH TINDAKAN KONSERVASI TANAH TERHADAP ALIRAN PERMUKAAN, EROSI, KEHILANGAN HARA DAN PENGHASILAN PADA USAHA TANI KENTANG DAN KUBIS (Effect of Coil and Water Conservation Practices on Runoff, Erosion, Nutrient Loss and Farmer Income of Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Baroroh Lili Utami

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Laju erosi yang terjadi di dataran tinggi Dieng, Jawa Tengah sangat tinggi karena pertanian yang dominan adalah sayuran, dan umumnya petani tidak melaksanakan teknik konservasi tanah dan air secara benar. Karena itu, perlu dilakukan penelitian untuk mencari tindakan konservasi tanah yang memadai agar dapat menekan erosi dan aliran permukaan, kehilangan hara dan meningkatkan penghasilan pada usaha tani kentang (Solanum toberosum L dan kubis (Brassica oleracea l. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji pengaruh tindakan konservasi tanah terhadap aliran permukaan, erosi, kehilangan hara, dan penghasilan sehingga diharapkan teknik konservasi yang sesuai pada usaha tani kentang dan kubis dapat ditemukan. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan mengukur aliran permukaan dan erosi tiap kejadian hujan mulai bulan Februari hingga Mei 2000 selama satu musim tanam pada plot erosi berukuran 2 x 10 meter dengan kemiringan 34 %. Kehilangan hara tanah ditentukan dengan mengukur kandungan hara sedimen tanah. Penghasilan usaha tani dihitung setelah panen. Penelitian dirancang secara faktorial dalam Rancangan Kelompok Lengkap Teracak (RKLT dengan dua faktor. Faktor pertama adalah usaha tani, yaitu kentang (C1 dan kubis (C2. Faktor kedua adalah teknik konservasi tanah, yaitu guludan memotong kontur (P1 sebagai kontrol, guludan sejajar kontur dan teras-gulud yang di tanami serai (P2, guludan sejajar kontur dengm penutupan mulsa alang-alang (P3, dan guludan sejajar kontur dengan mulsa plastik perak hitam (P4. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa pada usaha tani kentang, tindakan konservasi P2, P3 dan P4 mampu menekan erosi. Tindakan konservasi P2 dan P4 mampu meningkatkan penghasilan, namun P3 menurunkan penghasilan. Pada usaha tani kubis, tindakan konservasi tanah yang mampu menekan erosi hanya P3. Tindakan konservasi P2, P3, dan P4 mampu meningkatkan penghasilan. Tindakan konservasi kentang yang bagus, baik secara lingkungan maupun

  17. Short philtrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003302.htm Short philtrum To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A short philtrum is a shorter than normal distance between ...

  18. Resultados de la catalogación de los Scarabaeoidea Laparosticti (Insecta, Coleoptera coprófagos de Marruecos y el Sáhara Occidental conservados en las colecciones del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romero Samper, J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We offer a species list containing the 120 dung beetle species from Morocco and Western Sahara (families Aphodiidae, Geotrupidae and Scarabaeidae, deposited in the Entomological collection of the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas.We also include several maps showing the collection sites and a brief historical summary about the collectors and the origin of the specimens, examining their temporal evolution and analyzing their representativeness compared with the catalogue of species belonging to this group known from Morocco.

    Se ofrece el listado pormenorizado de las 120 especies de Scarabaeoidea coprófagos de Marruecos y el Sáhara Occidental (familias Aphodiidae, Geotrupidae y Scarabaeidae, depositadas en la colección de Entomología del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales de Madrid (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, resultado de la catalogación del material presente en esta institución. Asimismo, se aportan mapas con la localización de dichos registros y se realiza un breve resumen histórico de los colectores y la procedencia de este material, examinando su evolución temporal y analizando la representatividad del mismo respecto al catálogo de especies conocidas de Marruecos para este grupo.

  19. Protective effect of Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth Hara extract on acute liver injury induced by Concanavalin A in mice through inhibition of TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Feng Zhai

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Rabdosia amethystoides (Benth Hara (ERA, a traditional Chinese medicine has antibacterial, antiviral, anti-tumor, anti-hepatitis and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the hepatoprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of ERA on acute liver injury have not been fully elucidated. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and liver protection of ERA against the acute liver injury induced by Concanavalin A (Con A and its underlying molecular mechanisms in mice. Mice received ERA (50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight by gavage before Con A intravenous administration. We found that ERA pretreatment was able to significantly reduce the elevated serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase levels and liver necrosis in Con A-induced hepatitis. In addition, ERA treatment significantly decreased the myeloperoxidase, malondialdehyde levels and augmented superoxide dismutase level in the liver tissue, and also suppressed the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum, compared with Con A group by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, we observed that ERA pretreatment can significantly decrease the expression level of Toll-like receptor (TLR 4 mRNA or protein in liver tissues. Further results showed that ERA pretreatment was capable of attenuating the activation of the NF-κB pathway by inhibiting IκBα kinase and p65 phosphorylation in Con A-induced liver injury. Our results demonstrate that ERA pretreatment has hepatoprotective property against Con A-induced liver injury through inhibition of inflammatory mediators in mice. The beneficial effect of ERA may be mediated by the downregulation of TLR4 expression and the inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  20. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2017-09-04

    Sep 4, 2017 ... Face-to-face interviews were conducted using a standardized ... Short communication. Open Access ... clinic during the time of the study and were invited to participate in the study. .... consume them. This is another ...

  1. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF P.T. KAYE

    . SHORT COMMUNICATION. Formation and Structural Analysis of Novel Dibornyl Ethers. Perry T. Kaye*, Andrew R. Duggan, Joseph M. Matjila, Warner E. Molema, and. Swarnam S. Ravindran. Department of Chemistry, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, ...

  2. Short Stature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christesen, Henrik Boye Thybo; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes; Pournara, Effie

    2016-01-01

    -scale, non-interventional, multinational study. The patient cohort consisted of 5996 short pediatric patients diagnosed with growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) or born small for gestational age (SGA). The proportions of children with baseline height standard deviation score (SDS) below......The use of appropriate growth standards/references is of significant clinical importance in assessing the height of children with short stature as it may determine eligibility for appropriate therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of using World Health Organization (WHO) instead...... of national growth standards/references on height assessment in short children. Data were collected from routine clinical practice (1998-2014) from nine European countries that have available national growth references and were enrolled in NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) (NCT00960128), a large...

  3. Short Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Rühli, Frank

    2015-01-01

    modality in ancient mummy research. The aim of this short review is to address the advantages and pitfalls of this particular technique for such unique samples. We recommend that when results of X-ray examination of mummies are presented, the specific recording data should be listed, and any given finds...

  4. Short fusion

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    French and UK researchers are perfecting a particle accelerator technique that could aid the quest for fusion energy or make X-rays that are safer and produce higher-resolution images. Led by Dr Victor Malka from the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Techniques Avancees in Paris, the team has developed a better way of accelerating electrons over short distances (1 page).

  5. Short communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UPuser

    Short communication. Polymorphisms of the CAST gene in the Meishan and five other pig populations in China. Q.S. Wang. 1. , Y.C. Pan. 1#. , L.B. Sun. 2 and H. Meng. 1. 1 Department of Animal Science, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai. 201101, P.R. China. 2 Shanghai Institute of ...

  6. SHORT COMMUNICATION

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    ______. *Corresponding author. E-mail: vani_chem@yahoo.com. SHORT COMMUNICATION. OXIDATION OF L-CYSTINE BY CHROMIUM(VI) - A KINETIC STUDY. Kalyan Kumar Adari, Annapurna Nowduri and Vani Parvataneni*. Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Andhra University,.

  7. Short communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantophlet, Andre J.; Gilbert, M.S.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Vonk, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    Heavy veal calves (4-6 mo old) often develop problems with insulin sensitivity. This could lead to metabolic disorders and impaired animal growth performance. Studies in various animal species have shown that the supplementation of short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides (scFOS) can improve insulin

  8. Short Communication

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    huis

    Short Communication. QTL analysis of production traits on SSC3 in a Large White×Meishan pig resource family. B. Zuo. 1. , Y.Z. Xiong. 1#. , Y.H. Su. 2. , C.Y. Deng. 1. , M.G. Lei. 1. , F.E. Li. 1. , R. Zheng. 1 and S.W. Jiang. 1. 1 Key Laboratory of Swine Genetics and Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture & Key Lab of Agricultural ...

  9. Hara on lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    read), which permit unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus,.

  10. Natural short sleeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep - natural short sleeper ... 7 to 9 hours of sleep each night. Short sleepers sleep less than 75% of what is normal for their age. Natural short sleepers are different from people who chronically do ...

  11. Serosurvey of antibodies against spotted fever group Rickettsia spp. in horse farms in Northern Paraná, Brazil Soroprevalência de anticorpos contra Rickettsia spp. do grupo febre maculosa em equinos de haras no Norte do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Tamekuni

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian spotted fever (BSF is an emerging disease most likely caused by Rickettsia rickettsii. The objective of the present study was to estimate the seroprevalence of BSF rickettsia infections in equines from six horse farms located in Londrina County, Paraná, Southern Brazil. Six owners of horse farms situated in Cambé, Santa Fé, Guaraci and Londrina municipalities participated in the study. All farms were located in areas where BSF has not been reported. A total of 273 horses were sampled and their sera were tested by indirect Immunofluorescence assay (IFA using R. rickettsii and R. parkeri antigens. Titers equal to and greater than 64 were considered positive. Of 273 sera tested, 15 (5.5% reacted to R. rickettsii and 5 (1.8% to R. parkeri. Five out of the six farms studied revealed seropositive animals and seropositivity rate ranged from 0 to 13%. The titers ranged from 64 to 512, and four samples had a titer of 512. Nine animals reacted to R. rickettsii with titers four-fold higher than those for R. parkeri. These results suggest that horses in Northern Paraná may have been exposed to rickettsiae identical or closely related to R. rickettsii.Febre Maculosa Brasileira (FMB é uma doença emergente, sendo Rickettsia rickettsii o seu principal agente etiológico. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a soroprevalência de rickettsia do grupo da febre maculosa em equinos de seis haras localizados nos municípios de Cambé, Santa Fé, Guaraci e Londrina. As propriedades eram localizadas na região Norte do Paraná onde casos de FMB ainda não foram diagnosticados. Foram colhidas amostras de sangue de 273 equinos, e os soros foram testados pela RIFI, usando R. rickettsii e R. parkeri como antígenos, considerando-se como positivos títulos >64. Entre 273 soros, 15 (5,5% reagiram contra R. rickettsii e 5 (1,8% para R. parkeri. Cinco de seis haras estudados tinham animais reativos, e a taxa de sororreatividade variou de 0 a 13%. Os t

  12. Shortness of Breath

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... filled with air (called pneumotho- rax), it will hinder expansion of the lung, resulting in shortness of ... of Chest Physi- cians. Shortness of Breath: Patient Education. http: / / www. onebreath. org/ document. doc? id= 113. ...

  13. Short-circuit logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Ponse, A.

    2010-01-01

    Short-circuit evaluation denotes the semantics of propositional connectives in which the second argument is only evaluated if the first argument does not suffice to determine the value of the expression. In programming, short-circuit evaluation is widely used. A short-circuit logic is a variant of

  14. Toughness increase of self compacting concrete reinforced with polypropylene short fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melián, G.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Increases in bending tests by the addition of low volume fractions of Polypropylene (PP Short Fibers PP. These toughness increases are similar to those attained by Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC referred elsewhere as Engineered Cementitious Composites (ECC, having some ductility and strain hardening in direct tensile and flexural tests. Concretes mixtures were manufactured using natural pozzolanic blended Portland cement, volcanic crushed coarse aggregates and fine sand from Sahara desert dunes (0-1 mm from Canary Islands quarries and sand reservoirs, respectively, besides ordinary siliceous sand (0-4 mm and fly ash from an anthracite-coal heat generator.

    Se presentan en este artículo hormigones autocompactables que, mediante la adición de pequeñas fracciones volumétricas de fibras cortas de polipropileno, consiguen incrementos importantes de tenacidad en su comportamiento mecánico a flexión. Estos aumentos de tenacidad son semejantes a los que presentan un grupo de hormigones reforzados con fibras, denominados ECC (Engineered Cementitious Composites, que muestran también alguna ductilidad y endurecimiento por deformación en ensayos de tracción directa y flexión. Los hormigones se dosificaron empleando cemento Pórtland con Puzolana natural, áridos volcánicos de machaqueo y arena fina procedente de dunas del desierto del Sáhara (0-1 mm, de canteras y depósitos de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Islas Canarias, respectivamente, además de arena silícea ordinaria (0-4 mm y cenizas volantes de una central térmica de combustible antracita.

  15. "Fate: The short film"

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Quintana, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    "Fate: The Short Film" is a four minute short film which reflects the idea that nobody can escape from the fate. It has a good picture and sound quality with an understandable message for all public and with the collaboration of actors, filmmaker, stylist, script advisor and media technician.

  16. [Shunt and short circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel-Abundis, Alberto

    2006-01-01

    Shunt and short circuit are antonyms. In French, the term shunt has been adopted to denote the alternative pathway of blood flow. However, in French, as well as in Spanish, the word short circuit (court-circuit and cortocircuito) is synonymous with shunt, giving rise to a linguistic and scientific inconsistency. Scientific because shunt and short circuit made reference to a phenomenon that occurs in the field of the physics. Because shunt and short circuit are antonyms, it is necessary to clarify that shunt is an alternative pathway of flow from a net of high resistance to a net of low resistance, maintaining the stream. Short circuit is the interruption of the flow, because a high resistance impeaches the flood. This concept is applied to electrical and cardiovascular physiology, as well as to the metabolic pathways.

  17. Idiopathic short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlaški Jovan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth is a complex process and the basic characteristic of child- hood growth monitoring provides insight into the physiological and pathological events in the body. Statistically, the short stature means departure from the values of height for age and sex (in a particular environment, which is below -2 standard deviation score, or less than -2 standard deviation, i.e. below the third percentile. Advances in molecular genetics have contributed to the improvement of diagnostics in endocrinology. Analysis of patients’ genotypes should not be performed before taking a classical history, detailed clinical examination and appropriate tests. In patients with idiopathic short stature specific causes are excluded, such as growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, short stature due to low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, small for gestational age, dysmorphology syndromes and chronic childhood diseases. The exclusion of abovementioned conditions leaves a large number of children with short stature whose etiology includes patients with genetic short stature or familial short stature and those who are low in relation to genetic potential, and who could also have some unrecognized endocrine defect. Idiopathic short stature represents a short stature of unknown cause of heterogeneous etiology, and is characterized by a normal response of growth hormone during stimulation tests (>10 ng/ml or 20 mJ/l, without other disorders, of normal body mass and length at birth. In idiopathic short stature standard deviation score rates <-2.25 (-2 to -3 or <1.2 percentile. These are also criteria for the initiation of growth hormone therapy. In children with short stature there is also the presence of psychological and social suffering. Goals of treatment with growth hormone involve achieving normal height and normal growth rate during childhood.

  18. Imaging in short stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-09-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  19. Imaging in short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Chaudhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions associated with growth abnormality. In this review, we have discussed the role of imaging in diagnosing and characterizing various pathological conditions associated with short stature.

  20. Short bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, L.G.J.B.

    1983-01-01

    This thesis describes some aspects of short bowel syndrome. When approximately 1 m or less small bowel is retained after extensive resection, a condition called short bowel syndrome is present. Since the advent of parenteral nutrition, the prognosis of patients with a very short bowel has dramatically improved. Patients with 40 to 100 cm remaining jejunum and/or ileum can generally be maintained with oral nutrition due to increased absorption of the small bowel remnant as result of intestinal adaptation. This study reports clinical, biochemical and nutritional aspects of short bowel patients on oral or parenteral nutrition, emphasizing data on absorption of various nutrients and on bone metabolism. Furthermore, some technical apsects concerning long-term parenteral nutrition are discussed. (Auth.)

  1. Catapults fall short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Marcus

    2018-01-01

    In reply to the news story "UK Catapults fall short, claims review of technology centres", which describes an independent review that criticized the management of the UK's network of technology innovation centres.

  2. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  3. Imaging in short stature

    OpenAIRE

    Vikas Chaudhary; Shahina Bano

    2012-01-01

    Short stature can be a sign of disease, disability, and social stigma causing psychological stress. It is important to have an early diagnosis and treatment. Short stature may result from skeletal dysplasias, endocrine disorders, may be familial, or may be the result of malnutrition and chronic illnesses. A team effort of the healthcare professionals like pediatricians, endocrinologists, radiologists, and pathologists is required to diagnose, treat and monitor various pathological conditions ...

  4. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  5. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  6. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Crotti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The Short QT Syndrome is a recently described new genetic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT interval, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. This autosomal dominant syndrome can afflict infants, children, or young adults; often a remarkable family background of cardiac sudden death is elucidated. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, with atrial fibrillation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. Gain of function mutations in three genes encoding K+ channels have been identified, explaining the abbreviated repolarization seen in this condition: KCNH2 for Ikr (SQT1, KCNQ1 for Iks (SQT2 and KCNJ2 for Ik1 (SQT3. The currently suggested therapeutic strategy is an ICD implantation, although many concerns exist for asymptomatic patients, especially in pediatric age. Pharmacological treatment is still under evaluation; quinidine has shown to prolong QT and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, but awaits additional confirmatory clinical data.

  7. Short notice inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouchkarev, V.

    1998-01-01

    For 30 years the IAEA safeguards system have evolved and have been strengthened by the regular introduction of new methods and techniques, improving both its effectiveness and efficiency. The member States of the IAEA have indicated their willingness to accept new obligations and associated technical measure that greatly strengthen the nuclear safeguards system. One element of this is the extent to which the IAEA inspectors have physical access to relevant locations for the purpose of providing independent verification of the exclusively peaceful intent of a State nuclear program. The Protocol to Safeguards granted new legal authority with respect to information on, and short notice inspector access to, all buildings on a nuclear site and administrative agreements that improve the process of designating inspectors and IAEA access to modern means of communication. This report is a short description of unannounced or short notice inspections as measures on which the new strengthened and cost efficient system will be based

  8. Detecting short circuits during assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1980-01-01

    Detector circuit identifies shorts between bus bars of electronic equipment being wired. Detector sounds alarm and indicates which planes are shorted. Power and ground bus bars are scanned continuously until short circuit occurs.

  9. Short wavelength FELS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs

  10. Short wavelength FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Congenital Short QT Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antzelevitch

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Long QT intervals in the ECG have long been associated with sudden cardiac death. The congenital long QT syndrome was first described in individuals with structurally normal hearts in 1957.1 Little was known about the significance of a short QT interval. In 1993, after analyzing 6693 consecutive Holter recordings Algra et al concluded that an increased risk of sudden death was present not only in patients with long QT interval, but also in patients with short QT interval (<400 ms.2 Because this was a retrospective analysis, further evaluation of the data was not possible. It was not until 2000 that a short-QT syndrome (SQTS was proposed as a new inherited clinical syndrome by Gussak et al.3 The initial report was of two siblings and their mother all of whom displayed persistently short QT interval. The youngest was a 17 year old female presenting with several episodes of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation requiring electrical cardioversion.3 Her QT interval measured 280 msec at a heart rate of 69. Her 21 year old brother displayed a QT interval of 272 msec at a heart rate of 58, whereas the 51 year old mother showed a QT of 260 msec at a heart rate of 74. The authors also noted similar ECG findings in another unrelated 37 year old patient associated with sudden cardiac death.

  12. SHORT COMMUNICATION POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    SHORT COMMUNICATION. POTENTIOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF K+ IONS USING A K+-SELECTIVE. ELECTRODE WITH MACROCYCLIC LIQUID MEMBRANE. Cezar Spinu*, Marian Isvoranu, Maria Pleniceanu and Cristian Tigae. Faculty of Chemistry, University of Craiova, A.I. Cuza 13, Craiova, Romania. (Received ...

  13. Biorefineries: A Short Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemann, Kurt; Tippkötter, Nils

    2018-04-13

    The terms bioeconomy and biorefineries are used for a variety of processes and developments. This short introduction is intended to provide a delimitation and clarification of the terminology as well as a classification of current biorefinery concepts. The basic process diagrams of the most important biorefinery types are shown.

  14. Short pulse neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2016-08-02

    Short pulse neutron generators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the short pulse neutron generator includes a Blumlein structure. The Blumlein structure includes a first conductive plate, a second conductive plate, a third conductive plate, at least one of an inductor or a resistor, a switch, and a dielectric material. The first conductive plate is positioned relative to the second conductive plate such that a gap separates these plates. A vacuum chamber is positioned in the gap, and an ion source is positioned to emit ions in the vacuum chamber. The third conductive plate is electrically grounded, and the switch is operable to electrically connect and disconnect the second conductive plate and the third conductive plate. The at least one of the resistor or the inductor is coupled to the first conductive plate and the second conductive plate.

  15. Short-term memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulouse, G.

    This is a rather bold attempt to bridge the gap between neuron structure and psychological data. We try to answer the question: Is there a relation between the neuronal connectivity in the human cortex (around 5,000) and the short-term memory capacity (7±2)? Our starting point is the Hopfield model (Hopfield 1982), presented in this volume by D.J. Amit.

  16. Short QT syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Gaita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The short QT syndrome (SQTS is a recently described genetic arrhythmogenic disorder, characterized by abnormally short QT intervals on surface electrocardiogram (ECG and a high incidence of sudden death (SD during life, including the first months of life. The inheritance of SQTS is autosomal dominant, with genetic heterogeneity. Gain-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding potassium channels have been associated to the disease: KCNH2 encoding IKr (SQT1, KCNQ1 encoding IKs (SQT2, and KCNJ2 encoding IK1 (SQT3. Loss-of-function mutations in 3 genes encoding the cardiac L-type calcium channel, CACNA1C, CACNB2b and CACNA2D1 may underlie a mixed phenotype of Brugada pattern ECG (or non-specific repolarization changes in case of CACNA2D1 and shorter than normal QT intervals. Clinical presentation is often severe, as cardiac arrest represents the first clinical presentation in most subjects. Moreover, often a noticeable family history of cardiac SD is present. Atrial fibrillation may be observed, also in young individuals. At electrophysiological study, short atrial and ventricular refractory periods are found, and atrial and ventricular fibrillation are easily induced by programmed electrical stimulation. The outcome of patients with SQTS becomes relatively safe when they are identified and treated. Currently, the suggested therapeutic strategy is an implantable cardioverter- defibrillator (ICD in patients with personal history of aborted SD or syncope. In asymptomatic adult patients from highly symptomatic families and in newborn children pharmacological treatment with hydroquinidine, which has been shown to prolong the QT interval and reduce the inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias, may be proposed.

  17. Short bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L

    2012-02-01

    The short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a state of malabsorption following intestinal resection where there is less than 200 cm of intestinal length. The management of short bowel syndrome can be challenging and is best managed by a specialised multidisciplinary team. A good understanding of the pathophysiological consequences of resection of different portions of the small intestine is necessary to anticipate and prevent, where possible, consequences of SBS. Nutrient absorption and fluid and electrolyte management in the initial stages are critical to stabilisation of the patient and to facilitate the process of adaptation. Pharmacological adjuncts to promote adaptation are in the early stages of development. Primary restoration of bowel continuity, if possible, is the principle mode of surgical treatment. Surgical procedures to increase the surface area of the small intestine or improve its function may be of benefit in experienced hands, particularly in the paediatric population. Intestinal transplant is indicated at present for patients who have failed to tolerate long-term parenteral nutrition but with increasing experience, there may be a potentially expanded role for its use in the future.

  18. Cell short circuit, preshort signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, C.

    1980-01-01

    Short-circuit events observed in ground test simulations of DSCS-3 battery in-orbit operations are analyzed. Voltage signatures appearing in the data preceding the short-circuit event are evaluated. The ground test simulation is briefly described along with performance during reconditioning discharges. Results suggest that a characteristic signature develops prior to a shorting event.

  19. Newnes short wave listening handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Pritchard, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Short Wave Listening Handbook is a guide for starting up in short wave listening (SWL). The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss the basics and fundamental concepts of short wave radio listening. The coverage of the text includes electrical principles; types of signals that can be heard in the radio spectrum; and using computers in SWL. The book also covers SWL equipment, such as receivers, converters, and circuits. The text will be of great use to individuals who want to get into short wave listening.

  20. Short-circuit impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2003-01-01

    Methods for estimating the short-circuit impedance in the power grid are investigated for various voltage levels and situations. The short-circuit impedance is measured, preferably from naturally occurring load changes in the grid, and it is shown that such a measurement system faces different...

  1. Superconducting cyclotron magnet coil short

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, M.L.; Blosser, H.G.; Clark, D.J.; Launer, H.; Lawton, D.; Miller, P.; Resmini, F.

    1982-01-01

    In February 1981, a short circuit appeared in the superconducting coil of the K500 cyclotron. The short is resistive in character and therefore has no effect on steady state operation of the magnet. The resistance of the short varies, sometimes being below threshold of detection as a heat load on the cooling system and sometimes being significant. The resistance under certain conditions shows approximately cyclic phenomena with time constants in the range of seconds and other approximately cyclic phenomena which correlate with gross operating parameters of the magnet (shifting current from one coil to another at high field and lowering and raising the liquid helium level). A number of diagnostic studies of the short have been made, using 1) an array of flux sensing loops to sense the magnetic effect of the short, 2) voltage comparisons between upper and lower sections of the coil, 3) comparisons of forces in the nine member coil support system and 4) the effect of the short on the thermal charactersitics of the coil. Insulation failure or a metal chip shorting out turns have been explored in some detail but a convincing determination of the exact cause of the short may never be available, (even the extreme step of unwinding the coil having a significant probability that an imperfection with the observed characteristics would pass unnoticed). Analysis of the characteristics of the short indicated that the most serious consequence would be failure of the coils mechanical support system in the event that the magnet was quickly discharged, as in a dump or quench. To deal with this hazard, the support system has been modified by installing solid supports which prevent the coil from moving by an amount sufficient to damage the support system. We have also reexamined the data and calculations used in the original coil design and have made some additional measurements of the properties of the materials (yield strength, friction coefficient, Young's modulus) used in the

  2. Shorts due to diagnostic leads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.F.; Lubell, M.S.; Pillsbury, R.D.; Shen, S.S.; Thome, R.J.; Walstrom, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    The superconducting toroidal field coils that are being tested in the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF) are heavily instrumented. General Electric coil, a lead wire of an internal sensor became shorted across an estimated three or four turns of the pancake winding. This short occurred during the final stages of the winding fabrication and was not accessible for repair. Resistance, voltage gradient, and transient voltage decay measurements were performed to characterize the short and the magnetic damping of the large steel bobbin and outer structural ring. The 32-gage wire causing the short was estimated to be about 10 cm long, with a resistance of 55 mΩ. As a safety measure, we decided to burn out the shorted wire at room temperature before installing the coil in LCTF. Tests were made to determine the energy needed to vaporize a small wire. Computer calculations indicated that within the voltage limits set for the coil, it was not feasible to burn out the wire by rapidly dumping the coil from a low-current dc charge-up. We accomplished the burnout by applying 800 V at 3.25 A, and 60 Hz for about 1 s. Transient voltage decay measurements made after the burnout and compared with those made before the attempt confirmed that the short had indeed been opened

  3. The novel as short story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirk Schlueter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent history, the novel has been thought of and defined primarily as a long prose narrative. However, this has not been the case historically, as the original meaning of "novel" was for "a piece of news" or "a short story or novella." Returning to this original definition, I propose a new way of viewing the work known contemporarily as the novel as a collection, or sequence, of united short stories rather than a single indivisible work, with the component short stories or novellas comprising the sequence renamed as "novels." A brief examination of several classic works traditionally considered novels serves to illustrate how this change in definition will affect reading.

  4. Infantile Short Bowel Syndrome: short and long term evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. Olieman (Joanne)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractInfantile short bowel syndrome is a condition which is characterized by malabsorption of nutrients, as a result of congenital intestinal shortening or massive small bowel resection. Survival rates have improved over the years, but morbidity remains high and clinical management of these

  5. Short-range fundamental forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniadis, I.; Baessler, S.; Buchner, M.; Fedorov, V.V.; Hoedl, S.; Nesvizhevsky, V.V.; Pignol, G.; Protasov, K.V.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Sobolev, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces; 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Different experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experiments. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments

  6. Astronomical Spectroscopy A Short History

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 3; Issue 5. Astronomical Spectroscopy A Short History. J C Bhattacharyya. General Article Volume 3 Issue 5 May 1998 pp 24-29. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/003/05/0024-0029 ...

  7. A Short Term Analogue Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1992-01-01

    A short term analogue memory is described. It is based on a well-known sample-hold topology in which leakage currents have been minimized partly by circuit design and partly by layout techniques. Measurements on a test chip implemented in a standard 2.4 micron analogue CMOS process show a droop...

  8. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FELs offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FELs will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    1976). Among raptors there are those species where only the female incubates, those where the male may also incubate for short to longer periods, and those in which females and males equally share the incubation (Newton 1979). It is well known that both sexes incubate the clutch in vultures, both in the wild (Mundy et al.

  10. Towards short wavelengths FELs workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zvi, I.; Winick, H.

    1993-11-01

    This workshop was caged because of the growing perception in the FEL source community that recent advances have made it possible to extend FEL operation to wavelengths about two orders of magnitude shorter than the 240 nm that has been achieved to date. In addition short wavelength FEL's offer the possibilities of extremely high peak power (several gigawatts) and very short pulses (of the order of 100 fs). Several groups in the USA are developing plans for such short wavelength FEL facilities. However, reviewers of these plans have pointed out that it would be highly desirable to first carry out proof-of-principle experiments at longer wavelengths to increase confidence that the shorter wavelength devices will indeed perform as calculated. The need for such experiments has now been broadly accepted by the FEL community. Such experiments were the main focus of this workshop as described in the following objectives distributed to attendees: (1) Define measurements needed to gain confidence that short wavelength FEL's will perform as calculated. (2) List possible hardware that could be used to carry out these measurements in the near term. (3) Define a prioritized FEL physics experimental program and suggested timetable. (4) Form collaborative teams to carry out this program.

  11. Short-term flow induced crystallization in isotactic polypropylene : how short is short?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Z.; Balzano, L.; Portale, G.; Peters, G.W.M.

    2013-01-01

    The so-called "short-term flow" protocol is widely applied in experimental flow-induced crystallization studies on polymers in order to separate the nucleation and subsequent growth processes [Liedauer et al. Int. Polym. Proc. 1993, 8, 236–244]. The basis of this protocol is the assumption that

  12. Complexity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, John H

    2014-01-01

    The importance of complexity is well-captured by Hawking's comment: "Complexity is the science of the 21st century". From the movement of flocks of birds to the Internet, environmental sustainability, and market regulation, the study and understanding of complex non-linear systems has become highly influential over the last 30 years. In this Very Short Introduction, one of the leading figures in the field, John Holland, introduces the key elements and conceptual framework of complexity. From complex physical systems such as fluid flow and the difficulties of predicting weather, to complex adaptive systems such as the highly diverse and interdependent ecosystems of rainforests, he combines simple, well-known examples - Adam Smith's pin factory, Darwin's comet orchid, and Simon's 'watchmaker' - with an account of the approaches, involving agents and urn models, taken by complexity theory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost eve...

  13. Review of short wavelength lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-01-01

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references

  14. Optimal short-sighted rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha eBourgeois-Gironde

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the relevance of methodological transfers from behavioral ecology to experimental economics with respect to the elicitation of intertemporal preferences. More precisely our discussion will stem from the analysis of Stephens and Anderson’s (2001 seminal article. In their study with blue jays they document that foraging behavior typically implements short sighted choice rules which are beneficial in the long-run. Such long term profitability of short-sighted behavior cannot be evidenced when using a self-control paradigm (one which contrasts in a binary way sooner smaller and later larger payoffs but becomes apparent when ecological patch-paradigms (replicating economic situations in which the main trade-off consists in staying on a food patch or leaving for another patch are implemented. We transfer this methodology in view of contrasting foraging strategies and self-control in human intertemporal choices.

  15. Review of short wavelength lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-03-18

    There has recently been a substantial amount of research devoted to the development of short wavelength amplifiers and lasers. A number of experimental results have been published wherein the observation of significant gain has been claimed on transitions in the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. The present review is intended to discuss the main approaches to the creation of population inversions and laser media in the short wavelength regime, and hopefully aid workers in the field by helping to provide access to a growing literature. The approaches to pumping EUV and soft x-ray lasers are discussed according to inversion mechanism. The approaches may be divided into roughly seven categories, including collisional excitation pumping, recombination pumping, direct photoionization and photoexcitation pumping, metastable state storage plus optical pumping, charge exchange pumping, and finally, the extension of free electron laser techniques into the EUV and soft x-ray regimes. 250 references.

  16. Statistical inference a short course

    CERN Document Server

    Panik, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    A concise, easily accessible introduction to descriptive and inferential techniques Statistical Inference: A Short Course offers a concise presentation of the essentials of basic statistics for readers seeking to acquire a working knowledge of statistical concepts, measures, and procedures. The author conducts tests on the assumption of randomness and normality, provides nonparametric methods when parametric approaches might not work. The book also explores how to determine a confidence interval for a population median while also providing coverage of ratio estimation, randomness, and causal

  17. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  18. Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Maghnie

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The “360° GH in Europe” meeting, which examined various aspects of GH diseases, was held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2016. The Merck KGaA (Germany funded meeting comprised three sessions entitled “Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral,” “Optimizing Patient Management,” and “Managing Transition.” Each session had three speaker presentations, followed by a discussion period, and is reported as a manuscript, authored by the speakers. The first session examined current processes of diagnosis and referral by endocrine specialists for pediatric patients with short stature. Requirements for referral vary widely, by country and by patient characteristics such as age. A balance must be made to ensure eligible patients get referred while healthcare systems are not over-burdened by excessive referrals. Late referral and diagnosis of non-GH deficiency conditions can result in increased morbidity and mortality. The consequent delays in making a diagnosis may compromise the effectiveness of GH treatment. Algorithms for growth monitoring and evaluation of skeletal disproportions can improve identification of non-GH deficiency conditions. Performance and validation of guidelines for diagnosis of GH deficiency have not been sufficiently tested. Provocative tests for investigation of GH deficiency remain equivocal, with insufficient information on variations due to patient characteristics, and cutoff values for definition differ not only by country but also by the assay used. When referring and diagnosing causes of short stature in pediatric patients, clinicians need to rely on many factors, but the most essential is clinical experience.

  19. Relativity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stannard, F Russell

    2008-01-01

    Relativity: A Very Short Introduction makes the theory of relativity understandable and accessible. 100 years ago, Einstein's theory of relativity shattered the world of physics. Our comforting Newtonian ideas of space and time were replaced by bizarre and counterintuitive conclusions: if you move at high speed, time slows down, space squashes up and you get heavier; travel fast enough and you could weigh as much as a jumbo jet, be squashed thinner than a CD without feeling a thing - and live forever. And that was just the special theory. With the general theory came even stranger ideas of curved space-time, which changed our understanding of gravity and the cosmos.

  20. Sound a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Sound is integral to how we experience the world, in the form of noise as well as music. But what is sound? What is the physical basis of pitch and harmony? And how are sound waves exploited in musical instruments? Sound: A Very Short Introduction looks at the science of sound and the behaviour of sound waves with their different frequencies. It also explores sound in different contexts, covering the audible and inaudible, sound underground and underwater, acoustic and electronic sound, and hearing in humans and animals. It concludes with the problem of sound out of place—noise and its reduction.

  1. Nothing a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank

    2009-01-01

    What is 'nothing'? What remains when you take all the matter away? Can empty space - a void - exist? This Very Short Introduction explores the science and the history of the elusive void: from Aristotle who insisted that the vacuum was impossible, via the theories of Newton and Einstein, to our very latest discoveries and why they can tell us extraordinary things about the cosmos. Frank Close tells the story of how scientists have explored the elusive void, and the rich discoveries that they have made there. He takes the reader on a lively and accessible history through ancient ideas and cultural superstitions to the frontiers of current research

  2. Superconductivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Superconductivity is one of the most exciting areas of research in physics today. Outlining the history of its discovery, and the race to understand its many mysterious and counter-intuitive phenomena, this Very Short Introduction explains in accessible terms the theories that have been developed, and how they have influenced other areas of science, including the Higgs boson of particle physics and ideas about the early Universe. It is an engaging and informative accountof a fascinating scientific detective story, and an intelligible insight into some deep and beautiful ideas of physics

  3. Planets a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rothery, David A

    2010-01-01

    Planets: A Very Short Introduction demonstrates the excitement, uncertainties, and challenges faced by planetary scientists, and provides an overview of our Solar System and its origins, nature, and evolution. Terrestrial planets, giant planets, dwarf planets and various other objects such as satellites (moons), asteroids, trans-Neptunian objects, and exoplanets are discussed. Our knowledge about planets has advanced over the centuries, and has expanded at a rapidly growing rate in recent years. Controversial issues are outlined, such as What qualifies as a planet? What conditions are required for a planetary body to be potentially inhabited by life? Why does Pluto no longer have planet status? And Is there life on other planets?

  4. Galaxies a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2008-01-01

    Galaxies: A Very Short Introduction explores the building blocks of the Universe. Standing like islands in space, each is made up of many hundreds of millions of stars in which the chemical elements are made, around which planets form, and where on at least one of those planets intelligent life has emerged. Our own galaxy, the Milky Way, is just one of several hundred million other galaxies. Yet it was only in the 1920s that we realised that there is more to the Universe. Since then, many exciting discoveries have been made about our own galaxy and about those beyond.

  5. Radioactivity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Tuniz, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    Radioactivity: A Very Short Introduction explains radioactivity and discusses its fundamental role in nature. Radioactivity remains misunderstood and feared perhaps because nuclear radiation cannot be detected by human senses, and can undoubtedly do great harm if appropriate precautions are not taken. Radioactivity in the stars and in the Earth and its wide range of applications in biomedicine, science, industry, agriculture are described, as well as the mechanisms of nuclear fission and fusion, and the harnessing of nuclear power. The issues surrounding safety and security and the increasing concerns about nuclear terrorism are also considered.

  6. Short recovery time NMR probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramia, M.E.; Martin, C.A.; Jeandrevin, S.

    2011-01-01

    A NMR probe for low frequency and short recovery time is presented in this work. The probe contains the tuning circuit, diode expanders and quarter wavelength networks to protect the receiver from both the amplifier noise and the coil ringing following the transmitter power pulse. It also possesses a coil damper which is activated by of non active components. The probe performance shows a recovery time of about of 15μs a sensitive Q factor reduction and an increase of the signal to noise ratio of about 68% during the reception at a work frequency of 2 MHz. (author)

  7. Moons a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Rothery, David A

    2015-01-01

    Moons: A Very Short Introduction introduces the reader to the varied and fascinating moons of our Solar System. Beginning with the early discoveries of Galileo and others, it describes their variety of mostly mythological names, and the early use of Jupiter’s moons to establish position at sea and to estimate the speed of light. It discusses the structure, formation, and profound influence of our Moon, those of the other planets, and ends with the recent discovery of moons orbiting asteroids, whilst looking forward to the possibility of discovering microbial life beyond Earth and of finding moons of exoplanets in planetary systems far beyond our own.

  8. Magnetism a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Stephen J

    2012-01-01

    Magnetism: A Very Short Introduction explains the mysteries and importance of magnetism. For centuries magnetism has been used for various exploits: as a great healer, a navigation aid through compasses, and through motors, generators, and turbines it has given us power. Our understanding of electricity and magnetism, from the work of Galvani, Ampère, Faraday, and Tesla is explored, and how Maxwell and Faraday's work led to the unification of electricity and magnetism is explained. With a discussion of the relationship between magnetism and relativity, quantum magnetism, and its impact on computers and information storage, how magnetism has changed our fundamental understanding of the Universe is shown.

  9. Short rotation Wood Crops Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L.L.; Ehrenshaft, A.R.

    1990-08-01

    This report synthesizes the technical progress of research projects in the Short Rotation Woody Crops Program for the year ending September 30, 1989. The primary goal of this research program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, is the development of a viable technology for producing renewable feedstocks for conversion to biofuels. One of the more significant accomplishments was the documentation that short-rotation woody crops total delivered costs could be $40/Mg or less under optimistic but attainable conditions. By taking advantage of federal subsidies such as those offered under the Conservation Reserve Program, wood energy feedstock costs could be lower. Genetic improvement studies are broadening species performance within geographic regions and under less-than-optimum site conditions. Advances in physiological research are identifying key characteristics of species productivity and response to nutrient applications. Recent developments utilizing biotechnology have achieved success in cell and tissue culture, somaclonal variation, and gene-insertion studies. Productivity gains have been realized with advanced cultural studies of spacing, coppice, and mixed-species trials. 8 figs., 20 tabs.

  10. Isotopes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Ellam, Rob

    2016-01-01

    An isotope is a variant form of a chemical element, containing a different number of neutrons in its nucleus. Most elements exist as several isotopes. Many are stable while others are radioactive, and some may only exist fleetingly before decaying into other elements. In this Very Short Introduction, Rob Ellam explains how isotopes have proved enormously important across all the sciences and in archaeology. Radioactive isotopes may be familiar from their use in nuclear weapons, nuclear power, and in medicine, as well as in carbon dating. They have been central to establishing the age of the Earth and the origins of the solar system. Combining previous and new research, Ellam provides an overview of the nature of stable and radioactive isotopes, and considers their wide range of modern applications. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subjec...

  11. Computational Analysis of the Mode of Action of Disopyramide and Quinidine on hERG-Linked Short QT Syndrome in Human Ventricles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic G. Whittaker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The short QT syndrome (SQTS is a rare cardiac disorder associated with arrhythmias and sudden death. Gain-of-function mutations to potassium channels mediating the rapid delayed rectifier current, IKr, underlie SQTS variant 1 (SQT1, in which treatment with Na+ and K+ channel blocking class Ia anti-arrhythmic agents has demonstrated some efficacy. This study used computational modeling to gain mechanistic insights into the actions of two such drugs, disopyramide and quinidine, in the setting of SQT1. The O'Hara-Rudy (ORd human ventricle model was modified to incorporate a Markov chain formulation of IKr describing wild type (WT and SQT1 mutant conditions. Effects of multi-channel block by disopyramide and quinidine, including binding kinetics and altered potency of IKr/hERG channel block in SQT1 and state-dependent block of sodium channels, were simulated on action potential and multicellular tissue models. A one-dimensional (1D transmural ventricular strand model was used to assess prolongation of the QT interval, effective refractory period (ERP, and re-entry wavelength (WL by both drugs. Dynamics of re-entrant excitation waves were investigated using a 3D human left ventricular wedge model. In the setting of SQT1, disopyramide, and quinidine both produced a dose-dependent prolongation in (i the QT interval, which was primarily due to IKr block, and (ii the ERP, which was mediated by a synergistic combination of IKr and INa block. Over the same range of concentrations quinidine was more effective in restoring the QT interval, due to more potent block of IKr. Both drugs demonstrated an anti-arrhythmic increase in the WL of re-entrant circuits. In the 3D wedge, disopyramide and quinidine at clinically-relevant concentrations decreased the dominant frequency of re-entrant excitations and exhibited anti-fibrillatory effects; preventing formation of multiple, chaotic wavelets which developed in SQT1, and could terminate arrhythmias. This

  12. Economic impact analysis of short line railroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This research project assesses the economic role and impact of short line railroads in the state of Louisiana. While relatively small in : scope, with 11 operators and approximately 500 miles of track, short line railroads play a significant role in ...

  13. Short Pulse Laser Applications Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Town, R.J.; Clark, D.S.; Kemp, A.J.; Lasinski, B.F.; Tabak, M.

    2008-01-01

    We are applying our recently developed, LDRD-funded computational simulation tool to optimize and develop applications of Fast Ignition (FI) for stockpile stewardship. This report summarizes the work performed during a one-year exploratory research LDRD to develop FI point designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These results were sufficiently encouraging to propose successfully a strategic initiative LDRD to design and perform the definitive FI experiment on the NIF. Ignition experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will begin in 2010 using the central hot spot (CHS) approach, which relies on the simultaneous compression and ignition of a spherical fuel capsule. Unlike this approach, the fast ignition (FI) method separates fuel compression from the ignition phase. In the compression phase, a laser such as NIF is used to implode a shell either directly, or by x rays generated from the hohlraum wall, to form a compact dense (∼300 g/cm 3 ) fuel mass with an areal density of ∼3.0 g/cm 2 . To ignite such a fuel assembly requires depositing ∼20kJ into a ∼35 (micro)m spot delivered in a short time compared to the fuel disassembly time (∼20ps). This energy is delivered during the ignition phase by relativistic electrons generated by the interaction of an ultra-short high-intensity laser. The main advantages of FI over the CHS approach are higher gain, a lower ignition threshold, and a relaxation of the stringent symmetry requirements required by the CHS approach. There is worldwide interest in FI and its associated science. Major experimental facilities are being constructed which will enable 'proof of principle' tests of FI in integrated subignition experiments, most notably the OMEGA-EP facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory of Laser Energetics and the FIREX facility at Osaka University in Japan. Also, scientists in the European Union have recently proposed the construction of a new FI facility, called HiPER, designed to

  14. Coulomb repulsion in short polypeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzy, Amir; Assaf, Khaleel I; Zhang, Shuai; Jacob, Maik H; Nau, Werner M

    2015-01-08

    Coulomb repulsion between like-charged side chains is presently viewed as a major force that impacts the biological activity of intrinsically disordered polypeptides (IDPs) by determining their spatial dimensions. We investigated short synthetic models of IDPs, purely composed of ionizable amino acid residues and therefore expected to display an extreme structural and dynamic response to pH variation. Two synergistic, custom-made, time-resolved fluorescence methods were applied in tandem to study the structure and dynamics of the acidic and basic hexapeptides Asp6, Glu6, Arg6, Lys6, and His6 between pH 1 and 12. (i) End-to-end distances were obtained from the short-distance Förster resonance energy transfer (sdFRET) from N-terminal 5-fluoro-l-tryptophan (FTrp) to C-terminal Dbo. (ii) End-to-end collision rates were obtained for the same peptides from the collision-induced fluorescence quenching (CIFQ) of Dbo by FTrp. Unexpectedly, the very high increase of charge density at elevated pH had no dynamical or conformational consequence in the anionic chains, neither in the absence nor in the presence of salt, in conflict with the common view and in partial conflict with accompanying molecular dynamics simulations. In contrast, the cationic peptides responded to ionization but with surprising patterns that mirrored the rich individual characteristics of each side chain type. The contrasting results had to be interpreted, by considering salt screening experiments, N-terminal acetylation, and simulations, in terms of an interplay of local dielectric constant and peptide-length dependent side chain charge-charge repulsion, side chain functional group solvation, N-terminal and side chain charge-charge repulsion, and side chain-side chain as well as side chain-backbone interactions. The common picture that emerged is that Coulomb repulsion between water-solvated side chains is efficiently quenched in short peptides as long as side chains are not in direct contact with each

  15. 46 CFR 15.725 - Sailing short.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sailing short. 15.725 Section 15.725 Shipping COAST... Limitations and Qualifying Factors § 15.725 Sailing short. Whenever a vessel is deprived of the service of a... vessel is sufficiently manned for the voyage. A report of sailing short must be filed in writing with the...

  16. Copernicus a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Gingerich, Owen

    2016-01-01

    Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) was the astronomer whose shocking vision of a sun-centered universe turned out to be the essential blueprint for a physical understanding of celestial motions. Copernicus: A Very Short Introduction offers a fascinating portrayal of the man who launched the modern vision of the universe. It sets Copernicus in the context of a rapidly changing world, where the recent invention of printing with movable type not only made sources more readily available to him, but also fueled Martin Luther’s transformation of the religious landscape. Copernicus’s heliocentric revolution is revealed as an aesthetic achievement not dictated by observational “proofs,” but another new way of looking at the ancient cosmos.

  17. Infinity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Infinity is an intriguing topic, with connections to religion, philosophy, metaphysics, logic, and physics as well as mathematics. Its history goes back to ancient times, with especially important contributions from Euclid, Aristotle, Eudoxus, and Archimedes. The infinitely large (infinite) is intimately related to the infinitely small (infinitesimal). Cosmologists consider sweeping questions about whether space and time are infinite. Philosophers and mathematicians ranging from Zeno to Russell have posed numerous paradoxes about infinity and infinitesimals. Many vital areas of mathematics rest upon some version of infinity. The most obvious, and the first context in which major new techniques depended on formulating infinite processes, is calculus. But there are many others, for example Fourier analysis and fractals. In this Very Short Introduction, Ian Stewart discusses infinity in mathematics while also drawing in the various other aspects of infinity and explaining some of the major problems and insights ...

  18. Downlink Transmission of Short Packets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trillingsgaard, Kasper Fløe; Popovski, Petar

    2017-01-01

    Cellular wireless systems rely on frame-based transmissions. The frame design is conventionally based on heuristics, consisting of a frame header and a data part. The frame header contains control information that provides pointers to the messages within the data part. In this paper, we revisit...... the principles of frame design and show the impact of the new design in scenarios that feature short data packets, which are central to various 5G and Internet of Things applications. We~treat framing for downlink transmission in an AWGN broadcast channel with $K$ users, where the sizes of the messages....... This requires changes in the way control information is sent, and it requires that the users need to spend power decoding other messages, thereby increasing the average power consumption. We~show that the common heuristic design is only one point on a curve that represents the tradeoff between latency and power...

  19. Shapeable short circuit resistant capacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.

    2015-10-06

    A ceramic short circuit resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The capacitor that exhibits a benign failure mode in which a multitude of discrete failure events result in a gradual loss of capacitance. Each event is a localized event in which localized heating causes an adjacent portion of one or both of the electrodes to vaporize, physically cleaning away electrode material from the failure site. A first metal electrode, a second metal electrode, and a ceramic dielectric layer between the electrodes are thin enough to be formed in a serpentine-arrangement with gaps between the first electrode and the second electrode that allow venting of vaporized electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  20. Astrophysics a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Binney, James

    2016-01-01

    Astrophysics is the physics of the stars, and more widely the physics of the Universe. It enables us to understand the structure and evolution of planetary systems, stars, galaxies, interstellar gas, and the cosmos as a whole. In this Very Short Introduction, the leading astrophysicist James Binney shows how the field of astrophysics has expanded rapidly in the past century, with vast quantities of data gathered by telescopes exploiting all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, combined with the rapid advance of computing power, which has allowed increasingly effective mathematical modelling. He illustrates how the application of fundamental principles of physics - the consideration of energy and mass, and momentum - and the two pillars of relativity and quantum mechanics, has provided insights into phenomena ranging from rapidly spinning millisecond pulsars to the collision of giant spiral galaxies. This is a clear, rigorous introduction to astrophysics for those keen to cut their teeth on a conceptual trea...

  1. Short Course in the Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly Falana

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, it has become evident that the microbiome is an important environmental factor that affects many physiological processes, such as cell proliferation and differentiation, behaviour, immune function and metabolism. More importantly, it may contribute to a wide variety of diseases, including cancer, inflammatory diseases, metabolic diseases and responses to pathogens. We expect that international, integrative and interdisciplinary translational research teams, along with the emergence of FDA-approved platforms, will set the framework for microbiome-based therapeutics and diagnostics. We recognize that the microbiome ecosystem offers new promise for personalized/precision medicine and targeted treatment for a variety of diseases. The short course was held as a four-session webinar series in April 2015, taught by pioneers and experts in the microbiome ecosystem, covering a broad range of topics from the healthy microbiome to the effects of an altered microbiome from neonates to adults and the long term effects as it is related to disease, from asthma to cancer. We have learned to appreciate how beneficial our microbes are in breaking down our food, fighting off infections and nurturing our immune system, and this information provides us with ideas as to how we can manipulate our microbiome to prevent certain diseases. However, given the variety of applications, there are scientific challenges, though there are very promising areas in reference to the clinical benefits of understanding more about our microbiome, whether in our gut or on our skin: the outlook is bright. A summary of the short course is presented as a meeting dispatch.

  2. TECHNICAL AND PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS OF SHORT SELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu BORES

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at providing insight into some of the implication of short selling for markets, investors as well as regulators. Findings show that capital flows are adversely affected by strict regulation and bans of short sales, while market liquidity, and bid-ask spread can be improved by allowing short selling. Additionally portfolios that incorporate short selling strategies can have lower volatility in returns. The informational content of short sales can provide important feedback for informed investors and lead to better price discovery.

  3. Intestino Corto Short bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Matilde Socarrás Suárez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El intestino corto está asociado a pérdida o disfunción del intestino delgado por resección del mismo, que causa diarreas, tránsito intestinal acelerado, malabsorción intestinal, y eventualmente la pérdida de peso y el desgaste muscular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar el conocimiento acerca de este síndrome. Se realiza una revisión del tema de intestino corto donde se refiere a su definición, causas fundamentales frecuentes e infrecuentes en el niño y en el adulto, cómo se adapta el intestino a la resección de diferentes extensiones, las funciones del íleon terminal. Se hacen una valoración clínica inicial, con el interrogatorio médico, revisión minuciosa de la historia clínica para cuantificar la capacidad de absorción. Se habla de los síntomas y signos de deficiencia nutricional. Se explican las estrategias del tratamiento, que tienen 3 etapas de evolución clínica. Se concluye que se indica la dietoterapia adecuada según el estado nutricional del paciente y la resección intestinal realizada, evitando las complicaciones para lograr una calidad máxima de vidaShort bowel is associated with loss or dysfunction of the small bowel due to its resection, which causes diarrheas, accelerated intestinal transit, intestinal malabsorption and, eventually, weight loss ansd muscular waste. The objective of this paper was to update knowledge about this syndrome. A review of the short intestine topic is made, making reference to its definition, common and uncommon main cuases in the child and adult, how the bowel adapts itslef to resection of different extensions, and the functions of the terminal ileum. An initial clinical assessment is made with the medical questionnaire and a detailed review of the medical history to quantify the absorption capacity. The symptoms and signs of nutritional deficiency are dealt with. The strategies of the treatment consisting of 3 stages of clinical evolution are explained. It is concluded

  4. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  5. Gravity a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Clifton, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Gravity is one of the four fundamental interactions that exist in nature. It also has the distinction of being the oldest, weakest, and most difficult force to quantize. Understanding gravity is not only essential for understanding the motion of objects on Earth, but also the motion of all celestial objects, and even the expansion of the Universe itself. It was the study of gravity that led Einstein to his profound realizations about the nature of space and time. Gravity is not only universal, it is also essential for understanding the behavior of the Universe, and all astrophysical bodies within it. In this Very Short Introduction Timothy Clifton looks at the development of our understanding of gravity since the early observations of Kepler and Newtonian theory. He discusses Einstein's theory of gravity, which now supplants Newton's, showing how it allows us to understand why the frequency of light changes as it passes through a gravitational field, why GPS satellites need their clocks corrected as they orbi...

  6. Light a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Walmsley, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Light enables us to see the world around us. Our sense of sight provides us with direct information about space and time, the physical arrangement of the world, and how it changes. This almost universal shared sensation of vision has led to a fascination with the nature and properties of light across the ages. But the light we see is just a small part of the whole spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, ranging from radio waves to gamma rays. In this Very Short Introduction Ian Walmsley discusses early attempts to explain light, and the development of apparently opposing particulate and wave theories by scientists such as Isaac Newton and Christiaan Huygens. He shows how light was recognized as an electromagnetic wave in the 19th century, and the development of the quantum mechanics view of wave-particle duality in the 20th century. He also describes the many applications of light, domestic and scientific, such as microwaves, DVDs, and lasers. We now use the whole range of electromagnetic radiation to peer bot...

  7. A short history of insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberemok Volodymyr Volodymyrovych

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This review contains a brief history of the use of insecticides. The peculiarities, main advantages, and disadvantages of some modern insecticides are described. The names of the discoverers of some of the most popular insecticide preparations on the world market, are listed. The tendencies to find new insecticides to control the quantity of phytophagous insects are discussed. Special attention is paid to the perspective of creating preparations based on nucleic acids, in particular DNA insecticides. The use of insect-specific, short single-stranded DNA fragments as DNA insecticides, is paving the way in the field of “intellectual” insecticides that “think” before they act. It is worth noting, though, that in the near future, the quantity of produced insecticides will increase due to the challenges associated with food production for a rapidly growing population. It is concluded, that an agreeable interaction of scientists and manufacturers of insecticides should lead to the selection of the most optimal solutions for insect pest control, which would be safe, affordable, and effective at the same time.

  8. Short- circuit tests of circuit breakers

    OpenAIRE

    Chorovský, P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with short-circuit tests of low voltage electrical devices. In the first part of this paper, there are described basic types of short- circuit tests and their principles. Direct and indirect (synthetic) tests with more details are described in the second part. Each test and principles are explained separately. Oscilogram is obtained from short-circuit tests of circuit breakers at laboratory. The aim of this research work is to propose a test circuit for performing indirect test.

  9. Short-Selling, Leverage and Systemic Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Pais, Amelia; Stork, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    During the Global Financial Crisis, regulators imposed short-selling bans to protect financial institutions. The rationale behind the bans was that “bear raids”, driven by short-sellers, would increase the individual and systemic risk of financial institutions, especially for institutions with high leverage. This study uses Extreme Value Theory to estimate the effect of short-selling on financial institutions’ individual and systemic risks in France, Italy and Spain; it also analyses the rela...

  10. Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klages, R [School of Mathematical Sciences, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-20

    field. I feel that occasionally the book is also getting a bit too intricate for the complete layman, and experts may not agree on all details of the more conceptual discussions. Altogether I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book. It was a happy companion while travelling and a nice bedtime literature. It is furthermore an excellent reminder of the 'big picture' underlying nonlinear science as it applies to the real world. I will gladly recommend this book as background literature for students in my introductory course on dynamical systems. However, the book will be of interest to anyone who is looking for a very short account on fundamental problems and principles in modern nonlinear science. (book review)

  11. Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klages, R

    2007-01-01

    is also getting a bit too intricate for the complete layman, and experts may not agree on all details of the more conceptual discussions. Altogether I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book. It was a happy companion while travelling and a nice bedtime literature. It is furthermore an excellent reminder of the 'big picture' underlying nonlinear science as it applies to the real world. I will gladly recommend this book as background literature for students in my introductory course on dynamical systems. However, the book will be of interest to anyone who is looking for a very short account on fundamental problems and principles in modern nonlinear science. (book review)

  12. Three short distance structures from quantum algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kempf, A.

    1997-01-01

    Known results are reviewed and new results are given on three types of short distance structures of observables which typically appear in studies of quantum group related algebras. In particular, one of the short distance structures is shown to suggest a new mechanism for the introduction of internal symmetries

  13. The Demonstration of Short-Term Consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolicoeur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    1998-01-01

    Results of seven experiments involving 112 college students or staff using a dual-task approach provide evidence that encoding information into short-term memory involves a distinct process termed short-term consolidation (STC). Results suggest that STC has limited capacity and that it requires central processing mechanisms. (SLD)

  14. 31 CFR 505.01 - Short title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short title. 505.01 Section 505.01 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... CERTAIN MERCHANDISE BETWEEN FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 505.01 Short title. The regulations in this part may be...

  15. 33 CFR 401.1 - Short title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short title. 401.1 Section 401.1 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations § 401.1 Short title. These regulations may be cited as the...

  16. 18 CFR 415.1 - Short title.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Short title. 415.1 Section 415.1 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL BASIN REGULATIONS-FLOOD PLAIN REGULATIONS Generally § 415.1 Short title. This part shall be known...

  17. Magnetic short range order in Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, H.R.

    1976-01-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering has been used to investigate magnetic short range order in Gd for 80 0 K 0 K. Short range order exists throughout this range from well below T/sub C/ = 291 0 K to well above it and can be reasonably well described by an anisotropic Orstein-Zernike form for chi

  18. Hypogonadotrophic short statured with anosmia: kallmann's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarique, S.; Abaidullah, S.; Cheema, T.M.; Iqbal, M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Short stature with loss of secondary sex characters can occur due to genetic disorders. One of them is Kallmann's syndrome. The condition has been noted to be present in families. It is associated with anosmia and hypogonadism. We are presenting a case of young boy who was short statured and had anosmia with multiple hormonal deficiencies. (author)

  19. The Short Circuit Model of Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueers, Nancy M.

    The name "short circuit" has been given to this model because, in many ways, it adequately describes what happens bioelectrically in the brain. The "short-circuiting" factors include linguistic, sociocultural, attitudinal and motivational, neurological, perceptual, and cognitive factors. Research is reviewed on ways in which each one affects any…

  20. Short-Term Intercultural Psychotherapy: Ethnographic Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Karen M.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the challenges specific to short-term intercultural treatments and recently developed approaches to intercultural treatments based on notions of cultural knowledge and cultural competence. The article introduces alternative approaches to short-term intercultural treatments based on ethnographic inquiry adapted for clinical…

  1. Worst Asymmetrical Short-Circuit Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holmstrøm, O; Grastrup, L

    2010-01-01

    In a typical power plant, the production scenario and the short-circuit time were found for the worst asymmetrical short-circuit current. Then, a sensitivity analysis on the missing generator values was realized in order to minimize the uncertainty of the results. Afterward the worst asymmetrical...

  2. Assembling the LHC short straight sections

    CERN Document Server

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    The building where the short straight sections are being assembled, was often called ‘Lego Land’ by the workers because of the wide variety of sets of magnets and cryostats. Short straight sections contain magnets for manipulating the beam inside cryostats with liquid helium to keep the magnets at a cool 1.9 K (-271.3°C).

  3. Thoughts on Selecting a Short Story Anthology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logsdon, Loren

    2003-01-01

    Shares with beginning teachers advice about choosing a short story anthology and shows how a text can shape an instructor's approach to teaching short fiction. Discusses three main considerations: the students; the teacher; and the text. Identifies the author's favorite anthology and outlines nine reasons why it is a favorite. Lists five…

  4. Short-sale Constraints and Credit Runs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venter, Gyuri

    ), creditors with high private signals are more lenient to roll over debt, and a bank with lower asset quality remains solvent. This leads to higher allocative efficiency in the real economy. My result thus implies that the decrease in average informativeness due to short-sale constraints can be more than......This paper studies how short-sale constraints affect the informational efficiency of market prices and the link between prices and economic activity. I show that under short-sale constraints security prices contain less information. However, short-sale constraints increase the informativeness...... the price of an asset the bank holds. I show that short-selling constraints in the financial market lead to the revival of self-fulfilling beliefs about the beliefs and actions of others, and create multiple equilibria. In the equilibrium where agents rely more on public information (i.e., the price...

  5. Short circuit in deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samura, Kazuhiro; Miyagi, Yasushi; Okamoto, Tsuyoshi; Hayami, Takehito; Kishimoto, Junji; Katano, Mitsuo; Kamikaseda, Kazufumi

    2012-11-01

    The authors undertook this study to investigate the incidence, cause, and clinical influence of short circuits in patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS). After the incidental identification of a short circuit during routine follow-up, the authors initiated a policy at their institution of routinely evaluating both therapeutic impedance and system impendence at every outpatient DBS follow-up visit, irrespective of the presence of symptoms suggesting possible system malfunction. This study represents a report of their findings after 1 year of this policy. Implanted DBS leads exhibiting short circuits were identified in 7 patients (8.9% of the patients seen for outpatient follow-up examinations during the 12-month study period). The mean duration from DBS lead implantation to the discovery of the short circuit was 64.7 months. The symptoms revealing short circuits included the wearing off of therapeutic effect, apraxia of eyelid opening, or dysarthria in 6 patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and dystonia deterioration in 1 patient with generalized dystonia. All DBS leads with short circuits had been anchored to the cranium using titanium miniplates. Altering electrode settings resulted in clinical improvement in the 2 PD cases in which patients had specific symptoms of short circuits (2.5%) but not in the other 4 cases. The patient with dystonia underwent repositioning and replacement of a lead because the previous lead was located too anteriorly, but did not experience symptom improvement. In contrast to the sudden loss of clinical efficacy of DBS caused by an open circuit, short circuits may arise due to a gradual decrease in impedance, causing the insidious development of neurological symptoms via limited or extended potential fields as well as shortened battery longevity. The incidence of short circuits in DBS may be higher than previously thought, especially in cases in which DBS leads are anchored with miniplates. The circuit impedance of DBS

  6. Short term memory in echo state networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeger, H.

    2001-01-01

    The report investigates the short-term memory capacity of echo state recurrent neural networks. A quantitative measure MC of short-term memory capacity is introduced. The main result is that MC 5 N for networks with linear Output units and i.i.d. input, where N is network size. Conditions under which these maximal memory capacities are realized are described. Several theoretical and practical examples demonstrate how the short-term memory capacities of echo state networks can be exploited for...

  7. Practical applications of short-lived radioisotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1963-01-15

    The advantages of the use of short-lived radioisotopes in agriculture, food industry and medicine as well as some industrial uses are discussed. Methods for isotope production in small research reactors and laboratories are presented

  8. SPS, preassembly of short straight sections

    CERN Multimedia

    1975-01-01

    Short straight sections were preassembled with their vacuum chambers, ready for installation in the SPS. Here we see two, containing sextupoles for chromaticity adjustment. See also 7501017, 7501018, and Annual Report 1976, p.174.

  9. SPS, short straight section with sextupole

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    Short straight sections were preassembled with their vacuum chambers, ready for installation in the SPS. This one contains a sextupole for chromaticity adjustment. See also 7501017, 7501009X, and Annual Report 1974, p.174.

  10. Short-distance structure of instantons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlitz, R.D.; Creamer, D.B.

    The short distance structure of a quark propagator in an instanton background field is analyzed. This analysis describes the influence of instantons upon physical processes such as electron-position annihilation and the deep inelastic scattering of leptons from hadrons

  11. Minimalism in the modern short story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Razi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Short story has recently become the focus of attention in the late decades in Iran. The expanding value of writing short story is actually a reasonable outcome of the dominance of minimalism- a movement which is based upon simplicity and shortness. Minimalist writers, leaving out redundant features of narration, mainly focus on essentialities through applying a variety of techniques such as cuttings from the interesting moments of real life, evading introduction, applying inter-referents, choice of words, short stanzas and sentences and so on. Looking upon critic’s opinion about such a tendency over the past and present, this article will come up with a brief explanation of the properties of such stories. Finally a sample story “candles will never go dead” will be analyzed and discussed in the lights of such techniques.

  12. Giant pubertal prolactinoma: Complete resolution following short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-06

    Apr 6, 2016 ... disappeared in a short time with cabergoline treatment. Key words: ... Hyperprolactinemia may cause impotence and hypogonadism in adult men, and rarely ... safe treatment method for male patients with giant prolactinoma.

  13. Short Communication: Gender Bias and Stigmatization against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communication: Gender Bias and Stigmatization against Women Living with ... In Ethiopia, HIV/AIDS is highly stigmatized due to the fact that sexual ... bias, socio-economic situations and traditional beliefs contribute, individually and in ...

  14. A Novel Method for Short Distance Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, M.G.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Oller, J.C.; Arce, P.; Calvo, E.; Figueroa, C.F.; Garcia, C.F.; Rodigrido, T.; Vila, I.; Virto, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    A new, accurate and un expensive device for measuring short distances, intended for monitoring in LHC experiments is presented. Data taken with a very simple prototype are shown and performance is extracted. (Author) 4 refs

  15. Modern treatment of short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle B

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, teduglutide, for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS), and this review describes the physiological basis for its clinical use.......Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved the glucagon-like peptide 2 analogue, teduglutide, for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS), and this review describes the physiological basis for its clinical use....

  16. Operator expansion at short distance in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubschmid, W [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Mallik, S [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Theoretische Kernphysik

    1982-11-01

    We present a method of calculating coefficients of gluon operators in the operator product expansion of two-point functions at short distance. It is based on a short-distance expansion of the singular part of the quark propagator in the gluon field, the latter being treated as external. We verify in full generality that the spin zero, gluon operator of dimension six does not contribute to the two-point functions of quark bilinears.

  17. Fund managers’ contracts and short-termism

    OpenAIRE

    Casamatta, Catherine; Pouget, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem faced by long-term investors who have to delegate the management of their money to professional fund managers. Investors can earn profits if fund managers collect long-term information. We investigate to what extent the delegation of fund management prevents long-term information acquisition, inducing short-termism. We also study the design of long-term fund managers' compensation contracts. Absent moral hazard, short-termism arises only because of the cost...

  18. Fast Weight Long Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, T. Anderson; Sridhar, Sharath Nittur; Wang, Xin

    2018-01-01

    Associative memory using fast weights is a short-term memory mechanism that substantially improves the memory capacity and time scale of recurrent neural networks (RNNs). As recent studies introduced fast weights only to regular RNNs, it is unknown whether fast weight memory is beneficial to gated RNNs. In this work, we report a significant synergy between long short-term memory (LSTM) networks and fast weight associative memories. We show that this combination, in learning associative retrie...

  19. Regional variation in short distance homogamy

    OpenAIRE

    Haandrikman, Karen; van Wissen, Leo

    2011-01-01

    A third of all Dutch cohabiters choose a partner from the same municipality, so-called short distance homogamy. This article analyses the regional variation in this phenomenon, and it explains this variation in terms of geographical, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural determinants. Population register data on all new cohabiters in 2004 were used. Regression methods were employed to explain spatial patterns. Regional variation in short distance homogamy is largely explained by geographica...

  20. Observations of short gamma-ray bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Derek B; Roming, Peter W A

    2007-05-15

    We review recent observations of short-hard gamma-ray bursts and their afterglows. The launch and successful ongoing operations of the Swift satellite, along with several localizations from the High-Energy Transient Explorer mission, have provoked a revolution in short-burst studies: first, by quickly providing high-quality positions to observers; and second, via rapid and sustained observations from the Swift satellite itself. We make a complete accounting of Swift-era short-burst localizations and proposed host galaxies, and discuss the implications of these observations for the distances, energetics and environments of short bursts, and the nature of their progenitors. We then review the physical modelling of short-burst afterglows: while the simplest afterglow models are inadequate to explain the observations, there have been several notable successes. Finally, we address the case of an unusual burst that threatens to upset the simple picture in which long bursts are due to the deaths of massive stars, and short bursts to compact-object merger events.

  1. Microbial hara-kiri: Exploiting lysosomal cell death in malaria parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hong Ch’ng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimalarial drug chloroquine (CQ has been sidelined in the fight against falciparum malaria due to wide-spread CQ resistance. Replacement drugs like sulfadoxine, pyrimethamine and mefloquine have also since been surpassed with the evolution of multi-drug resistant parasites. Even the currently recommended artemisinin-based combination therapies show signs of compromise due to the recent spread of artemisinin delayed-clearance parasites. Though there have been promising breakthroughs in the pursuit of new effective antimalarials, the development and strategic deployment of such novel chemical entities takes time. We therefore argue that there is a crucial need to re-examine the usefulness of ‘outdated’ drugs like chloroquine, and explore if they might be effective alternative therapies in the interim. We suggest that a novel parasite cell death (pCD pathway may be exploited through the reformulation of CQ to address this need.

  2. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI KALIUM NITRAT PADA MEDIA VERMIKOMPOS TERHADAP KANDUNGAN HARA DAN TRUBUS SELADA (LACTUCA SATIVA L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. NAMSERNA

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Effect of Potassium Nitrate Concentration in Vermicompost Medium on Nutrients Content and Shoot of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. The content of nitrogen and potassium in vermicompost generally low, i.e. less than two percent, so that still require the addition of another source to meet crop requirement. Potassium nitrate to form the ions K+ and NO3 6 after disolved in water so as to be readily available to plants. The study aims to determine the effect of the addition of potassium nitrate in the growth medium made from vermicompost to increase growth lettuce plant and know the critical level of concentration or nutrient solution electrical conductivity with the addition of potassium nitrate to the lettuce plant. Research conducted in the form of pot experiment. Experiment using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD with three replications. The treatment consists of 12 levels of concentration or nutrient solution electrical conductivity with the addition of potassium nitrate. The results of experiment indicated that addition of KNO3 highly significant effect on the increasing in fresh and dry weight of shoot per plant. Fresh and dry weight of shoot per plant were significantly increased in a quadratic with increasing concentrations of KNO3. The concentration of KNO3 are optimum for growth of plant shoot weight was at 12.23 g in 100l of water or electrical conductivity equivalent to 2.01 dS.m-1. The concentrations of P and K in plant shoot tissue were significantly increased linearly with the provision of KNO3. The concentration N, Ca, Mg, S, Na, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Al and B in shoot tissue of plants is not affected KNO3.

  3. Hubungan Produktivitas Salak (Salacca sumatrana dan Status Hara Tanah Menurut Kemiringan Lereng di Tapanuli Selatan

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Mastiagom

    2013-01-01

    Generally, Salacca sumatrana is growing the moderate to steep slopes. Hence, the slopes condition is prone to erosion. This study aimed to evaluate the correlation attitude of Ground and component of plant production to ward production of sallaca sumatrana in various of sloped the study used regretion analysis, soil chemicaled and plant production components analysis. The result showed that soil chemical of the ground which influence toward the production of Salacca sumatrana (T1) in pH,...

  4. Les oiseaux de l'archipel de Nosy Hara, au nord nord- ouest de ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marie Jeanne Raherilalao

    1997, Hawkins et Goodman 1999,. Raherilalao et al. 2002, Raherilalao et Wilmé 2008) de sorte que les recherches récentes s'orientent davantage vers les analyses de la distribution ou les modèles d'endémisme. (Raherilalao et Goodman 2003, Raherilalao et Wilmé 2008). Rappelons aussi que la plupart des études ont ...

  5. Territorio, historia e identidad: Sus El Aksa o Sáhara Occidental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández, Ángela

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available After passing the natural walls that form the ridges of the Atlas and the Anti Atlas, the Sahara Atlantic plains constitute a peripheral region of Morocco. This region has evolved integrated into the Moroccan Administration since 1976, with a special tax and budget systems, with economic privileges for the indigenous population, leading to major changes in economic and demographic structure due to the intervention of state and private operators and the empowerment by the state of an immigration policy counteracting the low population density aggravated by the events occurring during the decolonization process. A peripheral area in which the identity of the Sahrawi people is linked to territorial space and created based on memories and oblivion.

  6. Assessment and Prioritization of Environmental Risks in Gaz and Hara Rivers Estuary International Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Jafariazar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wetland ecosystems have many economic and ecological functions and values, but today their security and existence have been heavily influenced by various natural and human factors. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify, rank and assess environmental risks threatening Khur-e- Azini International wetland located in Hormozgan province. In order to identify risk factors, the Delphi method and the multi-criteria decision-making methods, AHP and TOPSIS were used for prioritizing risks. According to the results of the technique AHP, fuel smuggling, marine transportation and oil pollution were respectively ranked first to third. The results of TOPSIS technique based on the relative proximity (Cj + indicate that the oil pollution (1 and the fuel smuggling (0.9154 are ranked first to second. In general, based on the ranking of risks, 8.6 percent of risks were placed in the unbearable category, 8.6 percent of risks were placed in the significant category, 26.08 percent of risks were placed in the average category, and 30.43 percent of risks were placed in the category of tolerable risks. According to the results, management priorities and planning should be considered seriously to minimize the risks and consequences that have irreversible effects on the environment and wetlands function.

  7. Pemberian Pupuk N, P, dan K Berdasarkan Pengelolaan Hara Spesifik Lokasi untuk Meningkatkan Produktivitas Kedelai (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARSIDI PERMADI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Applicationof N, P, and K Fertilizer Based on Site-Specific Nutrient Management for An increase of Productivity of Soybean. Soybean productivity in Indonesia is still low, it is about 1.25 t ha-1.This is due to the same dose of fertilizer in all location.In this case, fertilization is on the recommendation i.e. 25-75 kg urea ha-1 + 50-100 kg SP-36 ha-1 + 50-100 kg KCl ha-1 for soybean in all locations.Though each location farmland have different levels of soil fertility. Soybean commodities can compete with other plants when minimum productivity of 2.18 t ha-1 of dry beans, it is able to provide a higher profit than corn. To that end, soybean fertilizer recommended by site-specific nutrient management (SSNM by using the method of paddy soil test device, and dry soil test device that can determine soil nutrient classes to categories of low, medium and high.N fertilizer on soil classes, including low, medium, and high dose respectively at 174, 152, and 117 kg urea ha-1. For P fertilizer application on soil nutrient classes, including low, medium, and high doserespectively at 104,80, and 40 kg ha-1 SP-36. Likewise K fertilizer application on soil nutrient classes, including low, medium, and high each at doses of 210, 190, and 150 kg ha-1 KCl. In addition, supported by the use of new varieties of soybean large seed that high productivity and achieve the results expected in all locations soybean.Then the government provides support for input subsidies in the form of primary production facilities such as seed, fertilizer, and pesticides that farmers are interested in returning to planting soybeans and soybean prices ensure incentives for farmers. Things like this will spur farmers to increase productivity so that soybean self-sufficiency is achieved. In the end domestic soybean demand can be met so that the government no longer to import soybeans.

  8. Kajian Unsur Hara Mikro Tanah Untuk Peningkatan Produksi Pangan pada Lahan Sawah di Kecamatan Penebel, Tabanan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. NYOMAN SUPADMA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Assessment of Micro Nutrient of Soil for Improving Food Production on Paddy Field in The District of Penebel, Tabanan Research of soil micro nutrient was carried out on paddy soil in district Penebel, Tabanan regency, starting July until October 2013, which was conducted by soil survey and laboratory analysis. The experiment consists of several stages such as the formation of the land unit based on the compilation maps of soil type, geology and slope, obtained 11 land units. Each unit taken some samples depending on the area, location and slope, so have got 50 soil samples. Soil samples were taken at a depth of 0-20 cm. Further, the content of micro nutrients Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn analyzed with EDTA extraction at Soil laboratory, Faculty of Agriculture, Udayana University. In addition it also analyzed of the soil macro nutrients content: total-N, available- P, available-K, C- organic matter, soil pH and salinity. Soil analysis showed that the micro nutrient content of Fe ranged from 59.672 to 66.382 ppm (classified as moderate, Mn ranged from 11.960 to 33.786 ppm (relatively low, Cu ranged from 5.426 to 23.204 ppm (very low to low, and Zn ranged from 1.818 to 9.058 ppm (very low to moderate. The paddy soil in the district Penebel, containing moderate of micronutrients Fe content and Mn contain relatively low; Cu content are very low to low; and Zn content are mostly very low to low. While the content of macro nutrient elements such as N and P are low to moderate, but the content of K is very high. C-organic content classified as moderate to high, and soil acidity is slightly acid soil. The limiting factors of rice production were Zn, Cu and Mn. Fertilization of micro nutrients needs to increase rice production in the district Penebel. To obtain suitable micro-nutrient fertilizer dosage to increase rice yield in district Penebel, it is needs to be done research of micro nutrients testing especially Zn, Cu, and Mn.

  9. Mediations on Emergent Occasions: Mad Men, Donald Draper and Frank O’Hara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Lilley

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Frank O’Hara’s 1957 poetry collection, Meditations in an Emergency, features in Season Two of Mad Men (2008 as a talismanic phrase and object. Pressed into service as Matthew Weiner’s valentine to his returning viewers, the circulation and citation of the book across the season, through different diegetic and extradiegetic levels, aligns poetry, advertising and quality serial television drama as textual modes intent, above all, on creating attachment through feeling. O’Hara’s book is a crucial link in a series of metonymic relays, chain effects and affects, which underwrite Mad Men’s citational poetics to assert its own cultural authority, and the mediating power of television.

  10. Effects of shading on Vallisneria natans (Lour.) H. Hara growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Meng, F; Shen, X

    2013-01-01

    , but dry weight fruit production was significantly reduced at 90% shading. We conclude that above 50% surface shading, V. natans plants suffer reductions in accumulated biomass and investment in sexual reproduction. We contend that recent expansions in the extent of the native floating water chestnut Trapa...

  11. Short-term memory across eye blinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, David E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of eye blinks on short-term memory was examined in two experiments. On each trial, participants viewed an initial display of coloured, oriented lines, then after a retention interval they viewed a test display that was either identical or different by one feature. Participants kept their eyes open throughout the retention interval on some blocks of trials, whereas on others they made a single eye blink. Accuracy was measured as a function of the number of items in the display to determine the capacity of short-term memory on blink and no-blink trials. In separate blocks of trials participants were instructed to remember colour only, orientation only, or both colour and orientation. Eye blinks reduced short-term memory capacity by approximately 0.6-0.8 items for both feature and conjunction stimuli. A third, control, experiment showed that a button press during the retention interval had no effect on short-term memory capacity, indicating that the effect of an eye blink was not due to general motoric dual-task interference. Eye blinks might instead reduce short-term memory capacity by interfering with attention-based rehearsal processes.

  12. Short Implants: New Horizon in Implant Dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Neha; Gulati, Manisha; Garg, Meenu; Pathak, Chetan

    2016-09-01

    The choice of implant length is an essential factor in deciding the survival rates of these implants and the overall success of the prosthesis. Placing an implant in the posterior part of the maxilla and mandible has always been very critical due to poor bone quality and quantity. Long implants can be placed in association with complex surgical procedures such as sinus lift and bone augmentation. These techniques are associated with higher cost, increased treatment time and greater morbidity. Hence, there is need for a less invasive treatment option in areas of poor bone quantity and quality. Data related to survival rates of short implants, their design and prosthetic considerations has been compiled and structured in this manuscript with emphasis on the indications, advantages of short implants and critical biomechanical factors to be taken into consideration when choosing to place them. Studies have shown that comparable success rates can be achieved with short implants as those with long implants by decreasing the lateral forces to the prosthesis, eliminating cantilevers, increasing implant surface area and improving implant to abutment connection. Short implants can be considered as an effective treatment alternative in resorbed ridges. Short implants can be considered as a viable treatment option in atrophic ridge cases in order to avoid complex surgical procedures required to place long implants. With improvement in the implant surface geometry and surface texture, there is an increase in the bone implant contact area which provides a good primary stability during osseo-integration.

  13. SITE WIDE SHORT CIRCUIT STUDY ASSESSMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CARRATT, R.T.

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Energy requested that Fluor Hanford develop a plan to update the electrical distribution studies for FH managed facilities. Toward this end, an assessment of FH's nuclear facilities was performed to determine whether a current short circuit study of the facility electrical distribution system exists, and the status of such study. This report presents the methodology and results of that assessment. The assessment identified 29 relevant facilities. Of these, a short circuit study could not be identified for 15 facilities. A short circuit study was found to exist for fourteen facilities, however, of these 14, four were not released into a controlled document system, and two were not performed for the entire electrical distribution system. It is recommended that for four of the facilities no further action is required based upon the limited nature of the existing electrical system, or as in the case of PFP, the status of the existing short circuit study was determined adequate. For the majority of the facilities without a short circuit study, it is recommended that one is performed, and released into a controlled document system. Two facilities require further evaluation due to missing or conflicting documentation. For the remainder of the facilities, the recommendations are to review and revise as appropriate the existing study, and release into a controlled document system. A summation of the recommendations is presented

  14. Nutritive support in short Bowel syndrome (sbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Dušica

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Short bowel syndrome most commonly result after bowel resection for necrosis of the bowel. It may be caused by arterial or venous thrombosis, volvolus and in children, necrotizing enterocolitis. The other causes are Crohn,s disease intestinal atresia. The factors influencing the risk on short bowel syndrome are the remaining length of the small bowel, the age of onset, the length of the colon, the presence or absence of the ileo-coecal valve and the time after resection. Besides nutritional deficiencies there some other consequences of extensive resections of the small intestine (gastric acid hypersecretion, d-lactic acidosis, nephrolithiasis, cholelithiasis, which must be diagnosed, treated, and if possible, prevented. With current therapy most patients with short bowel have normal body mass index and good quality of life.

  15. Short pulse laser systems for biomedical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    This book presents practical information on the clinical applications of short pulse laser systems and the techniques for optimizing these applications in a manner that will be relevant to a broad audience, including engineering and medical students as well as researchers, clinicians, and technicians. Short pulse laser systems are useful for both subsurface tissue imaging and laser induced thermal therapy (LITT), which hold great promise in cancer diagnostics and treatment. Such laser systems may be used alone or in combination with optically active nanoparticles specifically administered to the tissues of interest for enhanced contrast in imaging and precise heating during LITT. Mathematical and computational models of short pulse laser-tissue interactions that consider the transient radiative transport equation coupled with a bio-heat equation considering the initial transients of laser heating were developed to analyze the laser-tissue interaction during imaging and therapy. Experiments were first performe...

  16. Short-termism in the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Therese

    2016-01-01

    The 2007–08 global financial crisis gave rise to an extensive debate in the United States (US) on short-termism and its influence on agency relationships, incentives, and fiduciary duties. This debate and the consecutive legal creativity of US policymakers display spillover effects and constitute...... an influential source of inspiration for politicians and lawmakers in foreign jurisdictions. The European Commission currently proposes to amend the Shareholder Rights Directive (2007/36/EC) to counterbalance the financial sector’s alleged triumph over industry. The initiative is motivated primarily...... that the short-termism concept, despite its contemporary authority in the post-financial crisis era on both sides of the Atlantic, is misguided, and even more so in the European context. The Article concludes that the proposed amendments should not be expected to solve short-termism problems or alter...

  17. Estimating the short-circuit impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Hejde; Pedersen, Knud Ole Helgesen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    1997-01-01

    A method for establishing a complex value of the short-circuit impedance from naturally occurring variations in voltage and current is discussed. It is the symmetrical three phase impedance at the fundamental grid frequency there is looked for. The positive sequence components in voltage...... and current are derived each period, and the short-circuit impedance is estimated from variations in these components created by load changes in the grid. Due to the noisy and dynamic grid with high harmonic distortion it is necessary to threat the calculated values statistical. This is done recursively...... through a RLS-algorithm. The algorithms have been tested and implemented on a PC at a 132 kV substation supplying a rolling mill. Knowing the short-circuit impedance gives the rolling mill an opportunity to adjust the arc furnace operation to keep flicker below a certain level. Therefore, the PC performs...

  18. Radiation degradation of short-cotton linters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zue Teh; Zhou Rui Min

    1984-01-01

    Radiation degradation of short-cotton linters has been studied by using X-ray diffraction, an infrared spectrometer and a viscosimeter. Average molecular weight and crystallinity of short-cotton linters and the change of reducing sugar in γ-radiation degradation were examined. It was found that cellulosic saccharification in hydrolysis was enhanced with preirradiation of linter. This probably resulted from the radiation induced change of cellulosic structure. Sensitizers to promote radiation degradation effect were investigated. Carbon tetrachloride has been found to be effective. (author)

  19. Heating Augmentation for Short Hypersonic Protuberances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Ali R.; Wood, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Computational aeroheating analyses of the Space Shuttle Orbiter plug repair models are validated against data collected in the Calspan University of Buffalo Research Center (CUBRC) 48 inch shock tunnel. The comparison shows that the average difference between computed heat transfer results and the data is about 9.5%. Using CFD and Wind Tunnel (WT) data, an empirical correlation for estimating heating augmentation on short hypersonic protuberances (k/delta less than 0.3) is proposed. This proposed correlation is compared with several computed flight simulation cases and good agreement is achieved. Accordingly, this correlation is proposed for further investigation on other short hypersonic protuberances for estimating heating augmentation.

  20. libgapmis: extending short-read alignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alachiotis, Nikolaos; Berger, Simon; Flouri, Tomáš; Pissis, Solon P; Stamatakis, Alexandros

    2013-01-01

    A wide variety of short-read alignment programmes have been published recently to tackle the problem of mapping millions of short reads to a reference genome, focusing on different aspects of the procedure such as time and memory efficiency, sensitivity, and accuracy. These tools allow for a small number of mismatches in the alignment; however, their ability to allow for gaps varies greatly, with many performing poorly or not allowing them at all. The seed-and-extend strategy is applied in most short-read alignment programmes. After aligning a substring of the reference sequence against the high-quality prefix of a short read--the seed--an important problem is to find the best possible alignment between a substring of the reference sequence succeeding and the remaining suffix of low quality of the read--extend. The fact that the reads are rather short and that the gap occurrence frequency observed in various studies is rather low suggest that aligning (parts of) those reads with a single gap is in fact desirable. In this article, we present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. Apart from the standard CPU version, it includes ultrafast SSE- and GPU-based implementations. libgapmis is based on an algorithm computing a modified version of the traditional dynamic-programming matrix for sequence alignment. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the functions of the CPU version provided in this library accelerate the computations by a factor of 20 compared to other programmes. The analogous SSE- and GPU-based implementations accelerate the computations by a factor of 6 and 11, respectively, compared to the CPU version. The library also provides the user the flexibility to split the read into fragments, based on the observed gap occurrence frequency and the length of the read, thereby allowing for a variable, but bounded, number of gaps in the alignment. We present libgapmis, a library for extending pairwise short-read alignments. We

  1. Electron dynamics inside short-coherence systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrari, Giulio; Bordone, Paolo; Jacoboni, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    We present theoretical results on electron dynamics inside nanometric systems, where the coherence of the electron ensemble is maintained in a very short region. The contacts are supposed to spoil such a coherence, therefore the interference processes between the carrier wavefunction and the internal potential profile can be affected by the proximity of the contacts. The problem has been analysed by using the Wigner-function formalism. For very short devices, transport properties, such as tunnelling through potential barriers, are significantly influenced by the distance between the contacts

  2. Short-range correlations with pseudopotentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, A.

    1976-01-01

    Short-range correlations in nuclei are considered on an unitary-model operator approach. Short-range pseudopotentials have been added to achieve healing in the correlated wave functions. With the introduction of the pseudopotentials, correlated basis wave functions are constructed. The matrix element for effective interaction in nuclei is developed. The required pseudopotentials have been calculated for the Hamda-Johnston, Yale and Reid potentials and for the nuclear nucleon-nucleon potential A calculated by us according to meson exchange between nucleons. (Osman, A.)

  3. Short wavelength sources and atoms and ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.T.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of ionizing radiation with atoms and ions is a key fundamental process. Experimental progress has depended in particular on the development of short wavelength light sources. Laser-plasma and synchrotron sources have been exploited for several decades and most recently the development of short wavelength Free Electron Laser (FEL) sources is revolutionizing the field. This paper introduces laser plasma and synchrotron sources through examples of their use in studies of the interaction of ionizing radiation with atoms and ions, ranging from few-electron atomic and ionic systems to the many-electron high atomic number actinides. The new FEL source (FLASH) at DESY is introduced. (author)

  4. Certain features of FELs with short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, A.N.

    2006-01-01

    The report is devoted to physics of free electron lasers operating in the short-wave domain where the bunch length could be less than the undulator length in the proper frame. Then the current component of the signal is locked within the bunch as in a cavity, while the electromagnetic component propagates freely. In contrast with gyrotrons where this regime can be of interest only for wavelengths comparable with the bunch length, we consider short waves in a bunch of arbitrary profile. Both amplification of an external harmonic signal and SASE regime, i.e. selective amplification of proper noises, are investigated

  5. Women stereotypes in Shi Zhecun's short stories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenmeier, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    This article analyses the representation of women in two 1933 short story collections by Shi Zhecun: An Evening of Spring Rain and Exemplary Conduct of Virtuous Women. It discusses how the New Woman image was a site of contestation in Republican China, and argues that Shi Zhecun’s short stories contain four basic stereotypes: the enigmatic woman, the estranged wife, the prostitute, and the inhibited woman. Using these narratives of women and how they were perceived by men, Shi Zhecun deconstructed the New Woman image by subverting the various ways modernity was projected onto women.

  6. Cinematic diamonds : narrative storytelling strategies in short fiction film

    OpenAIRE

    Cantell, Saara (kirjoittaja); Jeremiah, Fleur (kääntäjä)

    2012-01-01

    Saara Cantell proposes and discusses alternative ways of approaching short film. This book emphasizes short film as an independent and challenging cinematic art form of its own right. The "mystery" of short film is approached by examining the aesthetics of other short forms, The structural parallels between e.g. jokes and short films, as well as narrative strategies found in poetry, offer meaningful references. The research consists of both the analysis of selected short films and the five sh...

  7. The Long and the Short of It: The Use of Short Films in the German Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, John

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the benefits of using short film in the German classroom at the secondary or post-secondary level. The article addresses a number of characteristics of short films that lend themselves well to the classroom, including their abbreviated length, artistic innovation, and compact storytelling. In addition to discussing specific…

  8. Transient nanobubbles in short-time electrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svetovoy, Vitaly; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2013-01-01

    Water electrolysis in a microsystem is observed and analyzed on a short-time scale of ∼10 μs. The very unusual properties of the process are stressed. An extremely high current density is observed because the process is not limited by the diffusion of electroactive species. The high current is

  9. Compression of Short Text on Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, S.; Gühmann, C.; Fitzek, Frank

    2006-01-01

    The paper details a scheme for lossless compression of a short data series larger than 50 bytes. The method uses arithmetic coding and context modelling with a low-complexity data model. A data model that takes 32 kBytes of RAM already cuts the data size in half. The compression scheme just takes...

  10. Visual Short-Term Memory Complexity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the nature and limits of visual short-term memory (VSTM) (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997). A general VSTM capacity limit of about 3 to 4 letters has been found, thus confirming results from earlier studies (e.g. Cattell, 1885; Sperling, 1960). However, Alvarez...

  11. Short-timescale variability in cataclysmic binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordova, F.A.; Mason, K.O.

    1982-01-01

    Rapid variability, including flickering and pulsations, has been detected in cataclysmic binaries at optical and x-ray frequencies. In the case of the novalike variable TT Arietis, simultaneous observations reveal that the x-ray and optical flickering activity is strongly correlated, while short period pulsations are observed that occur at the same frequencies in both wavelength bands

  12. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND REPORTS Record of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Campbell Murn

    50. SHORT COMMUNICATIONS, NOTES AND. REPORTS. Record of Cinereous Vulture Aegypius monachus from Mukundara Hills Tiger Reserve, Rajasthan,. India. Sailaja Nayak1*, Sunny Shah2 and Jimmy Borah2 .... Prey status and abundance in Mukundara Hills Tiger. Reserve. Technical Report, WWF-India. Rao, J.P. ...

  13. The short circuit instability in protoplanetary disks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubbard, A.; McNally, C.P.; Mac Low, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a magneto-hydrodynamic instability which occurs, among other locations, in the inner, hot regions of protoplanetary disks, and which alters the way in which resistive dissipation of magnetic energy into heat proceeds. This instability can be likened to both an electrical short circui...

  14. Wheat shorts in diets of gestating swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, L G; King, G L

    1981-03-01

    Sixty-four gilts were assigned to be bred at first or third observed estrus and fed gestation diets of pelleted wheat shorts with a free choice mineral-vitamin supplement or fortified corn-soybean meal. Only the dietary effects are included in this report. The gilts were fed their respective diets starting at 25 days after insemination. The experiment continued through three gestation-lactation cycles. Females fed the wheat shorts received less digestible energy during gestation and weighed less at day 109 of gestation and days 1, 7 and 21 of lactation in each of the three gestation-lactation periods. Females fed wheat shorts had lighter pigs at birth, weaned more pigs per litter in each parity and returned to estrus more slowly after weaning than females fed a corn-soybean meal diet. Results of a metabolism trial conducted with 12 barrows revealed that wheat shorts contained approximately 2.93 kcal digestible energy/kg dry matter and had an apparent protein digestibility of 72%, compared with values of 4.0 kcal and 86%, respectively, for the corn-soybean meal diets.

  15. Blacks in Pop Music: A Short Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickelman, Melinda

    1991-01-01

    A short history of black pop music includes artists who have changed pop music or culture and highlights from the 1920s into the 1980s, from Fats Waller to Michael Jackson. In black pop music, there is a direct line of influence from the sharecropper to the current Top 40. (SLD)

  16. Short Historical Fiction To Get Children Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kathleen

    1997-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of short historical fiction and picture books for readers in grades K-8. Includes a list of selected Caldecott and Newbery winners with historical themes or backgrounds and a list of activity books featuring Spanish exploration in Mexico, Roman art and fashion, medieval Europe, and cowboys. (PEN)

  17. Cryptanalysis of 'less short' RSA secret exponents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheul, E.R.; Tilborg, van H.C.A.

    1997-01-01

    In some applications of RSA, it is desirable to have a short secret exponent d. Wiener [6], describes a technique to use continued fractions (CF) in a cryptanalytic attack on an RSA cryptosystem having a ‘short’ secret exponent. Let n=p¿·¿q be the modulus of the system. In the typical case that

  18. Introduction to impedance for short relativistic bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, P.L.

    1993-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to introduce the concept of impedance to calculate the wake field forces left behind by a short bunch which travels at relativistic speed through a structure with discontinuities. We will try to be as intuitive as possible and leave the more rigorous derivations to the second paper on this subject by J. Wang

  19. A Short Introduction to Kolmogorov Complexity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nannen, Volker

    2010-01-01

    This is a short introduction to Kolmogorov complexity and information theory. The interested reader is referred to the literature, especially the textbooks [CT91] and [LV97] which cover the elds of information theory and Kolmogorov complexity in depth and with all the necessary rigor.

  20. Reading Abilities and Strategies: A Short Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a short analysis of reading abilities and reading strategies. Much research has been done to investigate the nature of reading, though it's had to exactly define reading abilities and strategies. Different kinds of readings are discussed in this paper and distinctions are made between first language reading and second or foreign…

  1. Thermoelectric neutron dosimetry: a short introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, F.; Meier, R.; Debrue, J.; Leonard, F.; Schubert, W.

    1977-01-01

    The paper gives a short introduction and state-of-the-art account of an unconventional, non destructive neutron dosimetry method based on monitoring the neutron fluence dependent changes of the thermoelectric properties of base metals and alloys. The basic principles are exposed and illustrated with experimental data obtained during an exploratory irradiation in the BR2 reactor

  2. Textbook Error: Short Circuiting on Electrochemical Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonicamp, Judith M.; Clark, Roy W.

    2007-01-01

    Short circuiting an electrochemical cell is an unreported but persistent error in the electrochemistry textbooks. It is suggested that diagrams depicting a cell delivering usable current to a load be postponed, the theory of open-circuit galvanic cells is explained, the voltages from the tables of standard reduction potentials is calculated and…

  3. A Long Look at the Short Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Franklin, Jr.

    1971-01-01

    The history of the short film and the single concept film loop is presented. Lists fourteen reasons why it may be necessary to make and use a film loop. Film loop projectors are analyzed according to present features and deficiencies with predictions on future improvements. (DS)

  4. Short range order of selenite glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neov, S.; Gerasimova, I.; Yordanov, S.; Lakov, L.; Mikula, Pavol; Lukáš, Petr

    1999-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (1999), s. 111-112 ISSN 0031-9090 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Keywords : short range * selenite glasses Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.822, year: 1999

  5. Asian Short Fiction. Asian Studies Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Susan

    This curriculum outline introduces the components of a course which explores the genre of short novels, including works by twentieth-century Japanese and Chinese authors. First, the catalogue course description and required texts are presented, highlighting the instructor's historical introduction to the development of Western, Japanese, and…

  6. Short GRB afterglows observed with GROND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Klose, S.; Rossi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on follow-up observations of 20 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (T90 < 2s) performed in g′r′i′z′JHK s with the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) between mid-2007 and the end of 2010. This is the most homogeneous and comprehensive data set on GRB afterglow observatio...

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION High prevalence of Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    Volume 20, Number 1, January 2018. 1. SHORT COMMUNICATION ... This study was designed to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among HIV infected populations. ... The prevalence of P. falciparum was high among HIV seropositive individuals in the Lake Victoria Zone, which calls for additional ...

  8. Teaching Hemingway's "The Short Happy Life."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Considers many ways to teach Hemingway's "The Short Happy Life of Francis Macomber." Explores the ironic implications of Macomber's experience and compares it with the experience of Sammy in another initiation story, John Updike's "A&P." Describes how he leads the discussion about this story, and ends the discussion by…

  9. SHORT COMMUNICATION CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    *Corresponding author. E-mail: naeimi@kashanu.ac.ir. SHORT COMMUNICATION. CONVENIENT AND MILD SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERISATION OF. SOME NEW SCHIFF BASES. Hossein Naeimi* and Zahra Sadat Nazifi. Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Kashan,. Kashan, 87317 ...

  10. Regional variation in short distance homogamy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haandrikman, K.; van Wissen, L.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A third of all Dutch cohabiters choose a partner from the same municipality, so-called short distance homogamy. This article analyses the regional variation in this phenomenon, and it explains this variation in terms of geographical, socioeconomic, demographic and cultural determinants. Population

  11. Heterogeneity in Short Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample comprises 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales - durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals - for EE bursts are factors of approx 2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts - the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width - continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/XRT. The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (approx 6 X 10(exp -10) erg / sq cm/ s) is approx > 20 x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (approx 60,000 s) is approx 30 x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into more dense environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently p()wers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  12. HETEROGENEITY IN SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, Jay P.; Gehrels, Neil; Scargle, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the Swift/BAT sample of short gamma-ray bursts, using an objective Bayesian Block procedure to extract temporal descriptors of the bursts' initial pulse complexes (IPCs). The sample is comprised of 12 and 41 bursts with and without extended emission (EE) components, respectively. IPCs of non-EE bursts are dominated by single pulse structures, while EE bursts tend to have two or more pulse structures. The medians of characteristic timescales-durations, pulse structure widths, and peak intervals-for EE bursts are factors of ∼2-3 longer than for non-EE bursts. A trend previously reported by Hakkila and colleagues unifying long and short bursts-the anti-correlation of pulse intensity and width-continues in the two short burst groups, with non-EE bursts extending to more intense, narrower pulses. In addition, we find that preceding and succeeding pulse intensities are anti-correlated with pulse interval. We also examine the short burst X-ray afterglows as observed by the Swift/X-Ray Telescope (XRT). The median flux of the initial XRT detections for EE bursts (∼6x10 -10 erg cm -2 s -1 ) is ∼>20x brighter than for non-EE bursts, and the median X-ray afterglow duration for EE bursts (∼60,000 s) is ∼30x longer than for non-EE bursts. The tendency for EE bursts toward longer prompt-emission timescales and higher initial X-ray afterglow fluxes implies larger energy injections powering the afterglows. The longer-lasting X-ray afterglows of EE bursts may suggest that a significant fraction explode into denser environments than non-EE bursts, or that the sometimes-dominant EE component efficiently powers the afterglow. Combined, these results favor different progenitors for EE and non-EE short bursts.

  13. Etiology of short stature in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, M.; Afzal, M.; Ali, S.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the causes of short stature in children with special emphasis on growth hormone deficiency. Two hundred and fourteen children (140 boys and 74 girls), ranging from 02 to 15 years presenting with short stature were studied. Height and weight were plotted on appropriate growth charts and centiles determined. Relevant hematological and biochemical investigations including thyroid profile were done. Bone age was determined in all cases. Growth hormone axis was investigated after excluding other causes. Karyotyping was done in selected cases. Data was analyzed by SPSS 10.0 by descriptive statistics. Mean values were compared using t-test. In this study, the five most common etiological factors in order of frequency were Constitutional Growth Delay (CGD), Familial Short Stature (FSS), malnutrition, coeliac disease and Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD). In 37.4% of patients, the study revealed normal variants of growth - CGD, FSS or combination of both, 46.7% cases had nonendocrinological and 15.9% had endocrinological etiology. CGD (22.1%) in males and FSS (27%) in females were the most common etiology. GHD was found in 6.1% children and it comprised 38.2% of all endocrinological causes. Children with height falling below 0.4th centile were more likely to have a pathological short stature (79.2%) compared to 39.3% whose height was below 3rd centile but above 0.4th centile (p<0.05). CGD and FSS are most common causes of short stature in boys and girls respectively, whereas, GHD is a relatively uncommon etiology. (author)

  14. Growing up with short stature : Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-van Balen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Growing up with short stature. Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment To enhance height in children with short stature, growth hormone (GH) can be used. In short children without a detectable pathology underlying their short stature, there is no medical rationale for growth hormone

  15. Short sales, differences of opinion and fundamental value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Porras Prado, M.; Ling, D.C.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the role of short sale constraints in explaining the variation in premiums to Net Asset Value (NAV) in REIT pricing. We use proprietary information on short sales between June 2006 and September 2008 to examine how short sales and short sale constraints affect the variation in

  16. Modular Short Form Videos for Library Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Craig

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In Brief Expensive software isn’t necessary to create effective tutorials. Quick, unedited tutorials created on social media, such as on Instagram or Snapchat, may be more effective. These short form videos (SFVs combine the advantages of animated GIFs with the advantages of screencasts: modularity, repetition of steps, and animated visuals supported by pertinent audio. SFVs are cheap (or free and easy to make with materials libraries already possess, such as Internet access, computers, and smartphones. They are easily replaceable if the subject changes. The short form forces librarians to get right to the point. Finally, SFVs are easily disseminated on social media and have the potential to go viral.

  17. Field Optimization for short Period Undulators

    CERN Document Server

    Peiffer, P; Rossmanith, R; Schoerling, D

    2011-01-01

    Undulators dedicated to low energy electron beams, like Laser Wakefield Accelerators, require very short period lengths to achieve X-ray emission. However, at these short period length (LambdaU ~ 5 mm) it becomes difficult to reach magnetic field amplitudes that lead to a K parameter of >1, which is generally desired. Room temperature permanent magnets and even superconductive undulators using Nb-Ti as conductor material have proven insufficient to achieve the desired field amplitudes. The superconductor Nb$_{3}$Sn has the theoretical potential to achieve the desired fields. However, up to now it is limited by several technological challenges to much lower field values than theoretically predicted. An alternative idea for higher fields is to manufacture the poles of the undulator body from Holmium instead of iron or to use Nb-Ti wires with a higher superconductor/copper ratio. The advantages and challenges of the different options are compared in this contribution.

  18. Ultimately short ballistic vertical graphene Josephson junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Gil-Ho; Kim, Sol; Jhi, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Hu-Jong

    2015-01-01

    Much efforts have been made for the realization of hybrid Josephson junctions incorporating various materials for the fundamental studies of exotic physical phenomena as well as the applications to superconducting quantum devices. Nonetheless, the efforts have been hindered by the diffusive nature of the conducting channels and interfaces. To overcome the obstacles, we vertically sandwiched a cleaved graphene monoatomic layer as the normal-conducting spacer between superconducting electrodes. The atomically thin single-crystalline graphene layer serves as an ultimately short conducting channel, with highly transparent interfaces with superconductors. In particular, we show the strong Josephson coupling reaching the theoretical limit, the convex-shaped temperature dependence of the Josephson critical current and the exceptionally skewed phase dependence of the Josephson current; all demonstrate the bona fide short and ballistic Josephson nature. This vertical stacking scheme for extremely thin transparent spacers would open a new pathway for exploring the exotic coherence phenomena occurring on an atomic scale. PMID:25635386

  19. Integrable discretizations of the short pulse equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Baofeng; Maruno, Ken-ichi; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we propose integrable semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the short pulse (SP) equation. The key construction is the bilinear form and determinant structure of solutions of the SP equation. We also give the determinant formulas of N-soliton solutions of the semi-discrete and full-discrete analogues of the SP equations, from which the multi-loop and multi-breather solutions can be generated. In the continuous limit, the full-discrete SP equation converges to the semi-discrete SP equation, and then to the continuous SP equation. Based on the semi-discrete SP equation, an integrable numerical scheme, i.e. a self-adaptive moving mesh scheme, is proposed and used for the numerical computation of the short pulse equation.

  20. Public perceptions of short rotation coppice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, R.

    1993-01-01

    The ''Wood as a Fuel'' programme - which funded the research covered in this report - is one of the renewable energy development programmes managed by ETSU (the Energy Technology Support Unit) for the Department of Trade and Industry. This national programme is developing the production and use of fuel wood from two main sources - forestry residues and short rotation coppice. Wood fuel from short rotation coppice offers the greater potential - energy equivalent to 10 mtce (million tonnes of coal equivalent) could be produced annually from 1 million hectares of land. This programme is now well established, with ten trial coppice sites in operation, plus some 40 others. A number of successfully willow and poplar clones have been selected for different soil conditions, and machinery for planting and harvesting has been developed. Local consortia of farmers and users are being established to provide long-term markets for the wood fuel produced. (author)

  1. Lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Yim, Chung Ik; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1986-01-01

    We have detailed our experiences on 6 cases of neonatal lethal short-limbed dwarfism and reviewed the articles. They include, achondrogenesis, thanatophoric dysplasia, asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfect a congenita, and hypophosphatasia lethals. Five babies were born alive but died soon after birth and one was a stillbirth. The main cause of failure to thrive was respiratory insufficiency. Each case was having quite characteristic radiologic findings, even if the general appearances were similar to the achondroplasts clinically. Precise diagnosis is very important for genetic counselling of the parents and alarm to them the possibility of bone dysplasias to the next offsprings. For this purpose, the radiologists play major role for the correct diagnosis. We stress that when the baby is born with short-limbed dwarfism, whole body radiogram should be taken including lateral view and postmortem radiogram is also very precious.

  2. Lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Hwa; Yim, Chung Ik; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    We have detailed our experiences on 6 cases of neonatal lethal short-limbed dwarfism and reviewed the articles. They include, achondrogenesis, thanatophoric dysplasia, asphyxiating thoracic dysplasia, osteogenesis imperfect a congenita, and hypophosphatasia lethals. Five babies were born alive but died soon after birth and one was a stillbirth. The main cause of failure to thrive was respiratory insufficiency. Each case was having quite characteristic radiologic findings, even if the general appearances were similar to the achondroplasts clinically. Precise diagnosis is very important for genetic counselling of the parents and alarm to them the possibility of bone dysplasias to the next offsprings. For this purpose, the radiologists play major role for the correct diagnosis. We stress that when the baby is born with short-limbed dwarfism, whole body radiogram should be taken including lateral view and postmortem radiogram is also very precious.

  3. Familial short fifth metacarpals and insulin resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyari, Muwafag; Hamamy, Hanan; Barham, Muries; Ajlouni, Kamel; Al-Hadidy, Azmy

    2006-01-01

    Very few reports on the phenotype of short fifth metacarpals have been published in the medical literature. We report a Jordanian family in which three sisters aged 15, 13 and 8 years revealed bilateral shortening of the fifth fingers and radiological shortening of the fifth metacarpals. The father had unilateral short fifth metacarpal. The elder two sisters, their father as well as their brother and another sister manifested insulin resistance. Spherocytosis was diagnosed in one of the girls and her father. The parents are non-consanguineous. This constellation of findings has not been previously reported and could point to the presence of two disorders segregating in the family or to a novel syndrome with autosomal dominant inheritance and variable expressivity. (orig.)

  4. Ultra-Wideband, Short Pulse Electromagnetics 9

    CERN Document Server

    Rachidi, Farhad; Kaelin, Armin; Sabath, Frank; UWB SP 9

    2010-01-01

    Ultra-wideband (UWB), short-pulse (SP) electromagnetics are now being used for an increasingly wide variety of applications, including collision avoidance radar, concealed object detection, and communications. Notable progress in UWB and SP technologies has been achieved by investigations of their theoretical bases and improvements in solid-state manufacturing, computers, and digitizers. UWB radar systems are also being used for mine clearing, oil pipeline inspections, archeology, geology, and electronic effects testing. Ultra-wideband Short-Pulse Electromagnetics 9 presents selected papers of deep technical content and high scientific quality from the UWB-SP9 Conference, which was held from July 21-25, 2008, in Lausanne, Switzerland. The wide-ranging coverage includes contributions on electromagnetic theory, time-domain computational techniques, modeling, antennas, pulsed-power, UWB interactions, radar systems, UWB communications, and broadband systems and components. This book serves as a state-of-the-art r...

  5. Magnetic short-range order in Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child, H.R.

    1978-01-01

    The magnetic short-range order in a ferromagnetic, isotopically enriched 160 Gd metal single crystal has been investigated by quasielastic scattering of 81-meV neutrons. Since Gd behaves as an S-state ion in the metal, little anisotropy is expected in its magnetic behavior. However, the data show that there is anisotropic short-range order present over a large temperature interval both above and below T/sub C/. The data have been analyzed in terms of an Ornstein-Zernike Lorentzian form with anisotropic correlation ranges. These correlation ranges as deduced from the observed data behave normally above T/sub C/ but seem to remain constant over a fairly large interval below T/sub C/ before becoming unobservable at lower temperatures. These observations suggest that the magnetic ordering in Gd may be a more complicated phenomenon than first believed

  6. A short proof of increased parabolic regularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pankavich

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a short proof of the increased regularity obtained by solutions to uniformly parabolic partial differential equations. Though this setting is fairly introductory, our new method of proof, which uses a priori estimates and an inductive method, can be extended to prove analogous results for problems with time-dependent coefficients, advection-diffusion or reaction diffusion equations, and nonlinear PDEs even when other tools, such as semigroup methods or the use of explicit fundamental solutions, are unavailable.

  7. Long life of a short film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadia, R V

    2000-01-01

    What follows is an account of my personal experiences as an independent Indian film director who had the fortune to make the country's first openly gay film, the short BOMgAY That said, I would like this essay to be accepted as, rather than a critical appraisal of Indian cinema, a humbly autobiographical account of one individual caught in the hectic throes of political (and cinematic) visibility.

  8. Molecular beam epitaxy a short history

    CERN Document Server

    Orton, J W

    2015-01-01

    This volume describes the development of molecular beam epitaxy from its origins in the 1960s through to the present day. It begins with a short historical account of other methods of crystal growth, both bulk and epitaxial, to set the subject in context, emphasising the wide range of semiconductor materials employed. This is followed by an introduction to molecular beams and their use in the Stern-Gerlach experiment and the development of the microwave MASER.

  9. Automatic location of short circuit faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hakola, T.; Antila, E. [ABB Power Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaenen, M. [North-Carelian Power Company (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this presentation, the automatic location of short circuit faults on medium voltage distribution lines, based on the integration of computer systems of medium voltage distribution network automation is discussed. First the distribution data management systems and their interface with the substation telecontrol, or SCADA systems, is studied. Then the integration of substation telecontrol system and computerised relay protection is discussed. Finally, the implementation of the fault location system is presented and the practical experience with the system is discussed

  10. Short-term Memory of Deep RNN

    OpenAIRE

    Gallicchio, Claudio

    2018-01-01

    The extension of deep learning towards temporal data processing is gaining an increasing research interest. In this paper we investigate the properties of state dynamics developed in successive levels of deep recurrent neural networks (RNNs) in terms of short-term memory abilities. Our results reveal interesting insights that shed light on the nature of layering as a factor of RNN design. Noticeably, higher layers in a hierarchically organized RNN architecture results to be inherently biased ...

  11. Pulse pile-up. I: Short pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkinson, D.H.

    1990-07-01

    The search for rare large pulses against an intense background of smaller ones involves consideration of pulse pile-up. Approximate methods are presented, based on ruin theory, by which the probability of such pile-up may be estimated for pulses of arbitrary form and of arbitrary pulse-height distribution. These methods are checked against cases for which exact solutions are available. The present paper is concerned chiefly with short pulses of finite total duration. (Author) (5 refs., 24 figs.)

  12. Optical Detection in Ultrafast Short Wavelength Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K.; Hall, Chris J.

    2010-01-01

    A new approach to coherent detection of ionising radiation is briefly motivated and recounted. The approach involves optical scattering of coherent light fields by colour centres in transparent solids. It has significant potential for diffractive imaging applications that require high detection dynamic range from pulsed high brilliance short wavelength sources. It also motivates new incarnations of Bragg's X-ray microscope for pump-probe studies of ultrafast molecular structure-dynamics.

  13. Southern hemisphere searches for short period pulsars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manchester, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    Two searches of the southern sky for short period pulsars are briefly described. The first, made using the 64-m telescope at Parkes, is sensitive to pulsars with periods greater than about 10 ms and the second, made using the Molonglo radio telescope, has sensitivity down to periods of about 1.5 ms. Four pulsars were found in the Parkes survey and none in the Molonglo survey, although analysis of the latter is as yet incomplete. 10 references, 1 figure, 2 tables

  14. Short wavelength striations on expanding plasma clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winske, D.; Gary, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    The growth and evolution of short wavelength (< ion gyroradius) flute modes on a plasma expanding across an ambient magnetic field have been actively studied in recent years, both by means of experiments in the laboratory as well as in space and through numerical simulations. We review the relevant observations and simulations results, discuss the instability mechanism and related linear theory, and describe recent work to bring experiments and theory into better agreement. 30 refs., 6 figs

  15. Automatic location of short circuit faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hakola, T; Antila, E [ABB Power Oy (Finland); Seppaenen, M [North-Carelian Power Company (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    In this chapter, the automatic location of short circuit faults on medium voltage distribution lines, based on the integration of computer systems of medium voltage distribution network automation is discussed. First the distribution data management systems and their interface with the substation telecontrol, or SCADA systems, is studied. Then the integration of substation telecontrol system and computerized relay protection is discussed. Finally, the implementation of the fault location system is presented and the practical experience with the system is discussed

  16. Short-term LNG-markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldegard, Tom; Lund, Arne-Christian; Miltersen, Kristian; Rud, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The global Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) industry has experienced substantial growth in the past decades. In the traditional trade patterns of LNG the product has typically been handled within a dedicated chain of plants and vessels fully committed by long term contracts or common ownership, providing risk sharing of large investments in a non-liquid market. Increasing gas prices and substantial cost reductions in all parts of the LNG chain have made LNG projects viable even if only part of the capacity is secured by long-term contracts, opening for more flexible trade of the remainder. Increasing gas demand, especially in power generation, combined with cost reductions in the cost of LNG terminals, open new markets for LNG. For the LNG supplier, the flexibility of shifting volumes between regions represents an additional value. International trade in LNG has been increasing, now accounting for more than one fifth of the world's cross-border gas trade. Despite traditional vertical chain bonds, increased flexibility has contributed in fact to an increasing LNG spot trade, representing 8% of global trade in 2002. The focus of this paper is on the development of global short-term LNG markets, and their role with respect to efficiency and security of supply in European gas markets. Arbitrage opportunities arising from price differences between regional markets (such as North America versus Europe) are important impetuses for flexible short-term trade. However, the short-term LNG trade may suffer from problems related to market access, e.g. limited access to terminals and regulatory issues, as well as rigidities connected to vertical binding within the LNG chain. Important issues related to the role of short-term LNG-trade in the European gas market are: Competition, flexibility in meeting peak demand, security of supply and consequences of differences in pricing policies (oil-linked prices in Europe and spot market prices in North America). (Author)

  17. Mechanised harvesting of short-rotation coppices

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbeveren, Stefan P.P.; Spinelli, Raffaele; Eisenbies, Mark; Schweier, Janine; Mola-Yudego, Blas; Magagnotti, Natascia; Acuna, Mauricio; Dimitriou, Ioannis; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Short-rotation coppice (SRC) is an important source of woody biomass for bioenergy. Despite the research carried out on several aspects of SRC production, many uncertainties create barriers to farmers establishing SRC plantations. One of the key economic sources of uncertainty is harvesting methods and costs; more specifically, the performance of contemporary machine methods is reviewed. We collected data from 25 literature references, describing 166 field trials. Three harvesting s...

  18. Brownian motion in short range random potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.H.; Romero, A.H.; Sancho, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    A numerical study of Brownian motion of noninteracting particles in random potentials is presented. The dynamics are modeled by Langevin equations in the high friction limit. The random potentials are Gaussian distributed and short ranged. The simulations are performed in one and two dimensions. Different dynamical regimes are found and explained. Effective subdiffusive exponents are obtained and commented on. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Hedge Ratios for short and leveraged ETFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo Schubert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs exist for stock-, bond- and commodity markets. In most cases the underlying of an ETF is an index. Fund management today uses the active and passive way to construct a portfolio. ETFs can be used for passive portfolio management. Then ETFs with positive leverage factors are preferred. In the frame of active portfolio also the ETFs with negative leverage factors can be applied for the hedge or cross hedge of a portfolio. These hedging possibilities will be analyzed in this paper. Short ETFs exist with different leverage factors. In Europe, the leverage factors 1 (e.g. ShortDAX ETF and 2 (e.g. DJ STOXX 600 Double Short are offered while in the financial markets of the United States factors from 1 to 4 can be found. To investigate the effect of the different leverage factors and other parameters Monte Carlo Simulation was used. The results show e.g. that higher leverage factors achieve higher profits as well as losses. In the case, that a bearish market is supposed, minimizing the variance of the hedge seem not to be until to get better hedging results, due to a very skewed return distribution of the hedge. The risk measure target-shortfall-probability confirms the use of the standard hedge weightings which depend only on the leverage factor. This characteristic remains, when a portfolio has to be hedged instead of the underlying index of the short ETF. For portfolios which have a low correlation with the index return should not be used high leverage factors for hedging, due to the higher volatility and target-shortfall-probability.

  20. A short-term neural network memory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, R.J.T.; Wong, W.S.

    1988-12-01

    Neural network memories with storage prescriptions based on Hebb's rule are known to collapse as more words are stored. By requiring that the most recently stored word be remembered precisely, a new simple short-term neutral network memory is obtained and its steady state capacity analyzed and simulated. Comparisons are drawn with Hopfield's method, the delta method of Widrow and Hoff, and the revised marginalist model of Mezard, Nadal, and Toulouse.

  1. Automatic location of short circuit faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, M [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Hakola, T; Antila, E [ABB Power Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Seppaenen, M [North-Carelian Power Company (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    In this presentation, the automatic location of short circuit faults on medium voltage distribution lines, based on the integration of computer systems of medium voltage distribution network automation is discussed. First the distribution data management systems and their interface with the substation telecontrol, or SCADA systems, is studied. Then the integration of substation telecontrol system and computerised relay protection is discussed. Finally, the implementation of the fault location system is presented and the practical experience with the system is discussed

  2. A short course in sustainable product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Tim C.

    2005-01-01

    This short course in sustainable product development models, methods and mindsets is designed to fit into the Unical course on Engineering Design Methods. Three modules (called “seminars”) will guide you through . The demands for sustainable development . Professional methods for analysing and ch...... and changing products’ environmental profiles . A new approach to product service system development, where the physical product becomes an incidental aspect in the final offering to the customer...

  3. Short term depression unmasks the ghost frequency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjeerd V Olde Scheper

    Full Text Available Short Term Plasticity (STP has been shown to exist extensively in synapses throughout the brain. Its function is more or less clear in the sense that it alters the probability of synaptic transmission at short time scales. However, it is still unclear what effect STP has on the dynamics of neural networks. We show, using a novel dynamic STP model, that Short Term Depression (STD can affect the phase of frequency coded input such that small networks can perform temporal signal summation and determination with high accuracy. We show that this property of STD can readily solve the problem of the ghost frequency, the perceived pitch of a harmonic complex in absence of the base frequency. Additionally, we demonstrate that this property can explain dynamics in larger networks. By means of two models, one of chopper neurons in the Ventral Cochlear Nucleus and one of a cortical microcircuit with inhibitory Martinotti neurons, it is shown that the dynamics in these microcircuits can reliably be reproduced using STP. Our model of STP gives important insights into the potential roles of STP in self-regulation of cortical activity and long-range afferent input in neuronal microcircuits.

  4. Ultra-short silicon MMI duplexer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Huaxiang; Huang, Yawen; Wang, Xingjun; Zhou, Zhiping

    2012-11-01

    The fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) systems are growing fast these days, where two different wavelengths are used for upstream and downstream traffic, typically 1310nm and 1490nm. The duplexers are the key elements to separate these wavelengths into different path in central offices (CO) and optical network unit (ONU) in passive optical network (PON). Multimode interference (MMI) has some benefits to be a duplexer including large fabrication tolerance, low-temperature dependence, and low-polarization dependence, but its size is too large to integrate in conventional case. Based on the silicon photonics platform, ultra-short silicon MMI duplexer was demonstrated to separate the 1310nm and 1490nm lights. By studying the theory of self-image phenomena in MMI, the first order images are adopted in order to keep the device short. A cascaded MMI structure was investigated to implement the wavelength splitting, where both the light of 1310nm and 1490nm was input from the same port, and the 1490nm light was coupling cross the first MMI and output at the cross-port in the device while the 1310nm light was coupling through the first and second MMI and output at the bar-port in the device. The experiment was carried on with the SOI wafer of 340nm top silicon. The cascaded MMI was investigated to fold the length of the duplexer as short as 117μm with the extinct ratio over 10dB.

  5. The Long and the Short of It

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Gamma-Ray bursts, the extreme explosions that mark the birth of black holes, come in two flavors, long bursts lasting a few seconds or more, and short bursts lasting for less than a second. The mechanisms giving rise to these two types of bursts were, for a long time, unknown to astronomers. But a series of breakthroughs starting with BeppoSAX, HETE, and Swift gave astronomers some clues and confidence about the nature of long and short bursts. Long bursts mark the collapse of a young, extremely massive star into a black hole; short bursts mark the formation of a black hole by a merger of neutron stars (or perhaps a neutron star with a black hole to form a larger black hole). But a new observation has clouded this clear dichotomy. The picture above is an X-ray image of a gamma-ray burst, GRB 060614, taken by Swift's X-ray Telescope. This burst lasted more than 100 seconds, clearly showing that it's a long burst. But follow-up observations of the burst did not show the tell-tale signatures of a supernova explosion which should be produced by the collapse of a large star. Furthermore this burst occurred in a galaxy which has very few extremely massive stars. Does this hybrid burst represent an entirely new mechanism behind these titanic explosions? The hunt is on.

  6. Short-film Festival at the Globe

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Get out your diaries and prepare to be star-struck as the Globe of Science and Innovation meets the silver screen! The CERN "Open Your Eyes Films" film-making club is organising a festival of short films entitled CinéGlobe from Thursday 8 to Saturday 10 November. On the Thursday and Friday, you’ll be able to watch 47 short films free of charge in the Globe of Science and Innovation at various times of the day. The short films to be screened come from 21 different countries and have been selected from among 1400 entrees! All film genres will be represented : comedy, drama, animation, documentaries, experimental films, etc. Members of the public will even be able to vote for their favourite film: the audience’s favourite will be awarded a "Coup de coeur" award. An awards ceremony to honour the films that have received most votes will be held on Friday evening in the Globe of Science and Innovation. The Golden CinéGlobe for bes...

  7. Modeling Timbre Similarity of Short Music Clips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedenburg, Kai; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    There is evidence from a number of recent studies that most listeners are able to extract information related to song identity, emotion, or genre from music excerpts with durations in the range of tenths of seconds. Because of these very short durations, timbre as a multifaceted auditory attribute appears as a plausible candidate for the type of features that listeners make use of when processing short music excerpts. However, the importance of timbre in listening tasks that involve short excerpts has not yet been demonstrated empirically. Hence, the goal of this study was to develop a method that allows to explore to what degree similarity judgments of short music clips can be modeled with low-level acoustic features related to timbre. We utilized the similarity data from two large samples of participants: Sample I was obtained via an online survey, used 16 clips of 400 ms length, and contained responses of 137,339 participants. Sample II was collected in a lab environment, used 16 clips of 800 ms length, and contained responses from 648 participants. Our model used two sets of audio features which included commonly used timbre descriptors and the well-known Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as well as their temporal derivates. In order to predict pairwise similarities, the resulting distances between clips in terms of their audio features were used as predictor variables with partial least-squares regression. We found that a sparse selection of three to seven features from both descriptor sets-mainly encoding the coarse shape of the spectrum as well as spectrotemporal variability-best predicted similarities across the two sets of sounds. Notably, the inclusion of non-acoustic predictors of musical genre and record release date allowed much better generalization performance and explained up to 50% of shared variance ( R 2 ) between observations and model predictions. Overall, the results of this study empirically demonstrate that both acoustic features related

  8. Are short implants in the mandible safe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Henrique Gonçalves Motta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the importance of bioengineering and the improvement in surgical techniques demonstrated by the rates attained of the prevalence of successful placement of dental implants in the posterior region of the mandible, in D3 bone quality in patients between the ages of 52 and 60 years, with dentures fixed on 8.5 mm implants. Methods: The statistical data for this retrospective study were collected at the Post-Graduation Center of the Integrated Dentistry Center, Faculty of Sarandi / Academy of Dentistry - Rio de Janeiro, at the CLIVO clinic, from among a total of 2.294 implants placed in the mandible, in the period from 1999 to 2007. There was a total of 1.056 short implants, of a length shorter than or equal to 10 mm, among which 20 implants were randomly chosen and analyzed. Results: The data were treated statistically and comparison of these data was consubstantiated in constructive data analysis by means of Statistical Pattern Recognition Methods for each variable under study. A success rate of 85% was obtained, and the need to take certain care when indicating the use of short implants was verified. Conclusion: Bioengineering and the development of present day surgical techniques have optimized the use of short implants, with the aim of avoiding advanced surgeries. To compensate the smaller size, there are some factors that must be observed, such as: Bone quality, crown/implant ratio, number and diameter of implants, macroscopic and microscopic geometry of the implants, magnitude of mesial occlusal forces.

  9. A short textbook of colloid chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jirgensons, B

    1962-01-01

    A Short Textbook of Colloid Chemistry, Second Revised Edition details the factual aspect of colloid chemistry that includes the basic facts, established empirical and mathematical relationships, and practical applications. The chapters of the title are organized into two parts. In the first part, the text discusses the general concepts of colloid chemistry, such as the history and scope, basic terms, and basic methods in experiment with colloids. Part Two covers the technical aspect of colloid chemistry, such as the optical properties, electrical properties, and viscosity. The book will be of

  10. Monitoring method of short-emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gasanov, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Radioprospecting is the initial stage of radioelectronic warfare and its main purpose is destination of the radio signal, determination of its parameters, to detect the content of broadcasts, as well as detection the locating of devices emitting radio signal. In all cases, the probability of signal interception is basically determined by the specified parameters of signals intelligence. The increase in speed is accompanied by a decrease in resolution and vice versa. This paper discusses the method of monitoring the short-term radio emissions, which adapts to the electromagnetic environment

  11. Short period tidal variations of earth rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, C. F.; Williams, J. G.; Parke, M. E.; Dickey, J. O.

    1981-01-01

    It is explained that the tidal deformation of the earth's polar moment of inertia by the moon and sun cause periodic variations in rotation. The short period oscillations give rise to a meter-sized, diurnal signature in the lunar laser ranging data obtained at McDonald Observatory. A solution is given for the scale parameter k/C at fortnightly and monthly tidal frequencies. The results are compared with those obtained by other investigators and with a theoretical estimate which includes the effect of oceans and a decoupled fluid core.

  12. Spectrum of short bowel syndrome in adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Palle B

    2014-01-01

    to diminished health-related quality of life because of its many physical and psychological effects on patients. SBS is associated with decreased survival; risk factors for SBS-related mortality include very short remnant small bowel, end-jejunal remnant anatomy, and arterial mesenteric infarction as primary...... severity and resection type; thus, each patient should be individually managed. This review discusses the spectrum of disease in patients with SBS and presents common complications encountered by these patients to highlight the importance of individualized management and treatment....

  13. Longitudinal Diagnostics for Short Electron Beam Bunches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loos, H.; /SLAC

    2010-06-11

    Single-pass free electron lasers require high peak currents from ultra-short electron bunches to reach saturation and an accurate measurement of bunch length and longitudinal bunch profile is necessary to control the bunch compression process from low to high beam energy. The various state-of-the-art diagnostics methods from ps to fs time scales using coherent radiation detection, RF deflection, and other techniques are presented. The use of linear accelerators as drivers for free electron lasers (FEL) and the advent of single-pass (SASE) FELs has driven the development of a wide range of diagnostic techniques for measuring the length and longitudinal distribution of short and ultra-short electron bunches. For SASE FELs the radiation power and the length of the undulator needed to achieve saturation depend strongly on the charge density of the electron beam. In the case of X-ray FELs, this requires the accelerator to produce ultra-high brightness beams with micron size transverse normalized emittances and peak currents of several kA through several stages of magnetic bunch compression. Different longitudinal diagnostics are employed to measure the peak current and bunch profile along these stages. The measurement techniques can be distinguished into different classes. Coherent methods detect the light emitted from the beam by some coherent radiation process (spectroscopic measurement), or directly measure the Coulomb field traveling with the beam (electro-optic). Phase space manipulation techniques map the time coordinate onto a transverse dimension and then use conventional transverse beam diagnostics (transverse deflector, rf zero-phasing). Further methods measure the profile or duration of an incoherent light pulse emitted by the bunch at wavelengths much shorted than the bunch length (streak camera, fluctuation technique) or modulate the electron beam at an optical wavelength and then generate a narrow bandwidth radiation pulse with the longitudinal profile of

  14. Black holes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are a constant source of fascination to many due to their mysterious nature. Black Holes: A Very Short Introduction addresses a variety of questions, including what a black hole actually is, how they are characterized and discovered, and what would happen if you came too close to one. It explains how black holes form and grow—by stealing material that belongs to stars—as well as how many there may be in the Universe. It also explores the large black holes found in the centres of galaxies, and how black holes power quasars and lie behind other spectacular phenomena in the cosmos.

  15. Short radiological emergency response training program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.D.; Greenhouse, N.A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper presents an outline of a radiological emergency response training program conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory by the health physics and safety training staff. This course is given to groups from local, county, state, and federal agencies and industrial organizations. It is normally three days in length, although the structure is flexible to accommodate individual needs and prior training. An important feature of the course is an emergency exercise utilizing a short lived radionuclide to better simulate real accident conditions. Groups are encouraged to use their own instruments to gain better familiarity with their operating characteristics under field conditions. Immediately following the exercise, a critical review of the students' performance is conducted

  16. The Reformation: A Very Short Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    TKACHENKO, Rostislav

    2017-01-01

    A small, relatively recent, and well-written book by Peter Marshall belongs tothe well-known Oxford series called “Very Short Introductions.” It is an informativeand analytical introduction to the history, culture, politics, and theology of theReformation that took place in sixteenth-century Europe. The Reformation is anacademic research-based book that is nevertheless very accessible to a wide audience. It is part of the larger company of historical and cultural mini-handbooks such as, The M...

  17. Antimalarial Activity of Ultra-Short Peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Yolanda Rios

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-short peptides 1-9 were designed and synthesized with phenylalanine, ornithine and proline amino acid residues and their effect on antimalarial activity was analyzed. On the basis of the IC50 data for these compounds, the effects of nature, polarity, and amino acid sequence on Plasmodium berghei schizont cultures were analyzed too. Tetrapeptides Phe-Orn-Phe-Orn (4 and Lys-Phe-Phe-Orn (5 showed a very important activity with IC50 values of 3.31 and 2.57 μM, respectively. These two tetrapeptides are candidates for subsequent in vivo assays and SARS investigations.

  18. Implementation of short-term prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landberg, L; Joensen, A; Giebel, G [and others

    1999-03-01

    This paper will giver a general overview of the results from a EU JOULE funded project (`Implementing short-term prediction at utilities`, JOR3-CT95-0008). Reference will be given to specialised papers where applicable. The goal of the project was to implement wind farm power output prediction systems in operational environments at a number of utilities in Europe. Two models were developed, one by Risoe and one by the Technical University of Denmark (DTU). Both prediction models used HIRLAM predictions from the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI). (au) EFP-94; EU-JOULE. 11 refs.

  19. Neutrino physics with short baseline experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmerman, E.D.

    2006-01-01

    Neutrino physics with low- to medium-energy beams has progressed steadily over the last several years. Neutrino oscillation searches at short baseline (defined as 2 - -> 0.1eV 2 . One positive signal, from the LSND collaboration, exists and is being tested by the MiniBooNE experiment. Neutrino cross-section measurements are being made by MiniBooNE and K2K, which will be important for reducing systematic errors in present and future oscillation measurements. In the near future, dedicated cross- section experiments will begin operating at Fermilab. (author)

  20. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  1. Colliding droplets: a short film presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendricks, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    A series of experiments were performed in which liquid droplets were caused to collide. Impact velocities to several meters per second and droplet diameters up to 600 micrometers were used. The impact parameters in the collisions vary from zero to greater than the sum of the droplet radii. Photographs of the collisions were taken with a high speed framing camera in order to study the impacts and subsequent behavior of the droplets. The experiments will be discussed and a short movie film presentation of some of the impacts will be shown

  2. Is visual short-term memory depthful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Adam; Lei, Quan

    2014-03-01

    Does visual short-term memory (VSTM) depend on depth, as it might be if information was stored in more than one depth layer? Depth is critical in natural viewing and might be expected to affect retention, but whether this is so is currently unknown. Cued partial reports of letter arrays (Sperling, 1960) were measured up to 700 ms after display termination. Adding stereoscopic depth hardly affected VSTM capacity or decay inferred from total errors. The pattern of transposition errors (letters reported from an uncued row) was almost independent of depth and cue delay. We conclude that VSTM is effectively two-dimensional. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The short straight sections for the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergot, J.B.; Coussy, E.; Dambre, P.; Ollivier, Y.; Reynet, D.; Vincent, D.; Rohmig, P.

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 a close collaboration between CERN, CEA and CNRS has been established for the design, proto-typing and follow-up of industrial series production of a sub-assembly of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). In this frame, the design office of IPN's Accelerator R and D group has in charge one of these contracts concerning the 386 Short Straight Sections (SSS) and particularly: - the cryostat design; - the study of procedures and tool assembly; - the construction of two prototypes during the year 1999; - the industrialization and the production follow-up for the series SSS. This collaboration will last until the year 2004. (authors)

  4. Plat du jour – Short Films!

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2014-01-01

    Next week, take a break from the cafeteria and have a ciné-lunch at the Globe!   How about if, for a change, you forgot your lunch meeting and went to the movies with your colleagues (or that person that you always wanted to ask out) right here on the CERN site? CERN will be hosting the next CineGlobe International Film Festival from 18 to 23 March in the Globe of Science and Innovation, with the theme "Beyond the Frontier". The 4th annual festival will see 66 short films "inspired by science" in competition, including fiction films as well as documentaries. From Tuesday 18 to Friday 21, special lunch sessions will take place from 12.30 p.m. to 1.30 p.m. Food will be available for purchase at the “Café Cinéma” tent next to the Globe. Special evenings: While the short film screenings are the heart of the festival, each year CineGlobe also organises compelling special events every night, from feature fil...

  5. PTSD-8: A Short PTSD Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Andersen, Tonny Elmose; Armour, Cherie; Elklit, Ask; Palic, Sabina; Mackrill, Thomas

    2010-09-28

    Traumatic events pose great challenges on mental health services in scarcity of specialist trauma clinicians and services. Simple short screening instruments for detecting adverse psychological responses are needed. Several brief screening instruments have been developed. However, some are limited, especially in relation to reflecting the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis. Recently, several studies have challenged pre-existing ideas about PTSD's latent structure. Factor analytic research currently supports two four factor models. One particular model contains a dysphoria factor which has been associated with depression and anxiety. The symptoms in this factor have been hailed as less specific to PTSD. The scope of this article is therefore to present a short screening instrument, based on this research; Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) - 8 items. The PTSD-8 is shown to have good psychometric properties in three independent samples of whiplash patients (n=1710), rape victims (n=305), and disaster victims (n=516). Good test-rest reliability is also shown in a pilot study of young adults from families with alcohol problems (n=56).

  6. Capillary condensation of short-chain molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryk, Paweł; Pizio, Orest; Sokolowski, Stefan

    2005-05-15

    A density-functional study of capillary condensation of fluids of short-chain molecules confined to slitlike pores is presented. The molecules are modeled as freely jointed tangent spherical segments with a hard core and with short-range attractive interaction between all the segments. We investigate how the critical parameters of capillary condensation of the fluid change when the pore width decreases and eventually becomes smaller than the nominal linear dimension of the single-chain molecule. We find that the dependence of critical parameters for a fluid of dimers and of tetramers on pore width is similar to that of the monomer fluid. On the other hand, for a fluid of chains consisting of a larger number of segments we observe an inversion effect. Namely, the critical temperature of capillary condensation decreases with increasing pore width for a certain interval of values of the pore width. This anomalous behavior is also influenced by the interaction between molecules and pore walls. We attribute this behavior to the effect of conformational changes of molecules upon confinement.

  7. Narrow resonances and short-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelman, Boris A.

    2009-01-01

    Narrow resonances in systems with short-range interactions are discussed in an effective field theory (EFT) framework. An effective Lagrangian is formulated in the form of a combined expansion in powers of a momentum Q 0 | 0 --a resonance peak energy. At leading order in the combined expansion, a two-body scattering amplitude is the sum of a smooth background term of order Q 0 and a Breit-Wigner term of order Q 2 (δε) -1 which becomes dominant for δε 3 . Such an EFT is applicable to systems in which short-distance dynamics generates a low-lying quasistationary state. The EFT is generalized to describe a narrow low-lying resonance in a system of charged particles. It is shown that in the case of Coulomb repulsion, a two-body scattering amplitude at leading order in a combined expansion is the sum of a Coulomb-modified background term and a Breit-Wigner amplitude with parameters renormalized by Coulomb interactions.

  8. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  9. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  10. Short-term energy outlook, July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares The Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly for distribution on the internet at: www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/steo/pub/contents.html. In addition, printed versions of the report are available to subscribers in January, April, July and October. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from July 1998 through December 1999. Values for second quarter of 1998 data, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the July 1998 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  11. Short-term energy outlook, January 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Short-Term Energy Outlook (energy supply, demand, and price projections) monthly. The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from January 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the fourth quarter 1998, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the January 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 28 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Measuring Short-term Energy Security

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Ensuring energy security has been at the centre of the IEA mission since its inception, following the oil crises of the early 1970s. While the security of oil supplies remains important, contemporary energy security policies must address all energy sources and cover a comprehensive range of natural, economic and political risks that affect energy sources, infrastructures and services. In response to this challenge, the IEA is currently developing a Model Of Short-term Energy Security (MOSES) to evaluate the energy security risks and resilience capacities of its member countries. The current version of MOSES covers short-term security of supply for primary energy sources and secondary fuels among IEA countries. It also lays the foundation for analysis of vulnerabilities of electricity and end-use energy sectors. MOSES contains a novel approach to analysing energy security, which can be used to identify energy security priorities, as a starting point for national energy security assessments and to track the evolution of a country's energy security profile. By grouping together countries with similar 'energy security profiles', MOSES depicts the energy security landscape of IEA countries. By extending the MOSES methodology to electricity security and energy services in the future, the IEA aims to develop a comprehensive policy-relevant perspective on global energy security. This Brochure provides and overview of the analysis and results. Readers interested in an in-depth discussion of methodology are referred to the MOSES Working Paper.

  13. Developing Short Films of Geoscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.; Dehn, J.; Harrild, M.; Kienenberger, D.; Salganek, M.

    2015-12-01

    In today's prevalence of social media and networking, video products are becoming increasingly more useful to communicate research quickly and effectively to a diverse audience, including outreach activities as well as within the research community and to funding agencies. Due to the observational nature of geoscience, researchers often take photos and video footage to document fieldwork or to record laboratory experiments. Here we present how researchers can become more effective storytellers by collaborating with filmmakers to produce short documentary films of their research. We will focus on the use of traditional high-definition (HD) camcorders and HD DSLR cameras to record the scientific story while our research topic focuses on the use of remote sensing techniques, specifically thermal infrared imaging that is often used to analyze time varying natural processes such as volcanic hazards. By capturing the story in the thermal infrared wavelength range, in addition to traditional red-green-blue (RGB) color space, the audience is able to experience the world differently. We will develop a short film specifically designed using thermal infrared cameras that illustrates how visual storytellers can use these new tools to capture unique and important aspects of their research, convey their passion for earth systems science, as well as engage and captive the viewer.

  14. Short wavelength FELs using the SLAC linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winick, H.; Bane, K.; Boyce, R.

    1993-08-01

    Recent technological developments have opened the possibility to construct a device which we call a Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS); a fourth generation light source, with brightness, coherence, and peak power far exceeding other sources. Operating on the principle of the free electron laser (FEL), the LCLS would extend the range of FEL operation to much aborter wavelength than the 240 mn that has so far been reached. We report the results of studies of the use of the SLAC linac to drive an LCLS at wavelengths from about 3-100 nm initially and possibly even shorter wavelengths in the future. Lasing would be achieved in a single pass of a low emittance, high peak current, high energy electron beam through a long undulator. Most present FELs use an optical cavity to build up the intensity of the light to achieve lasing action in a low gain oscillator configuration. By eliminating the optical cavity, which is difficult to make at short wavelengths, laser action can be extended to shorter wavelengths by Self-Amplified-Spontaneous-Emission (SASE), or by harmonic generation from a longer wavelength seed laser. Short wavelength, single pass lasers have been extensively studied at several laboratories and at recent workshops

  15. Validating a Cantonese short version of the Zarit Burden Interview (CZBI-Short) for dementia caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jennifer Yee-Man; Ho, Andy Hau-Yan; Luo, Hao; Wong, Gloria Hoi-Yan; Lau, Bobo Hi-Po; Lum, Terry Yat-Sang; Cheung, Karen Siu-Lan

    2016-09-01

    The present study aimed to develop and validate a Cantonese short version of the Zarit Burden Interview (CZBI-Short) for Hong Kong Chinese dementia caregivers. The 12-item Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) was translated into spoken Cantonese and back-translated by two bilingual research assistants and face validated by a panel of experts. Five hundred Chinese dementia caregivers showing signs of stress reported their burden using the translated ZBI and rated their depressive symptoms, overall health, and care recipients' physical functioning and behavioral problems. The factor structure of the translated scale was identified using principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis; internal consistency and item-total correlations were assessed; and concurrent validity was tested by correlating the ZBI with depressive symptoms, self-rated health, and care recipients' physical functioning and behavioral problems. The principal component analysis resulted in 11 items loading on a three-factor model comprised role strain, self-criticism, and negative emotion, which accounted for 59% of the variance. The confirmatory factor analysis supported the three-factor model (CZBI-Short) that explained 61% of the total variance. Cronbach's alpha (0.84) and item-total correlations (rho = 0.39-0.71) indicated CZBI-Short had good reliability. CZBI-Short showed correlations with depressive symptoms (r = 0.50), self-rated health (r = -0.26) and care recipients' physical functioning (r = 0.18-0.26) and disruptive behaviors (r = 0.36). The 12-item CZBI-Short is a concise, reliable, and valid instrument to assess burden in Chinese dementia caregivers in clinical and social care settings.

  16. The short short story as a teaching resource for the acquisition of grammar in SFL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Nayra Rodríguez Rodríguez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present article we intend to make a reflection on the introduction of target language literature in foreign language classrooms. We will analyze the use of short-short stories as a didactic resource in Spanish as Foreign Language classrooms. To this end, we will research different teaching methodologies that have been implemented and investigate the validity of this genre as a suitable material for teaching grammar. We will make an approximation to Focus on Form as an effective approach, which integrates grammar teaching within a communicative context.

  17. ECONOMIC IMPACT ANALYSIS OF GDOT’S SHORT LINE RAILROADS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    Short line railroads are critical to Georgias transportation infrastructure and support the efficient movement of goods into and out of the State. Twenty-nine short line railroads operate in Georgia, six of which operate either partially or totall...

  18. Evaluation of Short Term Memory Span Function In Children

    OpenAIRE

    Barış ERGÜL; Arzu ALTIN YAVUZ; Ebru GÜNDOĞAN AŞIK

    2016-01-01

    Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors ...

  19. Tester Detects Steady-Short Or Intermittent-Open Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bobby L.

    1990-01-01

    Momentary open circuits or steady short circuits trigger buzzer. Simple, portable, lightweight testing circuit sounds long-duration alarm when it detects steady short circuit or momentary open circuit in coaxial cable or other two-conductor transmission line. Tester sensitive to discontinuities lasting 10 microseconds or longer. Used extensively for detecting intermittent open shorts in accelerometer and extensometer cables. Also used as ordinary buzzer-type continuity checker to detect steady short or open circuits.

  20. Synchronous Condenser Allocation for Improving System Short Circuit Ratio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jia, Jundi; Yang, Guangya; Nielsen, Arne Hejde

    2018-01-01

    With converter-based renewable energy sources increasingly integrated into power systems and conventional power plants gradually phased out, future power systems will experience reduced short circuit strength. The deployment of synchronous condensers can serve as a potential solution. This paper...... presents an optimal synchronous condenser allocation method for improving system short circuit ratio at converter point of common coupling using a modified short circuit analysis approach. The total cost of installing new synchronous condensers is minimized while the system short circuit ratios...

  1. Teaching English Using Local Culture Content Short Story

    OpenAIRE

    Sanda, Silfi

    2009-01-01

    This paper is mainly about the use of local culture content short story in developing students' English proficiency and some activities that can be employed for this purpose. The local culture exposed in the short story is the traditional woven clothes of Palembang, Songket in term of process and product. The short story used in this topic is Cek Ipah "The Palembang Songket Weaver". This short story is authors' original work telling about everyday live of palembang songket weaver which covers...

  2. Numerical challenges of short range wake field calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Thomas; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF)

    2011-07-01

    For present and future accelerator projects with ultra short bunches the accurate and reliable calculation of short range wake fields is an important issue. However, the numerical calculation of short range wake fields is a numerical challenging task. The presentation gives an overview over the numerical challenges and techniques for short range wake field calculations. Finally, some simulation results obtained by the program PBCI developed at the TU Darmstadt are presented.

  3. Sorting signed permutations by short operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Gustavo Rodrigues; Lee, Orlando; Dias, Zanoni

    2015-01-01

    During evolution, global mutations may alter the order and the orientation of the genes in a genome. Such mutations are referred to as rearrangement events, or simply operations. In unichromosomal genomes, the most common operations are reversals, which are responsible for reversing the order and orientation of a sequence of genes, and transpositions, which are responsible for switching the location of two contiguous portions of a genome. The problem of computing the minimum sequence of operations that transforms one genome into another - which is equivalent to the problem of sorting a permutation into the identity permutation - is a well-studied problem that finds application in comparative genomics. There are a number of works concerning this problem in the literature, but they generally do not take into account the length of the operations (i.e. the number of genes affected by the operations). Since it has been observed that short operations are prevalent in the evolution of some species, algorithms that efficiently solve this problem in the special case of short operations are of interest. In this paper, we investigate the problem of sorting a signed permutation by short operations. More precisely, we study four flavors of this problem: (i) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 2; (ii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals of length at most 3; (iii) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 2; and (iv) the problem of sorting a signed permutation by reversals and transpositions of length at most 3. We present polynomial-time solutions for problems (i) and (iii), a 5-approximation for problem (ii), and a 3-approximation for problem (iv). Moreover, we show that the expected approximation ratio of the 5-approximation algorithm is not greater than 3 for random signed permutations with more than 12 elements. Finally, we present experimental results that show

  4. In Search of Decay in Verbal Short-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Marc G.; Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Is forgetting in the short term due to decay with the mere passage of time, interference from other memoranda, or both? Past research on short-term memory has revealed some evidence for decay and a plethora of evidence showing that short-term memory is worsened by interference. However, none of these studies has directly contrasted decay and…

  5. Validity of Two WPPSI Short Forms in Outpatient Clinic Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Jack P.; Atkinson, David

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the validity of subtest short forms for the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence in an outpatient population of 116 children. Data showed that the short forms underestimated actual level of intelligence and supported use of a short form only as a brief screening device. (LLL)

  6. 30 CFR 56.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 56... Electricity § 56.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning. ...

  7. 30 CFR 57.12065 - Short circuit and lightning protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short circuit and lightning protection. 57... MINES Electricity Surface Only § 57.12065 Short circuit and lightning protection. Powerlines, including trolley wires, and telephone circuits shall be protected against short circuits and lightning. ...

  8. 26 CFR 1.6655-5 - Short taxable year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Additions to the Tax, Additional Amounts, and Assessable Penalties § 1.6655-5 Short taxable... beginning with its initial short taxable year to the time it files its tax return for its initial short...

  9. Low frequency interference between short synchrotron radiation sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Méot

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A recently developed analytical formalism describing low frequency far-field synchrotron radiation (SR is applied to the calculation of spectral angular radiation densities from interfering short sources (edge, short magnet. This is illustrated by analytical calculation of synchrotron radiation from various assemblies of short dipoles, including an “isolated” highest density infrared SR source.

  10. Short Term Airing by Natural Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Perino, M.

    2010-01-01

    The need to improve the energy efficiency of buildings requires new and more efficient ventilation systems. It has been demonstrated that innovative operating concepts that make use of natural ventilation seem to be more appreciated by occupants. Among the available ventilation strategies...... that are currently available, buoyancy driven, single-sided natural ventilation has proved to be very effective and can provide high air change rates for temperature and Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) control. However, to promote a wider distribution of these systems an improvement in the knowledge of their working...... airflow rate, ventilation efficiency, thermal comfort and dynamic temperature conditions. A suitable laboratory test rig was developed to perform extensive experimental analyses of the phenomenon under controlled and repeatable conditions. The results showed that short-term window airing is very effective...

  11. [Flexor tendon repair: a short story].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moutet, F; Corcella, D; Forli, A; Mesquida, V

    2014-12-01

    This short story of flexor tendon repair aims to illustrate hesitations and wanderings of this surgery. Obviously tendon repair was very early considered, but it developed and diffused rather lately. It became a routine practice only in 20th century. This was due on the one hand, in Occident, to the Galen's dogmatic interdiction, on the other hand, to the repair difficulties of this paradoxical structure. Actually tendon is made of fibroblasts and collagen (sticky substances), and then its only goal is to move. According to this necessity, whatever the used techniques are, gliding is the final purpose. Technical evolutions are illustrated by historical contributions to flexor tendon surgery of several "giants" of hand surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Treatment of short-lived radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Chiri

    1976-01-01

    Recently short life nuclides have come to be utilized increasingly as diagnostic radioisotopes, and Tc-99m (half-life; 6.05 hours) and Ga-67 (half-life 7.79 hours) are replacing the most nuclides fomerly used in vivo test. Such development of radioactive products inevitably causes the rapid increase of their wastes. At present, the radioactive wastes produced by hospitals and university laboratories in Japan are collected by the Japan Radioisotope Association, and treated by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. These wastes are divided into combustibles and incombustibles to store in the store house in the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The present law in Japan contains the contradiction which treats the matter with one several millionth of radioactivity after decay same as the original radioactive matter. Thus solid must be stored permanently, while gas and liquid can be discharged after dilution. (Kobatake, H.)

  13. Short Rayleigh Length Free Electron Lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Crooker, P P; Armstead, R L; Blau, J

    2004-01-01

    Conventional free electron laser (FEL) oscillators minimize the optical mode volume around the electron beam in the undulator by making the resonator Rayleigh length about one third of the undulator length. This maximizes gain and beam-mode coupling. In compact configurations of high-power infrared FELs or moderate power UV FELs, the resulting optical intensity can damage the resonator mirrors. To increase the spot size and thereby reduce the optical intensity at the mirrors below the damage threshold, a shorter Rayleigh length can be used, but the FEL interaction is significantly altered. A new FEL interaction is described and analyzed with a Rayleigh length that is only one tenth the undulator length, or less. The effect of mirror vibration and positioning are more critical in the short Rayleigh length design, but we find that they are still within normal design tolerances.

  14. Separation of short-lived fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Tadaharu; Ohyoshi, Emiko; Ohyoshi, Akira; Kiso, Yoshiyuki; Shinagawa, Mutsuaki.

    1976-01-01

    A rbief review is presented on the various methods of separation available for both gaseous and liquid states, for the separation of short-lived fission products formed by binary fission of neutron irradiated uranium. The means available for gaseous state are the hot atom reaction, the hydride method and on-line mass separation. For liquid state, use can be made of precipitation, ionic or atomic exchange, solvent extraction and paper electrophoresis. Particular reference is made to electrophoretic separation of ions produced by fission in aqueous solution of uranium. The principle of electrophoretic separation and the procedures for separating the element of interest from the other fission products are outlined, with reference made to the results obtained with the method by the present authors. The elements in question are alkalines, alkaline earths, rare earths, halogens, selenium and

  15. Using Short Videos to Teach Research Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    Created with support from the National Science Foundation, EthicsCORE (www.natonalethicscenter.org) is an online resource center for ethics in science and engineering. Among the resources, EthicsCORE hosts short video vignettes produced at the University of Nebraska - Lincoln that dramatize problems in the responsible conduct of research, such as peer review of journal submissions, and mentoring relationships between faculty and graduate students. I will use one of the video vignettes in an interactive pedagogical demonstration. After showing the video, I will ask participants to engage in a think-pair-share activity on the professional obligations of researchers. During the sharing phase, participants will supply the reasons for these obligations.

  16. Deterministic nonlinear systems a short course

    CERN Document Server

    Anishchenko, Vadim S; Strelkova, Galina I

    2014-01-01

    This text is a short yet complete course on nonlinear dynamics of deterministic systems. Conceived as a modular set of 15 concise lectures it reflects the many years of teaching experience by the authors. The lectures treat in turn the fundamental aspects of the theory of dynamical systems, aspects of stability and bifurcations, the theory of deterministic chaos and attractor dimensions, as well as the elements of the theory of Poincare recurrences.Particular attention is paid to the analysis of the generation of periodic, quasiperiodic and chaotic self-sustained oscillations and to the issue of synchronization in such systems.  This book is aimed at graduate students and non-specialist researchers with a background in physics, applied mathematics and engineering wishing to enter this exciting field of research.

  17. Short-term forecasting of internal migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frees, E W

    1993-11-01

    A new methodological approach to the forecasting of short-term trends in internal migration in the United States is introduced. "Panel-data (or longitudinal-data) models are used to represent the relationship between destination-specific out-migration and several explanatory variables. The introduction of this methodology into the migration literature is possible because of some new and improved databases developed by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.... Data from the Bureau of Economic Analysis are used to investigate the incorporation of exogenous factors as variables in the model." The exogenous factors considered include employment and unemployment, income, population size of state, and distance between states. The author concludes that "when one...includes additional parameters that are estimable in longitudinal-data models, it turns out that there is little additional information in the exogenous factors that is useful for forecasting." excerpt

  18. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  19. Origin of Short-Perihelion Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guliyev, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    New regularities for short-perihelion comets are found. Distant nodes of cometary orbits of Kreutz family are concentrated in a plane with ascending node 76 and inclination 267 at the distance from 2 up to 3 a.u. and in a very narrow interval of longitudes. There is a correlation dependence between q and cos I concerning the found plane (coefficient of correlation 0.41). Similar results are received regarding to cometary families of Meyer, Kracht and Marsden. Distant nodes of these comets are concentrated close three planes (their parameters are discussed in the article) and at distances 1.4; 0.5; 6 a.u. accordingly. It is concluded that these comet groups were formed as a result of collision of parent bodies with meteoric streams. One more group, consisting of 7 comets is identified. 5 comet pairs are selected among sungrazers.

  20. Nonlocality and short-range wetting phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A O; Romero-Enrique, J M; Lazarides, A

    2004-08-20

    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  1. Nonlocality and Short-Range Wetting Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, A. O.; Romero-Enrique, J. M.; Lazarides, A.

    2004-08-01

    We propose a nonlocal interfacial model for 3D short-range wetting at planar and nonplanar walls. The model is characterized by a binding-potential functional depending only on the bulk Ornstein-Zernike correlation function, which arises from different classes of tubelike fluctuations that connect the interface and the substrate. The theory provides a physical explanation for the origin of the effective position-dependent stiffness and binding potential in approximate local theories and also obeys the necessary classical wedge covariance relationship between wetting and wedge filling. Renormalization group and computer simulation studies reveal the strong nonperturbative influence of nonlocality at critical wetting, throwing light on long-standing theoretical problems regarding the order of the phase transition.

  2. Short course review and the future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corden, Pierce S. [Center for Science, Technology and Security Policy, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC 20005 (United States)

    2014-05-09

    The presentations at the short course that were the basis of the present Proceedings covered many critical issues related to the objective of eliminating nuclear weapons as a means of ensuring global security and stability. This paper is based on the concluding talk, which briefly reviewed the course, offered a net assessment of where the project of elimination - a policy objective for nearly all the world's states - stands, and discussed some of the factors that need to be dealt with in achieving a nuclear weapon free world. These include understanding what 'proliferation' means and how it has changed over time, how the spread of nuclear weapons has proceeded over time, both 'vertical' in numbers and 'horizontal' to additional countries, what way the 'vector' of reversing proliferation is pointing, and the roles of nuclear energy and international governance.

  3. Nanowire failure: long = brittle and short = ductile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhaoxuan; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Jhon, Mark H; Gao, Huajian; Srolovitz, David J

    2012-02-08

    Experimental studies of the tensile behavior of metallic nanowires show a wide range of failure modes, ranging from ductile necking to brittle/localized shear failure-often in the same diameter wires. We performed large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of copper nanowires with a range of nanowire lengths and provide unequivocal evidence for a transition in nanowire failure mode with change in nanowire length. Short nanowires fail via a ductile mode with serrated stress-strain curves, while long wires exhibit extreme shear localization and abrupt failure. We developed a simple model for predicting the critical nanowire length for this failure mode transition and showed that it is in excellent agreement with both the simulation results and the extant experimental data. The present results provide a new paradigm for the design of nanoscale mechanical systems that demarcates graceful and catastrophic failure. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  4. Measurements of Short-Lived Fission Isomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Sean; Bhike, Megha; Howell, Calvin; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, Werner

    2016-09-01

    Fission yields of the short lived isomers 134mTe (T1 / 2 = 162 ns) and 136mXe (T1 / 2 = 2 . 95 μs) were measured for 235U and 238U. The isomers were detected by the γ rays associated with the decay of the isomeric states using high-purity germanium detectors. Fission was induced using both monoenergetic γ rays and neutrons. At TUNL's High-Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HI γS), γ rays of 9 and 11 MeV were produced . Monoenergetic 8 MeV neutrons were produced at TUNL's tandem accelerator laboratory. Both beams were pulsed to allow for precise time-gated spectroscopy of both prompt and delayed γ rays following fission. This technique offers a non-destructive probe of special nuclear materials that is sensitive to the isotopic identity of the fissile material.

  5. Short-term plasticity in auditory cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Ahveninen, Jyrki; Belliveau, John W; Raij, Tommi; Sams, Mikko

    2007-12-01

    Converging lines of evidence suggest that auditory system short-term plasticity can enable several perceptual and cognitive functions that have been previously considered as relatively distinct phenomena. Here we review recent findings suggesting that auditory stimulation, auditory selective attention and cross-modal effects of visual stimulation each cause transient excitatory and (surround) inhibitory modulations in the auditory cortex. These modulations might adaptively tune hierarchically organized sound feature maps of the auditory cortex (e.g. tonotopy), thus filtering relevant sounds during rapidly changing environmental and task demands. This could support auditory sensory memory, pre-attentive detection of sound novelty, enhanced perception during selective attention, influence of visual processing on auditory perception and longer-term plastic changes associated with perceptual learning.

  6. Short range order in liquid pnictides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, M; Makov, G; Yahel, E; Greenberg, Y

    2013-01-01

    Liquid pnictides have anomalous physical properties and complex radial distribution functions. The quasi-crystalline model of liquid structure is applied to interpret the three-dimensional structure of liquid pnictides. It is shown that all the column V elements can be characterized by a short range order lattice symmetry similar to that of the underlying solid, the A7 structure, which originates from a Peierls distorted simple cubic lattice. The evolution of the liquid structure down the column as well as its temperature and pressure dependence is interpreted by means of the effect of thermodynamic parameters on the Peierls distortion. Surprisingly, it is found that the Peierls effect increases with temperature and the nearest neighbour distances exhibit negative thermal expansion. (paper)

  7. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T 1 and T 2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T 1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T 2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially

  8. Robust Short-Lag Spatial Coherence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Arun Asokan; Tran, Trac Duy; Bell, Muyinatu A Lediju

    2018-03-01

    Short-lag spatial coherence (SLSC) imaging displays the spatial coherence between backscattered ultrasound echoes instead of their signal amplitudes and is more robust to noise and clutter artifacts when compared with traditional delay-and-sum (DAS) B-mode imaging. However, SLSC imaging does not consider the content of images formed with different lags, and thus does not exploit the differences in tissue texture at each short-lag value. Our proposed method improves SLSC imaging by weighting the addition of lag values (i.e., M-weighting) and by applying robust principal component analysis (RPCA) to search for a low-dimensional subspace for projecting coherence images created with different lag values. The RPCA-based projections are considered to be denoised versions of the originals that are then weighted and added across lags to yield a final robust SLSC (R-SLSC) image. Our approach was tested on simulation, phantom, and in vivo liver data. Relative to DAS B-mode images, the mean contrast, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) improvements with R-SLSC images are 21.22 dB, 2.54, and 2.36, respectively, when averaged over simulated, phantom, and in vivo data and over all lags considered, which corresponds to mean improvements of 96.4%, 121.2%, and 120.5%, respectively. When compared with SLSC images, the corresponding mean improvements with R-SLSC images were 7.38 dB, 1.52, and 1.30, respectively (i.e., mean improvements of 14.5%, 50.5%, and 43.2%, respectively). Results show great promise for smoothing out the tissue texture of SLSC images and enhancing anechoic or hypoechoic target visibility at higher lag values, which could be useful in clinical tasks such as breast cyst visualization, liver vessel tracking, and obese patient imaging.

  9. Why do short term workers have high mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolstad, Henrik; Olsen, Jørn

    1999-01-01

    or violence, the rate ratios for short term employment were 2.30 (95% Cl 1.74-3.06) and 1.86 (95% Cl 1.35-2.56), respectively. An unhealthy lifestyle may also be a determinant of short term employment. While it is possible in principle to adjust for lifestyle factors if proper data are collected, the health......Increased mortality is often reported among workers in short term employment. This may indicate either a health-related selection process or the presence of different lifestyle or social conditions among short term workers. The authors studied these two aspects of short term employment among 16...

  10. Preferred Hosts for Short-Period Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    In an effort to learn more about how planets form around their host stars, a team of scientists has analyzed the population of Kepler-discovered exoplanet candidates, looking for trends in where theyre found.Planetary OccurrenceSince its launch in 2009, Kepler has found thousands of candidate exoplanets around a variety of star types. Especially intriguing is the large population of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes planets with masses between that of Earth and Neptune that have short orbital periods. How did they come to exist so close to their host star? Did they form in situ, or migrate inwards, or some combination of both processes?To constrain these formation mechanisms, a team of scientists led by Gijs Mulders (University of Arizona and NASAs NExSS coalition) analyzed the population of Kepler planet candidates that have orbital periods between 2 and 50 days.Mulders and collaborators used statistical reconstructions to find the average number of planets, within this orbital range, around each star in the Kepler field. They then determined how this planet occurrence rate changed for different spectral types and therefore the masses of the host stars: do low-mass M-dwarf stars host more or fewer planets than higher-mass, main-sequence F, G, or K stars?Challenging ModelsAuthors estimates for the occurrence rate for short-period planets of different radii around M-dwarfs (purple) and around F, G, and K-type stars (blue). [Mulders et al. 2015]The team found that M dwarfs, compared to F, G, or K stars, host about half as many large planets with orbital periods of P 50 days. But, surprisingly, they host significantly more small planets, racking up an average of 3.5 times the number of planets in the size range of 12.8 Earth-radii.Could it be that M dwarfs have a lower total mass of planets, but that mass is distributed into more, smaller planets? Apparently not: the authors show that the mass of heavy elements trapped in short-orbital-period planets is higher for M

  11. "Short Courses Shouldn't Be Short-Lived!" Enhancing Longer-Term Impact of Short English as a Foreign Language INSET Initiatives in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Chunmei; He, Chuanjun

    2015-01-01

    Short in-service teacher development (INSET) programmes have been globally used as a form of teacher development, but their impact has been under question. This study sought to examine teacher participants' perceptions of short INSET programmes to come up with better solutions to enhancing their effect on teachers' professional learning. A…

  12. LS1 Report: short-circuit tests

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    As the LS1 draws to an end, teams move from installation projects to a phase of intense testing. Among these are the so-called 'short-circuit tests'. Currently under way at Point 7, these tests verify the cables, the interlocks, the energy extraction systems, the power converters that provide current to the superconducting magnets and the cooling system.   Thermal camera images taken during tests at point 4 (IP4). Before putting beam into the LHC, all of the machine's hardware components need to be put to the test. Out of these, the most complicated are the superconducting circuits, which have a myriad of different failure modes with interlock and control systems. While these will be tested at cold - during powering tests to be done in August - work can still be done beforehand. "While the circuits in the magnets themselves cannot be tested at warm, what we can do is verify the power converter and the circuits right up to the place the cables go into the magn...

  13. Retroactive signaling in short signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques-Alexandre Sepulchre

    Full Text Available In biochemical signaling pathways without explicit feedback connections, the core signal transduction is usually described as a one-way communication, going from upstream to downstream in a feedforward chain or network of covalent modification cycles. In this paper we explore the possibility of a new type of signaling called retroactive signaling, offered by the recently demonstrated property of retroactivity in signaling cascades. The possibility of retroactive signaling is analysed in the simplest case of the stationary states of a bicyclic cascade of signaling cycles. In this case, we work out the conditions for which variables of the upstream cycle are affected by a change of the total amount of protein in the downstream cycle, or by a variation of the phosphatase deactivating the same protein. Particularly, we predict the characteristic ranges of the downstream protein, or of the downstream phosphatase, for which a retroactive effect can be observed on the upstream cycle variables. Next, we extend the possibility of retroactive signaling in short but nonlinear signaling pathways involving a few covalent modification cycles.

  14. Optimization of short amino acid sequences classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcz, Aleksy; Szymański, Zbigniew

    This article describes processing methods used for short amino acid sequences classification. The data processed are 9-symbols string representations of amino acid sequences, divided into 49 data sets - each one containing samples labeled as reacting or not with given enzyme. The goal of the classification is to determine for a single enzyme, whether an amino acid sequence would react with it or not. Each data set is processed separately. Feature selection is performed to reduce the number of dimensions for each data set. The method used for feature selection consists of two phases. During the first phase, significant positions are selected using Classification and Regression Trees. Afterwards, symbols appearing at the selected positions are substituted with numeric values of amino acid properties taken from the AAindex database. In the second phase the new set of features is reduced using a correlation-based ranking formula and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. Finally, the preprocessed data is used for training LS-SVM classifiers. SPDE, an evolutionary algorithm, is used to obtain optimal hyperparameters for the LS-SVM classifier, such as error penalty parameter C and kernel-specific hyperparameters. A simple score penalty is used to adapt the SPDE algorithm to the task of selecting classifiers with best performance measures values.

  15. Short-pulse lasers for weather control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J. P.

    2018-02-01

    Filamentation of ultra-short TW-class lasers recently opened new perspectives in atmospheric research. Laser filaments are self-sustained light structures of 0.1–1 mm in diameter, spanning over hundreds of meters in length, and producing a low density plasma (1015–1017 cm‑3) along their path. They stem from the dynamic balance between Kerr self-focusing and defocusing by the self-generated plasma and/or non-linear polarization saturation. While non-linearly propagating in air, these filamentary structures produce a coherent supercontinuum (from 230 nm to 4 µm, for a 800 nm laser wavelength) by self-phase modulation (SPM), which can be used for remote 3D-monitoring of atmospheric components by Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging). However, due to their high intensity (1013–1014 W cm‑2), they also modify the chemical composition of the air via photo-ionization and photo-dissociation of the molecules and aerosols present in the laser path. These unique properties were recently exploited for investigating the capability of modulating some key atmospheric processes, like lightning from thunderclouds, water vapor condensation, fog formation and dissipation, and light scattering (albedo) from high altitude clouds for radiative forcing management. Here we review recent spectacular advances in this context, achieved both in the laboratory and in the field, reveal their underlying mechanisms, and discuss the applicability of using these new non-linear photonic catalysts for real scale weather control.

  16. A RARE CASE OF ACHONDROPLASIA- SHORT LIMB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ravichander

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND A 6-year-old boy was presented to the paediatric department with shortening of all the limbs and delay in growth. Clinical examinations revealed height less than third percentile along with other abnormalities like frontal bossing, midfacial hypoplasia, flattened nasal bridge, short neck and rhizomelic type of shortening of all the limbs. These clinical features raised the diagnosis towards achondroplasia, which was further supported by radiologic evidence. Achondroplasia is a disorder involving growth of bone. The conversion of cartilage to bone is hampered. The affection is particularly seen in the long bones of arms and legs. The characterising features of this disorder are dwarfism, limitation in range of motion at the elbows, enlarged size of head, small fingers, but with normal intelligence. Other complications like apnoea, obesity, recurrent ear infections and lordosis of the spine are often associated with achondroplasia. The basic defect in achondroplasia lies in mutations of the FGFR3 gene. It is an autosomal dominant disorder.

  17. An optimal filter for short photoplethysmogram signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yongbo; Elgendi, Mohamed; Chen, Zhencheng; Ward, Rabab

    2018-01-01

    A photoplethysmogram (PPG) contains a wealth of cardiovascular system information, and with the development of wearable technology, it has become the basic technique for evaluating cardiovascular health and detecting diseases. However, due to the varying environments in which wearable devices are used and, consequently, their varying susceptibility to noise interference, effective processing of PPG signals is challenging. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the optimal filter and filter order to be used for PPG signal processing to make the systolic and diastolic waves more salient in the filtered PPG signal using the skewness quality index. Nine types of filters with 10 different orders were used to filter 219 (2.1s) short PPG signals. The signals were divided into three categories by PPG experts according to their noise levels: excellent, acceptable, or unfit. Results show that the Chebyshev II filter can improve the PPG signal quality more effectively than other types of filters and that the optimal order for the Chebyshev II filter is the 4th order. PMID:29714722

  18. Short term load forecasting: two stage modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOARES, L. J.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the hourly electricity load demand in the area covered by a utility situated in the Seattle, USA, called Puget Sound Power and Light Company. Our proposal is put into proof with the famous dataset from this company. We propose a stochastic model which employs ANN (Artificial Neural Networks to model short-run dynamics and the dependence among adjacent hours. The model proposed treats each hour's load separately as individual single series. This approach avoids modeling the intricate intra-day pattern (load profile displayed by the load, which varies throughout days of the week and seasons. The forecasting performance of the model is evaluated in similiar mode a TLSAR (Two-Level Seasonal Autoregressive model proposed by Soares (2003 using the years of 1995 and 1996 as the holdout sample. Moreover, we conclude that non linearity is present in some series of these data. The model results are analyzed. The experiment shows that our tool can be used to produce load forecasting in tropical climate places.

  19. Targeted assembly of short sequence reads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René L Warren

    Full Text Available As next-generation sequence (NGS production continues to increase, analysis is becoming a significant bottleneck. However, in situations where information is required only for specific sequence variants, it is not necessary to assemble or align whole genome data sets in their entirety. Rather, NGS data sets can be mined for the presence of sequence variants of interest by localized assembly, which is a faster, easier, and more accurate approach. We present TASR, a streamlined assembler that interrogates very large NGS data sets for the presence of specific variants by only considering reads within the sequence space of input target sequences provided by the user. The NGS data set is searched for reads with an exact match to all possible short words within the target sequence, and these reads are then assembled stringently to generate a consensus of the target and flanking sequence. Typically, variants of a particular locus are provided as different target sequences, and the presence of the variant in the data set being interrogated is revealed by a successful assembly outcome. However, TASR can also be used to find unknown sequences that flank a given target. We demonstrate that TASR has utility in finding or confirming genomic mutations, polymorphisms, fusions and integration events. Targeted assembly is a powerful method for interrogating large data sets for the presence of sequence variants of interest. TASR is a fast, flexible and easy to use tool for targeted assembly.

  20. Short time ahead wind power production forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapronova, Alla; Meissner, Catherine; Mana, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    An accurate prediction of wind power output is crucial for efficient coordination of cooperative energy production from different sources. Long-time ahead prediction (from 6 to 24 hours) of wind power for onshore parks can be achieved by using a coupled model that would bridge the mesoscale weather prediction data and computational fluid dynamics. When a forecast for shorter time horizon (less than one hour ahead) is anticipated, an accuracy of a predictive model that utilizes hourly weather data is decreasing. That is because the higher frequency fluctuations of the wind speed are lost when data is averaged over an hour. Since the wind speed can vary up to 50% in magnitude over a period of 5 minutes, the higher frequency variations of wind speed and direction have to be taken into account for an accurate short-term ahead energy production forecast. In this work a new model for wind power production forecast 5- to 30-minutes ahead is presented. The model is based on machine learning techniques and categorization approach and using the historical park production time series and hourly numerical weather forecast. (paper)

  1. Leveraging FPGAs for Accelerating Short Read Alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arram, James; Kaplan, Thomas; Luk, Wayne; Jiang, Peiyong

    2017-01-01

    One of the key challenges facing genomics today is how to efficiently analyze the massive amounts of data produced by next-generation sequencing platforms. With general-purpose computing systems struggling to address this challenge, specialized processors such as the Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) are receiving growing interest. The means by which to leverage this technology for accelerating genomic data analysis is however largely unexplored. In this paper, we present a runtime reconfigurable architecture for accelerating short read alignment using FPGAs. This architecture exploits the reconfigurability of FPGAs to allow the development of fast yet flexible alignment designs. We apply this architecture to develop an alignment design which supports exact and approximate alignment with up to two mismatches. Our design is based on the FM-index, with optimizations to improve the alignment performance. In particular, the n-step FM-index, index oversampling, a seed-and-compare stage, and bi-directional backtracking are included. Our design is implemented and evaluated on a 1U Maxeler MPC-X2000 dataflow node with eight Altera Stratix-V FPGAs. Measurements show that our design is 28 times faster than Bowtie2 running with 16 threads on dual Intel Xeon E5-2640 CPUs, and nine times faster than Soap3-dp running on an NVIDIA Tesla C2070 GPU.

  2. A short period undulator for MAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahola, H.; Meinander, T.

    1992-01-01

    A hybrid undulator for generation of high brilliance synchrotron radiation in the photon energy range of 60--600 eV at the 550 MeV electron storage ring MAX in Lund, Sweden has been designed and built at the Technical Research Centre of Finland in close collaboration with MAX-lab of Lund University. At the rather modest electron energy of MAX this photon energy range can be reached only by an undulator featuring a fairly short period and the smallest possible magnetic gap. Even then, higher harmonics (up to the 13th) of the radiation spectrum must be utilized. An optimization of the magnetic design resulted in a hybrid configuration of NdFeB magnets and soft iron poles with a period of 24 mm and a minimum magnetic gap of 7--10 mm. A variable-gap vacuum chamber allows reduction of the vacuum gap from a maximum of 20 mm, needed for injection, down to 6 mm during stored beam operation. A special design of this chamber permits a magnetic gap between pole tips that is only 1 mm larger than the vacuum gap. Adequate field uniformity was ensured by calibration of magnets to equal strength at their true operating point and verification of the homogeneity of their magnetization. Magnetic measurements included Hall probe scans of the undulator field and flip coil evaluations of the field integral

  3. Lax representations for matrix short pulse equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popowicz, Z.

    2017-10-01

    The Lax representation for different matrix generalizations of Short Pulse Equations (SPEs) is considered. The four-dimensional Lax representations of four-component Matsuno, Feng, and Dimakis-Müller-Hoissen-Matsuno equations are obtained. The four-component Feng system is defined by generalization of the two-dimensional Lax representation to the four-component case. This system reduces to the original Feng equation, to the two-component Matsuno equation, or to the Yao-Zang equation. The three-component version of the Feng equation is presented. The four-component version of the Matsuno equation with its Lax representation is given. This equation reduces the new two-component Feng system. The two-component Dimakis-Müller-Hoissen-Matsuno equations are generalized to the four-parameter family of the four-component SPE. The bi-Hamiltonian structure of this generalization, for special values of parameters, is defined. This four-component SPE in special cases reduces to the new two-component SPE.

  4. Short tandem repeat analysis in Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiyada, M

    2000-01-01

    Short tandem repeats (STRs), known as microsatellites, are one of the most informative genetic markers for characterizing biological materials. Because of the relatively small size of STR alleles (generally 100-350 nucleotides), amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is relatively easy, affording a high sensitivity of detection. In addition, STR loci can be amplified simultaneously in a multiplex PCR. Thus, substantial information can be obtained in a single analysis with the benefits of using less template DNA, reducing labor, and reducing the contamination. We investigated 14 STR loci in a Japanese population living in Sendai by three multiplex PCR kits, GenePrint PowerPlex 1.1 and 2.2. Fluorescent STR System (Promega, Madison, WI, USA) and AmpF/STR Profiler (Perkin-Elmer, Norwalk, CT, USA). Genomic DNA was extracted using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) proteinase K or Chelex 100 treatment followed by the phenol/chloroform extraction. PCR was performed according to the manufacturer's protocols. Electrophoresis was carried out on an ABI 377 sequencer and the alleles were determined by GeneScan 2.0.2 software (Perkin-Elmer). In 14 STRs loci, statistical parameters indicated a relatively high rate, and no significant deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was detected. We apply this STR system to paternity testing and forensic casework, e.g., personal identification in rape cases. This system is an effective tool in the forensic sciences to obtain information on individual identification.

  5. INVERTING ORTHOTOPIC ILEOCYSTOPLASTY FOR SHORT MESENTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Perepechay

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During orthotopic ileocystoplasty, the short mesentery causes an increase in the risk of incompetence of anastomosis of the reservoir with the urethra. Inverting orthotopic ileocystoplasty ensures a free reservoir pull-through into the small pelvis and eliminates tissue tension in the anastomosis. The proposed procedure differs from the Studer operation in that the reservoir is sutured lengthwise, after which it is inverted between the mesenteric leaves. The posterior reservoir wall is anteverted and freely brought out into the small pelvis. This reduces the distance to the urethral stump by 3-4 cm. This procedure was used in 19 patients to be operated on. There were no cases of reservoir or reservoir-urethral anastomotic incompetence. The mean neocystic capacity was 110, 350, and 490 ml 0, 3, and 12 months, respectively, after urethral catheter removal. The maximum reservoir pressure does not exceed 40 (mean 30 cm H2O. Daytime urinary retention was 94.7%; nocturnal urinary retention during forced nocturnal miction was 79%. The obtained functional results compare well with those achieved during the similar procedures.

  6. INVERTING ORTHOTOPIC ILEOCYSTOPLASTY FOR SHORT MESENTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Perepechay

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available During orthotopic ileocystoplasty, the short mesentery causes an increase in the risk of incompetence of anastomosis of the reservoir with the urethra. Inverting orthotopic ileocystoplasty ensures a free reservoir pull-through into the small pelvis and eliminates tissue tension in the anastomosis. The proposed procedure differs from the Studer operation in that the reservoir is sutured lengthwise, after which it is inverted between the mesenteric leaves. The posterior reservoir wall is anteverted and freely brought out into the small pelvis. This reduces the distance to the urethral stump by 3-4 cm. This procedure was used in 19 patients to be operated on. There were no cases of reservoir or reservoir-urethral anastomotic incompetence. The mean neocystic capacity was 110, 350, and 490 ml 0, 3, and 12 months, respectively, after urethral catheter removal. The maximum reservoir pressure does not exceed 40 (mean 30 cm H2O. Daytime urinary retention was 94.7%; nocturnal urinary retention during forced nocturnal miction was 79%. The obtained functional results compare well with those achieved during the similar procedures.

  7. Laminar flow resistance in short microtubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phares, D.J. [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Smedley, G.T.; Zhou, J. [Glaukos Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States). Dept. of Research and Development

    2005-06-01

    We have measured the pressure drop for the flow of liquid through a series of short microtubes ranging from 80 to 150 {mu}m in diameter with aspect ratios between L/D = 2 and L/D = 5. These dimensions were selected to resemble lumens of implantable microstents that are under consideration for the treatment of glaucoma. For physiologically relevant pressure drops and flow rates, we have determined that a fully-developed laminar pipe flow may be assumed throughout the microtube when (L/D) > 0.20Re, where Re is the Reynolds number based on the diameter, D, and L is the length of the tube. We have examined flow rates between 0.1 and 10 {mu}L/s, corresponding to Reynolds numbers between 1 and 150. For smooth microtubes, no difference from macroscopic flow is observed for the tube sizes considered. However, flow resistance is found to be sensitive to the relative surface roughness of the tube walls. (author)

  8. BLEACHING EUCALYPTUS PULPS WITH SHORT SEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Reis Milagres

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp, due to its high content of hexenuronic acids, is quite easy to bleach. Therefore, investigations have been made attempting to decrease the number of stages in the bleaching process in order to minimize capital costs. This study focused on the evaluation of short ECF (Elemental Chlorine Free and TCF (Totally Chlorine Free sequences for bleaching oxygen delignified Eucalyptus spp kraft pulp to 90% ISO brightness: PMoDP (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoD/P (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, without washing PMoD(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, chlorine dioxide and pressurized peroxide, D(EPODP (chlorine dioxide, extraction oxidative with oxygen and peroxide, chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide, PMoQ(PO (Molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide, and XPMoQ(PO (Enzyme, molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide, DTPA and pressurized peroxide. Uncommon pulp treatments, such as molybdenum catalyzed acid peroxide (PMo and xylanase (X bleaching stages, were used. Among the ECF alternatives, the two-stage PMoD/P sequence proved highly cost-effective without affecting pulp quality in relation to the traditional D(EPODP sequence and produced better quality effluent in relation to the reference. However, a four stage sequence, XPMoQ(PO, was required to achieve full brightness using the TCF technology. This sequence was highly cost-effective although it only produced pulp of acceptable quality.

  9. Short-term energy outlook, April 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-04-01

    The forecast period for this issue of the Outlook extends from April 1999 through December 2000. Data values for the first quarter 1999, however, are preliminary EIA estimates (for example, some monthly values for petroleum supply and disposition are derived in part from weekly data reported in EIA`s Weekly Petroleum Status Report) or are calculated from model simulations that use the latest exogenous information available (for example, electricity sales and generation are simulated by using actual weather data). The historical energy data, compiled in the April 1999 version of the Short-Term Integrated forecasting system (STIFS) database, are mostly EIA data regularly published in the Monthly Energy Review, Petroleum Supply Monthly, and other EIA publications. Minor discrepancies between the data in these publications and the historical data in this Outlook are due to independent rounding. The STIFS model is driven principally by three sets of assumptions or inputs: estimates of key macroeconomic variables, world oil price assumptions, and assumptions about the severity of weather. Macroeconomic estimates are produced by DRI/McGraw-Hill but are adjusted by EIA to reflect EIA assumptions about the world price of crude oil, energy product prices, and other assumptions which may affect the macroeconomic outlook. By varying the assumptions, alternative cases are produced by using the STIFS model. 25 figs., 19 tabs.

  10. Short Anabolic Peptides for Bone Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amso, Zaid; Cornish, Jillian; Brimble, Margaret A

    2016-07-01

    Loss of bone occurs in the age-related skeletal disorder, osteoporosis, leading to bone fragility and increased incidence of fractures, which are associated with enormous costs and substantial morbidity and mortality. Recent data indicate that osteoporotic fractures are more common than other diseases, which usually attract public attention (e.g., heart attack and breast cancer). The prevention and treatment of this skeletal disorder are therefore of paramount importance. Majority of osteoporosis medications restore skeletal balance by reducing osteoclastic activity, thereby reducing bone resorption. These agents, however, do not regenerate damaged bone tissue, leaving limited options for patients once bone loss has occurred. Recently, attention has turned to bone-anabolic agents. Such agents have the ability to increase bone mass and strength, potentially reversing structural damage. To date, only one bone-anabolic drug is available in the market. The discovery of more novel, cost-effective bone anabolic agents is therefore a priority to treat those suffering from this disabling condition. Short peptides offer an important alternative for the development of novel bone-anabolic agents given their high target binding specificity, which translates into potent activity with limited side effects. This review summarizes attempts in the identification of bone-anabolic peptides, and their development for promoting bone growth. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Are anomalously short tunnelling times measurable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, V.; Muga, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    Low and Mende have analyzed the conditions that would make possible an actual measurement of an anomalously short traversal time through a potential barrier concluding that such a measurement cannot be made because it is not possible to describe the tunnelling of a wave packet initially close to the barrier by the open-quote open-quote usual wave packet space time analysis close-quote close-quote. We complement this work in several ways: It is argued that the described failure of the usual formalism occurs under a set of too restrictive conditions, some of them not physically motivated, so it does not necessarily imply the impossibility of such a measurement. However, by retaining only conditions well motivated on physical grounds we have performed a systematic numerical check which shows that the conclusion by Low and Mende is indeed generally valid. It is shown that, as speculated by Low and Mende, the process is dominated by over the barrier transmission. Copyright copyright 1996 Academic Press, Inc

  12. Short time ahead wind power production forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapronova, Alla; Meissner, Catherine; Mana, Matteo

    2016-09-01

    An accurate prediction of wind power output is crucial for efficient coordination of cooperative energy production from different sources. Long-time ahead prediction (from 6 to 24 hours) of wind power for onshore parks can be achieved by using a coupled model that would bridge the mesoscale weather prediction data and computational fluid dynamics. When a forecast for shorter time horizon (less than one hour ahead) is anticipated, an accuracy of a predictive model that utilizes hourly weather data is decreasing. That is because the higher frequency fluctuations of the wind speed are lost when data is averaged over an hour. Since the wind speed can vary up to 50% in magnitude over a period of 5 minutes, the higher frequency variations of wind speed and direction have to be taken into account for an accurate short-term ahead energy production forecast. In this work a new model for wind power production forecast 5- to 30-minutes ahead is presented. The model is based on machine learning techniques and categorization approach and using the historical park production time series and hourly numerical weather forecast.

  13. Short distance line of sight laser communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudassar, A.A.; Hussain, H.; Jamil-ur-Rehman

    1998-01-01

    Communication methods based on lasers as carrier are well known. In our work we have made a two way laser based communication system for short range (<2 Km) line of sight communication. A small piece of plane mirror (100% reflector) was mounted on the centre of a speaker cone. The speaker was positioned close to the opening of laser such that He-Ne laser beam (10 mW) after reflection from the mirror is directed towards the receiver. There is a pre-amplifier and an amplifier between a microphone and the speaker. When the diagram of the speaker vibrates, it positionally modulates the laser beam. On the receiving end, there is a photo diode, a pre-amplifier, an amplifier and a head phone. So the man on the receiving end can decode the sound signal. On each stage there is a transmitter and a receiver assembled close to each other. So the two way communication is possible in the range 20 to 20 Khz. (author)

  14. Continuity of Landsat observations: Short term considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulder, Michael A.; White, Joanne C.; Masek, Jeffery G.; Dwyer, John L.; Roy, David P.

    2011-01-01

    As of writing in mid-2010, both Landsat-5 and -7 continue to function, with sufficient fuel to enable data collection until the launch of the Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) scheduled for December of 2012. Failure of one or both of Landsat-5 or -7 may result in a lack of Landsat data for a period of time until the 2012 launch. Although the potential risk of a component failure increases the longer the sensor's design life is exceeded, the possible gap in Landsat data acquisition is reduced with each passing day and the risk of Landsat imagery being unavailable diminishes for all except a handful of applications that are particularly data demanding. Advances in Landsat data compositing and fusion are providing opportunities to address issues associated with Landsat-7 SLC-off imagery and to mitigate a potential acquisition gap through the integration of imagery from different sensors. The latter will likely also provide short-term, regional solutions to application-specific needs for the continuity of Landsat-like observations. Our goal in this communication is not to minimize the community's concerns regarding a gap in Landsat observations, but rather to clarify how the current situation has evolved and provide an up-to-date understanding of the circumstances, implications, and mitigation options related to a potential gap in the Landsat data record.

  15. Fuzzy approach for short term load forecasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chenthur Pandian, S.; Duraiswamy, K.; Kanagaraj, N. [Electrical and Electronics Engg., K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode 637209, Tamil Nadu (India); Christober Asir Rajan, C. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, Pondicherry (India)

    2006-04-15

    The main objective of short term load forecasting (STLF) is to provide load predictions for generation scheduling, economic load dispatch and security assessment at any time. The STLF is needed to supply necessary information for the system management of day-to-day operations and unit commitment. In this paper, the 'time' and 'temperature' of the day are taken as inputs for the fuzzy logic controller and the 'forecasted load' is the output. The input variable 'time' has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. The membership functions are Mid Night, Dawn, Morning, Fore Noon, After Noon, Evening, Dusk and Night. Another input variable 'temperature' has been divided into four triangular membership functions. They are Below Normal, Normal, Above Normal and High. The 'forecasted load' as output has been divided into eight triangular membership functions. They are Very Low, Low, Sub Normal, Moderate Normal, Normal, Above Normal, High and Very High. Case studies have been carried out for the Neyveli Thermal Power Station Unit-II (NTPS-II) in India. The fuzzy forecasted load values are compared with the conventional forecasted values. The forecasted load closely matches the actual one within +/-3%. (author)

  16. Short-term natural gas consumption forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potocnik, P.; Govekar, E.; Grabec, I.

    2007-01-01

    Energy forecasting requirements for Slovenia's natural gas market were investigated along with the cycles of natural gas consumption. This paper presented a short-term natural gas forecasting approach where the daily, weekly and yearly gas consumption were analyzed and the information obtained was incorporated into the forecasting model for hourly forecasting for the next day. The natural gas market depends on forecasting in order to optimize the leasing of storage capacities. As such, natural gas distribution companies have an economic incentive to accurately forecast their future gas consumption. The authors proposed a forecasting model with the following properties: two submodels for the winter and summer seasons; input variables including past consumption data, weather data, weather forecasts and basic cycle indexes; and, a hierarchical forecasting structure in which a daily model was used as the basis, with the hourly forecast obtained by modeling the relative daily profile. This proposed method was illustrated by a forecasting example for Slovenia's natural gas market. 11 refs., 11 figs

  17. SHORT INTRODUCTION TO ETHICAL REASONING IN SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Hosta

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available It is clear at fi rst sight that sport is a very complex phenomenon, which generates ethical contradictions. It is pinned between moral-educational and essential biological movement drives on the one side. On the other side, it is trapped between extreme exploitation and passionate images of our time, and playful innocence of body and mind. By justifying ethical pluralism through our discussion we wish to point out that moral pluralism is not an apology for moral relativism, which can also be labeled as an ethical void. Moral autonomy of sport that is based on the idea of free pooling of civil society, and is at the same time trapped in the structure of the game, is inadmissible per se or has to be understood within the context of distinction among ethics of sport and sport ethics. Since we are dealing with pluralism, we cannot assure in advance the expected convincing power of ethical reasoning in sport. It is not uniform phenomenon and therefore such a demand would be too pretentious. However, as a PE teachers and trainers we need to stand fi rm on ethical grounds. We need to take into account that this short introduction is only a fi rst stage of understanding sport in order to develop further educational strategies to promote and practice socially responsible sport in the 21st century.

  18. Short term benefits for laparoscopic colorectal resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenk, W; Haase, O; Neudecker, J; Müller, J M

    2005-07-20

    Colorectal resections are common surgical procedures all over the world. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery is technically feasible in a considerable amount of patients under elective conditions. Several short-term benefits of the laparoscopic approach to colorectal resection (less pain, less morbidity, improved reconvalescence and better quality of life) have been proposed. This review compares laparoscopic and conventional colorectal resection with regards to possible benefits of the laparoscopic method in the short-term postoperative period (up to 3 months post surgery). We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CancerLit, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for the years 1991 to 2004. We also handsearched the following journals from 1991 to 2004: British Journal of Surgery, Archives of Surgery, Annals of Surgery, Surgery, World Journal of Surgery, Disease of Colon and Rectum, Surgical Endoscopy, International Journal of Colorectal Disease, Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery, Der Chirurg, Zentralblatt für Chirurgie, Aktuelle Chirurgie/Viszeralchirurgie. Handsearch of abstracts from the following society meetings from 1991 to 2004: American College of Surgeons, American Society of Colorectal Surgeons, Royal Society of Surgeons, British Assocation of Coloproctology, Surgical Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, European Association of Endoscopic Surgeons, Asian Society of Endoscopic Surgeons. All randomised-controlled trial were included regardless of the language of publication. No- or pseudorandomised trials as well as studies that followed patient's preferences towards one of the two interventions were excluded, but listed separately. RCT presented as only an abstract were excluded. Results were extracted from papers by three observers independently on a predefined data sheet. Disagreements were solved by discussion. 'REVMAN 4.2' was used for statistical analysis. Mean differences (95% confidence intervals) were used for analysing continuous variables. If

  19. Theoretical study of nitride short period superlattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Christensen, N. E.; Svane, A.

    2018-02-01

    Discussion of band gap behavior based on first principles calculations of electronic band structures for various short period nitride superlattices is presented. Binary superlattices, as InN/GaN and GaN/AlN as well as superlattices containing alloys, as InGaN/GaN, GaN/AlGaN, and GaN/InAlN are considered. Taking into account different crystallographic directions of growth (polar, semipolar and nonpolar) and different strain conditions (free-standing and pseudomorphic) all the factors influencing the band gap engineering are analyzed. Dependence on internal strain and lattice geometry is considered, but the main attention is devoted to the influence of the internal electric field and the hybridization of well and barrier wave functions. The contributions of these two important factors to band gap behavior are illustrated and estimated quantitatively. It appears that there are two interesting ranges of layer thicknesses; in one (few atomic monolayers in barriers and wells) the influence of the wave function hybridization is dominant, whereas in the other (layers thicker than roughly five to six monolayers) dependence of electric field on the band gaps is more important. The band gap behavior in superlattices is compared with the band gap dependence on composition in the corresponding ternary and quaternary alloys. It is shown that for superlattices it is possible to exceed by far the range of band gap values, which can be realized in ternary alloys. The calculated values of the band gaps are compared with the photoluminescence emission energies, when the corresponding data are available. Finally, similarities and differences between nitride and oxide polar superlattices are pointed out by comparison of wurtzite GaN/AlN and ZnO/MgO.

  20. Biomechanical Comparison of Shorts With Different Pads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcolin, Giuseppe; Petrone, Nicola; Reggiani, Carlo; Panizzolo, Fausto A.; Paoli, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract An intensive use of the bicycle may increase the risk of erectile dysfunction and the compression of the perineal area has been showed to be a major mechanism leading to sexual alterations compromising the quality of life. Manufacturers claim that pads contribute to increase cyclists perineal protection ensuring a high level of comfort. To investigate the influence of various cycling pads with regard to perineal protection and level of comfort. Nine club road cyclists rode 20 min on a drum simulator, located at the Nutrition and Exercise Physiology Laboratory, at a constant speed and gear ratio wearing the shorts with 3 cycling pads of different design and thickness: basic (BAS), intermediate (INT), and endurance (END). Kinematics and pressure data were recorded at min 5, 15, and 20 of the test using a motion capture system and a pressure sensor mat. The variables of interest were: 3-dimensional pelvis excursions, peak pressure, mean pressure, and vertical force. The comfort level was assessed with a ranking order based on the subjects’ perception after the 20-min trials and measuring the vertical ground reaction force under the anterior wheel as well as the length of the center of pressure (COP) trajectory on the saddle. Results showed that the vertical force and the average value of mean pressure on the saddle significantly decreased during the 20-min period of testing for BAS and END. Mean peak pressure on the corresponding perineal cyclist area significantly increased only for BAS during the 20-min period. Interestingly objective comfort indexes measured did not match cyclists subjective comfort evaluation. The lower capacity of BAS to reduce the peak pressure on the corresponding perineal area after 20 min of testing, together with its positive comfort evaluation, suggest that a balance between protection and perceived comfort should be taken into account in the choice of the pad. Hence, the quantitative approach of objective comfort indexes

  1. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE. MODQKE was written to modify or provide new histories with special attention paid to short seismic records. A technique from the open literature was borrowed to generate an initial history that approximates a given response spectrum. Further refinement is done with smoothing cycles in which several correction signals are added to the history in a way that produces a least squares fit between actual and prescribed spectra. Provision is made for history shaping, a baseline correction, and final scaling. MODQKE performance has been demonstrated with seven examples having zero to ten percent damping ratios, and 2.5 seconds to 20 seconds durations and a variety of target spectra. The examples show the program is inexpensive to use. MDOF is a simple modal superposition program. It has no eigensolver, and the user supplies mode shapes, frequencies, and participation factors as input. Floor spectra can be generated from design spectra by using a history from MODQKE that conforms to the design spectrum as input to MDOF. Floor motions from MDOF can be fed back to MODQKE without modification to obtain the floor spectra. A simple example is given to show how equipment mass effects can be incorporated into the MDOF solution. Any transient solution capability can be used to replace MDOF. For example, a direct transient approach may be desirable if both the equipment and floor structures are to be included in the model with different damping fractions. (orig./HP)

  2. Short Rotation Crops in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, L L

    1998-06-04

    The report is based primarily on the results of survey questions sent to approximately 60 woody and 20 herbaceous crop researchers in the United States and on information from the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program. Responses were received from 13 individuals involved in woody crops research or industrial commercialization (with 5 of the responses coming from industry). Responses were received from 11 individuals involved in herbaceous crop research. Opinions on market incentives, technical and non-technical barriers, and highest priority research and development areas are summarized in the text. Details on research activities of the survey responders are provided as appendices to the paper. Woody crops grown as single-stem systems (primarily Populus and Eucalyptus species) are perceived to have strong pulp fiber and oriented strand board markets, and the survey responders anticipated that energy will comprise 25% or less of the utilization of single-stem short-rotation woody crops between now and 2010. The only exception was a response from California where a substantial biomass energy market does currently exist. Willows (Salix species) are only being developed for energy and only in one part of the United States at present. Responses from herbaceous crop researchers suggested frustration that markets (including biomass energy markets) do not currently exist for the crop, and it was the perception of many that federal incentives will be needed to create such markets. In all crops, responses indicate that a wide variety of research and development activities are needed to enhance the yields and profitability of the crops. Ongoing research activities funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Bioenergy Feedstock Development Program are described in an appendix to the paper.

  3. Coming up short on nonfinancial performance measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittner, Christopher D; Larcker, David F

    2003-11-01

    Companies in increasing numbers are measuring customer loyalty, employee satisfaction, and other nonfinancial areas of performance that they believe affect profitability. But they've failed to relate these measures to their strategic goals or establish a connection between activities undertaken and financial outcomes achieved. Failure to make such connections has led many companies to misdirect their investments and reward ineffective managers. Extensive field research now shows that businesses make some common mistakes when choosing, analyzing, and acting on their nonfinancial measures. Among these mistakes: They set the wrong performance targets because they focus too much on short-term financial results, and they use metrics that lack strong statistical validity and reliability. As a result, the companies can't demonstrate that improvements in nonfinancial measures actually affect their financial results. The authors lay out a series of steps that will allow companies to realize the genuine promise of nonfinancial performance measures. First, develop a model that proposes a causal relationship between the chosen nonfinancial drivers of strategic success and specific outcomes. Next, take careful inventory of all the data within your company. Then use established statistical methods for validating the assumed relationships and continue to test the model as market conditions evolve. Finally, base action plans on analysis of your findings, and determine whether those plans and their investments actually produce the desired results. Nonfinancial measures will offer little guidance unless you use a process for choosing and analyzing them that relies on sophisticated quantitative and qualitative inquiries into the factors actually contributing to economic results.

  4. On-Demand Cell Internal Short Circuit Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darcy, Eric; Keyser, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    A device implantable in Li-ion cells that can generate a hard internal short circuit on-demand by exposing the cell to 60?C has been demonstrated to be valuable for expanding our understanding of cell responses. The device provides a negligible impact to cell performance and enables the instigation of the 4 general categories of cell internal shorts to determine relative severity and cell design susceptibility. Tests with a 18650 cell design indicates that the anode active material short to the aluminum cathode current collector tends to be more catastrophic than the 3 other types of internal shorts. Advanced safety features (such as shutdown separators) to prevent or mitigate the severity of cell internal shorts can be verified with this device. The hard short success rate achieved to date in 18650 cells is about 80%, which is sufficient for using these cells in battery assemblies for field-failure-relevant, cell-cell thermal runaway propagation verification tests

  5. Magnetic short range order and the exchange coupling in magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antropov, V.P.

    2006-01-01

    We discuss our recent results of time-dependent density functional simulations of magnetic properties of Fe and Ni at finite temperatures. These results indicated that a strong magnetic short range order is responsible for the magnetic properties of elementary Ni and any itinerant magnet in general. We demonstrated that one can use the value of the magnetic short range order parameter to produce new quantitative classification of magnets. We also discuss the nature of the exchange coupling and its connection with the short range order. The spin-wave like propagating and diffusive excitations in paramagnetic localized systems with small short range order have been predicted while in the itinerant systems the short range order is more complicated. The possible smallness of the quantum factor in the itinerant magnets with short range order is discussed

  6. Ultra-short laser pulses. Petawatt and femtosecond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemoine, P.

    1999-01-01

    This book deals with a series of new results obtained thanks to the use of ultra-short laser pulses. This branch of physics has made incredible progresses during the last 25 years. Ultra-short laser pulses offer the opportunity to explore the domain of ultra-high energies and of ultra-short duration events. Applications are various, from controlled nuclear fusion to eye surgery and to more familiar industrial applications such as electronics. (J.S.)

  7. The Role of Short-term Consolidation in Memory Persistence

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Ricker

    2015-01-01

    Short-term memory, often described as working memory, is one of the most fundamental information processing systems of the human brain. Short-term memory function is necessary for language, spatial navigation, problem solving, and many other daily activities. Given its importance to cognitive function, understanding the architecture of short-term memory is of crucial importance to understanding human behavior. Recent work from several laboratories investigating the entry of information into s...

  8. Radiopharmaceuticals and other compounds labelled with short-lived radionuclides

    CERN Document Server

    Welch, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals and Other Compounds Labelled with Short-Lived Radionuclides covers through both review and contributed articles the potential applications and developments in labeling with short-lived radionuclides whose use is restricted to institutions with accelerators. The book discusses the current and potential use of generator-produced radionuclides as well as other short-lived radionuclides, and the problems of quality control of such labeled compounds. The book is useful to nuclear medicine physicians.

  9. Short-Term Memory and Aphasia: From Theory to Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkina, Irene; Rosenberg, Samantha; Kalinyak-Fliszar, Michelene; Martin, Nadine

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews existing research on the interactions between verbal short-term memory and language processing impairments in aphasia. Theoretical models of short-term memory are reviewed, starting with a model assuming a separation between short-term memory and language, and progressing to models that view verbal short-term memory as a cognitive requirement of language processing. The review highlights a verbal short-term memory model derived from an interactive activation model of word retrieval. This model holds that verbal short-term memory encompasses the temporary activation of linguistic knowledge (e.g., semantic, lexical, and phonological features) during language production and comprehension tasks. Empirical evidence supporting this model, which views short-term memory in the context of the processes it subserves, is outlined. Studies that use a classic measure of verbal short-term memory (i.e., number of words/digits correctly recalled in immediate serial recall) as well as those that use more intricate measures (e.g., serial position effects in immediate serial recall) are discussed. Treatment research that uses verbal short-term memory tasks in an attempt to improve language processing is then summarized, with a particular focus on word retrieval. A discussion of the limitations of current research and possible future directions concludes the review. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Innovation: study of 'ultra-short' time reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    This short article presents the new Elyse facility of Orsay-Paris 11 university for the study of ultra-short chemical and biochemical phenomena. Elyse uses the 'pump-probe' technique which consists in two perfectly synchronized electron and photon pulses. It comprises a 3 to 9 MeV electron accelerator with a HF gun photo-triggered with a laser. Elyse can initiate reactions using ultra-short electron pulses (radiolysis) or ultra-short photon pulses (photolysis). (J.S.)

  11. The Mind and Brain of Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Jonides, John; Lewis, Richard L.; Nee, Derek Evan; Lustig, Cindy A.; Berman, Marc G.; Moore, Katherine Sledge

    2008-01-01

    The past 10 years have brought near-revolutionary changes in psychological theories about short-term memory, with similarly great advances in the neurosciences. Here, we critically examine the major psychological theories (the “mind”) of short-term memory and how they relate to evidence about underlying brain mechanisms. We focus on three features that must be addressed by any satisfactory theory of short-term memory. First, we examine the evidence for the architecture of short-term memory, w...

  12. Hydroxychloroquine retinopathy after short-term therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Brandon N; Chun, Dal W

    2014-01-01

    To report an unusual case of hydroxychloroquine toxicity after short-term therapy. Observational case report. A 56-year-old woman presented to the Ophthalmology Clinic at Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC) with a 6-month history of gradually decreasing vision in both eyes. The patient had been taking hydroxychloroquine for the preceding 48 months for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Examination of the posterior segment revealed bilateral "bull's eye" macular lesions. Fundus autofluorescence revealed hyperfluorescence of well-defined bull's eye lesions in both eyes. Optical coherence tomography revealed corresponding parafoveal atrophy with a loss of the retinal inner segment/outer segment junction. Humphrey visual field 10-2 white showed significant central and paracentral defects with a generalized depression. The patient was on a standard dose of 400 mg daily, which was above her ideal dose. The patient had no history of kidney or liver dysfunction. There were no known risk factors but there were several possible confounding factors. The patient was started on high-dose nabumetone, a nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug, at the same time she was started on hydroxychloroquine. She also reported taking occasional ibuprofen. Retinal toxicity from chloroquine has been recognized for decades with later reports showing retinopathy from long-term hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil) use for the treatment of antiinflammatory diseases. Hydroxychloroquine is now widely used and retinal toxicity is relatively uncommon. However, it can cause serious vision loss and is usually irreversible. The risk of hydroxychloroquine toxicity rises to nearly 1% with a total cumulative dose of 1,000 g, which is ∼5 years to 7 years of normal use. Toxicity is rare under this dose. For this reason, the American Academy of Ophthalmology has revised its recommendations such that annual screenings begin 5 years after therapy with hydroxychloroquine has begun unless there are known risk

  13. BOOK REVIEW: Chaos: A Very Short Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klages, R.

    2007-07-01

    is also getting a bit too intricate for the complete layman, and experts may not agree on all details of the more conceptual discussions. Altogether I thoroughly enjoyed reading this book. It was a happy companion while travelling and a nice bedtime literature. It is furthermore an excellent reminder of the `big picture' underlying nonlinear science as it applies to the real world. I will gladly recommend this book as background literature for students in my introductory course on dynamical systems. However, the book will be of interest to anyone who is looking for a very short account on fundamental problems and principles in modern nonlinear science.

  14. Rehabilitation of the short pelvic floor. II: Treatment of the patient with the short pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, M P; Kotarinos, R

    2003-10-01

    Several urogynecologic syndromes are associated with the clinical finding of a short, painful, tender and weak pelvic floor and a variety of connective tissue abnormalities. Techniques for rehabilitation include the avoidance of perpetuating factors, rehabilitation of extrapelvic musculoskeletal abnormalities, the use of manual techniques and needling to promote resolution of connective tissue problems, closure of any diastasis recti, and transvaginal/transrectal manual release of muscular trigger points and contractures. Therapy can be facilitated by pudendal or epidural nerve block. Patients contribute to their success through home maintenance programs.

  15. Language Identification in Short Utterances Using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazo, Ruben; Lozano-Diez, Alicia; Gonzalez-Dominguez, Javier; Toledano, Doroteo T; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Joaquin

    2016-01-01

    Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs) have recently outperformed other state-of-the-art approaches, such as i-vector and Deep Neural Networks (DNNs), in automatic Language Identification (LID), particularly when dealing with very short utterances (∼3s). In this contribution we present an open-source, end-to-end, LSTM RNN system running on limited computational resources (a single GPU) that outperforms a reference i-vector system on a subset of the NIST Language Recognition Evaluation (8 target languages, 3s task) by up to a 26%. This result is in line with previously published research using proprietary LSTM implementations and huge computational resources, which made these former results hardly reproducible. Further, we extend those previous experiments modeling unseen languages (out of set, OOS, modeling), which is crucial in real applications. Results show that a LSTM RNN with OOS modeling is able to detect these languages and generalizes robustly to unseen OOS languages. Finally, we also analyze the effect of even more limited test data (from 2.25s to 0.1s) proving that with as little as 0.5s an accuracy of over 50% can be achieved.

  16. Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeisler, Charles A.; Wright, Kenneth P., Jr.; Ronda, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight - Short (Sleep-Short) will examine the effects of spaceflight on the sleep of the astronauts during space shuttle missions. Advancing state-of-the-art technology for monitoring, diagnosing and assessing treatment of sleep patterns is vital to treating insomnia on Earth and in space.

  17. Short-term memories with a stochastic perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontes, Jose C.A. de; Batista, Antonio M.; Viana, Ricardo L.; Lopes, Sergio R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate short-term memories in linear and weakly nonlinear coupled map lattices with a periodic external input. We use locally coupled maps to present numerical results about short-term memory formation adding a stochastic perturbation in the maps and in the external input

  18. Short-term Memory as a Processing Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis-Smith, Marion Quinn

    1975-01-01

    The series of experiments described here examined the predictions for free recall from sequential models and the shift formulation, focusing on the roles of short- and long-term memory in the primacy/recency shift and on the effects of expectancies on short- and long-term memory. (Author/RK)

  19. Short-term energy outlook, annual supplement 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (Supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts

  20. Isobar configurations in nuclei and short range correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, H J

    1979-01-01

    Recent results on short range correlations and isobar configurations are reviewed, and in particular a unitary version of the isobar model, coupling constants and rho -meson transition potentials, a comparison with experiments, the CERN N*-knockout from /sup 4/He, QCD and the NN interaction of short range. (42 refs).

  1. 29 CFR 778.306 - Salary reductions in short workweeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salary reductions in short workweeks. 778.306 Section 778... Special Problems How Deductions Affect the Regular Rate § 778.306 Salary reductions in short workweeks. (a... an employee is compensated at a fixed salary for a fixed workweek and if this salary is reduced by...

  2. Pediatric polytrauma : Short-term and long-term outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderSluis, CK; Kingma, J; Eisma, WH; tenDuis, HJ

    Objective: To assess the short-term and long-term outcomes of pediatric polytrauma patients and to analyze the extent to which short-term outcomes can predict long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Ail pediatric polytrauma patients (Injury Severity Score of greater than or equal to 16, less than

  3. Short-Circuit Modeling of a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2011-03-01

    This paper investigates the short-circuit behavior of a WPP for different types of wind turbines. The short-circuit behavior will be presented. Both the simplified models and detailed models are used in the simulations and both symmetrical faults and unsymmetrical faults are discussed.

  4. Temporal Dynamics of Recovery from Extinction Shortly after Extinction Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archbold, Georgina E.; Dobbek, Nick; Nader, Karim

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that extinction is new learning. Memory acquisition involves both short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) components; however, few studies have examined early phases of extinction retention. Retention of auditory fear extinction was examined at various time points. Shortly (1-4 h) after extinction acquisition…

  5. Short-lasting headache syndromes and treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozen, Todd D

    2004-08-01

    A number of primary headache syndromes are marked by their short duration of pain. Many of these syndromes have their own unique treatment, so they must be recognized by practicing physicians. In this article, a number of the short-lasting headache disorders are reviewed, including chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, SUNCT syndrome, hypnic headache, exploding head syndrome, primary stabbing headache, and cough headache.

  6. Comparison of Sugammadex and Neostigmine in Short Term Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Koc

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study compared the efficacy and cost effectivines of sugammadex and neostigmine for reversal of neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium for short term elective surgery. Material and Method: After written informed consent, 33 patients aged 18%u201365, ASA I-III, who were undergoing short term surgery (

  7. 48 CFR 53.301-1438 - Settlement Proposal (Short Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Settlement Proposal (Short Form). 53.301-1438 Section 53.301-1438 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS FORMS Illustrations of Forms 53.301-1438 Settlement Proposal (Short...

  8. Feasibility of progressive strength training shortly after hip fracture surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Jan; Kristensen, Morten T

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the feasibility of a 6-wk progressive strength-training programme commenced shortly after hip fracture surgery in community-dwelling patients.......To investigate the feasibility of a 6-wk progressive strength-training programme commenced shortly after hip fracture surgery in community-dwelling patients....

  9. Short-Term Group Treatment for Adult Children of Alcoholics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Alvin; McCormack, WIlliam A.

    1992-01-01

    Adult children of alcoholics (n=24) were tested on measures of loneliness, anxiety, hostility, depression, and interpersonal dependency before and after participation in short-term group therapy. Highly significant test score changes supported effectiveness of individual therapy in short-term groups. (Author/NB)

  10. On the Consistency of Individual Classification Using Short Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emons, Wilco H. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas; Meijer, Rob R.

    2007-01-01

    Short tests containing at most 15 items are used in clinical and health psychology, medicine, and psychiatry for making decisions about patients. Because short tests have large measurement error, the authors ask whether they are reliable enough for classifying patients into a treatment and a nontreatment group. For a given certainty level,…

  11. Short-term energy outlook annual supplement, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-06

    The Short-Term Energy Outlook Annual Supplement (supplement) is published once a year as a complement to the Short-Term Energy Outlook (Outlook), Quarterly Projections. The purpose of the Supplement is to review the accuracy of the forecasts published in the Outlook, make comparisons with other independent energy forecasts, and examine current energy topics that affect the forecasts.

  12. Book Review: Leslie Holmes, Corruption: A Very Short Introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keremis, Anestis

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: Corruption. A Very Short Introduction / by Leslie Holmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 143pp., £7.99 (p/b), ISBN 9780199689699.......Book review of: Corruption. A Very Short Introduction / by Leslie Holmes. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015. 143pp., £7.99 (p/b), ISBN 9780199689699....

  13. A short introduction to image analysis - Matlab exercises

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Michael Adsetts Edberg

    2000-01-01

    This document contain a short introduction to Image analysis. In addition small exercises has been prepared in order to support the theoretical understanding.......This document contain a short introduction to Image analysis. In addition small exercises has been prepared in order to support the theoretical understanding....

  14. Thyristor based short circuit current injection in isolated grids

    OpenAIRE

    Hoff, Bjarte; Sharma, Pawan; Østrem, Trond

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a thyristor based short circuit current injector for providing short circuit current in isolated and weak grids, where sufficient fault current to trigger circuit breakers may not be available. This will allow the use of conventional miniature circuit breakers, which requires high fault current for instantaneous tripping. The method has been validated through experiments.

  15. TCAD analysis of short-circuit oscillations in IGBTs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Rahimo, Munaf

    2017-01-01

    Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs) exhibit a gate-voltage oscillation phenomenon during short-circuit, which can result in a gate-oxide breakdown. The oscillations have been investigated through device simulations and experimental investigations of a 3.3-kV IGBT. It has been found...... during short circuit....

  16. Short-Term Robustness of Production Management Systems : New Methodology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, J.P.C.; Gaury, E.G.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates the short-term robustness of production planning and control systems. This robustness is defined here as the systems ability to maintain short-term service probabilities (i.e., the probability that the fill rate remains within a prespecified range), in a variety of

  17. Testing for Short Memory in a VARMA Process

    OpenAIRE

    Oke, Timothy; Öller, Lars-Erik

    1997-01-01

    We generalize the short term memory test of an ARMA model, presented in Öller (1985), to the multivariate VARMA cases. In a study on Swedish exports and OECD demand we demonstrate how the multivariate setting extends the short memory.

  18. Multicultural personality questionnaire : Development of a short form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Zee, Karen; Van Oudenhoven, Jan Pieter; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Fietzer, Alexander W.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports on the development of the Multicultural Personality Questionnaire-Short Form among 511 participants. Using a split-sample scale validation design, Study 1 (N = 260) employed a principal component analysis and rigorous item selection criteria to extract a 40-item short form

  19. Latent lifestyle and mode choice decisions when travelling short distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2016-01-01

    In the quest for sustainable travel, short distances appear the most amenable to curbing the use of the automobile. Existing studies about short trips evaluate the potential of shifting from the automobile to sustainable travel options while considering the population as homogeneous in its prefer...

  20. Short-Term Reciprocity in Late Parent-Child Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leopold, Thomas; Raab, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Long-term concepts of parent-child reciprocity assume that the amount of support given and received is only balanced in a generalized fashion over the life course. We argue that reciprocity in parent-child relationships also operates in the short term. Our analysis of short-term reciprocity focuses on concurrent exchange in its main upward and…

  1. A Short Introduction to Semitic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agostini

    2001-06-01

    spoken and written in Ugarit (Ras Shamra on the north coast of Phoenicia in the 14-13th centuries BC, before this city was sacked. The first Ugaritic texts, discovered in the late 1920's, were written with alphabetic characters resembling cuneiform script. Canaanite constitutes a group of closely-related idioms from Palestina, Phoenicia and Syria. Records go back to cca 1500 BC. The major Canaanite languages are Phoenician, Punic, Moabite, Edomite, Hebrew and Ammonite. Initially all were written in Phoenician script. Letters from the 14th century BC in Akkadian, the language of diplomacy at the time and discovered at Tell el-Amarna in Egypt, contain "mistakes", i.e. early Canaanite words and phrases. Phoenician records extend from cca 1000 BC (inscriptions from Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Cypms, etc. to the early CE. Punic, developed from Phoenician in Phoenician colonies around the Mediterranean from the 9th century BC., was still spoken in the 5th century CE. Moabite, Edomite and Ammonite were spoken in present-day Jordan. Only a few short inscriptions and seals from the 9-5th century BC survive in these languages, which were probably supplanted by Aramaic. The best-known text, in Moabite, is inscribed on the Mesha Stone from about 840 BC; in it Mesha, King of Moab, recounts his battles against King Omri of Israel. Aramaic is recorded from 850 BC in Syria (the Tell Fekheriye stele. It spread very quickly and by the 6th century BC it was the administrative language and lingua franca in the entire Middle East. Aramaic supplanted many Semitic languages, including Akkadian and Hebrew. Only Greek rivaled it for dominance in the Middle East until the Arab conquest of the 7th century CE. Aramaic of the pre-Christian era (Ancient Aramaic or Imperial Aramaic is known from inscriptions, papyrus letters and documents, and from the Old Testament books of Ezra and Daniel. The Aramaic alphabet was derived from Canaanite script. By the 1st century CE, written Aramaic divided into

  2. Short-pulse laser interactions with disordered materials and liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phinney, L.M.; Goldman, C.H.; Longtin, J.P.; Tien, C.L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    High-power, short-pulse lasers in the picosecond and subpicosecond range are utilized in an increasing number of technologies, including materials processing and diagnostics, micro-electronics and devices, and medicine. In these applications, the short-pulse radiation interacts with a wide range of media encompassing disordered materials and liquids. Examples of disordered materials include porous media, polymers, organic tissues, and amorphous forms of silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon dioxide. In order to accurately model, efficiently control, and optimize short-pulse, laser-material interactions, a thorough understanding of the energy transport mechanisms is necessary. Thus, fractals and percolation theory are used to analyze the anomalous diffusion regime in random media. In liquids, the thermal aspects of saturable and multiphoton absorption are examined. Finally, a novel application of short-pulse laser radiation to reduce surface adhesion forces in microstructures through short-pulse laser-induced water desorption is presented.

  3. Verbal Short-Term Memory Span in Speech-Disordered Children: Implications for Articulatory Coding in Short-Term Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raine, Adrian; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Children with speech disorders had lower short-term memory capacity and smaller word length effect than control children. Children with speech disorders also had reduced speech-motor activity during rehearsal. Results suggest that speech rate may be a causal determinant of verbal short-term memory capacity. (BC)

  4. The Short Selling Regulation in the EU: Assessing the Authorization Granted for ESMA to Prohibit Short Selling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Huhtilainen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the renewed short selling regulation (Regulation (EU No 236/2012 in the European Union. The focus is on the provisions that deal with prohibiting short selling in exceptional market circumstances. The Regulation further enforces certain obligations to report and disclose short positions. It is concluded that banning short selling is not an effective tool to contain extreme price volatility. The difference-in-differences regression and repeated measures GLM were used to test whether short selling bans were successful in containing volatility of those Spanish and Italian stocks that were subject to two back-to-back prohibitions during the years 2011-2013. The results are consistent with the majority of previous research, suggesting that the effectiveness of short sale constraints in reducing volatility is limited at best. Furthermore, there are evidence of counterproductive effects: constraints on short selling may actually increase volatility as well as deteriorate liquidity. However, based on theory and previous studies, reporting and disclosure requirements shall be favored provided they improve market efficiency as well as supervisory work of regulatory bodies.This paper discusses the renewed short selling regulation (Regulation (EU No 236/2012 in the European Union. The focus is on the provisions that deal with prohibiting short selling in exceptional market circumstances. The Regulation further enforces certain obligations to report and disclose short positions. It is concluded that banning short selling is not an effective tool to contain extreme price volatility. The difference-in-differences regression and repeated measures GLM were used to test whether short selling bans were successful in containing volatility of those Spanish and Italian stocks that were subject to two back-to-back prohibitions during the years 2011-2013. The results are consistent with the majority of previous research, suggesting that the

  5. Evaluation of Short Term Memory Span Function In Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ERGÜL

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Although details of the information encoded in the short-term memory where it is stored temporarily be recorded in the working memory in the next stage. Repeating the information mentally makes it remain in memory for a long time. Studies investigating the relationship between short-term memory and reading skills that are carried out to examine the relationship between short-term memory processes and reading comprehension. In this study information coming to short-term memory and the factors affecting operation of short term memory are investigated with regression model. The aim of the research is to examine the factors (age, IQ and reading skills that are expected the have an effect on short-term memory in children through regression analysis. One of the assumptions of regression analysis is to examine which has constant variance and normal distribution of the error term. In this study, because the error term is not normally distributed, robust regression techniques were applied. Also, for each technique; coefficient of determination is determined. According to the findings, the increase in age, IQ and reading skills caused the increase in short term memory in children. After applying robust regression techniques, the Winsorized Least Squares (WLS technique gives the highest coefficient of determination.

  6. Additive manufacturing of short and mixed fibre-reinforced polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, James; Duoss, Eric B.; Rodriguez, Jennifer Nicole; Worsley, Marcus A.; King, Michael J.

    2018-01-09

    Additive manufacturing of a fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) product using an additive manufacturing print head; a reservoir in the additive manufacturing print head; short carbon fibers in the reservoir, wherein the short carbon fibers are randomly aligned in the reservoir; an acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin in the reservoir, wherein the short carbon fibers are dispersed in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin; a tapered nozzle in the additive manufacturing print head operatively connected to the reservoir, the tapered nozzle produces an extruded material that forms the fiber-reinforced polymer product; baffles in the tapered nozzle that receive the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin with the short carbon fibers dispersed in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin; and a system for driving the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin with the short carbon fibers dispersed in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin from the reservoir through the tapered nozzle wherein the randomly aligned short carbon fibers in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin are aligned by the baffles and wherein the extruded material has the short carbon fibers aligned in the acrylate, methacrylate, epoxy, cyanate ester or isocyanate resin that forms the fiber-reinforced polymer product.

  7. Audit of long-term and short-term liabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korinko M.D.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article determines the importance of long-term and short-term liabilities for the management of financial and material resources of an enterprise. It reviews the aim, objects and information generators for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations. The organizing and methodical providing of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities of an enterprise are generalized. The authors distinguish the stages of realization of audit of long-term and short-term liabilities, the aim of audit on each of the presented stages, and recommend methodical techniques. It is fixed that it is necessary to conduct the estimation of the systems of internal control and record-keeping of an enterprise by implementation of public accountant procedures for determination of volume and maintenance of selection realization. After estimating the indicated systems, a public accountant determines the methodology for realization of public accountant verification of long-term and short-term liabilities. The analytical procedures that public accountants are expedient to use for realization of audit of short-term and long-term obligations are determined. The authors suggest the classification of the educed defects on the results of the conducted public accountant verification of short-term and long-term obligations.

  8. Hard probes of short-range nucleon-nucleon correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Arrington, D. W. Higinbotham, G. Rosner, M. Sargsian

    2012-10-01

    The strong interaction of nucleons at short distances leads to a high-momentum component to the nuclear wave function, associated with short-range correlations between nucleons. These short-range, high-momentum structures in nuclei are one of the least well understood aspects of nuclear matter, relating to strength outside of the typical mean-field approaches to calculating the structure of nuclei. While it is difficult to study these short-range components, significant progress has been made over the last decade in determining how to cleanly isolate short-range correlations in nuclei. We have moved from asking if such structures exist, to mapping out their strength in nuclei and studying their microscopic structure. A combination of several different measurements, made possible by high-luminosity and high-energy accelerators, coupled with an improved understanding of the reaction mechanism issues involved in studying these structures, has led to significant progress, and provided significant new information on the nature of these small, highly-excited structures in nuclei. We review the general issues related to short-range correlations, survey recent experiments aimed at probing these short-range structures, and lay out future possibilities to further these studies.

  9. Improved Short-Circuit Protection for Power Cells in Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Francis

    2008-01-01

    A scheme for protection against short circuits has been devised for series strings of lithium electrochemical cells that contain built-in short-circuit protection devices, which go into a high-resistance, current-limiting state when heated by excessive current. If cells are simply connected in a long series string to obtain a high voltage and a short circuit occurs, whichever short-circuit protection device trips first is exposed to nearly the full string voltage, which, typically, is large enough to damage the device. Depending on the specific cell design, the damage can defeat the protective function, cause a dangerous internal short circuit in the affected cell, and/or cascade to other cells. In the present scheme, reverse diodes rated at a suitably high current are connected across short series sub-strings, the lengths of which are chosen so that when a short-circuit protection device is tripped, the voltage across it does not exceed its rated voltage. This scheme preserves the resetting properties of the protective devices. It provides for bypassing of cells that fail open and limits cell reversal, though not as well as does the more-expensive scheme of connecting a diode across every cell.

  10. Simulation and experimental study on lithium ion battery short circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Rui; Liu, Jie; Gu, Junjie

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Both external and internal short circuit tests were performed on Li-ion batteries. • An electrochemical–thermal model with an additional nail site heat source is presented. • The model can accurately simulate the temperature variations of non-venting batteries. • The model is reliable in predicting the occurrence and start time of thermal runaway. • A hydrogel cooling system proves its strength in preventing battery thermal runaway. - Abstract: Safety is the first priority in lithium ion (Li-ion) battery applications. A large portion of electrical and thermal hazards caused by Li-ion battery is associated with short circuit. In this paper, both external and internal short circuit tests are conducted. Li-ion batteries and battery packs of different capacities are used. The results indicate that external short circuit is worse for smaller size batteries due to their higher internal resistances, and this type of short can be well managed by assembling fuses. In internal short circuit tests, higher chance of failure is found on larger capacity batteries. A modified electrochemical–thermal model is proposed, which incorporates an additional heat source from nail site and proves to be successful in depicting temperature changes in batteries. Specifically, the model is able to estimate the occurrence and approximate start time of thermal runaway. Furthermore, the effectiveness of a hydrogel based thermal management system in suppressing thermal abuse and preventing thermal runaway propagation is verified through the external and internal short tests on batteries and battery packs.

  11. Learning From Short Text Streams With Topic Drifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peipei; He, Lu; Wang, Haiyan; Hu, Xuegang; Zhang, Yuhong; Li, Lei; Wu, Xindong

    2017-09-18

    Short text streams such as search snippets and micro blogs have been popular on the Web with the emergence of social media. Unlike traditional normal text streams, these data present the characteristics of short length, weak signal, high volume, high velocity, topic drift, etc. Short text stream classification is hence a very challenging and significant task. However, this challenge has received little attention from the research community. Therefore, a new feature extension approach is proposed for short text stream classification with the help of a large-scale semantic network obtained from a Web corpus. It is built on an incremental ensemble classification model for efficiency. First, more semantic contexts based on the senses of terms in short texts are introduced to make up of the data sparsity using the open semantic network, in which all terms are disambiguated by their semantics to reduce the noise impact. Second, a concept cluster-based topic drifting detection method is proposed to effectively track hidden topic drifts. Finally, extensive studies demonstrate that as compared to several well-known concept drifting detection methods in data stream, our approach can detect topic drifts effectively, and it enables handling short text streams effectively while maintaining the efficiency as compared to several state-of-the-art short text classification approaches.

  12. The role of the CISG in promoting healthy jurisdictional competition for contract la / Erin O’Hara O’Connor

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    O’Hara O’Connor, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Piiriülese kaubanduse seadusandlusest, kohtuvaidlustest ja ÜRO kaupade rahvusvahelise ostu-müügi lepingute rakendamisest siseriiklikes seadusandlustes. UNIDROIT = International Institute for the Unification of Private Law

  13. Aurora-A overexpression enhances cell-aggregation of Ha-ras transformants through the MEK/ERK signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Ya-Shih; Lee, Jenq-Chang; Huang, Chi-Ying F; Liu, Hsiao-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression of Aurora-A and mutant Ras (Ras V12 ) together has been detected in human bladder cancer tissue. However, it is not clear whether this phenomenon is a general event or not. Although crosstalk between Aurora-A and Ras signaling pathways has been reported, the role of these two genes acting together in tumorigenesis remains unclear. Real-time PCR and sequence analysis were utilized to identify Ha- and Ki-ras mutation (Gly -> Val). Immunohistochemistry staining was used to measure the level of Aurora-A expression in bladder and colon cancer specimens. To reveal the effect of overexpression of the above two genes on cellular responses, mouse NIH3T3 fibroblast derived cell lines over-expressing either Ras V12 and wild-type Aurora-A (designated WT) or Ras V12 and kinase-inactivated Aurora-A (KD) were established. MTT and focus formation assays were conducted to measure proliferation rate and focus formation capability of the cells. Small interfering RNA, pharmacological inhibitors and dominant negative genes were used to dissect the signaling pathways involved. Overexpression of wild-type Aurora-A and mutation of Ras V12 were detected in human bladder and colon cancer tissues. Wild-type Aurora-A induces focus formation and aggregation of the Ras V12 transformants. Aurora-A activates Ral A and the phosphorylation of AKT as well as enhances the phosphorylation of MEK, ERK of WT cells. Finally, the Ras/MEK/ERK signaling pathway is responsible for Aurora-A induced aggregation of the Ras V12 transformants. Wild-type-Aurora-A enhances focus formation and aggregation of the Ras V12 transformants and the latter occurs through modulating the Ras/MEK/ERK signaling pathway

  14. PERANAN AERASI DAN SILIKA SERTA LAMA PEMERAMAN TERHADAP KANDUNGAN UNSUR HARA PUPUK CAIR LUMPUR ORGANIK UNIT GAS BIO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Junus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic sludge biogas unit (OSBGU is an organic product that is generally overlooked by the owner. Giving aeration and silica as treatment with longer curing 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 days for prospective OSBGU liquid fertilizer is expected to change the percentage of the nutrient content of liquid manure OSBGU candidates become better liquid fertilizer. The results showed that the effect of treatment, curing time and the interaction between the percentage of liquid manure nutrient content OSBGU on posphor (P, potassium (K, sodium (Na and calcium (Ca was significantly different. Conclusion: The role of aeration and the addition of silica as well as their interactions and their long ripening turns very significant effect on the percentage of the nutrient content of liquid fertilizer OSBGU. Suggestion: to make the aeration and the addition of silica to the fermentation time to increase the percentage of liquid manure nutrient content OSBGU should use aeration and if necessary by adding silica and brooded until on day 7

  15. ANALISIS KANDUNGAN UNSUR HARA DAN KUALITAS FISIK LIMBAH PADAT BIOGAS DENGAN BAHAN BAKU EMPAT JENIS SAMPAH SAYURAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euis Yulianingsih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to find out: (1 nutrient content N, P, K of biogas solid waste, (2 C/N ratio of biogas solid waste and (3 physical quality of biogas solid waste consisted of colour, odor, texture and fungi.  The research was conducted in Environmental Health of POLTEKES Banjarmasin from March until July 2009.       The research used Kruskall Wallis analysis and its experimental design was Completely Randomized Design with four treatments of different material of biogas.  Its treatments were material of biogas of mustard vegetable garbage, material of biogas of cabbage vegetable garbage, material of biogas of kangkung vegetable garbage  and material of biogas of cassava vegetable garbage. The result of nutrient content analysis indicated that the highest nutrient content of Nitrogen was at material of biogas of cassava vegetable garbage that was 2.91%. The highest nutrient content of Phosfor was at material of biogas of mustard vegetable garbage was 18.38%.  The highest nutrient content of Kalium was at material of biogas of mustard vegetable garbage was 1.94% and the best C/N ratio was at material of biogas of cassava vegetable garbage was 17.09.   The result of physical quality analysis of biogas solid waste i.e odor, colour, texture and fungi.  In odor parameter, materials of biogas of mustard and cassava vegetable garbage has scoring value 3.00 that was odorous.  In colour parameter, materials of biogas of mustard and cabbage vegetable garbage has scoring value 3.00 its means at the treatments has brown colour, like land colour.  In texture parameter, materials of biogas of mustard and cabbage vegetable garbage has scoring value coming near scoring value 2.00 that was harsh texture, meanwhile materials of biogas of kangkung and cassava vegetable garbage has scoring value 1.00 its means has clotty texture.  In fungi parameter, materias of biogas of mustard and cabbage vegetable garbage has scoring value 3.00 its means no one fungi in the treatments.

  16. PERAKITAN TEKNOLOGI PENGELOLAAN HARA SPESIFIK LOKASI PADI SISTEM GOGO RANCAH DI DESA SEMAWUNG KECAMATAN ANDONG KABUPATEN BOYOLALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Andrias

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Rainfed ricefield, planted at least for one cropping season in a year, depends heavily on rainfall for its water supply. This land generally is low in fertility as indicated by the limited availability of essential plant nutrients in particular nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P, and potassium (K as well as organic matter. Its productivity is relatively low with a rather erratic precipitation distribution. In order to overcome fertility issue in rainfed land, it is necessary to conduct an integrated nutrient management; one of which is by implementing location specific nutrient management. This study aims to seek the appropriate nutrient management in rainfed paddy field of Semawung village in the sub-district of Andong of Boyolali regency to be provisioned as a technological tool of location specific nutrient management. Research on nutrient management of gogo rancah system-based paddy production was carried out from October 2014 to January 2015. The field experiment was arranged in a Randomized Block Design involving eight treatments and three replications for each treatment. Treatments were combinations of NPK fertilizer, Organofosfat, and straw-based organic fertilizer. Nutrient management using NPK fertilizer and its combination with Organofosfat or organic fertilizer had very significant effect on plant height and number of stem per hill, significantly affected number of panicle per hill, panicle length, and number of fully-filled grain but did not result in difference of fully filled grain percentage and weight of 1000 grains. There was no significant difference between the treatment of 100% of NPK fertilizer and the combination of 75% of NPK fertilizer with straw-based fertilizer regarding these variables: number of stem per hill, number of panicle per hill, panicle length, number of grain per hill, number and percentage of fully-filled grain, weight of 1000 grains, and weight of fresh grain and milled grain yield. Therefore, the latter treatment is feasible as an option of location-specific nutrient management Semawung village.

  17. Introduction to nanotechnology: a short course for high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Alexey V.

    2016-04-01

    This report devoted to presenting results of development and implementation of a short course (4 hours) entitled "Introduction to Nanotechnology" that was specially designed for familiarizing high school students with nanomaterials and nanotechnology. The course contains introduction to nanotechnology, essential definitions, short overview of history, descriptions for various examples of nanomaterials and their classifications, performing demonstration experiments. All these parts of the course are briefly analyzed from pedagogical effectiveness point of view. Finally, results of course testing, problems and perspectives of nano-oriented education at high school are also discussed shortly.

  18. Potential barrier classification by short-time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the short-time dynamics of a delta-function potential barrier on an initially confined wave packet. There are mainly two conclusions: (A) At short times the probability density of the first particles that passed through the barrier is unaffected by it. (B) When the barrier is absorptive (i.e., its potential is imaginary) it affects the transmitted wave function at shorter times than a real potential barrier. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between an imaginary and a real potential barrier by measuring its effect at short times only on the transmitting wave function

  19. Potential barrier classification by short-time measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Er'El; Marchewka, Avi

    2006-03-01

    We investigate the short-time dynamics of a delta-function potential barrier on an initially confined wave packet. There are mainly two conclusions: (A) At short times the probability density of the first particles that passed through the barrier is unaffected by it. (B) When the barrier is absorptive (i.e., its potential is imaginary) it affects the transmitted wave function at shorter times than a real potential barrier. Therefore, it is possible to distinguish between an imaginary and a real potential barrier by measuring its effect at short times only on the transmitting wave function.

  20. Kenya Veterinarian - Vol 15 (1991)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A Short Communication · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. H B O'Hara, D Oduor-Okele, S Gombe, 45-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/kenvet.v15i1.39477 ...

  1. An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A Short Communication. H B O'Hara, D Oduor-Okele, S Gombe. Abstract. No Abstract. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 15 1991: pp. 45-46. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  2. Short read sequence typing (SRST: multi-locus sequence types from short reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inouye Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST has become the gold standard for population analyses of bacterial pathogens. This method focuses on the sequences of a small number of loci (usually seven to divide the population and is simple, robust and facilitates comparison of results between laboratories and over time. Over the last decade, researchers and population health specialists have invested substantial effort in building up public MLST databases for nearly 100 different bacterial species, and these databases contain a wealth of important information linked to MLST sequence types such as time and place of isolation, host or niche, serotype and even clinical or drug resistance profiles. Recent advances in sequencing technology mean it is increasingly feasible to perform bacterial population analysis at the whole genome level. This offers massive gains in resolving power and genetic profiling compared to MLST, and will eventually replace MLST for bacterial typing and population analysis. However given the wealth of data currently available in MLST databases, it is crucial to maintain backwards compatibility with MLST schemes so that new genome analyses can be understood in their proper historical context. Results We present a software tool, SRST, for quick and accurate retrieval of sequence types from short read sets, using inputs easily downloaded from public databases. SRST uses read mapping and an allele assignment score incorporating sequence coverage and variability, to determine the most likely allele at each MLST locus. Analysis of over 3,500 loci in more than 500 publicly accessible Illumina read sets showed SRST to be highly accurate at allele assignment. SRST output is compatible with common analysis tools such as eBURST, Clonal Frame or PhyloViz, allowing easy comparison between novel genome data and MLST data. Alignment, fastq and pileup files can also be generated for novel alleles. Conclusions SRST is a novel

  3. Impact of additional surface observation network on short range ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Stations (AWS) surface observations (temperature and moisture) on the short range forecast over the Indian ... models, which are able to resolve mesoscale fea- ... J. Earth Syst. Sci. ..... terization of the snow field in a cloud model; J. Climate.

  4. Plastic instability in short tubes with internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blass, A.; Moro, N.

    1981-01-01

    Corrections are presented to a previous formulation, which becomes more suitable to the analysis of the plastic instability of both short and long tubes. Existing experimental evidence confirms moderately this statement. (Author) [pt

  5. Short-term effects of simultaneous cardiovascular workout and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PMD), has become a growing public health concern, as it may potentially result in the development of hearing difficulties. Objectives: The aim of the study was to determine the differential impact and short-term effects of simultaneous ...

  6. Quality of Standard Reference Materials for Short Time Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ismail, S.S.; Oberleitner, W.

    2003-01-01

    Some environmental reference materials (CFA-1633 b, IAEA-SL-1, SARM-1,BCR-176, Coal-1635, IAEA-SL-3, BCR-146, and SRAM-5) were analysed by short-time activation analysis. The results show that these materials can be classified in three groups, according to their activities after irradiation. The obtained results were compared in order to create a quality index for determination of short-lived nuclides at high count rates. It was found that Cfta is not a suitable standard for determining very short-lived nuclides (half-lives<1 min) because the activity it produces is 15-fold higher than that SL-3. Biological reference materials, such as SRM-1571, SRM-1573, SRM-1575, SRM-1577, IAEA-392, and IAEA-393, were also investigated by a higher counting efficiency system. The quality of this system and its well-type detector for investigating short-lived nuclides was discussed

  7. Short-term treatment outcomes of children starting antiretroviral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term treatment outcomes of children starting antiretroviral therapy in the intensive care unit, general medical wards and outpatient HIV clinics at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa: A retrospective cohort study.

  8. Short communication. A spontaneous mutant of L-202 rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Yzaguire, A.; Padrones, T.

    2009-07-01

    A new spontaneous phenotype of the rice cultivar L-202 was found. Mendelian analysis indicates that it is a monogenic, recessive mutant. Its distinguishing features are: dark blue-green colour, short and narrow leaves, high tillering and relatively short height. The objectives of this study were: to characterize it, to determine if it is heritable and if so, its genetic basis. Its distinguishing features are: dark blue-green colour, short and narrow leaves, high tillering and relatively short height. Selfing the new phenotype resulted in a uniform progeny, with the traits of the parent plant (wild type). Crossing the new phenotype with the normal L-202 cultivar resulted in a uniform F1 hybrid generation, with the wild type. The F2 generation showed a mendelian segregation which did not depart significantly from three normal plants : one new phenotype. It is concluded that it is a monogenic, recessive mutant. (Author) 3 refs.

  9. Short-Term Memory in Habituation and Dishabituation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Jesse William, Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The present research evaluated the refractorylike response decrement, as found in habituation of auditory evoked peripheral vasoconstriction in rabbits, to determine whether or not it represents a short-term habituation process distinct from effector fatigue or sensory adaptation. (Editor)

  10. Mechanical properties of short doughs and their corresponding biscuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baltsavias, A.

    1996-01-01


    The mechanical properties of short doughs of various composition were determined in small amplitude oscillatory experiments and in uniaxial compression. Regardless of composition, the linear region was very limited; beyond that, pronounced yielding and flow occurred. Conductimetry was

  11. A new type of lethal short-limbed dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nairn, E.R.; Chapman, S.

    1989-01-01

    Details are presented of a most unusual osteo-chondrodysplasia which presents with lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism, defective ossification and nodular calcification with cartilage. The features resemble one case previously described in the literature. (orig.)

  12. Quality of life among dots (directly observed treatment short course ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality of life among dots (directly observed treatment short course) cured patients: ... which is a specific instrument and covers four domains of health i.e. physical, ... thereby necessitating measures for the improvement of the overall health of ...

  13. On the relationship between short- and long-term memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    James (1890) divided memory into separate stores; primary and secondary – or short-term and long-term memory. The interaction between the two stores often assumes that information initially is represented in volatile short-term store before entering and consolidating in the more durable long-term......, accepted). Counter to popular beliefs this suggest that long-term memory precedes short-term memory and not vice versa....... memory system (e.g. Atkinson & Shiffrin, 1968). Short-term memory seems to provide a surprising processing bottleneck where only a very limited amount of information can be represented at any given moment (Miller, 1956; Cowan, 2001). A number of studies have investigated the nature of this processing...

  14. Economic Impact Analysis of Short Line Railroads : Research Project Capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Rail transportation is of vital : importance to the state of : Louisiana and is a key : component of the states : business infrastructure, supporting agricultural, petroleum, chemical, and manufacturing : industries across the state. Short line (C...

  15. Short communication Sperm DNA damage in relation to lipid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leyland Fraser

    Short communication. Sperm DNA ... (Received 21 January 2017; Accepted 28 February2017; First published online 8 March 2017) ... This study investigated the relationships between lipid peroxidation (LPO) and sperm DNA damage.

  16. Short communications Goose barnacles on seals and a penguin at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short communications Goose barnacles on seals and a penguin at Gough Island. ... to the pelage of two of the 12 elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) inspected and one ... We also recorded a goose barnacle attached to a Northern rockhopper ...

  17. short communication determination of trace amounts of zinc by flame

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Zinc ions were separated by solid phase extraction onto modified natural ... short analysis time, high enrichment factor, low cost and consumption of organic ... Up to now, several kinds of sorbents, such as thiol cotton [18], activated carbon [19],.

  18. On the short periods oscillation in relativistic stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquilano, R.; Morales, S.; Navone, H.; Sevilla, D.; Zorzi, A.

    2009-01-01

    We expand the study of neutron and strange matter stars with general relativistic formalism. We analyze the correlation with the observational data short periods oscillations in these stars, and we intend to discriminate between them.

  19. New type of lethal short-limbed dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nairn, E.R.; Chapman, S.

    1989-05-01

    Details are presented of a most unusual osteo-chondrodysplasia which presents with lethal neonatal short-limbed dwarfism, defective ossification and nodular calcification with cartilage. The features resemble one case previously described in the literature.

  20. Speckles generated by skewed, short-coherence light beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brogioli, D; Salerno, D; Ziano, R; Mantegazza, F; Croccolo, F

    2011-01-01

    When a coherent laser beam impinges on a random sample (e.g. a colloidal suspension), the scattered light exhibits characteristic speckles. If the temporal coherence of the light source is too short, then the speckles disappear, along with the possibility of performing homodyne or heterodyne scattering detection or photon correlation spectroscopy. Here we investigate the scattering of a so-called ‘skewed coherence beam’, i.e. a short-coherence beam modified such that the field is coherent within slabs that are skewed with respect to the wave fronts. We show that such a beam generates speckles and can be used for heterodyne scattering detection, despite its short temporal coherence. Moreover, we show that the heterodyne signal is not affected by multiple scattering. We suggest that the phenomenon presented here can be used as a means of carrying out heterodyne scattering measurement with any short-coherence radiation, including x-rays. (paper)

  1. Short bunch wake potentials for a chain of TESLA cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novokhatski, Alexander; Mosnier, Alban

    2014-01-01

    The modification of wake fields from a single cavity to a quasi-periodic structure of cavities is of great concern, especially for applications using very short bunches. We extend our former study (Novokhatski, 1997 [1]). A strong modification of wake fields along a train of cavities was clearly found for bunch lengths lower than 1 mm. In particular, the wakes induced by the bunch, as it proceeds down the successive cavities, decrease in amplitude and become more linear around the bunch center, with a profile very close to the integral of the charge density. The loss factor, decreasing also with the number of cells, becomes independent of bunch length for very short bunches and tends asymptotically to a finite value. This nice behavior of wake fields for short bunches presents good opportunity for application of very short bunches in Linear Colliders and X-ray Free Electron Lasers

  2. Control over Permissible Short Emergency Overloads in Power Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Anischenko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for determination a permissible duration of short intermittent overloads of power transformers that permits to avoid non-permissible over-heating of winding insulation and fully utilize overloading transformer ability.

  3. Condition assessment of short-line railroad bridges in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Current levels of available resources to maintain and preserve the Pennsylvania short-line railroad (SLRR) bridge infrastructure require that important priority decisions be made on an annual basis. The primary objective of this study was to establis...

  4. Short-term outcome of patients with closed comminuted femoral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short-term outcome of patients with closed comminuted femoral shaft fracture treated with locking intramedullary sign nail at Muhimbili Orthopaedic Institute in Tanzania. Billy T. Haonga, Felix S. Mrita, Edmundo E. Ndalama, Jackline E. Makupa ...

  5. Short circuit protection for a power distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, J. R., III

    1969-01-01

    Sensing circuit detects when the output from a matrix is present and when it should be present. The circuit provides short circuit protection for a power distribution system where the selection of the driven load is accomplished by digital logic.

  6. Short Communications A description of gametogenesis in the panga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1996-09-25

    Sep 25, 1996 ... Short Communications. A description of ... In this communication, descriptions ... Each fish sampled was sexed using visual criteria (Table I) and gonadal ..... dilated portions owing to different degrees of inflation caused. R.

  7. Large short-baseline νμ disappearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giunti, Carlo; Laveder, Marco

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the LSND, KARMEN, and MiniBooNE data on short-baseline ν μ →ν e oscillations and the data on short-baseline ν e disappearance obtained in the Bugey-3 and CHOOZ reactor experiments in the framework of 3+1 antineutrino mixing, taking into account the MINOS observation of long-baseline ν μ disappearance and the KamLAND observation of very-long-baseline ν e disappearance. We show that the fit of the data implies that the short-baseline disappearance of ν μ is relatively large. We obtain a prediction of an effective amplitude sin 2 2θ μμ > or approx. 0.1 for short-baseline ν μ disappearance generated by 0.2 2 2 , which could be measured in future experiments.

  8. Measurements of short-range ordering in Ni3Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, J.K.; Ahn, C.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on extended electron energy-loss fine structure (EXELFS) that has been used to measure short-range ordering in Ni 3 Al. Films of fcc Ni 3 Al with suppressed short-range order synthesized by vacuum evaporation of Ni 3 Al onto room temperature substrates. EXELFS data were taken from both Al K and Ni L 23 edges. The development of short-range order was observed after the samples were annealed for various times at temperatures below 350 degrees C. Upon comparison with ab initio planewave EXELFS calculations, it was found that the Warren-Cowley short-range order parameter a(1nn) changed by about -0.1 after 210 minutes of annealing at 150 degrees C

  9. Spatial and seasonal patterns of European short-snouted seahorse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    North-East Atlantic), determining the spatial and seasonal abundance, population structure and physical appearance of European short-snouted seahorse Hippocampus hippocampus. Animals were surveyed off Gran Canaria Island in two ...

  10. Spin physics and inclusive processes at short distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.

    1982-10-01

    The following aspects of spin physics at short distances are studied: 1. the factorization theorem in perturbative QCD and helicity asymmetries in inclusive processes, 2. the effect of higher order radiative corrections on helicity asymmetries, 3. the higher order power mechanism and spin asymmetries, 4. difficulties in understanding transverse spin in perturbative QCD, 5. helicity asymmetries of short distances as a means of recognizing supersymmetric interactions. Experiments are suggested for the verification of theoretical conclusions. Although spin-physics at short distances is difficult to demonstrate experimentally it may provide a valuable tool to show how perturbative QCD operates in the presence of the non-perturbative hadronic structure. It may also prove valuable to show new interactions which might occur at very short distances

  11. Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) appears to have ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Directly Observed Treatment Short Course (DOTS) appears to have reduced the self-care role of pulmonary tuberculosis patient: evidence from a correctional study between Personal Health Beliefs (PHB) and Self Care Practices (SCP)

  12. Short term variations in particulate matter in Mahi river estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Rokade, M.A.; Zingde, M.D.

    The particulate matter (PM) collected from Mahi River Estuary was analysed for organic carbon (POC), nitrogen (PON), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). The concentration of PM, POC, PON and Chl a showed short term variations. Average surface concentration...

  13. Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting for Power System Operations

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    some statistical short-term wind speed forecasting models, including traditional time series approaches and more advanced space-time statistical models. It also discusses the evaluation of forecast accuracy, in particular, the need for realistic loss

  14. The nature of forgetting from short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Muter, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Memory and forgetting are inextricably intertwined. Any account of short-term memory (STM) should address the following question: If three, four, or five chunks are being held in STM, what happens after attention is diverted?

  15. Investigation into increasing short-duration rainfall intensities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-03

    Apr 3, 2015 ... This study explores this expectation by using historical short-duration ... weather station 5-min rainfall data were combined to extend the effective ... evidence was found of trends or indications of changes in rainfall intensities.

  16. The evaluation process of short training sessions in organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overschie, M.G.F.; Lukosch, H.K.; De Vries, P.

    This paper presents a critical reflection of the evaluation of learning processes in organizations. Based on learning and evaluation theories and concepts we discuss qualitative and quantitative evaluation processes, and its relationship to short training sessions to foster sustainable development.

  17. Coherent harmonics generated by a super-short electron pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Wu

    1996-01-01

    A novel mechanism generating superradiance harmonics is found. In this superradiance harmonics, the temporal width of harmonics is extremely short, the ratio of high harmonic fundamental wave is much higher than the known superradiance harmonics

  18. Identifying wrong assemblies in de novo short read primary ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-05

    Aug 5, 2016 ... Most of these assemblies are done using some de novo short read assemblers and other related approaches. .... benchmarking projects like Assemblathon 1, Assemblathon ... from a large insert library (at least 1000 bases).

  19. Parent-Offspring Conflict over Short-Term Mating Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyroulla Georgiou

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals engage in short-term mating strategies that enable them to obtain fitness benefits from casual relationships. These benefits, however, count for less and cost more to their parents. On this basis three hypotheses are tested. First, parents and offspring are likely to disagree over short-term mating strategies, with the former considering these as less acceptable than the latter. Second, parents are more likely to disapprove of the short-term mating strategies of their daughters than of their sons. Finally, mothers and fathers are expected to agree on how much they disagree over the short-term mating strategies of their children. Evidence from a sample of 148 Greek-Cypriot families (140 mothers, 105 fathers, 119 daughters, 77 sons provides support for the first two hypotheses and partial support for the third hypothesis. The implications of these findings for understanding family dynamics are further discussed.

  20. Short Communications Strength Properties and Groups of Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communications Strength Properties and Groups of Major Commercial Timbers Grown in Kenya. ... The strength groups developed revealed that most species in Kenya are suitable for heavy engineering works and building construction. ... strength properties, commercial timber, physical and mechanical properties

  1. Acquired alopecia, mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly, and optic atrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekam, R. C.; Renckens-Wennen, E. G.

    1990-01-01

    We report on a female patient who had acquired total alopecia, short stature, microcephaly, optic atrophy, severe myopia, and mental retardation. A survey of published reports failed to show an identical patient, despite various similar cases

  2. Military Readiness: Air Transport Capability Falls Short of Requirements

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    ..., For example, during fiscal years 1997 through 1999, on average only 55 percent of the C-5 fleet, the Air Force's largest cargo aircraft, was mission capable-significantly short of the 75 percent expected for wartime...

  3. Short-term Consumer Benefits of Dynamic Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Dupont, Benjamin; De Jonghe, Cedric; Kessels, Kris; Belmans, Ronnie

    2011-01-01

    Consumer benefits of dynamic pricing depend on a variety of factors. Consumer characteristics and climatic circumstances widely differ, which forces a regional comparison. This paper presents a general overview of demand response programs and focuses on the short-term benefits of dynamic pricing for an average Flemish residential consumer. It reaches a methodology to develop a cost reflective dynamic pricing program and to estimate short-term bill savings. Participating in a dynamic pricing p...

  4. Behavioural Models of Motor Control and Short-Term Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Imanaka, Kuniyasu; Funase, Kozo; Yamauchi, Masaki

    1995-01-01

    We examined in this review article the behavioural and conceptual models of motor control and short-term memory which have intensively been investigated since the 1970s. First, we reviewed both the dual-storage model of short-term memory in which movement information is stored and a typical model of motor control which emphasizes the importance of efferent factors. We then examined two models of preselection effects: a cognitive model and a cognitive/ efferent model. Following this we reviewe...

  5. A short list color proof of Grotzsch's theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Carsten

    2000-01-01

    We give a short proof of the result that every planar graph of girth $5$is $3$-choosable and hence also of Gr\\"{o}tzsch's theorem saying that everyplanar triangle-free graph is $3$-colorable.......We give a short proof of the result that every planar graph of girth $5$is $3$-choosable and hence also of Gr\\"{o}tzsch's theorem saying that everyplanar triangle-free graph is $3$-colorable....

  6. An ethics curriculum for short-term global health trainees

    OpenAIRE

    DeCamp, Matthew; Rodriguez, Joce; Hecht, Shelby; Barry, Michele; Sugarman, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Background Interest in short-term global health training and service programs continues to grow, yet they can be associated with a variety of ethical issues for which trainees or others with limited global health experience may not be prepared to address. Therefore, there is a clear need for educational interventions concerning these ethical issues. Methods We developed and evaluated an introductory curriculum, ?Ethical Challenges in Short-term Global Health Training.? The curriculum was deve...

  7. Gallbladder visualization on CT shortly after abdominal angiography with iodixanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Ryusuke; Goto, Shinsuke; Aoyama, Toshiya; Kaizu, Toshihide; Ichikawa, Taro; Kumazaki, Tatsuo; Onda, Masahiko

    1996-01-01

    Fifteen patients underwent CT examination shortly after abdominal angiography with iodixanol. Gallbladder opacification was observed in 13 patients in the absence of clinical evidence of renal impairment. Among them, 2 patients showed a strong opacification on CT. There was no significant relationship between visualization of the gallbladder and the total dose of contrast medium. Gallbladder opacification on CT examination shortly after angiography shows that the hepatobiliary tract is important in the excretion of iodixanol. (author)

  8. High-energy, short-pulse, carbon-dioxide lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    Lasers for fusion application represent a special class of short-pulse generators; not only must they generate extremely short temporal pulses of high quality, but they must do this at ultra-high powers and satisfy other stringent requirements by this application. This paper presents the status of the research and development of carbon-dioxide laser systems at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, vis-a-vis the fusion requirements

  9. A psychometric validation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Bjarne; Larsen, Klaus; Hornnes, Nete

    2010-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS).......The study aimed to evaluate psychometrically a Danish translation of the Short Alcohol Withdrawal Scale (SAWS) in an outpatient setting in patients with Alcohol Dependence (AD) and Alcohol Withdrawal Symptoms/Syndrome (AWS)....

  10. Short-time quantum propagator and Bohmian trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gosson, Maurice; Hiley, Basil

    2013-12-01

    We begin by giving correct expressions for the short-time action following the work Makri-Miller. We use these estimates to derive an accurate expression modulo Δt2 for the quantum propagator and we show that the quantum potential is negligible modulo Δt2 for a point source, thus justifying an unfortunately largely ignored observation of Holland made twenty years ago. We finally prove that this implies that the quantum motion is classical for very short times.

  11. Short-time quantum propagator and Bohmian trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosson, Maurice de; Hiley, Basil

    2013-01-01

    We begin by giving correct expressions for the short-time action following the work Makri–Miller. We use these estimates to derive an accurate expression modulo Δt 2 for the quantum propagator and we show that the quantum potential is negligible modulo Δt 2 for a point source, thus justifying an unfortunately largely ignored observation of Holland made twenty years ago. We finally prove that this implies that the quantum motion is classical for very short times.

  12. Evaluation of cytogenetic effects of very short laser pulsed radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guedeney, G.; Courant, D.; Malarbet, J.-L.; Dolloy, M.-T.; Court, L.

    1992-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capacity of a laser, delivering very short pulses in the near infrared spectrum with a high pulse ratio frequency, to induce genetic modification on biological tissues. Chromatid exchanges and chromosomal aberrations studies are used to test potential effect on human lymphocytes. The laser irradiation induces a significant increase of acentric fragments but the absence of dicentric suggests that a repetitive very short pulses irradiation has a relatively low capacity to induce genetic abnormalities. (author)

  13. Short-term incentive schemes for hospital managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Malambe

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Short-term incentives, considered to be an extrinsic motivation, are commonly used to motivate performance. This study explored hospital managers’ perceptions of short term incentives in maximising performance and retention. Research purpose: The study explored the experiences, views and perceptions of private hospital managers in South Africa regarding the use of short-term incentives to maximise performance and retention, as well as the applicability of the findings to public hospitals. Motivation for the study: Whilst there is an established link between performance reward schemes and organisational performance, there is little understanding of the effects of short term incentives on the performance and retention of hospital managers within the South African context. Research design, approach, and method: The study used a qualitative research design: interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 19 hospital managers, and a thematic content analysis was performed. Main findings: Short-term incentives may not be the primary motivator for hospital managers, but they do play a critical role in sustaining motivation. Participants indicated that these schemes could also be applicable to public hospitals. Practical/managerial implications: Hospital managers are inclined to be more motivated by intrinsic than extrinsic factors. However, hospital managers (as middle managers also seem to be motivated by short-term incentives. A combination of intrinsic and extrinsic motivators should thus be used to maximise performance and retention. Contribution/value-add: Whilst the study sought to explore hospital managers’ perceptions of short-term incentives, it also found that an adequate balance between internal and external motivators is key to implementing an effective short-term incentive scheme.

  14. Short-term mechanisms influencing volumetric brain dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Dieleman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and brain analysis tools, it has become possible to measure brain volume changes up to around 0.5%. Besides long-term brain changes caused by atrophy in aging or neurodegenerative disease, short-term mechanisms that influence brain volume may exist. When we focus on short-term changes of the brain, changes may be either physiological or pathological. As such determining the cause of volumetric dynamics of the brain is essential. Additionally for an accurate interpretation of longitudinal brain volume measures by means of neurodegeneration, knowledge about the short-term changes is needed. Therefore, in this review, we discuss the possible mechanisms influencing brain volumes on a short-term basis and set-out a framework of MRI techniques to be used for volumetric changes as well as the used analysis tools. 3D T1-weighted images are the images of choice when it comes to MRI of brain volume. These images are excellent to determine brain volume and can be used together with an analysis tool to determine the degree of volume change. Mechanisms that decrease global brain volume are: fluid restriction, evening MRI measurements, corticosteroids, antipsychotics and short-term effects of pathological processes like Alzheimer's disease, hypertension and Diabetes mellitus type II. Mechanisms increasing the brain volume include fluid intake, morning MRI measurements, surgical revascularization and probably medications like anti-inflammatory drugs and anti-hypertensive medication. Exercise was found to have no effect on brain volume on a short-term basis, which may imply that dehydration caused by exercise differs from dehydration by fluid restriction. In the upcoming years, attention should be directed towards studies investigating physiological short-term changes within the light of long-term pathological changes. Ultimately this may lead to a better understanding of the physiological short-term effects of

  15. Frequency-specific insight into short-term memory capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Feurra, Matteo; Galli, Giulia; Pavone, Enea Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Rossi, Simone

    2016-01-01

    We provided novel evidence of a frequency-specific effect by transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) of the left posterior parietal cortex on short-term memory, during a digit span task. the effect was prominent with stimulation at beta frequency for young and not for middle-aged adults and correlated with age. Our findings highlighted a short-term memory capacity improvement by tACS application.

  16. Torrance type of lethal neonatal short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaibara, N.; Yokoyama, K.; Nakano, H.

    1983-01-01

    A rare case of lethal neonatal short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism is described. Roentgenographic features of this case, distinctly different from those of the classical thanatophoric dysplasia, are indistinguishable from the other three types of short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism. Histologic features of the cartilage in this case are not very different from those of the Torrance type, but the presence of focal disruption of column formation in this case suggests a wider spectrum for this entity. (orig.)

  17. Torrance type of lethal neonatal short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaibara, N.; Yokoyama, K.; Nakano, H.

    1983-06-01

    A rare case of lethal neonatal short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism is described. Roentgenographic features of this case, distinctly different from those of the classical thanatophoric dysplasia, are indistinguishable from the other three types of short-limbed platyspondylic dwarfism. Histologic features of the cartilage in this case are not very different from those of the Torrance type, but the presence of focal disruption of column formation in this case suggests a wider spectrum for this entity.

  18. Perancangan dan Implementasi Sistem Informasi Layanan Short Messaging Service (SMS)

    OpenAIRE

    Rossy W, Cahyo; Wellem, Theophilus; Utomo, Wiranto Herry

    2006-01-01

    Development progress of Communication technology increase in a line with the people demand of the technology, such as Wireless communication technology, especially, Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM), which known as a digital mobile phone. Mobile phone used to send and receive short message in GSM network known as Short Messaging Service (SMS), besides communicate with another person by voice. In recent years, SMS is not just used for text-based communication tool between mobile pho...

  19. Accounting for unemployment: the long and short of it

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Hornstein

    2012-01-01

    Shimer (2012) accounts for the volatility of unemployment based on a model of homogeneous unemployment. Using data on short-term unemployment he finds that most of unemployment volatility is accounted for by variations in the exit rate from unemployment. The assumption of homogeneous exit rates is inconsistent with the observed negative duration dependence of unemployment exit rates for the U.S. labor market. We construct a simple model of heterogeneous unemployment with short-term and long-t...

  20. A short introduction to frames, Gabor systems, and wavelet systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2014-01-01

    In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames, and a recent transform that allows to move results from one setting into the other and vice versa.......In this article we present a short survey of frame theory in Hilbert spaces. We discuss Gabor frames and wavelet frames, and a recent transform that allows to move results from one setting into the other and vice versa....

  1. Short-term memory for scenes with affective content

    OpenAIRE

    Maljkovic, Vera; Martini, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The emotional content of visual images can be parameterized along two dimensions: valence (pleasantness) and arousal (intensity of emotion). In this study we ask how these distinct emotional dimensions affect the short-term memory of human observers viewing a rapid stream of images and trying to remember their content. We show that valence and arousal modulate short-term memory as independent factors. Arousal influences dramatically the average speed of data accumulation in memory: Higher aro...

  2. Capacitive short circuit detection in transformer core laminations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, Carl A.; Duchesne, Stephane; Roger, Daniel; Vincent, Jean-Noel

    2008-01-01

    A capacitive measurement procedure is proposed that serves to detect burr-induced short circuits in transformer core laminations. The tests are conducted on stacks of transformer steel sheets as used for transformer core production and yield a short-circuit probability indicative of the additional eddy current losses to be expected. Applied during the assembly of transformer cores, the measurements can help to decide whether the burr treatment process is working efficiently or has to be readjusted

  3. Self-amplified spontaneous emission for short wavelength coherent radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.J.; Xie, M.

    1992-09-01

    We review the recent progress in our understanding of the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), emphasizing the application to short wavelength generation. Simple formulae are given for the start-up, exponential gain and the saturation of SASE. Accelerator technologies producing high brightness electron beams required for short wavelength SASE are discussed. An example utilizing electron beams from a photocathode-linac system to produce 4nm SASE in the multigigawatt range is presented

  4. Language Features and Culture Features on Short Message

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王佳

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phone is regarded as“the fifth media”after newspaper,radio,TV and the Internet.The mobile phone short message further highlights the importance of written signs in communication.“The thumb revolution”is eagerly anticipating one kind of trend by the hand replace of mouth,sound substitute for the quiet around us. My paper will analyze the language features and the culture features of mobile phone short messages which are written in Chinese and English.

  5. Short barb: a feather structure mutation in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J E; Roberts, C W; Nichols, C R; Cheng, K M

    1982-12-01

    A type of feather structure abnormality in Japanese quail resulting in shortened barbs on contour feathers was found to be controlled by a single autosomal recessive gene, sh (short barb). The mutation was first identified in a full-sib family from the University of British Columbia wild type line. Unlike other feather structure mutations in Japanese quail reported previously in literature, the short barb mutation is not associated with poor reproduction.

  6. On the short distance behavior of string theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, R.; Konishi, K.; Provero, P.

    1991-01-01

    Short distance behavior of string theories is investigated by the use of the discretized path-integral formulation. In particular, the minimum physical length and the generalized uncertainty relation are re-derived from a set of Ward-Takahashi identities. In this paper several issues related to the form of the generalized uncertainty relation and to its implications are discussed. A consistent qualitative picture of short distance behavior of string theory seems to emerge from such a study

  7. Narcissism and the Strategic Pursuit of Short-Term Mating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, David P.; Alcalay, Lidia; Allik, Jüri

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have documented links between sub-clinical narcissism and the active pursuit of short-term mating strategies (e.g., unrestricted sociosexuality, marital infidelity, mate poaching). Nearly all of these investigations have relied solely on samples from Western cultures. In the curr...... limitations of these cross-culturally universal findings and presents suggestions for future research into revealing the precise psychological features of narcissism that facilitate the strategic pursuit of short-term mating....

  8. Analytic solution to variance optimization with no short positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondor, Imre; Papp, Gábor; Caccioli, Fabio

    2017-12-01

    We consider the variance portfolio optimization problem with a ban on short selling. We provide an analytical solution by means of the replica method for the case of a portfolio of independent, but not identically distributed, assets. We study the behavior of the solution as a function of the ratio r between the number N of assets and the length T of the time series of returns used to estimate risk. The no-short-selling constraint acts as an asymmetric \

  9. Short-term memory and dual task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, J. E.

    1982-01-01

    Two hypotheses concerning the way in which short-term memory interacts with another task in a dual task situation are considered. It is noted that when two tasks are combined, the activity of controlling and organizing performance on both tasks simultaneously may compete with either task for a resource; this resource may be space in a central mechanism or general processing capacity or it may be some task-specific resource. If a special relationship exists between short-term memory and control, especially if there is an identity relationship between short-term and a central controlling mechanism, then short-term memory performance should show a decrement in a dual task situation. Even if short-term memory does not have any particular identity with a controlling mechanism, but both tasks draw on some common resource or resources, then a tradeoff between the two tasks in allocating resources is possible and could be reflected in performance. The persistent concurrence cost in memory performance in these experiments suggests that short-term memory may have a unique status in the information processing system.

  10. Debate: idiopathic short stature should be treated with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambler, Geoffrey R; Fairchild, Jan; Wilkinson, Dominic J C

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we outline the case for and against the treatment of idiopathic short stature with growth hormone. Drs Ambler and Fairchild argue that many of those with 'idiopathic' short stature are not 'short, normal children' and will ultimately receive molecular diagnoses. They also argue that there is a subset of children who suffer negative psychosocial consequences of their stature for whom growth hormone therapy is effective. Growth hormone has a very good safety record and is likely to be as cost-effective in idiopathic short-stature as in some other conditions that are currently funded. Dr Wilkinson counters that short stature is not associated with physical or psychological illness, and that there is no evidence that growth hormone improves psychological or physical wellbeing. Moreover, growth hormone for idiopathic short stature represents a form of enhancement rather than treatment, and is not a fair use of resources. Socially mediated disadvantage should be treated by attention to prejudice and not by hormone treatment. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2012 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  11. Analysing the protective potential of padded soccer goalkeeper shorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, K U; Nusser, M; Derler, S; Boesiger, P

    2010-05-01

    In this study, the potential of currently available padded soccer goalkeeper shorts to prevent hip injuries sustained in side jumps was investigated. Within the scope of this study, a survey among professional and amateur goalkeepers, trainers and the medical staff was performed. In addition, commercially available shorts were impact-tested using an artificial hip model. The results were compared with requirements established for hip protectors for elderly. The results of the survey found that contusions and abrasions were observed most often for all players. Fractures and arthritis were only reported by amateur players, whereas bursitis was more frequently observed by professional players. Amateurs have a significantly higher risk of injury than professional players, and the higher injury risk during training is significantly higher compared with the injury risk during a match. No difference of the injury risk was found between goalkeepers wearing padded shorts and those who did not. Impact tests indicated a wide range of performance of the currently available products. The padded shorts generally reduce impact forces, but mostly perform poorly. Only shorts that were made of visco-elastic foam fulfilled the basic requirements requested for hip protectors for elderly. The quality of most of the currently available goalkeeper shorts needs to be improved to effectively prevent hip injury sustained in side jumps.

  12. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  13. Financial results achieved in short-day strawberry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galić Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In South-western Ontario's continental climate (short days, hot summers and very cold winters the matted-row system was the dominant production system to grow short-day strawberries. Varieties-staggered production (planting a combination of early, mid and late-season varieties provides strawberry harvest from five to seven weeks. Short-day strawberries are vegetative grown in the first year, and harvested for two consecutive years. The total cost of short-day strawberry production was 54,370 $CAD/ha. The production and harvest costs in the first and second years were 20,812 $CAD/ha and 16,930 $CAD/ ha, respectively, and accounted for 69.42% of the total. Pre-plans operations were the least expensive procedures costing 8.13%, while planting and care of young plants made up 22.45% of the total costs. The total income of growing short-day strawberries under a matted-row system was 76,671 $CAD/ha (the first and second production years 41,330 $CAD/ha and 35,341 $CAD/ha, respectively. The short-day strawberries in matted-row system, with average yield of 15,722 kg/ha, generated a net revenue of 22,300 $CAD/ha.

  14. Auditory short-term memory behaves like visual short-term memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina M Visscher

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Are the information processing steps that support short-term sensory memory common to all the senses? Systematic, psychophysical comparison requires identical experimental paradigms and comparable stimuli, which can be challenging to obtain across modalities. Participants performed a recognition memory task with auditory and visual stimuli that were comparable in complexity and in their neural representations at early stages of cortical processing. The visual stimuli were static and moving Gaussian-windowed, oriented, sinusoidal gratings (Gabor patches; the auditory stimuli were broadband sounds whose frequency content varied sinusoidally over time (moving ripples. Parallel effects on recognition memory were seen for number of items to be remembered, retention interval, and serial position. Further, regardless of modality, predicting an item's recognizability requires taking account of (1 the probe's similarity to the remembered list items (summed similarity, and (2 the similarity between the items in memory (inter-item homogeneity. A model incorporating both these factors gives a good fit to recognition memory data for auditory as well as visual stimuli. In addition, we present the first demonstration of the orthogonality of summed similarity and inter-item homogeneity effects. These data imply that auditory and visual representations undergo very similar transformations while they are encoded and retrieved from memory.

  15. Auditory short-term memory behaves like visual short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visscher, Kristina M; Kaplan, Elina; Kahana, Michael J; Sekuler, Robert

    2007-03-01

    Are the information processing steps that support short-term sensory memory common to all the senses? Systematic, psychophysical comparison requires identical experimental paradigms and comparable stimuli, which can be challenging to obtain across modalities. Participants performed a recognition memory task with auditory and visual stimuli that were comparable in complexity and in their neural representations at early stages of cortical processing. The visual stimuli were static and moving Gaussian-windowed, oriented, sinusoidal gratings (Gabor patches); the auditory stimuli were broadband sounds whose frequency content varied sinusoidally over time (moving ripples). Parallel effects on recognition memory were seen for number of items to be remembered, retention interval, and serial position. Further, regardless of modality, predicting an item's recognizability requires taking account of (1) the probe's similarity to the remembered list items (summed similarity), and (2) the similarity between the items in memory (inter-item homogeneity). A model incorporating both these factors gives a good fit to recognition memory data for auditory as well as visual stimuli. In addition, we present the first demonstration of the orthogonality of summed similarity and inter-item homogeneity effects. These data imply that auditory and visual representations undergo very similar transformations while they are encoded and retrieved from memory.

  16. Ordered short-term memory differs in signers and speakers: Implications for models of short-term memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bavelier, Daphne; Newport, Elissa L.; Hall, Matt; Supalla, Ted; Boutla, Mrim

    2008-01-01

    Capacity limits in linguistic short-term memory (STM) are typically measured with forward span tasks in which participants are asked to recall lists of words in the order presented. Using such tasks, native signers of American Sign Language (ASL) exhibit smaller spans than native speakers (Boutla, Supalla, Newport, & Bavelier, 2004). Here, we test the hypothesis that this population difference reflects differences in the way speakers and signers maintain temporal order information in short-te...

  17. Procedural status of prosecutor during the conduction of short inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikanorov S.A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The issues of conducting short inquiry from the position of prosecutor’s procedural status are considered. Low rate of applying short inquiry is caused by ignorance about this procedural form among the participants in criminal procedure. The initiators of conducting short inquiry were not suspects (accused, but their lawyers who followed by their own ambitions, not by the interests of defendants. The insufficiency of total time of short inquiry is noted. The author proposes to minimize prosecutors’ paperwork, notably to concentrate their attention on collecting crime data by conducting secret investigation operations, receiving explanations and other documentation. Obtained data should be processed according to police regulations. Confession of guilt, recognition of damage and consent with legal assessment of criminal act allow to collect only the evidence, indicating crime event and complicacy of a person (expertise should be established on court’s initiative. The favourable conditions of adequacy of collected evidence for establishing crime event, character and amount of damage, as well as guilt of committing crime are confirmed. The right of investigators not to examine evidences if they were not contradicted by suspect, victim or his/her representative (predetermined strength of evidence is criticized. There is no short effective procedure of trying criminal cases with rational division of powers among the authorities, conducting criminal proceeding. The author proves the necessity of reasonable approach to prosecutor’s supervision of conducting short inquiry. Main tendency of further improvement of short inquiry procedure is redivision of powers among agencies in charge of preliminary investigation and prosecutor’s office.

  18. Holding Multiple Items in Short Term Memory: A Neural Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T.; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging. PMID:23613789

  19. Impaired short-term memory for pitch in congenital amusia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillmann, Barbara; Lévêque, Yohana; Fornoni, Lesly; Albouy, Philippe; Caclin, Anne

    2016-06-01

    Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of music perception and production. The hypothesis is that the musical deficits arise from altered pitch processing, with impairments in pitch discrimination (i.e., pitch change detection, pitch direction discrimination and identification) and short-term memory. The present review article focuses on the deficit of short-term memory for pitch. Overall, the data discussed here suggest impairments at each level of processing in short-term memory tasks; starting with the encoding of the pitch information and the creation of the adequate memory trace, the retention of the pitch traces over time as well as the recollection and comparison of the stored information with newly incoming information. These impairments have been related to altered brain responses in a distributed fronto-temporal network, associated with decreased connectivity between these structures, as well as in abnormalities in the connectivity between the two auditory cortices. In contrast, amusic participants׳ short-term memory abilities for verbal material are preserved. These findings show that short-term memory deficits in congenital amusia are specific to pitch, suggesting a pitch-memory system that is, at least partly, separated from verbal memory. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Auditory working memory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Discovery of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050709.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villasenor, J S; Lamb, D Q; Ricker, G R; Atteia, J-L; Kawai, N; Butler, N; Nakagawa, Y; Jernigan, J G; Boer, M; Crew, G B; Donaghy, T Q; Doty, J; Fenimore, E E; Galassi, M; Graziani, C; Hurley, K; Levine, A; Martel, F; Matsuoka, M; Olive, J-F; Prigozhin, G; Sakamoto, T; Shirasaki, Y; Suzuki, M; Tamagawa, T; Vanderspek, R; Woosley, S E; Yoshida, A; Braga, J; Manchanda, R; Pizzichini, G; Takagishi, K; Yamauchi, M

    2005-10-06

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) fall into two classes: short-hard and long-soft bursts. The latter are now known to have X-ray and optical afterglows, to occur at cosmological distances in star-forming galaxies, and to be associated with the explosion of massive stars. In contrast, the distance scale, the energy scale and the progenitors of the short bursts have remained a mystery. Here we report the discovery of a short-hard burst whose accurate localization has led to follow-up observations that have identified the X-ray afterglow and (for the first time) the optical afterglow of a short-hard burst; this in turn led to the identification of the host galaxy of the burst as a late-type galaxy at z = 0.16 (ref. 10). These results show that at least some short-hard bursts occur at cosmological distances in the outskirts of galaxies, and are likely to be caused by the merging of compact binaries.

  1. SHORT-TERM MEMORY IS INDEPENDENT OF BRAIN PROTEIN SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Hasker P.; Rosenzweig, Mark R.; Jones, Oliver W.

    1980-09-01

    Male Swiss albino CD-1 mice given a single injection of a cerebral protein synthesis inhibitor, anisomycin (ANI) (1 mg/animal), 20 min prior to single trial passive avoidance training demonstrated impaired retention at tests given 3 hr, 6 hr, 1 day, and 7 days after training. Retention was not significantly different from saline controls when tests were given 0.5 or 1.5 hr after training. Prolonging inhibition of brain protein synthesis by giving either 1 or 2 additional injections of ANI 2 or 2 and 4 hr after training did not prolong short-term retention performance. The temporal development of impaired retention in ANI treated mice could not be accounted for by drug dosage, duration of protein synthesis inhibition, or nonspecific sickness at test. In contrast to the suggestion that protein synthesis inhibition prolongs short-term memory (Quinton, 1978), the results of this experiment indicate that short-term memory is not prolonged by antibiotic drugs that inhibit cerebral protein synthesis. All evidence seems consistent with the hypothesis that short-term memory is protein synthesis independent and that the establishment of long-term memory depends upon protein synthesis during or shortly after training. Evidence for a role of protein synthesis in memory maintenance is discussed.

  2. Circadian modulation of short-term memory in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Lisa C; Roman, Gregg

    2009-01-01

    Endogenous biological clocks are widespread regulators of behavior and physiology, allowing for a more efficient allocation of efforts and resources over the course of a day. The extent that different processes are regulated by circadian oscillators, however, is not fully understood. We investigated the role of the circadian clock on short-term associative memory formation using a negatively reinforced olfactory-learning paradigm in Drosophila melanogaster. We found that memory formation was regulated in a circadian manner. The peak performance in short-term memory (STM) occurred during the early subjective night with a twofold performance amplitude after a single pairing of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. This rhythm in memory is eliminated in both timeless and period mutants and is absent during constant light conditions. Circadian gating of sensory perception does not appear to underlie the rhythm in short-term memory as evidenced by the nonrhythmic shock avoidance and olfactory avoidance behaviors. Moreover, central brain oscillators appear to be responsible for the modulation as cryptochrome mutants, in which the antennal circadian oscillators are nonfunctional, demonstrate robust circadian rhythms in short-term memory. Together these data suggest that central, rather than peripheral, circadian oscillators modulate the formation of short-term associative memory and not the perception of the stimuli.

  3. LANGUAGE REPETITION AND SHORT-TERM MEMORY: AN INTEGRATIVE FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve eMajerus

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the nonword-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury.

  4. Language repetition and short-term memory: an integrative framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerus, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Short-term maintenance of verbal information is a core factor of language repetition, especially when reproducing multiple or unfamiliar stimuli. Many models of language processing locate the verbal short-term maintenance function in the left posterior superior temporo-parietal area and its connections with the inferior frontal gyrus. However, research in the field of short-term memory has implicated bilateral fronto-parietal networks, involved in attention and serial order processing, as being critical for the maintenance and reproduction of verbal sequences. We present here an integrative framework aimed at bridging research in the language processing and short-term memory fields. This framework considers verbal short-term maintenance as an emergent function resulting from synchronized and integrated activation in dorsal and ventral language processing networks as well as fronto-parietal attention and serial order processing networks. To-be-maintained item representations are temporarily activated in the dorsal and ventral language processing networks, novel phoneme and word serial order information is proposed to be maintained via a right fronto-parietal serial order processing network, and activation in these different networks is proposed to be coordinated and maintained via a left fronto-parietal attention processing network. This framework provides new perspectives for our understanding of information maintenance at the non-word-, word- and sentence-level as well as of verbal maintenance deficits in case of brain injury.

  5. A method of short range system analysis for nuclear utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eng, R.; Mason, E.A.; Benedict, M.

    1976-01-01

    An optimization procedure has been formulated and tested that is capable of solving for the optimal generation schedule of several nuclear power reactors in an electric power utility system, under short-range, resource-limited, conditions. The optimization procedure utilizes a new concept called the Opportunity Cost of Nuclear Power (OCNP) to optimally assign the resource-limited nuclear energy to the different weeks and hours in the short-range planning horizon. OCNP is defined as the cost of displaced energy when optimally distributed nuclear energy is marginally increased. Under resource-limited conditions, the short-range 'value' of nuclear power to a utility system is not its actual generation cost, but the cost of the next best alternative supply of energy, the OCNP. OCNP is a function of a week's system reserve capacity, the system's economic loading order, the customer demand function, and the nature of the available utility system generating units. The optimized OCNP value of the short-range planning period represents the utility's short-range energy replacement cost incurred when selling nuclear energy to a neighbouring utility. (author)

  6. Holding multiple items in short term memory: a neural mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund T Rolls

    Full Text Available Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging.

  7. Holding multiple items in short term memory: a neural mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Edmund T; Dempere-Marco, Laura; Deco, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    Human short term memory has a capacity of several items maintained simultaneously. We show how the number of short term memory representations that an attractor network modeling a cortical local network can simultaneously maintain active is increased by using synaptic facilitation of the type found in the prefrontal cortex. We have been able to maintain 9 short term memories active simultaneously in integrate-and-fire simulations where the proportion of neurons in each population, the sparseness, is 0.1, and have confirmed the stability of such a system with mean field analyses. Without synaptic facilitation the system can maintain many fewer memories active in the same network. The system operates because of the effectively increased synaptic strengths formed by the synaptic facilitation just for those pools to which the cue is applied, and then maintenance of this synaptic facilitation in just those pools when the cue is removed by the continuing neuronal firing in those pools. The findings have implications for understanding how several items can be maintained simultaneously in short term memory, how this may be relevant to the implementation of language in the brain, and suggest new approaches to understanding and treating the decline in short term memory that can occur with normal aging.

  8. Brain oscillatory substrates of visual short-term memory capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauseng, Paul; Klimesch, Wolfgang; Heise, Kirstin F; Gruber, Walter R; Holz, Elisa; Karim, Ahmed A; Glennon, Mark; Gerloff, Christian; Birbaumer, Niels; Hummel, Friedhelm C

    2009-11-17

    The amount of information that can be stored in visual short-term memory is strictly limited to about four items. Therefore, memory capacity relies not only on the successful retention of relevant information but also on efficient suppression of distracting information, visual attention, and executive functions. However, completely separable neural signatures for these memory capacity-limiting factors remain to be identified. Because of its functional diversity, oscillatory brain activity may offer a utile solution. In the present study, we show that capacity-determining mechanisms, namely retention of relevant information and suppression of distracting information, are based on neural substrates independent of each other: the successful maintenance of relevant material in short-term memory is associated with cross-frequency phase synchronization between theta (rhythmical neural activity around 5 Hz) and gamma (> 50 Hz) oscillations at posterior parietal recording sites. On the other hand, electroencephalographic alpha activity (around 10 Hz) predicts memory capacity based on efficient suppression of irrelevant information in short-term memory. Moreover, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation at alpha frequency can modulate short-term memory capacity by influencing the ability to suppress distracting information. Taken together, the current study provides evidence for a double dissociation of brain oscillatory correlates of visual short-term memory capacity.

  9. Short-time quantum dynamics of sharp boundaries potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granot, Er' el, E-mail: erel@ariel.ac.il; Marchewka, Avi

    2015-02-15

    Despite the high prevalence of singular potential in general, and rectangular potentials in particular, in applied scattering models, to date little is known about their short time effects. The reason is that singular potentials cause a mixture of complicated local as well as non-local effects. The object of this work is to derive a generic method to calculate analytically the short-time impact of any singular potential. In this paper it is shown that the scattering of a smooth wavefunction on a singular potential is totally equivalent, in the short-time regime, to the free propagation of a singular wavefunction. However, the latter problem was totally addressed analytically in Ref. [7]. Therefore, this equivalency can be utilized in solving analytically the short time dynamics of any smooth wavefunction at the presence of a singular potentials. In particular, with this method the short-time dynamics of any problem where a sharp boundaries potential (e.g., a rectangular barrier) is turned on instantaneously can easily be solved analytically.

  10. Short-time quantum dynamics of sharp boundaries potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2015-02-01

    Despite the high prevalence of singular potential in general, and rectangular potentials in particular, in applied scattering models, to date little is known about their short time effects. The reason is that singular potentials cause a mixture of complicated local as well as non-local effects. The object of this work is to derive a generic method to calculate analytically the short-time impact of any singular potential. In this paper it is shown that the scattering of a smooth wavefunction on a singular potential is totally equivalent, in the short-time regime, to the free propagation of a singular wavefunction. However, the latter problem was totally addressed analytically in Ref. [7]. Therefore, this equivalency can be utilized in solving analytically the short time dynamics of any smooth wavefunction at the presence of a singular potentials. In particular, with this method the short-time dynamics of any problem where a sharp boundaries potential (e.g., a rectangular barrier) is turned on instantaneously can easily be solved analytically.

  11. Short-time quantum dynamics of sharp boundaries potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granot, Er'el; Marchewka, Avi

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of singular potential in general, and rectangular potentials in particular, in applied scattering models, to date little is known about their short time effects. The reason is that singular potentials cause a mixture of complicated local as well as non-local effects. The object of this work is to derive a generic method to calculate analytically the short-time impact of any singular potential. In this paper it is shown that the scattering of a smooth wavefunction on a singular potential is totally equivalent, in the short-time regime, to the free propagation of a singular wavefunction. However, the latter problem was totally addressed analytically in Ref. [7]. Therefore, this equivalency can be utilized in solving analytically the short time dynamics of any smooth wavefunction at the presence of a singular potentials. In particular, with this method the short-time dynamics of any problem where a sharp boundaries potential (e.g., a rectangular barrier) is turned on instantaneously can easily be solved analytically

  12. OUTCOME OF INTERTROCHANTERIC FRACTURES TREATED WITH SHORT FEMORAL NAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadkikar Shriniwas V, Yadkikar Vishnu S, Patel Mayank, Dhruvilkumar Gandhi, Kunkulol Rahul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the functional and anatomical outcome of Inter trochanteric fractures of femur treated with Short femoral nail. Method: This was retrospective study carried out in which 60 patients (50 Male & 10 Female of 5th to 8th decade of life who underwent Short femoral nail fixation for both Stable & unstable Inter Trochanteric fractures. From the records each patient data was assessed for time required for mobilization, average fracture healing time, degree and grade of hip range of movements, complications, anatomical reduction achieved using Short femoral nail fixation. Results: 55 cases achieved Anatomical reduction. Good to Excellent Hip range of Motion was in 55 (90 % cases. Fracture union was seen in all cases. No evidence of Z Effect, AVN of femoral head, Implant failure, Fracture of femoral shaft below the Nail tip was seen in any case, However Reverse Z Effect was seen in 4 & shortening of less than 2 cm was seen in 2 cases, External rotation of 10 degree was seen in1 case. Average fracture Union time was 14 weeks. Conclusion: Short femoral nail appears to be better implant for fixation of both Stable & unstable Inter Trochanteric fractures as it fulfills the biomechanical demands being minimally invasive, less blood loss , it prevents excessive varus collapse at fracture site, produces less stress riser effect below the nail tip, Short operative time, Facilitates early mobilization & functional recovery of patients. But Anatomical fracture reduction & optimal implant placement are absolutely must for better results.

  13. Suppressive responses by visual food cues in postprandial activities of insular cortex as revealed by magnetoencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masaaki; Ishii, Akira; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2014-06-03

    'Hara-Hachibu' in Japanese means a subjective sense by which we stop eating just before the motivation to eat is completely lost, a similar concept to caloric restriction (CR). Insular cortex is a critical platform which integrates sensory information into decision-making processes in eating behavior. We compared the responses of insular cortex, as assessed by magnetoencephalography (MEG), immediately after presentation of food images in the Fasting condition with those in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition. Eleven healthy, right-handed males [age, 27.2±9.6 years; body mass index, 22.6±2.1kg/m(2) (mean±SD)] were enrolled in a randomized, two-crossover experiment (Fasting and 'Hara-Hachibu' conditions). Before the MEG recordings in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition, the participants consumed rice balls as much as they judged themselves to have consumed shortly before reaching satiety. During the MEG recordings, they viewed food pictures projected on a screen. The intensities of MEG responses to viewing food pictures were significantly lower in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition than those in the Fasting condition (Pvisual food stimuli in the 'Hara-Hachibu' condition was positively associated with the factor-3 (food tasted) (r=0.693, P=0.018) and aggregated scores (r=0.659, P=0.027) of the Power of Food Scale, a self-report measure of hedonic hunger. These findings may help to elucidate the neural basis of variability of appetite phenotypes under the condition of CR among individuals, and to develop possible strategies for the maintenance of adequate CR in daily life. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Macular hole surgery with short-acting gas and short-duration face-down positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xirou T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Tina Xirou,1 Panagiotis G Theodossiadis,2 Michael Apostolopoulos,3 A Stamatina Kabanarou,1 Elias Feretis,1 Ioannis D Ladas,3 Chrysanthi Koutsandrea31Vitreoretinal Unit, Red Cross Hospital, 2B Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, Greece; 3A Department of Ophthalmology, University of Athens, GreecePurpose: To report on the outcomes of vitrectomy and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 gas tamponade for idiopathic macular holes with 2 days of face-down positioning.Patients and methods: This was a prospective, nonrandomized, observational sequential case-series study on 23 consecutive patients receiving macular hole surgery using 20% SF6 and advised to stay in a face-down position for 2 days postoperatively (SF6 group. These patients were compared to 23 consecutive patients who had previously undergone macular hole surgery, had received 14% C3F8, and were advised to maintain a face-down position for 2 days (C3F8 group. Patients in both groups underwent vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling, and fluid gas exchange using either SF6 or C3F8. Preoperative and postoperative data included best corrected visual acuity recorded in LogMAR units, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, and optical coherence tomography.Results: At a 6-month follow-up, macular hole closure was noted in 23/23 eyes (100% and in 22/23 eyes (96% in the SF6 and C3F8 groups, respectively. The improvement in visual acuity (measured through Snellen acuity lines both preoperatively until 6 months postoperatively was 4.08 ± 2.31 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.08–5.08 for the SF6 group and 2.87 ± 2.30 (95% CI: 1.87–3.86 for the C3F8 group; this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.06.Conclusion: Vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane peeling and a short-acting gas tamponade using SF6 with posture limitation for 2 days may give a high success rate in macular hole surgery.Keywords: idiopathic macular holes, SF6 gas tamponade, C3F8 gas tamponade

  15. Does Size Matter? Short and Tall Officers Policing the Streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pål Lagestad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The importance of physical characteristics is rarely addressed in the literature on professional competence and authority. In police work it is almost taken for granted that height is advantageous in police work, despite a lack of research on the topic. This study examines how height may affect police inter-actions with the public and how short and tall men and women experience the importance of their height in patrol work. Results show that being tall was perceived as beneficial in patrol work. Furthermore, the authority of short police officers is challenged more often by the public, and short female police may have a particular focus on verbal communication. Tallness will probably be perceived as beneficial in fields in which physical conflicts arises.

  16. Short-term and working memory impairments in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potagas, Constantin; Kasselimis, Dimitrios; Evdokimidis, Ioannis

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate short-term memory and working memory deficits in aphasics in relation to the severity of their language impairment. Fifty-eight aphasic patients participated in this study. Based on language assessment, an aphasia score was calculated for each patient. Memory was assessed in two modalities, verbal and spatial. Mean scores for all memory tasks were lower than normal. Aphasia score was significantly correlated with performance on all memory tasks. Correlation coefficients for short-term memory and working memory were approximately of the same magnitude. According to our findings, severity of aphasia is related with both verbal and spatial memory deficits. Moreover, while aphasia score correlated with lower scores in both short-term memory and working memory tasks, the lack of substantial difference between corresponding correlation coefficients suggests a possible primary deficit in information retention rather than impairment in working memory. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The pedagogy of Short-Term Study-Abroad Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Gonsalvez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on establishing guidelines on the pedagogy of short term study abroad programs. This study follows 33 students who participated in a short-term study-abroad program to India with the researcher from 2006 through 2011. The study relies heavily on the student reflections and expressions as they experienced them. It is qualitative in nature. Focus groups were the main method of data collection, where participants were invited to reflect, express, and share their experiences with one another. This provided an opportunity for the participants to come together, relive their experiences, and help provide information as to how and what type of an influence this short-term study-abroad program provided.

  18. Short and inflamed cervix predicts spontaneous preterm birth (COLIBRI study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiche, Evelyne; Ouellet, Annie; Berthiaume, Maryse; Rousseau, Éric; Pasquier, Jean-Charles

    2014-07-01

    To develop a new strategy of predicting spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) by combination of transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) assessment and inflammatory proteins detection in vaginal secretions. Prospective study of 87 women referred for cervical length assessment with a standardized TVUS combined to vaginal secretions sampling. Samples were analyzed for presence of 10 cytokines. Main outcome was sPTB (women at a median gestational age of 35.6 weeks of gestation. Short cervix (women with a short inflamed cervix. COLIBRI study used a novel, single-step method of vaginal secretions sampling during TVUS and demonstrated that combination of short cervix and IL-8 in vaginal secretions is a promising sPTB predictive test.

  19. Short-range components of nuclear forces: Experiment versus mythology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukulin, V. I.; Platonova, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    The present-day situation around the description of various (central, spin-orbit, and tensor) components of short-range nuclear forces is discussed. A traditional picture of these interactions based on the idea of one-meson exchange is contrasted against numerous results of recent experiments. As is shown in the present study, these results often deviate strongly from the predictions of traditional models. One can therefore state that such models are inapplicable to describing short-range nuclear forces and that it is necessary to go over from a traditional description to some alternative QCD-based (or QCD-motivated) picture. This means that, despite the widespread popularity of traditional concepts of short-range nuclear forces and their applicability in many particular cases, these concepts are not more than scientific myths that show their inconsistency when analyzed from the viewpoint of the modern experiment

  20. Relationship between short and long term radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, T.; Ramirez, D.; Navarrete, M.; Cabrera, L.; Ramirez, A.; Gonzalez, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this work the radon group of the Faculty of Chemistry at the National University of Mexico presents the results obtained in the establishment of a relation between the short and long term radon measures made with passive electret detectors E-PERM type LLT and HST. The measures were carried out inside single family dwellings (open house condition) located in the southeast of Mexico City (in Xochimilco) during the four seasons of the year 1997. A correlation was established between the short term measures (five days) and those of a long term for every season as well as an annual average, with an equation that relates them. The objective and advantage of this correlation are that with a short term measure it is possible to predict the annual mean radon concentration, that represents a saving of human and economic resources. (author)